WorldWideScience

Sample records for multiple activation detectors

  1. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  2. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  3. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to

  4. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-01-15

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to 25 mm

  5. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  6. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-chambered ionisation detector enables the amount of radiation entering each chamber from a single radioactive, eg β, source to be varied by altering the proportion of the source protruding into each chamber. Electrodes define chambers and an extended radioactive source is movable to alter the source length in each chamber. Alternatively, the source is fixed relative to outer electrodes but the central electrode may be adjusted by an attached support altering the chamber dimensions and hence the length of source in each. Also disclosed are a centrally mounted source tiltable towards one or other chamber and a central electrode tiltable to alter chamber dimensions. (U.K.)

  7. The STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, M.M.; Badyal, S.K.; Bhaskar, P.; Bhatia, V.S.; Chattopadhyay, S. E-mail: sub@veccal.ernet.in; Das, S.; Datta, R.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Ganti, M.S.; Ghosh, P.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, I.; Kumar, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Mangotra, L.K.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Pal, S.K.; Phatak, S.C.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Sahoo, R.; Sharma, A.; Singaraju, R.N.; Sood, G.; Trivedi, M.D.; Varma, R.; Viyogi, Y.P

    2003-03-01

    Details concerning the design, fabrication and performance of STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) are presented. The PMD will cover the forward region, within the pseudorapidity range 2.3-3.5, behind the forward time projection chamber. It will measure the spatial distribution of photons in order to study collective flow, fluctuation and chiral symmetry restoration.

  8. Preliminary A ampersand PCT multiple detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Camp, D.C.; Decman, D.J.; Johansson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation, multi-detector active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand PCT) scanner will be optimized for speed and accuracy. At the Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) we have demonstrated the trade-offs between different A ampersand PCT design parameters that affect the speed and quality of the assay results. These fundamental parameters govern the optimum system design. Although the multi-detector scanner design has priority put on speed to increase waste drum throughput, higher speed should not compromise assay accuracy. One way to increase the speed of the A ampersand PCT technology is to use multiple detectors. This yields a linear speedup by a factor approximately equal to the number of detectors used without a compromise in system accuracy. There are many different design scenarios that can be developed using multiple detectors. Here we describe four different scenarios and discuss the trade-offs between them. Also, some considerations are given in this design description for the implementation of a multiple detector technology in a field- deployable mobile trailer system

  9. A neutron activation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  10. Activation neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1976-01-01

    An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable of interacting with neutrons to form radioactive isotopes having different radiation energies when disintegrating. The material capable of being neutron-activated is distributed throughout the volume of a polycondensation resin inert with respect to neutrons and capable of curing. 17 Claims, No Drawings

  11. Multiple detectors “Influence Method”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, I.J.; Mayer, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    The “Influence Method” is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. - Highlights: • “Multiple Detector Influence Method” developed for uncertainty reduction. • Absolute particle counting in absence of known detector efficiency. • Detector set efficiency determination.

  12. NEUTRON SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS USING MULTIPLE THRESHOLD DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerken, William W.; Duffey, Dick

    1963-11-15

    From American Nuclear Society Meeting, New York, Nov. 1963. The use of threshold detectors, which simultaneously undergo reactions with thermal neutrons and two or more fast neutron threshold reactions, was applied to measurements of the neutron spectrum in a reactor. A number of different materials were irradiated to determine the most practical ones for use as multiple threshold detectors. These results, as well as counting techniques and corrections, are presented. Some materials used include aluminum, alloys of Al -Ni, aluminum-- nickel oxides, and magesium orthophosphates. (auth)

  13. A multiplicity trigger for a Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, P.

    1984-05-01

    The Multiplicity Trigger (MT) is a device for deciding if, in a given time window, the number of wires that are hit in a multi wire proportional chamber (MWPC) is within given limits. The MT is designed for a Cherenkov detector, using a MWPC with 155 sense wires. It has ten inputs with sixteen channels on each, for 160 ECL input signals from the MWPC. With the MT, it is possible to decide if the number of hits is greater than n out of 160, where n is called the multiplicity. Here, 2 < n < 30, with an accuracy of +- 1. The time window can be adjusted from 0.7 to 4 μs. The MT has four separate NIM outputs, to make it possible to have four different values of n at the same time. The propagation delay from input to output is at the most 100 ns. (author)

  14. Physics of multiple muons in underground detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, T.

    1982-01-01

    We summarize results of Monte Carlo simulations of underground muons with a set of parametrizations for number and lateral distribution of muons at various detector depths. We also describe the size distributions of accompanying showers at the surface. We give some illustrations of the use of these results to study the surface-underground correlation and to interpret preliminary results of the Soudan-I detector presented at this conference

  15. High rate multiplicity detector for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, D.; Bennett, M.J.; Carroll, J.B.; Chiba, J.; Chikanian, A.; Crawford, H.J.; Cronqvist, M.; Dardenne, Y.; Debbe, R.; Doke, T.; Engelage, J.; Flores, I.; Greiner, L.; Hayano, R.S.; Hallman, T.J.; Heckman, H.H.; Kashiwagi, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Kumar, B.S.; Kuo, C.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J.L.; Pope, J.K.; Stankus, P.; Tanaka, K.H.; Welsh, R.C.; Zhan, W.

    1995-01-01

    We have constructed and operated a detector to measure the multiplicity of secondary particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the E878 experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS facility. We describe the operation and performance of the detector in a high rate Au beam environment, and interpret the multiplicity data in terms of the impact parameters of the nucleus-nucleus collisions. ((orig.))

  16. High rate multiplicity detector for relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavis, D [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bennett, M J [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Carroll, J B [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chiba, J [KEK National High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan); Chikanian, A [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Crawford, H J [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cronqvist, M [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dardenne, Y [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Debbe, R [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Doke, T [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Engelage, J [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Flores, I [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Greiner, L [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hayano, R S [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hallman, T J [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Heckman, H H [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kashiwagi, T [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Kikuchi, J [Waseda University, Science and Engineering Research Institute, Waseda (Japan); Kumar, B S [Yale University, A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Kuo, C [University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lindstrom, P J [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mitchell, J W [Universities Space Research Association/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Nagamiya, S; E878 Collaboration

    1995-04-21

    We have constructed and operated a detector to measure the multiplicity of secondary particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the E878 experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS facility. We describe the operation and performance of the detector in a high rate Au beam environment, and interpret the multiplicity data in terms of the impact parameters of the nucleus-nucleus collisions. ((orig.)).

  17. Methods for radiation detection and characterization using a multiple detector probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas William; Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2014-11-04

    Apparatuses, methods, and systems relating to radiological characterization of environments are disclosed. Multi-detector probes with a plurality of detectors in a common housing may be used to substantially concurrently detect a plurality of different radiation activities and types. Multiple multi-detector probes may be used in a down-hole environment to substantially concurrently detect radioactive activity and contents of a buried waste container. Software may process, analyze, and integrate the data from the different multi-detector probes and the different detector types therein to provide source location and integrated analysis as to the source types and activity in the measured environment. Further, the integrated data may be used to compensate for differential density effects and the effects of radiation shielding materials within the volume being measured.

  18. A zonal wavefront sensor with multiple detector planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2018-03-01

    A conventional zonal wavefront sensor estimates the wavefront from the data captured in a single detector plane using a single camera. In this paper, we introduce a zonal wavefront sensor which comprises multiple detector planes instead of a single detector plane. The proposed sensor is based on an array of custom designed plane diffraction gratings followed by a single focusing lens. The laser beam whose wavefront is to be estimated is incident on the grating array and one of the diffracted orders from each grating is focused on the detector plane. The setup, by employing a beam splitter arrangement, facilitates focusing of the diffracted beams on multiple detector planes where multiple cameras can be placed. The use of multiple cameras in the sensor can offer several advantages in the wavefront estimation. For instance, the proposed sensor can provide superior inherent centroid detection accuracy that can not be achieved by the conventional system. It can also provide enhanced dynamic range and reduced crosstalk performance. We present here the results from a proof of principle experimental arrangement that demonstrate the advantages of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.

  19. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  20. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  1. UTILIZATION OF PHOSWICH DETECTORS FOR SIMULTANEOUS, MULTIPLE RADIATION DETECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, William H.; Manuel Diaz de Leon

    2003-01-01

    A phoswich radiation detector is comprised of a phosphor sandwich in which several different phosphors are viewed by a common photomultiplier. By selecting the appropriate phosphors, this system can be used to simultaneously measure multiple radiation types (alpha, beta, gamma and/or neutron) with a single detector. Differentiation between the signals from the different phosphors is accomplished using digital pulse shape discrimination techniques. This method has been shown to result in accurate discrimination with highly reliable and versatile digital systems. This system also requires minimal component count (i.e. only the detector and a computer for signal processing). A variety of detectors of this type have been built and tested including: (1) a triple phoswich system for alpha/beta/gamma swipe counting, (2) two well-type detectors for measuring low levels of low energy photons in the presence of a high energy background, (3) a large area detector for measuring beta contamination in the presence of a photon background, (4) another large area detector for measuring low energy photons from radioactive elements such as uranium in the presence of a photon background. An annular geometry, triple phoswich system optimized for measuring alpha/beta/gamma radiation in liquid waste processing streams is currently being designed

  2. UTILIZATION OF PHOSWICH DETECTORS FOR SIMULTANEOUS, MULTIPLE RADIATION DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Miller; Manuel Diaz de Leon

    2003-04-15

    A phoswich radiation detector is comprised of a phosphor sandwich in which several different phosphors are viewed by a common photomultiplier. By selecting the appropriate phosphors, this system can be used to simultaneously measure multiple radiation types (alpha, beta, gamma and/or neutron) with a single detector. Differentiation between the signals from the different phosphors is accomplished using digital pulse shape discrimination techniques. This method has been shown to result in accurate discrimination with highly reliable and versatile digital systems. This system also requires minimal component count (i.e. only the detector and a computer for signal processing). A variety of detectors of this type have been built and tested including: (1) a triple phoswich system for alpha/beta/gamma swipe counting, (2) two well-type detectors for measuring low levels of low energy photons in the presence of a high energy background, (3) a large area detector for measuring beta contamination in the presence of a photon background, (4) another large area detector for measuring low energy photons from radioactive elements such as uranium in the presence of a photon background. An annular geometry, triple phoswich system optimized for measuring alpha/beta/gamma radiation in liquid waste processing streams is currently being designed.

  3. Multiple event 2D image intensifier scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H.E.; Lee, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    An image intensifier scintillation detector has been developed for the simultaneous detection of multiple light or heavy ions down to very low energies. The relative X-Y positions of each ion are read out by digitization of a television image of the light amplified scintillations. The maximum data rate is limited by the present television scan speed to 15 multiple events per second and to about one event second by the microcomputer presently used to store and process the data. (orig.)

  4. Thermionic detector with multiple layered ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for analyzing specific chemical substances in a gaseous environment comprises a thermionic source formed of multiple layers of ceramic material composition, an electrical current instrumentality for heating the thermionic source to operating temperatures in the range of 100 0 C. to 1000 0 C., an instrumentality for exposing the surface of the thermionic source to contact with the specific chemical substances for the purpose of forming gas phase ionization of the substances by a process of electrical charge emission from the surface, a collector electrode disposed adjacent to the thermiomic source, an instrumentality for biasing the thermionic source at an electrical potential which causes the gas phase ions to move toward the collector, and an instrumentality for measuring the ion current arriving at the collector. The thermionic source is constructed of a metallic heater element molded inside a sub-layer of hardened ceramic cement material impregnated with a metallic compound additive which is non-corrosive to the heater element during operation. The sub-layer is further covered by a surface-layer formed of hardened ceramic cement material impregnated with an alkali metal compound in a manner that eliminates corrosive contact of the alkali compounds with the heater element. The sub-layer further protects the heater element from contact with gas environments which may be corrosive. The specific ionization of different chemical substances is varied over a wide range by changing the composition and temperature of the thermionic source, and by changing the composition of the gas environment

  5. Flow with photon multiplicity detector: Past and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. April 2003 physics pp. 739–752. Flow with photon multiplicity detector: Past and ... could the quantitative contribution from decay correlations be determined at that time. ... The present analysis deals with the data in the region 3.25 to 3.75 ..... Financial support from the Department of Science and Technology of the ...

  6. Solid-State Neutron Multiplicity Counting System Using Commercial Off-the-Shelf Semiconductor Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhdestvenskyy, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-09

    This work iterates on the first demonstration of a solid-state neutron multiplicity counting system developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by using commercial off-the-shelf detectors. The system was demonstrated to determine the mass of a californium-252 neutron source within 20% error requiring only one-hour measurement time with 20 cm2 of active detector area.

  7. Multiplicity counting from fission detector signals with time delay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, L.; Pázsit, I.; Pál, L.

    2018-03-01

    In recent work, we have developed the theory of using the first three auto- and joint central moments of the currents of up to three fission chambers to extract the singles, doubles and triples count rates of traditional multiplicity counting (Pázsit and Pál, 2016; Pázsit et al., 2016). The objective is to elaborate a method for determining the fissile mass, neutron multiplication, and (α, n) neutron emission rate of an unknown assembly of fissile material from the statistics of the fission chamber signals, analogous to the traditional multiplicity counting methods with detectors in the pulse mode. Such a method would be an alternative to He-3 detector systems, which would be free from the dead time problems that would be encountered in high counting rate applications, for example the assay of spent nuclear fuel. A significant restriction of our previous work was that all neutrons born in a source event (spontaneous fission) were assumed to be detected simultaneously, which is not fulfilled in reality. In the present work, this restriction is eliminated, by assuming an independent, identically distributed random time delay for all neutrons arising from one source event. Expressions are derived for the same auto- and joint central moments of the detector current(s) as in the previous case, expressed with the singles, doubles, and triples (S, D and T) count rates. It is shown that if the time-dispersion of neutron detections is of the same order of magnitude as the detector pulse width, as they typically are in measurements of fast neutrons, the multiplicity rates can still be extracted from the moments of the detector current, although with more involved calibration factors. The presented formulae, and hence also the performance of the proposed method, are tested by both analytical models of the time delay as well as with numerical simulations. Methods are suggested also for the modification of the method for large time delay effects (for thermalised neutrons).

  8. Active microphonic noise cancellation in radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    A new adaptive filtering technique to reduce microphonic noise in radiation detectors is presented. The technique is based on system identification that actively cancels the microphonic noise. A sensor is used to measures mechanical disturbances that cause vibration on the detector assembly, and the digital adaptive filtering estimates the impact of these disturbances on the microphonic noise. The noise then can be subtracted from the actual detector measurement. In this paper the technique is presented and simulations are used to support this approach. -- Highlights: •A sensor is used to measures mechanical disturbances that cause vibration on the detector assembly. •Digital adaptive filtering estimates the impact of these disturbances on the microphonic noise. •The noise is then subtracted from the actual detector measurement. •We use simulations to demonstrate the performance of this approach. •After cancellation, we recover most of the original energy resolution

  9. Recommended activation detector cross sections (RNDL-82)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondars, Kh.Ya.; Lapenas, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the comparison between measured and calculated average cross sections in 5 benchmark experiments are presented. Calculations have been based on the data from 10 libraries of evaluated cross sections. The recommended library (RNDL-82) of the activation detector cross sections has been created on the basis of the comparison. RNDL-82, including 26 reactions, and the basic characteristics of the detectors are presented. (author)

  10. A Preshower Photon Multiplicity Detector for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, M M; Baba, P V K S; Badyal, S K; Bharti, A; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Chattopadhyay, S; Dubey, A K; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Mazumdar, K; Ganti, M S; Ghosh, P; Sen-Gupta, A; Gupta, V K; Mahapatra, D P; Mangotra, L K; Mohanty, B; Nayak, T K; Phatak, S C; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Rao, N K; Sambyal, S S; Singaraju, R N; Sinha, B; Trivedi, M D; Viyogi, Y P

    1999-01-01

    A preshower Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) is proposed to be implemented in the ALICE experiment to study event shapes and isospin fluctuations. The PMD, to be mounted on the magnet door at 6m from the vertex, has fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 1.8detector is based on a cellular honeycomb proportional chamber design for both the PMD and the CPV, and has a total of about 2 x 105 cels of 1 cm2 area. The honeycomb walls form a common cathode, operated at a high negative voltage. The signal is read out from the anode wires at ground potential using gassiplex electronics. The detector employs an inert gas mixture of Ar (70%) and CO2 (30%). Beam test results for a small prototype indicate that about 80% of the central volume of the detector has almost uniform efficiency (about 95%) for MIP detection. The average number of cells fired by a MIP is close to uni...

  11. Multiplicity-Vertex Detector Electronics Development for Heavy-Ion Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, C.L., Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S. [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the electronics work performed to date for the Multiplicity-Vertex Detector (MVD) for the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC. The detector consists of approximately 34,000 channels of both silicon strips and silicon pads. The per-channel signal processing chain consists of a pre-amplifier gain stage, a current mode summed multiplicity discriminator, a 64 deep analog memory (simultaneous read/write), an analog correlator, and a 10-bit microsecs ADC. The system controller or Heap Manager, supplies all timing control, data buffering, and data formatting for a single 256-channel multi-chip module (MCM). Each chip set is partitioned into 32-channel sets. Prototype performance for the various blocks will be presented as well as the ionizing radiation damage performance of the 1.2 mu nwell CMOS process used for fabrication.

  12. Electronics cooling of Phenix multiplicity and vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Gregory, W.S.

    1996-08-01

    The Multiplicity and Vertex Detector (MVD) uses silicon strip sensors arranged in two concentric barrels around the beam pipe of the PHENIX detector that will be installed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Each silicon sensor is connected by a flexible kapton cable to its own front-end electronics printed circuit board that is a multi-chip module or MCM. The MCMs are the main heat source in the system. To maintain the MVD at optimized operational status, the maximum temperature of the multi-chip modules must be below 40 C. Using COSMOS/M HSTAR for the Heat Transfer analysis, a finite element model of a typical MCM plate was created to simulate a 9m/s airflow and 9m/s mixed flow composed of 50% helium and 50% air respectively, with convective heat transfer on both sides of the plate. The results using a mixed flow of helium and air show that the average maximum temperature reached by the MCMs is 37.5 C. The maximum temperature which is represented by the hot spots on the MCM is 39.43 C for the helium and air mixture which meets the design temperature requirement 40 C. To maintain the Multiplicity and Vertex Detector at optimized operational status, the configuration of the plenum chamber, the power dissipated by the silicon chips, the fluid flow velocity and comparison on the MCM design parameters will be discussed

  13. Multiple-hit parameter estimation in monolithic detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William C J; Barrett, Harrison H; Lewellen, Tom K; Miyaoka, Robert S

    2013-02-01

    We examine a maximum-a-posteriori method for estimating the primary interaction position of gamma rays with multiple interaction sites (hits) in a monolithic detector. In assessing the performance of a multiple-hit estimator over that of a conventional one-hit estimator, we consider a few different detector and readout configurations of a 50-mm-wide square cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate block. For this study, we use simulated data from SCOUT, a Monte-Carlo tool for photon tracking and modeling scintillation- camera output. With this tool, we determine estimate bias and variance for a multiple-hit estimator and compare these with similar metrics for a one-hit maximum-likelihood estimator, which assumes full energy deposition in one hit. We also examine the effect of event filtering on these metrics; for this purpose, we use a likelihood threshold to reject signals that are not likely to have been produced under the assumed likelihood model. Depending on detector design, we observe a 1%-12% improvement of intrinsic resolution for a 1-or-2-hit estimator as compared with a 1-hit estimator. We also observe improved differentiation of photopeak events using a 1-or-2-hit estimator as compared with the 1-hit estimator; more than 6% of photopeak events that were rejected by likelihood filtering for the 1-hit estimator were accurately identified as photopeak events and positioned without loss of resolution by a 1-or-2-hit estimator; for PET, this equates to at least a 12% improvement in coincidence-detection efficiency with likelihood filtering applied.

  14. Defining active progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Börnsen, Lars; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive...

  15. Neutron recognition in the LAND detector for large neutron multiplicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlowski, P., E-mail: piotr.pawlowski@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Brzychczyk, J. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Leifels, Y.; Trautmann, W. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Adrich, P. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, PL-00681 Warsaw (Poland); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bacri, C.O. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite, F-91406 Orsay (France); Barczyk, T. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Bassini, R. [Istituto di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi and INFN, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bianchin, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boiano, C. [Istituto di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi and INFN, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Boretzky, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boudard, A. [IRFU/SPhN, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chbihi, A. [GANIL, CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, F-14076 Caen (France); Cibor, J.; Czech, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); De Napoli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia-Universita and INFN-CT and LNS, I-95123 Catania (Italy); and others

    2012-12-01

    The performance of the LAND neutron detector is studied. Using an event-mixing technique based on one-neutron data obtained in the S107 experiment at the GSI laboratory, we test the efficiency of various analytic tools used to determine the multiplicity and kinematic properties of detected neutrons. A new algorithm developed recently for recognizing neutron showers from spectator decays in the ALADIN experiment S254 is described in detail. Its performance is assessed in comparison with other methods. The properties of the observed neutron events are used to estimate the detection efficiency of LAND in this experiment.

  16. A discriminator with a current-sum multiplicity output for the PHENIX multiplicity vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.S.; Kennedy, E.J.; Jackson, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    A current output multiplicity discriminator for use in the front-end electronics (FEE) of the Multiplicity Vertex Detector (MVD) for the PHENIX detector at RHIC has been fabricated in the a 1.2-micro CMOS, n-well process. The discriminator is capable of triggering on input signals ranging from 0.25 MIP to 5 MIP. Frequency response of the discriminator is such that the circuit is capable of generating an output for every bunch crossing (105 ns) of the RHIC collider. Channel-to-channel threshold matching was adjustable to ± 4 mV. One channel of multiplicity discriminator occupied an area of 85 micro x 630 micro and consumed 515 microW from a single 5-V supply. Details of the design and results from prototype device testing are presented

  17. Muon energy estimate through multiple scattering with the MACRO detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Candela, A.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cassese, F.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Choudhary, B.C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Deo, M.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Dincecco, M.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Gray, L.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lindozzi, M.; Lipari, P.; Longley, N.P.; Longo, M.J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E. E-mail: eugenio.scapparone@bo.infn.it; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M. E-mail: maximiliano.sioli@bo.infn.it; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Tatananni, E.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R

    2002-10-21

    Muon energy measurement represents an important issue for any experiment addressing neutrino-induced up-going muon studies. Since the neutrino oscillation probability depends on the neutrino energy, a measurement of the muon energy adds an important piece of information concerning the neutrino system. We show in this paper how the MACRO limited streamer tube system can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTPs, an electronics designed for magnetic monopole search. An improvement of the space resolution is obtained, through an analysis of the multiple scattering of muon tracks as they pass through our detector. This information can be used further to obtain an estimate of the energy of muons crossing the detector. Here we present the results of two dedicated tests, performed at CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beam lines, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of such a multiple scattering analysis. We show that by using a neural network approach, we are able to reconstruct the muon energy for E{sub {mu}}<40 GeV. The test beam data provide an absolute energy calibration, which allows us to apply this method to MACRO data.

  18. Muon energy estimate through multiple scattering with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Candela, A; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cassese, F; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Deo, M; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Dincecco, M; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Gray, L; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lindozzi, M; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Tatananni, E; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2002-01-01

    Muon energy measurement represents an important issue for any experiment addressing neutrino-induced up-going muon studies. Since the neutrino oscillation probability depends on the neutrino energy, a measurement of the muon energy adds an important piece of information concerning the neutrino system. We show in this paper how the MACRO limited streamer tube system can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTPs, an electronics designed for magnetic monopole search. An improvement of the space resolution is obtained, through an analysis of the multiple scattering of muon tracks as they pass through our detector. This information can be used further to obtain an estimate of the energy of muons crossing the detector. Here we present the results of two dedicated tests, performed at CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beam lines, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of such a multiple scattering analysis. We show that by using a neural network approach, we are able to r...

  19. Simple ML Detector for Multiple Antennas Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Taqwa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to support providing broadband wireless communication services against limited and expensive frequency bandwidth, we have to develop a bandwidth efficient system. Therefore, in this paper we propose a closed-loop MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output system using ML (Maximum Likelihood detector to optimize capacity and to increase system performance. What is especially exciting about the benefits offered by MIMO is that a high capacity and performance can be attained without additional frequency-spectral resource. The grand scenario of this concept is the attained advantages of transformation matrices having capability to allocate transmitted signals power suit to the channel. Furthermore, product of these matrices forms parallel singular channels. Due to zero inter-channels correlation, thus we can design ML detector to increase the system performance. Finally, computer simulations validates that at 0 dB SNR our system can reach optimal capacity up to 1 bps/Hz and SER up to 0.2 higher than opened-loop MIMO.

  20. Multiple-channel ultra-violet absorbance detector for two-dimensional chromatographic separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kyle B; Yang, Yu; Ren, Jiangtao; Liu, Shaorong

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, much research has gone into developing online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic systems allowing for high peak capacities in comparable separation times to that of one-dimensional liquid chromatographic systems. However, the speed requirements in the second dimension (2nd-D) still remain one challenge for complex biological samples due to the current configuration of two column/two detector systems. Utilization of multiple 2nd-D columns can mitigate this challenge. To adapt this approach, we need a multiple channel detector. Here we develop a versatile multichannel ultraviolet (UV) light absorbance detector that is capable of simultaneously monitoring separations in 12 columns. The detector consists of a deuterium lighthouse, a flow cell assembly (a 13-channel flow cell fitted with a 13-photodiode-detection system), and a data acquisition and monitoring terminal. Through the use of a custom high optical quality furcated fiber to improve light transmission, precise machining of a flow cell to reduce background stray light through precision alignment, and sensitive electronic circuitry to reduce electronic noise through an active low pass filter, the background noise level is measured in the tens of µAU. We obtain a linear dynamic range of close to three orders of magnitude. Compared to a commercialized multichannel UV light absorbance detector like the Waters 2488 UV/Vis, our device provides an increase in channel detection while residing within the same noise region and linear range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fabio Vieira, E-mail: rccury@me.com [Hospital do Coracao (HCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cury, Roberto Caldeira [Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    For years, cardiovascular diseases have been the leading cause of death worldwide, bringing on important social and economic consequences. Given this scenario, the search for a method capable of diagnosing coronary artery diseases in an early and accurate way is increasingly higher. The coronary computed tomography angiogram is already widely established for the stratification of coronary artery diseases, and, more recently, the computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging has been providing relevant information by correlating ischemia and the coronary anatomy. The objective of this review is to describe the evaluation of myocardial ischemia by multiple detector computed tomography. This study will resort to controlled clinical trials that show the possibility of a single method to identify the atherosclerotic load, presence of coronary artery luminal narrowing and possible myocardial ischemia, by means of a fast, practical and reliable method validated by a multicenter study. (author)

  2. Dose evaluation from multiple detector outputs using convex optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Iimoto, T.; Kosako, T.

    2011-01-01

    A dose evaluation using multiple radiation detectors can be improved by the convex optimisation method. It enables flexible dose evaluation corresponding to the actual radiation energy spectrum. An application to the neutron ambient dose equivalent evaluation is investigated using a mixed-gas proportional counter. The convex derives the certain neutron ambient dose with certain width corresponding to the true neutron energy spectrum. The range of the evaluated dose is comparable to the error of conventional neutron dose measurement equipments. An application to the neutron individual dose equivalent measurement is also investigated. Convexes of particular dosemeter combinations evaluate the individual dose equivalent better than the dose evaluation of a single dosemeter. The combinations of dosemeters with high orthogonality of their response characteristics tend to provide a good suitability for dose evaluation. (authors)

  3. An improved multiple flame photometric detector for gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian G; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2015-11-20

    An improved multiple flame photometric detector (mFPD) is introduced, based upon interconnecting fluidic channels within a planar stainless steel (SS) plate. Relative to the previous quartz tube mFPD prototype, the SS mFPD provides a 50% reduction in background emission levels, an orthogonal analytical flame, and easier more sensitive operation. As a result, sulfur response in the SS mFPD spans 4 orders of magnitude, yields a minimum detectable limit near 9×10(-12)gS/s, and has a selectivity approaching 10(4) over carbon. The device also exhibits exceptionally large resistance to hydrocarbon response quenching. Additionally, the SS mFPD uniquely allows analyte emission monitoring in the multiple worker flames for the first time. The findings suggest that this mode can potentially further improve upon the analytical flame response of sulfur (both linear HSO, and quadratic S2) and also phosphorus. Of note, the latter is nearly 20-fold stronger in S/N in the collective worker flames response and provides 6 orders of linearity with a detection limit of about 2.0×10(-13)gP/s. Overall, the results indicate that this new SS design notably improves the analytical performance of the mFPD and can provide a versatile and beneficial monitoring tool for gas chromatography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Positron annihilation imaging device using multiple offset rings of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to a positron annihilation imaging device comprising two or more coaxial circular arrays of detectors (2,2'), with the detectors in one array angularly offset with respect to the detectors in the adjacent array to detect more than one tomographic image simultaneously through different cross-sections of a patient. (author)

  5. Positron annihilation imaging device using multiple offset rings of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A means is provided for recording more than one tomographic image simultaneously through different cross-sections of a patient, using positron emission tomography. Separate rings of detectors are used to construct every odd-numbered slice, and coincident events that occur between adjacent rings of detectors provide a center or even-numbered slice. Detector rings are offset with respect to one another by half the angular separation of the detectors, allowing an image to be reconstructed from the central slice without the necessity of physically rotating the detector array while accumulating data

  6. Fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Man'yakov, P.K.; Drees, A.

    1997-01-01

    The simple and fast detector of charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision studies is performed. The multiplicity detector has been designed for the first level trigger of the CERES/NA45 experiment to study Pb-Au collisions at CERN SPS energies. The detector has allowed a realization of the 40 ns trigger for selection of events with definite impact parameter. The construction, operation characteristics, method of calibration, and testing results are described in detail

  7. Passive neutron dosemeter with activation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero L, C.; Banuelos F, A.; Guzman G, K. A.; Borja H, C. G.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    A passive neutron dosemeter with {sup 197}Au activation detector has been developed. The area dosemeter was made as a 20.5 {phi} x 20.5 cm{sup 2} polyethylene moderator, with a polyethylene pug where a {sup 197}Au foil can be located either parallel or perpendicular to moderator axis. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the MCNP5 code. With the fluence response and the fluence-to-equivalent dose conversion coefficients from ICRP-74, responses to H*(10) were also calculated, these were compared against responses of commercially available neutron area monitors and dosemeters. (Author)

  8. Fast neutron activating detectors for pulsed flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyatlov, V.D.; Kunaev, G.T.; Popytaev, A.N.; Cheremukhov, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements to the activation detectors of the pulsed flows of the fast neutrons are considered; the criteria of optimum measurement time, geometrical moderator sizes and radioactive detector element properties have been obtained. On their analysis parameter selection has been carried out. The neutron detector to register the short pulses has been designed and calibrated. The ways of further increase of sensitivity and efficiency of such detectors are discussed

  9. The development of a silicon multiplicity detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuttenmuller, R.H.; Kraner, H.W.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Sondericker, J.; Stephani, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Barrette, J.; Hall, J.; Mark, S.K.; Pruneau, C.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wolfe, D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States); Borenstein, S.R. [York College-CUNY, Jamaica, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The physics program and the design criteria for a Silicon Pad Detector at RHIC are reviewed. An end cap double sided readout detector configuration for RHIC is presented. Its performance as an on-line and off-line centrality tagging device is studied by means of simulations with Fritiof as the event generator. The results of an in-beam test of a prototype double-sided Si-detector are presented. Good signal-to-noise ratio are obtained with front junction and the resistive back side readout. Good separation between one and two minimum-ionizing particle signals is achieved.

  10. Dual energy radiography using active detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.; Poage, T.F.; Alvarez, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    A new technology has been implemented using an open-quotes active-detectorclose quotes comprised of two computed radiography (CR) imaging plates in a sandwich geometry for dual-energy radiography. This detector allows excellent energy separation, short exposure time, and high signal to noise ratio (SNR) for clinically robust open-quotes bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images with minimum patient motion. Energy separation is achieved by two separate exposures at widely different kVp's: the high energy (120 kVp + 1.5 mm Cu filter) exposure is initiated first, followed by a short burst of intense light to erase the latent image on the front plate, and then a 50 kVp (low energy) exposure. A personal computer interfaced to the x-ray generator, filter wheel, and active detector system orchestrates the acquisition sequence within a time period of 150 msec. The front and back plates are processed using a CR readout algorithm with fixed speed and wide dynamic range. open-quotes Bone-onlyclose quotes and open-quotes soft-tissue onlyclose quotes images are calculated by geometric alignment of the two images and application of dual energy decomposition algorithms on a pixel by pixel basis. Resultant images of a calibration phantom demonstrate an increase of SNR 2 / dose by ∼73 times when compared to a single exposure open-quotes passive-detectorclose quotes comprised of CR imaging plates, and an ∼8 fold increase compared to a screen-film dual-energy cassette comprised of different phosphor compounds. In conclusion, dual energy imaging with open-quotes active detectorclose quotes technology is clinically feasible and can provide substantial improvements over conventional methods for dual-energy radiography

  11. Search Strategy of Detector Position For Neutron Source Multiplication Method by Using Detected-Neutron Multiplication Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tomohiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative definition of a neutron multiplication factor, detected-neutron multiplication factor kdet, is produced for the neutron source multiplication method..(NSM). By using kdet, a search strategy of appropriate detector position for NSM is also proposed. The NSM is one of the practical subcritical measurement techniques, i.e., the NSM does not require any special equipment other than a stationary external neutron source and an ordinary neutron detector. Additionally, the NSM method is based on steady-state analysis, so that this technique is very suitable for quasi real-time measurement. It is noted that the correction factors play important roles in order to accurately estimate subcriticality from the measured neutron count rates. The present paper aims to clarify how to correct the subcriticality measured by the NSM method, the physical meaning of the correction factors, and how to reduce the impact of correction factors by setting a neutron detector at an appropriate detector position

  12. Multiple Gamma-Ray Detection Capability of a CeBr3 Detector for Gamma Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Naqvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed cerium tribromide (CeBr3 detector has reduced intrinsic gamma-ray activity with gamma energy restricted to 1400–2200 keV energy range. This narrower region of background gamma rays allows the CeBr3 detector to detect more than one gamma ray to analyze the gamma-ray spectrum. Use of multiple gamma-ray intensities in elemental analysis instead of a single one improves the accuracy of the estimated results. Multigamma-ray detection capability of a cylindrical 75 mm × 75 mm (diameter × height CeBr3 detector has been tested by analyzing the chlorine concentration in water samples using eight chlorine prompt gamma rays over 517 to 8578 keV energies utilizing a D-D portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup and measuring the corresponding minimum detection limit (MDC of chlorine. The measured MDC of chlorine for gamma rays with 517–8578 keV energies varies from 0.07 ± 0.02 wt% to 0.80 ± 0.24. The best value of MDC was measured to be 0.07 ± 0.02 wt% for 788 keV gamma rays. The experimental results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations. The study has shown excellent detection capabilities of the CeBr3 detector for eight prompt gamma rays over 517–8578 keV energy range without significant background interference.

  13. Radio-activity detectors in HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremers, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Two different approaches were adopted to put the eluate from the HPLC into contact with the scintillator, i.e. a homogeneous and a heterogeneous system. In the heterogeneous system, the eluate runs directly through a cell filled with a fine-grain solid scintillator. In the homogeneous system, a liquid scintillator is admixed to the eluate or to a proportion of the eluate before flowing through the measurement cell. Both systems are contrasted with the fractionation method according to the criterias of handling, rapidity of analysis and facility cost. On-line detection of radio-activity will be easily settled for when comparing its investment cost with those of materials consumed in fractionation. A device prepared for scintillator admixture contains an integrated scintillator pump and a mixer but is suitable for application of solid scintillator cells, too. Such a system features a wider range of practical applications than a device exclusively designed for the heterogeneous system. A further asset of the detectors in the fact that they are adapted in their performance to up-to-date HPLC facilities in terms of speed and resolution. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Mass hierarchy sensitivity of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xin Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH determination of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors, where the sensitivity of measuring the MH can be significantly improved by adding a near detector. Then the impact of the baseline and target mass of the near detector on the combined MH sensitivity has been studied thoroughly. The optimal selections of the baseline and target mass of the near detector are ∼12.5 km and ∼4 kton respectively for a far detector with the target mass of 20 kton and the baseline of 52.5 km. As typical examples of future medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments, the optimal location and target mass of the near detector are selected for the specific configurations of JUNO and RENO-50. Finally, we discuss distinct effects of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum uncertainty for setups of a single detector and double detectors, which indicate that the spectrum uncertainty can be well constrained in the presence of the near detector.

  15. Mass hierarchy sensitivity of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Xin, E-mail: hxwang@iphy.me [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhan, Liang; Li, Yu-Feng; Cao, Guo-Fu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Shen-Jian [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-05-15

    We report the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) determination of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors, where the sensitivity of measuring the MH can be significantly improved by adding a near detector. Then the impact of the baseline and target mass of the near detector on the combined MH sensitivity has been studied thoroughly. The optimal selections of the baseline and target mass of the near detector are ∼12.5 km and ∼4 kton respectively for a far detector with the target mass of 20 kton and the baseline of 52.5 km. As typical examples of future medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments, the optimal location and target mass of the near detector are selected for the specific configurations of JUNO and RENO-50. Finally, we discuss distinct effects of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum uncertainty for setups of a single detector and double detectors, which indicate that the spectrum uncertainty can be well constrained in the presence of the near detector.

  16. Design and realisation of an audiovisual speech activity detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bree, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    For many speech telecommunication technologies a robust speech activity detector is important. An audio-only speech detector will givefalse positives when the interfering signal is speech or has speech characteristics. The modality video is suitable to solve this problem. In this report the approach

  17. Multicomponent activation detector measurements of reactor neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, J.; Aarnio, P. A.; Routti, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    Information on the neutron flux is required in many applications of research reactors, such as activation analysis or radiation damage measurements. Flux spectrum measurements are commonly carried out with activation foils. The reaction types used are threshold reactions in the fast energy region, resonance reactions in the intermediate region and neutron capture reactions with l/v-cross section in the thermal region. It has been shown that it is possible to combine several detector elements into homogeneous multicomponent detectors. The activities of all detector reaction products can be determined with a single gamma spectrum measurement. The multicomponent principle sets some restrictions on the choice of detector reactions, for example, each product nuclide may be produced in one reaction only. Separate multicomponent threshold and resonance detectors were designed for the fast and intermediate regions, respectively. The detectors were fabricated in polyethylene irradiation capsules or quartz glass ampoules, and they were irradiated in a cadmium cover. The detectors were succesfully used in the irradiation ring and in the core of a Triga reactor. The intermediate and fast neutron spectrum was unfolded with the least-squares unfolding program LOUHI. According to the preliminary results multicomponent activation detectors might constitute a convenient means for carrying out routine neutron spectrum measurements in research reactors. (orig.)

  18. Gamma-ray pulse height spectrum analysis on systems with multiple Ge detectors using spectrum summing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killian, E.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A technique has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to sum high resolution gamma-ray pulse spectra from systems with multiple Ge detectors. Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company operates a multi-detector spectrometer configuration at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant facility which is used to characterize the radionuclide contents in waste drums destined for shipment to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This summing technique was developed to increase the sensitivity of the system, reduce the count times required to properly quantify the radio-nuclides and provide a more consistent methodology for combining data collected from multiple detectors. In spectrometer systems with multiple detectors looking at non homogeneous waste forms it is often difficult to combine individual spectrum analysis results from each detector to obtain a meaningful result for the total waste container. This is particularly true when the counting statistics in each individual spectrum are poor. The spectrum summing technique adds the spectra collected by each detector into a single spectrum which has better counting statistics than each individual spectrum. A normal spectral analysis program can then be used to analyze the sum spectrum to obtain radio-nuclide values which have smaller errors and do not have to be further manipulated to obtain results for the total waste container. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Investigation of charge multiplication in single crystalline CVD diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muškinja, M.; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kagan, H. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University (United States); Kramberger, G., E-mail: Gregor.Kramberger@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mandić, I. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuž, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Phan, S.; Smith, D.S. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University (United States); Zavrtanik, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-01-01

    A special metallization pattern was created on a single crystalline diamond detector aimed at creating high enough electric field for impact ionization in the detector material. Electric field line focusing through electrode design and very high bias voltages were used to obtain high electric fields. Previous measurements and theoretical calculations indicated that drifting charge multiplication by impact ionization could take place. A large increase of induced charge was observed for the smallest dot electrode which points to charge multiplication while for the large dot and pad detector structure no such effect was observed. The evolution of induced currents was also monitored with the transient current technique. Induced current pulses with duration of order 1 μs were measured. The multiplication gain was found to depend on the particle rate.

  20. Active volume studies with depleted and enriched BEGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, Katharina von [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment is currently taking data for the search of the 0νββ decay in {sup 76}Ge. In 2013, 30 newly manufactured Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be deployed which will double the active mass within Gerda. These detectors were fabricated from high-purity germanium enriched in {sup 76}Ge and tested in the HADES underground laboratory, owned by SCK.CEN, in Mol, Belgium. As the BEGes are source and detector at the same time, one crucial parameter is their active volume which directly enters into the evaluation of the half-life. This talk illustrates the dead layer and active volume determination of prototype detectors from depleted germanium as well as the newly produced detectors from enriched material, using gamma spectroscopy methods and comparing experimental results to Monte-Carlo simulations. Recent measurements and their results are presented, and systematic effects are discussed.

  1. Multiplicity detector using a glow-discharge memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulera, T.; Elola, M.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Wiedenbeck, P.

    1981-04-01

    It has been proposed to eliminate the x-y cor relation ambiguities introduced by multiple tracks in a wire chamber by using the chamber itself as a memory. Hits in the chamber itself ignite glow discharges storing the x-y location of the hits in a correlated fashion. Glow ignition may be achieved by employing a multi-step avalanche chamber above a memory gap. Correlation is maintained during readout by successively pulsing each hit wire in one coordinate and sensing transmissions through glows in the other coordinate. Prototypes constructed by the authors are discussed along with the associated high voltage and readout systems

  2. Design and performance of beam test electronics for the PHENIX multiplicity vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The system architecture and test results of the custom circuits and beam test system for the Multiplicity-Vertex Detector (MVD) for the PHENIX detector collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are presented in this paper. The final detector per-channel signal processing chain will consist of a preamplifier-gain stage, a current-mode summed multiplicity discriminator, a 64-deep analog memory (simultaneous read-write), a post-memory analog correlator, and a 10-bit 5 μs ADC. The Heap Manager provides all timing control, data buffering, and data formatting for a single 256-channel multi-chip module (MCM). Each chip set is partitioned into 32-channel sets. Beam test (16-cell deep memory) performance for the various blocks will be presented as well as the ionizing radiation damage performance of the 1.2 μ n-well CMOS process used for preamplifier fabrication

  3. Electrical and optical properties of multiple quantum well structures and their applications to infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, P.

    1992-04-01

    In this work the author investigate the subband nature of multiple quantum well structures by photoconductance spectroscopy, optical absorption measurements and tunneling experiments. Both interband and intraband transitions have been studied. The work is aimed at making an infrared detector using wide band gap semiconductors. 14 refs

  4. Analysis of 3D stacked fully functional CMOS Active Pixel Sensor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeri, D; Servoli, L; Meroli, S

    2009-01-01

    The IC technology trend is to move from 3D flexible configurations (package on package, stacked dies) to real 3D ICs. This is mainly due to i) the increased electrical performances and ii) the cost of 3D integration which may be cheaper than to keep shrinking 2D circuits. Perspective advantages for particle tracking and vertex detectors applications in High Energy Physics can be envisaged: in this work, we will focus on the capabilities of the state-of-the-art vertical scale integration technologies, allowing for the fabrication of very compact, fully functional, multiple layers CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) detectors. The main idea is to exploit the features of the 3D technologies for the fabrication of a ''stack'' of very thin and precisely aligned CMOS APS layers, leading to a single, integrated, multi-layers pixel sensor. The adoption of multiple-layers single detectors can dramatically reduce the mass of conventional, separated detectors (thus reducing multiple scattering issues), at the same time allowing for very precise measurements of particle trajectory and momentum. As a proof of concept, an extensive device and circuit simulation activity has been carried out, aiming at evaluate the suitability of such a kind of CMOS active pixel layers for particle tracking purposes.

  5. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2018-03-20

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  6. A Compton suppressed detector multiplicity trigger based digital DAQ for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Samanta, S.; Banik, R.; Bhattacharjee, R.; Basu, K.; Raut, R.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Imran, S.; Mukherjee, G.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Goswami, A.; Palit, R.; Tan, H.

    2018-06-01

    The development of a digitizer based pulse processing and data acquisition system for γ-ray spectroscopy with large detector arrays is presented. The system is based on 250 MHz 12-bit digitizers, and is triggered by a user chosen multiplicity of Compton suppressed detectors. The logic for trigger generation is similar to the one practised for analog (NIM/CAMAC) pulse processing electronics, while retaining the fast processing merits of the digitizer system. Codes for reduction of data acquired from the system have also been developed. The system has been tested with offline studies using radioactive sources as well as in the in-beam experiments with an array of Compton suppressed Clover detectors. The results obtained therefrom validate its use in spectroscopic efforts for nuclear structure investigations.

  7. Manual for the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Detector (ENMC) for Measurement of Impure MOX and Plutonium Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Kroncke, K. E.; DeAguero, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    We have designed a high-efficiency neutron detector for passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting of dirty scrap and bulk samples of plutonium. The counter will be used for the measurement of impure plutonium samples at the JNC MOX fabrication facility in Japan. The counter can also be used to create working standards from bulk process MOX. The detector uses advanced design "3He tubes to increase the efficiency and to shorten the neutron die-away time. The efficiency is 64% and the die-away time is 19.1 ?s. The Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) is designed for high-precision measurements of bulk plutonium samples with diameters of less than 200 mm. The average neutron energy from the sample can be measured using the ratio of the inner ring of He-3 tubes to the outer ring. This report describes the hardware, performance, and calibration for the ENMC.

  8. Development and tests of MCP based timing and multiplicity detector for MIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, G.; Kondratev, V.; Stolyarov, O.; Tulina, T.; Valiev, F.; Vinogradov, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present summary of technological developments and tests of the MCP based large area detector aimed at precise timing and charged particles multiplicity measurements. Results obtained in course of these developments of isochronous (simultaneity) precise signal readout, passive summation of 1 ns signals, fast (1 GHz) front-end electronics, miniature vacuum systems, etc. could be potentially interesting for a number of future applications in different fields.

  9. Tracking Performance in High Multiplicity Environment for the CLIC ILD Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Killenberg, M

    2012-01-01

    We report on the tracking efficiency and the fraction of badly reconstructed tracks in the CLIC ILD detector for high multiplicity events (tt ̄@3 TeV) with and without the presence of γγ →hadrons background. They have been studied for the silicon tracking, the TPC tracking and the so called FullLDC tacking, which combines silicon and TPC measurements.

  10. Neutron multiplicity measurements with 3He alternative: Straw neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Wolff, Ronald [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Detwiler, Ryan [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Maurer, Richard [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Mitchell, Stephen [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Guss, Paul [Remote Sensing Lab. - Nellis, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Lacy, Jeffrey L. [Proportional Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Sun, Liang [Proportional Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Athanasiades, Athanasios [Proportional Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-01-27

    Counting neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) and differentiating them from the background neutrons of various origins is the most effective passive means of detecting SNM. Unfortunately, neutron detection, counting, and partitioning in a maritime environment are complex due to the presence of high-multiplicity spallation neutrons (commonly known as ‘‘ship effect ’’) and to the complicated nature of the neutron scattering in that environment. A prototype neutron detector was built using 10B as the converter in a special form factor called ‘‘straws’’ that would address the above problems by looking into the details of multiplicity distributions of neutrons originating from a fissioning source. This paper describes the straw neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and assesses the performance with those of a commercially available fission meter. The prototype straw neutron detector provides a large-area, efficient, lightweight, more granular (than fission meter) neutron-responsive detection surface (to facilitate imaging) to enhance the ease of application of fission meters. Presented here are the results of preliminary investigations, modeling, and engineering considerations leading to the construction of this prototype. This design is capable of multiplicity and Feynman variance measurements. This prototype may lead to a near-term solution to the crisis that has arisen from the global scarcity of 3He by offering a viable alternative to fission meters. This paper describes the work performed during a 2-year site-directed research and development (SDRD) project that incorporated straw detectors for neutron multiplicity counting. The NMC is a two-panel detector system. We used 10B (in the form of enriched boron carbide: 10B4C) for neutron detection instead of 3He. In the first year, the project worked with a panel of straw neutron detectors, investigated its characteristics, and

  11. Calculation of contribution of multiple interactions and efficiency of neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsenko, A.A.; Androsenko, P.A.; Kazakov, L.E.; Kononov, V.N.; Poletaev, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Results of calculation of multiple neutron interactions contribution to efficiency of detectors with 6 Li glass and 10 B plate in the energy range of 0.01-1 MeV are given. The calculation was performed by the Monte-Carlo method using BRAND program complex. It is shown that a correction value for multiple neutron interaction in 6 Li glass of 1 mm thickness constitutes 4.5 % at energy of up to 100 keV and at higher energies has a complex energy dependence reaching 25 % at 440 keV

  12. Neutron detection using Dy2O3 activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Mohamed, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the usefulness of Dy 2 O 3 not only as thermal neutron activation detector but also as a fast neutron detector. For thermal neutrons, the half life of 165 Dy is measured to be (141 +- 6) min, its response to thermal neutrons is (2.18 +- 0.01) cpm/ncm -2 s -1 for a 250 mg Dy 2 O 3 pellet. For fast neutrons the Dy 2 O 3 detector is placed within a 20 cm polyethylene sphere and its response is found to be (2.2 +- 0.1) cpm/ncm -2 s -1 for 4 MeV neutrons and (2.10 +- 0.04) cpm/ncm -2 s -1 for 14 MeV neutrons. For neutron dosimetry, its response is found to be (16.7 +- 0.4) cpm per mrem h -1 . (author)

  13. Process to produce pellet-shaped neutron activation detector elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanischvili, T.S.; Dundua, V.J.; Kiknadse, G.I.; Kolomijzev, M.A.; Zezchladse, T.V.; Gromov, V.A.; Bagdavadse, N.V.

    1979-01-01

    The neutron activator detector elements to measure integral neutron flux contain cobalt, zinc, phosphorous, iron, gold, indium, nickel or aluminium as detector material. Its non-aqueous nitric or acetic acid salts are solvated in an alcohol solution and mixed with an alcohol solution of phenol formaldehyde resol resin. The alcohol is destilled off under vacuum at a temperature of 60 to 90 0 C whereby the detector material in the resin matrix is homogenized. This mass is their ground, pressed to pellets and is heated to convert the resin into its unsoluble state. In order to improve the radioresistance, one can add powdered carbon to the alcohol mixture, where the carbon itself can be prepared by pyrolysis and carbonization of phenol formaldehyde resin. To improve the temperature change resistance, the pellets may be additionally heated giving rise to puyrolysis of the polycondensation resin. (DG) [de

  14. Characterization of active CMOS sensors for capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Gonella, Laura; Janssen, Jens; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensor is one of the most attractive candidates for detectors of upcoming particle physics experiments. In contrast to conventional sensors of hybrid detectors, signal processing circuit can be integrated in the active CMOS sensor. The characterization and optimization of the pixel circuit are indispensable to obtain a good performance from the sensors. The prototype chips of the active CMOS sensor were fabricated in the AMS 180nm and L-Foundry 150 nm CMOS processes, respectively a high voltage and high resistivity technology. Both chips have a charge sensitive amplifier and a comparator in each pixel. The chips are designed to be glued to the FEI4 pixel readout chip. The signals from 3 pixels of the prototype chips are capacitively coupled to the FEI4 input pads. We have performed lab tests and test beams to characterize the prototypes. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  15. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-04-17

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN{sub ch}/d{eta}) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of {radical}(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of {radical}(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN ch /dη) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of √(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of √(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  17. Performance of coincidence-based PSD on LiF/ZnS Detectors for Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sean M.; Stave, Sean C.; Lintereur, Azaree; Siciliano, Edward R.; Cowles, Christian C.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Behling, Richard S.

    2016-10-06

    Abstract: Mass accountancy measurement is a nuclear nonproliferation application which utilizes coincidence and multiplicity counters to verify special nuclear material declarations. With a well-designed and efficient detector system, several relevant parameters of the material can be verified simultaneously. 6LiF/ZnS scintillating sheets may be used for this purpose due to a combination of high efficiency and short die-away times in systems designed with this material, but involve choices of detector geometry and exact material composition (e.g., the addition of Ni-quenching in the material) that must be optimized for the application. Multiplicity counting for verification of declared nuclear fuel mass involves neutron detection in conditions where several neutrons arrive in a short time window, with confounding gamma rays. This paper considers coincidence-based Pulse-Shape Discrimination (PSD) techniques developed to work under conditions of high pileup, and the performance of these algorithms with different detection materials. Simulated and real data from modern LiF/ZnS scintillator systems are evaluated with these techniques and the relationship between the performance under pileup and material characteristics (e.g., neutron peak width and total light collection efficiency) are determined, to allow for an optimal choice of detector and material.

  18. The investigation of fast neutron Threshold Activation Detectors (TAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, T; King, M J; Stevenson, J

    2012-01-01

    The detection of fast neutrons is usually done by liquid hydrogenous organic scintillators, where the separation between the ever present gamma rays and neutrons is achieved by the pulse shape discrimination (PSD). In many practical situation the detection of fast neutrons has to be carried out while the intense source (be it neutrons, gamma rays or x-rays) that creates these neutrons, for example by the fission process, is present. This source, or ''flash'', usually blinds the neutron detectors and temporarily incapacitates them. By the time the detectors recover the prompt neutron signature does not exist. Thus to overcome the blinding background, one needs to search for processes whereby the desired signature, such as fission neutrons could in some way be measured long after the fission occurred and when the neutron detector is fully recovered from the overload. A new approach was proposed and demonstrated a good sensitivity for the detection of fast neutrons in adverse overload situations where normally it could not be done. A temporal separation of the fission event from the prompt neutrons detection is achieved via the activation process. The main idea, called Threshold Activation Detection (or detector)-TAD, is to find appropriate substances that can be selectively activated by the fission neutrons and not by the source radiation, and then measure the radioactively decaying activation products (typically beta and γ-rays) well after the source pulse has ended. The activation material should possess certain properties: a suitable half-life; an energy threshold below which the numerous source neutrons will not activate it (e.g. about 3 MeV); easily detectable activation products and has a usable cross section for the selected reaction. Ideally the substance would be part of the scintillator. There are several good candidates for TAD. The first one we have selected is based on fluorine. One of the major advantages of this element is the fact that it is a major

  19. The investigation of fast neutron Threshold Activation Detectors (TAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, T.; King, M. J.; Stevenson, J.

    2012-02-01

    The detection of fast neutrons is usually done by liquid hydrogenous organic scintillators, where the separation between the ever present gamma rays and neutrons is achieved by the pulse shape discrimination (PSD). In many practical situation the detection of fast neutrons has to be carried out while the intense source (be it neutrons, gamma rays or x-rays) that creates these neutrons, for example by the fission process, is present. This source, or ``flash'', usually blinds the neutron detectors and temporarily incapacitates them. By the time the detectors recover the prompt neutron signature does not exist. Thus to overcome the blinding background, one needs to search for processes whereby the desired signature, such as fission neutrons could in some way be measured long after the fission occurred and when the neutron detector is fully recovered from the overload. A new approach was proposed and demonstrated a good sensitivity for the detection of fast neutrons in adverse overload situations where normally it could not be done. A temporal separation of the fission event from the prompt neutrons detection is achieved via the activation process. The main idea, called Threshold Activation Detection (or detector)-TAD, is to find appropriate substances that can be selectively activated by the fission neutrons and not by the source radiation, and then measure the radioactively decaying activation products (typically beta and γ-rays) well after the source pulse has ended. The activation material should possess certain properties: a suitable half-life; an energy threshold below which the numerous source neutrons will not activate it (e.g. about 3 MeV); easily detectable activation products and has a usable cross section for the selected reaction. Ideally the substance would be part of the scintillator. There are several good candidates for TAD. The first one we have selected is based on fluorine. One of the major advantages of this element is the fact that it is a major

  20. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented

  1. Neutron threshold activation detectors (TAD) for the detection of fissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; King, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    Prompt fission neutrons are one of the strongest signatures of the fission process. Depending on the fission inducing radiation, their average number ranges from 2.5 to 4 neutrons per fission. They are more energetic and abundant, by about 2 orders of magnitude, than the delayed neutrons (≈3 vs. ≈0.01) that are commonly used as indicators for the presence of fissionable materials. The detection of fission prompt neutrons, however, has to be done in the presence of extremely intense probing radiation that stimulated them. During irradiation, the fission stimulation radiation, X-rays or neutrons, overwhelms the neutron detectors and temporarily incapacitate them. Consequently, by the time the detectors recover from the source radiation, fission prompt neutrons are no longer emitted. In order to measure the prompt fission signatures under these circumstances, special measures are usually taken with the detectors such as heavy shielding with collimation, use of inefficient geometries, high pulse height bias and gamma-neutron separation via pulse-shape discrimination with an appropriate organic scintillator. These attempts to shield the detector from the flash of radiation result in a major loss of sensitivity. It can lead to a complete inability to detect the fission prompt neutrons. In order to overcome the blinding induced background from the source radiation, the detection of prompt fission neutrons needs to occur long after the fission event and after the detector has fully recovered from the source overload. A new approach to achieve this is to detect the delayed activation induced by the fission neutrons. The approach demonstrates a good sensitivity in adverse overload situations (gamma and neutron "flash") where fission prompt neutrons could normally not be detected. The new approach achieves the required temporal separation between the detection of prompt neutrons and the detector overload by the neutron activation of the detector material. The technique

  2. Neutron threshold activation detectors (TAD) for the detection of fissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; King, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Prompt fission neutrons are one of the strongest signatures of the fission process. Depending on the fission inducing radiation, their average number ranges from 2.5 to 4 neutrons per fission. They are more energetic and abundant, by about 2 orders of magnitude, than the delayed neutrons (∼3 vs. ∼0.01) that are commonly used as indicators for the presence of fissionable materials. The detection of fission prompt neutrons, however, has to be done in the presence of extremely intense probing radiation that stimulated them. During irradiation, the fission stimulation radiation, X-rays or neutrons, overwhelms the neutron detectors and temporarily incapacitate them. Consequently, by the time the detectors recover from the source radiation, fission prompt neutrons are no longer emitted. In order to measure the prompt fission signatures under these circumstances, special measures are usually taken with the detectors such as heavy shielding with collimation, use of inefficient geometries, high pulse height bias and gamma-neutron separation via pulse-shape discrimination with an appropriate organic scintillator. These attempts to shield the detector from the flash of radiation result in a major loss of sensitivity. It can lead to a complete inability to detect the fission prompt neutrons. In order to overcome the blinding induced background from the source radiation, the detection of prompt fission neutrons needs to occur long after the fission event and after the detector has fully recovered from the source overload. A new approach to achieve this is to detect the delayed activation induced by the fission neutrons. The approach demonstrates a good sensitivity in adverse overload situations (gamma and neutron 'flash') where fission prompt neutrons could normally not be detected. The new approach achieves the required temporal separation between the detection of prompt neutrons and the detector overload by the neutron activation of the detector material. The technique

  3. Neutron threshold activation detectors (TAD) for the detection of fissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozani, Tsahi, E-mail: tgozani@rapiscansystems.com [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Stevenson, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Prompt fission neutrons are one of the strongest signatures of the fission process. Depending on the fission inducing radiation, their average number ranges from 2.5 to 4 neutrons per fission. They are more energetic and abundant, by about 2 orders of magnitude, than the delayed neutrons ({approx}3 vs. {approx}0.01) that are commonly used as indicators for the presence of fissionable materials. The detection of fission prompt neutrons, however, has to be done in the presence of extremely intense probing radiation that stimulated them. During irradiation, the fission stimulation radiation, X-rays or neutrons, overwhelms the neutron detectors and temporarily incapacitate them. Consequently, by the time the detectors recover from the source radiation, fission prompt neutrons are no longer emitted. In order to measure the prompt fission signatures under these circumstances, special measures are usually taken with the detectors such as heavy shielding with collimation, use of inefficient geometries, high pulse height bias and gamma-neutron separation via pulse-shape discrimination with an appropriate organic scintillator. These attempts to shield the detector from the flash of radiation result in a major loss of sensitivity. It can lead to a complete inability to detect the fission prompt neutrons. In order to overcome the blinding induced background from the source radiation, the detection of prompt fission neutrons needs to occur long after the fission event and after the detector has fully recovered from the source overload. A new approach to achieve this is to detect the delayed activation induced by the fission neutrons. The approach demonstrates a good sensitivity in adverse overload situations (gamma and neutron 'flash') where fission prompt neutrons could normally not be detected. The new approach achieves the required temporal separation between the detection of prompt neutrons and the detector overload by the neutron activation of the detector

  4. The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Fenni; Hu Qingyuan

    2009-01-01

    The optimum lead thickness for lead-activation detectors has been studied in this paper. First existence of the optimum lead thickness is explained theoretically. Then the optimum lead thickness is obtained by two methods, MCNP5 calculation and mathematical estimation. At last factors which affect the optimum lead thickness are discussed. It turns out that the optimum lead thickness is irrelevant to incident neutron energies. It is recommended 2.5 cm generally.

  5. Neutron reflection effect on total absorption detector method used in SWINPC neutron multiplication experiment for beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Dongfeng; Ho Yukun; Yang Fujia

    2001-01-01

    The SWINPC integral experiment on neutron multiplication in bulk beryllium showed that there were marked discrepancies between experimental data and calculated values with the ENDF/B-VI data. The calculated values become higher than experimental ones as the sample thickness increases. Several works had been devoted to find problems existing in the experiment. This paper discusses the neutron reflection effect on the total absorption detector method which was used in the experiment to measure the neutron leakage from samples. One systematic correction is suggested to make the experimental values agree with the calculated ones with the ENDF/B-VI data within experimental errors. (author)

  6. JIGSAW: Acquisition, Display and Analysis system designed to collect data from Multiple Gamma-Ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.E.; Bamford, G.J.; Rester, A.C.; Coldwell, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report on work performed to date on JIGSAW - a self contained data acquisition, display and analysis system designed to collect data form multiple gamma-ray detectors. The data acquisition system utilizes commercially available VMEbus and NIM hardware modules and the VME exec real time operating system. A Unix based software package, written in ANSI standard C and with the XII graphics routines, allows the user to view the acquired spectra. Analysis of the histograms can be performed in background during the run with the ROBFIT suite of curve fitting routines

  7. Beryllium neutron activation detector for pulsed DD fusion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebitaher, A.; Springham, S.V.; Rawat, R.S.; Lee, P.

    2011-01-01

    A compact fast neutron detector based on beryllium activation has been developed to perform accurate neutron fluence measurements on pulsed DD fusion sources. It is especially well suited to moderate repetition-rate ( 9 Be(n,α) 6 He cross-section, energy calibration of the proportional counters, and numerical simulations of neutron interactions and beta-particle paths using MCNP5. The response function R(E n ) is determined over the neutron energy range 2-4 MeV. The count rate capability of the detector has been studied and the corrections required for high neutron fluence measurements are discussed. For pulsed DD neutron fluencies >3×10 4 cm -2 , the statistical uncertainty in the fluence measurement is better than 1%. A small plasma focus device has been employed as a pulsed neutron source to test two of these new detectors, and their responses are found to be practically identical. Also the level of interfering activation is found to be sufficiently low as to be negligible.

  8. Positron emission tomography with additional γ-ray detectors for multiple-tracer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Tomonori; Okauchi, Takashi; Shigeta, Mika; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2017-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful imaging modality that quantifies the physiological distributions of radiolabeled tracers in vivo in humans and animals. However, this technique is unsuitable for multiple-tracer imaging because the annihilation photons used for PET imaging have a fixed energy regardless of the selection of the radionuclide tracer. This study developed a multi-isotope PET (MI-PET) system and evaluated its imaging performance. Our MI-PET system is composed of a PET system and additional γ-ray detectors. The PET system consists of pixelized gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillation detectors and has a ring geometry that is 95 mm in diameter with an axial field of view of 37.5 mm. The additional detectors are eight bismuth germanium oxide (BGO) scintillation detectors, each of which is 50 × 50 × 30 mm 3 , arranged into two rings mounted on each side of the PET ring with a 92-mm-inner diameter. This system can distinguish between different tracers using the additional γ-ray detectors to observe prompt γ-rays, which are emitted after positron emission and have an energy intrinsic to each radionuclide. Our system can simultaneously acquire double- (two annihilation photons) and triple- (two annihilation photons and a prompt γ-ray) coincidence events. The system's efficiency for detecting prompt de-excitation γ-rays was measured using a positron-γ emitter, 22 Na. Dual-radionuclide ( 18 F and 22 Na) imaging of a rod phantom and a mouse was performed to demonstrate the performance of the developed system. Our system's basic performance was evaluated by reconstructing two images, one containing both tracers and the other containing just the second tracer, from list-mode data sets that were categorized by the presence or absence of the prompt γ-ray. The maximum detection efficiency for 1275 keV γ-rays emitted from 22 Na was approximately 7% at the scanner's center, and the minimum detection efficiency was 5.1% at the edge of

  9. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: Multiple detector computed tomography findings after direct lymphangiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Shen, Wenbin; Chen, Xiaobai; Wen, Tingguo; Duan, Yongli; Wang, Rengui

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the findings of multiple detector computed tomography (MDCT) after direct lymphangiography in primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL). Fifty-five patients with PIL were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MDCT after direct lymphangiography. The pathologies of 16 patients were confirmed by surgery and the remaining 39 patients were confirmed by gastroendoscopy and/or capsule endoscopy. After direct lymphangiography, MDCT found intra- and extraintestinal as well as lymphatic vessel abnormalities. Among the intra- and extraintestinal disorders, 49 patients had varying degrees of intestinal dilatation, 46 had small bowel wall thickening, 9 had pleural and pericardial effusions, 21 had ascites, 41 had mesenteric oedema, 20 had mesenteric nodules and 9 had abdominal lymphatic cysts. Features of lymphatic vessel abnormalities included intestinal trunk reflux (43.6%, n = 24), lumbar trunk reflux (89.1%, n = 49), pleural and pulmonary lymph reflux (14.5%, n = 8), pericardial and mediastinal lymph reflux (16.4%, n = 9), mediastinal and pulmonary lymph reflux (18.2%, n = 10), and thoracic duct outlet obstruction (90.9%, n = 50). Multiple detector computed tomography after direct lymphangiography provides a safe and accurate examination method and is an excellent tool for the diagnosis of PIL. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  10. Design of the cooling systems for the multiplicity and vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Cunningham, R.

    1997-11-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being constructed to investigate a phase of matter termed the quark-gluon plasma. The plasma will be produced through the collision of two heavy ions. The multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD) located in the center of PHENIX will characterize the events, determine the collision point, and act as a central trigger. This report presents the final mechanical designs of the cooling systems for the Multiplicity and Vertex Detector (MVD). In particular, the design procedure and layouts are discussed for two different air cooling systems for the multichip modules and MVD enclosure, and a liquid cooling system for the low dropout voltage regulators. First of all, experimental prototype cooling system test results used to drive the final mechanical designs are summarized and discussed. Next, the cooling system requirements and design calculation for the various subsystem components are presented along with detailed lists of supply vendors, components, and costs. Finally, safety measures incorporated in the final mechanical design and operation procedures for each of the subsystems are detailed

  11. Summary of activity. Topic I: detectors and experiments. [High-energy detectors for use at ISABELLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, J; Ozaki, S

    1978-01-01

    Results of a workshop studying detectors for Isabelle experimental halls are described. The detectors must be very reliable. Spatial resolution of the tracking detectors must be high to provide accurate measurements of angle and momentum, retain a short resolving time, and show excellent multiparticle handling capability. Included in the study were hodoscopes, drift chambers, proportional chambers, time projection chambers, Cherenkov counters, electromagnetic shower detectors, and hadron calorimeters. Data handling methods were also included in the studies. (FS)

  12. A silicon multiplicity detector system for an experiment on the interaction of antiprotons with nuclei at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Clement, J.M.; Empl, A.; Mutchler, G.S.; Toshkov, S.; Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Peaslee, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    A Large Angle Multiplicity Detector (LAMD) system has been developed and used at the BNL experiment E854: Antiproton Nucleus Interactions. This system performed well with an energetic antiproton beam. Charged particle multiplicity distributions from pbar annihilations were measured. We discuss the design and performance of the LAMD system in this paper. 6 refs., 10 figs

  13. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS near and far detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). et al.

    2015-06-09

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. Thus, at the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. In contrast and unexpectedly, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  14. Charged-particle multiplicities in pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Silva, J.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H.S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A.E.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bobrovnikov, V.B.; Bocci, A.; Bock, R.; Boddy, C.R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozhko, N.I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Brambilla, E.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Bright-Thomas, P.G.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N.J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R.M.; Buckley, A.G.; Buda, S.I.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E.J.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camard, A.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavallari, A.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerna, C.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R.W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J.G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Comune, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M.C.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Correard, S.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cuneo, S.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, A.; Da Silva, P.V.M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dahlhoff, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D.S.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dankers, R.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J.P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; Dean, S.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietl, H.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O.B.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Dowell, J.D.; Doxiadis, A.D.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Drohan, J.G.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duhrssen, M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Duren, M.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; 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    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented from proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events were collected using a single-arm minimum-bias trigger. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the relationship between the mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured. Measurements in different regions of phase-space are shown, providing diffraction-reduced measurements as well as more inclusive ones. The observed distributions are corrected to well-defined phase-space regions, using model-independent corrections. The results are compared to each other and to various Monte Carlo models, including a new AMBT1 PYTHIA 6 tune. In all the kinematic regions considered, the particle multiplicities are higher than predicted by the Monte Carlo models. The central charged-particle multiplicity per event and unit of pseudorapidity, for tracks with pT >100 MeV, is...

  15. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  16. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-01-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  17. International intercomparison of neutron spectra evaluating methods using activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.

    1975-06-01

    The international intercomparison of neutron spectrum evaluation methods using activation detectors was organized by the IAEA in 1971 - 1972. All of the contributions and the results of a critical evaluation are presented here. The spectra of different contributors are compared to a reference spectrum by means of different integrals and weighting functions. Different cross section sets, foil numbers, energy point systems, guess spectra used by the contributors cause differences in the resulting spectra. The possible ways of separating these effects are also investigated. Suggestions are made for the organization of a new intercomparison on the basis of more uniform input data. (orig.) [de

  18. Cerium-activated lanthanum beryllate as a gamma detector material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czirr, J.B.; Berrondo, M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have tested a single crystal of Ce-activated lanthanum beryllate BEL(Ce) as a potential gamma detector material. The density (6.1 g.cm -3 ) and decay time (50 ns) are competitive with other recently developed materials. The scintillation efficiency is 57 to 95% that of BGO. For an excitation wavelength of 340 nm, the emission spectra is a broad peak centered at 450 mn. The H 2 annealed sample is transparent for wavelengths greater than 400 mn. They are continuing a program to improve the scintillation efficiency by varying the crystal growth conditions

  19. 3D monolithically stacked CMOS active pixel sensor detectors for particle tracking applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeri, D; Placidi, P; Servoli, L; Meroli, S; Magalotti, D; Marras, A

    2012-01-01

    In this work we propose an innovative approach to particle tracking based on CMOS Active Pixel Sensors layers, monolithically integrated in an all-in-one chip featuring multiple, stacked, fully functional detector layers capable to provide momentum measurement (particle impact point and direction) within a single detector. This will results in a very low material detector, thus dramatically reducing multiple scattering issues. To this purpose, we rely on the capabilities of the CMOS vertical scale integration (3D IC) technology. A first chip prototype has been fabricated within a multi-project run using a 130 nm CMOS Chartered/Tezzaron technology, featuring two layers bonded face-to-face. Tests have been carried out on full 3D structures, providing the functionalities of both tiers. To this purpose, laser scans have been carried out using highly focussed spot size obtaining coincidence responses of the two layers. Tests have been made as well with X-ray sources in order to calibrate the response of the sensor. Encouraging results have been found, fostering the suitability of both the adopted 3D-IC vertical scale fabrication technology and the proposed approach for particle tracking applications.

  20. A multiple CCD X-ray detector and its first operation with synchrotron radiation X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, M; Kumasaka, T; Sato, K; Toyokawa, H; Aries, I F; Jerram, P A; Ueki, T

    1999-01-01

    A 4x4 array structure of 16 identical CCD X-ray detector modules, called the multiple CCD X-ray detector system (MCCDX), was submitted to its first synchrotron radiation experiment at the protein crystallography station of the RIKEN beamline (BL45XU) at the SPring-8 facility. An X-ray diffraction pattern of cholesterol powder was specifically taken in order to investigate the overall system performance.

  1. Gas proportional detectors with interpolating cathode pad readout for high track multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Bo.

    1991-12-01

    New techniques for position encoding in very high rate particle and photon detectors will be required in experiments planned for future particle accelerators such as the Superconducting Super Collider and new, high intensity, synchrotron sources. Studies of two interpolating cathode ''pad'' readout systems are described in this thesis. They are well suited for high multiplicity, two dimensional unambiguous position sensitive detection of minimum ionizing particles and heavy ions as well as detection of x-rays at high counting rates. One of the readout systems uses subdivided rows of pads interconnected by resistive strips as the cathode of a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC). A position resolution of less than 100 μm rms, for 5.4 keV x-rays, and differential non-linearity of 12% have been achieved. Low mass (∼0.6% of a radiation length) detector construction techniques have been developed. The second readout system uses rows of chevron shaped cathode pads to perform geometrical charge division. Position resolution (FWHM) of about 1% of the readout spacing and differential non-linearity of 10% for 5.4 keV x-rays have been achieved. A review of other interpolating methods is included. Low mass cathode construction techniques are described. In conclusion, applications and future developments are discussed. 54 refs

  2. Detector Background Reduction by Passive and Active Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Slivka, J.; Todorovic, N.

    2013-01-01

    The operational problems of the gamma ray spectrometer shielded passively with 12 cm of lead and actively by five 0.5 m × 0.5 m × 0.05 m plastic veto shields are described. The active shielding effect from both environmental gamma ray, cosmic muons and neutrons was investigated. For anticoincidence gating wide range of scintillator pulses, corresponding to the energy range of 150 keV-75 MeV, were used. With the optimal set up the integral background, for the energy region of 50 - 3000 keV, of 0.31 c/s was achieved. The detector mass related background was 0.345 c/(kg s). The 511 keV annihilation line was reduced by the factor of 7 by the anticoincidence gate. It is shown that the plastic shields increase the neutron capture gamma line intensities due to neutron termalization.(author)

  3. Measurement of nuclear activity with Ge detectors and its uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse the influence magnitudes which affect the activity measurement of gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources. They prepared by means of the gravimetric method, as well as, determining the uncertainty of such measurement when this is carried out with a gamma spectrometer system with a germanium detector. This work is developed in five chapters: In the first one, named Basic principles it is made a brief description about the meaning of the word Measurement and its implications and the necessaries concepts are presented which are used in this work. In the second chapter it is exposed the gravimetric method used for the manufacture of the gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources, it is tackled the problem to determine the main influence magnitudes which affect in the measurement of their activity and the respective correction factors and their uncertainties are deduced. The third chapter describes the gamma spectrometry system which is used in this work for the measurement of the activity of isolated sources and also its performance and experimental arrangement that it is used. In the fourth chapter are applied the three previous items with the object of determining the uncertainty which would be obtained in the measurement of an isolated radioactive source elaborated with the gravimetric method in the experimental conditions less favourable predicted above the obtained results from the chapter two. The conclusions are presented in the fifth chapter and they are applied to establish the optimum conditions for the measurement of the activity of a gamma transmitter isolated radioactive source with a spectrometer with germanium detector. (Author)

  4. Advanced detector systems; What do they have to offer for activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, P [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands); Lindstrom, R M [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Neutron activated reference materials have been analyzed using a standard Ge(Li)-detector with 17% relative efficiency, a very large Ge-detector with 96% relative efficiency, and a well-type Ge detector. Sensitivities are presented, and usefulness of these systems for NAA is compared on the basis of performance, economics and complexity. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs.

  5. Summary of activity. Topic I: detectors and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, J.; Ozaki, S.

    Results of a workshop studying detectors for Isabelle experimental halls are described. The detectors must be very reliable. Spatial resolution of the tracking detectors must be high to provide accurate measurements of angle and momentum, retain a short resolving time, and show excellent multiparticle handling capability. Included in the study were hodoscopes, drift chambers, proportional chambers, time projection chambers, Cherenkov counters, electromagnetic shower detectors, and hadron calorimeters. Data handling methods were also included in the studies

  6. Activity on improving performance of time-of-flight detector at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzione, A.; Cerri, C.; Vataga, E.; Prokoshin, F.; Tokar, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes activity on improving the time resolution of the Time-of-Flight detector at CDF. The main goal of the detector is the identification of kaons and pions for b-quark (B-meson) flavour tagging. Construction of the detector has been described as well as proposals on detector design changes to improve its time resolution. Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response to MIP was performed. The results of the simulation showed that the proposed modifications (at least with currently available materials) bring modest or no improvement of the detector time resolution. An automated set-up was assembled to test and check out the changes in the electronic readout system of the detector. Sophisticated software has been developed for this set-up to provide control of the system as well as processing and presentation of data from the detector. This software can perform various tests using different implementations of the hardware set-up

  7. Study and development of the data transfer for the NA50 experiment: transputer network of the multiplicity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capony, V.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents the works performed for the experiment NA50 at CERN, in he framework of the development of its multiplicity detector. The two first chapters describe the physical aims of the experiment and the apparatus used. The remaining part of this document shows the data readout device, developed for the multiplicity detector. Built on a T8 transputer network, this system is able to treat 8 Mbytes of data at each SPS accelerator cycle. It integrates an on-line event-builder. A filtering algorithm estimates the validity of the information and allows the flagging of all the data. The last function of this transputers network is to transfer data from the detector to the data acquisition system. Our system is able to control a data rate transfer of 35 Gbytes per day. (author)

  8. Active control of multiple resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Bolzonella, T.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marrelli, L.; Partin, P.; Menmuir, S.; Ortolani, S.; Rachlew, E.; Spizzo, S.; Zanca, P.

    2005-01-01

    Active magnetic feedback suppression of resistive wall modes is of common interest for several fusion concepts relying on close conducting walls for stabilization of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. In the advanced tokamak without plasma rotation the kink mode is not completely stabilized, but rather converted into an unstable resistive wall mode (RWM) with a growth time comparable to the wall magnetic flux penetration time. The reversed field pinch (RFP) is similar to the advanced tokamak in the sense that it uses a conducting wall for kink mode stabilization. Also both configurations are susceptible to resonant field error amplification of marginally stable modes. However, the RFP has a different RWM spectrum and, in general, a range of modes is unstable. Hence, the requirement for simultaneous feedback stabilization of multiple independent RWMs arises for the RFP configuration. Recent experiments on RWM feedback stabilization, performed in the RFP device EXTRAP T2R [1], are presented. The experimental results obtained are the first demonstration of simultaneous feedback control of multiple independent RWMs [2]. Using an array of active magnetic coils, a reproducible suppression of several RWMs is achieved for the duration of the discharge, 3-5 wall times, through feedback action. An array with 64 active saddle coils at 4 poloidal times 16 toroidal positions is used. The important issues of side band generation by the active coil array and the accompanying coupling of different unstable modes through the feedback action are addressed in this study. Open loop control experiments have been carried out to quantitatively study resonant field error amplification. (Author)

  9. Design and implementation of the reconstruction software for the photon multiplicity detector in object oriented programming framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhayay, Subhasis; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gupta, R.; Mishra, D.; Phatak, S.C.; Sood, G.

    2002-01-01

    High granularity photon multiplicity detector (PMD) is scheduled to take data in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision(RHIC) this year. A detailed scheme has been designed and implemented in object oriented programming framework using C++ for the monitoring and reconstruction job of PMD data

  10. Activation of Necroptosis in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Ofengeim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS, a common neurodegenerative disease of the CNS, is characterized by the loss of oligodendrocytes and demyelination. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in MS, can activate necroptosis, a necrotic cell death pathway regulated by RIPK1 and RIPK3 under caspase-8-deficient conditions. Here, we demonstrate defective caspase-8 activation, as well as activation of RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL, the hallmark mediators of necroptosis, in the cortical lesions of human MS pathological samples. Furthermore, we show that MS pathological samples are characterized by an increased insoluble proteome in common with other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease (PD, and Huntington’s disease (HD. Finally, we show that necroptosis mediates oligodendrocyte degeneration induced by TNF-α and that inhibition of RIPK1 protects against oligodendrocyte cell death in two animal models of MS and in culture. Our findings demonstrate that necroptosis is involved in MS and suggest that targeting RIPK1 may represent a therapeutic strategy for MS.

  11. Multiple detector-row CT angiography of the renal and mesenteric vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, Dominik. E-mail: dominik.fleischmann@univie.ac.at

    2003-03-01

    Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the abdomen with multiple detector-row computed tomography (MD-CT) is an effective technique for minimally invasive imaging of the renal arteries and the visceral vasculature. This article reviews the clinical and technical aspects of MD-CT angiography in terms of image acquisition and reconstruction parameters, contrast medium application, and three-dimensional visualization with special attention to renal and mesenteric vascular imaging. Because of its high sensitivity to detect renal artery stenosis on the one hand, and because a normal renal CTA virtually excludes the presence of a significant renal artery stenosis on the other hand, renal CTA plays a useful role in the management of patients with suspected renovascular hypertension. Mesenteric CTA is a useful tool for visualizing normal vascular anatomy and its variants--particularly in the setting of organ transplantation. Vascular pathology, e.g. atherosclerotic disease (abdominal angina), or aneurysms of the visceral arteries are reliably assessed with CTA. Mesenteric CTA is an invaluable adjunct to abdominal CT in the setting of abdominal emergencies, because of its ability to detect the causes of acute intestinal ischemia (superior mesenteric artery embolism or thrombosis, superior mesenteric vein thrombosis). Accurate timing of the CTA acquisition and the subsequent parenchymal phase acquisition relative to the contrast medium transit time is critical to obtain excellent image quality in double-pass abdominal CT acquisitions.

  12. 320-row detector computed tomography angiography findings of a case with multiple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akay, S.; Bozlar, U.; Demirkol, S.; Tasar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) with three-dimensional imaging capability is a very reliable imaging modality for the evaluation of the coronary arteries. Objectives and tasks: To discuss the 320-row detector CTA findings of a case with multiple coronary artery course anomaly. Materials and methods: A 46-year-old man with palpitation, admitted to Cardiology department of our hospital. On electrocardiography, polymorphic ventricular early beats were observed. The patient was referred to Radiology department for CTA examination in terms of probable coronary artery anomaly. Results: On CTA, left main coronary artery was short. The bridging causes nearly 75% luminal stenosis was observed in the middle part of left descending artery. Circumflex artery was continuing as the first obtuse margin and this branch was separating to four branches in the middle part. They were coursing subepicardially in the middle and distal part. Right main coronary artery has also subepicardial course in its middle and distal part. Conclusion: Myocardial bridging is not a rare situation in routine clinical practice. But bridging in all of the three coronary arteries is very uncommon. Multidetector CTA is an effective and non-invasive imaging modality for understanding the normal anatomy and detecting the congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries

  13. Nociceptive TRP Channels: Sensory Detectors and Transducers in Multiple Pain Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. Mickle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Specialized receptors belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP family of ligand-gated ion channels constitute the critical detectors and transducers of pain-causing stimuli. Nociceptive TRP channels are predominantly expressed by distinct subsets of sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Several of these TRP channels are also expressed in neurons of the central nervous system, and in non-neuronal cells that communicate with sensory nerves. Nociceptive TRPs are activated by specific physico-chemical stimuli to provide the excitatory trigger in neurons. In addition, decades of research has identified a large number of immune and neuromodulators as mediators of nociceptive TRP channel activation during injury, inflammatory and other pathological conditions. These findings have led to aggressive targeting of TRP channels for the development of new-generation analgesics. This review summarizes the complex activation and/or modulation of nociceptive TRP channels under pathophysiological conditions, and how these changes underlie acute and chronic pain conditions. Furthermore, development of small-molecule antagonists for several TRP channels as analgesics, and the positive and negative outcomes of these drugs in clinical trials are discussed. Understanding the diverse functional and modulatory properties of nociceptive TRP channels is critical to function-based drug targeting for the development of evidence-based and efficacious new generation analgesics.

  14. A 1024 pad silicon detector to solve tracking ambiguities in high multiplicity events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Di Bari, D.; Didonna, V.; Elia, D.; Ghidini, B.; Lenti, V.; Manzari, V.; Nappi, E.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon detectors with two-dimensional pad readout have been designed and constructed for the WA97 experiment at CERN, in order to solve ambiguities for track reconstruction in a silicon microstrip telescope. A high density fanouts has been developed on a glass support to allow the electrical contacts between the detector and the front end electronics. Silicon pad detectors have been successfully operated both during the proton-Pb and Pb-Pb runs of the WA97 experiment. (orig.)

  15. The active personnel dosimeter---APFEL enterprises superheated drop detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipe, N.E.; Donahue, R.J.; Busick, D.D.

    1991-03-01

    The Active Personnel Dosimeter (APD) provides a digital readout of events caused by neutrons interacting with superheated liquid droplets. The droplets are suspended in a gel held in a replaceable cartridge. Upon neutron interaction, the superheated droplet vaporizes, forming a bubble. The sound produced in this process is recorded by transducers that sense the accompanying pressure pulse. The APD electronically discriminates against spurious noise and vibration. Studies with the production prototype APDs indicate that the detector response is linear up to about 0.40 mSv, with large variations sometimes from predicted values and between cartridges at higher dose equivalents. The response to standard neutron sources (bare 252 Cf, PuBe, PuB, PuF, PuLi) is reported and compared with the expected response. Unirradiated cartridges self-nucleate when heated to temperatures of 46 degrees C. The APD is insensitive to low-energy photons but responds to high-energy photons and electrons. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Mirage effect sensor with simple detector and with multiple detector: application to non destructive evaluation by photothermal excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnier, Francois

    1990-01-01

    Local photothermal excitation of absorbing sample provides spatial and temporal temperature distribution inside this sample and its neighbouring medium. Optical, thermal and geometrical characteristics (thickness, presence of a defect...) modify surface temperature evolution. The realization of an optical instrument using mirage effect, sensitive and accurate, has came out of two industrial applications of non destructive evaluation: - automatic set-up for absolute measurement of thermal losses on concentrical pipes interface.- set up for quantitative measurement of optical absorption losses on multi coated laser mirrors. To obtain images and compensate acquisition slowness due to investigated thermal phenomenons, a synchronous integration signal process from a multi detector, is described. Experimental set-up using mirage effect detected by a linear CCD reading sensor is realized on this principle. Some examples prove feasibility of this parallel measurement along an excitation line. At last, high frequency parallel synchronous detection with sequential cut-out demodulation was tested and succeeded with a 50 kHz optical signal. (author) [fr

  17. Properties of a novel linear sulfur response mode in a multiple flame photometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian G; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2014-01-24

    A new linear sulfur response mode was established in the multiple flame photometric detector (mFPD) by monitoring HSO* emission in the red spectral region above 600nm. Optimal conditions for this mode were found by using a 750nm interference filter and oxygen flows to the worker flames of this device that were about 10mL/min larger than those used for monitoring quadratic S2* emission. By employing these parameters, this mode provided a linear response over about 4 orders of magnitude, with a detection limit near 5.8×10(-11)gS/s and a selectivity of sulfur over carbon of about 3.5×10(3). Specifically, the minimum detectable masses for 10 different sulfur analytes investigated ranged from 0.4 to 3.6ng for peak half-widths spanning 4-6s. The response toward ten different sulfur compounds was examined and produced an average reproducibility of 1.7% RSD (n=10) and an average equimolarity value of 1.0±0.1. In contrast to this, a conventional single flame S2* mode comparatively yielded respective values of 6.7% RSD (n=10) and 1.1±0.4. HSO* emission in the mFPD was also found to be relatively much less affected by response quenching due to hydrocarbons compared to a conventional single flame S2* emission mode. Results indicate that this new alternative linear mFPD response mode could be beneficial for sulfur monitoring applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple-Active Multiple-Passive Antenna Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki

    2013-01-01

    -passive (MAMP) antenna topologies, as explained in Sect. 8.1. Then, Sect. 8.2 proposes MAMP antenna structures with application to reconfigurable MIMO transmission in the presence of antenna mutual coupling under poor scattering channel conditions. For this purpose, the section presents an adaptive MAMP antenna...... system capable of changing its transmission parameters via passive radiators attached to tunable loads, according to the structure of the RF propagation channel. The hybrid MAMP array structure can be tractably analyzed using the active element response vector (instead of the classical steering vector...... adaptive MAMP system can be limited to practical dimensions whereas the passive antennas require no extra RF hardware, thus meeting the cost, space, and power constrains of the users’ mobile terminals. The simulation results show that the adaptive MAMP system, thanks to its “adaptivity”, is able to achieve...

  19. Decision for counting condition of radioactive waste activities measuring by Ludlum detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang-Purwanto

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive waste must measured for activities before be throw out to environment. Measuring will be important in ordered to know activities can be given management direction. For activities radioactive waste on limit threshold value must processed, but for under limit threshold value activities can be throw out to environment. Activities measuring for solid radioactive waste and liquid by (Total, β, γ) Ludlum detector connected Mode-1000 Scaler Counting. Before measuring for solid waste activities was decisioned optimally counting condition, and be obtained are : sample weight 3.5 gram, heating temperature of 125 o C and heating time at 60 minutes. Activities measuring result by total detector ranges from (0.68-0.71) 10 -1 μCi/gram, β detector ranges from (0.24-0.25) 10 -1 μCi/gram and γ detector ranges from (0.35-0.37) μCi/gram

  20. Relevancies of multiple-interaction events and signal-to-noise ratio for Anger-logic based PET detector designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    A fundamental challenge for PET block detector designs is to deploy finer crystal elements while limiting the number of readout channels. The standard Anger-logic scheme including light sharing (an 8 by 8 crystal array coupled to a 2×2 photodetector array with an optical diffuser, multiplexing ratio: 16:1) has been widely used to address such a challenge. Our work proposes a generalized model to study the impacts of two critical parameters on spatial resolution performance of a PET block detector: multiple interaction events and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The study consists of the following three parts: (1) studying light output profile and multiple interactions of 511 keV photons within crystal arrays of different crystal widths (from 4 mm down to 1 mm, constant height: 20 mm); (2) applying the Anger-logic positioning algorithm to investigate positioning/decoding uncertainties (i.e., "block effect") in terms of peak-to-valley ratio (PVR), with light sharing, multiple interactions and photodetector SNR taken into account; and (3) studying the dependency of spatial resolution on SNR in the context of modulation transfer function (MTF). The proposed model can be used to guide the development and evaluation of a standard Anger-logic based PET block detector including: (1) selecting/optimizing the configuration of crystal elements for a given photodetector SNR; and (2) predicting to what extent additional electronic multiplexing may be implemented to further reduce the number of readout channels.

  1. Active pixel sensor array as a detector for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Leblanc, Philippe; Duttweiler, Fred; Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C; Peltier, Steve; Ellisman, Mark; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S; Wieman, Howard; Denes, Peter; Kleinfelder, Stuart; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu

    2005-09-01

    A new high-resolution recording device for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is urgently needed. Neither film nor CCD cameras are systems that allow for efficient 3-D high-resolution particle reconstruction. We tested an active pixel sensor (APS) array as a replacement device at 200, 300, and 400 keV using a JEOL JEM-2000 FX II and a JEM-4000 EX electron microscope. For this experiment, we used an APS prototype with an area of 64 x 64 pixels of 20 microm x 20 microm pixel pitch. Single-electron events were measured by using very low beam intensity. The histogram of the incident electron energy deposited in the sensor shows a Landau distribution at low energies, as well as unexpected events at higher absorbed energies. After careful study, we concluded that backscattering in the silicon substrate and re-entering the sensitive epitaxial layer a second time with much lower speed caused the unexpected events. Exhaustive simulation experiments confirmed the existence of these back-scattered electrons. For the APS to be usable, the back-scattered electron events must be eliminated, perhaps by thinning the substrate to less than 30 microm. By using experimental data taken with an APS chip with a standard silicon substrate (300 microm) and adjusting the results to take into account the effect of a thinned silicon substrate (30 microm), we found an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio for a back-thinned detector in the energy range of 200-400 keV was about 10:1 and an estimate for the spatial resolution was about 10 microm.

  2. DEPFET active pixel detectors for a future linear $e^+e^-$ collider

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, O; Dieguez, A; Dingfelder, J; Hemperek, T; Kishishita, T; Kleinohl, T; Koch, M; Krueger, H; Lemarenko, M; Luetticke, F; Marinas, C; Schnell, M; Wermes, N; Campbell, A; Ferber, T; Kleinwort, C; Niebuhr, C; Soloviev, Y; Steder, M; Volkenborn, R; Yaschenko, S; Fischer, P; Kreidl, C; Peric, I; Knopf, J; Ritzert, M; Curras, E; Lopez-Virto, A; Moya, D; Vila, I; Boronat, M; Esperante, D; Fuster, J; Garcia Garcia, I; Lacasta, C; Oyanguren, A; Ruiz, P; Timon, G; Vos, M; Gessler, T; Kuehn, W; Lange, S; Muenchow, D; Spruck, B; Frey, A; Geisler, C; Schwenker, B; Wilk, F; Barvich, T; Heck, M; Heindl, S; Lutz, O; Mueller, Th; Pulvermacher, C; Simonis, H.J; Weiler, T; Krausser, T; Lipsky, O; Rummel, S; Schieck, J; Schlueter, T; Ackermann, K; Andricek, L; Chekelian, V; Chobanova, V; Dalseno, J; Kiesling, C; Koffmane, C; Gioi, L.Li; Moll, A; Moser, H.G; Mueller, F; Nedelkovska, E; Ninkovic, J; Petrovics, S; Prothmann, K; Richter, R; Ritter, A; Ritter, M; Simon, F; Vanhoefer, P; Wassatsch, A; Dolezal, Z; Drasal, Z; Kodys, P; Kvasnicka, P; Scheirich, J

    2013-01-01

    The DEPFET collaboration develops highly granular, ultra-transparent active pixel detectors for high-performance vertex reconstruction at future collider experiments. The characterization of detector prototypes has proven that the key principle, the integration of a first amplification stage in a detector-grade sensor material, can provide a comfortable signal to noise ratio of over 40 for a sensor thickness of 50-75 $\\mathrm{\\mathbf{\\mu m}}$. ASICs have been designed and produced to operate a DEPFET pixel detector with the required read-out speed. A complete detector concept is being developed, including solutions for mechanical support, cooling and services. In this paper the status of DEPFET R & D project is reviewed in the light of the requirements of the vertex detector at a future linear $\\mathbf{e^+ e^-}$ collider.

  3. A Unique TAS Setup for high multiplicity events at VECC, Kolkata using BaF2 detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee G.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A granular total absorption spectrometer (TAS has been developed at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India using 50 elements of BaF2 detectors and covering 4π. The advantage with such a granular setup is that one can get sum spectrum with the condition of different multiplicity hits in an event. It has been shown that one can get clean sum-peaks devoid of individual peaks with the choice of two or higher fold of multiplicity. The large granularity makes it a unique TAS setup particularly for the high multiplicity events. The set up has been tested using different radioactive sources with one, two or multiple γ rays in cascade. The set up is ready to be used online.

  4. ACTIV, Sandwich Detector Activity from In-Pile Slowing-Down Spectra Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzi, L. and others

    1978-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Calculates the activities of a sandwich detector, to be used for in-pile measurements in slowing-down spectra below a few keV. The effect of scattering with energy degradation in the filter and in the detectors has been included to a first approximation. 2 - Method of solution: An iterative procedure is used: the calculation starts with a flux guess in which one assumes that each measured reactivity difference depends on the principal resonance only. The secondary resonance contribution is computed through the iterative process. For self-shielded cross-section calculations the model of Pearlstein and Weinstock (ref. 3) is used. The neutron spectrum can optionally be constant or 1/E inside each finite energy group relative to the resonance considered. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of energy groups : 60

  5. Neutron detection and multiplicity counting using a boron-loaded plastic scintillator/bismuth germanate phoswich detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.C.

    1998-03-01

    Neutron detection and multiplicity counting has been investigated using a boron-loaded plastic scintillator/bismuth germanate phoswich detector array. Boron-loaded plastic combines neutron moderation (H) and detection ( 10 B) at the molecular level, thereby physically coupling increasing detection efficiency and decreasing die-away time with detector volume. Both of these characteristics address a fundamental limitation of thermal-neutron multiplicity counters, where 3 He proportional counters are embedded in a polyethylene matrix. Separation of the phoswich response into its plastic scintillator and bismuth germanate components was accomplished on a pulse-by-pulse basis using custom integrator and timing circuits. In addition, a custom time-tag module was used to provide a time for each detector event. Analysis of the combined energy and time event stream was performed by calibrating each detector's response and filtering based on the presence of a simultaneous energy deposition corresponding to the 10 B(n,alpha) reaction products in the plastic scintillator (93 keV ee ) and the accompanying neutron-capture gamma ray in the bismuth germanate (478 keV). Time-correlation analysis was subsequently performed on the filtered event stream to obtain shift-register-type singles and doubles count rates. Proof-of-principle measurements were conducted with a variety of gamma-ray and neutron sources including 137 Cs, 54 Mn, AmLi, and 252 Cf. Results of this study indicate that a neutron-capture probability of ∼10% and a die-away time of ∼10 micros are possible with a 4-detector array with a detector volume of 1600 cm 3 . Simulations were performed that indicate neutron-capture probabilities on the order of 50% and die-away times of less than 4 micros are realistically achievable. While further study will be required for practical application of such a detection system, the results obtained in this investigation are encouraging and may lead to a new class of high

  6. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  7. Evaluation of activation detectors for the SPHINX project at the LR-0 experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodova, Zdena; Viererbl, Ladislav; Novak, Evzen; Svadlenkova, Marie; Rypar, Vojtech

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes the measurements of neutron fluence distributions carried out at the LR-0 research reactor (Czech Republic) in the frame of the SPHINX project. The influence of fluoride-salts or graphite filling in the SR-0 modules on neutron spectrum was studied using activation detectors. The activation detectors (Mn, Ni, In and Au) were evaluated to determine the changes in neutron field. The In and Au detectors were also irradiated with a cadmium cover. Five different configurations of reactor core (EROS) were realized. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of activation detectors for the SPHINX project at the LR-0 experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahodova, Zdena; Viererbl, Ladislav [Research Center Rez Ltd (Czech Republic); Novak, Evzen; Svadlenkova, Marie; Rypar, Vojtech [Nuclear Power and Safety Division, Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    This article summarizes the measurements of neutron fluence distributions carried out at the LR-0 research reactor (Czech Republic) in the frame of the SPHINX project. The influence of fluoride-salts or graphite filling in the SR-0 modules on neutron spectrum was studied using activation detectors. The activation detectors (Mn, Ni, In and Au) were evaluated to determine the changes in neutron field. The In and Au detectors were also irradiated with a cadmium cover. Five different configurations of reactor core (EROS) were realized. (authors)

  9. Multiple scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law. 2: Detector with a variable field of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardecki, A; Tam, W G

    1982-07-01

    The multiple scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law in the case of a detector with a variable field of view are analyzed. We introduce transmission functions relating the received radiant power to reference power levels relevant to two different experimental situations. In the first case, the transmission function relates the received power to a reference power level appropriate to a nonattenuating medium. In the second case, the reference power level is established by bringing the receiver to the close-up position with respect to the source. To examine the effect of the variation of the detector field of view the behavior of the gain factor is studied. Numerical results modeling the laser beam propagation in fog, cloud, and rain are presented.

  10. New sampling electronics using CCD for DIOGENE: a high multiplicity, 4 π detector for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinet, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    DIOGENE is a small time projection chamber which has been developed to study central collisions of relativistic heavy ions. The maximum multiplicity (up to 40 charged particles) that can be accepted by this detector is limited by the present electronics. In view of the heavier mass ions that should become readily available at the Saturne national facility (France), a new sampling electronics has been tested. In the first part of this talk they will present a brief description of the actual detector, insisting on the performances that have been effectively obtained with α-particles and Neon beams. The motivation for and characteristics of a renewed electronic set-up should thus appear more clearly. The second part of the talk is devoted to results of the tests that have been performed using charged couple devices. They will finally conclude on the future perspectives that have been opened by these developments

  11. Measurement of gross alpha - activity in some thermal water sources in Yugoslavia by SSNTDs. [Solid state nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benderac, R.; Ristic, D. (Inst. of Security, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Antanasijevic, R.; Vukovic, J. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia))

    1991-01-01

    The possible application of the CN-BDH (type 1) nitrocellulose detector synthesized in laboratory conditions, and also the CR-39 detector, to the measurement of the gross alpha-activity of geothermal and mineral water has been investigated. (author).

  12. Charged particle multiplicities in pp interactions at \\sqrt{s} = 2.36$ TeV measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 data at the centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 2.36 TeV were recorded with the ATLAS detector. This was the first time the LHC had been operated at this beam energy and stable beam conditions were not declared. Therefore, to ensure detector safety, the silicon strip detector was in standby mode with reduced sensor bias voltage, which makes track reconstruction more difficult. Two complementary methods were developed to measure the charged particle multiplicity distributions and, in particular, estimate the track reconstruction efficiency under these challenging conditions. The first uses the full Inner Detector information and corrects the efficiency from the simulation using a data-driven technique. The second uses tracks reconstructed from pixel detector information only. The charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity are measured for events with at least one charged particle in the kinematic range |eta| 500 MeV. The average charged particle m...

  13. Glycoside hydrolases having multiple hydrolase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Friedland, Gregory D.; Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Chivian, Dylan C.; Simmons, Blake A

    2017-08-08

    Glycoside hydrolases having at least two different hydrolytic activities are provided. In one embodiment, an isolated recombinant hydrolase having at least two activities selected from a group including asparagine derivatives, glutamine derivatives, and histidine derivatives is provided. Further, a method of generating free sugars from a mixture comprising asparagine derivatives, glutamine derivatives, and histidine derivatives is provided.

  14. Improved measurements of thermal power and control rods using multiple detectors at the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerovnik Gasper; Snoj Luka; Trkov Andrej; Barbot Loic; Fourmentel Damien; Villard Jean-Francois

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the current bilateral project between CEA Cadarache and JSI is to improve the accuracy of the online thermal power monitoring at the JSI TRIGA reactor. Simultaneously, a new wide range multichannel acquisition system for fission chambers, recently developed by CEA, is tested. In the paper, calculational and experimental power calibration methods are described. The focus is on use of multiple detectors in combination with pre-calculated and pre-measured control rod- position-dependent correction factors to improve the reactor power reading. The system will be implemented and tested at the JSI TRIGA reactor in 2014. (authors)

  15. An experimental investigation of a liquid cooling scheme for the low dropout voltage regulators of the multiplicity and vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, J.D.; Bosze, E.

    1997-10-01

    This report presents a summary of an experimental investigation of a liquid cooling system for the low dropout voltage regulators in the multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD), a device used to determine and characterize the collision location of two accelerated heavy ions. The coolant temperatures and flow rates as well as the voltage regulator operating temperatures were used to assess and optimize the performance of the proposed cooling system, identify potential assembly problems and system limitations, and provide the necessary information for designing and sizing the final MVD cooling system components. The MVD is part of the PHENIX experiment at Brookhaven RHIC

  16. Impact of detector-element active-area shape and fill factor on super-resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Craig Hardie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In many undersampled imaging systems, spatial integration from the individual detector elements is the dominant component of the system point spread function (PSF. Conventional focal plane arrays (FPAs utilize square detector elements with a nearly 100% fill factor, where fill factor is defined as the fraction of the detector element area that is active in light detection. A large fill factor is generally considered to be desirable because more photons are collected for a given pitch, and this leads to a higher signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR. However, the large active area works against super-resolution (SR image restoration by acting as an additional low pass filter in the overall PSF when modeled on the SR sampling grid. A high fill factor also tends to increase blurring from pixel cross-talk. In this paper, we study the impact of FPA detector-element shape and fill factor on SR. A detailed modulation transfer function analysis is provided along with a number of experimental results with both simulated data and real data acquired with a midwave infrared (MWIR imaging system. We demonstrate the potential advantage of low fill factor detector elements when combined with SR image restoration. Our results suggest that low fill factor circular detector elements may be the best choice. New video results are presented using robust adaptive Wiener filter SR processing applied to data from a commercial MWIR imaging system with both high and low detector element fill factors.

  17. Active terahertz imaging with Ne indicator lamp detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeika, N. S.; Abramovich, A.; Yadid-Pecht, O.; Yitzhaky, Y.

    2009-08-01

    The advantages of terahertz (THz) imaging are well known. They penetrate well most non-conducting media and there are no known biological hazards, This makes such imaging systems important for homeland security, as they can be used to image concealed objects and often into rooms or buildings from the outside. There are also biomedical applications that are arising. Unfortunately, THz imaging is quite expensive, especially for real time systems, largely because of the price of the detector. Bolometers and pyroelectric detectors can each easily cost at least hundreds of dollars if not more, thus making focal plane arrays of them quite expensive. We have found that common miniature commercial neon indicator lamps costing typically about 30 cents each exhibit high sensitivity to THz radiation [1-3], with microsecond order rise times, thus making them excellent candidates for such focal plane arrays. NEP is on the order of 10-10 W/Hz1/2. Significant improvement of detection performance is expected when heterodyne detection is used Efforts are being made to develop focal plane array imagers using such devices at 300 GHz. Indeed, preliminary images using 4x4 arrays have already been obtained. An 8x8 VLSI board has been developed and is presently being tested. Since no similar imaging systems have been developed previously, there are many new problems to be solved with such a novel and unconventional imaging system. These devices act as square law detectors, with detected signal proportional to THz power. This allows them to act as mixers in heterodyne detection, thus allowing NEP to be reduced further by almost two orders of magnitude. Plans are to expand the arrays to larger sizes, and to employ super resolution techniques to improve image quality beyond that ordinarily obtainable at THz frequencies.

  18. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurement of the spontaneous fission decay of 252Cf in a segmented HPGe/BGO detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A; Burke, J T; Gibelin, J; Heffner, M D; Mintz, J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Scielzo, N D; Sheets, S A; Snyderman, N J; Stoyer, M A; Wiedeking, M

    2008-04-23

    Coincident {gamma} rays from a {sup 252}Cf source were measured using an array of six segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) Clover detectors each enclosed by 16 bismuth-germanate (BGO) detectors. The detectors were arranged in a cubic pattern around a 1 {micro}Ci {sup 252}Cf source to cover a large solid angle for {gamma}-ray measurement with a reasonable reconstruction of the multiplicity. Neutron multiplicity was determined in certain cases by identifying the prompt {gamma} rays from individual fission fragment pairs. Multiplicity distributions from previous experiments and theoretical models were convolved with the response function of the array and compared to the present results. These results suggest a {gamma}-ray multiplicity spectrum broader than previous measurements and models, and provide no evidence of correlation with neutron multiplicity.

  19. Application of the multisphere technique. Calibration and use of a modified Multiple Probe Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalande, R.

    1966-11-01

    The study concerns the search for a portable, compact device with a great autonomy of operation, able to carry out precise measurements of fast neutrons in exclusion zones. A DSM-type multi-probe detector, which is self-contained and fully transistorized, have been studied; it includes a storage battery with a 30 hour autonomy and a buffering capability, a pulse amplifier, an integrator (sensitivity 4 c / s - 200 c / s - 2000 c / s), a totalizer to carry out counting on 5 mm, and a SNR fast neutron probe equipped with its preamplifier. Slightly modified, this device perfectly fulfills the operating conditions. Designed to precisely define the relationship between the flow and the dose intensity, it allows to calibrate any type of fast neutrons detector (e.g. BF 3 or unmodified DSM) that will respond correctly and will provide routine monitoring at a facility

  20. Searches for new physics in events with multiple leptons at the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiik-Fuchs Liv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Events containing three or more leptons are an invaluable probe for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM at the LHC. This paper summarizes a generic search for final states with three or more leptons as well as direct searches for heavy seesaw neutrinos, excited leptons and WZ resonances. All searches were conducted using the data recorded in 2012 in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC.

  1. Study of prototypes of LFoundry active CMOS pixels sensors for the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigani, L.; Bortoletto, D.; Ambroz, L.; Plackett, R.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.; Krueger, H.; Hirono, T.; Caicedo Sierra, I.; Wermes, N.; Barbero, M.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Chen, Z.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.

    2018-02-01

    Current high energy particle physics experiments at the LHC use hybrid silicon detectors, in both pixel and strip configurations, for their inner trackers. These detectors have proven to be very reliable and performant. Nevertheless, there is great interest in depleted CMOS silicon detectors, which could achieve a similar performance at lower cost of production. We present recent developments of this technology in the framework of the ATLAS CMOS demonstrator project. In particular, studies of two active sensors from LFoundry, CCPD_LF and LFCPIX, are shown.

  2. Study of prototypes of LFoundry active CMOS pixels sensors for the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vigani, L.; Ambroz, L.; Plackett, R.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.; Krueger, H.; Hirono, T.; Caicedo Sierra, I.; Wermes, N.; Barbero, M.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Chen, Z.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.

    2018-01-01

    Current high energy particle physics experiments at the LHC use hybrid silicon detectors, in both pixel and strip configurations, for their inner trackers. These detectors have proven to be very reliable and performant. Nevertheless, there is great interest in depleted CMOS silicon detectors, which could achieve a similar performance at lower cost of production. We present recent developments of this technology in the framework of the ATLAS CMOS demonstrator project. In particular, studies of two active sensors from LFoundry, CCPD_LF and LFCPIX, are shown.

  3. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  4. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  5. A time resolving data acquisition system for multiple high-resolution position sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmler, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced time resolving data collection system for use in neutron and x-ray spectrometry has been implemented and put into routine operation. The system collects data from high-resolution position-sensitive area detectors with a maximum cumulative rate of 10/sup 6/ events per second. The events are sorted, in real-time, into many time-slice arrays. A programmable timing control unit allows for a wide choice of time sequences and time-slice array sizes. The shortest dwell time on a slice may be below 1 ms and the delay to switch between slices is zero

  6. Response function of NaI(Tl) detectors and multiple backscattering of gamma rays in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwal, Arvind D.; Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The response function, converting the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) detector to a true photon spectrum, is obtained experimentally with the help of an inverse matrix approach. The energy of gamma-ray photons continuously decreases as the number of scatterings increases in a sample having finite dimensions when one deals with the depth of the sample. The present experiments are undertaken to study the effect of target thickness on intensity distribution of gamma photons multiply backscattered from an aluminium target. A NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector detects the photons backscattered from the aluminium target. The subtraction of analytically estimated singly scattered distribution from the observed intensity distribution (originating from interactions of primary gamma-ray photons with the target) results in multiply backscattered events. We observe that for each incident gamma photon energy, the number of multiply backscattered photons increases with increase in target thickness and then saturates at a particular target thickness called the saturation thickness (depth). Saturation thickness for multiply backscattering of gamma photons is found to decrease with increase in energy of incident gamma-ray photons

  7. Multiple scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law. 1: Open detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, W G; Zardecki, A

    1982-07-01

    Multiple scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law are analyzed by means of a rigorous small-angle solution to the radiative transfer equation. Transmission functions for predicting the received radiant power-a directly measured quantity in contrast to the spectral radiance in the Beer-Lambert law-are derived. Numerical algorithms and results relating to the multiple scattering effects for laser propagation in fog, cloud, and rain are presented.

  8. Active neutron multiplicity analysis and Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Ensslin, N.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.; Siebelist, R.; Stewart, J.E.; Ceo, R.N.; May, P.K.; Collins, L.L. Jr

    1994-01-01

    Active neutron multiplicity measurements of high-enrichment uranium metal and oxide samples have been made at Los Alamos and Y-12. The data from the measurements of standards at Los Alamos were analyzed to obtain values for neutron multiplication and source-sample coupling. These results are compared to equivalent results obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. An approximate relationship between coupling and multiplication is derived and used to correct doubles rates for multiplication and coupling. The utility of singles counting for uranium samples is also examined

  9. Fast neutron spectra determination by threshold activation detectors using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardan, M.R.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.; Setayeshi, S.; Ghiassi-Nejad, M.

    2004-01-01

    Neural network method was used for fast neutron spectra unfolding in spectrometry by threshold activation detectors. The input layer of the neural networks consisted of 11 neurons for the specific activities of neutron-induced nuclear reaction products, while the output layers were fast neutron spectra which had been subdivided into 6, 8, 10, 12, 15 and 20 energy bins. Neural network training was performed by 437 fast neutron spectra and corresponding threshold activation detector readings. The trained neural network have been applied for unfolding 50 spectra, which were not in training sets and the results were compared with real spectra and unfolded spectra by SANDII. The best results belong to 10 energy bin spectra. The neural network was also trained by detector readings with 5% uncertainty and the response of the trained neural network to detector readings with 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 50% uncertainty was compared with real spectra. Neural network algorithm, in comparison with other unfolding methods, is very fast and needless to detector response matrix and any prior information about spectra and also the outputs have low sensitivity to uncertainty in the activity measurements. The results show that the neural network algorithm is useful when a fast response is required with reasonable accuracy

  10. Optimizing the regimes of the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detector for multiple source types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashov, I. S.; Simakov, D. A.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Danilishin, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    We developed algorithms which allow us to find regimes of the signal-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer [for example, the Advanced Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO)], optimized concurrently for two (binary inspirals + bursts) and three (binary inspirals + bursts + millisecond pulsars) types of gravitational wave sources. We show that there exists a relatively large area in the interferometer parameters space where the detector sensitivity to the first two kinds of sources differs only by a few percent from the maximal ones for each kind of source. In particular, there exists a specific regime where this difference is ≅0.5% for both of them. Furthermore, we show that even more multipurpose regimes are also possible that provide significant sensitivity gain for millisecond pulsars with only minor sensitivity degradation for binary inspirals and bursts.

  11. Neutron activation detector saturation activities measured in the AAEC research reactor HIFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilditch, R.J.; Lowenthal, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and cobalt wires are irradiated with radiation damage specimens in each reactor period to determine variations in neutron flux densities. The results from these monitors constitute a considerable body of data with good statistical significance. However, a difficulty encountered when using measurements collected over a number of reactor periods for determining flux depression factors or cadmium ratios is accounting for the effects on saturation activities of different irradiation conditions, in particular the continuously changing fuel burn-up rates. This difficulty was overcome by correlating the saturation activities of (n,γ) reactions with the number of fissions in the fuel. The experimental saturation activities so correlated enable (1) flux depression factors to be obtained for cobalt and silver wires, relative to thin foils, and (2) use of these flux depression factors and others quoted in the literature to calculate the ratio of saturation activities of Co and Ag wires. Finally, reference is made to the potential usefulness of the 123 Sb(n,γ) reaction as a resonance detector given that a new method for making thin monitors can be readily applied to antimony

  12. The optimal approach of detecting stochastic gravitational wave from string cosmology using multiple detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xilong; Zhu Zonghong

    2008-01-01

    String cosmology models predict a relic background of gravitational wave produced during the dilaton-driven inflation. It's spectrum is most likely to be detected by ground gravitational wave laser interferometers (IFOs), like LIGO, Virgo, GEO, as the energy density grows rapidly with frequency. We show the certain ranges of the parameters that underlying string cosmology model using two approaches, associated with 5% false alarm and 95% detection rate. The result presents that the approach of combining multiple pairs of IFOs is better than the approach of directly combining the outputs of multiple IFOs for LIGOH, LIGOL, Virgo and GEO

  13. Physical activity motivation and benefits in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasczewski, Kimberly S; Gill, Diane L; Rothberger, Sara M

    2018-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a degenerative neurological disease that affects 2.1 million people worldwide. There is no cure, but an expanding body of research supports the positive impact of physical activity and suggests physical activity has benefits for the individual's psychological and physical well-being. Using Self-Determination Theory as a framework, mixed methods with a focus on qualitative interviews were used to explore physical activity motivation and benefits with a sample of highly active people with multiple sclerosis (n = 15). Disability level ranged from not disabled to wheelchair bound with the majority of participants reporting minimal impact from multiple sclerosis. Survey data were collected using a number of open-ended questions along with measures of self-efficacy, self-determined motivation, physical activity, and quality of life. Additionally, eight individuals participated in semistructured telephone interviews focused on (a) motivation and strategies used to maintain physical activity and (b) the benefits and impact of physical activity in their lives. The main findings were consistent with Self-Determination Theory; participants described feelings of accomplishment and competence in both their physical activity and daily life, as well as a sense of independence and autonomy. Similarly, all participants cited benefits, and the main themes were enhanced satisfaction with life and an overall positive outlook on life. Results provide insight into the role of physical activity in a highly active sample and have implications for professionals working in physical activity settings with the multiple sclerosis population. Interventions aimed at increasing long-term physical activity adherence should focus on increasing autonomy and competence for physical activity in the individual and promoting potential increased quality of life outcomes from physical activity participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Multiple sclerosis is a chronic

  14. Calibration of activation detectors in a monoenergetic neutron beam. Contribution to criticality dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoutie, Martine.

    1981-05-01

    Activation detectors have been calibrated for critical dosimetry applications. Measurements are made using a monoenergetic neutron flux. 14 MeV neutrons obtained par (D-T) reaction are produced by 150 kV accelerator. Neutron flux determined by different methods leads us to obtain an accuracy better than 6%. The present dosimetric system (Activation Neutron Spectrometer - SNAC) gives few informations in the (10 keV - 2 MeV) energetic range. The system has been improved and modified so that SNAC detectors must be read out by gamma spectrometer [fr

  15. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Jakubek, Jan [Advacam s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-15

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 x 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for ''4D'' particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation (x,y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm. (orig.)

  16. 3D track reconstruction capability of a silicon hybrid active pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Pichotka, Martin; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vycpalek, Jiri; Burian, Petr; Broulim, Pavel; Jakubek, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Timepix3 detectors are the latest generation of hybrid active pixel detectors of the Medipix/Timepix family. Such detectors consist of an active sensor layer which is connected to the readout ASIC (application specific integrated circuit), segmenting the detector into a square matrix of 256 × 256 pixels (pixel pitch 55 μm). Particles interacting in the active sensor material create charge carriers, which drift towards the pixelated electrode, where they are collected. In each pixel, the time of the interaction (time resolution 1.56 ns) and the amount of created charge carriers are measured. Such a device was employed in an experiment in a 120 GeV/c pion beam. It is demonstrated, how the drift time information can be used for "4D" particle tracking, with the three spatial dimensions and the energy losses along the particle trajectory (dE/dx). Since the coordinates in the detector plane are given by the pixelation ( x, y), the x- and y-resolution is determined by the pixel pitch (55 μm). A z-resolution of 50.4 μm could be achieved (for a 500 μm thick silicon sensor at 130 V bias), whereby the drift time model independent z-resolution was found to be 28.5 μm.

  17. Neutron spectrometry by means of threshold detectors - Neutron spectrometry by means of activation detectors. Studies of the method of approximation by polygonal function. Application to dose determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricka, M.

    1962-03-01

    This report addresses the problem of determination of neutron spectrum by using a set of detectors. The spectrum approximation method based on a polygonal function is more particularly studied. The author shows that the coefficients of the usual mathematical model can be simply formulated and assessed. The study of spectra approximation by a polygonal function shows that dose can be expressed by a linear function of the activity of the different detectors [fr

  18. Signal formation and active edge studies of 3D silicon detector technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Angela

    3D detectors and devices with an ‘active edge’ were fabricated at the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility. Characteristics such as time response and edge sensitivity were studied. The induced signals from a 3D detector were studied using a fast, low-noise transimpedance amplifier. The rise time of the output signal obtained for a minimum ionising particle was faster than 4 ns at room temperature and 2 ns at 130K. This is in agreement with earlier calculations of 3D detectors that predicted the charge collection time to be between one to two ns. The first understanding of signal formation in a 3D detector was achieved by comparing measurements with a full system simulation. The differences in collection behaviour between electrons and holes were also understood and verified by measurement. Edge sensitivity was measured at the CERN SPS, using a high energy muon beam and a silicon telescope. The detector was measured to be efficient up to less than 4 μm from its physical edge. This confirmed that active edge ...

  19. Foil activation detectors - some remarks on the choice of detectors, the adjustment of cross-sections and the unfolding of flux spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, A.K.; Packwood, A.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron spectroscopy in a favourable environment can yield without supporting calculations a wealth of spectral detail which cannot be approached by the multiple foil analysis (MFA) method. On the other hand in hostile environments only MFA methods are available and they require validation and/or improvement by exposing them to comparison with other types of measurement and definitive calculation in tightly controlled test neutron spectra. This paper considers some problems related to MFA unfolding of flux spectra, systematic and random errors in detector measurements and the choice of detectors which will be of maximum use in all environments of current interest

  20. Vascular air embolism after contrast administration on 64 row multiple detector computed tomography: A prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushaljit S Sodhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular air embolism is being progressively reported as a nonfatal event with increase in use of computed tomography (CT as a diagnostic modality. This study was undertaken to study the frequency and site of vascular air embolism in patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CT (CECT and analyze CT parameters that influence its prevalence and final outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study approved by departmental ethics committee. Presence and location of air emboli in 200 patients who underwent CT scan of chest on a 64 detector scanner was recorded. We analyzed the role of various factors that could influence the prevalence of air embolism after injection of contrast in CECT scans. These factors included the amount of contrast injected, rate of flow of injection of contrast, site of injection of contrast, and size of intravenous access line. Results: Iatrogenic vascular air emboli were seen in 14 patients (7% of total. The locations of air emboli were main pulmonary artery in 12 (6% of total, left brachiocephalic vein in 3 (1.5% of total, right atrial appendage in 4 (2% of total, and superior vena cava (SVC in 1 (0.5% patient. There was no association between volume of contrast, flow rate, site and size of intravenous access, and presence of air emboli. Conclusion: Radiologists as well as referring physicians should be aware of vascular air embolism, which can occur after contrast injection in patients undergoing CT scan. Age, volume of contrast, flow rate of pressure injector, and site and size of venous cannula do not influence the likelihood or incidence of detection of venous air emboli on CT scans.

  1. Multiple active forms of thrombin. IV. Relative activities of meizothrombins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, M.F.; Mann, K.G. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (USA))

    1990-06-25

    The prothrombin activation intermediates meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) (meizothrombin that has been autoproteolyzed to remove fragment 1) have been obtained in a relatively pure, active form with minimal autolysis, making them suitable for enzymatic characterization. When compared at equimolar concentrations, alpha-thrombin, fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin, meizothrombin(desF1), and meizothrombin have approximately 100, 100, 10, and 1% activity, respectively, toward the macromolecular substrates factor V, fibrinogen, and platelets. The difference in activity of these four enzymes cannot be attributed to alterations in the catalytic triad, as all four enzymes have nearly identical catalytic efficiency toward the chromogenic substrate S2238. Further, the ability of meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) to activate protein C was 75% of the activity exhibited by alpha-thrombin or fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin. All four enzymes bind to thrombomodulin, as judged by the enhanced rate of protein C activation upon preincubation of the enzymes with thrombomodulin. The extent of rate enhancement varied, with meizothrombin/thrombomodulin exhibiting only 50% of the alpha-thrombin/thrombomodulin rate. This difference in rate is not due to a decreased affinity of the meizothrombin for thrombomodulin since the apparent dissociation constants for the alpha-thrombin-thrombomodulin complex and the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex are virtually identical. The difference in the observed rate is due in part to the higher Km for protein C exhibited by the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex. Incubation of the thrombomodulin-enzyme complex with phospholipid vesicles caused an increase in the protein C activation rates. The kinetic constants for protein C activation in the presence of phospholipid are virtually identical for these enzyme-thrombomodulin complexes.

  2. Multiple active forms of thrombin. IV. Relative activities of meizothrombins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, M.F.; Mann, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    The prothrombin activation intermediates meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) (meizothrombin that has been autoproteolyzed to remove fragment 1) have been obtained in a relatively pure, active form with minimal autolysis, making them suitable for enzymatic characterization. When compared at equimolar concentrations, alpha-thrombin, fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin, meizothrombin(desF1), and meizothrombin have approximately 100, 100, 10, and 1% activity, respectively, toward the macromolecular substrates factor V, fibrinogen, and platelets. The difference in activity of these four enzymes cannot be attributed to alterations in the catalytic triad, as all four enzymes have nearly identical catalytic efficiency toward the chromogenic substrate S2238. Further, the ability of meizothrombin and meizothrombin(desF1) to activate protein C was 75% of the activity exhibited by alpha-thrombin or fragment 1.2+ alpha-thrombin. All four enzymes bind to thrombomodulin, as judged by the enhanced rate of protein C activation upon preincubation of the enzymes with thrombomodulin. The extent of rate enhancement varied, with meizothrombin/thrombomodulin exhibiting only 50% of the alpha-thrombin/thrombomodulin rate. This difference in rate is not due to a decreased affinity of the meizothrombin for thrombomodulin since the apparent dissociation constants for the alpha-thrombin-thrombomodulin complex and the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex are virtually identical. The difference in the observed rate is due in part to the higher Km for protein C exhibited by the meizothrombin-thrombomodulin complex. Incubation of the thrombomodulin-enzyme complex with phospholipid vesicles caused an increase in the protein C activation rates. The kinetic constants for protein C activation in the presence of phospholipid are virtually identical for these enzyme-thrombomodulin complexes

  3. Solid-state radiation detectors for active personal dosimetry and radiations source tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpalariu, Corneliu; Talpalariu, Jeni; Matei, Corina; Lita, Ioan; Popescu, Oana

    2010-01-01

    We report on the design of the readout electronics using PIN diode radiation detector of 5 mm thickness for nuclear safety and active personal dosimetry. Our effort consisted in designing and fabricating the electronics to reflect the needs of gamma radiations dosimetry and hybrids PIN diode arrays for charged particle detectors. We report results obtained during testing and characterizing the new devices in gamma fields, operating at room temperature. There were determined the energy spectrum resolution, radiation hardness and readout rate. Also, data recording methods and parallel acquisition problems from a transducer matrix are presented. (authors)

  4. A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qin; Skaar, Johannes; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Makarov, Vadim; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2014-01-01

    The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors

  5. Neutron-activation determination of the rare earths in natural calcites using a semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaganov, N.A.; Bulnaev, A.I.; Mejer, V.A.; Ponomarev, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    The application of germanium semiconducting detector is described. The detector has an energy resolution about 1 KeV and makes it possible to determine the content of Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Yb in natural calcites with high sensitivity. The region of soft γ-radiation of activated calcites is more favourable for measurements to be performed than the region of hard γ-rays. Semiconducting detectors of radiation type are relatively cheap; they can be stored at room temperature. The limit of determining rare earth elements in calcites is (g): Eu-1.5.10 -9 ; Tb-4.0.10 -9 ; Yb-7.0.10 -9 ; Ce-1.0.10 -7 ; Nd-5.0.10 -7 ; Gd-1.0.10 -6 . A relative error of concentration determination is 10-20%

  6. A universal setup for active control of a single-photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qin; Skaar, Johannes [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lamas-Linares, Antía; Kurtsiefer, Christian [Centre for Quantum Technologies and Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Makarov, Vadim, E-mail: makarov@vad1.com [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Gerhardt, Ilja, E-mail: ilja@quantumlah.org [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstraße 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    The influence of bright light on a single-photon detector has been described in a number of recent publications. The impact on quantum key distribution (QKD) is important, and several hacking experiments have been tailored to fully control single-photon detectors. Special attention has been given to avoid introducing further errors into a QKD system. We describe the design and technical details of an apparatus which allows to attack a quantum-cryptographic connection. This device is capable of controlling free-space and fiber-based systems and of minimizing unwanted clicks in the system. With different control diagrams, we are able to achieve a different level of control. The control was initially targeted to the systems using BB84 protocol, with polarization encoding and basis switching using beamsplitters, but could be extended to other types of systems. We further outline how to characterize the quality of active control of single-photon detectors.

  7. Needle Type Solid State Detectors for In-Vivo Measurement of Tracer Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, A [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Wolgast, W [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). Inst. of Physiology and Medical Biophysics

    1970-07-15

    A set of miniature detector probes for in-vivo-measurement of beta and gamma tracer activity is described. The probes use a lithium-compensated p-i-n silicon detector as sensing element. The standard 'needle probe' contains a cylindrical detector 0.9 mm in diameter and 3 mm long, enclosed in a stainless steel tube 1.1 mm in outer diameter and with walls 0. 05 mm thick. For particular applications several modified types have been developed: probes with larger sensing elements, probes with extra thin walls for low-energy beta detection, probes with two or three sensing elements in the same needle and probes containing a movable sensing element. This report describes the construction and the properties of the different needle probes.

  8. Needle Type Solid State Detectors for In-Vivo Measurement of Tracer Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauber, A.; Wolgast, W.

    1970-07-01

    A set of miniature detector probes for in-vivo-measurement of beta and gamma tracer activity is described. The probes use a lithium-compensated p-i-n silicon detector as sensing element. The standard 'needle probe' contains a cylindrical detector 0.9 mm in diameter and 3 mm long, enclosed in a stainless steel tube 1.1 mm in outer diameter and with walls 0. 05 mm thick. For particular applications several modified types have been developed: probes with larger sensing elements, probes with extra thin walls for low-energy beta detection, probes with two or three sensing elements in the same needle and probes containing a movable sensing element. This report describes the construction and the properties of the different needle probes

  9. A New Standing Posture Detector to Enable People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation by Changing Their Standing Posture through a Commercial Wii Balance Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture) and a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture detection program (i.e. a new software program turns a Wii Balance Board into a precise standing posture detector). The…

  10. A Limb Action Detector Enabling People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Limb Action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using limb action with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller and a newly developed limb action detection program (LADP, i.e., a new software program that turns a Wii Remote Controller into a precise limb action detector). This study was…

  11. Adaptive Active Noise Suppression Using Multiple Model Switching Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanzhen Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Active noise suppression for applications where the system response varies with time is a difficult problem. The computation burden for the existing control algorithms with online identification is heavy and easy to cause control system instability. A new active noise control algorithm is proposed in this paper by employing multiple model switching strategy for secondary path varying. The computation is significantly reduced. Firstly, a noise control system modeling method is proposed for duct-like applications. Then a multiple model adaptive control algorithm is proposed with a new multiple model switching strategy based on filter-u least mean square (FULMS algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm was implemented on Texas Instruments digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F28335 and real time experiments were done to test the proposed algorithm and FULMS algorithm with online identification. Experimental verification tests show that the proposed algorithm is effective with good noise suppression performance.

  12. Calibration of Cherenkov detectors for monoenergetic photon imaging in active interrogation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.B., E-mail: prose6@gatech.edu; Erickson, A.S., E-mail: anna.erickson@me.gatech.edu

    2015-11-01

    Active interrogation of cargo containers using monoenergetic photons offers a rapid and low-dose approach to search for shielded special nuclear materials. Cherenkov detectors can be used for imaging of the cargo provided that gamma ray energies used in interrogation are well resolved, as the case in {sup 11}B(d,n-γ){sup 12}C reaction resulting in 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV photons. While an array of Cherenkov threshold detectors reduces low energy background from scatter while providing the ability of high contrast transmission imaging, thus confirming the presence of high-Z materials, these detectors require a special approach to energy calibration due to the lack of resolution. In this paper, we discuss the utility of Cherenkov detectors for active interrogation with monoenergetic photons as well as the results of computational and experimental studies of their energy calibration. The results of the studies with sources emitting monoenergetic photons as well as complex gamma ray spectrum sources, for example {sup 232}Th, show that calibration is possible as long as the energies of photons of interest are distinct.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Buljevac (Dragan); H.Z. Flach (Zwenneke); J. Groen (Jan); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To study in relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) whether exacerbations and brain activity as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with plasma levels of anti-Epstein Barr (EBV) antibodies and EBV DNA. METHODS: This was a prospective study

  14. Developmental Trampoline Activities for Individuals with Multiple Handicapping Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bill

    1979-01-01

    The use of trampoline activities with multiple handicapped students is discussed. Management considerations in safety are noted, and developmental trampoline skills are listed beginning with bouncing for stimulation. Progression to limited independence and finally independent jumping is described. The position statement of the American Alliance…

  15. Low leucocyte myeloperoxidase activity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsaransing, G; Teelken, A; Prokopenko, VM; Arutjunyan, AV; De Keyser, J

    The gene for myeloperoxidase (MPO) has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS). By measuring H2O2 dependent oxidation of 3,3'5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine with spectrophotometry the authors investigated MPO activity in peripheral blood leucocytes from 42 patients with MS (12 with secondary

  16. Exploiting different active silicon detectors in the International Space Station: ALTEA and DOSTEL galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livo; Berger, Thomas; Burmeister, Sönke; Di Fino, Luca; Rizzo, Alessandro; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2017-08-01

    The solar system exploration by humans requires to successfully deal with the radiation exposition issue. The scientific aspect of this issue is twofold: knowing the radiation environment the astronauts are going to face and linking radiation exposure to health risks. Here we focus on the first issue. It is generally agreed that the final tool to describe the radiation environment in a space habitat will be a model featuring the needed amount of details to perform a meaningful risk assessment. The model should also take into account the shield changes due to the movement of materials inside the habitat, which in turn produce changes in the radiation environment. This model will have to undergo a final validation with a radiation field of similar complexity. The International Space Station (ISS) is a space habitat that features a radiation environment inside which is similar to what will be found in habitats in deep space, if we use measurements acquired only during high latitude passages (where the effects of the Earth magnetic field are reduced). Active detectors, providing time information, that can easily select data from different orbital sections, are the ones best fulfilling the requirements for these kinds of measurements. The exploitation of the radiation measurements performed in the ISS by all the available instruments is therefore mandatory to provide the largest possible database to the scientific community, to be merged with detailed Computer Aided Design (CAD) models, in the quest for a full model validation. While some efforts in comparing results from multiple active detectors have been attempted, a thorough study of a procedure to merge data in a single data matrix in order to provide the best validation set for radiation environment models has never been attempted. The aim of this paper is to provide such a procedure, to apply it to two of the most performing active detector systems in the ISS: the Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts (ALTEA

  17. Dead layer and active volume determination for GERDA Phase II detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern [TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERDA experiment investigates the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge and is currently running Phase I of its physics program. Using the same isotope as the Heidelberg Moscow (HDM) experiment, GERDA aims to directly test the claim of observation by a subset of the HDM collaboration. For the update to Phase II of the experiment in 2013, the collaboration organized the production of 30 new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) type detectors from original 35 kg enriched material and tested their performance in the low background laboratory HADES in SCK.CEN, Belgium. With additional 20 kg of detectors, GERDA aims to probe the degenerated hierarchy scenario. One of the crucial detector parameters is the active volume (AV) fraction which directly enters into all physics analysis. This talk presents the methodology of dead layer and AV determination with different calibration sources such as {sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 60}Co and {sup 228}Th and the results obtained for the new Phase II detectors. Furthermore, the AV fraction turned out to be the largest systematic uncertainty in the analysis of Phase I data which makes it imperative to reduce its uncertainty for Phase II. This talk addresses the major contributions to the AV uncertainty and gives an outlook for improvements in Phase II analysis.

  18. Simulation of new p-type strip detectors with trench to enhance the charge multiplication effect in the n-type electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Martínez, P.; Pellegrini, G.; Balbuena, J.P.; Quirion, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Flores, D.; Lozano, M.; Casse, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the simulation results of new p-type strip detectors with trench electrodes to enhance the charge multiplication effect in the irradiated detector. The new design includes baby microstrip detectors (area=1 cm 2 ) with a strip pitch of 80 μm and p-stop isolation structures. The strip has a 5 μm-wide trench along all its length, filled and doped with polysilicon to create a deep N + contact into the material bulk. The trench depth can be varied in order to study the influence of the electric field on the charge multiplication effect in heavily irradiated samples. Some alternative designs have also been studied to establish a comparison between various structures using different technologies. Simulation reproduce the electrical behaviour under different irradiation conditions, taking into account the damage accumulated after irradiation with neutrons and protons with several fluence values. The investigation of these effects provides important indications on the ability of this modified electrode geometry to control and optimise the charge multiplication effect, in order to fully recover the collection efficiency of heavily irradiated microstrip detectors, at reasonable bias voltage compatible with the voltage feed limitation of the CERN SLHC experiments.

  19. Dosimetric characteristics of radiation fields on board Czechoslovak Airlines' aircraft as measured with different active and passive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurney, F.; Obraz, O.; Pernicka, F.; Votockova, I.; Turek, K.; Vojtisek, O.; Starostova, V.

    1993-01-01

    Dosimetric characteristics on board Czechoslovak Airlines' aircraft (TU 154M; A310-300) were studied with different active and passive detectors (ionisation chamber RSS 112; scintillator based rate meter; GM counter based rate meter; neutron remmeter based on neutron moderation; thermoluminescence detectors, CR 39 track detectors and bubble-damage neutron detectors). Results obtained are analysed and discussed. It is estimated that the dose equivalent rates at altitudes of about 10 km are at least 3-4 μSv.h-1. Conclusions and recommendations for further studies and for radiation protection are given. (author)

  20. Detector design for active fault diagnosis in closed-loop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekunda, André Krabdrup; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2018-01-01

    Fault diagnosis of closed-loop systems is extremely relevant for high-precision equipment and safety critical systems. Fault diagnosis is usually divided into 2 schemes: active and passive fault diagnosis. Recent studies have highlighted some advantages of active fault diagnosis based on dual Youla......-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera parameters. In this paper, a method for closed-loop active fault diagnosis based on statistical detectors is given using dual Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera parameters. The goal of this paper is 2-fold. First, the authors introduce a method for measuring a residual signal subject to white noise. Second...

  1. Monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids by using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Filippi, D.; Lunardon, M.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Badocco, D.; Pastore, P.; Romanini, F. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this work the possibility of monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in liquids using EJ-444 was investigated. Specific tests were carried out to determine the change of the detector properties in water tests. Possible protecting coating is also proposed and tested. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in liquids is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  2. Neutron activation analysis of uranium by means of electrochemical etching of tracks in lawsan detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Son Chun; Chuburkov, Yu.T.; Zvara, I.I.

    1982-01-01

    The method of neutron activation analysis of uranium in natural and artificial materials using track lavsan detectors of fission fragments has been developed. The method of electrochemical etching (etching reagent NaOH) of fragment tracks in lavsan is improved. Using statistical method of experiment planning the equation, describing the dependence of diometer value of fission fragment tracks on parameters of etching process, is obtained. The analysis sensitivity is 10 - 7 g/g - 10 - 8 g/g

  3. Calibration of a solid state nuclear track detector for the measurements of volumic activity of Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAKAM, O.K.; LFERDE, M.; BERRADA, M.

    1994-01-01

    Time - integrated measurements of environmental radiation activity are commonly carried out using solid state nuclear track detectors ( SSNTD ). These detectors should be calibrated of volumic activity of radon. This paper reports the results of experiments conducted to calibrate cellulose nitrate films LR - 115 type II used for measurements of volumic activity of radon in indoor air in dwellings and enclosed work areas in Morocco. Calibration measurements were made in laboratory using a calibration chamber and a radon source. The calibration chamber is a cylindric box ( 2613,6 cm sup 3)which we have manufactured of aluminium. The radon source is a natural sample rich of aluminium (17,29 + 0 ,12) Bq/g. The films are placed in detector holder with membrane and exposed inside the calibration chamber to varying concentrations of radon. Following the exposure, the films were chemically etched in sodium hydroxide (2,5 N) at 60 C for 120 minutes. The number of registered alpha particle tracks were counted with an optical microscope. In the used etching conditions, the removed mean thickness is in the order of 6 micro m. Therefore, we have normalized the track density to this value . We obtained a calibration factor of 0, 58 tracks . cm sup -2/ K Bq . h . m sup -3 . 1 tab.; 1 fig.; 2 refs. (author)

  4. Recent progress in the development of a B-factory monolithic active pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanic, S.; Aihara, H.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Hazumi, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kent, N.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Varner, G.; Yang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the need for precise vertexing at future higher luminosity B-factories with the expectedly increasing track densities and radiation exposures, upgrade of present silicon strip detectors with thin, radiation resistant pixel detectors is highly desired. Considerable progress in the technological development of thin CMOS based Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in the last years makes them a realistic upgrade option and the feasibility studies of their application in Belle are actively pursued. The most serious concerns are their radiation hardness and their read-out speed. To address them, several prototypes denoted as Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) sensors have been developed and tested. The latest of the CAP sensor prototypes is CAP3, designed in the TSMC 0.25μm process with a 5-deep sample pair pipeline in each pixel. A setup with several CAP3 sensors will be used to assess the performance of a full scale pixel read-out system running at realistic read-out speed. The results and plans for the next stages of R and D towards a full Pixel Vertex Detector (PVD) are presented

  5. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklavenitis, L.

    1967-10-01

    This work is concerned with the possibility of measurement and analysis of radiation fluences within objects of small volume submitted to a high energy proton beam. The first part, consecrated to the establishment of a method of analysis, comprises a detailed study of the radiation nature and energy spectra as well as of the various dosimetry methods. In order to select a group of detectors, high energy nuclear reactions were systematically studied and for some of them cross sections were measured or calculated: for example the cross section of the reaction 11 B (p,n) 11 C between 150 and 3000 MeV and of the reaction 34 S (p,2pn) 32 P between 50 and 3000 MeV. The second part is relative to the application of the fore-mentioned analysis to radiation within a tissue equivalent phantom irradiated by 3 GeV protons. This analysis is sufficiently detailed to allow the reconstitution of the absorbed doses, the dose equivalent and, contingent on a better knowledge of the dose due to heavy particles, the quality factors. It allowed also to follow the evolution of the various dosimetric data as a function of the depth inside the phantom and to verify calculations already done by other researchers. The comparison of the measured doses and the corresponding detector activities revealed the possibility that some detectors could give directly the absorbed dose, or even the dose equivalent, by a simple activity measurement. (author) [fr

  6. Development of RISA (radiation induced surface activation) detectors for onsite sensing and microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, H.; Shimozuma, M.; Tomozawa, H.; Takamasa, T.; Okamoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a new technique for radiation detection using radiation induced surface activation (RISA) phenomenon which is found in oxide materials (with high resistivity) causing current conduction through the irradiation of gamma or beta rays. The RISA current has been observed typically in Rutile-type TiO 2 . We have performed a Monte Carlo simulation of gamma ray photons in TiO 2 and backing layers to make clear carrier generation processes leading to the conduction and to develop new type detectors for onsite sensing and microdosimetry. Results show that the dominant process to generate electron-hole pairs in thin TiO 2 layer is collisional interaction of electrons generated in backing layer, which suggest the RISA detector can be used for estimating the absorbed dose in bio-materials. (author)

  7. Study of solar activity by measuring cosmic rays with a water Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahena Bias, Angelica; Villasenor, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report on an indirect study of solar activity by using the Forbush effect which consists on the anti-correlation between the intensity of solar activity and the intensity of secondary cosmic radiation detected at ground level at the Earth. We have used a cylindrical water Cherenkov detector to measure the rate of arrival of secondary cosmic rays in Morelia Mich., Mexico, at 1950 m.a.s.l. We describe the analysis required to unfold the effect of atmospheric pressure and the search for Forbush decreases in our data, the latter correspond to more than one year of continuous data collection.

  8. Alpha activity of 190 Pt isotope measured with CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Terranova, M.L.

    1996-11-01

    A new method to measure alpha activity of long-lived radioisotopes is reported. The method consists basically in using CR-39 track detectors in close contact with thick samples of the radioelement to be investigated. Accordingly, a long-term exposure experiment has been performed using metallic sheets of natural platinum to measure alpha activity of platinum 190 isotope. The half-life of platinum 190 has been obtained in good agreement with two recent theoretical half-life predictions. (author). 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Development of high efficiency neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Menlove, H.O.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have designed a novel neutron detector system using conventional 3 He detector tubes and composites of polyethylene and graphite. At this time the design consists entirely of MCNP simulations of different detector configurations and materials. These detectors are applicable to low-level passive and active neutron assay systems such as the passive add-a-source and the 252 Cf shuffler. Monte Carlo simulations of these neutron detector designs achieved efficiencies of over 35% for assay chambers that can accommodate 55-gal. drums. Only slight increases in the number of detector tubes and helium pressure are required. The detectors also have reduced die-away times. Potential applications are coincident and multiplicity neutron counting for waste disposal and safeguards. The authors will present the general design philosophy, underlying physics, calculation mechanics, and results

  10. Comparison of Americium-Beryllium neutron spectrum obtained using activation foil detectors and NE-213 spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunny, Sunil; Subbaiah, K.V.; Selvakumaran, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron spectrum of Americium - Beryllium (α,n) source is measured with two different spectrometers vis-a-vis activation foils (foil detectors) and NE-213 organic scintillator. Activity induced in the foils is measured with 4π-β-γ sodium iodide detector by integrating counts under photo peak and the saturation activity is found by correcting to elapsed time before counting. The data on calculated activity is fed into the unfolding code, SAND-II to obtain neutron spectrum. In the case of organic scintillator, the pulse height spectrum is obtained using MCA and this is processed with unfolding code DUST in order to get neutron spectrum. The Americium - Beryllium (α,n) neutron spectrum thus obtained by two different methods is compared. It is inferred that the NE-213 scintillator spectrum is in excellent agreement with the values beyond 1MeV. Neutron spectrum obtained by activation foils depends on initial guess spectrum and is found to be in reasonable agreement with NE-213 spectrum. (author)

  11. Localizing Brain Activity from Multiple Distinct Sources via EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dassios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important question arousing in the framework of electroencephalography (EEG is the possibility to recognize, by means of a recorded surface potential, the number of activated areas in the brain. In the present paper, employing a homogeneous spherical conductor serving as an approximation of the brain, we provide a criterion which determines whether the measured surface potential is evoked by a single or multiple localized neuronal excitations. We show that the uniqueness of the inverse problem for a single dipole is closely connected with attaining certain relations connecting the measured data. Further, we present the necessary and sufficient conditions which decide whether the collected data originates from a single dipole or from numerous dipoles. In the case where the EEG data arouses from multiple parallel dipoles, an isolation of the source is, in general, not possible.

  12. Sodium intake and multiple sclerosis activity and progression in BENEFIT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Munger, Kassandra L; Hartung, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a high-salt diet, as measured by urinary sodium concentration, is associated with faster conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to multiple sclerosis (MS) and MS activity and disability. METHODS: BENEFIT was a randomized clinical trial comparing early versus...... delayed interferon beta-1b treatment in 465 patients with a CIS. Each patient provided a median of 14 (interquartile range = 13-16) spot urine samples throughout the 5-year follow-up. We estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion level at each time point using the Tanaka equations, and assessed whether...... in T2 lesion volume: -0.11, 95% CI = -0.25 to 0.04; change in EDSS: -0.01, 95% CI = -0.09 to 0.08; relapse rate: HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.56-1.07). Results were similar in categorical analyses using quintiles. INTERPRETATION: Our results, based on multiple assessments of urine sodium excretion over 5...

  13. Immune activation in multiple sclerosis and interferon-beta therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The PhD dissertation emanated from the Danish MS Research Centre, Rigshosptalet, Copenhagen. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the CNS. Inflammatory responses by T helper (Th)-lymphocytes are characterised by distinct cytokine expression profiles. In MS, activated Th1...... of inflammation or secondary lymphatic organs. Chemokine receptors are differentially expressed in T cells in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, indicating their role for in T-cell-recruitment to the CNS. Interferon (IFN)-beta is a first-line treatment for MS. The mechanism of action is unclear, but probably includes...... changes in lymphocyte activation, cytokine secretion, and trafficking. The aim of the studies was to shed more light on T-cell immunology in MS and IFN-beta treatment, as well as identifying putative biomarkers of treatment response and/or disease activity. In one study we identified a Th-cell subset...

  14. Activity of CERN and LNF groups on large area GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsi, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bencivenni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Brock, I. [Physikalisches Institute der Universitat Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Cerioni, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Croci, G.; David, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); De Robertis, G. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Domenici, D., E-mail: Danilo.Domenici@lnf.infn.i [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Duarte Pinto, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Loddo, F. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Morello, G. [Dipeartimento di Fisica Universita della Calabria e INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Pistilli, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Ranieri, A. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Ropelewski, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sauli, F. [TERA Foundation, Novara (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    We report on the activity of CERN and INFN-LNF groups on the development of large area GEM detectors. The two groups work together within the RD51 Collaboration, to aim at the development of Micro-pattern Gas detectors technologies. The vast request for large area foils by the GEM community has driven a change in the manufacturing procedure by the TS-DEM-PMT laboratory, needed to overcome the previous size limitation of 450x450mm{sup 2}. Now a single-mask technology is used allowing foils to be made as large as 450x2000mm{sup 2}. The limitation in the short size, due to the definite width of the raw material, can be overcome by splicing more foils together. A 10x10cm{sup 2} GEM detector with the new single-mask foil has been tested with X-rays and the results are shown. Possible future applications for large area GEM are the TOTEM experiment upgrade at CERN, and the KLOE-2 experiment at the Dafne {Phi}-factory in Frascati.

  15. Activity of CERN and LNF groups on large area GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsi, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Brock, I.; Cerioni, S.; Croci, G.; David, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Oliveira, R.; De Robertis, G.; Domenici, D.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M.; Loddo, F.; Morello, G.; Pistilli, M.; Ranieri, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the activity of CERN and INFN-LNF groups on the development of large area GEM detectors. The two groups work together within the RD51 Collaboration, to aim at the development of Micro-pattern Gas detectors technologies. The vast request for large area foils by the GEM community has driven a change in the manufacturing procedure by the TS-DEM-PMT laboratory, needed to overcome the previous size limitation of 450x450mm 2 . Now a single-mask technology is used allowing foils to be made as large as 450x2000mm 2 . The limitation in the short size, due to the definite width of the raw material, can be overcome by splicing more foils together. A 10x10cm 2 GEM detector with the new single-mask foil has been tested with X-rays and the results are shown. Possible future applications for large area GEM are the TOTEM experiment upgrade at CERN, and the KLOE-2 experiment at the Dafne Φ-factory in Frascati.

  16. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with 80% active area for the rich counters of LHCB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Alemi, M.; Barber, G.; Bibby, J.; Campbell, M.; Duane, A.; Gys, T.; Montenegro, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wotton, S.; Wyllie, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based on an electrostatically focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of ∼5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The performance of full-scale prototypes equipped with 61-pixel anodes and external analogue readout is presented. The average signal-to-noise ratio is ∼11 with a peaking time of 1.2 μs. The tube active-to-total surface ratio is 81.7%, which meets the LHCb requirements. The spatial precision is measured to be better than 90 μm. A cluster of three such tubes has been installed in the LHCb RICH 1 prototype where Cherenkov gas rings have been successfully detected. Progress towards the encapsulation of new pixel electronics into a tube is also reported. In particular, the status of the development of a binary readout chip with a peaking time of 25 ns and a low and uniform detection threshold is summarized

  17. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with 80% active area for the rich counters of LHCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, E.; Alemi, M.; Barber, G.; Bibby, J.; Campbell, M.; Duane, A.; Gys, T. E-mail: thierry.gys@cern.ch; Montenegro, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wotton, S.; Wyllie, K

    2000-03-11

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based on an electrostatically focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of {approx}5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The performance of full-scale prototypes equipped with 61-pixel anodes and external analogue readout is presented. The average signal-to-noise ratio is {approx}11 with a peaking time of 1.2 {mu}s. The tube active-to-total surface ratio is 81.7%, which meets the LHCb requirements. The spatial precision is measured to be better than 90 {mu}m. A cluster of three such tubes has been installed in the LHCb RICH 1 prototype where Cherenkov gas rings have been successfully detected. Progress towards the encapsulation of new pixel electronics into a tube is also reported. In particular, the status of the development of a binary readout chip with a peaking time of 25 ns and a low and uniform detection threshold is summarized.

  18. Detection of low-energy antinuclei in space using an active-target particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Thomas; Greenwald, Daniel; Konorov, Igor; Paul, Stephan [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Losekamm, Martin [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institute of Astronautics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Measuring antimatter in space excellently probes various astrophysical processes. The abundances and energy spectra of antiparticles reveal a lot about the creation and propagation of cosmic-ray particles in the universe. Abnormalities in their spectra can reveal exotic sources or inaccuracies in our understanding of the involved processes. The measurement of antiprotons and the search for antideuterons and antihelium are optimal at low kinetic energies since background from high-energy cosmic-ray collisions is low. For this reason, we are developing an active-target particle detector capable of detecting ions and anti-ions in the energy range of 30-100 MeV per nucleon. The detector consists of 900 scintillating fibers coupled to silicon photomultipliers and is designed to operate on nanosatellites. The primary application of the detector will be the Antiproton Flux in Space (AFIS) mission, whose goal is the measurement of geomagnetically trapped antiprotons inside Earth's inner radiation belt. In this talk, we explain our particle identification technique and present results from first in-beam measurements with a prototype.

  19. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N.M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P.M.; Poludniowski, G.; Green, S.; Parker, D.J.; Price, T.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs

  20. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Evans, P M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Poludniowski, G; Price, T; Waltham, C; Allinson, N M

    2015-06-03

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  1. Charged-particle multiplicities in pp interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV measured with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cairo, Valentina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements are presented of charged particle distributions in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected with the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC Run 2 and compared with lower centre-of-mass energies measurements. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the dependence of the mean transverse momentum on the charged-particle multiplicity are presented. The results are corrected for detector effects, presented as particle-level distributions and are compared to various Monte Carlo generator models.

  2. Charged particle multiplicities at {radical}(s)=0.9, 2.36 and 7.0 TeV with the CMS detector at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougny, Romain [Universiteit Antwerpen, Gratiekapelstraat 10, BE-2000 Antwerpen (Belgium); De Wolf, E.A.; Janssen, X.; Mucibello, L.; Van Remortel, N.; Lee, Y.J.; Busza, Wit

    2010-07-01

    The charged particle multiplicity, n, is an essential observable in hadron collisions. It is the result of the counting of all charged particles produced by the primary proton-proton interaction. In particular, the events collected by minimum bias triggers contain soft interactions and produce mostly particles with low transverse momenta. The shape of the charged particle multiplicity spectrum is sensitive to the particle production mechanism of these soft interactions which are described by non-perturbative models, inspired by QCD. The correlations between produced hadrons are reflected in the shape of the multiplicity spectrum, while the mean multiplicity increases with the center of mass energy of the collision. We present the measurement of the charged particle multiplicity distributions, 1/s d{sigma}/dn, in increasing sub-domains of pseudorapidity and transverse momentum acceptance, for non single diffractive interactions. The data are further corrected for the trigger and event selection efficiency and the effects of tracking inefficiency and secondary tracks originating from the decay of long lived particles and products of interaction with the beam pipe and the detector material. This measurement is based on minimum bias data collected by the CMS detector at {radical}(s) = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV. The data were collected during the LHC commissioning run in 2009 and at the beginning of 2010. (authors)

  3. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life. © The Author(s), 2015.

  4. Nitric oxide synthase expression and enzymatic activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, H; Andersen, B; Wanscher, B

    2004-01-01

    We used post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance to obtain paired biopsies from the brains of four patients with clinical definite multiple sclerosis (MS). Samples were analyzed for the immunoreactivity (IR) of the three nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms [inducible, neuronal......NOS expressing cells in active lesions. NOS IR expressing cells were widely distributed in plaques, in white and gray matter that appeared normal macroscopically, and on MR. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) was highly expressed in intraparenchymal vascular endothelial cells of MS patients. A control group matched for age...

  5. A scintillation detector signal processing technique with active pileup prevention for extending scintillation count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.H.; Li, H.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for processing signals from scintillation detectors is proposed for very high count-rate situations where multiple-event pileups are the norm. This method is designed to sort out and recover every impinging event from multiple-event pileups while maximizing the collection of scintillation signal for every event to achieve optimal accuracy in determining the energy of the event. For every detected event, this method cancels the remnant signals from previous events, and excludes the pileup of signals from following events. With this technique, pileup events can be recovered and the energy of every recovered event can be optimally measured despite multiple pileups. A prototype circuit demonstrated that the maximum count rates have been increased by more than 10 times, comparing to the standard pulse-shaping method, while the energy resolution is as good as that of the pulse shaping (or the fixed integration) method at normal count rates. At 2 x 10 6 events/sec for NaI(Tl), the true counts acquired are 3 times more than the delay-line clipping method (commonly used in fast processing designs) due to events recovered from pileups. Pulse-height spectra up to 3.5 x 10 6 events/sec have been studied

  6. Evaluation of radon measuring technique using passive detector activated carbon; Avaliacao da tecnica de medicao do radonio utilizando detector passivo com carvao ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Rocha; Lessa, Edmilson de Lima; Oliveira, Evaldo Paulo de, E-mail: epoliveira@aluno.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radioprotecao Ambiental e Ocupacional

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of measuring the radioactive gas Radon ({sup 222} Rn) with passive detector activated carbon. Alpha Guard, exposure chamber, air sampler, default font Radio, calibrator flow, flow adjuster, ducts drivers: For this, various equipment to make the measurement system as were used. An assembly of such equipment, with specific sequence was used allowing for more efficient exposure of passive detectors Radon gas. Twenty samples were heated to remove moisture and then stored in desiccator until the experiment were made. The exhibition was held passive dosimeters being removed from the chamber, and one hour after, subjected to analysis by gamma spectrometry in germanium (HPGe) for an hour. Subsequently, other measurements were made at scheduled times and sequential for one hour. The results were presented in report form and spectra, measures and graphs generated by Alpha Guard were also extracted. Finally we calculated the efficiency of the passive meter activated carbon. (author)

  7. Vertex detector working as an active target in multihadron production on nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albini, E [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Brescia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica); Artuso, M; Bacchiocchi, G; D' Angelo, P; Moroni, L; Ragusa, F; Rancoita, P G; Sala, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Bellini, G

    1980-12-01

    In this paper a vertex detector working as active target is described. It consists of a telescope of nuclear targets surrounded by two coaxial cylindrical MWPCs, working in the proportional regime. The energy loss in the two 6 mm gaps of the chambers is measured with an accuracy better than 18%. The coordinates of the track along the sense wires are measured using the charge division method with an accuracy of 0.5-1.0%. The efficiency is about 99.5%. This device is used in an experiment concerned with multihadron production on nuclei, coupled with a forward spectrometer in order to detect and recognize grey, black and shower secondary particles.

  8. The Effect of a Voice Activity Detector on the Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Catic, Jasmina; Buchholz, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    A multimicrophone speech enhancement algorithm for binaural hearing aids that preserves interaural time delays was proposed recently. The algorithm is based on multichannel Wiener filtering and relies on a voice activity detector (VAD) for estimation of second-order statistics. Here, the effect...... of a VAD on the speech enhancement of this algorithm was evaluated using an envelopebased VAD, and the performance was compared to that achieved using an ideal error-free VAD. The performance was considered for stationary directional noise and nonstationary diffuse noise interferers at input SNRs from −10...

  9. History of the bubble chamber and related active- and internal-target nuclear tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchetti, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Donald Glaser, 1960 Nobel laureate in Physics, recently passed away (2013), as have many of his colleagues who were involved with the early development of bubble chambers at the University of Michigan. In this paper I will review those early years and the subsequent wide-spread application of active-target (AT) bubble chambers that dominated high-energy physics (HEP) research for over thirty years. Some of the related, but more modern nuclear tracking detectors being used in HEP, neutrino astrophysics and dark-matter searches also will be discussed

  10. Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancin, J., E-mail: pancin@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Druillole, F. [CEA, DSM/Irfu/SEDI, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Grinyer, G.F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Porte, C.; Roger, T. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Rosier, P. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Suen, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France)

    2014-01-21

    Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm{sup 2} pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV α particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics.

  11. Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D.; Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F.; Druillole, F.; Grinyer, G.F.; Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G.; Porte, C.; Roger, T.; Rosier, P.; Suen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm 2 pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV α particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics

  12. Resource Constrained Planning of Multiple Projects with Separable Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Susumu; Morita, Hiroshi; Kanawa, Takuya

    In this study we consider a resource constrained planning problem of multiple projects with separable activities. This problem provides a plan to process the activities considering a resource availability with time window. We propose a solution algorithm based on the branch and bound method to obtain the optimal solution minimizing the completion time of all projects. We develop three methods for improvement of computational efficiency, that is, to obtain initial solution with minimum slack time rule, to estimate lower bound considering both time and resource constraints and to introduce an equivalence relation for bounding operation. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated by numerical examples. Especially as the number of planning projects increases, the average computational time and the number of searched nodes are reduced.

  13. Multiple Activities of Punica granatum Linne against Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Jung; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Liang, Wen-Li; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2017-01-12

    Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes ( P . acnes ) and Staphylococcus aureus , and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P . acnes -induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. Results showed that PG-E inhibited bacterial growth and lipase activity. Through a bioguided-fractionation-isolation system, four hydrolysable tannins, punicalagin ( 1 ), punicalin ( 2 ), strictinin A ( 3 ), and granatin B ( 4 ), were isolated. Compounds 1 and 2 had greater anti-bacterial activities and anti-testosterone-induced HaCaT proliferative effects than the others. Compounds 1 , 3 , and 4 displayed lipase inhibitory effects. Compound 4 decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and downregulated prostaglandin E₂ production in heat-killed P . acnes -treated RAW 246.7 cells. In conclusion, PG-E is abundant in hydrolysable tannins that display multiple anti-acne capacities, including anti-bacterial, anti-lipase, anti-keratinocyte proliferation, and anti-inflammatory actions. Hence, PG-E has great potential in the application of anti-acne and skin-care products, and punicalagin ( 1 ), the most effective component in PG-E, can be employed as a quality control marker.

  14. New perspectives for undoped CaF2 scintillator as a threshold activation neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibczynski, Pawel; Dziedzic, Andrzej; Grodzicki, Krystian; Iwanowska-Hanke, Joanna; Moszyński, Marek; Swiderski, Lukasz; Syntfeld-Każuch, Agnieszka; Wolski, Dariusz; Carrel, Frédérick; Grabowski, Amélie; Hamel, Matthieu; Laine, Frederic; Sari, Adrien; Iovene, Alessandro; Tintori, Carlo; Fontana, Cristiano; Pino, Felix

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present the prompt photofission neutron detection performance of undoped CaF2 scintillator using Threshold Activation Detection (TAD). The study is carried out in the frame of C-BORD Horizon 2020 project, during which an efficient toolbox for high volume freight non-intrusive inspection (NII) is under development. Technologies for radiation monitoring are the part of the project. Particularly, detection of various radiological threats on country borders plays an important significant role in Homeland Security applications. Detection of illegal transfer of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) - 235U, 233U and 239Pu - is particular due to the potential use for production of nuclear weapon as well as radiological dispersal device (RDD) V known also as a "dirty bomb". This technique relies on activation of 19F nuclei in the scintillator medium by fast neutrons and registration of high-energy β particles and γ-rays from the decay of reaction products. The radiation from SNM is detected after irradiation in order to avoid detector blinding. Despite the low 19F(n,α)16N or 19F(n,p)19O reaction cross-section, the method could be a good solution for detection of shielded nuclear material. Results obtained with the CaF2 detector were compared with the previous study done for BaF2 and 3He detector. These experimental results were obtained using 252Cf source and 9 MeV Varian Linatron M9 linear accelerator (LINAC). Finally, performance of the prompt neutron detection system based on CaF2 will be validated at Rotterdam Seaport during field trails in 2018.

  15. New perspectives for undoped CaF2 scintillator as a threshold activation neutron detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibczynski Pawel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the prompt photofission neutron detection performance of undoped CaF2 scintillator using Threshold Activation Detection (TAD. The study is carried out in the frame of C-BORD Horizon 2020 project, during which an efficient toolbox for high volume freight non-intrusive inspection (NII is under development. Technologies for radiation monitoring are the part of the project. Particularly, detection of various radiological threats on country borders plays an important significant role in Homeland Security applications. Detection of illegal transfer of Special Nuclear Material (SNM - 235U, 233U and 239Pu - is particular due to the potential use for production of nuclear weapon as well as radiological dispersal device (RDD V known also as a “dirty bomb”. This technique relies on activation of 19F nuclei in the scintillator medium by fast neutrons and registration of high-energy β particles and γ-rays from the decay of reaction products. The radiation from SNM is detected after irradiation in order to avoid detector blinding. Despite the low 19F(n,α16N or 19F(n,p19O reaction cross-section, the method could be a good solution for detection of shielded nuclear material. Results obtained with the CaF2 detector were compared with the previous study done for BaF2 and 3He detector. These experimental results were obtained using 252Cf source and 9 MeV Varian Linatron M9 linear accelerator (LINAC. Finally, performance of the prompt neutron detection system based on CaF2 will be validated at Rotterdam Seaport during field trails in 2018.

  16. Predicting and preventing the future: actively managing multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly variable clinical course but a number of demographic, clinical and MRI features can guide the clinician in the assessment of disease activity and likely disability outcome. It is also clear that the inflammatory activity in the first five years of relapsing-remitting MS results in the neurodegenerative changes seen in secondary progressive MS 10-15 years later. While conventional first-line disease modifying therapy has an effect on relapses, about one third of patients have a suboptimal response to treatment. With the advent of highly active second-line therapies with their evident marked suppression of inflammation, the clinician now has the tools to manage the course of relapsing-remitting MS more effectively. The development of treatment optimisation recommendations based on the clinical response to first-line therapies can guide the neurologist in more active management of the early course of relapsing-remitting MS, with the aim of preventing both acute inflammatory axonal injury and the neurodegenerative process which leads to secondary progressive MS.

  17. Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisanz, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC aims at an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about 5×1034 cm-2 s-1. To cope with the resulting challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300 hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of around 2×1016 neq cm-2. Various sensor layouts are under development, aiming at providing a high performance, cost effective pixel instrumentation to cover an active area of about 10 m2. These range from thin planar silicon, 3D silicon, to active CMOS sensors. After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns, which provide valuable feedback for improvements of the layout. Testbeam measurements of the final prototypes will be used for the decision of which sensor types will be installed in ITk. The setups used in the ITk Pixel testbeam campaigns will be presented, including the common track reconstruction and analysis software. Results from the latest measurements will be shown, highlighting some of the developments and challenges for the ITk Pixel sensors.

  18. Intercomparison and intercalibration of active and passive radon detectors in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    The state of the art of the most commonly used instrumentation for radon measurements was evaluated at an intercomparison exercise held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory, between April 24, and May 10, 1990. More than 50 sets of active and passive devices were submitted for evaluation by 30 laboratories from private firms, local, state and federal agencies and universities. There were basically five different types of detectors representing the majority of instruments used to assess the indoor airborne concentration of radon. After exposure, the devices were returned to the participating laboratories for analysis. The results reported to EML indicate that the overall performance was good with the majority of the participating laboratories reporting mean results within 10% of the EML reference values. In general, the majority of radon measuring devices gave slightly lower readings than the reference values. The individual measurements made with activated carbon collectors of both the open face and diffusion barrier type and the electret/ionization chambers showed the best precision and accuracy. The nuclear track detectors showed mixed results, exhibiting the largest measurement errors. This suggests that there are problems with sensitivity and with quality control procedures that must be addressed to improve their performance. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bisanz, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will result in an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about 5×1034 cm−2s−1. To cope with the challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300~hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of 2×1016neqcm−2. Various sensor layouts are under development, aiming at providing a high performance, cost effective pixel instrumentation to cover an active area of about 10~m2. These range from thin planar silicon, over 3D silicon, to active CMOS sensors. After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns, which provide valuable feedback for improvements of the layout. Testbeam measurements of the final prototypes will be used for the decision of which sensor types will be installed in ITk. The setups used in the ITk Pixel testbeam campaigns will be presented, inclu...

  20. Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bisanz, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will result in an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about $5\\times10^{34}~\\text{cm}^{-2}\\text{s}^{-1}$. To cope with the resulting challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300~hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of $2\\times10^{16}~\\text{n}_\\text{eq}\\text{cm}^{-2}$. Various sensor layouts are under development, aiming at providing a high performance, cost effective pixel instrumentation to cover an active area of about $10~\\text{m}^2$. These range from thin planar silicon, over 3D silicon, to active CMOS sensors.\\par After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns, which provide valuable feedback for improvements of the layout. Testbeam measurements of the final prototypes will be used for the decision of which sensor types will be installed in...

  1. Evaluation of the CT dose index for scans with an ECG using a 320-row multiple-detector CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Suzuki, Shouichi; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Haba, Tomonobu; Katada, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between heart rate (HR) and computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was evaluated using an electrocardiogram (ECG) gate scan for scan applications such as prospective triggering, Ca scoring, target computed tomography angiography (CTA), prospective CTA and retrospective gating, continuous CTA/CFA (cardiac functional analysis) and CTA/CFA modulation. Even in the case of a volume scan, doses for the multiple scan average dose were similar to those for CTDI. Moreover, it was found that the ECG gate scan yields significantly different doses. When selecting the optimum scan, the doses were dependent on many factors such as HR, scan rotation time, active time, pre-specified cardiac phase and modulation rate. Therefore, it is necessary to take these results into consideration when selecting the scanning parameters. (authors)

  2. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  3. Assessment of activity incorporated in human body by means of a HPGe-detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshkova, T; Minev, L [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet; Konstantinov, V [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    Human body models (phantoms) have been used to study relations between efficiency in measurement of radionuclide activity and measurement conditions. A comparison is made between the activity measurement with and without a motion. When the phantom is moved under the detector, an absolute efficiency increase of 30-40% in homogeneously distributed activity and 2-3 times increase in activity concentrated in the lungs are found. Incorrect calibration is found to introduce an error of 30-40% in the measurement with motion while without motion the error can reach 150-300%. The effects of object weight, size and shield are studied. A procedure for accurate measurement has been developed. The incorporated activity in a human body has been measured using this procedure. Two Kozloduy-2 staff members have been subject to measurement. Cs-137 activity was homogeneously distributed with values 175 Bq in person X and 1050 Bq in person Y. Co-60 activity was concentrated in the lungs with values of 110 Bq and 470 Bq respectively. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Charged-particle multiplicities in $pp$ interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, P.F.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Ambrosini, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Athar, B.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, M.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartheld, V.; Bartko, H.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Bathe, S.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger, G.A.N.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belymam, A.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieri, M.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Binder, M.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bischof, R.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanch, O.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Boaretto, C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Bocian, D.; Bock, R.; Boehler, M.; Boehm, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Bonino, R.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Boosten, M.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.S.L.; Booth, P.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borer, K.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyer, B.H.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozhko, N.I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Braccini, S.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Brambilla, E.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Bravo, S.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Bright-Thomas, P.G.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N.J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E.J.; Bujor, F.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camard, A.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Caprio, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Castrovillari, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavallari, A.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerna, C.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervetto, M.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Charron, S.; Chatterjii, S.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christiansen, T.; Christidi, I.A.; 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Trilling, G.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trka, Z.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C.L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuggle, J.M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzamarioudaki, E.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; Van Berg, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; Van Der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vertogardov, L.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincent, P.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Vollmer, C.F.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; 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Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiesmann, M.; Wiesmann, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Woehrling, E.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.M.; Yao, Y.; Yarradoddi, K.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V.G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo.K.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A.V.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The first measurements from proton-proton collisions recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. Data were collected in December 2009 using a minimum-bias trigger during collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, and the relationship between mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured for events with at least one charged particle in the kinematic range |eta|500 MeV. The measurements are compared to Monte Carlo models of proton-proton collisions and to results from other experiments at the same centre-of-mass energy. The charged-particle multiplicity per event and unit of pseudorapidity at eta = 0 is measured to be 1.333 +/- 0.003 (stat.) +/- 0.040 (syst.), which is 5-15% higher than the Monte Carlo models predict.

  5. Germanium detectors for nuclear spectroscopy: Current research and development activity at LNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoli, D. R., E-mail: daniel.r.napoli@lnl.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Maggioni, G., E-mail: maggioni@lnl.infn.it; Carturan, S.; Gelain, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy “G. Galilei”, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35121 Padova (Italy); Eberth, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Grimaldi, M. G.; Tatí, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania (Italy); Riccetto, S. [University of Camerino and INFN of Perugia (Italy); Mea, G. Della [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); University of Trento (Italy)

    2016-07-07

    High-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors have reached an unprecedented level of sophistication and are still the best solution for high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. In the present work, we will show the results of the characterization of new surface treatments for the production of these detectors, studied in the framework of our multidisciplinary research program in HPGe detector technologies.

  6. A Needle-Type p-i-n Junction Semiconductor Detector for In-Vivo Measurement of Beta Tracer Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauber, A; Rosencrantz, B

    1964-10-15

    A miniature detector probe has been developed for in-vivo detection of beta tracer activity. A lithium-drifted p-i-n detector shaped as a cylinder 0.9 mm in diameter and 3 mm long acts as the sensing element. The detector is encased in a stainless steel tube 50 mm long, fastened to a holder fitted with a miniature coaxial contact. The free end of the tube has a syringe-like, entirely tight tip. The steel tube has an outer diameter of 1.4 mm except for 10 mm at the free end where the outer diameter is 1.1 mm corresponding to a wall thickness of 005 mm. The detector is placed in the 1.1 mm part of the tube. The construction and the properties of the probe are described.

  7. A Needle-Type p-i-n Junction Semiconductor Detector for In-Vivo Measurement of Beta Tracer Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauber, A.; Rosencrantz, B.

    1964-10-01

    A miniature detector probe has been developed for in-vivo detection of beta tracer activity. A lithium-drifted p-i-n detector shaped as a cylinder 0.9 mm in diameter and 3 mm long acts as the sensing element. The detector is encased in a stainless steel tube 50 mm long, fastened to a holder fitted with a miniature coaxial contact. The free end of the tube has a syringe-like, entirely tight tip. The steel tube has an outer diameter of 1.4 mm except for 10 mm at the free end where the outer diameter is 1.1 mm corresponding to a wall thickness of 005 mm. The detector is placed in the 1.1 mm part of the tube. The construction and the properties of the probe are described

  8. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity inside jets from $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV $pp$ collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

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Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muskinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-06-13

    The number of charged particles inside jets is a widely used discriminant for identifying the quark or gluon nature of the initiating parton and is sensitive to both the perturbative and non-perturbative components of fragmentation. This paper presents a measurement of the average number of charged particles with $p_\\text{T}>500$ MeV inside high-momentum jets in dijet events using 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of data recorded with the ATLAS detector in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV collisions at the LHC. The jets considered have transverse momenta from 50 GeV up to and beyond 1.5 TeV. The reconstructed charged-particle track multiplicity distribution is unfolded to remove distortions from detector effects and the resulting charged-particle multiplicity is compared to several models. Furthermore, quark and gluon jet fractions are used to extract the average charged-particle multiplicity for quark and gluon jets separately.

  9. Mouse visual neocortex supports multiple stereotyped patterns of microcircuit activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Alexander J; MacLean, Jason N

    2014-06-04

    Spiking correlations between neocortical neurons provide insight into the underlying synaptic connectivity that defines cortical microcircuitry. Here, using two-photon calcium fluorescence imaging, we observed the simultaneous dynamics of hundreds of neurons in slices of mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Consistent with a balance of excitation and inhibition, V1 dynamics were characterized by a linear scaling between firing rate and circuit size. Using lagged firing correlations between neurons, we generated functional wiring diagrams to evaluate the topological features of V1 microcircuitry. We found that circuit connectivity exhibited both cyclic graph motifs, indicating recurrent wiring, and acyclic graph motifs, indicating feedforward wiring. After overlaying the functional wiring diagrams onto the imaged field of view, we found properties consistent with Rentian scaling: wiring diagrams were topologically efficient because they minimized wiring with a modular architecture. Within single imaged fields of view, V1 contained multiple discrete circuits that were overlapping and highly interdigitated but were still distinct from one another. The majority of neurons that were shared between circuits displayed peri-event spiking activity whose timing was specific to the active circuit, whereas spike times for a smaller percentage of neurons were invariant to circuit identity. These data provide evidence that V1 microcircuitry exhibits balanced dynamics, is efficiently arranged in anatomical space, and is capable of supporting a diversity of multineuron spike firing patterns from overlapping sets of neurons. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347769-09$15.00/0.

  10. Search for microscopic black holes in a like-sign dimuon final state using large track multiplicity with the ATLAS detector

    OpenAIRE

    Aad Georges; others

    2013-01-01

    Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, solo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiere, y los autores pertenecientes a la UAM A search is presented for microscopic black holes in a like-sign dimuon final state in proton–proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV. The data were collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1. Using a high track multiplicity ...

  11. An experimental investigation of an air cooling scheme for removing environmentally imposed heat loads from the multiplicity and vertex detector's main enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.; Bernardin, J.D.; Simon-Gillo, J.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents a summary of an experimental investigation of a closed loop air cooling system designed to control the temperature and humidity in the main enclosure of the multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD). Measurements of the cooling air flow rate, the humidity levels inside and outside of the MVD, and the cooling air temperatures were used to assess the performance of the system and to characterize the system limitations and potential assembly problems. The results of the study indicate that several design changes are needed in the final design to meet the temperature and humidity operating requirements. A thorough set of design change recommendations that satisfy these operating criteria completes this report

  12. Multiplicative point process as a model of trading activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontis, V.; Kaulakys, B.

    2004-11-01

    Signals consisting of a sequence of pulses show that inherent origin of the 1/ f noise is a Brownian fluctuation of the average interevent time between subsequent pulses of the pulse sequence. In this paper, we generalize the model of interevent time to reproduce a variety of self-affine time series exhibiting power spectral density S( f) scaling as a power of the frequency f. Furthermore, we analyze the relation between the power-law correlations and the origin of the power-law probability distribution of the signal intensity. We introduce a stochastic multiplicative model for the time intervals between point events and analyze the statistical properties of the signal analytically and numerically. Such model system exhibits power-law spectral density S( f)∼1/ fβ for various values of β, including β= {1}/{2}, 1 and {3}/{2}. Explicit expressions for the power spectra in the low-frequency limit and for the distribution density of the interevent time are obtained. The counting statistics of the events is analyzed analytically and numerically, as well. The specific interest of our analysis is related with the financial markets, where long-range correlations of price fluctuations largely depend on the number of transactions. We analyze the spectral density and counting statistics of the number of transactions. The model reproduces spectral properties of the real markets and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution of trading activity. The study provides evidence that the statistical properties of the financial markets are enclosed in the statistics of the time interval between trades. A multiplicative point process serves as a consistent model generating this statistics.

  13. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. Mechanisms for multiple activity modes of VTA dopamine neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eOster

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain ventral segmental area (VTA dopaminergic neurons send numerous projections to cortical and sub-cortical areas, and diffusely release dopamine (DA to their targets. DA neurons display a range of activity modes that vary in frequency and degree of burst firing. Importantly, DA neuronal bursting is associated with a significantly greater degree of DA release than an equivalent tonic activity pattern. Here, we introduce a single compartmental, conductance-based computational model for DA cell activity that captures the behavior of DA neuronal dynamics and examine the multiple factors that underlie DA firing modes: the strength of the SK conductance, the amount of drive, and GABA inhibition. Our results suggest that neurons with low SK conductance fire in a fast firing mode, are correlated with burst firing, and require higher levels of applied current before undergoing depolarization block. We go on to consider the role of GABAergic inhibition on an ensemble of dynamical classes of DA neurons and find that strong GABA inhibition suppresses burst firing. Our studies suggest differences in the distribution of the SK conductance and GABA inhibition levels may indicate subclasses of DA neurons within the VTA. We further identify, that by considering alternate potassium dynamics, the dynamics display burst patterns that terminate via depolarization block, akin to those observed in vivo in VTA DA neurons and in substantia nigra pars compacta DA cell preparations under apamin application. In addition, we consider the generation of transient burst firing events that are NMDA-initiated or elicited by a sudden decrease of GABA inhibition, that is, disinhibition.

  15. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, J.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Brož, M.; Čepila, J.; Contreras, J. G.; Eyyubova, G.; Ferencei, Jozef; Křížek, Filip; Kučera, Vít; Kushpil, Svetlana; Mareš, Jiří A.; Petráček, V.; Pospíšil, Jan; Schulc, M.; Špaček, M.; Šumbera, Michal; Vajzer, Michal; Vaňát, Tomáš; Závada, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 1 (2016), s. 032 ISSN 1475-7516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : ALICE collaboration * cosmic ray experiments * cosmic rays detectors Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 4.734, year: 2016

  17. Active Detectors for Plasma Soft X-Ray Detection at PALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Granja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the work carried out for an experimental study of low-energy nuclear excitation by laser-produced plasma at the PALS Prague laser facility. We describe the adaptation and shielding of single-quantum active radiation detectors developed at IEAP CTU Prague to facilitate their operation inside the laser interaction chamber in the vicinity of the plasma target. The goal of this effort is direct real-time single-quantum detection of plasma soft X-ray radiation with energy above a few keV and subsequent identification of the decay of the excited nuclear states via low-energy gamma rays in a highly radiative environment with strong electromagnetic interference.

  18. Controlling kilometre-scale interferometric detectors for gravitational wave astronomy: Active phase noise cancellation using EOMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, N.; Balembois, L.; Bizouard, M.A.; Brisson, V.; Casanueva, J.; Cavalier, F.; Davier, M.; Frey, V.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Leroy, N.; Loriette, V.; Maksimovic, I.; Robinet, F.

    2017-01-01

    The second generation of Gravitational waves detectors are kilometric Michelson interferometers with additional recycling Fabry–Perot cavities on the arms and ​the addition of two more recycling cavities to enhance their sensitivity, with the particularity that all the mirrors are suspended. In order to control them a new technique, based on the use of auxiliary lasers, has been developed to bring the interferometer to its working point, with all the cavities on their resonance, in an adiabatic way. The implementation of this technique in Advanced Virgo is under preparation and the propagation of a stable laser through a 3-km optical fibre is one of the most problematic issues. A new technique of active phase noise cancellation based on the use of Electro Optical Modulators has been developed, and a first prototype has been successfully tested.

  19. New experimental research stand SVICKA neutron field analysis using neutron activation detector technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmuza, Jan; Katovsky, Karel; Zeman, Miroslav; Stastny, Ondrej; Haysak, Ivan; Holomb, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of neutron energy spectra is very important because neutrons with various energies have a different material impact or a biological tissue impact. This paper presents basic results of the neutron flux distribution inside the new experimental research stand SVICKA which is located at Brno University of Technology in Brno, Czech Republic. The experiment also focused on the investigation of the sandwich biological shielding quality that protects staff against radiation effects. The set of indium activation detectors was used to the investigation of neutron flux distribution. The results of the measurement provide basic information about the neutron flux distribution inside all irradiation channels and no damage or cracks are present in the experimental research stand biological shielding.

  20. Controlling kilometre-scale interferometric detectors for gravitational wave astronomy: Active phase noise cancellation using EOMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, N.; Balembois, L.; Bizouard, M.A.; Brisson, V. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Casanueva, J., E-mail: casanuev@lal.in2p3.fr [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Cavalier, F.; Davier, M.; Frey, V.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Leroy, N. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Loriette, V.; Maksimovic, I. [ESPCI, CNRS, F-75005 Paris (France); Robinet, F. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France)

    2017-02-11

    The second generation of Gravitational waves detectors are kilometric Michelson interferometers with additional recycling Fabry–Perot cavities on the arms and ​the addition of two more recycling cavities to enhance their sensitivity, with the particularity that all the mirrors are suspended. In order to control them a new technique, based on the use of auxiliary lasers, has been developed to bring the interferometer to its working point, with all the cavities on their resonance, in an adiabatic way. The implementation of this technique in Advanced Virgo is under preparation and the propagation of a stable laser through a 3-km optical fibre is one of the most problematic issues. A new technique of active phase noise cancellation based on the use of Electro Optical Modulators has been developed, and a first prototype has been successfully tested.

  1. Controlling kilometre-scale interferometric detectors for gravitational wave astronomy: Active phase noise cancellation using EOMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, N.; Balembois, L.; Bizouard, M. A.; Brisson, V.; Casanueva, J.; Cavalier, F.; Davier, M.; Frey, V.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Leroy, N.; Loriette, V.; Maksimovic, I.; Robinet, F.

    2017-02-01

    The second generation of Gravitational waves detectors are kilometric Michelson interferometers with additional recycling Fabry-Perot cavities on the arms and ​the addition of two more recycling cavities to enhance their sensitivity, with the particularity that all the mirrors are suspended. In order to control them a new technique, based on the use of auxiliary lasers, has been developed to bring the interferometer to its working point, with all the cavities on their resonance, in an adiabatic way. The implementation of this technique in Advanced Virgo is under preparation and the propagation of a stable laser through a 3-km optical fibre is one of the most problematic issues. A new technique of active phase noise cancellation based on the use of Electro Optical Modulators has been developed, and a first prototype has been successfully tested.

  2. 3D Filament Network Segmentation with Multiple Active Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Vavylonis, Dimitrios; Huang, Xiaolei

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is frequently used to study two and three dimensional network structures formed by cytoskeletal polymer fibers such as actin filaments and microtubules. While these cytoskeletal structures are often dilute enough to allow imaging of individual filaments or bundles of them, quantitative analysis of these images is challenging. To facilitate quantitative, reproducible and objective analysis of the image data, we developed a semi-automated method to extract actin networks and retrieve their topology in 3D. Our method uses multiple Stretching Open Active Contours (SOACs) that are automatically initialized at image intensity ridges and then evolve along the centerlines of filaments in the network. SOACs can merge, stop at junctions, and reconfigure with others to allow smooth crossing at junctions of filaments. The proposed approach is generally applicable to images of curvilinear networks with low SNR. We demonstrate its potential by extracting the centerlines of synthetic meshwork images, actin networks in 2D TIRF Microscopy images, and 3D actin cable meshworks of live fission yeast cells imaged by spinning disk confocal microscopy.

  3. CD4 T cell activation and disease activity at onset of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Fenst, C

    2004-01-01

    We studied CD4 T cell activation in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggesting an initial attack of multiple sclerosis. The percentage of blood CD26+ CD4 T cells was increased in these patients, and correlated with magnetic resonance imaging disease activity and clinical disease...... severity. In contrast, the percentage of CD25+ CD4 T cells in cerebrospinal fluid correlated negatively with the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of myelin basic protein and the presence of IgG oligoclonal bands. These results suggest that distinct systemic and intrathecal T cell activation states...

  4. Multiple Active Volcanoes in the Northeast Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Lupton, J. E.; Walker, S. L.; Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.; Buck, N.; de Ronde, C. E.; Arculus, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    The northeast Lau Basin occupies a complex geological area between the Tafua arc front, the E-W trending Tonga Trench, and the Northeast Lau Spreading Center. These boundaries create multiple zones of extension and thus provide abundant opportunities for magma to invade the crust. The 25-km-long chain of “Mata” volcanoes lies near the center of this area, separated from both the arc front and the spreading ridge. In 2008 we discovered hydrothermal venting on the largest and most southerly of these volcanoes, W and E Mata. In 2010 we visited the 7 smaller volcanoes that form a 15-km-long arcuate sweep to the north from W and E Mata (the “North Matas”). We also revisited W and E Mata. Over each volcano we conducted CTD tows to map plumes and collect water samples. Based on the CTD results, camera tows searched for seafloor sources on three volcanoes. The N Mata volcanoes, extending from Mata Taha (1) in the south to Mata Fitu (7) in the north, lie within a prominent gap in the shallow bathymetry along the southern border of the Tonga trench. Northward from E Mata the Mata volcanoes degrade from large symmetrical cones to smaller and blocky volcanic edifices. Summit depths range from 1165 m (W Mata) to 2670 m (Mata Nima (5)). The most active volcano in the chain is the erupting W Mata, with an intense plume that extended 250 m above the summit. Hydrothermal temperature anomalies (Δθ, corrected for hydrographic masking effects) reached ˜1.7°C, with light-scattering values as high as 2-5 ΔNTU. The 2010 surveys now show that 6 of the 7 N Mata volcanoes are also hydrothermally active. Along the N Matas, Δθ and ΔNTU signals ranged from robust to weak, but distinct oxidation-reduction potential (aka Eh) anomalies confirmed active venting in each case. The most concentrated plumes were found near Mata Ua (2) and Mata Fitu (7), with Δθ and ΔNTU maxima of 0.1-0.17°C and 0.3, respectively. Despite the variability in plume strength, however, ΔNTU/Δθ ratios

  5. Physical activity and exercise priorities in community dwelling people with multiple sclerosis: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stennett, Andrea; De Souza, Lorraine; Norris, Meriel

    2018-07-01

    Exercise and physical activity have been found to be beneficial in managing disabilities caused by multiple sclerosis. Despite the known benefits, many people with multiple sclerosis are inactive. This study aimed to identify the prioritised exercise and physical activity practices of people with multiple sclerosis living in the community and the reasons why they are engaged in these activities. A four Round Delphi questionnaire scoped and determined consensus of priorities for the top 10 exercise and physical activities and the reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 101) are engaged in these activities. Data were analysed using content analysis, descriptive statistics, and non-parametric tests. The top 10 exercise and physical activity practices and the top 10 reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 70) engaged in these activities were identified and prioritised. Consensus was achieved for the exercise and physical activities (W = 0.744, p multiple sclerosis engaged in exercise and physical activity were diverse. These self-selected activities and reasons highlighted that people with multiple sclerosis might conceptualise exercise and physical activity in ways that may not be fully appreciated or understood by health professionals. Considerations of the views of people with multiple sclerosis may be essential if the goal of increasing physical activity in this population is to be achieved. Implications for Rehabilitation Health professionals should work collaboratively with people with multiple sclerosis to understand how they prioritise activities, the underlying reasons for their prioritisations and embed these into rehabilitation programmes. Health professionals should utilise activities prioritised by people with multiple sclerosis in the community as a way to support, promote, and sustain exercise and physical activity in this population. Rehabilitation interventions should include both the activities people with multiple

  6. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I; Martinez laso, L

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  7. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Zhang, Chunhui; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Masui, Hiroshi; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; 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Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; 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Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasar, Cigdem; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-19

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density $\\rho_{\\mu} > 5.9~$m$^{-2}$. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplic...

  8. Measurement of nuclear activity with Ge detectors and its uncertainty; Medicion de actividad nuclear con detectores de Ge y su incertidumbre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, C.A

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse the influence magnitudes which affect the activity measurement of gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources. They prepared by means of the gravimetric method, as well as, determining the uncertainty of such measurement when this is carried out with a gamma spectrometer system with a germanium detector. This work is developed in five chapters: In the first one, named Basic principles it is made a brief description about the meaning of the word Measurement and its implications and the necessaries concepts are presented which are used in this work. In the second chapter it is exposed the gravimetric method used for the manufacture of the gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources, it is tackled the problem to determine the main influence magnitudes which affect in the measurement of their activity and the respective correction factors and their uncertainties are deduced. The third chapter describes the gamma spectrometry system which is used in this work for the measurement of the activity of isolated sources and also its performance and experimental arrangement that it is used. In the fourth chapter are applied the three previous items with the object of determining the uncertainty which would be obtained in the measurement of an isolated radioactive source elaborated with the gravimetric method in the experimental conditions less favourable predicted above the obtained results from the chapter two. The conclusions are presented in the fifth chapter and they are applied to establish the optimum conditions for the measurement of the activity of a gamma transmitter isolated radioactive source with a spectrometer with germanium detector. (Author)

  9. Design and Test of an Event Detector and Locator for the ReflectoActive Seals System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinson, Brad J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to research, design, develop and test a novel instrument for detecting fiber optic loop continuity and spatially locating fiber optic breaches. The work is for an active seal system called ReflectoActive(trademark) Seals whose purpose is to provide real time container tamper indication. A Field Programmable Gate Array was used to implement a loop continuity detector and a spatial breach locator based on a high acquisition speed single photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. Communication and other control features were added in order to create a usable instrument that met defined requirements. A host graphical user interface was developed to illustrate system use and performance. The resulting device meets performance specifications by exhibiting a dynamic range of 27dB and a spatial resolution of 1.5 ft. The communication scheme used expands installation options and allows the device to communicate to a central host via existing Local Area Networks and/or the Internet.

  10. Thermal, intermediate and fast neutron flux measurements using activation detectors; Mesure des flux de neutrons thermiques, intermediaires et rapides au moyen de detecteurs par activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisbois, J; Lott, M; Manent, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The problem of neutron flux measurements using activation detectors is studied in the particular case of protection research. It is shown how it possible, it is possible, using a known thermal flux, to organise a coherent calibration system for all the detectors. The rapid neutron detectors are calibrated with respect to a reference detector (phosphorus) in a natural uranium converter; the intermediate neutron detectors with respect to gold in the axial channel of ZOE. This method makes it possible to minimise the errors due to the activation cross-sections. A brief description is given of the counting room of the Pile Safety Study Service, as well of the practical utilisation characteristics of the counters employed. (authors) [French] Le probleme de la mesure des flux de neutrons au moyen de detecteurs par activation est etudie dans le cas particulier des etudes de protections. On montre comment, a partir d'un flux thermique connu, on peut organiser un systeme coherent d'etalonnage de tous les detecteurs. Les detecteurs de neutrons rapides sont etalonnes par rapport a un detecteur de reference (phosphore) dans un convertisseur en uranium naturel; les detecteurs de neutrons intermediaires, par rapport a l'or dans le canal axial de ZOE, Cette methode permet de minimiser les erreurs dues aux sections efficaces d'activation. On decrit sommairement la salle de comptage du Service d'Etudes de Protections de Piles et on indique les caracteristiques d'emploi pratique des detecteurs utilises. (auteurs)

  11. Development of a new fast shower maximum detector based on microchannel plates photomultipliers (MCP-PMT) as an active element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronzhin, A., E-mail: ronzhin@fnal.gov [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Los, S.; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Spiropulu, M.; Apresyan, A.; Xie, S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kim, H. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Zatserklyaniy, A. [University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2014-09-21

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum (SM) detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We present below test beam results, obtained with different types of photodetectors based on microchannel plates (MCPs) as the secondary emitter. We performed the measurements at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with 120 GeV proton beam and 12 GeV and 32 GeV secondary beams. The goal of the measurement with 120 GeV protons was to determine time resolution for minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). The SM time resolution we obtained for this new type of detector is at the level of 20–30 ps. We estimate that a significant contribution to the detector response originates from secondary emission of the MCP. This work can be considered as the first step in building a new type of calorimeter based on this principle.

  12. Activation method for measuring the reaction rates and studying the neutron spectra parameters, based on using the unified composition detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, A.M.; Dikarev, V.S.; Efimov, B.V.; Ionov, V.S.; Marin, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    The method proposed for estimation of parameters thermal and epithermal parts of energy distribution of neutrons is described. The method based on application of activation measuring with use of unified composition detectors (UCD) and samples of fuel. The method is applicable for definition of neutron spectrum parameters and velocities of division in fuel of nuclear installations. Theoretical bases and the description of a method, expedients of manufacturing and calibration for the detectors, the experimental data, carried out in RRC KI are given and processing of experimental data, and also. The parametric model of a spectrum constructed on the basis of Westcott's formalism is described. The parameter of stiffness is entered and its role for temperature of neutron gas, spectral coefficients of isotopes of detectors, the transition area thermal and epithermal parts of neutron spectra is observationally appreciated. It is offered to confirm the found results by calculations with use of MCU Monte Carlo code [ru

  13. Search for supersymmetry using events with three leptons, multiple jets, and missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We report on a search for physics beyond the Standard Model using events with three leptons, four or more jets, and missing transverse momentum. The search utilizes 4.7 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Data are found to be in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. The result is interpreted in the scope of two simplified supersymmetry models. The first model is pair-production of gluinos that decay into top squarks and quarks; $pp\\rightarrow\\tilde{g}\\tilde{g}$, $\\tilde{g}\\rightarrow\\tilde{t}_1^*\\bar{t}$, and $\\tilde{t}_1^*\\rightarrow\\tilde{\\chi}^0_1t$. The second model is pair-production of bottom squarks decaying via $\\tilde{b}\\rightarrow t+\\tilde\\chi^\\pm_1$, where $\\chi^\\pm_1\\rightarrow W^\\pm \\chi^0_1$.

  14. Results of the third CEC intercomparison of active and passive detectors for the measurement of radon and radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1988-01-01

    In 1982 and 1984 the radiation protection research programme of the European Communities organized intercomparisons of radon and radon daughter measurement techniques, and the results were published (Miles et al., 1983; Miles and Sinnaeve, 1986. The second of these intercomparisons was carried out as part of a wider exercise sponsored jointly by the CEC and the OECD/NEA (OECD, 1983). The third CEC intercomparison, held at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in the United Kingdom in 1987, again constituted the European regional part of this wider exercise. The intercomparison on the European region was carried out in two stages, the first for passive integrating detectors and the second for active instruments, usually by spot measurements. Twenty-one laboratories participated in the intercomparison, of passive dosimetry and 17 in that for active dosimetry. Passive detectors have been used in many European countries to carry out surveys of exposure in homes and to monitor occupational exposure. The exposures for the intercomparison of passive detectors were carried out in June, July and August 1987 at NRPB. The intercomparison of active detectors was carried out over three days in October 1987, when scientists from the participating laboratories brought their equipment to NRPB

  15. Multiple-source multiple-harmonic active vibration control of variable section cylindrical structures: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Chen, Xuefeng; Gao, Jiawei; Zhang, Xingwu

    2016-12-01

    Air vehicles, space vehicles and underwater vehicles, the cabins of which can be viewed as variable section cylindrical structures, have multiple rotational vibration sources (e.g., engines, propellers, compressors and motors), making the spectrum of noise multiple-harmonic. The suppression of such noise has been a focus of interests in the field of active vibration control (AVC). In this paper, a multiple-source multiple-harmonic (MSMH) active vibration suppression algorithm with feed-forward structure is proposed based on reference amplitude rectification and conjugate gradient method (CGM). An AVC simulation scheme called finite element model in-loop simulation (FEMILS) is also proposed for rapid algorithm verification. Numerical studies of AVC are conducted on a variable section cylindrical structure based on the proposed MSMH algorithm and FEMILS scheme. It can be seen from the numerical studies that: (1) the proposed MSMH algorithm can individually suppress each component of the multiple-harmonic noise with an unified and improved convergence rate; (2) the FEMILS scheme is convenient and straightforward for multiple-source simulations with an acceptable loop time. Moreover, the simulations have similar procedure to real-life control and can be easily extended to physical model platform.

  16. Study of cosmic ray events with high muon multiplicity using the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ALICE is one of four large experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, specially designed to study particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Located 52 meters underground with 28 meters of overburden rock, it has also been used to detect muons produced by cosmic ray interactions in the upper atmosphere. In this paper, we present the multiplicity distribution of these atmospheric muons and its comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. This analysis exploits the large size and excellent tracking capability of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber. A special emphasis is given to the study of high multiplicity events containing more than 100 reconstructed muons and corresponding to a muon areal density ρ{sub μ} > 5.9 m{sup −2}. Similar events have been studied in previous underground experiments such as ALEPH and DELPHI at LEP. While these experiments were able to reproduce the measured muon multiplicity distribution with Monte Carlo simulations at low and intermediate multiplicities, their simulations failed to describe the frequency of the highest multiplicity events. In this work we show that the high multiplicity events observed in ALICE stem from primary cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 16} eV and that the frequency of these events can be successfully described by assuming a heavy mass composition of primary cosmic rays in this energy range. The development of the resulting air showers was simulated using the latest version of QGSJET to model hadronic interactions. This observation places significant constraints on alternative, more exotic, production mechanisms for these events.

  17. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  18. Study of charged hadron multiplicities in charged-current neutrino-lead interactions in the OPERA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N.; Malgin, A.; Matveev, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Shakirianova, I. [INR - Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, A.; Buontempo, S.; Consiglio, L.; Tioukov, V.; Voevodina, E. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Anokhina, A.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Podgrudkov, D.; Roganova, T. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, SINP MSU - Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aoki, S.; Hara, T.; Mizutani, F.; Ozaki, K.; Shibayama, E.; Takahashi, S. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Ariga, A.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Vuilleumier, J.L. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ariga, T. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Kyushu University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Kose, U.; Longhin, A.; Pupilli, F.; Stanco, L. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bodnarchuk, I.; Chukanov, A.; Dmitrievski, S.; Gornushkin, Y.; Sotnikov, A.; Vasina, S. [JINR - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno (Italy); ' ' Gruppo Collegato' ' INFN, Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Laudisio, F.; Medinaceli, E.; Roda, M.; Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); Buonaura, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Galati, G.; Hosseini, B.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M.C.; Strolin, P. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Chernyavskiy, M.; Gorbunov, S.; Okateva, N.; Shchedrina, T.; Starkov, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); D' Ambrosio, N.; Di Marco, N.; Schembri, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); De Serio, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Paparella, L.; Pastore, A.; Simone, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Amo Sanchez, P. del; Duchesneau, D.; Pessard, H. [LAPP, Universite Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Di Ferdinando, D.; Mandrioli, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sirri, G.; Tenti, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dracos, M.; Jollet, C.; Meregaglia, A. [IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Ebert, J.; Hagner, C.; Hollnagel, A.; Wonsak, B. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Fini, R.A. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Fornari, F.; Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Pozzato, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Fukuda, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Ishiguro, K.; Kitagawa, N.; Komatsu, M.; Miyanishi, M.; Morishima, K.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Rokujo, H.; Sato, O.; Shiraishi, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Gentile, V. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Goldberg, J. [Technion, Department of Physics, Haifa (Israel); Guler, A.M.; Kamiscioglu, M. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Gustavino, C.; Loverre, P.; Monacelli, P.; Rosa, G. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Jakovcic, K.; Ljubicic, A.; Malenica, M. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kamiscioglu, C. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey); Kim, S.H.; Park, B.D.; Yoon, C.S. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Klicek, B.; Stipcevic, M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kodama, K. [Aichi University of Education, Kariya, Aichi (Japan); Matsuo, T.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Mikado, S. [Nihon University, Narashino, Chiba (Japan); Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Votano, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Polukhina, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physical Institute Moscow, Moscow (Russian Federation); Terranova, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G. [IIHE, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2018-01-15

    The OPERA experiment was designed to search for ν{sub μ} → ν{sub τ} oscillations in appearance mode through the direct observation of tau neutrinos in the CNGS neutrino beam. In this paper, we report a study of the multiplicity of charged particles produced in charged-current neutrino interactions in lead. We present charged hadron average multiplicities, their dispersion and investigate the KNO scaling in different kinematical regions. The results are presented in detail in the form of tables that can be used in the validation of Monte Carlo generators of neutrino-lead interactions. (orig.)

  19. TLD-300 detectors for separate measurement of total and gamma absorbed dose distributions of single, multiple, and moving-field neutron treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1984-01-01

    Fast neutron therapy requirements, because of the poor depth dose characteristic of present therapeutical sources, are at least as complex in treatment plans as photon therapy. The physical part of the treatment planning is very important; however, it is much more complicated than for photons or electrons owing to the need for: Separation of total and gamma absorbed dose distributions (Dsub(T) and Dsub(G)); and more stringent tissue-equivalence conditions of phantoms than in photon therapy. Therefore, methods of clinical dosimetry for the separate determination of total and gamma absorbed dose distributions in irregularly shaped (inhomogeneous) phantoms are needed. A method using TLD-300 (CaF 2 :Tm) detectors is described, which is able to give an approximate solution of the above-mentioned dosimetric requirements. The two independent doses, Dsub(T) and Dsub(G), can be calculated by an on-line computer analysis of the digitalized glow curve of TLD-300 detectors, irradiated with d(14)+Be neutrons of the cyclotron isocentric neutron therapy facility CIRCE in Essen. Results are presented for depth and lateral absorbed dose distributions (Dsub(T) and Dsub(G)) for fixed neutron beams of different field sizes compared with measurements by standard procedures (TE-TE ionization chamber, GM counter) in an A-150 phantom. The TLD-300 results for multiple and moving-field treatments (with and without wedge filters) in a patient simulating irregularly shaped (inhomogeneous) phantoms, are shown together with computer calculations of these dose distributions. The probable causes for some systematic deviations are discussed, which lead to open problems for further investigations owing to features of the detector material and the evaluation method, but mainly to differences in the composition of phantom materials used for the calculations (standard dose distributions) and TLD-300 measurements. (author)

  20. Calibration of a detector by activation with a continuous neutron source used as a transfer standard for measuring pulsed neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Jose; Silva, Patricio; Birstein, Lipo; Soto, Leopoldo

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for calibrating activation detectors. These detectors will be used as transfer standard in measuring neutron fluxes produced by pulsed plasma sources. A standard neutron source is used as a secondary standard. The activation detector is being shielded in order to substantially reduce detection of gamma emission coming from the source. The detector's calibration factor is obtained by considering also the standard neutron source as a free source of gamma radiation so that the measurements can be done without quickly withdrawing the neutron source as it is usually done. This will substantially simplify the traditionally established method (JM)

  1. Forward-backward multiplicity correlations in $pp$, $p$+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00241915; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Two-particle pseudorapidity correlations are measured in $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}}$=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb, $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}}$=5.02 TeV $p$+Pb and $\\sqrt{s}$ =13 TeV $pp$ collisions~\\cite{ATLAS}. Correlation function is measured using charged particles in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|0.2$ GeV, and it is measured as a function of event multiplicity, defined by number of charged particles with $|\\eta|0.4$ GeV. The correlation function is decomposed into a short-range component (SRC) and a long-range component (LRC). The SRC differs significantly between the opposite-charge pairs and same-charge pairs, and between the three collision systems at similar multiplicity. The LRC is described approximately by $1+\\left\\langle a_1^2\\right\\rangle\\eta_1\\eta_2$ in all collision systems over the full multiplicity range. The values of $\\left\\langle a_1^2\\right\\rangle$ are consistent between the opposite-charge and same-charge pairs, and are similar for the three collision systems at similar multiplicity. The values of $\\left\\langle a...

  2. Speech enhancement via Mel-scale Wiener filtering with a frequency-wise voice activity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Jun; Kim, Hwa Soo; Cho, Young Man

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a speech enhancement system that enables a comfortable communication inside an automobile. A couple of novel concepts are proposed in an effort to improve two major building blocks in the existing speech enhancement systems: a voice activity detector (VAD) and a noise filtering algorithm. The proposed VAD classifies a given data frame as speech or noise at each frequency, enabling the frequency-wise updates of noise statistics and thereby improving the effectiveness of the noise filtering algorithms by providing more up-to-date noise statistics. The celebrated Wiener filter is adopted in this paper as the accompanying noise filtering algorithm, which results in significant noise suppression. Yet, the musical noise present in most Wiener filter-based systems prompts the idea of applying the Wiener filter in the Mel-scale in which the human auditory system responds to the external stimulation. It turns out that the Mel-scale Wiener filter creates some masking effects and thereby reduces musical noise significantly, leading to smooth transition between data frames

  3. Liquid chromatography automatic system with optical activity laser detector and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajer, V.; Naranjo, S.; Fernandez, H.; Mora, W.; Cepero, T.; Arista, E.; Mesa, G.; Cossio, G.; Arreche, J.; Fonfria, C.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    A new liquid chromatographic system with polarimetric detection and a computer program allowing the output of chromatograms to a display on line and electronic data storing was designed, built and put to work. The chromatographic system includes the laser polarimetric detector, having a measuring interval of one second, the chromatographic columns, the continuous flux polarimeter tubes of 50 and 100 mm, the programs for data acquisition, processing and storing, and the technical know-how for its most efficiently application. Thirty minutes is all the time needed to obtain a chromatogram by this method which is reasonably shorter than the time required for any other known comparable technique, and offering, besides, lower operation cost. The combination of molecular exclusion liquid chromatography and laser polarimetric detection has turned into a carbohydrate separation and quantification system of basic importance for the evaluation of plants fluids of industrial interest (sugarcane, agave, vegetable extracts, etc.). It is described here the application of this system as an early or complementary indicator of leaf scald -disease that affects sugarcane plants-. Another application on algae extracts gave good results in the separation and identification of biologically active components. The introduction of this system in several research centers in Cuba and abroad has resulted in practical information for the industry. (Author)

  4. Stable isotope ratiometer-multiple ion detector (SIRMID) unit for quantitative and qualitative stable isotope studies by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, P.D.; Haumann, J.R.; Hachey, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    A stable isotope ratiometer-multiple ion detector (SIRMID) unit which can drive existing gas chromatograph-quadrupole or magnetic sector mass spectrometers to monitor up to six ions in turn is described. Each of the three pairs of ions can be selected for quantitation; thus three different or successive components can be analyzed in a single GC run. A background subtraction option permits the ion intensity in the absence of sample to be subtracted automatically during sample measurement. Displays of accumulated counts and isotope ratio are updated twice per second during the measurement and can be printed out at its conclusion. All six ions can be monitored in the analog mode by parallel outputs to a multipen recorder. Experience gained in the construction of this prototype indicates that SIRMID units could be commercially available for $10K, or about 1 / 3 rd to 1 / 6 th of the cost of even an inexpensive computer system. (U.S.)

  5. Search for Microscopic Black Holes in a Like-sign Dimuon Final State using large Track Multiplicity with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmadov, Faig; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christidi, Ilektra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coelli, Simone; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Damiani, Daniel; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliot, Frederic; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Demirkoz, Bilge; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Dwuznik, Michal; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Grybel, Kai; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haefner, Petra; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heimel, Bertha; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Heller, Ryan Edward; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hofmann, Julia Isabell; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le, Bao Tran; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattmann, Johannes; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-10-01

    A search for microscopic black holes in a like-sign dimuon final state in proton−proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV is presented. The data were collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$. Using a high track multiplicity requirement, 0.6 $\\pm$ 0.2 background events are predicted from Standard Model processes and none are observed. This result is interpreted in the context of low-scale gravity models and 95% CL lower limits on microscopic black hole masses are set at 3.7 TeV through 5.9 TeV depending on the model assumptions.

  6. Design and implementation of a simple on-line time-activity curve detector for [O-15] water PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenweber, S.D.; Hichwa, R.D.; Ponto, L.L.B.

    1996-01-01

    A simple, automated on-line detector system has been fabricated and implemented to detect the arterial time-activity curve (TAC) for water PET studies. This system offers two significant improvements over existing systems: a pump mechanism is not required to control arterial blood flow through the detector and dispersion correction of the time-activity curve is unnecessary. The positrons emanating from a thin-walled, 0.134 cm inner-diameter plastic tube are detected by a 0.5 cm wide by 1.0 cm long by 0.1 cm thick plastic scintillator mounted to a miniature PMT. Photon background is shielded by a 2.0 cm thick cylindrical lead shield. Mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) calculated from the TAC determined by 1-second automated sampling was compared to that calculated from every 5-second integrated manual samples. Improvements in timing resolution (1-sec vs. 5-sec) cause small but significant differences between the two sampling methods. Dispersion is minimized due to small tubing diameters, short lengths of tubing between the radial arterial sampling site and the detector and the presence of a 3-way valve 10 cm proximal to the detector

  7. Development of a super B-factory monolithic active pixel detector-the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, G.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Fang, F.; Hazumi, M.; Igarashi, A.; Iwaida, S.; Kennedy, J.; Kent, N.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Stanic, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years great progress has been made in the technological development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) such that upgrades to existing vertex detectors using this technology are now actively being considered. Future vertex detection at an upgraded KEK-B factory, already the highest luminosity collider in the world, will require a detector technology capable of withstanding the increased track densities and larger radiation exposures. Near the beam pipe the current silicon strip detectors have projected occupancies in excess of 100%. Deep sub-micron MAPS look very promising to address this problem. In the context of an upgrade to the Belle vertex detector, the major obstacles to realizing such a device have been concerns about radiation hardness and readout speed. Two prototypes implemented in the TSMC 0.35 μm process have been developed to address these issues. Denoted the Continuous Acquisition Pixel, or CAP, the two variants of this architecture are distinguished in that CAP2 includes an 8-deep sampling pipeline within each 22.5 μm 2 pixel. Preliminary test results and remaining R and D issues are presented

  8. Adhesion molecules levels in blood correlate with MRI activity and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millers, A.; Enina, G.; Platkajis, A.; Metra, M.; Kukaine, R.

    2002-01-01

    Research into pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has prompted efforts to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity. Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are associated with inflammatory mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In this study investigates the correlation between blood level of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in different clinical phases of patients with MS. We show that RRMS and SPMS patients in clinically active phase with Gd-enhancing lesions in CNS had higher blood levels of cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 compared these parameters levers of RRMS patients in remission stage. These results suggest that cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 is a sensitive indicator of disease activity associated with BBB inflammatory dysfunction. Elevated blood level of cICAM-1 more strongly correlated with clinical activity and BBB damage, than cVCAM-1 and that could be used as biological marker of disease activity. Circulating VCAM-1 as an early indicator of BBB disturbance, may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in relapses phase of MS course. (authors)

  9. Activation of endogenous neural stem cells for multiple sclerosis therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michailidou, I.; de Vries, H.E.; Hol, E.M.; van Strien, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, leading to severe neurological deficits. Current MS treatment regimens, consist of immunomodulatory agents aiming to reduce the rate of relapses. However, these agents are usually insufficient to treat chronic

  10. Measure of thermal neutron flux in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor using 197 Au wire activation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Andre Luis Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation has aimed at developing a neutron flux measurement technique by means of detectors activation analysis. The main task of this work was the implementation of this thermal neutron flux measurement technique, using gold wires as activation detectors in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor core. The neutron thermal flux spatial distribution was obtained by gold wire activation technique, with wire diameters of 0.125 mm and 0.250 mm in seven selected reactor experimental channels. The values of thermal flux were about 10 9 neutrons/cm 2 .s. This experiment has been the first one conducted with gold wires in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor, being this technique implemented for use by experiments in flux mapping of the core

  11. Statistical analysis of laser-interferometric detector Dylkin-1 data and data on seismic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, R S; Bochkarev, V V; Dulkyn, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Scientific Center of Gravitational-Wave Research Dulkyn, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation))" >Skochilov, A F

    2014-01-01

    This work presents statistical analysis of data collected from laser interferometric detector ''Dylkin-1'' and nearby seismic stations. The final goal of Dylkin project consists in creating detector of theoretically predicted gravitational waves produced by binary relativistic astrophysical objects. Currently, works are underway to improve sensitivity of detector by 2-3 orders. The goals of this research were to test isolation of detector from noise caused by seismic waves and to find out whether it is sensitive to variations in the gradient of gravitational potential (acceleration of free fall) caused by free Earth oscillations. Noise isolation has been tested by comparing energy of signals during significant seismic events. Sensitivity to variations in acceleration of free fall has been tested by means of cross-spectral analysis

  12. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  13. The influence of the interactions between anthropogenic activities and multiple ecological factors on land surface temperatures of urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Context Land surface temperatures (LSTs) spatio-temporal distribution pattern of urban forests are influenced by many ecological factors; the identification of interaction between these factors can improve simulations and predictions of spatial patterns of urban cold islands. This quantitative research requires an integrated method that combines multiple sources data with spatial statistical analysis. Objectives The purpose of this study was to clarify urban forest LST influence interaction between anthropogenic activities and multiple ecological factors using cluster analysis of hot and cold spots and Geogdetector model. We introduced the hypothesis that anthropogenic activity interacts with certain ecological factors, and their combination influences urban forests LST. We also assumed that spatio-temporal distributions of urban forest LST should be similar to those of ecological factors and can be represented quantitatively. Methods We used Jinjiang as a representative city in China as a case study. Population density was employed to represent anthropogenic activity. We built up a multi-source data (forest inventory, digital elevation models (DEM), population, and remote sensing imagery) on a unified urban scale to support urban forest LST influence interaction research. Through a combination of spatial statistical analysis results, multi-source spatial data, and Geogdetector model, the interaction mechanisms of urban forest LST were revealed. Results Although different ecological factors have different influences on forest LST, in two periods with different hot spots and cold spots, the patch area and dominant tree species were the main factors contributing to LST clustering in urban forests. The interaction between anthropogenic activity and multiple ecological factors increased LST in urban forest stands, linearly and nonlinearly. Strong interactions between elevation and dominant species were generally observed and were prevalent in either hot or cold spots

  14. Device simulation and optimization of laterally-contacted-unipolar-nuclear detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, E Y

    1999-01-01

    Unipolar gamma-ray detectors offer the possibility of enhanced energy resolution and detection sensitivity over the conventional planar detectors. However, these detectors are difficult to understand and to fabricate, due to their three-dimensional geometry and multiple electrodes. Computer simulation offers a powerful way to design and to optimize these detectors, by giving the internal electric fields, weighting potentials, and spatially resolved detector responses. Simulation and optimization of an unipolar gamma-ray detector called laterally-contacted-unipolar-nuclear detector (LUND) are shown. For 662 keV gamma-rays from a sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source, the simulation and optimization of LUND resulted in improvement in the energy resolution from 1.6% to 1.3% and improvement in the active detector volume from 4% to 38% of the total detector volume.

  15. Shielded regenerative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, J.H.; Neissel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    An ion chamber type neutron detector is disclosed which has a greatly extended lifespan. The detector includes a fission chamber containing a mixture of active and breeding material and a neutron shielding material. The breeding and shielding materials are selected to have similar or substantially matching neutron capture cross-sections so that their individual effects on increased detector life are mutually enhanced

  16. Multiple nucleophilic elbows leading to multiple active sites in a single module esterase from Sorangium cellulosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udatha, D.B.R.K. Gupta; Madsen, Karina Marie; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic residues in carbohydrate esterase enzyme families constitute a highly conserved triad: serine, histidine and aspartic acid. This catalytic triad is generally located in a very sharp turn of the protein backbone structure, called the nucleophilic elbow and identified by the consensus...... sequence GXSXG. An esterase from Sorangium cellulosum Soce56 that contains five nucleophilic elbows was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the function of each nucleophilic elbowed site was characterized. In order to elucidate the function of each nucleophilic elbow, site directed mutagenesis....... To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting the role of multiple nucleophilic elbows in the catalytic promiscuity of an esterase. Further structural analysis at protein unit level indicates the new evolutionary trajectories in emerging promiscuous esterases....

  17. Linear analysis of signal and noise characteristics of a nonlinear CMOS active-pixel detector for mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Seungman [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Kyung, E-mail: hokyung@pusan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Medical Engineering Research, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jong Chul; Kam, Soohwa [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Hanbean [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 50612 (Korea, Republic of); Cunningham, Ian A. [Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada)

    2017-03-01

    The imaging properties of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel photodiode array coupled to a thin gadolinium-based granular phosphor screen with a fiber-optic faceplate are investigated. It is shown that this system has a nonlinear response at low detector exposure levels (<10 mR), resulting in an over-estimation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by a factor of two in some cases. Errors in performance metrics on this scale make it difficult to compare new technologies with established systems and predict performance benchmarks that can be achieved in practice and help understand performance bottlenecks. It is shown the CMOS response is described by a power-law model that can be used to linearize image data. Linearization removed an unexpected dependence of the DQE on detector exposure level. - Highlights: • A nonlinear response of a CMOS detector at low exposure levels can overestimate DQE. • A power-law form can model the response of a CMOS detector at low exposure levels, and can be used to linearize image data. • Performance evaluation of nonlinear imaging systems must incorporate adequate linearizations.

  18. Use of a newly developed active thermal neutron detector for in-phantom measurements in a medical LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodogni, R.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.; Pola, A.; Gentile, A.; Esposito, A.; Gomez-ros, J. M.; Pressello, M. C.; Lagares, J. I.; Terron, J. A.; Gomez, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work a newly developed active thermal neutron detector, based on a solid state analog device, was used to determine the thermal neutron fluence in selected positions of a simplified human phantom undergoing radiotherapy with a 15 MV LINAC. The results are compared with TLD, the predictions from a Monte Carlo simulation and with measurements indirectly performed with a digital device, located far from the phantom, inside the treatment room. In this work only TLD comparison is presented. Since active neutron instruments are usually affected by systematic deviations when used in a pulsed field with large photon background, the new detector offered in this work may represent an innovative and useful tool for neutron evaluations in accelerator-based radiotherapy. (Author)

  19. Serial MRI studies using gadolinium DTPA in active multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.H.; Johnson, G.; Barnes, D.; Rudge, P.; McDonald, W.I.

    1988-01-01

    It has been suggested that blood brain barrier (BBB) impairment is a necessary early event in the pathogenesis of the multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. To evaluate such an hypothesis in vivo would require: (1) serial imaging studies using a modality with high sensitivity for detecting plaques; (2) a contrast enhancing agent which demonstrates BBB impairment. A serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was undertaken of a group of MS patients using the contrast agent gadolinium-DTPA. As it has been suggested that T 1 and T 2 relaxation times are longer in acute than chronic MS lesions, these were also measured. 3 refs.; 1 figure

  20. Correlated long-range mixed-harmonic fluctuations in $pp$, $p$+Pb and low-multiplicity Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Correlations of two flow harmonics $v_n$ and $v_m$ via three- and four-particle cumulants are measured in 13 TeV $pp$, 5.02 TeV $p$+Pb, and 2.76 TeV peripheral Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The goal is to understand the multi-particle nature of the long-range collective phenomenon in these collision systems. The large non-flow background from dijet production present in the standard cumulant method is suppressed using a method of subevent cumulants involving two, three and four pseudorapidity-separated subevents. The results show an anti-correlation between $v_2$ and $v_3$ and a positive correlation between $v_2$ and $v_4$ for all collision systems and over the full multiplicity range. However, the magnitudes of the correlations are found to depend strongly on the event multiplicity, transverse momentum and the collision systems. The relative correlation strength, obtained by normalization of the cumulants with the $\\langle v_n^2\\rangle$ from a two-particle correlation analysis, is simi...

  1. Angiogenic activity of sesamin through the activation of multiple signal pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Lee, Jung Joon; Kim, Jong-Dai; Jeoung, Dooil; Lee, Hansoo; Choe, Jongseon; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Geun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2010-01-01

    The natural product sesamin has been known to act as a potent antioxidant and prevent endothelial dysfunction. We here found that sesamin increased in vitro angiogenic processes, such as endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation, as well as neovascularization in an animal model. This compound elicited the activation of multiple angiogenic signal modulators, such as ERK, Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), NO production, FAK, and p38 MAPK, but not Src. The MEK inhibitor PD98059 and the PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin specifically inhibited sesamin-induced activation of the ERK and Akt/eNOS pathways. These inhibitors reduced angiogenic events, with high specificity for MEK/ERK-dependent cell proliferation and migration and PI3K/Akt-mediated tube formation. Moreover, inhibition of p38 MAPK effectively inhibited sesamin-induced cell migration. The angiogenic activity of sesamin was not associated with VEGF expression. Furthermore, this compound did not induce vascular permeability and upregulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, which are hallmarks of vascular inflammation. These results suggest that sesamin stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the activation of MEK/ERK-, PI3K/Akt/eNOS-, p125 FAK -, and p38 MAPK-dependent pathways, without increasing vascular inflammation, and may be used for treating ischemic diseases and tissue regeneration.

  2. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  3. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  4. Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations.

  5. Development activities on NIR large format MCT detectors for astrophysics and space science at CEA and SOFRADIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulade, Olivier; Moreau, Vincent; Mulet, Patrick; Gravrand, Olivier; Cervera, Cyril; Zanatta, Jean-Paul; Castelein, Pierre; Guellec, Fabrice; Fièque, Bruno; Chorier, Philippe; Roumegoux, Julien

    2016-07-01

    CEA and SOFRADIR have been manufacturing and characterizing near infrared detectors in the frame of ESA's near infrared large format sensor array roadmap to develop a 2Kx2K large format low flux low noise device for space applications such as astrophysics. These detectors use HgCdTe as the absorbing material and p/n diode technology. The technological developments (photovoltaic technology, readout circuit, ...) are shared between CEA/LETI and SOFRADIR, both in Grenoble, while most of the performances are evaluated at CEA/IRFU in Saclay where a dedicated test facility has been developed, in particular to measure very low dark currents. The paper will present the current status of these developments at the end of ESA's NIRLFSA phase 2. The performances of the latest batch of devices meet or are very close to all the requirements (quantum efficiency, dark current, cross talk, readout noise, ...) even though a glow induced by the ROIC prevents the accurate measurement of the dark current. The current devices are fairly small, 640x512 15μm pixels, and the next phase of activity will target the development of a full size 2Kx2K detector. From the design and development, to the manufacturing and finally the testing, that type of detector requests a high level of mastering. An appropriate manufacturing and process chain compatible with such a size is needed at industrial level and results obtained with CEA technology coupled with Sofradir industrial experience and work on large dimension detector allow French actors to be confident to address this type of future missions.

  6. Autoradiographic measurement of low concentrations of alpha-active nuclides using CR-39 track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, K.; Dietze, K.; Weisse, S.; Kummer, G.

    1991-01-01

    An autoradiographic method for the determination of alpha emission rates from plastic packaging materials for VLSI silicon memory devices based on long-time exposure of the samples on CR-39 detectors has been tested. The lower limit of detection will be strongly influenced by the background of the detector material and amounts at times to 0.002 alpha particles cm -2 h -1 after 200 days exposure. A mathematical method for the interpretation of very low track densities is discussed. The first results of its application are presented. (author)

  7. Graphical analysis of processes with multiple activation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachter, J.; Bragg, R.H.; Close, E.

    1986-01-01

    The activation energies characterizing a kinetic process are derived from the slopes of the Arrhenius diagrams obtained by plotting rate constants versus reciprocal temperature. Those rate constants correspond to the shifts along the time axis needed to superpose the successive isotherms. A general method based on Chebyshev interpolation is proposed for the optimization of the superposition of the experimental data points. This method is applied to determine the activation energies of the graphitization kinetics of the interlayer spacings of pitch coke and pyrocarbon samples

  8. Fault diagnosis of active magnetic bearings based on Gaussian GLRT detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagel, Leon; Galeazzi, Roberto; Voigt, Andreas Jauernik

    2016-01-01

    generalized likelihood ratio test is proposed for detecting faults striking the electromagnet. The detector is capable of detecting and isolating the occurrence of faults in e.g. the windings of bearing by tracking changes in the mean value of a Gaussian distribution. The statistical distribution...

  9. Flight activity and habitat preference of bats in a karstic area, as revealed by bat detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Jan; Řehák, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2006), s. 273-281 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Moravian Karst * echolocation calls * bat community * detectoring Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2006 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/55/3/273-281.pdf

  10. Physical activity staging distribution: establishing a heuristic using multiple studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, C; Hellsten, L; Norman, G; Braun, L; Breger, R; Burbank, P; Coday, M; Elliot, D; Garber, C; Greaney, M; Keteyian, S; Lees, F; Matthews, C; Moe, E; Resnick, B; Riebe, D; Rossi, J; Toobert, D; Wang, T; Welk, G; Williams, G

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the population prevalence across the stages of change (SoC) for regular physical activity and to establish the prevalence of people at risk. With support from the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, nine Behavior Change Consortium studies with a common physical activity SoC measure agreed to collaborate and share data. The distribution pattern identified in these predominantly reactively recruited studies was Precontemplation (PC) = 5% (+/- 10), Contemplation (C) = 10% (+/- 10), Preparation (P) = 40% (+/- 10), Action = 10% (+/- 10), and Maintenance = 35% (+/- 10). With reactively recruited studies, it can be anticipated that there will be a higher percentage of the sample that is ready to change and a greater percentage of currently active people compared to random representative samples. The at-risk stage distribution (i.e., those not at criteria or PC, C, and P) was approximately 10% PC, 20% C, and 70% P in specific samples and approximately 20% PC, 10% C, and 70% P in the clinical samples. Knowing SoC heuristics can inform public health practitioners and policymakers about the population's motivation for physical activity, help track changes over time, and assist in the allocation of resources.

  11. Calibration of a HPGe detector for Marinelli vessel geometry for measurement of gaseous 41Ar activity using MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, T.; Narasimhanath, V.; Sunil, C.N.; Kumaravel, S.; Ramakrishna, V.; Prashanth Kumar, M.; Nair, B.S.K.; Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    To carry out measurement of 41 Ar gaseous activity an attempt is made to calibrate the detector (HPGe) for Standard Measuring Flask (SMF) and Marinelli vessel geometry and compare their efficiencies. As standard gaseous source of 41 Ar is not available the calibration is done using liquid standard source of 22 Na (having 1274.5 KeV gamma energy close to the 1293.6 KeV gamma energy of 41 Ar). The HPGe detector and both the geometries are simulated and efficiencies for Full Energy Peak (FEP) are obtained using MCNP. The correction factor for energy and sample matrix is obtained from simulated efficiencies. By applying these correction factors the calibration is done. (author)

  12. A novel disk-type X-ray area imaging detector using radiophotoluminescence in silver-activated phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurobori, Toshio; Nakamura, Shoichi

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel two- and three-dimensional (2-D, 3-D) imaging detector based on the radiophotoluminescence (RPL) phenomenon in silver-activated phosphate glass (PG:Ag) and evaluate its dosimetric characteristics. A compact disk-type PG:Ag detector with a diameter of 80 mm was rotated at a rate of 400 rpm to read out the accumulated dose information and then remove the images for reuse. After X-ray exposure, three RPL dosimeter processes, i.e., preheating, reading, and erasing, were carried out with only a UV laser at 375 nm by adjusting the stepwise output levels. The 3-D images and dose distributions were rapidly reconstructed with a high spatial resolution of 1 μm and a sensitivity of 1 mGy.

  13. Measurement of volumic activities of radon in air in houses and in working rooms with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakam, O.K.

    1993-01-01

    In this work, a new method of measuring volumic activity of radon has been developed. This method is based on using solid state nuclear track detectors LR-115 type II. It has been applied to measurement of volumic activities of radon in air in houses and in working rooms in different regions of Morocco. These measurements, carried out for the first time in the country, allowed to estimate the dose equivalents of radon received by the population of the studied regions. 59 refs., 38 figs., 38 tabs. (F.M.)

  14. Prototype Demonstration of Gamma- Blind Tensioned Metastable Fluid Neutron/Multiplicity/Alpha Detector – Real Time Methods for Advanced Fuel Cycle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The content of this report summarizes a multi-year effort to develop prototype detection equipment using the Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detector (TMFD) technology developed by Taleyarkhan [1]. The context of this development effort was to create new methods for evaluating and developing advanced methods for safeguarding nuclear materials along with instrumentation in various stages of the fuel cycle, especially in material balance areas (MBAs) and during reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. One of the challenges related to the implementation of any type of MBA and/or reprocessing technology (e.g., PUREX or UREX) is the real-time quantification and control of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes as they move through the process. Monitoring of higher actinides from their neutron emission (including multiplicity) and alpha signatures during transit in MBAs and in aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line real-time materials accountability, diversion of the materials becomes much more difficult. The Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detector (TMFD) is a transformational technology that is uniquely capable of both alpha and neutron spectroscopy while being “blind” to the intense gamma field that typically accompanies used fuel – simultaneously with the ability to provide multiplicity information as well [1-3]. The TMFD technology was proven (lab-scale) as part of a 2008 NERI-C program [1-7]. The bulk of this report describes the advancements and demonstrations made in TMFD technology. One final point to present before turning to the TMFD demonstrations is the context for discussing real-time monitoring of SNM. It is useful to review the spectrum of isotopes generated within nuclear fuel during reactor operations. Used nuclear fuel (UNF) from a light water reactor (LWR) contains fission products as well as TRU elements formed through neutron absorption/decay chains. The majority of the fission products are gamma and beta emitters and they represent the

  15. Multiplicative multifractal modeling and discrimination of human neuronal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yi; Gao Jianbo; Sanchez, Justin C.; Principe, Jose C.; Okun, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding neuronal firing patterns is one of the most important problems in theoretical neuroscience. It is also very important for clinical neurosurgery. In this Letter, we introduce a computational procedure to examine whether neuronal firing recordings could be characterized by cascade multiplicative multifractals. By analyzing raw recording data as well as generated spike train data from 3 patients collected in two brain areas, the globus pallidus externa (GPe) and the globus pallidus interna (GPi), we show that the neural firings are consistent with a multifractal process over certain time scale range (t 1 ,t 2 ), where t 1 is argued to be not smaller than the mean inter-spike-interval of neuronal firings, while t 2 may be related to the time that neuronal signals propagate in the major neural branching structures pertinent to GPi and GPe. The generalized dimension spectrum D q effectively differentiates the two brain areas, both intra- and inter-patients. For distinguishing between GPe and GPi, it is further shown that the cascade model is more effective than the methods recently examined by Schiff et al. as well as the Fano factor analysis. Therefore, the methodology may be useful in developing computer aided tools to help clinicians perform precision neurosurgery in the operating room

  16. Report on Advanced Detector Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Jewell

    2012-09-01

    Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

  17. Multiple forms of endopeptidase activity from jojoba seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M J; Storey, R D

    1990-01-01

    The cotyledons of 27 day post-germination jojoba seedlings (Simmondsia chinensis) contained five distinct endopeptidase activities separable by DEAE Bio-Gel and CM-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The endopeptidases were purified 108- to 266-fold and their individuality was confirmed by activity-specific assays in native acrylamide gels along with differences in their Mr and catalytic properties. The five endopeptidases, which showed activity on model substrates and protein, were named EP Ia, EP Ib, EP II, EP III and EP IV. EP Ia was a serine proteinase with a pH optimum of ca 8 and Mr of 58,000. EP Ib, II and III were discrete cysteine proteinases showing pH optima of ca 6.8, 6.0 and 5.4 and Mr of 41,000, 47,000 and 35,000 respectively. EP IV was an aspartic acid proteinase with a ca pH optimum of 3.5 and Mr of 33,000.

  18. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  19. ACT-Vision: active collaborative tracking for multiple PTZ cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaddus, Christopher; Germano, Thomas; Vandervalk, Nicholas; Divakaran, Ajay; Wu, Shunguang; Sawhney, Harpreet

    2009-04-01

    We describe a novel scalable approach for the management of a large number of Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) cameras deployed outdoors for persistent tracking of humans and vehicles, without resorting to the large fields of view of associated static cameras. Our system, Active Collaborative Tracking - Vision (ACT-Vision), is essentially a real-time operating system that can control hundreds of PTZ cameras to ensure uninterrupted tracking of target objects while maintaining image quality and coverage of all targets using a minimal number of sensors. The system ensures the visibility of targets between PTZ cameras by using criteria such as distance from sensor and occlusion.

  20. Inferring Human Activity in Mobile Devices by Computing Multiple Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruizhi; Chu, Tianxing; Liu, Keqiang; Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Yuwei

    2015-08-28

    This paper introduces a framework for inferring human activities in mobile devices by computing spatial contexts, temporal contexts, spatiotemporal contexts, and user contexts. A spatial context is a significant location that is defined as a geofence, which can be a node associated with a circle, or a polygon; a temporal context contains time-related information that can be e.g., a local time tag, a time difference between geographical locations, or a timespan; a spatiotemporal context is defined as a dwelling length at a particular spatial context; and a user context includes user-related information that can be the user's mobility contexts, environmental contexts, psychological contexts or social contexts. Using the measurements of the built-in sensors and radio signals in mobile devices, we can snapshot a contextual tuple for every second including aforementioned contexts. Giving a contextual tuple, the framework evaluates the posteriori probability of each candidate activity in real-time using a Naïve Bayes classifier. A large dataset containing 710,436 contextual tuples has been recorded for one week from an experiment carried out at Texas A&M University Corpus Christi with three participants. The test results demonstrate that the multi-context solution significantly outperforms the spatial-context-only solution. A classification accuracy of 61.7% is achieved for the spatial-context-only solution, while 88.8% is achieved for the multi-context solution.

  1. Parametric modelling of cardiac system multiple measurement signals: an open-source computer framework for performance evaluation of ECG, PCG and ABP event detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaeinezhad, M R; Sabetian, P; Feizollahi, A; Ghaffari, A; Rahmani, R

    2012-02-01

    The major focus of this study is to present a performance accuracy assessment framework based on mathematical modelling of cardiac system multiple measurement signals. Three mathematical algebraic subroutines with simple structural functions for synthetic generation of the synchronously triggered electrocardiogram (ECG), phonocardiogram (PCG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals are described. In the case of ECG signals, normal and abnormal PQRST cycles in complicated conditions such as fascicular ventricular tachycardia, rate dependent conduction block and acute Q-wave infarctions of inferior and anterolateral walls can be simulated. Also, continuous ABP waveform with corresponding individual events such as systolic, diastolic and dicrotic pressures with normal or abnormal morphologies can be generated by another part of the model. In addition, the mathematical synthetic PCG framework is able to generate the S4-S1-S2-S3 cycles in normal and in cardiac disorder conditions such as stenosis, insufficiency, regurgitation and gallop. In the PCG model, the amplitude and frequency content (5-700 Hz) of each sound and variation patterns can be specified. The three proposed models were implemented to generate artificial signals with varies abnormality types and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), for quantitative detection-delineation performance assessment of several ECG, PCG and ABP individual event detectors designed based on the Hilbert transform, discrete wavelet transform, geometric features such as area curve length (ACLM), the multiple higher order moments (MHOM) metric, and the principal components analysed geometric index (PCAGI). For each method the detection-delineation operating characteristics were obtained automatically in terms of sensitivity, positive predictivity and delineation (segmentation) error rms and checked by the cardiologist. The Matlab m-file script of the synthetic ECG, ABP and PCG signal generators are available in the Appendix.

  2. Measurement of particle multiplicity and energy flow in pp collisions at 13 TeV with the LHCb detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2089888; Bowcock, Themis

    The LHC is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider. The LHCb experiment is one of four main experiments at the LHC. In July/August 2015, at the beginning of Run-II of the collider, the LHCb detector collected no-bias data during the so-called `Early Measurements' low intensity data taking run. The analysis described in this thesis, the measurement of particle multiplicity and energy flow in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV, uses this dataset. This analysis is aimed at improving our understanding of the hadron-hadron interaction process in full and, more specifically, our knowledge of the contributions of the underlying event and multi-parton interactions to the observable final states. The data sample is split into the charged and neutral components and then further segregated into four event classes - inclusive minimum-bias, hard scattering, diffractive enriched and non-diffractive enriched. The measurement is carried out over a 2D $(e\\times\\eta)$ ...

  3. A passive radon dosimeter based on the combination of a track etch detector and activated charcoal

    CERN Document Server

    Deynse, A V; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test a combination of a Makrofol track detector with a new type of charcoal (Carboxen-564) to design a personal radon dosimeter. The intention is to use this dosimeter as a personal radon dosimeter to measure the monthly radon exposure in workplaces, especially when the occupancy is not exactly known. The proposed combination was exposed to low and high concentrations of radon in a large range of relative humidity (RH). For the optimal layer thickness, a charcoal bed of 2.2 mm, a specific track density of 5.1 tracks cm sup - sup 2 /kBq h m sup - sup 3 was obtained. For a monthly working exposure (170 h) at an average radon concentration of 100 Bq/m sup 3 , this means 87 tracks/cm sup 2 or 10 times the background of the Makrofol detector, with a statistical uncertainty of 15%.

  4. Radiation-hard Active Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC Detector Upgrades based on HV-CMOS Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miucci, A; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Ferrere, D; Iacobucci, G; Rosa, A La; Muenstermann, D; Gonella, L; Hemperek, T; Hügging, F; Krüger, H; Obermann, T; Wermes, N; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Backhaus, M; Capeans, M; Feigl, S; Nessi, M; Pernegger, H; Ristic, B; George, M

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation at room temperature. A traditional readout chip is still needed to receive and organize the data from the active sensor and to handle high-level functionality such as trigger management. HV-CMOS has been designed to be compatible with both pixel and strip readout. In this paper an overview of HV2FEI4, a HV-CMOS prototype in 180 nm AMS technology, will be given. Preliminary results after neutron and X-ray irradiation are shown

  5. Neutron Activation and Thermoluminescent Detector Responses to a Bare Pulse of the CEA Valduc SILENE Critical Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [ORNL; Isbell, Kimberly McMahan [ORNL; Lee, Yi-kang [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Gagnier, Emmanuel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette; Authier, Nicolas [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille; Piot, Jerome [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille; Jacquet, Xavier [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille; Rousseau, Guillaume [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille; Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex

    2016-09-01

    This benchmark experiment was conducted as a joint venture between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US and the Centre de Valduc in France planned this experiment. The experiment was conducted on October 11, 2010 in the SILENE critical assembly facility at Valduc. Several other organizations contributed to this experiment and the subsequent evaluation, including CEA Saclay, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Babcock International Group in the United Kingdom, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this experiment was to measure neutron activation and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses from a source similar to a fissile solution critical excursion. The resulting benchmark can be used for validation of computer codes and nuclear data libraries as required when performing analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). A secondary goal of this experiment was to qualitatively test performance of two CAAS detectors similar to those currently and formerly in use in some US DOE facilities. The detectors tested were the CIDAS MkX and the Rocky Flats NCD-91. These detectors were being evaluated to determine whether they would alarm, so they were not expected to generate benchmark quality data.

  6. Preliminary Evidence that Self-Efficacy Predicts Physical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Doerksen, Shawna; Hu, Liang; Morris, Katherine S.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) are less physically active than nondiseased people. One method for increasing physical activity levels involves the identification of factors that correlate with physical activity and that are modifiable by a well designed intervention. This study examined two types of self-efficacy as cross-sectional and…

  7. HEART RATE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN PERSONS WITH PROFOUND INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A. J.; Stewart, Roy E.; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  8. Whole-Body MRI versus PET in assessment of multiple myeloma disease activity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shortt, Conor P

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare FDG PET; whole-body MRI; and the reference standard, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, to determine the best imaging technique for assessment of disease activity in multiple myeloma.

  9. Memory impairment in multiple sclerosis: Relevance of hippocampal activation and hippocampal connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, H.E.; Schoonheim, M.M.; van Geest, Q.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Barkhof, F.; Geurts, J.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Memory impairment is frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unclear what functional brain changes underlie this cognitive deterioration. Objective: To investigate functional hippocampal activation and connectivity, in relation to memory performance in MS. Methods: Structural and

  10. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  11. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Actively Correct Abnormal Standing Posture with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board…

  12. Self-Care Activities among People with Multiple Sclerosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynning, Marie; Hanehøj, Kirsten; Karnøe Knudsen, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are known to use a wide range of medical and non-medical treatments. This study aims at investigating the use of self-care activities within this patient group. Material and Methods: The study follows a descriptive cross-sectional design based...... on an online survey among members of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Society's permanent respondent panel. Results: The results of the study indicate that the respondents carry out a wide variety of self-care activities. These activities comprise conventional activities as well as complementary and alternative...

  13. The interpretation of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours by persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Learmonth, Yvonne; Hubbard, Elizabeth; Pilutti, Lara; Roberts, Sarah; Fanning, Jason; Wójcicki, Thomas; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert

    2017-11-07

    This study adopted a qualitative research design with directed content analysis and examined the interpretations of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviour by persons with multiple sclerosis. Fifty three persons with multiple sclerosis who were enrolled in an exercise trial took part in semi-structured interviews regarding personal interpretations of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours. Forty three percent of participants indicated a consistent understanding of physical activity, 42% of participants indicated a consistent understanding of exercise, and 83% of participants indicated a consistent understanding of sedentary behaviour with the standard definitions. There was evidence of definitional ambiguity (i.e., 57, 58, and 11% of the sample for physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviour, respectively); 6% of the sample inconsistently defined sedentary behaviour with standard definitions. Some participants described physical activity in a manner that more closely aligned with exercise and confused sedentary behaviour with exercise or sleeping/napping. Results highlight the need to provide and utilise consistent definitions for accurate understanding, proper evaluation and communication of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours among persons with multiple sclerosis. The application of consistent definitions may minimise ambiguity, alleviate the equivocality of findings in the literature, and translate into improved communication about these behaviours in multiple sclerosis. Implications for Rehabilitation The symptoms of multiple sclerosis can be managed through participation in physical activity and exercise. Persons with multiple sclerosis are not engaging in sufficient levels of physical activity and exercise for health benefits. Rehabilitation professionals should use established definitions of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours when communicating about these behaviours among persons with

  14. The CdZnTe Detector with Slit Collimator for Measure Distribution of the Specific Activity Radionuclide in the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, V. E.; Volkovich, A. G.; Potapov, V. N.; Semin, I. A.; Stepanov, A. V.; Simirskii, Iu. N.

    2018-01-01

    From 2011 in the NRC "Kurchatov Institute" carry out the dismantling of the MR multiloop research reactor. Now the reactor and all technological equipment in the premises of the reactor were dismantled. Now the measurements of radioactive contamination in the reactor premises are made. The most contaminated parts of premises - floor and the ground beneath it. To measure the distribution of specific activity in the ground the CdZnTe detector (volume 500MM3) was used. Detector placed in a lead shielding with a slit collimation hole. The upper part of shielding is made movable to close and open the slit of the collimator. At each point two measurements carried out: with open and closed collimator. The software for determination specific activity of radionuclides in ground was developed. The mathematical model of spectrometric system based on the Monte-Carlo method. Measurements of specific activity of ground were made. Using the results of measurements the thickness of the removed layer of ground and the amount of radioactive waste were calculated.

  15. Status of the R&D activity on diamond particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Bellini, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; de Boer, W.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K. K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Perera, L.; Pernicka, M.; Polesello, P.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2003-09-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond has been proposed as a radiation-hard alternative to silicon in the extreme radiation levels occurring close to the interaction region of the Large Hadron Collider. Due to an intense research effort, reliable high-quality polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors, with up to 270 μm charge collection distance and good spatial uniformity, are now available. The most recent progress on the diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies are presented and discussed.

  16. Status of the R and D activity on diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bellini, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M. E-mail: bruzzi@fi.infn.it; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Perera, L.; Pernicka, M.; Polesello, P.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2003-09-21

    Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond has been proposed as a radiation-hard alternative to silicon in the extreme radiation levels occurring close to the interaction region of the Large Hadron Collider. Due to an intense research effort, reliable high-quality polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors, with up to 270 {mu}m charge collection distance and good spatial uniformity, are now available. The most recent progress on the diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies are presented and discussed.

  17. The efficient neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination with small active volume scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Van Chuan; Nguyen Duc Hoa; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Nguyen Ngoc Anh; Tuong Thi Thu Huong; Nguyen Nhi Dien; Pham Dinh Khang

    2016-01-01

    A small detector with EJ-301 liquid scintillation was manufactured for the study on the neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination. In this research, four algorithms, including Threshold crossing time (TCT), Pulse gradient analysis (PGA), Charge comparison method (CCM), and Correlation pattern recognition (CPR) were developed and compared in terms of their discrimination effectiveness between neutrons and gamma rays. The figures of merits (FOMs) obtained for 100 ÷ 2000 keVee (keV energy electron equivalent) neutron energy range show the charge comparison method was the most efficient of the four algorithms. (author)

  18. RD50 Collaboration overview: Development of new radiation hard detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S., E-mail: susanne.kuehn@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    Silicon sensors are widely used as tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments. This results in several specific requirements like radiation hardness and granularity. Therefore research for highly performing silicon detectors is required. The RD50 Collaboration is a CERN R&D collaboration dedicated to the development of radiation hard silicon devices for application in high luminosity collider experiments. Extensive research is ongoing in different fields since 2001. The collaboration investigates both defect and material characterization, detector characterization, the development of new structures and full detector systems. The report gives selected results of the collaboration and places an emphasis on the development of new structures, namely 3D devices, CMOS sensors in HV technology and low gain avalanche detectors. - Highlights: • The RD50 Collaboration is a CERN R&D collaboration dedicated to the development of radiation hard silicon devices for high luminosity collider experiments. • The collaboration investigates defect, material and detector characterization, the development of new structures and full detector systems. • Results of measured data of n-in-p type sensors allow recommendations for silicon tracking detectors at the HL-LHC. • The charge multiplication effect was investigated to allow its exploitation and resulted in new structures like LGAD sensors. • New sensor types like slim and active edge sensors, 3D detectors, and lately HVCMOS devices were developed in the active collaboration.

  19. Holmium-166m: multi-gamma standard to determine the activity of radionuclides in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, Estela Maria de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency and calibration curves as function of gamma-ray energy for a germanium detector are usually established by using many standard gamma ray sources of radionuclides decaying with few gamma rays or radionuclides having complex decay scheme, as 152 Eu or 133 Ba. But these radionuclides cannot be used alone, because they have a few gamma lines with high intensity and these lines have a irregular distribution in the energy spectrum. 166m Ho is found to be a convenient single source for such calibration, because it decays by β - with subsequent emission of about 40 strong and well distributed gamma lines between 80 and 1500 keV. Moreover, its long half - life (1200 years) and X-rays characteristics between 40 and 50 keV makes it a good standard for calibration of germanium detectors. However, it is necessary to know with accuracy and precision the gamma ray intensities of their main lines, due to the fact that literature has showed discrepant values. Then, a methodology to determine the emission probability of its main lines is proposed by means of combined use of gamma spectrometry and coincidence 4πβ -γ techniques. The experimental results show consistence to the others authors, with lower or compatible uncertainties. (author)

  20. Textile UV detector with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an active compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozicki, Marek; Sasiadek, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, results on the construction of a new flat textile-based UV light dosimeter are reported. As a textile support polyamide woven fabric was chosen, which was surface-modified with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). At first, spectrophotometric and dynamic laser light scattering results on the steady-state UV irradiation of aqueous TTC solutions in the presence of oxygen are discussed. If irradiated, TTC converts to the corresponding formazan molecules of red colour. The size and size distribution of the particles is related to the absorbed radiation and pH of the solution. When TTC molecules reside on polyamide textile, UV irradiation causes a colour change from white to deep red. The tinge intensity depends on the absorbed energy per unit surface area. On this basis, the calibration parameters of the detectors, such as dose sensitivity, dose range, quasi-linear dose range, were calculated. Furthermore, the improvement of the dosimeters' resistance to atmospheric conditions was achieved and assessed through washing fastness tests. Finally, the detectors were proved to be adequate for measurements of the 2D distribution of absorbed UV energy. A simple method of UV dose distribution measurements was proposed. The textile-based systems show promise as dosimeters.

  1. DMPD: Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regulatoryfactor 3. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12213596 Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regula...(.html) (.csml) Show Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of interferon regulatoryfactor 3.... PubmedID 12213596 Title Multiple signaling pathways leading to the activation of

  2. Telephone-Based Physical Activity Counseling for Major Depression in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Kraft, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48).…

  3. Coronary Heart Disease Risk between Active and Inactive Women with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawta, Jennifer N.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Wilcox, Anthony R.; Fox, Susan D.; Nalle, Darek J.; Anderson, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether abdominal fat accumulation and levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose differed between 123 active and inactive women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Results indicated that low-to-moderate leisure time physical activity significantly related to less abdominal fat accumulation, lower triglyceride…

  4. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  5. NaI Detector Network at Aragats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, Karen; Arakelyan, Karen; Chilingarian, Ashot; Daryan, Ara; Kozliner, Lev; Mailyan, Bagrat; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Pokhsraryan, David; Sargsyan, David

    2013-01-01

    The Aragats Space Environmental Center (ASEC) provides monitoring of different species of secondary cosmic rays and consists of two high altitude research stations on Mt. Aragats in Armenia. Along with solar modulation effects, ASEC detectors register several coherent enhancements associated with thunderstorm activity. The experimental techniques used allowed for the first time to simultaneously measure fluxes of the electrons, muons, gamma rays, and neutrons correlated with thunderstorm activity. Ground-based observations by a complex of surface particle detectors, measuring in systematically and repeatable fashion, gamma quanta, electrons, muons and neutrons from atmospheric sources are necessary for proving the theory of particle acceleration and multiplication during thunderstorms. Energy spectra and correlations between fluxes of different particles, measured on Earth's surface address the important issues of research of the solar modulation effects and the atmospheric high-energy phenomena. In May 26 2011, launched 5 NaI(Tl) (thallium-doped sodium iodide) scintillation detectors and 1 plastic one in the new ASEC laboratory on Aragats to detect low energy gamma rays from the thunderclouds and short particle bursts. Including NaI(Tl) detectors in ASEC detectors system is of great importance for investigation thunderstorm phenomena because NaI(Tl) detectors have high efficiency of gamma ray detecting in comparison with plastic ones.

  6. Determination of the germanium detector efficiency for measurements of the radionuclide activity contained in a radioactive waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, J.; Gallardo, S.; Ballester, S.; Hoyler, F.

    2006-01-01

    One of the features in the characterization of a drum containing radioactive wastes is to verify the activity of radionuclides contained in the drum. An H.P. Ge detector can be used for this measurement. However, it is necessary to perform an efficiency calibration for all geometries involved. In the framework of a joint project between the Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain) and the Fachbereich Angewandte Naturwissenschaften und Technik (Fachhochschule Aachen, Abteilung Julich, Germany), different configurations for a drum containing radioactive sources have been implemented in the laboratory. A cylindrical drum of 850 mm height, a diameter equal to 560 mm and 3 mm of steel thickness has been used in the experimental measurements. The drum contains a clay ceramic matrix whose chemical composition is 55% SiO 2 , 40% of Al 2 O 3 and 5% of TiO 2 . Several vertical PVC tubes having a diameter of 30 mm are inserted in the drum at different distances from the central axis. In the experiment, a pack of point sources with 133 Ba, 60 Co and 137 Cs is introduced into each one of the tubes. A ring-shape distributed source is generated by rotating the drum around its axis during the measurement. The detector efficiency is determined experimentally for these configurations. On the other hand, a Monte Carlo model, using the M.C.N.P. code, has been developed to simulate the drum, the clay matrix and the PVC tubes. The effect of the drum spinning has been reproduced simulating a ring source with different diameters. The model also includes detailed detector geometry. Using this Monte Carlo model, the detector efficiency is calculated for each configuration implemented in the laboratory. Comparison of results from Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurements should permit the validation of the M.C.N.P. model. Consequently it will be possible to obtain efficiency curves without experimental measurements. Therefore, these

  7. The engineering development of an actively controlled precise muon chamber for the SDC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, F.; Berk, E.; Gorman, J.; Govignon, J.; Sullivan, D.

    1992-01-01

    As the detector configuration for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) evolved, a number of concepts for MUON chambers were proposed and investigated. The Boston Group (Brandeis, Harvard and Tufts Universities, with Draper Laboratory) has developed a concept incorporating elliptical section drift tubes with field shaping and intermediate wire supports. This approach combines good single and multi-track resolution with a small channel count and modularity at the tube level. Other concepts have been developed which arise from differing interpretations of the fundamental physics and economic requirements. These include: Octagonal Drift Tubes, Unsupported Wires, No Field Shaping, U. Wisconsin; Round Tubes, Unsupported Wires, w or w/o Field Shaping, U. Washington; JFT Chambers (Multi-Wire, Intermediate Support, Field Shaping), KEK, Japan. This paper outlines the mechanical implementation of the Boston MUON chamber concept and discusses the rationale for several key design decisions imposed by the stringent mechanical tolerances. A prototype MUON chamber designed to verify design feasibility, performance, and cost is also described. A special section is devoted to the design and development of an optical alignment system within the chamber, which provides error signals driving the intermediate supports to true position. The Boston subgroup MUON chamber design is called the wine rack concept by virtue of its numerous (non-structural) drift tubes laid into a supporting chamber, which provides structural and handling capability. A number of individual θ,φ, and Stereo chambers is normally grouped into a supermodule, which in turn is assembled into a multi-layer supertower. Supertowers are the basic elements of the SDC MUON System, each comprising three supermodule layers in the barrel region and five in the forward regions

  8. Multiple co morbid conditions in patient with Mast Cell Activation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    conditions in patient \\\\·ith Mast Cell Activation Syndron1e Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM.ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Maj Sofia...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Multiple co-n1orhid conditions in patient \\Vith Mast Cell Activation Syndrotne Sofia M. Szari.MD. and James...Defense. !NTR()D{JCT!ON: Mast cell activation disorders {MCAD) have been associated \\Vilh Connective Tissue Disorders (CTD) and orthostatic

  9. The kinesin spindle protein inhibitor filanesib enhances the activity of pomalidomide and dexamethasone in multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-García, Susana; San-Segundo, Laura; González-Méndez, Lorena; Corchete, Luis A; Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Martín-Sánchez, Montserrat; López-Iglesias, Ana-Alicia; Algarín, Esperanza Macarena; Mogollón, Pedro; Díaz-Tejedor, Andrea; Paíno, Teresa; Tunquist, Brian; Mateos, María-Victoria; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Díaz-Rodriguez, Elena

    2017-01-01

    [EN]Kinesin spindle protein inhibition is known to be an effective therapeutic approach in several malignancies. Filanesib (ARRY-520), an inhibitor of this protein, has demonstrated activity in heavily pre-treated multiple myeloma patients. The aim of the work herein was to investigate the activity of filanesib in combination with pomalidomide plus dexamethasone backbone, and the mechanisms underlying the potential synergistic effect. The ability of filanesib to enhance the activity of pomali...

  10. The Importance of Providing Multiple-Channel Sections in Dredging Activities to Improve Fish Habitat Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After Typhoon Morakot, dredging engineering was conducted while taking the safety of humans and structures into consideration, but partial stream reaches were formed in the multiple-channel sections in Cishan Stream because of anthropogenic and natural influences. This study mainly explores the distribution of each fish species in both the multiple- and single-channel sections in the Cishan Stream. Parts of the environments did not exhibit significant differences according to a one-way ANOVA comparing the multiple- and single-channel sections, but certain areas of the multiple-channel sections had more diverse habitats. Each fish species was widely distributed by non-metric multidimensional scaling in the multiple-channel sections as compared to those in the single-channel sections. In addition, according to the principal component analysis, each fish species has a preferred environment, and all of them have a wide choice of habitat environments in the multiple-channel sections. Finally, the existence of multiple-channel sections could significantly affect the existence of the fish species under consideration in this study. However, no environmental factors were found to have an influence on fish species in the single-channel sections, with the exception of Rhinogobius nantaiensis. The results show that providing multiple-channel sections in dredging activities could improve fish habitat environments.

  11. CCR5 delta32, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Madsen, Hans O; Jensen, Claus V

    2000-01-01

    Chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) appear to be crucial in leukocyte recruitment to the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis (MS). CCR5 delta32, a truncated allele of the CC chemokine receptor CCR5 gene encoding a non-functional receptor, did not confer protection from MS. CCR5...... delta32 was, however, associated with a lower risk of recurrent clinical disease activity. High CSF levels of MMP-9 activity were also associated with recurrent disease activity. These results directly link intrathecal inflammation to disease activity in patients with MS, suggesting that treatments...... targeting CCR5 or treatment with MMP inhibitors may attenuate disease activity in MS...

  12. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, M.L.; Aurbach, G.D.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Quarto, R.; Spiegel, A.M.; Bliziotes, M.M.; Norton, J.A.; Doppman, J.L.; Marx, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands is a central feature of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We used cultured bovine parathyroid cells to test for mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with this disorder. Normal plasma stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, on the average, to the same extent as it was stimulated in a plasma-free control culture. This contrasted with the results of the tests with plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in which parathyroid mitogenic activity increased 2400 percent over the control value (P less than 0.001). Plasma from these patients also stimulated the proliferation of bovine parathyroid cells in culture, whereas plasma from normal subjects inhibited it. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from the patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was greater than that in plasma from patients with various other disorders, including sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (with adenoma, hyperplasia, or cancer of the parathyroid), sporadic primary hypergastrinemia, sporadic pituitary tumor, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (P less than 0.05). Parathyroid mitogenic activity in the plasma of patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 persisted for up to four years after total parathyroidectomy. The plasma also had far more mitogenic activity in cultures of parathyroid cells than did optimal concentrations of known growth factors or of any parathyroid secretagogue. This mitogenic activity had an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 to 55,000. We conclude that primary hyperparathyroidism in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may have a humoral cause

  13. The AFIS experiment: Detecting low energetic antiprotons in a low earth orbit, using an active target detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Thomas; Gaisbauer, Dominic; Greenwald, Daniel; Hahn, Alexander; Hauptmann, Philipp; Konorov, Igor; Meng, Lingxin; Paul, Stephan [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Losekamm, Martin [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institute of Astronautics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Renker, Dieter [Physics Department E17, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Since the first observation of geomagnetically trapped antiprotons by the PAMELA experiment and the new results on the positron excess by the AMS-02 experiment, the creation and transport of antimatter in the Earth's upper atmosphere attracts more and more attention both at theoretical and experimental side. For this reason the AFIS experiment was initiated to measure the flux of low energetic antiprotons in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). We developed an active target detector made from scintillating fibers connected to silicon photomultipliers which allows to detect antiprotons in the energy interval of about 30 MeV-100 MeV. The stopping curve of incoming antiprotons (Bragg peak) and the signal of outgoing pions created from the annihilation, are used for particle identification as well as triggering. We plan to implement this detector on a 3 unit cubesat satellite in the framework the 'Move2Warp' mission, which is carried out as a student project by the Technische Universitaet Muenchen.

  14. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  15. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis with multiple aneurysms and active bleeding: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo Young; Kim Jae Woon; Jang, Jae Cheon

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman visited our institution with upper abdominal pain which had lasted for the past two days. Laboratory tests revealed mild leukocytosis, decreased serum hemoglobin, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. CT scans showed multiple ill-defined, hypodense lesions in the peripheral areas of both hepatic lobes and active bleeding with a subcapsular hematoma in the right hepatic lobe. Angiography also showed active bleeding in the right hepatic lobe with multiple aneurysms, so a transarterial coil embolization was performed to stop the bleeding. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed several moving flat flukes in the common bile duct, which were pathologically confirmed as Fasciola hepatica.

  16. Hepatobiliary fascioliasis with multiple aneurysms and active bleeding: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Young; Kim Jae Woon; Jang, Jae Cheon [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A 52-year-old woman visited our institution with upper abdominal pain which had lasted for the past two days. Laboratory tests revealed mild leukocytosis, decreased serum hemoglobin, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. CT scans showed multiple ill-defined, hypodense lesions in the peripheral areas of both hepatic lobes and active bleeding with a subcapsular hematoma in the right hepatic lobe. Angiography also showed active bleeding in the right hepatic lobe with multiple aneurysms, so a transarterial coil embolization was performed to stop the bleeding. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed several moving flat flukes in the common bile duct, which were pathologically confirmed as Fasciola hepatica.

  17. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  18. Measurement of dijet production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Akesson, Torsten Paul; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; 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Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Galtieri, Angela Barbaro; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jurg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Boser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, Andre; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Francois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urban, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Garrido, Maria Del Mar Capeans; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Montoya, German D.Carrillo; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, Joao; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coe, Paul; 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Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; De Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; de la Taille, Christophe; de la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; de Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; del Papa, Carlo; del Peso, Jose; del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Yagci, Kamile Dindar; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; 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Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fohlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Garcia, Carmen; Garcia Navarro, Jose Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniel Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Helene; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Gopfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gossling, Claus; Gottfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Goncalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanere, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafstrom, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frederic; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Goran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jez, Pavel; Jezequel, Stephane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Koneke, Karsten; Konig, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Kopke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamaki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramon; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Celine; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Sterzo, Francesco Lo; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dorthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mattig, Peter; Mattig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amelia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, Jose; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin Dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin--Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W.Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjornmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Monig, Klaus; Moser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Mock, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Muller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Hong, Van Nguyen Thi; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozicka, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, Antonio; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pasztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Cavalcanti, Tiago Perez; Perez Codina, Estel; Perez Garcia-Estan, Maria Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, Joao Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommes, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Bueso, Xavier Portell; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Rohne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; 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Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, Jose; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Bjorn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, Joao; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schafer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schoning, Andre; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, Jose; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, Jose; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjolin, Jorgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; 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Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tic, Tom\\'{a}\\v{s}; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Viegas, Florbela De Jes Tique Aires; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jurgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokar, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torro Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocme, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; 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van Eldik, Niels; Van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; Van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Anh, Tuan Vu; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C.; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Zenis, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    A measurement of jet activity in the rapidity interval bounded by a dijet system is presented. Events are vetoed if a jet with transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV is found between the two boundary jets. The fraction of dijet events that survive the jet veto is presented for boundary jets that are separated by up to six units of rapidity and with mean transverse momentum 50 < pT(avg) < 500 GeV. The mean multiplicity of jets above the veto scale in the rapidity interval bounded by the dijet system is also presented as an alternative method for quantifying perturbative QCD emission. The data are compared to a next-to-leading order plus parton shower prediction from the POWHEG-BOX, an all-order resummation using the HEJ calculation and the PYTHIA, HERWIG++ and ALPGEN event generators. The measurement was performed using pp collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV using data recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2010.

  19. Measurement of dijet production with a veto on additional central jet activity in pp collisions at $ \\sqrt {s} = 7 $ TeV using the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. 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H.; Sanchez, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, M.; Schöning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shichi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T. J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J. -W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2011-09-01

    A measurement of jet activity in the rapidity interval bounded by a dijet system is presented. Events are vetoed if a jet with transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV is found between the two boundary jets. The fraction of dijet events that survive the jet veto is presented for boundary jets that are separated by up to six units of rapidity and with mean transverse momentum 50 < p¯T < 500 GeV. The mean multiplicity of jets above the veto scale in the rapidity interval bounded by the dijet system is also presented as an alternative method for quantifying perturbative QCD emission. The data are compared to a next-to-leading order plus parton shower prediction from the powheg-box, an all-order resummation using the hej calculation and the pythia, herwig++ and alpgen event generators. The measurement was performed using pp collisions at √s=7 TeV using data recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2010.

  20. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... activity models, and propose an Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single-user and multiuser activities. We conduct our empirical studies by collecting real-world activity traces done by two volunteers over a period of two weeks in a smart home environment...... sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our...

  1. Physical activity in subjects with multiple sclerosis with focus on gender differences: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anens, Elisabeth; Emtner, Margareta; Zetterberg, Lena; Hellström, Karin

    2014-03-10

    There is increasing research that examines gender-issues in multiple sclerosis (MS), but little focus has been placed on gender-issues regarding physical activity. The aim of the present study was to describe levels of physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, fall-related self-efficacy, social support for physical activity, fatigue levels and the impact of MS on daily life, in addition to investigating gender differences. The sample for this cross-sectional cohort study consisted of 287 (84 men; 29.3%) adults with MS recruited from the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. A questionnaire was sent to the subjects consisting of the self-administrated measurements: Physical Activity Disability Survey - Revised, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Falls-Efficacy Scale (Swedish version), Social Influences on Physical Activity, Fatigue Severity Scale and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Response rate was 58.2%. Men were less physically active, had lower self-efficacy for physical activity and lower fall-related self-efficacy than women. This was explained by men being more physically affected by the disease. Men also received less social support for physical activity from family members. The level of fatigue and psychological consequences of the disease were similar between the genders in the total sample, but subgroups of women with moderate MS and relapsing remitting MS experienced more fatigue than men. Men were less physically active, probably a result of being more physically affected by the disease. Men being more physically affected explained most of the gender differences found in this study. However, the number of men in the subgroup analyses was small and more research is needed. A gender perspective should be considered in strategies for promoting physical activity in subjects with MS, e.g. men may need more support to be physically active.

  2. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  3. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  4. Suitability of public use secondary data sets to study multiple activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Michelle; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Inoue, Megumi; Greenfield, Jennifer C; Chen, Huajuan; Lee, YungSoo

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to inventory activity items within and across U.S. public use data sets, to identify gaps in represented activity domains and challenges in interpreting domains, and to assess the potential for studying multiple activity engagement among older adults using existing data. We engaged in content analysis of activity measures of 5U.S. public use data sets with nationally representative samples of older adults. Data sets included the Health & Retirement Survey (HRS), Americans' Changing Lives Survey (ACL), Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS), the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics survey (PSID). Two waves of each data set were analyzed. We identified 13 distinct activity domains across the 5 data sets, with substantial differences in representation of those domains among the data sets, and variance in the number and type of activity measures included in each. Our findings indicate that although it is possible to study multiple activity engagement within existing data sets, fuller sets of activity measures need to be developed in order to evaluate the portfolio of activities older adults engage in and the relationship of these portfolios to health and wellness outcomes. Importantly, clearer conceptual models of activity broadly conceived are required to guide this work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  6. Determination of the activity concentration of a 238 Pu solution by the defined solid angle method utilizing a novel dual diaphragm-detector assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Julio C; Galiano, Eduardo; Arenillas, Pablo

    2005-08-01

    The activity concentration of a (238)Pu solution was measured by the determined solid angle method employing a novel dual diaphragm-detector assembly, which has been previously described. Due to the special requirements of the detector, a new type of source holder was developed, which consisted of sandwiching the radioisotope between two organic films called VYNS. It was experimentally demonstrated that the VYNS films do not absorb alpha particles, but reduce their energy by an average of 22 keV.A mean activity concentration for (238)Pu of 359.10+/-0.8 kBq/g was measured.

  7. Determination of the activity concentration of a {sup 238}Pu solution by the defined solid angle method utilizing a novel dual diaphragm-detector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Julio C. [Departamento de Postgrado, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Galiano, Eduardo [Departament of Physics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ont. P3E 2C6 (Canada)]. E-mail: egalianoriveros@laurentian.ca; Arenillas, Pablo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CAE, Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-08-01

    The activity concentration of a {sup 238}Pu solution was measured by the determined solid angle method employing a novel dual diaphragm-detector assembly, which has been previously described. Due to the special requirements of the detector, a new type of source holder was developed, which consisted of sandwiching the radioisotope between two organic films called VYNS. It was experimentally demonstrated that the VYNS films do not absorb {alpha} particles, but reduce their energy by an average of 22keV.A mean activity concentration for {sup 238}Pu of 359.10+/-0.8kBq/g was measured.

  8. Determination of the activity concentration of a 238Pu solution by the defined solid angle method utilizing a novel dual diaphragm-detector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Julio C.; Galiano, Eduardo; Arenillas, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    The activity concentration of a 238 Pu solution was measured by the determined solid angle method employing a novel dual diaphragm-detector assembly, which has been previously described. Due to the special requirements of the detector, a new type of source holder was developed, which consisted of sandwiching the radioisotope between two organic films called VYNS. It was experimentally demonstrated that the VYNS films do not absorb α particles, but reduce their energy by an average of 22keV.A mean activity concentration for 238 Pu of 359.10+/-0.8kBq/g was measured

  9. Effects of Multiple Intelligences Activities on Writing Skill Development in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Zennure Elgün; Ünal, Ismail Dogan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at exploring the effects of multiple intelligences activities versus traditional method on English writing development of the sixth grade students in Turkey. A quasi-experimental research method with a pre-test post-test design was applied. The participants were 50 sixth grade students at a state school in Ardahan in Turkey. The…

  10. Fingolimod in active multiple sclerosis: an impressive decrease in Gd-enhancing lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, A.H.; Rolf, L.; Damoiseaux, J.; Koeman, E.; Hupperts, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fingolimod is a disease modifying therapy (DMT) in highly active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), as is natalizumab. Fingolimod decreases annual relapse rates and gadolinium enhancing lesions on MRI as compared to either interferon beta (IFNβ) or placebo. The effect of

  11. Feasibility study of the water Cherenkov detector as a D-T fusion power monitor in the system using neutron activation of flowing water. First experimental phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Yury M.; Ochiai, Kentaro; Nishitani, Takeo

    2003-09-01

    The technique of monitoring D-T neutrons using water flow is based on the reaction of the 16 O(n, p) 16 N. In order to significantly improve the D-T neutron monitoring system in the ITER reactor in comparison with the system that uses a γ-ray scintillation detector, a new approach was proposed. The basic idea of this approach is to utilize the Cherenkov light, produced by energetic β-particles from 16 N in water near the first wall of the fusion reactor, and then deliver the light by the optical fiber to the remote light detector. The proof of the principle experiment is divided into two phases. The main idea of the first experimental phase is to examine Cherenkov light measurements using a remotely located water and light detector. During the second phase the water radiator will be placed next to the neutron source, then the Cherenkov light will be transferred by an optical fiber to the remotely located light detector. For the purpose of the first experimental phase, a water Cherenkov detector was installed in the shielded measurement room. A closed water loop, with circulating water, was used to transport 16 N from the D-T source to the Cherenkov detector. The experiment was carried out at FNS/JAERI, with the accelerator set to a direct current mode, the source neutron yield around 2 x 10 11 n/s, and the water flowage approximately 2 m/s. The registered Cherenkov signal was identified as the light produced by β-particles from 16 N using the time decay and the energy spectra data. According to the present study, the water Cherenkov detector is very effective for measurements of the 16 N activity, due to high counting efficiency, absence of the scintillation detector and simplicity of the method. (author)

  12. A low-Z PET detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, C.A.; Kaufman, D.E.; Chesler, D.A.; Stearns, C.W.; Correia, J.A.; Brownell, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    In order to examine the potential of low-Z detector materials for PET, a small field imaging system using plastic detectors has been designed. In this system the site of a photon interaction in the detector is located using light produced by the first Compton electron. This is in contrast to high-Z detectors where multiple interactions occur. The calculated performance of the detector and supporting measurements are presented

  13. [Evaluation of Dose Reduction of the Active Collimator in Multi Detector Row CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroyuki; Matsubara, Kosuke

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of active collimator by changing acquisition parameters and obtaining dose profiles in z-axis direction. Dose profiles along z-axis were obtained using XRQA2 Gafchromic film. As a result, the active collimator reduced overranging about 55% compared to that without the active collimator. In addition, by changing the combination of X-ray beam width (32 mm, 40 mm), pitch factor (1.4, 0.6), and the X-ray tube rotation time (0.5 s/rot, 1.0 s/rot), the overranging changed from 19.4 to 34.9 mm. Although the active collimator is effective for reducing overranging, it is necessary to adjust acquisition parameters by taking the properties of the active collimator for acquisition parameters, especially setting beam width, into consideration.

  14. Exploring the facilitators and barriers to engagement in physical activity for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayes, Nicola M; McPherson, Kathryn M; Schluter, Philip; Taylor, Denise; Leete, Marta; Kolt, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    To explore the relationship that cognitive behavioural and other previously identified variables have with physical activity engagement in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study adopted a cross-sectional questionnaire design. Participants were 282 individuals with MS. Outcome measures included the Physical Activity Disability Survey--Revised, Cognitive and Behavioural Responses to Symptoms Questionnaire, Barriers to Health Promoting Activities for Disabled Persons Scale, Multiple Sclerosis Self-efficacy Scale, Self-Efficacy for Chronic Diseases Scales and Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire. Multivariable stepwise regression analyses found that greater self-efficacy, greater reported mental fatigue and lower number of perceived barriers to physical activity accounted for a significant proportion of variance in physical activity behaviour, over that accounted for by illness-related variables. Although fear-avoidance beliefs accounted for a significant proportion of variance in the initial analyses, its effect was explained by other factors in the final multivariable analyses. Self-efficacy, mental fatigue and perceived barriers to physical activity are potentially modifiable variables which could be incorporated into interventions designed to improve physical activity engagement. Future research should explore whether a measurement tool tailored to capture beliefs about physical activity identified by people with MS would better predict participation in physical activity.

  15. Application of epithermal neutron activation in multielement analysis of silicate rocks employing both coaxial Ge(Li) and low energy photon detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Rowe, J.J.; Steinnes, E.

    1977-01-01

    The instrumental activation analysis of silicate rocks using epithermal neutrons has been studied using both high resolution coaxial Ge(Li) detectors and low energy photon detectors, and applied to the determination of 23 elements in eight new U.S.G.S. standard rocks. The analytical use X-ray peaks associated with electron capture or internal conversion processes has been evaluated. Of 28 elements which can be considered to be determinable by instrumental means, the epithermal activation approach is capable of giving improved sensitivity and precision in 16 cases, over the normal INAA procedure. In eleven cases the use of the low energy photon detector is thought to show advantages over convertional coaxial Ge(Li) spectroscopy. ?? 1977 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  16. Dynamic activity of NF-κB in multiple trauma patients and protective effects of ulinastain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the dynamic activity of NF-κB at the early stage of injury in multiple trauma patients and the protective effects of ulinastain. Methods: From January 2008 to May 2010, patients with multiple traumas admitted to our emergency department were enrolled in this study. Their age varied from 20-55 years. All enrolled patients were assigned randomly into control group (26 cases of multiple injury without ulinastain treatment, ulinastain group (25 cases of multiple injury with ulinastain treatment, and mild injury group (20 cases for basic control. The inclusion criteria for mild injury group were AIS-2005≤3, single wound, previously healthy inhospital patients without the history of surgical intervention. In addition to routine treatment, patients in ulinastain group were intravenously injected 200 000 IU of ulinastain dissolved in 100 ml of normal saline within 12 hours after injury and subsequently injected at the interval of every 8 hours for 7 days. NF-κB activity in monocytes and the level of TNF? IL-1, IL? in serum on admission (day 0, day 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 were measured. Data were compared and analyzed between different groups. Results: NF-κB activity in monocytes and TNF? IL-1 and IL? of these patients reached peak levels at 24 hour after trauma, with gradual decrease to normal at 72 hour after trauma. NF-κB activity and levels of TNF? IL-1 and IL? were lower in ulinastain group than control one, without any significant difference between the two groups. The mean duration for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome was 7 d?.1 d and 10 d?.5 d in ulinastain group and control group respectively, and showed a significant difference. Conclusions: NF-κB activity in monocytes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in multiply injured patients increased transiently at the early stage of trauma. Ulinastain may shorten the duration of systemic inflammatory

  17. T helper 17.1 cells associate with multiple sclerosis disease activity: perspectives for early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Langelaar, Jamie; van der Vuurst de Vries, Roos M; Janssen, Malou; Wierenga-Wolf, Annet F; Spilt, Isis M; Siepman, Theodora A; Dankers, Wendy; Verjans, Georges M G M; de Vries, Helga E; Lubberts, Erik; Hintzen, Rogier Q; van Luijn, Marvin M

    2018-05-01

    Interleukin-17-expressing CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells are considered as critical regulators of multiple sclerosis disease activity. However, depending on the species and pro-inflammatory milieu, Th17 cells are functionally heterogeneous, consisting of subpopulations that differentially produce interleukin-17, interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In the current study, we studied distinct effector phenotypes of human Th17 cells and their correlation with disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients. T helper memory populations single- and double-positive for C-C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) were functionally assessed in blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid from a total of 59 patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 35 untreated patients and 24 natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and nine patients with end-stage multiple sclerosis. Within the clinically isolated syndrome group, 23 patients had a second attack within 1 year and 26 patients did not experience subsequent attacks during a follow-up of >5 years. Low frequencies of T helper 1 (Th1)-like Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3+), and not Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3-) effector memory populations in blood strongly associated with a rapid diagnosis of clinically definite multiple sclerosis. In cerebrospinal fluid of clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients, Th1-like Th17 effector memory cells were abundant and showed increased production of interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor compared to paired CCR6+ and CCR6-CD8+ T cell populations and their blood equivalents after short-term culturing. Their local enrichment was confirmed ex vivo using cerebrospinal fluid and brain single-cell suspensions. Across all pro-inflammatory T helper cells analysed in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis blood, Th1-like Th17 subpopulation T helper 17.1 (Th17.1; CCR6+CXCR3+CCR4

  18. Description of methods for making activation detectors for use in nuclear reactors; Description des procedes de fabrication des detecteurs d'activation utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, R; Le Coguie, R; Leger, P; Salon, L; Thierry, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A brief description of methods currently used for making activation detectors, thin films and various deposits used in nuclear reactors. The thicknesses required vary from about a few tenths of a micron to a few tenths of a millimeter. Different techniques are used for fixing the large variety of elements: rolling, moulding, painting, electrolysis, vacuum deposition, thin films, wires, enamels, protective linings, etc. (authors) [French] Expose succinct des procedes actuellement mis en oeuvre pour la realisation des detecteurs d'activation, feuilles minces et depots divers utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires. La gamme des epaisseurs necessaires s'etendant approximativement des dixiemes de micrometre aux dixiemes de millimetre. La diversite des elements a fixer justifiant les techniques differentes selon les cas: laminage, moulage, peinture, electrolyse, depot sous vide, couches minces, fils, emaux, revetements protecteurs, etc. (auteurs)

  19. Semi-active control of a cable-stayed bridge under multiple-support excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ze-Bing; Huang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Hong-Xia

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a semi-active strategy for seismic protection of a benchmark cable-stayed bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. In this control strategy, Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are proposed as control devices, a LQG-clipped-optimal control algorithm is employed. An active control strategy, shown in previous researches to perform well at controlling the benchmark bridge when uniform earthquake motion was assumed, is also used in this study to control this benchmark bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. The performance of active control system is compared to that of the presented semi-active control strategy. Because the MR fluid damper is a controllable energy- dissipation device that cannot add mechanical energy to the structural system, the proposed control strategy is fail-safe in that bounded-input, bounded-output stability of the controlled structure is guaranteed. The numerical results demonstrated that the performance of the presented control design is nearly the same as that of the active control system; and that the MR dampers can effectively be used to control seismically excited cable-stayed bridges with multiple-support excitations.

  20. Activation of multiple chemotherapeutic prodrugs by the natural enzymolome of tumour-localised probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehouritis, Panos; Stanton, Michael; McCarthy, Florence O; Jeavons, Matthieu; Tangney, Mark

    2016-01-28

    Some chemotherapeutic drugs (prodrugs) require activation by an enzyme for efficacy. We and others have demonstrated the ability of probiotic bacteria to grow specifically within solid tumours following systemic administration, and we hypothesised that the natural enzymatic activity of these tumour-localised bacteria may be suitable for activation of certain such chemotherapeutic drugs. Several wild-type probiotic bacteria; Escherichia coli Nissle, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus species, were screened against a panel of popular prodrugs. All strains were capable of activating at least one prodrug. E. coli Nissle 1917 was selected for further studies because of its ability to activate numerous prodrugs and its resistance to prodrug toxicity. HPLC data confirmed biochemical transformation of prodrugs to their toxic counterparts. Further analysis demonstrated that different enzymes can complement prodrug activation, while simultaneous activation of multiple prodrugs (CB1954, 5-FC, AQ4N and Fludarabine phosphate) by E. coli was confirmed, resulting in significant efficacy improvement. Experiments in mice harbouring murine tumours validated in vitro findings, with significant reduction in tumour growth and increase in survival of mice treated with probiotic bacteria and a combination of prodrugs. These findings demonstrate the ability of probiotic bacteria, without the requirement for genetic modification, to enable high-level activation of multiple prodrugs specifically at the site of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New SRDN-3 probes with a semi-conductor detector for measuring radon activity concentration in underground spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przylibski, T.A.; Lidia Fijalkowska-Lichwa; Elzbieta Kochowska; Krzysztof Kozak; Jadwiga Mazur

    2010-01-01

    The article presents new Polish probes SRDN-3, developed at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw, equipped with a semi-conductor detector used for continuous measurements of 222 Rn activity concentration. Due to a relatively high lower detection limit, the device is dedicated for use in underground spaces-caves, adits, mines, tourist routes in strongholds, pyramids, etc. Its structure allows for difficult conditions in which the device is transported to the measurement site, as well as hard operating conditions caused chiefly by large ambient relative humidity, reaching up to 100%. The authors present calibration results of these appliances, as well as the results of their work in a cave and an adit in the Sudetes (SW Poland). After almost 2 years of working in difficult conditions, the probes displayed high reliability. No defects of the semi-conductor detectors or the electronics were observed, which ensured problem-free communication of the probe-programmer-PC set. Thanks to this, the authors have a 2 year stock of data, recorded hourly by five probes, at their disposal. The only element that did not withstand the test of extreme operating conditions was one of the combined relative humidity and temperature sensors. No powering problems were observed either, and the batteries were replaced once a year, before the winter season. Also the programmer functioned faultlessly, enabling data transmission to a PC, which, being much more sensitive to operating conditions, had been placed away from the site of probe exposure. After using more sensitive temperature, relative humidity and pressure sensors, SRDN-3 probes will certainly prove an excellent tool for microclimate measurements (including measurement of air-atmosphere exchange) in caves and other underground sites. Even nowadays they are already a satisfactory tool for monitoring 222 Rn concentration in underground spaces. (author)

  2. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  3. New developments in PET detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Lingxin; Zhao Shujun; Zhang Bin; Liu Haojia

    2010-01-01

    The researches on PET detector are always active and innovative area. The research direction of PET detector includes improving performances of scintillator-based detectors, investigating new detectors suitable for multi-modality imaging (e.g. PET/CT and PET/MRI), meeting requirements of TOF and DOI technologies and boosting the development of the technologies. In this paper, new developments in PET detector technology about scintillation crystal, photodetector and semiconductor detector is introduced. (authors)

  4. Hamster activity and estrous cycles: control by a single versus multiple circadian oscillator(s).

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, M S; Nelson, R J; Zucker, I

    1981-01-01

    Running activity onset and estrous onset were recorded for hamsters exposed to progressively shorter daily light/dark (T) cycles. The period of the estrous cycle was a quadruple multiple of the period of the activity rhythm during entrainment to T cycles of 23.5-21.5 hr. There was no evidence of desynchronization of the activity and estrus rhythms. The very short estrous periods shown during exposure to short T cycles indicate that an intrinsic 96-hr interval for ovarian follicular maturation...

  5. Pots and Pans Activities for Parent and Child: Activities for Preschool Multiple Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassel, Jean

    Intended for parents and teachers of multiply handicapped preschool children, the booklet provides lesson plans in three major areas--basic concepts, motor activities, and language activities. Each lesson plan is broken down into four parts: purpose (a descriptive statement of what the lesson hopes to accomplish), materials (list of materials…

  6. Bayesian calibration of reactor neutron flux spectrum using activation detectors measurements: Application to CALIBAN reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartier, J.; Casoli, P.; Chappert, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present calibration methods in order to estimate reactor neutron flux spectrum and its uncertainties by using integral activation measurements. These techniques are performed using Bayesian and MCMC framework. These methods are applied to integral activation experiments in the cavity of the CALIBAN reactor. We estimate the neutron flux and its related uncertainties. The originality of this work is that these uncertainties take into account measurements uncertainties, cross-sections uncertainties and model error. In particular, our results give a very good approximation of the total flux and indicate that neutron flux from MCNP simulation for energies above about 5 MeV seems to overestimate the 'real flux'. (authors)

  7. Reserve-building activities in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: