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Sample records for multiphase polycrystalline alloy

  1. Analyze of phase's mechanical behaviour of a multiphase polycrystalline alloy by X-ray and neutron diffraction; Analyse du comportement mecanique des constituants d'un alliage polycristallin multiphase par diffraction des rayons X et neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakhlaoui, R

    2006-12-15

    The aim of this work is to propose a methodology using diffraction methods and theoretical approaches of self-consistent modeling in order to analyze and better understand the mechanical behavior of each phase of hot-rolled duplex stainless steel. The purpose of the experimental study is to characterize the local mechanical behavior of phases under uniaxial loading. X-ray and neutron diffraction which enable to measure strains in each phase separately were used in this aim. Austenitic and ferritic phase stresses are determined by X-ray diffraction during tensile tests. Evolution of the elastic strains in each phase was measured by neutron diffraction using 'time-of-flight' method during tensile and compression tests. Elastic constants were given using the self-consistent model for a purely elastic deformation. To reproduce the mechanical behaviour of the studied material, self-consistent polycrystalline micro-mechanical model for elastoplastic deformation has been adapted and confronted to experimental results. Crystallographic texture and initial residual stresses were considered in this analysis. Critical shear stresses and hardening parameters of each phase of the studied duplex steel have been identified. Results of this study showed that the austenitic phase represents the softest and the most hardenable phase. Taking into account in calculations the initial residual stresses in the non deformed sample leads to the conclusion that the initial stresses modify considerably the values of phase's yield stresses. Good agreement has been noted comparing results obtained by XRD to those obtained by neutron diffraction. The problem of relaxation of normal stresses in the analysed layer by X-rays was analysed and discussed. Using XRD and self-consistent modelling, the effect of the chemical composition of the duplex stainless steel and the influence of ageing at 400 C degrees for 1000 h on the mechanical behaviour of austenitic and ferritic phases have

  2. Theory-Guided Materials Design of Multi-Phase Ti-Nb Alloys with Bone-Matching Elastic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Neugebauer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a scale-bridging approach for modeling the integral elasticresponse of polycrystalline composite that is based on a multi-disciplinary combination of(i parameter-free first-principles calculations of thermodynamic phase stability andsingle-crystal elastic stiffness; and (ii homogenization schemes developed forpolycrystalline aggregates and composites. The modeling is used as a theory-guidedbottom-up materials design strategy and applied to Ti-Nb alloys as promising candidatesfor biomedical implant applications. The theoretical results (i show an excellent agreementwith experimental data and (ii reveal a decisive influence of the multi-phase character ofthe polycrystalline composites on their integral elastic properties. The study shows thatthe results based on the density functional theory calculations at the atomistic level canbe directly used for predictions at the macroscopic scale, effectively scale-jumping severalorders of magnitude without using any empirical parameters.

  3. FEM Modeling of Crack Propagation in a Model Multiphase Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihe QIAN; Seishi NISHIDO; Hiroyuki TODA; Tosliro KOBAYASHI

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, several widely applied fracture criteria were first numerically examined and the crack-tip-region Jintegral criterion was confirmed to be more applicable to predict fracture angle in an elastic-plastic multiphase material. Then, the crack propagation in an idealized dendritic two-phase Al-7%Si alloy was modeled using an elastic-plastic finite element method. The variation of crack growth driving force with crack extension was also demonstrated. It is found that the crack path is significantly influenced by the presence of α-phase near the crack tip, and the crack growth driving force varies drastically from place to place. Lastly, the simulated fracture path in the two-phase model alloy was compared with the experimentally observed fracture path.

  4. Polycrystalline Mn-alloyed indium tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Camelia; Schmidt, Heidemarie; Xu, Qingyu; Vinnichenko, Mykola; Kolitsch, Andreas; Helm, Manfred; Iacomi, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic ITO films are interesting for integrating ITO into magneto-optoelectronic devices. We investigated n-conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) films with different Mn doping concentration which have been grown by chemical vapour deposition using targets with the atomic ratio In:Sn:Mn=122:12:0,114:12:7, and 109:12:13. The average film roughness ranges between 30 and 50 nm and XRD patterns revealed a polycrystalline structure. Magnetotransport measurements revealed negative magnetoresistance for all the samples, but high field positive MR can be clearly observed at 5 K with increasing Mn doping concentration. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been used to prove the existence of midgap states in the Mn-alloyed ITO films revealing a transmittance less than 80%. A reasonable model for the ca. 250 nm thick Mn-alloyed ITO films has been developed to extract optical constants from SE data below 3 eV. Depending on the Mn content, a Lorentz oscillator placed between 1 and 2 eV was used to model optical absorption below the band gap

  5. Misoriented dislocation substructures and the fracture of polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.; Cherkasova, T. V.; Kozlov, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of the dislocation substructure in polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys with various grain sizes is studied during deformation to failure. A relation between the fracture of the alloys and the forming misorientation dislocation substructures is revealed. Microcracks in the alloy are found to form along grain boundaries and the boundaries of misoriented dislocation cells and microtwins.

  6. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo-40Ni-13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunyan; Wang, Shuhuan; Gui, Yongliang; Cheng, Zihao; Ni, Guolong

    2016-12-06

    Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo-40Ni-13Si (at %). Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo-Ni-Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy-including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility-were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear.

  7. On the evolution of surface roughness during deformation of polycrystalline aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, WP; van Tijum, Redmer; de Hosson, JTM

    Surface roughening of polycrystalline Al-Mg alloys during tensile deformation is investigated using white light confocal microscopy. Materials are tested that differ only in grain size. A height-height correlation technique is used to analyze the data. The surface obeys self-affine scaling on length

  8. Multiphase Microstructure in a Metastability-Assisted Medium Carbon Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Cui, Xixi; Yang, Chen

    2018-05-01

    A medium carbon alloy steel is processed by austenizing at 900 °C for 30 min, then rapid quenching into a patented quenching liquid and holding at 170 °C for 5 min, finally isothermally holding at 250 °C for different times. The morphology and mechanical properties are performed by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A multiphase microstructure characterized by a mixture of lenticular prior martensite (PM), fine needle bainitic ferrite and filmy retained austenite (RA) is obtained. It is found that the PM formed firstly upon quenching can accelerate the subsequent bainitic transformation and promote refinement of multiphase colonies. The results show that an optimum mechanical property of a 4000.9 MPa bending strength and a 2030 MPa tensile strength is achieved at 250 °C for 120 min, which is attributed to the multiphase microstructural characteristics and a high product of the volume fraction of RA and the carbon content of austenite.

  9. Facile synthesis of dendritic Cu by electroless reaction of Cu-Al alloys in multiphase solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Shuhua, E-mail: liangxaut@gmail.com; Yang, Qing; Wang, Xianhui

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic copper (FDC) was synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl. • FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl solution. • Nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O was found at the edge of FDC. Nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained by using Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy. • The potential difference between CuAl{sub 2} and α-Al phase and the replacement reaction in multiphase solution are key factors. - Abstract: Two-dimensional nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic coppers (FDCs) were synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in hydrochloric acid solution containing copper chloride without any assistance of template or surfactant. The FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl{sub 2} + HCl solution. Compared to Cu{sub 40}Al{sub 60} and Cu{sub 45}Al{sub 55} alloys, the FDC shows hierarchical distribution and homogeneous structures using Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy as the starting alloy. The growth direction of the FDC is <110>, and all angles between the trunks and branches are 60°. Nanoscale Cu{sub 2}O was found at the edge of FDC. Interestingly, nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained through Cu{sub 17}Al{sub 83} alloy. Studies showed that the formation of FDC depended on two key factors: the potential difference between CuAl{sub 2} intermetallic and α-Al phase of dual-phase Cu-Al alloys; a replacement reaction that usually occurs in multiphase solution. The electrochemical experiment further proved that the multi-branch dendritic structure is very beneficial to the proton transfer in the process of catalyzing methanol.

  10. Thermal processing of polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, Carl P.; Ortega, Alicia M.; Tyber, Jeffrey; Maksound, A.El.M.; Maier, Hans J.; Liu Yinong; Gall, Ken

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of heat treatment on polycrystalline Ti-50.9 at.% Ni in hot-rolled and cold-drawn states. In particular, we examine microstructure, transformation temperatures as well as mechanical behavior in terms of both uniaxial monotonic testing and instrumented Vickers micro-indentation. The results constitute a fundamental understanding of the effect of heat treatment on thermal/stress-induced martensite and resistance to plastic flow in NiTi, all of which are critical for optimizing the mechanical properties. The high temperature of the hot-rolling process caused recrystallization, recovery, and hindered precipitate formation, essentially solutionizing the NiTi. The subsequent cold-drawing-induced a high density of dislocations and martensite. Heat treatments were carried out on hot-rolled, as well as, hot-rolled then cold-drawn materials at various temperatures for 1.5 h. Transmission Electron Microscopy observations revealed that Ti 3 Ni 4 precipitates progressively increased in size and changed their interface with the matrix from being coherent to incoherent with increasing heat treatment temperature. Accompanying the changes in precipitate size and interface coherency, transformation temperatures were observed to systematically shift, leading to the occurrence of the R-phase and multiple-stage transformations. Room temperature stress-strain tests illustrated a variety of mechanical responses for the various heat treatments, from pseudoelasticity to shape memory. The changes in stress-strain behavior are interpreted in terms of shifts in the primary martensite transformation temperatures, rather then the occurrence of the R-phase transformation. The results confirm that Ti 3 Ni 4 precipitates can be used to elicit a desired isothermal stress-strain behavior in polycrystalline NiTi. Instrumented micro-indention tests revealed that Martens (Universal) Hardness values are more dependent on the resistance to dislocation

  11. Dislocation Substructures Formed After Fracture of Deformed Polycrystalline Cu-Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.; Cherkasova, T. V.

    2017-08-01

    The paper deals with the dislocation substructure of polycrystalline FCC alloys modified by plastic deformation at a distance from the area of the specimen fracture. Observations are performed using the transmission electron microscopy. Cu-Al alloys with grain size ranging from 10 to 240 μm are studied in this paper. The parameters of the dislocation substructure are measured and their variation is determined by the increasing distance from the fracture area. It is shown how the grain size influences these processes. The different dislocation substructures which determine the specimen fracture at a mesocscale level are found herein.

  12. Magnetostriction of the polycrystalline Fe80Al20 alloy doped with boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bormio-Nunes, Cristina; Teodoro dos Santos, Claudio; Botani de Souza Dias, Mateus; Doerr, Mathias; Granovsky, Sergey; Loewenhaupt, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fe 80 Al 20 polycrystalline alloy magnetostriction 40 ppm increased to 80 ppm due to 2% of B doping. ► B stabilizes α-FeAl phase and a coexistence of α-FeAl + Fe 3 Al improves magnetostriction. ► Presence of Fe 2 B phase causes domain rearrangement revealed by the decrease of the volume magnetostriction. - Abstract: The doping of Fe 80 Al 20 polycrystalline alloy with 2% of boron increased the total magnetostriction twofold compared to a sample without boron. A value close to 80 ppm was achieved at 300 K. The microstructures of the boron-doped alloys show a dendritically solidified matrix with interdendritic α-FeAl and/or Fe 3 Al and Fe 2 B eutectic between the grains. The XRD analysis reveals an increase in the volume fraction of α-FeAl and a correspondent decrease of the Fe 3 Al phase volume fraction as the boron content increases. The increase of the volume fraction of this tetragonal Fe 2 B phase in the samples doped with boron causes the decrease of the strong volume magnetostriction that was observed in the alloy without boron. There is some evidence that the improvement of the magnetostriction magnitude due to the addition of boron to the Fe 80 Al 20 alloy could reach the maximal magnetostriction if the 1:1 optimal ratio of the volume fractions of the α-FeAl and Fe 3 Al phases could be reached.

  13. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo–40Ni–13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunyan; Wang, Shuhuan; Gui, Yongliang; Cheng, Zihao; Ni, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo–40Ni–13Si (at %). Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo–Ni–Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy—including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility—were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear. PMID:28774106

  14. Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo–40Ni–13Si Multiphase Intermetallic Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallic compounds are increasingly being expected to be utilized in tribological environments, but to date their implementation is hindered by insufficient ductility at low and medium temperatures. This paper presents a novel multiphase intermetallic alloy with the chemical composition of Mo–40Ni–13Si (at %. Microstructure characterization reveals that a certain amount of ductile Mo phases formed during the solidification process of a ternary Mo–Ni–Si molten alloy, which is beneficial to the improvement of ductility of intermetallic alloys. Tribological properties of the designed alloy—including wear resistance, friction coefficient, and metallic tribological compatibility—were evaluated under dry sliding wear test conditions at room temperature. Results suggest that the multiphase alloy possesses an excellent tribological property, which is attributed to unique microstructural features and thereby a good combination in hardness and ductility. The corresponding wear mechanism is explained by observing the worn surface, subsurface, and wear debris of the alloy, which was found to be soft abrasive wear.

  15. A novel anti-frictional multiphase layer produced by plasma nitriding of PVD titanium coated ZL205A aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Yao, J. W.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhu, Y. D.; Guo, J. H.; Wang, Y.; Fu, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Yan, M. F.

    2018-02-01

    The heat treatment (consisting of solid solution and aging), is integrated with the nitriding process of titanium coated ZL205A aluminum alloy to improve the surface and matrix mechanical properties simultaneously. Two-step duplex treatment is adopted to prepare the gradient multiphase layer on a magnesium-free ZL205A aluminum-copper based alloy. Firstly, pure titanium film is deposited on the aluminum alloy substrate using magnetron sputtering. Secondly, the Ti-coated specimen is nitrided at the solid solution temperature of the substrate alloying elements in a gas mixture of N2 and H2 and aged at 175 °C. The microstructure evolution, microhardness as well as the wear resistance of obtained multiphase layers are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), microhardness tester and pin-on-disc tribometer. The multiphase layer, dominated by TiN0.3 or Al3Ti, is prepared with significantly increased layer depth after duplex treatment. The surface hardness of multiphase layer is remarkably improved from 23.7HV to 457HV. The core matrix hardness is also increased to 65HV after aging. The wear rate of the multiphase layer decreases about 55.22% and 49.28% in comparison with the aged and Ti coated specimens, respectively. The predominant wear mechanism for the multiphase layer is abrasive and oxidation, but severe adhesive wear for the aged and Ti coated specimens.

  16. Facile synthesis of dendritic Cu by electroless reaction of Cu-Al alloys in multiphase solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Shuhua; Yang, Qing; Wang, Xianhui

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic coppers (FDCs) were synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in hydrochloric acid solution containing copper chloride without any assistance of template or surfactant. The FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl2 + HCl solution. Compared to Cu40Al60 and Cu45Al55 alloys, the FDC shows hierarchical distribution and homogeneous structures using Cu17Al83 alloy as the starting alloy. The growth direction of the FDC is , and all angles between the trunks and branches are 60°. Nanoscale Cu2O was found at the edge of FDC. Interestingly, nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained through Cu17Al83 alloy. Studies showed that the formation of FDC depended on two key factors: the potential difference between CuAl2 intermetallic and α-Al phase of dual-phase Cu-Al alloys; a replacement reaction that usually occurs in multiphase solution. The electrochemical experiment further proved that the multi-branch dendritic structure is very beneficial to the proton transfer in the process of catalyzing methanol.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of multiphase NiAl-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pank, D. R.; Koss, D. A.; Nathal, M. V.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the gamma-prime phase on the deformation behavior and fracture resistance of melt-spun ribbons and consolidated bulk specimens of a series of Nial-based alloys with Co and Hf additions has been examined. The morphology, location, and volume fraction of the gamma-prime phase are significant factors in enhancing the fracture resistance of the normally brittle NiAl-based alloys. In particular, the results indicate that a continuous-grain-boundary film of gamma-prime can impart limited room-temperature ductility regardless of whether B2 or L10 NiAl is present. Guidelines for microstructure control in multiphase NiAl-based alloys are also presented.

  18. Methods of characterization of multiphase Nd-Fe-B melt-spun alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite permanent magnetic materials based on Nd-Fe-B alloys with a low Nd content are a new type of permanent magnetic material. The microstructure of these nanocomposite permanent magnets is composed of a mixture of magnetically soft and hard phases providing the so called exchange coupling effect. Beside the optimization process parameters, methods of characterization have a very important role in the design of an optimal magnetic matrix of multiphase melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloys. Different methods and techniques of characterization were used for observation and study of the microstructure evolution during crystallization. A summary results of measurements using different methods of characterization are presented to enable a better insight into relations between the microstructure and magnetic properties of the investigated melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloys. .

  19. Shape memory behavior of high strength NiTiHfPd polycrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, H.E.; Acar, E.; Ded, G.S.; Basaran, B.; Tobe, H.; Noebe, R.D.; Bigelow, G.; Chumlyakov, Y.I.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic characterization of the shape memory properties of a quaternary Ni 45.3 –Ti 29.7 –Hf 20 –Pd 5 (at.%) polycrystalline alloy was performed in compression after selected aging treatments. Precipitation characteristics were revealed by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of aging temperature and time on transformation temperatures, recoverable and residual strains, and temperature and stress hystereses were determined by differential scanning calorimetry, constant-load thermal cycling experiments and isothermal strain cycling (superelasticity) tests. The crystal structure and lattice parameters of the transforming phases were determined from X-ray diffraction analysis. It was revealed that precipitation hardening significantly improved the shape memory properties of the NiTiHfPd alloy. Under optimum aging conditions, shape memory strains of up to 4% under 1 GPa were possible, and superelasticity experiments resulted in full strain recovery without any plastic deformation, even at stress levels as high as 2 GPa. The NiTiHfPd polycrystalline alloy exhibited very high damping capacity/absorbed energy (30–34 J cm −3 ) and work output (30–35 J cm −3 ), which were attributed to the ability to operate at high stress levels without significant plastic deformation and to a high mechanical hysteresis (>900 MPa) at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 80 °C

  20. Magnetostriction of the polycrystalline Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy doped with boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormio-Nunes, Cristina, E-mail: cristina@demar.eel.usp.br [Escola de Engenharia de Lorena, Dep. de Eng. de Materiais, Universidade de S.Paulo, Lorena, SP (Brazil); Teodoro dos Santos, Claudio; Botani de Souza Dias, Mateus [Escola de Engenharia de Lorena, Dep. de Eng. de Materiais, Universidade de S.Paulo, Lorena, SP (Brazil); Doerr, Mathias; Granovsky, Sergey; Loewenhaupt, Michael [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-10-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20} polycrystalline alloy magnetostriction 40 ppm increased to 80 ppm due to 2% of B doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B stabilizes {alpha}-FeAl phase and a coexistence of {alpha}-FeAl + Fe{sub 3}Al improves magnetostriction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of Fe{sub 2}B phase causes domain rearrangement revealed by the decrease of the volume magnetostriction. - Abstract: The doping of Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20} polycrystalline alloy with 2% of boron increased the total magnetostriction twofold compared to a sample without boron. A value close to 80 ppm was achieved at 300 K. The microstructures of the boron-doped alloys show a dendritically solidified matrix with interdendritic {alpha}-FeAl and/or Fe{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 2}B eutectic between the grains. The XRD analysis reveals an increase in the volume fraction of {alpha}-FeAl and a correspondent decrease of the Fe{sub 3}Al phase volume fraction as the boron content increases. The increase of the volume fraction of this tetragonal Fe{sub 2}B phase in the samples doped with boron causes the decrease of the strong volume magnetostriction that was observed in the alloy without boron. There is some evidence that the improvement of the magnetostriction magnitude due to the addition of boron to the Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy could reach the maximal magnetostriction if the 1:1 optimal ratio of the volume fractions of the {alpha}-FeAl and Fe{sub 3}Al phases could be reached.

  1. Transformation lines in an Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si polycrystalline shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kikuaki; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Fischer, F.D.; Buchmayr, B.

    1994-01-01

    Transformation lines, the martensite/austenite start and finish conditions in the stress-temperature plane, are determined in an Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si polycrystalline shape memory alloy with two different experimental procedures. The transformation lines are shown to be almost linear with nearly the same slope. The martensitic transformation zone and the reverse transformation zone do not coincide, and the reverse transformation zone is very wide; T Af -T As ∼ 180 K. The strong dependence on the preloading of the transformation lines, especially of the reverse transformation lines, is examined. (orig.)

  2. Ductility and fracture behavior of polycrystalline Ni/sub 3/Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the recent work on tensile ductility and fracture behavior of Ni/sub 3/Al alloys tested at ambient and elevated temperatures. Polycrystalline Ni/sub 3/Al is intrinsically brittle along grain boundaries, and the brittleness has been attributed to the large difference in valency, electronegativity, and atom size between nickel and aluminum atoms. Alloying with B, Mn, Fe, and Be significantly increases the ductility and reduces the propensity for intergranular fracture in Ni/sub 3/Al alloys. Boron is found to be most effective in improving room-temperature ductility of Ni/sub 3/Al with <24.5 at.% Al. The tensile ductility of Ni/sub 3/Al alloys depends strongly on test environments at elevated temperatures, with much lower ductilities observed in air than in vacuum. The loss in ductility is accompanied by a change in fracture mode from transgranular to intergranular. This embrittlement is due to a dynamic effect involving simultaneously high localized stress, elevated temperature, and gaseous oxygen. The embrittlement can be alleviated by control of grain shape or alloying with chromium additions. All the results are discussed in terms of localized stress concentration and grain-boundary cohesive strength

  3. Polycrystalline oxides formation during transient oxidation of (001) Cu-Ni binary alloys studied by in situ TEM and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.C.; Li, Z.Q.; Sun, L.; Zhou, G.W.; Eastman, J.A.; Fong, D.D.; Fuoss, P.H.; Baldo, P.M.; Rehn, L.E.; Thompson, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of Cu 2 O and NiO islands due to oxidation of Cu x Ni 1-x (001) films were monitored, at various temperatures, by in situ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). In remarkable contrast to our previous observations of Cu and Cu-Au oxidation, irregular-shaped polycrystalline oxide islands formed with respect to the Cu-Ni alloy film, and an unusual second oxide nucleation stage was noted. In situ XRD experiments revealed that NiO formed first epitaxially, then other orientations appeared, and finally polycrystalline Cu 2 O developed as the oxidation pressure was increased. The segregation of Ni and Cu towards or away, respectively, from the alloy surface during oxidation could disrupt the surface and cause polycrystalline oxide formation.

  4. Final Report: Multi-Scale Analysis of Deformation and Failure in Polycrystalline Titanium Alloys Under High Strain-Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-28

    element simulations of polycrystalline Tita - nium alloys. Jour. Mech. Phys. Solids, 59(10):2157–2176, 2011. 5. S. Ghosh and M. Anahid. Homogenized...2013) 111 – 124. [72] P. Shade, Private communication. [73] H. Ogi, S. Kai, H. Ledbetter, R. Tarumi, M. Hirao, K. Takashima, Tita - niums high-temperature

  5. Selective Internal Oxidation and Severe Plastic Deformation of Multiphase Fe-Y Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachur, Stephen J.

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are known for their desirable mechanical properties and unique microstructures. These alloys are characterized by an even dispersion of oxide phase throughout a metallic matrix, and exhibit high strength and enhanced creep properties at elevated temperatures. This makes them ideal candidate materials for use in many structural applications, such as coal-fired power plants or in next generation nuclear reactors. Currently most often produced by mechanical alloying, a powder metallurgy based process that utilizes high energy ball milling, these alloys are difficult and costly to produce. One proposed method for forming ODS alloys without high-energy ball milling is to internally oxidize a bulk alloy before subjecting it to severe plastic deformation to induce an even oxide distribution. This work examines such a processing scheme with a focus on the internal oxidation behavior. Internal oxidation has been shown to occur orders of magnitude faster than expected in multi-phase alloys where a highly reactive oxidizable solute has negligible solubility and diffusivity in other, more-noble, phases. Commonly referred to as in situ oxidation, this accelerated oxidation process has potential for use in a processing scheme for ODS alloys. While in situ oxidation has been observed in many different alloy systems, a comprehensive study of alloy composition and microstructure has not been performed to describe the unusual oxidation rates. This work used Fe-Y binary alloys as model system to study effects of composition and microstructure. These alloys have been shown to exhibit in situ oxidation, and additionally, Y is typically introduced during mechanical alloying to form Y-rich oxides in Fe-based ODS alloys. Alloys with Y content between 1.5 and 15 wt% were prepared using a laboratory scale arc-melting furnace. These alloys were two phase mixtures of Fe and Fe17Y2. First, samples were oxidized between 600 and 800 °C for 2 to 72

  6. Near-infrared light absorption by polycrystalline SiSn alloys grown on insulating layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Masashi, E-mail: kurosawa@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); JSPS, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Kato, Motohiro; Yamaha, Takashi; Taoka, Noriyuki; Nakatsuka, Osamu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Zaima, Shigeaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-04-27

    High-Sn-content SiSn alloys are strongly desired for the next-generation near-infrared optoelectronics. A polycrystalline growth study has been conducted on amorphous SiSn layers with a Sn-content of 2%–30% deposited on either a substrate of SiO{sub 2} or SiN. Incorporating 30% Sn into Si permits the crystallization of the amorphous layers at annealing temperatures below the melting point of Sn (231.9 °C). Composition analyses indicate that approximately 20% of the Sn atoms are substituted into the Si lattice after solid-phase crystallization at 150–220 °C for 5 h. Correspondingly, the optical absorption edge is red-shifted from 1.12 eV (Si) to 0.83 eV (Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (x ≈ 0.18 ± 0.04)), and the difference between the indirect and direct band gap is significantly reduced from 3.1 eV (Si) to 0.22 eV (Si{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (x ≈ 0.18 ± 0.04)). These results suggest that with higher substitutional Sn content the SiSn alloys could become a direct band-gap material, which would provide benefits for Si photonics.

  7. Non-destructive identification of unknown minor phases in polycrystalline bulk alloys using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yiming, E-mail: yangyiming1988@outlook.com [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Liang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Yudan; Du, Guohao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yang, Sam [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Melbourne, VIC 3168 (Australia); Xiao, Tiqiao, E-mail: tqxiao@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Minor phases make considerable contributions to the mechanical and physical properties of metals and alloys. Unfortunately, it is difficult to identify unknown minor phases in a bulk polycrystalline material using conventional metallographic methods. Here, a non-destructive method based on three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) is developed to solve this problem. Simulation results demonstrate that this method is simultaneously able to identify minor phase grains and reveal their positions, orientations and sizes within bulk alloys. According to systematic simulations, the 3DXRD method is practicable for an extensive sample set, including polycrystalline alloys with hexagonal, orthorhombic and cubic minor phases. Experiments were also conducted to confirm the simulation results. The results for a bulk sample of aluminum alloy AA6061 show that the crystal grains of an unexpected γ-Fe (austenite) phase can be identified, three-dimensionally and nondestructively. Therefore, we conclude that the 3DXRD method is a powerful tool for the identification of unknown minor phases in bulk alloys belonging to a variety of crystal systems. This method also has the potential to be used for in situ observations of the effects of minor phases on the crystallographic behaviors of alloys. - Highlights: •A method based on 3DXRD is developed for identification of unknown minor phase. •Grain position, orientation and size, is simultaneously acquired. •A systematic simulation demonstrated the applicability of the proposed method. •Experimental results on a AA6061 sample confirmed the practicability of the method.

  8. Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructure and deformation behaviour of mono- and polycrystalline molybdenum and its alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Evans, J.H.; Horsewell, A.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of neutron irradiation on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of mono- and polycrystalline molybdenum and its alloys has been investigated. Tensile specimens and 3 mm diameter discs of monocrystals of pure molybdenum and Mo-5%Re were irradiated with fission neutrons...... microscopy are presented and discussed in terms of intracascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms and the role of one-dimensional glide of these clusters in controlling microstructural evolution and the resulting mechanical properties....

  9. Clean Grain Boundary Found in C14/Body-Center-Cubic Multi-Phase Metal Hydride Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Ting Shen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The grain boundaries of three Laves phase-related body-center-cubic (bcc solid-solution, metal hydride (MH alloys with different phase abundances were closely examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and more importantly, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD techniques. By using EBSD, we were able to identify the alignment of the crystallographic orientations of the three major phases in the alloys (C14, bcc, and B2 structures. This finding confirms the presence of crystallographically sharp interfaces between neighboring phases, which is a basic assumption for synergetic effects in a multi-phase MH system.

  10. X-ray measurements of elastic deformation of individual crystallites in polycrystalline Al-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroshi; Urashima, Ken-ichi; Miyawaki, Noburo; Yoshikawa, Keiji

    1982-01-01

    Equations and angular limits for X-ray stress measurements of individual crystallites in polycrystalline aggregates are obtained, and the stresses in grains of Al-4 -- 5 mass% Cu alloys containing large grains are measured under tension to compare the analytical results. Stresses in grains are not affected by the aging treatment, but diffraction spots are blurred out by the eigen strain occurred during the aging. Deviation angles theta 1 of the principal stress from the tensile direction have a linear relation to the shear factor F sub(S), which consists of the direction cosines of axes of the specimen with respect to axes of the crystallographic grain, and the proportional constant α is about 10 0 . The principal stress σ 1 is not affected by the factor F sub(S). Stress distributions are numerically analized for rectangular grains to clarify quantitatively the relations obtained experimentally. Numerical results also show the linear relation between the angle theta 1 and the factor F sub(S). The proportional constant α increases from zero to a constant αinfinity with the ratio R of the width to the length of the grain. The principal stress σ 1 is not affected by the shear factor F sub(S), but varies with the ratio R. (author)

  11. Tungsten silicide contacts to polycrystalline silicon and silicon-germanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Bain, M.F.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Baine, P.; Armstrong, B.M.; Gamble, H.S.; McNeill, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Silicon-germanium alloy layers will be employed in the source-drain engineering of future MOS transistors. The use of this technology offers advantages in reducing series resistance and decreasing junction depth resulting in reduction in punch-through and SCE problems. The contact resistance of metal or metal silicides to the raised source-drain material is a serious issue at sub-micron dimensions and must be minimised. In this work, tungsten silicide produced by chemical vapour deposition has been investigated as a contact metallization scheme to both boron and phosphorus doped polycrystalline Si 1- x Ge x , with 0 ≤x ≤ 0.3. Cross bridge Kelvin resistor (CKBR) structures were fabricated incorporating CVD WSi 2 and polycrystalline SiGe. Tungsten silicide contacts to control polysilicon CKBR structures have been shown to be of high quality with specific contact resistance ρ c values 3 x 10 -7 ohm cm 2 and 6 x 10 -7 ohm cm 2 obtained to boron and phosphorus implanted samples respectively. The SiGe CKBR structures show that the inclusion of Ge yields a reduction in ρ c for both dopant types. The boron doped SiGe exhibits a reduction in ρ c from 3 x 10 -7 to 5 x 10 -8 ohm cm 2 as Ge fraction is increased from 0 to 0.3. The reduction in ρ c has been shown to be due to (i) the lowering of the tungsten silicide Schottky barrier height to p-type SiGe resulting from the energy band gap reduction, and (ii) increased activation of the implanted boron with increased Ge fraction. The phosphorus implanted samples show less sensitivity of ρ c to Ge fraction with a lowest value in this work of 3 x 10 -7 ohm cm 2 for a Ge fraction of 0.3. The reduction in specific contact resistance to the phosphorus implanted samples has been shown to be due to increased dopant activation alone

  12. Thin polycrystalline diamond films protecting zirconium alloys surfaces: From technology to layer analysis and application in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcheulov, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technická 4, Prague 6, CZ-160 07 (Czech Republic); Taylor, A.; Fekete, L.; Fendrych, F. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vega, R.; Shao, L. [Texas A& M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering TAMU-3133, College Station, TX TX 77843 (United States); Kalvoda, L.; Vratislav, S. [Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Cháb, V.; Horáková, K.; Kůsová, K.; Klimša, L.; Kopeček, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Sajdl, P.; Macák, J. [University of Chemistry and Technology, Power Engineering Department, Technická 3, Prague 6, CZ-166 28 (Czech Republic); Johnson, S. [Nuclear Fuel Division, Westinghouse Electric Company, 5801 Bluff Road, Hopkins, SC 29209 (United States); Kratochvílová, I., E-mail: krat@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In this work we showed that films prepared by MW-LA-PECVD technology can be used as anticorrosion protective layer for Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings at elevated temperatures (950 °C) when α phase of zirconium changes to β phase (more opened for oxygen/hydrogen diffusion). Quality of PCD films was examined by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM, AFM and SIMS analysis. • The polycrystalline diamond films were of high quality - without defects and contaminations. After hot steam oxidation (950 °C) a high level of structural integrity of PCD layer was observed. Both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} C phases were present in the protective PCD layer. Higher resistance and a lower degree of impedance dispersion was found in the hot steam oxidized PCD coated Zircaloy2 samples, which may suggest better protection of the Zircaloy2 surface. The PCD layer blocks the hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface thus protecting the material from degradation. • Hot steam oxidation tests confirmed that PCD coated Zircaloy2 surfaces were effectively protected against corrosion. Presented results demonstrate that the PCD anticorrosion protection can significantly prolong service life of Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings in nuclear reactors even at elevated temperatures. - Abstract: Zirconium alloys can be effectively protected against corrosion by polycrystalline diamond (PCD) layers grown in microwave plasma enhanced linear antenna chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Standard and hot steam oxidized PCD layers grown on Zircaloy2 surfaces were examined and the specific impact of polycrystalline Zr substrate surface on PCD layer properties was investigated. It was found that the presence of the PCD coating blocks hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface and protects Zircaloy2 material from degradation. PCD anticorrosion protection of Zircaloy2 can significantly prolong life of Zircaloy2 material in nuclear reactors even at temperatures above Zr

  13. Correlation between electron work functions of multiphase Cu-8Mn-8Al and de-alloying corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punburi, P.; Tareelap, N.; Srisukhumbowornchai, N.; Euaruksakul, C.; Yordsri, V.

    2018-05-01

    Low energy electron emission microscopy (LEEM) was used to measure local transition energy that was directly correlated to electron work function (EWF) of multiphase manganese-aluminum bronze alloys. We developed color mapping to distinguish the EWF of multiple phases and clarified that the EWF were in the following order: EWF of α > EWF of β > EWF of κ (EWFα > EWFβ > EWFκ). De-alloying corrosion took place due to the micro-galvanic cell at grain boundaries before it propagated into the β phase that had lower EWF than the α phase. The α phase was a stable phase because it contained high Cu while the β phase contained high Al and Mn. In addition, XRD analysis showed that the texture coefficient of the β phase revealed that almost all of the grains had (2 2 0) orientation, the lowest EWF compared to (1 1 1) and (2 0 0). Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy illustrated that there were fine Cu3Mn2Al precipitates in the Cu2MnAl matrix of the β phase. These precipitates formed micro-galvanic cells which played an important role in accelerating de-alloying corrosion.

  14. In-situ white beam microdiffraction study of the deformation behavior in polycrystalline magnesium alloy during uniaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Light Source; Tamura, Nobumichi; Lynch, P.A.; Stevenson, A.W.; Liang, D.; Parry, D.; Wilkins, S.; Madsen, I.C.; Bettles, C.; Tamura, N.; Geandier, G.

    2007-01-01

    Scanning white beam X-ray microdiffraction has been used to study the heterogeneous grain deformation in a polycrystalline Mg alloy (MgAZ31). The high spatial resolution achieved on beamline 7.3.3 at the Advanced Light Source provides a unique method to measure the elastic strain and orientation of single grains as a function of applied load. To carry out in-situ measurements a light weight (∼0.5kg) tensile stage, capable of providing uniaxial loads of up to 600kg, was designed to collect diffraction data on the loading and unloading cycle. In-situ observation of the deformation process provides insight about the crystallographic deformation mode via twinning and dislocation slip

  15. Macroscopic and Microstructural Aspects of the Transformation Behavior in a Polycrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane; Noebe, Ronald D.; Padula, Santo A., II; Lerch, Bradley A.; Bigelow, Glen S.; Gaydosh, Darrell J.; Garg, Anita; An, Ke; Vaidyanathan, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical and microstructural behavior of a polycrystalline Ni(49.9)Ti(50.1) (at.%) shape memory alloy was investigated as a function of temperature around the transformation regime. The bulk macroscopic responses, measured using ex situ tensile deformation and impulse excitation tests, were compared to the microstructural evolution captured using in situ neutron diffraction. The onset stress for inelastic deformation and dynamic Young's modulus were found to decrease with temperature, in the martensite regime, reaching a significant minimum at approximately 80 C followed by an increase in both properties, attributed to the martensite to austenite transformation. The initial decrease in material compliance during heating affected the ease with which martensite reorientation and detwinning could occur, ultimately impacting the stress for inelastic deformation prior to the start of the reverse transformation.

  16. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...... structure are summarized and the behavior of a number of metals and alloys is reviewed with emphasis on the structural changes in the interior of the grains and in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The models for strain accommodation during deformation are discussed on the basis of the microstructures...

  17. Hot-working behavior of an advanced intermetallic multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaighofer, Emanuel, E-mail: emanuel.schwaighofer@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Clemens, Helmut [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Lindemann, Janny [Chair of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Technology, Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 17, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); GfE Fremat GmbH, Lessingstr. 41, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Stark, Andreas [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Mayer, Svea [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2014-09-22

    deformation within the (α+β) phase field region, leading to refined and nearly texture-free α/α{sub 2}-grains. In conclusion, robust deformation parameters for the refinement of critical microstructural defects could be defined for the investigated multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy.

  18. Hot-working behavior of an advanced intermetallic multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaighofer, Emanuel; Clemens, Helmut; Lindemann, Janny; Stark, Andreas; Mayer, Svea

    2014-01-01

    the (α+β) phase field region, leading to refined and nearly texture-free α/α 2 -grains. In conclusion, robust deformation parameters for the refinement of critical microstructural defects could be defined for the investigated multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

  19. Achieving a table-like magnetocaloric effect and large refrigerant capacity in in situ multiphase Gd65Mn25Si10 alloys obtained by crystallization treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, X Y; Zhong, X C; Huang, X W; Mo, H Y; Feng, X L; Liu, Z W; Jiao, D L

    2017-01-01

    In situ multiphase structure Gd 65 Mn 25 Si 10 alloys were fabricated by melt spinning and subsequent crystallization treatment. In the process of crystallization, the α -Gd, GdMn 2 and Gd 5 Si 3 phases precipitate in the amorphous matrix in turn. The Curie temperature ( T C ) values for the α -Gd crystallization phase and amorphous matrix can be tailored by tuning the crystallization treatment time. All three multiphase alloys obtained by crystallization treatment at 637 K for 20, 30 and 40 min, respectively, undergo multiple successive magnetic phase transitions. A table-like magnetic entropy change over a wide temperature range (∼90–120 K) and a large full width at half maximum (Δ T FWHM ) magnetic entropy change (∼230 K) were achieved in the above-mentioned crystallized alloys, resulting in large refrigerant capacities (RCs). The enhanced RCs of the three crystallized alloys for a magnetic field change of 0–5 T are in the range of 541–614 J kg −1 . Large Δ T FWHM and RC values and a table-like (−Δ S M ) max feature obtained in in situ multiphase Gd 65 Mn 25 Si 10 crystallized alloys make them suitable for potential application in efficient Ericsson-cycle magnetic refrigeration working in a temperature range from 74 to 310 K. (paper)

  20. Deformation and Phase Transformation Processes in Polycrystalline NiTi and NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane

    2012-01-01

    The deformation and transformation mechanisms of polycrystalline Ni49.9Ti50.1 and Ni50.3Ti29.7Hf20 (in at.%) shape memory alloys were investigated by combined experimental and modeling efforts aided by an in situ neutron diffraction technique at stress and temperature. The thermomechanical response of the low temperature martensite, the high temperature austenite phases, and changes between these two states during thermomechanical cycling were probed and reported. In the cubic austenite phase, stress-induced martensite, deformation twinning and slip processes were observed which helped in constructing a deformation map that contained the limits over which each of the identified mechanisms was dominant. Deformation of the monoclinic martensitic phase was also investigated where the microstructural changes (texture, lattice strains, and phase fractions) during room-temperature deformation and subsequent thermal cycling were compared to the bulk macroscopic response. When cycling between these two phases, the evolution of inelastic strains, along with the shape setting procedures were examined and used for the optimization of the transformation properties as a function of deformation levels and temperatures. Finally, this work was extended to the development of multiaxial capabilities at elevated temperatures for the in situ neutron diffraction measurements of shape memory alloys on the VULCAN Diffractometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  1. Shape memory behavior of single and polycrystalline nickel rich nickel titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Irfan

    NiTi is the most commonly used shape memory alloy (SMA) and has been widely used for bio-medical, electrical and mechanical applications. Nickel rich NiTi shape memory alloys are coming into prominence due to their distinct superelasticity and shape memory properties as compared to near equi-atomic NiTi shape memory alloys. Besides, their lower density and higher work output than steels makes these alloys an excellent candidate for aerospace and automotive industry. Shape memory properties and phase transformation behavior of high Ni-rich Ni54Ti46 (at.%) polycrystals and Ni-rich Ni 51Ti49 (at.%) single-crystals are determined. Their properties are sensitive to heat treatments that affect the phase transformation behavior of these alloys. Phase transformation properties and microstructure were investigated in aged Ni54Ti46 alloys with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to reveal the precipitation characteristics and R-phase formation. It was found that Ni54Ti46 has the ability to exhibit perfect superelasticity under high stress levels (~2 GPa) with 4% total strain after 550°C-3h aging. Stress independent R-phase transformation was found to be responsible for the change in shape memory behavior with stress. The shape memory responses of [001], [011] and [111] oriented Ni 51Ti49 single-crystals alloy were reported under compression to reveal the orientation dependence of their shape memory behavior. It has been found that transformation strain, temperatures and hysteresis, Classius-Clapeyron slopes, critical stress for plastic deformation are highly orientation dependent. The effects of precipitation formation and compressive loading at selected temperatures on the two-way shape memory effect (TWSME) properties of a [111]- oriented Ni51Ti49 shape memory alloy were revealed. Additionally, aligned Ni4Ti3 precipitates were formed in a single crystal of Ni51Ti49 alloy by aging under applied compression stress along the

  2. Influence of strain and polycrystalline ordering on magnetic properties of high moment rare earth metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, G; Ward, C; Hendren, W R; Bowman, R M; Lapicki, A A; Hardeman, R; Mooney, M; Gubbins, M

    2014-01-01

    Despite being the most suitable candidates for solenoid pole pieces in state-of-the-art superconductor-based electromagnets, the intrinsic magnetic properties of heavy rare earth metals and their alloys have gained comparatively little attention. With the potential of integration in micro and nanoscale devices, thin films of Gd, Dy, Tb, DyGd and DyTb were plasma-sputtered and investigated for their in-plane magnetic properties, with an emphasis on magnetization versus temperature profiles. Based on crystal structure analysis of the polycrystalline rare earth films, which consist of a low magnetic moment fcc layer at the seed interface topped with a higher moment hcp layer, an experimental protocol is introduced which allows the direct magnetic analysis of the individual layers. In line with the general trend of heavy lanthanides, the saturation magnetization was found to drop with increasing unit cell size. In situ annealed rare earth films exceeded the saturation magnetization of a high-moment Fe 65 Co 35 reference film in the cryogenic temperature regime, proving their potential for pole piece applications; however as-deposited rare earth films were found completely unsuitable. In agreement with theoretical predictions, sufficiently strained crystal phases of Tb and Dy did not exhibit an incommensurate magnetic order, unlike their single-crystal counterparts which have a helical phase. DyGd and DyTb alloys followed the trends of the elemental rare earth metals in terms of crystal structure and magnetic properties. Inter-rare-earth alloys hence present a desirable blend of saturation magnetization and operating temperature. (paper)

  3. Phase and microstructural characterization of Mo–Si–B multiphase intermetallic alloys produced by pressureless sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleghani, P.R.; Bakhshi, S.R.; Borhani, G.H.; Erfanmanesh, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Active and ultra-fine Mo–Si–B powders were produced by mechanical alloying. • The phases of MoSi 2 and MoB were obtained by sintering Mo–57Si–10B at 1400 °C for 2 h. • Composite based on MoB/MoSi 2 was obtained by sintering Mo–47Si–23B at 1300 °C for 3 h. • High content of MoB in the composite based on MoB/MoSi 2 increased density. • High hardness of the composite based on MoB/MoSi 2 is related to MoB matrix. -- Abstract: In this study Mo–47Si–23B and Mo–57Si–10B powders (at.%) was milled for 20 h in attritor ball mill with a rotational speed of 365 rpm and the ball/powder mass ratio 20/1. After degassing of As-mechanically alloyed powders at 450 °C, the powders were pressed into cylindrical samples with 25 mm diameter under 600 MPa pressure. The samples were sintered by using of a tube resistance furnace under Ar atmosphere. Phase and microstructure characteristic of mechanically alloyed powders and sintered samples, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Also hardness test was performed. Homogeneous distribution of active and ultra-fine powders were obtained after milling for 20 h. Mo–57Si–10B alloy with MoB and MoSi 2 dominant phases was produced by sintering at 1400 °C for 2 h. Dominant phases similar to Mo–57Si–10B alloy sintered at 1400 °C for 2 h could be synthesized in Mo–47Si–23B alloy after sintering at 1300 °C for 3 h, but volume fraction of MoB phase was different. The Mo–47Si–23B alloy contained a higher phase fraction of MoB compound as compared to Mo–57Si–10B alloy. Very high density in Mo–47Si–23B alloys was obtained, due to the presence of high volume fraction of MoB phase. Formation heat of MoB acted as a positive potential to increase driving force of sintering and consequently bulk density. Finally, a uniform and fine distribution of MoSi 2 particles in MoB continuous matrix in the microstructure of Mo-47Si

  4. The influence of surface microchemistry in protective film formation on multi-phase magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray-Munro, J.E.; Luan, B.; Huntington, L.

    2008-01-01

    The high strength:weight ratio of magnesium alloys makes them an ideal metal for automotive and aerospace applications where weight reduction is of significant concern. Unfortunately, magnesium alloys are highly susceptible to corrosion particularly in salt-spray conditions. This has limited their use in the automotive and aerospace industries, where exposure to harsh service conditions is unavoidable. The simplest way to avoid corrosion is to coat the magnesium-based substrate by a process such as electroless plating, which is a low-cost, non line of sight process. Magnesium is classified as a difficult to plate metal due to its high reactivity. This means that in the presence of air magnesium very quickly forms a passive oxide layer that must be removed prior to plating. Furthermore, high aluminium content alloys are especially difficult to plate due to the formation of intermetallic species at the grain boundaries, resulting in a non-uniform surface potential across the substrate and thereby further complicating the plating process. The objective of this study is to understand how the magnesium alloy microstructure influences the surface chemistry of the alloy during both pretreatment and immersion copper coating of the substrate. A combination of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning Auger microscopy has been used to study the surface chemistry at the various stages of the coating process. Our results indicate that the surface chemistry of the alloy is different on the aluminum rich β phase of the material compared to the magnesium matrix which leads to preferential deposition of the metal on the aluminum rich phase of the alloy

  5. Multiphase Model of Semisolid Slurry Generation and Isothermal Holding During Cooling Slope Rheoprocessing of A356 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prosenjit; Samanta, Sudip K.; Mondal, Biswanath; Dutta, Pradip

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, we present an experimentally validated 3D multiphase and multiscale solidification model to understand the transport processes involved during slurry generation with a cooling slope. In this process, superheated liquid alloy is poured at the top of the cooling slope and allowed to flow along the slope under the influence of gravity. As the melt flows down the slope, it progressively loses its superheat, starts solidifying at the melt/slope interface with formation of solid crystals, and eventually exits the slope as semisolid slurry. In the present simulation, the three phases considered are the parent melt as the primary phase, and the solid grains and air as secondary phases. The air phase forms a definable air/liquid melt interface as the free surface. After exiting the slope, the slurry fills an isothermal holding bath maintained at the slope exit temperature, which promotes further globularization of microstructure. The outcomes of the present model include prediction of volume fractions of the three different phases considered, grain evolution, grain growth, size, sphericity and distribution of solid grains, temperature field, velocity field, macrosegregation and microsegregation. In addition, the model is found to be capable of making predictions of morphological evolution of primary grains at the onset of isothermal coarsening. The results obtained from the present simulations are validated by performing quantitative image analysis of micrographs of the rapidly oil-quenched semisolid slurry samples, collected from strategic locations along the slope and from the isothermal slurry holding bath.

  6. Polycrystalline models for the calculation of residual stresses in zirconium alloys tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signorelli, J.W.; Turner, P.A.; Lebensohn, R.A.; Pochettino, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tubes made of different Zirconium alloys are used in various types of reactors. The final texture of tubes as well as the distribution of residual stresses depend on the mechanical treatments done during their manufacturing process. The knowledge and prediction of both the final texture and the distribution of residual stresses in a tube for nuclear applications are of outstanding importance in relation with in-reactor performance of the tube, especially in what concerns to its irradiation creep and growth behaviour. The viscoplastic and the elastoplastic self consistent polycrystal models are used to investigate the influence of different mechanical treatments, performed during rolling processes on the final distribution of intergranular residual stresses of zirconium alloys tubes. The residual strains predictions with both formulations show a non linear dependence with the orientation, but they are qualitatively different. This discrepancy could be explain in terms of the relative plastic activity between the -type and -type deformation modes predicted with the viscoplastic and elastoplastic models. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Microstructure-sensitive modelling of dislocation creep in polycrystalline FCC alloys: Orowan theory revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo-Nava, E.I., E-mail: eg375@cam.ac.uk; Rae, C.M.F.

    2016-01-10

    A new approach for modelling dislocation creep during primary and secondary creep in FCC metals is proposed. The Orowan equation and dislocation behaviour at the grain scale are revisited to include the effects of different microstructures such as the grain size and solute atoms. Dislocation activity is proposed to follow a jog-diffusion law. It is shown that the activation energy for cross-slip E{sub cs} controls dislocation mobility and the strain increments during secondary creep. This is confirmed by successfully comparing E{sub cs} with the experimentally determined activation energy during secondary creep in 5 FCC metals. It is shown that the inverse relationship between the grain size and dislocation creep is attributed to the higher number of strain increments at the grain level dominating their magnitude as the grain size decreases. An alternative approach describing solid solution strengthening effects in nickel alloys is presented, where the dislocation mobility is reduced by dislocation pinning around solute atoms. An analysis on the solid solution strengthening effects of typical elements employed in Ni-base superalloys is also discussed. The model results are validated against measurements of Cu, Ni, Ti and 4 Ni-base alloys for wide deformation conditions and different grain sizes.

  8. Technics Research on Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride Cutting Tools Dry Turning Ti-6AL-4V Alloy Based on Orthogonal Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yunhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V components are the most widely used titanium alloy products not only in the aerospace industry, but also for bio-medical applications. The machine-ability of titanium alloys is impaired by their high temperature chemical reactivity, low thermal conductivity and low modulus of elasticity. Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride represents a substitute tool material for turning titanium alloys due to its high hardness, wear resistance, thermal stability and hot red hardness. For determination of suitable cutting parameters in dry turning Ti-6AL-4V alloy by Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tools, the samples, 300mm in length and 100mm in diameter, were dry machined in a lathe. The turning suitable parameters, such as cutting speed, feed rate and cut depth were determined according to workpieces surface roughness and tools flank wear based on orthogonal experimental design. The experiment showed that the cutting speed in the range of 160~180 m/min, the feed rate is 0.15 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 0.20mm, ideal workpiece surface roughness and little cutting tools flank wear can be obtained.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Multi-Phase High-Entropy Alloys for Nuclear Component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    In recent years, high entropy alloys (HEAs), composed of four or more metallic elements mixed in equal or near equal atomic percent, have attracted significant attention due to their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. They show significant promise as candidates for high temperature fission and fusion structural applications. However, the conventional synthesis methods are unlikely to present an industrially suitable route for the production and use of HEAs. Recognizing rapidly evolving additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, the goal of this proposal is to optimize the AM process to fabricate HEAs with predesigned chemical compositions and phase morphologies for nuclear components. For this project, two HEAs FeCrNiMn and FeCrNiMnAl have been successfully synthesized. Correlated mechanical response has been systematically characterized under a variety of laser processing and ion irradiations. Both high entropy alloys are found to present comparable swelling and extraordinary irradiation tolerance (limited voids and stabilized phase structure under high irradiation dose). In addition, the microstructure and radiation-induced hardening can be tailored by laser processing under additive manufacturing. And we have assembled at LANL a unique database of HEAs containing a total of 674 compositions with Phase Stability information. Based on this, the machine learning and Artificial Intelligence capability now are established to predict the microstructure of casted HEAs by given chemical compositions. This unique integration will lead to an optimal AM recipe for fabricating radiation tolerant HEAs. The development of both modeling models and experimental capability will also benefit other programs at LANL.

  10. Synthesis of c-oriented YbBa2Cu3O7-δ films on single and polycrystalline substrates by oxidation of liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J.S.; Merchant, N.; Maroni, V.A.; Gruen, D.M.; Tani, B.S.; Sandhage, K.H.; Craven, C.A.

    1991-11-01

    Textured superconducting films of YbBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ supported on single and polycrystalline substrates were prepared by oxidation of a liquid precursor alloy. The substrates were coated by dipping them into a molten alloy (YbBa 2 Cu 3 , m.p. ∼870 degree C), withdrawing them from the melt, then oxidizing the adhering liquid alloy layer to the corresponding oxide phase, i.e., YbBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ . Samples prepared in this way exhibited a superconducting transition at ∼80 K following annealing in pure OP 2 at 500 degree C. With SrTiO 3 (100) and MgO (100) substrates, evidence was seen for the epitaxial growth of YbBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ crystals having their c-axis parallel to the [100] direction of the substrate. For polycrystalline MgO, x-ray diffraction and microstructural examination showed that the high-T c crystallites in the films were also oriented with their c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface, but the a and b axes directions were randomly oriented rather than epitaxial

  11. Structure and magnetoresistive properties of current-perpendicular-to-plane pseudo-spin valves using polycrystalline Co2Fe-based Heusler alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, T.M.; Du, Ye; Takahashi, Y.K.; Furubayashi, T.; Hono, K.

    2013-01-01

    We report current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP–GMR) of pseudo-spin valves (PSVs) with polycrystalline Co 2 Fe(Al 0.5 Si 0.5 ) (CFAS) and Co 2 Fe(Ga 0.5 Ge 0.5 ) (CFGG) Heusler alloy films. Strongly [0 1 1] textured polycrystalline Heusler alloy films grew on the Ta/Ru/Ag underlayer. Relatively large CPP–GMR values of ΔRA up to 4 mΩ μm 2 and ΔR/R up to 10% were obtained with 5 nm thick Heusler alloy films and Ag spacer layer by annealing CFAS PSV at 450 °C and CFGG PSV at 350 °C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a flat and sharp interface between the [0 1 1] textured CFAS layers and the [1 1 1] textured Ag spacer layer. Annealing above an optimal temperature for each PSV led to reductions in MR values as a result of the thickening of the spacer layer induced by the Ag diffusion from the outer Ag layers

  12. Strain-hardening behavior and microstructure development in polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with LPSO phase subjected to cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Kazuma [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mayama, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: mayama@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Yamasaki, Michiaki [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawamura, Yoshihito [Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    The strain-hardening behavior and microstructural development of polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with various volume fractions of the long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase subjected to cyclic loading were experimentally evaluated. For all alloys, cyclic loading tests with a constant strain amplitude of 0.5% for up to 100 cycles showed asymmetric cyclic hardening behavior. That is, the absolute value of the compressive peak stress significantly increased during cyclic loading while the tensile peak stress slightly decreased. With increasing volume fraction of the LPSO phase, the stress amplitude significantly increased. Cyclic loading tests after compressive preloading up to 200 or 250 MPa resulted in a significant increase in the stress amplitude, while a number of kink bands developed during preloading. For the cyclic hardening behavior, the contribution of the increase in kinematic hardening was significant in the alloys with a higher volume fraction of the LPSO phase. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the cyclically deformed Mg{sub 85}Zn{sub 6}Y{sub 9} alloy indicated the formation of a deformation-induced band, where the crystal structure was transformed from 18R-LPSO to hcp-Mg with the exclusion of solute elements.

  13. Three-dimensional rigid multiphase networks providing high-temperature strength to cast AlSi10Cu5Ni1-2 piston alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, Z.; Requena, G.; Boller, E.

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) architecture of rigid multiphase networks present in AlSi10Cu5Ni1 and AlSi10Cu5Ni2 piston alloys in as-cast condition and after 4 h spheroidization treatment is characterized by synchrotron tomography in terms of the volume fraction of rigid phases, interconnectivity, contiguity and morphology. The architecture of both alloys consists of α-Al matrix and a rigid long-range 3-D network of Al 7 Cu 4 Ni, Al 4 Cu 2 Mg 8 Si 7 , Al 2 Cu, Al 15 Si 2 (FeMn) 3 and AlSiFeNiCu aluminides and Si. The investigated architectural parameters of both alloys studied are correlated with room-temperature and high-temperature (300 deg. C) strengths as a function of solution treatment time. The AlSi10Cu5Ni1 and AlSi10Cu5Ni2 alloys behave like metal matrix composites with 16 and 20 vol.% reinforcement, respectively. Both alloys have similar strengths in the as-cast condition, but the AlSi10Cu5Ni2 is able to retain ∼15% higher high temperature strength than the AlSi10Cu5Ni1 alloy after more than 4 h of spheroidization treatment. This is due to the preservation of the 3-D interconnectivity and the morphology of the rigid network, which is governed by the higher degree of contiguity between aluminides and Si.

  14. Improvement in ductility of high strength polycrystalline Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy produced by EB-PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.Y.; Pei, Y.L.; Li, S.S.; Zhang, H.; Gong, S.K., E-mail: gongsk@buaa.edu.cn

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • High strength and high ductility of polycrystalline Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy sheets were produced. • The elongation could be enhanced from ∼0.5% to ∼14.6% by microstructural control. • The fracture strength (∼820 MPa) was enhanced by the precipitation strengthening. • This work provides a general processing for repairing the worn single crystal blades. - Abstract: A 300 μm Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al sheet was produced by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and followed by different heat treatments to obtain fine γ′/γ two-phase structures with large elongation. Tensile testing was performed at room-temperature, and the corresponding mechanisms were investigated in detail. Results indicated that the as-deposited Ni{sub 3}Al alloy exhibited non-equilibrium directional columnar crystal, and transited to equiaxed crystal with uniformly distributed tough γ phase after heat treatment. Meanwhile, the fracture mechanism transited from brittleness to a mixture of ductility and brittleness modes. With an appropriate heat treatment, high strength (ultimate tensile strength obtained 828 MPa) and high ductility (elongation obtained 14.6%) Ni{sub 3}Al alloy has been achieved, which was due to the mesh network microstructure. A series of transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterizations confirmed that the increasing flow stress of Ni{sub 3}Al alloy was attributed to the cubical secondary γ′ phase precipitates (25–50 nm) within the γ phase. This work provides a potential strategy for repairing the worn tip of single crystal engine blades using Ni-rich Ni{sub 3}Al alloy by EB-PVD.

  15. Development of a stress-induced martensitic transformation criterion for a Cu–Al–Be polycrystalline shape memory alloy undergoing uniaxial tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Castillo, F.N.; Cortés-Pérez, J.; Amigó, V.; Sánchez-Arévalo, F.M.; Lara-Rodríguez, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a criterion for predicting the martensitic variants (MVs) that appear during the stress-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT) in a polycrystalline sample of Cu–11.5% wt. Al–0.5% wt. Be under simple tension. Our criterion is based on crystallographic parameters, such as the crystal orientation and Schmid factor (SF). The displacement vector fields (DVFs) were obtained in the observation system by a mathematical model and were used to distort the boundary of a set of grains. From the DVF, the strain tensor for each grain was obtained, and the strain ratio (SR) in the observation system was calculated. Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed to determine the crystal orientation of the grains. The inverse SF was used to determine the in-plane stress transformation diagrams (STDs) for each studied grain. The combination of a balance criterion (BC) and STD provided a criterion that allowed us to predict the possible order of stress-induced MVs formed as a function of the crystal orientation and thermomechanical parameters of the shape memory alloy (SMA) with higher accuracy than when using the criteria separately. To validate our criteria, we tested other researchers’ published results. Our results were in agreement and were capable of predicting the stress-induced MVs in a polycrystalline SMA

  16. Thin polycrystalline diamond films protecting zirconium alloys surfaces: from technology to layer analysis and application in nuclear facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ashcheulov, Petr; Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J.; Taylor, Andrew; Fekete, Ladislav; Fendrych, František; Vega, R.; Shao, L.; Kalvoda, L.; Vratislav, S.; Cháb, Vladimír; Horáková, K.; Kůsová, Kateřina; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Sajdl, P.; Macák, J.; Johnson, S.; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 359, Dec (2015), s. 621-628 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S; GA TA ČR TA04020156; GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029 Grant - others:SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : metal coatings * thin polycrystalline diamond film * impedance spectroscopy * Raman spectroscopy * XPS Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2015

  17. Precipitation of Ni4Ti3-variants in a polycrystalline Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bojda, Ondřej; Eggeler, G.; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2005), s. 99-104 ISSN 1359-6462 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0918 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NiTi shape memory alloys * Ni4Ti3 precipitation * Transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2005

  18. Multiscale Modeling of Polycrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloy under Various Plastic Deformation Conditions by Coupling Microstructure Evolution and Macroscopic Mechanical Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhou, Tao; Tu, Jian; Shi, Laixin; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Mingbo

    2017-10-13

    Numerical modeling of microstructure evolution in various regions during uniaxial compression and canning compression of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) are studied through combined macroscopic and microscopic finite element simulation in order to investigate plastic deformation of NiTi SMA at 400 °C. In this approach, the macroscale material behavior is modeled with a relatively coarse finite element mesh, and then the corresponding deformation history in some selected regions in this mesh is extracted by the sub-model technique of finite element code ABAQUS and subsequently used as boundary conditions for the microscale simulation by means of crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM). Simulation results show that NiTi SMA exhibits an inhomogeneous plastic deformation at the microscale. Moreover, regions that suffered canning compression sustain more homogeneous plastic deformation by comparison with the corresponding regions subjected to uniaxial compression. The mitigation of inhomogeneous plastic deformation contributes to reducing the statistically stored dislocation (SSD) density in polycrystalline aggregation and also to reducing the difference of stress level in various regions of deformed NiTi SMA sample, and therefore sustaining large plastic deformation in the canning compression process.

  19. High-quality graphene grown on polycrystalline PtRh{sub 20} alloy foils by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and its electrical transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, He; Shen, Chengmin, E-mail: cmshen@iphy.ac.cn; Tian, Yuan; Bao, Lihong; Chen, Peng; Yang, Rong; Yang, Tianzhong; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Gao, Hong-Jun [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-02-08

    High-quality continuous uniform monolayer graphene was grown on polycrystalline PtRh{sub 20} alloy foils by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The morphology of graphene was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Analysis results confirm that high quality single-layer graphene was fabricated on PtRh{sub 20} foil at 1050 °C using a lower flux of methane under low pressure. Graphene films were transferred onto the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by the bubbling transfer method. The mobility of a test field effect transistor made of the graphene grown on PtRh{sub 20} was measured and reckoned at room temperature, showing that the carrier mobility was about 4000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The results indicate that desired quality of single-layer graphene grown on PtRh{sub 20} foils can be obtained by tuning reaction conditions.

  20. Multiscale Modeling of Polycrystalline NiTi Shape Memory Alloy under Various Plastic Deformation Conditions by Coupling Microstructure Evolution and Macroscopic Mechanical Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modeling of microstructure evolution in various regions during uniaxial compression and canning compression of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA are studied through combined macroscopic and microscopic finite element simulation in order to investigate plastic deformation of NiTi SMA at 400 °C. In this approach, the macroscale material behavior is modeled with a relatively coarse finite element mesh, and then the corresponding deformation history in some selected regions in this mesh is extracted by the sub-model technique of finite element code ABAQUS and subsequently used as boundary conditions for the microscale simulation by means of crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM. Simulation results show that NiTi SMA exhibits an inhomogeneous plastic deformation at the microscale. Moreover, regions that suffered canning compression sustain more homogeneous plastic deformation by comparison with the corresponding regions subjected to uniaxial compression. The mitigation of inhomogeneous plastic deformation contributes to reducing the statistically stored dislocation (SSD density in polycrystalline aggregation and also to reducing the difference of stress level in various regions of deformed NiTi SMA sample, and therefore sustaining large plastic deformation in the canning compression process.

  1. Stress analysis of martensitic transformation in Cu-Al-Be polycrystalline and single-crystalline shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaouache, B.; Berveiller, S.; Inal, K.; Eberhardt, A.; Patoor, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the martensitic transformation in a shape memory alloy during a superelastic loading, focusing on internal strains, stresses and phases fractions. The behavior of the austenite phase is studied by X-ray diffraction stress analysis during in situ tensile test at room temperature. Both single-crystal and polycrystal samples have been investigated. The results are discussed with the aim to correlate the microstructural variations with the local stress state evolution in the austenitic phase while variants of martensite form and develop during a superelastic loading

  2. X-ray electron spectra of chalcogenide glasses and polycrystalline alloys of Ge-Te and As-Te systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panus, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    Comparative investigation into structures of crystals and glasses in Ge-Te and As-Te two-component systems was conducted. Analysis of x-ray electron spectra of Ge-Te and As-Te systems indicates, that processes of dissociation-association resulting in formation of new structure units occur in telluride melts at synthesis temperatures. Structural chemical composition of binary glass-like alloys of Ge-Te and As-Te systems differs essentially from the one that corresponds to fusibility equilibrium curve. Oxygen doping into tellurium-base glasses results mainly in occurence of structures forecasted due to thermochemical calculation

  3. Ensemble averaged multi-phase Eulerian model for columnar/equiaxed solidification of a binary alloy: II. Simulation of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanas, A I; Fautrelle, Y

    2007-01-01

    A new multi-phase Eulerian model for the columnar and equiaxed dendritic solidification has been developed. In this paper we first focus on the numerical simulation of quasi-steady solidification experiments in order to obtain corresponding CET maps. We have identified three main zones on the CET map: the pure columnar, the pure equiaxed zone and finally the mixed columnar+equiaxed zone. The mixed c/e zone was further quantified by means of a columnar fraction ε c which quantifies in a rigorous way the two coexisting structures. Since it intrinsically includes the solutal and the mechanical blocking effects, the new ensemble model unifies the semi-empirical Hunt's approach (pure mechanical blocking mechanism) and the Martorano et al approach (pure solutal blocking mechanism). Secondly the present model was used to simulate unidirectional solidification experiments. It was found that the columnar front evolved in a quasi-steady state until a time very close to the critical CET moment. It is also found that the equiaxed nucleation undercooling is close to the maximum columnar dendrite tip undercooling and that the CET is virtually independent of the equiaxed zone ahead of the columnar front. If the equiaxed zone is not taken into account it is observed that the columnar front velocity exhibits a sudden increase at the beginning of the solidification followed by a quasi-plateau corresponding to a quasi-state at the columnar tips and finally, above a critical time, an oscillatory evolution. The beginning of the oscillatory evolution of the columnar front was well correlated with the CET position measured in the experiments. We also find that this oscillatory evolution of the columnar front is very favourable for the fragmentation of the columnar dendrites and thus for the CET. In this respect, it seems that the unsteady regime of the columnar front with respect to the local cooling conditions represents the main cause for the CET phenomena, at least for the non

  4. Influence of specimen size and grain orientation to the life of a polycrystalline Ni-base alloy at LCF stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the LCF (Low Cycle Fatigue) crack initiation life of the conventionally cast Ni-base alloy RENE 80 was analyzed as a function of specimen size and grain orientation. Five specimen geometries with distinctly different gauge sections were used: 3 geometries with cylindrical gauge section (G1-G3) and two notched geometries with a stress concentration factor of α 1 = 1,62 (KG1) and α 2 = 2,60 (KG2), resulting in a maximum difference of the damage relevant surface area up to a factor of approximately 72. Correction factors were determined by FEM calculations for all specimen geometries with highly reduced gauge sections where direct strain measurement was not possible. Additionally a uniform failure criterion with a relatively small crack size of 0,962 mm 2 was defined. Totally, 116 isothermal LCF tests were carried out at the different specimen types at a temperature of 850 C in total strain control with a load ratio (minimum strain / maximum strain) of R ε = -1. The load cycles were applied with triangular waveform at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for high strain amplitudes and 1 Hz for low strain amplitudes, respectively. After the LCF-Tests the fracture surfaces of all samples were analyzed in more detail by SEM to identify the crack initiation mechanisms as well as the crack initiation sites. In this context it could be shown, that fatigue cracks were generally initiated at slip bands in surface grains. Accordingly, the grain orientations at the crack initiation sites were measured by electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and the maximum shear stresses in the respective principal slip system (111) <110> was calculated using the Schmid approach. For this, longitudinal sections were be prepared exactly at the crack initiation sites of samples loaded with low strain amplitudes where clearly defined single crack initiation sites were observed. Afterwards the maximum shear stress in the principal slip system at the crack initiation site was correlated

  5. Study of retained austenite and nano-scale precipitation and their effects on properties of a low alloyed multi-phase steel by the two-step intercritical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.J.; Han, G., E-mail: hangang@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Zhou, W.H.; Zeng, C.Y.; Shang, C.J., E-mail: cjshang@ustb.edu.cn

    2016-03-15

    Microstructure evolution and properties were studied in a low carbon low alloyed hot-rolled bainitic steel by annealing and annealing plus tempering. Microstructure of the hot-rolled steel consists of lath bainite and martensite. By annealing at 720 °C for 30 min and water quenching, multi-phase microstructure consisting of intercritical ferrite, tempered bainite/martensite, retained austenite and fresh martensite was obtained. With increasing annealing temperature to 760 °C, microstructure of the steel consisted of intercritical ferrite, fresh martensite without retained austenite. After the second step of tempering at 680 °C for samples annealed both at 720 °C and 760 °C, ~ 8–9% volume fraction of retained austenite was obtained in the multi-phase microstructure. Moreover, fine precipitates of VC with size smaller than 10 nm and copper precipitates with size of ~ 10–50 nm were obtained after tempering. Results from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) give evidence to support that the partitioning of Mn, Ni and Cu is of significance for retained austenite stabilization. Due to the combined contribution of multiphase microstructure, the transformation-induced-plasticity effect of retained austenite and strengthening effect of nanometer-sized precipitates, yield strength greater than 800 MPa, yield to tensile ratio of 0.9, uniform elongation of ~ 9% and good low temperature impact toughness of 147 J at − 40 °C were achieved. - Highlights: • Stable retained austenite was produced in a low alloyed steel. • Partition of Mn, Ni and Cu was confirmed by STEM for austenite stabilization. • Nano-sized VC and Cu precipitates were achieved by second tempering. • High strength–high toughness with low Y/T ratio was obtained.

  6. Modeling multiphase materials processes

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    ""Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems"" describes the methodology and application of physical and mathematical modeling to multi-phase flow phenomena in materials processing. The book focuses on systems involving gas-liquid interaction, the most prevalent in current metallurgical processes. The performance characteristics of these processes are largely dependent on transport phenomena. This volume covers the inherent characteristics that complicate the modeling of transport phenomena in such systems, including complex multiphase structure, intense turbulence, opacity of

  7. Search for promising compositions for developing new multiphase casting alloys based on Al-Cu-Mg matrix using thermodynamic calculations and mathematic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotorevskii, V. S.; Pozdnyakov, A. V.; Churyumov, A. Yu.

    2012-11-01

    A calculation-experimental study is carried out to improve the concept of searching for new alloying systems in order to develop new casting alloys using mathematical simulation methods in combination with thermodynamic calculations. The results show the high effectiveness of the applied methods. The real possibility of selecting the promising compositions with the required set of casting and mechanical properties is exemplified by alloys with thermally hardened Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Mg matrices, as well as poorly soluble additives that form eutectic components using mainly the calculation study methods and the minimum number of experiments.

  8. Effect of Temperature on the Deformation Behavior of B2 Austenite in a Polycrystalline Ni49.9Ti50.1 (at.Percent) Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A.; Benafan, O.; Noebe, R. D.; Padula, S. A., II; Clausen, B.; Vogel, S.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2013-01-01

    Superelasticity in austenitic B2-NiTi is of great technical interest and has been studied in the past by several researchers [1]. However, investigation of temperature dependent deformation in B2-NiTi is equally important since competing mechanisms of stress-induced martensite (SIM), retained martensite, plastic and deformation twinning can lead to unusual mechanical behaviors. Identification of the role of various mechanisms contributing to the overall deformation response of B2-NiTi is imperative to understanding and maturing SMA-enabled technologies. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the deformation of polycrystalline Ni49.9Ti50.1 (at. %) above A(sub f) (105 C) in the B2 state at temperatures between 165-440 C, and generate a B2 deformation map showing active deformation mechanisms in different temperature-stress regimes.

  9. Effects of grain size and grain boundary segregation on fracture behaviour of a polycrystalline Fe-2.65Si-0.028P alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janovec, J.; Lejček, Pavel; Pokluda, J.; Jenko, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2006), s. 81-87 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : iron alloys * interface segregation * intergranular brittleness * Auger electron spectroscopy * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2006

  10. Temperature dependence of the magnetostriction in polycrystalline PrFe1.9 and TbFe2 alloys: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y. M.; Chen, L. Y.; Huang, H. F.; Xia, W. B.; Zhang, S. Y.; Wei, J.; Tang, S. L.; Du, Y. W.; Zhang, L.

    2014-01-01

    A remarkable magnetostriction λ 111 as large as 6700 ppm was found at 70 K in PrFe 1.9 alloy. This value is even larger than the theoretical maximum of 5600 ppm estimated by the Steven's equivalent operator method. The temperature dependence of λ 111 for PrFe 1.9 and TbFe 2 alloys follows well with the single-ion theory rule, which yields giant estimated λ 111 values of about 8000 and 4200 ppm for PrFe 1.9 and TbFe 2 alloys, respectively, at 0 K. The easy magnetization direction of PrFe 1.9 changes from [111] to [100] as temperature decreases, which leads to the abnormal decrease of the magnetostriction λ. The rare earth sublattice moment increases sharply in PrFe 1.9 alloy with decreasing temperature, resulting in the remarkably largest estimated value of λ 111 at 0 K according to the single-ion theory

  11. Multiphase anodic layers and prospects of their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnev, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Data on the phase composition of multiphase layers prepared on valve metals (aluminium, titanium, and their alloys) by the plasma-electrochemical oxidation and deposition (PEOD) from aqueous electrolytes containing iso- and heteropolyoxoanions, polyphosphate and fluoride metal complexes (M=Eu, Y, Hf, Nb, Zr, W), as well as electrolytes evolving solid precipitates, is summarized. Possible application fields of the metal/multiphase PEOD surface structure compositions are considered [ru

  12. Multidomain multiphase fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, W.T.; Soo, S.L.

    1976-10-01

    A set of multiphase field equations--conversion of mass, momentum and energy--based on multiphase mechanics is developed. Multiphase mechanics applies to mixtures of phases which are separated by interfaces and are mutually exclusive. Based on the multiphase mechanics formulation, additional terms appear in the field equations when the physical size of the dispersed phase (bubble or droplet) is many times larger than the inter-molecular spacing. These terms are the inertial coupling due to virtual mass and the additional viscous coupling due to unsteadiness of the flow field. The multiphase formulation given here takes into account the discreteness of particles of dispersed phases and, at the same time, the necessity of the distributive representation of field variables via space-time averaging when handling a large number of particles. The provision for multidomain transition further permits us to treat dispersed phases which are large compared to the characteristic dimension of the flow system via interdomain relations. The multidomain multiphase approach provides a framework for us to model the various flow regimes. Because some of the transport parameters associated with the system equations are not well known at the present time, an idealized two-domain two-phase solution approach is proposed as a first step. Finally, comparisons are made between the field equations formulated based on the multidomain-multiphase fluid mechanics and the pertinent existing models, and their relative significances are discussed. The desirability of consistent approximation and simplifications possible for dilute suspensions are discussed

  13. Evolution of macroscopic elastic moduli of martensitic polycrystalline NiTi and NiTiCu shape memory alloys with pseudoplastic straining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thomasová, M.; Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Frost, Miroslav; Ševčík, Martin; Szurman, I.; Kocich, R.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Šittner, Petr; Landa, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, January (2017), s. 146-156 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-28306P; GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : shape memory alloys * polycrystals * elastic behavior Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  14. In situ synchrotron analysis of lattice rotations in individual grains during stress-induced martensitic transformations in a polycrystalline CuAlBe shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berveiller, S.; Malard, B.; Wright, J.; Patoor, E.; Geandier, G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → 3DXRD, Laue microdiffraction measurements of grain rotation in a shape memory alloy. → During stress-induced martensitic transformation, the austenite grains rotate. → This rotation reverses with the reverse transformation. → The austenite grains splits into various orientations with martensite formation. - Abstract: Two synchrotron diffraction techniques, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction and Laue microdiffraction, are applied to studying the deformation behaviour of individual grains embedded in a Cu 74 Al 23 Be 3 superelastic shape memory alloy. The average lattice rotation and the intragranular heterogeneity of orientations are measured during in situ tensile tests at room temperature for four grains of mean size ∼1 mm. During mechanical loading, all four grains rotate and the mean rotation angle increases with austenite deformation. As the martensitic transformation occurs, the rotation becomes more pronounced, and the grain orientation splits into several sub-domains: the austenite orientation varies on both sides of the martensite variant. The mean disorientation is ∼1 o . Upon unloading, the sub-domains collapse and reverse rotation is observed.

  15. High sensitivity zero-biased magnetic field sensor based on multiphase laminate heterostructures with FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jing; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Chen, Hengjia

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a high sensitivity zero-biased magnetic field sensor based on multiphase laminate heterostructures consisting of FeCuNbSiB/Terfenol-D (Tb1-xDyxFe2)/PZT (Pb(Zr1-x,Tix)O3)/Terfenol-D/PZT/Ternol-D/FeCuNbSiB (FMPMPMF) is presented, whose ME coupling characteristics and sensing performances have been investigated. Compared to traditional Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D (MPM) and Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D (MPMPM) sensors, the zero-biased ME coupling characteristics of FMPMPMF sensor were significantly improved, owing to a build-in magnetic field in FeCuNbSiB/Terfenol-D layers. The optimum zero-biased resonant ME voltage coefficient of 3.02 V/Oe is achieved, which is 1.65 times as great as that of MPMPM and 2.51 times of MPM sensors. The mean value of low-frequency ME field coefficient of FMPMPMF reaches 122.53 mV/cm Oe, which is 2.39 times as great as that of MPMPM and 1.79 times of MPM sensors. Meanwhile, the induced zero-biased ME voltage of FMPMPMF sensor shows an excellent linear relationship to ac magnetic field both at the low frequency (1 kHz) and the resonant frequency (106.6 kHz). Remarkably, it indicates that the proposed zero-biased magnetic field sensor give the prospect of being able to applied to the field of highly sensitive ac magnetic field sensing.

  16. Tensile ductility of an AlCoCrFeNi multi-phase high-entropy alloy through hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhi, E-mail: Zhi.Tang@alcoa.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Senkov, Oleg N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Parish, Chad M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Fan [CompuTherm LLC, 437 S. Yellowstone Dr., Suite 217, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Santodonato, Louis J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wang, Gongyao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zhao, Guangfeng; Yang, Fuqian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Liaw, Peter K., E-mail: pliaw@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The microstructure and phase composition of an AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) were studied in as-cast (AlCoCrFeNi-AC, AC represents as-cast) and homogenized (AlCoCrFeNi-HP, HP signifies hot isostatic pressed and homogenized) conditions. The AlCoCrFeNi-AC ally has a dendritric structure in the consisting primarily of a nano-lamellar mixture of A2 (disordered body-centered-cubic (BCC)) and B2 (ordered BCC) phases, formed by an eutectic reaction. The homogenization heat treatment, consisting of hot isostatic pressed for 1 h at 1100 °C, 207 MPa and annealing at 1150 °C for 50 h, resulted in an increase in the volume fraction of the A1 phase and formation of a Sigma (σ) phase. Tensile properties in as-cast and homogenized conditions are reported at 700 °C. The ultimate tensile strength was virtually unaffected by heat treatment, and was 396±4 MPa at 700 °C. However, homogenization produced a noticeable increase in ductility. The AlCoCrFeNi-AC alloy showed a tensile elongation of only 1.0%, while after the heat-treatment, the elongation of AlCoCrFeNi-HP was 11.7%. Thermodynamic modeling of non-equilibrium and equilibrium phase diagrams for the AlCoCrFeNi HEA gave good agreement with the experimental observations of the phase contents in the AlCoCrFeNi-AC and AlCoCrFeNi-HP. The reasons for the improvement of ductility after the heat treatment and the crack initiation subjected to tensile loading were discussed.

  17. Multiphase composite coatings: structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, V M; Guchenko, S A; Platonova, E S; Syzdykova, A Sh; Lysenko, E N

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the results of the research into the formation of ion-plasma multiphase coatings. The types of the formed structures are found to be not so diverse, as those formed, for example, in alloy crystallization. The structures observed are basically of globular type and, more rarely, of unclosed dissipative and cellular structures. It is shown that the properties of the coating formed in deposition are largely determined by its surface energy or surface tension. Since the magnitude of the surface tension (surface energy) in most cases is an additive quantity, each of the elements of the coating composition contributes to the total surface energy. In case of simultaneous sputtering of multiphase cathodes, high entropy coatings with an ordered cellular structure and improved mechanical properties are formed. (paper)

  18. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srini; Young, Rosa; Fierro, Christian; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  19. Influence of hydrogen on high cycle fatigue of polycrystalline vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.W.; Lee, K.S.; Stoloff, N.S.

    1977-02-01

    The room temperature fatigue behavior of several polycrystalline V-H 2 alloys is described. Hydrogen extends the life of unnotched vanadium but has a deleterious effect in notched materials. Crack propagation data are correlated with tensile yield stress and cyclic strain hardening data

  20. Shock tube Multiphase Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John; Allen, Roy; Paudel, Manoj; Young, Calvin; Musick, Ben; McFarland, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    Shock driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching practical applications in engineering and science. The instability is present in high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase interface is impulsively accelerated by the passage of a shockwave. It is similar in development to the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability however, particle-to-gas coupling is the driving mechanism of the SDMI. As particle effects such as lag and phase change become more prominent, the SDMI's development begins to significantly deviate from the RM instability. We have developed an experiment for studying the SDMI in our shock tube facility. In our experiments, a multiphase interface is created using a laminar jet and flowed into the shock tube where it is accelerated by the passage of a planar shockwave. The interface development is captured using CCD cameras synchronized with planar laser illumination. This talk will give an overview of new experiments conducted to examine the development of a shocked cylindrical multiphase interface. The effects of Atwood number, particle size, and a second acceleration (reshock) of the interface will be discussed.

  1. Numerical simulation of large deformation polycrystalline plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inal, K.; Neale, K.W.; Wu, P.D.; MacEwen, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    A finite element model based on crystal plasticity has been developed to simulate the stress-strain response of sheet metal specimens in uniaxial tension. Each material point in the sheet is considered to be a polycrystalline aggregate of FCC grains. The Taylor theory of crystal plasticity is assumed. The numerical analysis incorporates parallel computing features enabling simulations of realistic models with large number of grains. Simulations have been carried out for the AA3004-H19 aluminium alloy and the results are compared with experimental data. (author)

  2. Solidification in Multicomponent Multiphase Systems (SIMMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, S.; Hecht, U.

    2005-06-01

    The multiphase microstructures that evolve during the solidification of multicomponent alloys are attracting widespread interest for industrial applications and fundamental research.Thermodynamic databases are now well-established for many alloy systems. Thermodynamic calculations provide all the required information about phase equilibria, forming an integral part of both dedicated and comprehensive microstructure models. Among the latter, phase-field modelling has emerged as the method of choice. Solidification experiments are intended to trigger model development or to serve as benchmarks for model validation. For benchmarking, microgravity conditions offer a unique opportunity for avoiding buoyancy-induced convection and buoyancy forces in bulk samples. However, diffusion and the free-energy of interfaces and its anisotropy need to be determined.The measurement of chemical diffusivities in the liquid state can equally benefit from microgravity experiments.

  3. Development of surface relief on polycrystalline metals due to sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsenya, V.S. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Bardamid, A.F. [Taras Shevchenko National University, 01033 Kiev (Ukraine); Bondarenko, V.N. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Davis, J.W., E-mail: jwdavis@starfire.utias.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, Canada M3H5T6 (Canada); Konovalov, V.G.; Ryzhkov, I.V.; Skoryk, O.O.; Solodovchenko, S.I. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhang-jian, Zhou [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100 083 (China)

    2013-05-01

    The characteristics of surface microrelief that appear in sputtering experiments with polycrystalline metals of various grain sizes have been studied. Specimens with grain sizes varying from 30–70 nm in the case of crystallized amorphous alloys, to 1–3 μm for technical tungsten grade and 10–100 μm for recrystallized tungsten were investigated. A model is proposed for the development of roughness on polycrystalline metals which is based on the dependence of sputtering rate on crystal orientation. The results of the modeling are in good agreement with experiments showing that the length scale of roughness is much larger than the grain size.

  4. Anelasticity of polycrystalline indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikov, K., E-mail: k.sapozhnikov@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Golyandin, S. [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kustov, S. [Dept. de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, E 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    Mechanisms of anelasticity of polycrystalline indium have been studied over wide ranges of temperature (7-320 K) and strain amplitude (2 x 10{sup -7}-3.5 x 10{sup -4}). Measurements of the internal friction and Young's modulus have been performed by means of the piezoelectric resonant composite oscillator technique using longitudinal oscillations at frequencies of about 100 kHz. The stages of the strain amplitude dependence of the internal friction and Young's modulus defect, which can be attributed to dislocation - point defect and dislocation - dislocation interactions, have been revealed. It has been shown that thermal cycling gives rise to microplastic straining of polycrystalline indium due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion and to appearance of a 'recrystallization' internal friction maximum in the temperature spectra of amplitude-dependent anelasticity. The temperature range characterized by formation of Cottrell's atmospheres of point defects around dislocations has been determined from the acoustic data.

  5. Multiphase Flow Dynamics 1 Fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its fourth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Dynmics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the local volume and time averaging is used to derive a complete set of conservation equations for three fluids each of them having multi components as constituents. Large parts of the book are devoted on the design of successful numerical methods for solving the...

  6. Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its third extended edition this monograph contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the fundamentals of multiphase dynamics are provided. This third edition includes various updates, extensions and improvements in all book chapters.

  7. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sætre, C.; Johansen, G.A.; Tjugum, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: ► Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. ► High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow pattern and gas fraction. ► Dual modality

  8. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saetre, C., E-mail: camilla@ift.uib.no [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Johansen, G.A. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Tjugum, S.A. [Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Roxar Flow Measurement, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow

  9. New deformation model of grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trefilov, V.I.; Moiseev, V.F.; Pechkovskij, Eh.P.

    1988-01-01

    A new model explaining grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals and alloys by strain hardening due to localization of plastic deformation in narrow bands near grain boundaries is suggested. Occurrence of localized deformation is caused by different flow stresses in grains of different orientation. A new model takes into account the active role of stress concentrator, independence of the strengthening coefficient on deformation, influence of segregations. Successful use of the model suggested for explanation of rhenium effect in molybdenum and tungsten is alloys pointed out

  10. Application of polycrystalline diffusion barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsymbal, V.A.; Kolupaev, I.N.

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of contacts of the electronic equipment at the raised temperatures is connected with active diffusion redistribution of components contact - metalized systems (CMS) and phase production on interphase borders. One of systems diffusion barriers (DB) are polycrystalline silicide a film, in particular silicides of the titan. Reception disilicide the titan (TiSi 2 ) which on the parameters is demanded for conditions of microelectronics from known silicides of system Ti-Si, is possible as a result of direct reaction of a film of the titan and a substrate of silicon, and at sedimentation of layer Ti-Si demanded stoichiometric structure. Simultaneously there is specific problem polycrystalline diffusion a barrier (PDB): the polycrystalline provides structural balance and metastability film disilicide, but leaves in it borders of grains - easy local ways of diffusion. In clause the analysis diffusion permeability polycrystalline and polyphase DB is made and recommendations for practical methods of increase of blocking properties PDB are made.

  11. Challenges in Downhole Multiphase Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelund, A.; Midttveit, Oe.; Richards, A.

    1996-12-31

    Permanent downhole multi-phase monitoring (DMM) can have several advantages in field development, such as increased flexibility in the development of multi-lateral and horizontal wells, optimisation of artificial lift systems and monitoring of multi-layered wells. This paper gives an overview of existing permanent downhole measurement systems and a status of topside and subsea multi-phase flow meters (MFM). The main focus is on the challenges in downhole multi-phase measurements. Topics to be taken into consideration for realization of a downhole multi-phase meter are discussed, such as actual flow conditions occurring at the point of measurement, which quantities that need to be measured, sensor principles, data processing needs and signal transmission capability. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    In its fifth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Dynamics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the local volume and time averaging is used to derive a complete set of conservation equations for three fluids each of them having multi components as constituents. Large parts of the book are devoted on the design of successful numerical methods for solving the obtained system of partial differential equations. Finally the analysis is repeated for boundary fitted curvilinear coordinate systems designing methods applicable for interconnected multi-blocks. This fifth edition includes various updates, extensions, improvements and corrections, as well as  a completely new chapter containing the basic physics describing the multi-phase flow in tu...

  13. Gelcasting polycrystalline alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This work is being done as part of a CRADA with Osram-Sylvania, Inc. (OSI) OSI is a major U.S. manufacturer of high-intensity lighting. Among its products is the Lumalux{reg_sign} line of high-pressure sodium vapor arc lamps, which are used for industrial, highway, and street lighting. The key to the performance of these lamps is the polycrystalline alumina (PCA) tube that is used to contain the plasma that is formed in the electric arc. That plasma consists of ionized sodium, mercury, and xenon vapors. The key attributes of the PCA tubes are their transparency (95% total transmittance in the visible region), their refractoriness (inner wall temperature can reach 1400{degrees}C), and their chemical resistance (sodium and mercury vapor are extremely corrosive). The current efficiency of the lamps is very high, on the order of several hundred lumens / watt. (Compare - incandescent lamps -13 lumens/watt fluorescent lamps -30 lumens/watt.) Osram-Sylvania would like to explore using gelcasting to form PCA tubes for Lumalux{reg_sign} lamps, and eventually for metal halide lamps (known as quartz-halogen lamps). Osram-Sylvania, Inc. currently manufactures PCA tubes by isostatic pressing. This process works well for the shapes that they presently use. However, there are several types of tubes that are either difficult or impossible to make by isostatic pressing. It is the desire to make these new shapes and sizes of tubes that has prompted Osram-Sylvania`s interest in gelcasting. The purpose of the CRADA is to determine the feasibility of making PCA items having sufficient optical quality that they are useful in lighting applications using gelcasting.

  14. Improved polycrystalline Ni{sub 54}Mn{sub 16}Fe{sub 9}Ga{sub 21} high-temperature shape memory alloy by γ phase distributing along grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuiyuan; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Kaixin; Huang, Yangyang; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Xingjun [Xiamen Univ. (China). Fujian Key Laboratory of Materials Genome

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the shape recovery and mechanical properties of Ni{sub 54}Mn{sub 16}Fe{sub 9}Ga{sub 21} high-temperature shape memory alloy are improved simultaneously. This results from the low, about 4.4%, volume fraction of γ phase being almost completely distributed along grain boundaries. The recovery strain gradually increases with the increase in residual strain with a shape recovery rate of above 68%, up to a maximum value of 5.3%. The compressive fracture strain of Ni{sub 54}Mn{sub 16}Fe{sub 9}Ga{sub 21} alloy is about 35%. The results further reveal that when applying a high compression deformation two types of cracks form and propagate either within martensite grains (type I) or along the boundaries between martensite phase and γ phase (type II) in the present two-phase alloy.

  15. Magnetostrictive properties of polycrystalline iron cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, M.D.

    2000-10-01

    This thesis is concerned with the magnetic properties of magnetostrictive FeCo polycrystalline alloy films produced by RF magnetron sputter deposition. The bulk material is known to have highly magnetostrictive properties, coupled with the possibility of a low anisotropy with the correct thermal treatment to allow ordering. Significant reduction in the anisotropy was found by using post depostional thermal treatment in Ar/H. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to produce FeCo films with magnetostrictive properties similar to those found in the bulk. Detailed examination showed an increased peak in the magnetostriction with composition which had not been previously viewed in the bulk materials. Initial development was also made of a novel co-depositional technique to allow magnetostrictive determination as a function of composition in a single deposition. Development was made of a technique using the Daresbury Synchrotron research facility and the XRD equipment to allow determination of the magnetostriction coefficients of polycrystalline films. This is the first time this has been achieved for thin film materials and provides exciting new possibilities for the future. A critique was made of the optical cantilever technique for determining magnetostriction. Clear consideration has to be made of rotational and frequency effects. A new analytical theory was devised which allowing determination of the cantilever deflection for similar substrate and film thickness. This is essential for development of current trends in nanotechnology. The results were then optimised for use in sensor and actuator devices providing novel results. Finally investigation was made of the possible effects of surfaces on the magnetic properties. The magnetostriction of FeCo/Ag multilayers and Ag embedded in an FeCo matrix are compared. These clearly show the influence of surface and illustrate the importance of considering the technique used to determine the magnetostriction. (author)

  16. Multiphase flows with phase change

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multiphase flows with phase change are ubiquitous in many industrial sectors ranging from energy and infra-structure to specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals. My own interest in mul- tiphase flows with phase change started more than 15 years ago when I had initiated work on riser reactor for fluid catalytic cracking and ...

  17. Fracture of Shape Memory Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Shuichi; Otsuka, Kazuhiro

    1981-01-01

    The initiation and the propagation of cracks during both quenching and deformation in polycrystalline Cu-Al-Ni alloys have been investigated under various conditions. The fracture surfaces of Ti-Ni and Cu-Al-Ni alloys were also observed by a scanning electron microscope. From these results, it was concluded that the brittleness of Cu-Al-Ni alloy and other β phase alloys are due to large elastic anisotropy and large grain sizes, while that the large ductility in Ti-Ni alloy being due to the sm...

  18. Multiphase Flow Dynamics 2 Mechanical Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. .In its fourth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Daynmics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present second volume the methods for describing the mechanical interactions in multiphase dynamics are provided. This fourth edition includes various updates, extensions, improvements and corrections.   "The literature in the field of multiphase flows is numerous. Therefore, it i...

  19. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  20. Diffraction by disordered polycrystalline fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, W.J.; Millane, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns from some polycrystalline fibers show that the constituent microcrystallites are disordered. The relationship between the crystal structure and the diffracted intensities is then quite complicated and depends on the precise kind and degree of disorder present. The effects of disorder on diffracted intensities must be included in structure determinations using diffraction data from such specimens. Theory and algorithms are developed here that allow the full diffraction pattern to be calculated for a disordered polycrystalline fiber made up of helical molecules. The model accommodates various kinds of disorder and includes the effects of finite crystallite size and cylindrical averaging of the diffracted intensities from a fiber. Simulations using these methods show how different kinds, or components, of disorder produce particular diffraction effects. General properties of disordered arrays of helical molecules and their effects on diffraction patterns are described. Implications for structure determination are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Multiphase-Multifunctional Ceramic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-30

    systems for high temperatura applications” “ Estudios de Ferroelasticidad en Sistemas Cerámicos Multifásicos para Aplicaciones en Alta Temperatura ...Ceramic Coatings Performing Organization names: Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional – Unidad Queretaro...materials, Cinvestav. Thesis: “Ferroelasticity studies in multiphase ceramic systems for high temperatura applications”. Her work mainly focused in the

  2. Multiphase Flow Dynamics 3 Thermal Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. .In its fourth extended edition the successful monograph package “Multiphase Flow Daynmics” contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present third volume methods for describing of the thermal interactions in multiphase dynamics are provided. In addition a large number of valuable experiments is collected and predicted using the methods introduced in this monograph. In this way the accuracy of the methods is reve...

  3. Proceedings of submicron multiphase materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baney, R.; Gilliom, L.; Hirano, S.I.; Schmidt, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the papers presented at Symposium R of the spring 1992 Materials Research Society meeting held in San Francisco, California. The title of the symposium, Submicron Multiphase Materials, was selected by the organizers to encompass the realm of composite materials from those smaller than conventional fiber matrix composites to those with phase separation dimensions approaching molecular dimensions. The development of composite materials is as old as the development of materials. Humans quickly learned that, by combining materials, the best properties of each can be realized and that, in fact, synergistic effects often arise. For example, chopped straw was used by the Israelites to limit cracking in bricks. The famed Japanese samurai swords were multilayers of hard oxide and tough ductile materials. One also finds in nature examples of composite materials. These range form bone to wood, consisting of a hard phase which provides strength and stiffness and a softer phase for toughness. Advanced composites are generally thought of as those which are based on a high modulus, discontinuous, chopped or woven fiber phase and a continuous polymer phase. In multiphase composites, dimensions can range from meters in materials such as steel rod-reinforced concrete structures to angstroms. In macrophase separated composite materials, properties frequently follow the rule of mixtures with the properties approximating the arithmetic mean of the properties of each individual phase, if there is good coupling between the phases. As the phases become smaller, the surface to volume ratio grows in importance with respect to properties. Interfacial and interphase phenomena being to dominate. Surface free energies play an ever increasing role in controlling properties. In recent years, much research in materials science has been directed at multiphase systems where phase separations are submicron in at least some dimension

  4. Acoustic emission from polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, I.; Yoda, S.; Oku, T.; Miyamoto, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic emission was monitored from polycrystalline graphites with different microstructure (pore size and pore volume) subjected to compressive loading. The graphites used in this study comprised five brands, that is, PGX, ISEM-1, IG-11, IG-15, and ISO-88. A root mean square (RMS) voltage and event counts of acoustic emission for graphites were measured during compressive loading. The acoustic emission was measured using a computed-based data acquisition and analysis system. The graphites were first deformed up to 80 % of the average fracture stress, then unloaded and reloaded again until the fracture occured. During the first loading, the change in RMS voltage for acoustic emission was detected from the initial stage. During the unloading, the RMS voltage became zero level as soon as the applied stress was released and then gradually rose to a peak and declined. The behavior indicated that the reversed plastic deformation occured in graphites. During the second loading, the RMS voltage gently increased until the applied stress exceeded the maximum stress of the first loading; there is no Kaiser effect in the graphites. A bicrystal model could give a reasonable explanation of this results. The empirical equation between the ratio of σ AE to σ f and σ f was obtained. It is considered that the detection of microfracture by the acoustic emission technique is effective in macrofracture prediction of polycrystalline graphites. (author)

  5. Problems of multiphase fluid filtration

    CERN Document Server

    Konovalov, AN

    1994-01-01

    This book deals with a spectrum of problems related to the mathematical modeling of multiphase filtration. Emphasis is placed on an inseparable triad: model - algorithm - computer code. An analysis of new and traditional filtration problems from the point of view of both their numerical implementation and the reproduction of one or another technological characteristics of the processes under consideration is given. The basic principles which underlie the construction of efficient numerical methods taking into account the filtration problems are discussed: non-evolutionary nature, degeneration,

  6. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrysalline silicon solar cell research are summarized. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon solar cells.

  7. Advances in multiphase flow and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanicolaou, G.

    1986-01-01

    Proceedings of a workshop in multiphase flow held at Leesburg, Va. in June 1986 representing a cross-disciplinary approach to theoretical as well as computational problems in multiphase flow. Topics include composites, phase transitions, fluid-particle systems, and bubbly liquids

  8. Silumins alloy crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research, by ATD method, of hypo-, near- and hyperutectic silumins crystallization containing the following alloying additives: Mg, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo, W, V. It has been shown that, depending on their concentration may crystallize pre-eutectic or eutectic multicomponent phases containing these alloy additives. It has been revealed that any subsequent crystallizable phase nucleate and grows near the liquid/former crystallized phase interface. In multiphases compound also falls the silicon, resulting in a reduction in its quantity and the fragmentation in the eutectic mixture. As a result, it gets a high hardness of silumins in terms of 110-220HB.

  9. A multiphase compressible model for the simulation of multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caltagirone, J.P.; Vincent, St.; Caruyer, C.

    2011-01-01

    A compressible model able to manage incompressible two-phase flows as well as compressible motions is proposed. After a presentation of the multiphase compressible concept, the new model and related numerical methods are detailed on fixed structured grids. The presented model is a 1-fluid model with a reformulated mass conservation equation which takes into account the effects of compressibility. The coupling between pressure and flow velocity is ensured by introducing mass conservation terms in the momentum and energy equations. The numerical model is then validated with four test cases involving the compression of an air bubble by water, the liquid injection in a closed cavity filled with air, a bubble subjected to an ultrasound field and finally the oscillations of a deformed air bubble in melted steel. The numerical results are compared with analytical results and convergence orders in space are provided. (authors)

  10. Influence of specimen size and grain orientation to the life of a polycrystalline Ni-base alloy at LCF stress; Einfluss der Probengroesse und der Kornorientierung auf die Lebensdauer einer polykristallinen Ni-Basislegierung bei LCF-Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibel, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In the present work the LCF (Low Cycle Fatigue) crack initiation life of the conventionally cast Ni-base alloy RENE 80 was analyzed as a function of specimen size and grain orientation. Five specimen geometries with distinctly different gauge sections were used: 3 geometries with cylindrical gauge section (G1-G3) and two notched geometries with a stress concentration factor of α{sub 1} = 1,62 (KG1) and α{sub 2} = 2,60 (KG2), resulting in a maximum difference of the damage relevant surface area up to a factor of approximately 72. Correction factors were determined by FEM calculations for all specimen geometries with highly reduced gauge sections where direct strain measurement was not possible. Additionally a uniform failure criterion with a relatively small crack size of 0,962 mm{sup 2} was defined. Totally, 116 isothermal LCF tests were carried out at the different specimen types at a temperature of 850 C in total strain control with a load ratio (minimum strain / maximum strain) of R{sub ε} = -1. The load cycles were applied with triangular waveform at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for high strain amplitudes and 1 Hz for low strain amplitudes, respectively. After the LCF-Tests the fracture surfaces of all samples were analyzed in more detail by SEM to identify the crack initiation mechanisms as well as the crack initiation sites. In this context it could be shown, that fatigue cracks were generally initiated at slip bands in surface grains. Accordingly, the grain orientations at the crack initiation sites were measured by electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and the maximum shear stresses in the respective principal slip system (111) <110> was calculated using the Schmid approach. For this, longitudinal sections were be prepared exactly at the crack initiation sites of samples loaded with low strain amplitudes where clearly defined single crack initiation sites were observed. Afterwards the maximum shear stress in the principal slip system at the crack initiation

  11. Polycrystalline Silicon: a Biocompatibility Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecheva, E.; Fingarova, D.; Pramatarova, L.; Hikov, T.; Laquerriere, P.; Bouthors, Sylvie; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Montgomery, P.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) layers were functionalized through the growth of biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) on their surface. HA is the mineral component of bones and teeth and thus possesses excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on both HA-coated and un-coated poly-Si surfaces for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days and toxicity, proliferation and cell morphology were investigated. The results revealed that the poly-Si layers were bioactive and compatible with the osteoblast-like cells. Nevertheless, the HA coating improved the cell interactions with the poly-Si surfaces based on the cell affinity to the specific chemical composition of the bone-like HA and/or to the higher HA roughness.

  12. Optical and electrical properties of polycrystalline and amorphous Al-Ti thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Borca, C. N.; Rechendorff, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The structural, optical, and transport properties of sputter-deposited Al-Ti thin films have been investigated as a function of Ti alloying with a concentration ranging from 2% to 46%. The optical reflectivity of Al-Ti films at visible and near-infrared wavelengths decreases with increasing Ti...... content. Xray absorption fine structure measurements reveal that the atomic ordering around Ti atoms increases with increasing Ti content up to 20% and then decreases as a result of a transition from a polycrystalline to amorphous structure. The transport properties of the Al-Ti films are influenced...... by electron scattering at the grain boundaries in the case of polycrystalline films and static defects, such as antisite effects and vacancies in the case of the amorphous alloys. The combination of Ti having a real refractive index (n) comparable with the extinction coefficient (k) and Al with n much smaller...

  13. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  14. Frontiers and progress in multiphase flow

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents state-of-the-art of reviews in the field of multiphase flow. In focusses on nonlinear aspects of multiphase flow networks as well as visualization experiments. The first chapter presents nonlinear aspects or deterministic chaos issues in the systems of multi-phase reactors.  The second chapter reviews two-phase flow dynamics in combination with complex network theory. The third chapter discusses evaporation mechanism in the wick of copper heat pipes. The last chapter investigates numerically the flow dynamics and heat and mass transfer in the laminar and turbulent boundary layer on the flat vertical plate.

  15. σ and η Phase formation in advanced polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, Stoichko, E-mail: santonov@hawk.iit.edu [Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Huo, Jiajie; Feng, Qiang [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Northwestern University Center for Atom Probe Tomography (NUCAPT), 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Helmink, Randolph C.; Sun, Eugene [Rolls-Royce Corporation, 450 S. Meridian Street, Indianapolis, IN 46225 (United States); Tin, Sammy [Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2017-02-27

    In polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys, grain boundary precipitation of secondary phases can be significant due to the effects they pose on the mechanical properties. As new alloying concepts for polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys are being developed to extend their temperature capability, the effect of increasing levels of Nb alloying additions on long term phase stability and the formation of topologically close packed (TCP) phases needs to be studied. Elevated levels of Nb can result in increased matrix supersaturation and promote the precipitation of secondary phases. Long term thermal exposures on two experimental powder processed Ni-base superalloys containing various levels of Nb were completed to assess the stability and precipitation of TCP phases. It was found that additions of Nb promoted the precipitation of η-Ni{sub 6}AlNb along the grain boundaries in powder processed, polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys, while reduced Nb levels favored the precipitation of blocky Cr and Mo – rich σ phase precipitates along the grain boundary. Evaluation of the thermodynamic stability of these two phases in both alloys using Thermo-calc showed that while σ phase predictions are fairly accurate, predictions of the η phase are limited.

  16. Electrostrain in excess of 1% in polycrystalline piezoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Bastola; Malhotra, Jaskaran Singh; Pandey, Rishikesh; Yaddanapudi, Krishna; Nukala, Pavan; Dkhil, Brahim; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2018-05-01

    Piezoelectric actuators transform electrical energy into mechanical energy, and because of their compactness, quick response time and accurate displacement, they are sought after in many applications. Polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics are technologically more appealing than single crystals due to their simpler and less expensive processing, but have yet to display electrostrain values that exceed 1%. Here we report a material design strategy wherein the efficient switching of ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains by an electric field is exploited to achieve a high electrostrain value of 1.3% in a pseudo-ternary ferroelectric alloy system, BiFeO3-PbTiO3-LaFeO3. Detailed structural investigations reveal that this electrostrain is associated with a combination of several factors: a large spontaneous lattice strain of the piezoelectric phase, domain miniaturization, a low-symmetry ferroelectric phase and a very large reverse switching of the non-180° domains. This insight for the design of a new class of polycrystalline piezoceramics with high electrostrains may be useful to develop alternatives to costly single-crystal actuators.

  17. Quantitative multiphase analysis of archaeological bronzes by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Siano, S; Celli, M; Pini, R; Salimbeni, R; Zoppi, M; Kockelmann, W A; Iozzo, M; Miccio, M; Moze, O

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report the first investigation on the potentials of neutron diffraction to characterize archaeological bronze artifacts. The preliminary feasibility of phase and structural analysis was demonstrated on standardised specimens with a typical bronze alloy composition. These were realised through different hardening and annealing cycles, simulating possible ancient working techniques. The Bragg peak widths that resulted were strictly dependent on the working treatment, thus providing an important analytical element to investigate ancient making techniques. The diagnostic criteria developed on the standardised specimens were then applied to study two Etruscan museum pieces. Quantitative multiphase analysis by Rietveld refinement of the diffraction patterns was successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the analysis of patterns associated with different artifact elements also yielded evidence for some peculiar perspective of the neutron diffraction diagnostics in archeometric applications. (orig.)

  18. High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polycrystalline diamond coatings; hot filament CVD; high vacuum tribology. 1. Introduction .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the (diamond ... coefficient of friction due to changes in substrate temperature. The average coefficient of.

  19. On multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    simpler than the corresponding normal flash algorithm. Unlike normal flash, multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions can diverge if the feasible domain for phase amounts is not closed. This can be judged readily during the iteration process. The algorithm can also be extended to the partial negative......There is a recent interest to solve multiphase negative flash problems where the phase amounts can be negative for normal positive feed composition. Solving such a negative flash problem using successive substitution needs an inner loop for phase distribution calculation at constant fugacity...... coefficients. It is shown that this inner loop, named here as multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions, can be solved either by Michelsen's algorithm for multiphase normal flash, or by its variation which uses F−1 phase amounts as independent variables. In either case, the resulting algorithm is actually...

  20. Accurate solution algorithms for incompressible multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rider, W.J.; Kothe, D.B.; Mosso, S.J.; Cerutti, J.H.; Hochstein, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    A number of advances in modeling multiphase incompressible flow are described. These advances include high-order Godunov projection methods, piecewise linear interface reconstruction and tracking and the continuum surface force model. Examples are given

  1. Damage mechanisms and metallic materials development in multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yugui; Liu, Wei; Yao, Zhiming; Ke, Wei

    2002-01-01

    The investigation on the synergistic effects among corrosion, slurry erosion and cavitation erosion has special significance for hydraulic turbines operated in Yangtze River and Yellow River where the high concentration solid particles exist in water. Two typical metallic materials i.e. Cr-Mn-N stainless steel and Ni-Ti shapememory-alloy, and two typical materials used for hydraulic turbines 20SiMn and 0Cr13Ni5Mo as compared materials were selected in order to investigate the roles of work-hardening ability and martensitic transformation as well as pseudoelastics in damage mechanism in multiphase flow. Both modified rotating disk rig and ultrasonic vibration facility were used to simulate the possible damage mechanism of materials in multiphase flow. The effects of corrosion on cavitation erosion were investigated through adding 3wt% NaCl. The degradation mechanism was analyzed by electrochemical test, SEM observation, hardness and roughness measurement. The results showed that there was a strong synergistic interaction among electrochemical corrosion, slurry erosion and cavitation erosion for 20SiMn in liquid-solid two-phase medium. In contrast, corrosion played little role for 0Cr13Ni5Mo. Cr-Mn-N stainless steel with high Mn content showed better resistance to cavitation erosion and slurry erosion than 0Cr13Ni5Mo, which was mainly due to its good work-hardening ability as well as strain-induced martensite transformation. The cavitation micro-cracks for Cr-Mn-N stainless steel were parallel to the specimen surface in contrast with 0Cr13Ni5Mo whose micro-cracks were perpendicular to the surface. Ni-Ti alloy with pseudoelasticity showed excellent resistance to combined interaction of cavitation erosion and slurry erosion

  2. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  3. EDITORIAL: Measurement techniques for multiphase flows Measurement techniques for multiphase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Koji; Murai, Yuichi

    2009-11-01

    Research on multiphase flows is very important for industrial applications, including power stations, vehicles, engines, food processing and so on. Multiphase flows originally have nonlinear features because of multiphase systems. The interaction between the phases plays a very interesting role in the flows. The nonlinear interaction causes the multiphase flows to be very complicated. Therefore techniques for measuring multiphase flows are very useful in helping to understand the nonlinear phenomena. The state-of-the-art measurement techniques were presented and discussed at the sixth International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multiphase Flows (ISMTMF2008) held in Okinawa, Japan, on 15-17 December 2008. This special feature of Measurement Science and Technology includes selected papers from ISMTMF2008. Okinawa has a long history as the Ryukyus Kingdom. China, Japan and many western Pacific countries have had cultural and economic exchanges through Okinawa for over 1000 years. Much technical and scientific information was exchanged at the symposium in Okinawa. The proceedings of ISMTMF2008 apart from these special featured papers were published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series vol. 147 (2009). We would like to express special thanks to all the contributors to the symposium and this special feature. This special feature will be a milestone in measurement techniques for multiphase flows.

  4. The simulation of multidimensional multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahey, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of various models which can be used for the multidimensional simulation of multiphase flows, such as may occur in nuclear reactors. In particular, a model appropriate for the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of multiphase flows and a mechanistically based, three-dimensional, four-field, turbulent, two-fluid computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) model are discussed. A two-fluid bubbly flow model, which was derived using potential flow theory, can be extended to other flow regimes, but this will normally involve ensemble-averaging the results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of various flow regimes to provide the detailed numerical data necessary for the development of flow-regime-specific interfacial and wall closure laws

  5. Multiphase reacting flows modelling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Marchisio, Daniele L

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this book describe the most widely applicable modeling approaches and are organized in six groups covering from fundamentals to relevant applications. In the first part, some fundamentals of multiphase turbulent reacting flows are covered. In particular the introduction focuses on basic notions of turbulence theory in single-phase and multi-phase systems as well as on the interaction between turbulence and chemistry. In the second part, models for the physical and chemical processes involved are discussed. Among other things, particular emphasis is given to turbulence modeling strategies for multiphase flows based on the kinetic theory for granular flows. Next, the different numerical methods based on Lagrangian and/or Eulerian schemes are presented. In particular the most popular numerical approaches of computational fluid dynamics codes are described (i.e., Direct Numerical Simulation, Large Eddy Simulation, and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach). The book will cover particle-based meth...

  6. Texture in low-alloyed uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sariel, J.

    1982-08-01

    The dependence of the preferred orientation of cast and heat-treated polycrystalline adjusted uranium and uranium -0.1 w/o chromium alloys on the production process was studied. The importance of obtaining material free of preferred orientation is explained, and a survey of the regular methods to determine preferred orientation is given. Dilatometry, tensile testing and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the extent of the directionality of these alloys. Data processing showed that these methods are insufficient in a case of a material without any plastic forming, because of unreproducibility of results. Two parameters are defined from the results of Schlz's method diffraction test. These parameters are shown theoretically and experimentally (by extreme-case samples) to give the deviation from isotropy. Application of these parameters to the examined samples showes that cast material has preferred orientation, though it is not systematic. This preferred orientation was reduced by adequate heat treatments

  7. Multiphase flow in wells and pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.P.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1992-01-01

    This conference focuses primarily on multi-phase flow modeling and calculation methods for oil and gas although two papers focus more on the fluid mechanics of fluidized beds. Papers include theoretical, numerical modeling, experimental investigation, and state-of-the-art review aspects of multiphase flow. The theme of the symposium being general, the papers reflect generality of gas-liquid, liquid-solid, and gas solid flows. One paper deals with nuclear reactor safety as it relates to fluid flow through the reactor

  8. A first-principles study of cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) and its alloyed counterparts: Elastic constants, elastic anisotropies, and isotropic elastic moduli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, G., E-mail: g-ghosh@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208-3108 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    A comprehensive computational study of elastic properties of cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) and its alloyed counterparts (M{sub 3}C (M = Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, Cr{sub 2}FeC and CrFe{sub 2}C) having the crystal structure of Fe{sub 3}C is carried out employing electronic density-functional theory (DFT), all-electron PAW pseudopotentials and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy (GGA). Specifically, as a part of our systematic study of cohesive properties of solids and in the spirit of materials genome, following properties are calculated: (i) single-crystal elastic constants, C{sub ij}, of above M{sub 3}Cs; (ii) anisotropies of bulk, Young’s and shear moduli, and Poisson’s ratio based on calculated C{sub ij}s, demonstrating their extreme anisotropies; (iii) isotropic (polycrystalline) elastic moduli (bulk, shear, Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratio) of M{sub 3}Cs by homogenization of calculated C{sub ij}s; and (iv) acoustic Debye temperature, θ{sub D}, of M{sub 3}Cs based on calculated C{sub ij}s. We provide a critical appraisal of available data of polycrystalline elastic properties of alloyed cementite. Calculated single crystal properties may be incorporated in anisotropic constitutive models to develop and test microstructure-processing-property-performance links in multi-phase materials where cementite is a constituent phase.

  9. Multiphase flow dynamics 2 thermal and mechanical interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay I

    2007-01-01

    The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. This book contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes. It provides a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics.

  10. Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained from a single anisotropic material are considered in the framework of linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of the polycrystal are made. We subject the material to independent external strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...

  11. Multiphase flow and transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. C.

    1989-08-01

    Multiphase flow and transport of compositionally complex fluids in geologic media is of importance in a number of applied problems which have major social and economic effects. In petroleum reservoir engineering, efficient recovery of energy reserves is the principal goal. Unfortunately, some of these hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals often find their way unwanted into the soils and groundwater supplies. Removal in the latter case is predicated on ensuring the public health and safety. In this paper, principles of modeling fluid flow in systems containing up to three fluid phases (namely, water, air, and organic liquid) are described. Solution of the governing equations for multiphase flow requires knowledge of functional relationships between fluid pressures, saturations, and permeabilities which may be formulated on the basis of conceptual models of fluid-porous media interactions. Mechanisms of transport in multicomponent multiphase systems in which species may partition between phases are also described, and the governing equations are presented for the case in which local phase equilibrium may be assumed. A number of hypothetical numerical problems are presented to illustrate the physical behavior of systems in which multiphase flow and transport arise.

  12. A Multiphase Model for the Intracluster Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Daisuke; Sulkanen, Martin E.; Evrard, August E.

    1999-01-01

    Constraints on the clustered mass density of the universe derived from the observed population mean intracluster gas fraction of x-ray clusters may be biased by reliance on a single-phase assumption for the thermodynamic structure of the intracluster medium (ICM). We propose a descriptive model for multiphase structure in which a spherically symmetric ICM contains isobaric density perturbations with a radially dependent variance. Fixing the x-ray emission and emission weighted temperature, we explore two independently observable signatures of the model in the parameter space. For bremsstrahlung dominated emission, the central Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement in the multiphase case is increased over the single-phase case and multiphase x-ray spectra in the range 0.1-20 keV are flatter in the continuum and exhibit stronger low energy emission lines than their single-phase counterpart. We quantify these effects for a fiducial 10e8 K cluster and demonstrate how the combination of SZ and x-ray spectroscopy can be used to identify a preferred location in the plane of the model parameter space. From these parameters the correct value of mean intracluster gas fraction in the multiphase model results, allowing an unbiased estimate of clustered mass density to he recovered.

  13. Multiphase flow in porous media using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Casper Schytte; Walther, Jens Honore

    . This approach is widely used for single phase flow, but not for multiphase flow in porous media. This might be due to the complexity of introducing relative permeability and capillary pressure in the CFD solver.The introduction of relative permeability and capillary pressure may cause numerical instabilities...

  14. Multiphase Nanocrystalline Ceramic Concept for Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecartnery, Martha [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Graeve, Olivia [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Patel, Maulik [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-25

    The goal of this research is to help develop new fuels for higher efficiency, longer lifetimes (higher burn-up) and increased accident tolerance in future nuclear reactors. Multiphase nanocrystalline ceramics will be used in the design of simulated advanced inert matrix nuclear fuel to provide for enhanced plasticity, better radiation tolerance, and improved thermal conductivity

  15. Multiphase Nanocrystalline Ceramic Concept for Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecartnery, Martha; Graeve, Olivia; Patel, Maulik

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research is to help develop new fuels for higher efficiency, longer lifetimes (higher burn-up) and increased accident tolerance in future nuclear reactors. Multiphase nanocrystalline ceramics will be used in the design of simulated advanced inert matrix nuclear fuel to provide for enhanced plasticity, better radiation tolerance, and improved thermal conductivity

  16. Measurement of grain size of polycrystalline materials with confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Li, Fangzuo; Sun, Xuepeng; Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-11-11

    The confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction (EDMXRD) based on polycapillary X-ray optics was used to determine the grain size of polycrystalline materials. The grain size of a metallographic specimen of nickel base alloy was measured by using the confocal EDMXRD. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal EDMXRD had potential applications in measuring large grain size.

  17. The latent fingerprint in mass transport of polycrystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukarasu, Gopinath; Kundu, Sukumar; Chatterjee, Subrata

    2016-02-01

    Herein, a systematic investigation was carried out to reach a rational understanding and to provide information concerning the possible causes for a significant influence of pressure variation in the underlying processes of mass transport in polycrystalline materials. The authors focused their research in solid-state diffusion, a part of the subject "Mass Transport in Solids". Theories on diffusion are the subject by itself which exists as a latent fingerprint in every text of higher learning in interdisciplinary science. In this research, authors prepared sandwich samples of titanium alloy and stainless steel using nickel as an intermediate metal. The samples were processed at three different levels of bonding pressure (3, 4 and 5 MPa) while bonding temperature and bonding time was maintained at 750 °C and 1 h, respectively, throughout the experiments. It was observed that the net flux of atomic diffusion of nickel atoms into Ti-alloy at TiA/Ni interface increased by ~63 % with the rise in the bonding pressure from 3 to 4 MPa, but decreased by ~40 % with the rise in the bonding pressure from 4 to 5 MPa. At the same time, the net flux of atomic diffusion of nickel atoms into stainless steel at Ni/SS interface increased by ~19 % with the rise in the bonding pressure from 3 to 4 MPa, but increased by ~17 % with the rise in the bonding pressure from 4 to 5 MPa. Here authors showed that the pressure variations have different effects at the TiA/Ni interface and Ni/SS interface, and tried to explain the explicit mechanisms operating behind them. In general for sandwich samples processed irrespective of bonding pressure chosen, the net flux of Ni-atoms diffused into SS is greater than that of the net flux of Ni-atoms diffused in Ti-alloy matrix by four orders of magnitude. The calculated diffusivity of Ni-atoms into Ti-alloy reaches its highest value of ~5.083 × 10-19 m2/s for the sandwich sample processed using 4-MPa bonding-pressure, whereas the diffusivity of Ni

  18. Equilibrium shapes of polycrystalline silicon nanodots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzec, M. D., E-mail: korzec@math.tu-berlin.de; Wagner, B., E-mail: bwagner@math.tu-berlin.de [Department of Mathematics, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 136, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Roczen, M., E-mail: maurizio.roczen@physik.hu-berlin.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schade, M., E-mail: martin.schade@physik.uni-halle.de [Zentrum für Innovationskompetenz SiLi-nano, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Karl-Freiherr-von-Fritsch-Straße 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Rech, B., E-mail: bernd.rech@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekuléstraße 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-02-21

    This study is concerned with the topography of nanostructures consisting of arrays of polycrystalline nanodots. Guided by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements of crystalline Si (c-Si) nanodots that evolved from a “dewetting” process of an amorphous Si (a-Si) layer from a SiO{sub 2} coated substrate, we investigate appropriate formulations for the surface energy density and transitions of energy density states at grain boundaries. We introduce a new numerical minimization formulation that allows to account for adhesion energy from an underlying substrate. We demonstrate our approach first for the free standing case, where the solutions can be compared to well-known Wulff constructions, before we treat the general case for interfacial energy settings that support “partial wetting” and grain boundaries for the polycrystalline case. We then use our method to predict the morphologies of silicon nanodots.

  19. Obtaining of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, F.; Nauryzbaev, M.; Kolesnikov, B.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to create pilot equipment and optimize the process of obtaining polycrystalline silicon on semi-industrial level. In the past several decades, the historical experience in the developing countries has shown that one of the most promising ways to improve the economy,of a country is to establish semiconductor industry. First of all, the results can help increase defense, national security and create industrial production. The silane method, which has been traditionally' used for obtaining technical and polycrystalline silicon, is to obtain and then to pyrolyzed mono-and poly silanes. Although the traditional methods of obtaining silicon hydrides have specific advantages, such as utilizing by-products, they also have clear shortcomings, i.e. either low output of the ultimate product ( through hydrolysis of Mg 2 Si) or high contents of by-products in it or high contents of dissolving vapors (through decomposing Mg 2 Si in non-water solutions)

  20. Method for producing polycrystalline boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeevskii, V.P.; Bochko, A.V.; Dzhamarov, S.S.; Karpinos, D.M.; Karyuk, G.G.; Kolomiets, I.P.; Kurdyumov, A.V.; Pivovarov, M.S.; Frantsevich, I.N.; Yarosh, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    A mixture containing less than 50 percent of graphite-like boron nitride treated by a shock wave and highly defective wurtzite-like boron nitride obtained by a shock-wave method is compressed and heated at pressure and temperature values corresponding to the region of the phase diagram for boron nitride defined by the graphite-like compact modifications of boron nitride equilibrium line and the cubic wurtzite-like boron nitride equilibrium line. The resulting crystals of boron nitride exhibit a structure of wurtzite-like boron nitride or of both wurtzite-like and cubic boron nitride. The resulting material exhibits higher plasticity as compared with polycrystalline cubic boron nitride. Tools made of this compact polycrystalline material have a longer service life under impact loads in machining hardened steel and chilled iron. (U.S.)

  1. Effective polycrystalline sensor of ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Pavelets

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of special thin layers with high and low resistance in space charge region of surface barrier photoconverters based on the p-Cu1.8S/n-CdS structure leads to a sufficient increase in photosensitivity and decrease in dark tunneling-recombination current. Highly efficient and stable polycrystalline photoconverters of ultraviolet radiation based on polycrystalline CdS have been obtained. Electrical and photoelectric properties have been investigated, and the main operational parameters of ultraviolet sensors have been adduced. The reasons for high stability of the parameters inherent to the p-Cu1.8S/n-CdS sensors are as follows: the absence of impurity components additionally doped to the barrier structure and stability of the photocurrent photoemission component.

  2. Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained froma single anisotropic material are considered in the frameworkof linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of thepolycrystal are made. We subject the material to independentexternal strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...... values.We show that the extremal overall elastic response is alwaysachieved by a configuration consisting of a single properlyoriented crystal. This result is compared to results for isotropicpolycrystals....

  3. Hydrogen solubility in polycrystalline - and nonocrystalline niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T.T.; Silva, J.R.G. da

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen solubility in polycrystalline and monocrystalline niobium was measured in the range 400 0 C to 1000 0 C at one atmosphere hydrogen partial pressure. The experimental technique consists of saturation of the solvent metal with hydrogen, followed by quenching and analysis of the solid solution. It is presented solubility curves versus reciprocal of the absolute doping temperature, associated with their thermodynamical equation. (Author) [pt

  4. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  5. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Leonard C. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ishida, Takanobu [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between -0.24 and +1.25 VSCE while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-ρ-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  6. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very re...

  7. Multiphase Microfluidics The Diffuse Interface Model

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase flows are typically described assuming that the different phases are separated by a sharp interface, with appropriate boundary conditions. This approach breaks down whenever the lengthscale of the phenomenon that is being studied is comparable with the real interface thickness, as it happens, for example, in the coalescence and breakup of bubbles and drops, the wetting and dewetting of solid surfaces and, in general, im micro-devices. The diffuse interface model resolves these probems by assuming that all quantities can vary continuously, so that interfaces have a non-zero thickness, i.e. they are "diffuse". The contributions in this book review the theory and describe some relevant applications of the diffuse interface model for one-component, two-phase fluids and for liquid binary mixtures, to model multiphase flows in confined geometries.

  8. Visualization of multiphase flow by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Takenaka, Nobuyuki.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NRG) is a technique which produces images of the internal structure of a body, making use of the attenuation characteristics of neutrons in the materials being observed. Recently, attempts have been made to expand the application of this technique not only to non-destructive testing but also to a variety of industrial and basic research fields. The attenuation of neutrons is large in a light material like water and small in ordinary metals, which difference may make it possible to visualize a multiphase flow in a metallic container. Particularly, the neutron television, which is one of the applied techniques of NRG, is expected to be a useful tool for observing the behavior of two-phase flow, since it produces images in real time. In this paper the basic idea and the method of NRG are presented along with examples of visualization of multiphase flow by NRG. (author)

  9. Application and Perspectives of Multiphase Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benas Kundrotas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the areas of applying multiphase induction motors. Their advantages against three phase motors have become the main reason for employing them in multiphase drives. The paper deals with the six-phase induction motor having two similar three phase windings in the stator shifted by 30 degrees in space and three phase windings in the rotor. Differential equations for this motor are presented and transformed to dq synchronous reference frame. The transformed equations are expressed in a matrix form and solved by MATLAB software using the Dormand-Prince (ode45 method. The transient characteristics of the torque, speed and current of the six-phase induction motor are calculated and discussed.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Variational continuum multiphase poroelasticity theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Serpieri, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This book collects the theoretical derivation of a recently presented general variational macroscopic continuum theory of multiphase poroelasticity (VMTPM), together with its applications to consolidation and stress partitioning problems of interest in several applicative engineering contexts, such as in geomechanics and biomechanics. The theory is derived based on a purely-variational deduction, rooted in the least-Action principle, by considering a minimal set of kinematic descriptors. The treatment herein considered keeps a specific focus on the derivation of most general medium-independent governing equations. It is shown that VMTPM recovers paradigms of consolidated use in multiphase poroelasticity such as Terzaghi's stress partitioning principle and Biot's equations for wave propagation. In particular, the variational treatment permits the derivation of a general medium-independent stress partitioning law, and the proposed variational theory predicts that the external stress, the fluid pressure, and the...

  11. Modeling variability in porescale multiphase flow experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bowen; Bao, Jie; Oostrom, Mart; Battiato, Ilenia; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2017-07-01

    Microfluidic devices and porescale numerical models are commonly used to study multiphase flow in biological, geological, and engineered porous materials. In this work, we perform a set of drainage and imbibition experiments in six identical microfluidic cells to study the reproducibility of multiphase flow experiments. We observe significant variations in the experimental results, which are smaller during the drainage stage and larger during the imbibition stage. We demonstrate that these variations are due to sub-porescale geometry differences in microcells (because of manufacturing defects) and variations in the boundary condition (i.e., fluctuations in the injection rate inherent to syringe pumps). Computational simulations are conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+, both with constant and randomly varying injection rates. Stochastic simulations are able to capture variability in the experiments associated with the varying pump injection rate.

  12. On modeling of structured multiphase mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobran, F.

    1987-01-01

    The usual modeling of multiphase mixtures involves a set of conservation and balance equations of mass, momentum, energy and entropy (the basic set) constructed by an averaging procedure or postulated. The averaged models are constructed by averaging, over space or time segments, the local macroscopic field equations of each phase, whereas the postulated models are usually motivated by the single phase multicomponent mixture models. In both situations, the resulting equations yield superimposed continua models and are closed by the constitutive equations which place restrictions on the possible material response during the motion and phase change. In modeling the structured multiphase mixtures, the modeling of intrinsic motion of grains or particles is accomplished by adjoining to the basic set of field equations the additional balance equations, thereby placing restrictions on the motion of phases only within the imposed extrinsic and intrinsic sources. The use of the additional balance equations has been primarily advocated in the postulatory theories of multiphase mixtures and are usually derived through very special assumptions of the material deformation. Nevertheless, the resulting mixture models can predict a wide variety of complex phenomena such as the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion in granular media, Rayleigh bubble equation, wave dispersion and dilatancy. Fundamental to the construction of structured models of multiphase mixtures are the problems pertaining to the existence and number of additional balance equations to model the structural characteristics of a mixture. Utilizing a volume averaging procedure it is possible not only to derive the basic set of field equation discussed above, but also a very general set of additional balance equations for modeling of structural properties of the mixture

  13. NMR studies of multiphase flows II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altobelli, S.A.; Caprihan, A.; Fukushima, E. [Lovelace Institutes, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    NMR techniques for measurements of spatial distribution of material phase, velocity and velocity fluctuation are being developed and refined. Versions of these techniques which provide time average liquid fraction and fluid phase velocity have been applied to several concentrated suspension systems which will not be discussed extensively here. Technical developments required to further extend the use of NMR to the multi-phase flow arena and to provide measurements of previously unobtainable parameters are the focus of this report.

  14. Modified Invasion Percolation Models for Multiphase Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpyn, Zuleima [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This project extends current understanding and modeling capabilities of pore-scale multiphase flow physics in porous media. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography imaging experiments are used to investigate structural and surface properties of the medium that influence immiscible displacement. Using experimental and computational tools, we investigate the impact of wetting characteristics, as well as radial and axial loading conditions, on the development of percolation pathways, residual phase trapping and fluid-fluid interfacial areas.

  15. Transfers in multiphase environment; Transferts en milieu multiphasique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinhas, S.; Delahaye, A.; Fournaison, L. [Cemagref - GPAN, 92 - Antony (France); Dalmazzone, D.; Furst, W. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Techniques Avancees (ENSTA), 75 - Paris (France); Petitet, J.P. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions (LIMHP), CNRS, 93 - Villetaneuse (France); Trinquet, F.; Royon, L.; Kayossi, H.; Guiffant, G. [Laboratoire Matiere Systeme Complexe, CNRS UMR 7057, 75 - Paris (France); El Omari, L.; Baonga, J.B.; Louahlia-Gualous, H.; Panday, P.K. [Institut FEMTO, Dept. C.R.E.S.T.-UTBM-UFC, UMR CNRS 6174, 90 - Belfort (France); Asbik, M.; Ansari, O. [UFR de Modelisation, Optimisation et Ingenierie des Systemes Energetiques, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Errachidia (Morocco); Zeghmati, B. [Perpignan Univ., Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique des Systemes, Groupe de Mecanique Energetique (M.E.P.S.-G.M.E.), EA 3086, 66 (France); Jamil, A.; Zeraouli, Y.; Dumas, J.P. [Pau Univ. et des Pays de l' Adour, Lab. de Thermique, Energetique et Procedes (LaTEP), 64 (France); Roux, P.; Fichot, F. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gobin, D.; Goyeau, B. [Laboratoire FAST, 91 - Orsay (France); Quintard, M. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides, 31 - Toulouse (France); Barthes, M.; Reynard, Ch.; Santini, R.; Tadrist, L. [Laboratoire IUSTI CNRS UMR 6595, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about heat and mass transfers in multiphase flows gathers 17 papers dealing with: dynamic study of gas hydrate slurry applied to secondary refrigeration; ice melting inside an agitated reactor: experiment and phenomenological approach; experimental and numerical investigation of the local thickness change of a liquid film dripping around an horizontal tube; evaporation of a liquid film dripping around the external wall of an horizontal tube: laminar-turbulent transition phenomenon; coldness distribution by stabilized ice slurries, study of the behaviour under thermal cycling; study of phases disequilibria of two-phase refrigerating fluids; solidification of binary mixtures, influence of the local chemical non-equilibrium and of the effective transport properties; analysis of heat transfers during the growth of a vapor bubble; forecasting of micro-porosity inside Al-Si alloy smelting parts; estimation of a source term in a 2D transient problem: application to electron beam welding; mesoscopic approach of thermal flows; experimental and numerical study of the impact of a circular jet on a heated disc; inverse conduction method for a jet impacting a rotating cylinder: feasibility study; experimental follow up of a fusion-solidification front with and without transfer promoter; parametric study of a latent heat storage tank during horizontal drainage; stability between two layers of a same supercritical fluid; numerical modeling of the heat transfer inside a stainless steel slab. (J.S.)

  16. Clinical significance of multiphase skeletal scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, P.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 61 patients were included in this study, which was performed to find out, if multiphase skeletal scintiscanning using 99mTc-DPD is a more accurate investigational method in terms of diagnostic differentiation than conventional scintiscanning. All patients were subjected to additional diagnostic procedures using X-rays, CT, etc. and the findings revealed were compared. In order to ensure an objective assessment of the density patterns obtained in the individual study phase (initial phase (1); vascular phase (2); soft tissue phase (3); standard phase (4)), special care was taken that only regions of similar vascularity were compared. In acute osteomyelitis, osteitis deformans according to Paget and osteoid osteoma multiphase scintiscanning yielded valuable additional information which, from the diagnostic point of view, proved to be much more meaningful than that provided by conventional scintiscanning, as very characteristic activity patterns were discernible in the initial study phases. In patients showing artificial limb infection or fractures this supplementary information was also found to be of some value, although the behaviour of activity in the initial study phases gave less conclusive evidence here than in the diseases mentioned before. In inflammatory disorders involving only minor histological changes or those of a chronic nature as well as in special forms of inflammation and artificial limb dislocation multiphase scintiscanning was not found to offer any advantages over conventional scintiscanning. (TRV) [de

  17. How winning changes motivation in multiphase competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Szu-Chi; Etkin, Jordan; Jin, Liyin

    2017-06-01

    What drives motivation in multiphase competitions? Adopting a dynamic approach, this research examines how temporary standing-being ahead of (vs. behind) one's opponent-in a multiphase competition shapes subsequent motivation. Six competitions conducted in the lab and in the field demonstrate that the impact of being ahead on contestants' motivation depends on when (i.e., in which phase of the competition) contestants learn they are in the lead. In the early phase, contestants are concerned about whether they can win; being ahead increases motivation by making winning seem more attainable. In the later phase, however, contestants are instead driven by how much additional effort they believe they need to invest; being ahead decreases motivation by reducing contestants' estimate of the remaining effort needed to win. Temporary standing thus has divergent effects on motivation in multiphase competitions, driven by a shift in contestants' main concern from the early to the later phase and thus the meaning they derive from being ahead of their opponent. By leveraging insights gained from approaching individuals' self-regulation as a dynamic process, this research advances understanding of how motivation evolves in a unique interdependent self-regulatory context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Modeling reproducibility of porescale multiphase flow experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, B.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Bao, J.; Oostrom, M.; Battiato, I.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-phase flow in porous media is widely encountered in geological systems. Understanding immiscible fluid displacement is crucial for processes including, but not limited to, CO2 sequestration, non-aqueous phase liquid contamination and oil recovery. Microfluidic devices and porescale numerical models are commonly used to study multiphase flow in biological, geological, and engineered porous materials. In this work, we perform a set of drainage and imbibition experiments in six identical microfluidic cells to study the reproducibility of multiphase flow experiments. We observe significant variations in the experimental results, which are smaller during the drainage stage and larger during the imbibition stage. We demonstrate that these variations are due to sub-porescale geometry differences in microcells (because of manufacturing defects) and variations in the boundary condition (i.e.,fluctuations in the injection rate inherent to syringe pumps). Computational simulations are conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+, both with constant and randomly varying injection rate. Stochastic simulations are able to capture variability in the experiments associated with the varying pump injection rate.

  19. Micromechanical modeling of stress-induced strain in polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga by directional solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yuping; Shi, Tao; Teng, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A micromechanical model of directional solidification Ni–Mn–Ga is developed. • The stress–strain curves in different directions are tested. • The martensite Young’s moduli in different directions are predicted. • The macro reorientation strains in different directions are investigated. - Abstract: Polycrystalline ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni–Mn–Ga produced by directional solidification possess unique properties. Its compressive stress–strain behaviors in loading–unloading cycle show nonlinear and anisotropic. Based on the self-consistent theory and thermodynamics principle, a micromechanical constitutive model of polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga by directional solidification is developed considering the generating mechanism of the macroscopic strain and anisotropy. Then, the stress induced strains at different angles to solidification direction are calculated, and the results agree well with the experimental data. The predictive curves of martensite Young’s modulus and macro reorientation strain in different directions are investigated. It may provide theoretical guidance for the design and use of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

  20. Magnetostriction Increase of Polycrystalline Fe-Al-B Thin Sheets after Thermomechanical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M. B. S.; Fulop, G. O.; Baldan, C. A.; Bormio-Nunes, C.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetostrictive materials are applied in several types of sensors, actuators, and energy harvesting. In particular, for AC devices, thin materials are desired to reduce eddy current losses. It is well known that the magnetostriction of single crystals and textured materials is higher than in polycrystalline ones, however, the cost and manufacture speed are crucial to be used as parts of commercial devices. Therefore, polycrystalline samples are strong candidates for common applications. In this work, (Fe x Al100- x )98.4B1.6 ( x = 86.6, 82 and 79.4) alloys were rolled down to 0.7 mm of thickness and annealed at 1473 K (1200 °C) for 2 hours aiming to reduce the thickness of the samples without deteriorating the magnetic properties. The alloys, even with higher contents of Al, were easily deformed to the thickness of 0.7 mm and this ability is attributed to the presence of the Fe2B phase. After the thermomechanical process, new isotropic recrystallized grains emerged and the longitudinal magnetostriction increased to 75.8, 16.9, and 3.2 pct, achieving 28.3, 28.4, and 28.8 ppm, respectively, for x = 86.6, 82, and 79.4. The piezomagnetic coefficient obtained of 4 nm/A is a suitable actuating sensitivity.

  1. Toughening and creep in multiphase intermetallics through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has however often been the case that the process of ductilisation or toughening has also led to a decrease in high temperature properties, especially creep. In this paper we describe approaches to the ductilisation of two different classes of intermetallic alloys through alloying to introduce beneficial, second phase effects.

  2. Discrete Tomography and Imaging of Polycrystalline Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, Andreas

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy is commonly considered as the standard application for discrete tomography. While this has yet to be technically realized, new applications with a similar flavor have emerged in materials science. In our group at Ris� DTU (Denmark's National...... Laboratory for Sustainable Energy), for instance, we study polycrystalline materials via synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Several reconstruction problems arise, most of them exhibit inherently discrete aspects. In this talk I want to give a concise mathematical introduction to some of these reconstruction...... problems. Special focus is on their relationship to classical discrete tomography. Several open mathematical questions will be mentioned along the way....

  3. Hydrogenation of polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honda, Shinya; Mates, Tomáš; Knížek, Karel; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan; Yamazaki, T.; Uraoka, Y.; Fuyuki, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 501, - (2006), s. 144-148 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 537; GA MŽP(CZ) SM/300/1/03; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010316; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010413; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0789 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : polycrystalline silicon * atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition * hydrogen passivation * photoluminescence * Raman spectroscopy * Si-H 2 bonding * hydrogen molecules Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.666, year: 2006

  4. Field performance of a polycrystalline silicon module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adegboyega, G.A.; Kuku, T.A.; Salau, A.A.M.

    1985-12-01

    The field performance of a polycrystalline silicon module is reported. The recorded data include the ambient temperature, solar insolation and the module output power. The module has given efficiencies in the range of 2-4% and has demonstrated good stability over a ten month period. From the field data, equations that could be used to predict performance for various seasons of the year for this location have been developed and the fit between predicted and actual performance has been found to be quite good. (author)

  5. Creep cavitation effects in polycrystalline alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.R.; Blumenthal, W.; Evans, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Fine grained polycrystalline alumina has been deformed in creep at high temperatures, to examine the evolution of cavities at grain boundaries. Cavities with equilibrium and crack-like morphologies have been observed, distributed nonuniformly throughout the material. The role of these cavities during creep has been described. A transition from equilibrium to crack-like morphology has been observed and correlated with a model based on the influence of the surface to boundary diffusivity ratio and the local tensile stress. The contribution of cavitation to the creep rate and total creep strain has been analyzed and excluded as the principal cause of the observed non-linear creep rate

  6. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of elastic modulus in nickel alloy from ultrasonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    als scientists, and solid-state theorists; they connect to tech- nological, structural economics and safety, to various mate- rials phenomena and to their fundamental interatomic forces. (Ledbetter 1983). In any material which is a multiphase alloy, the elastic modulus is determined by the modulus of the indi- vidual phases and ...

  8. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  9. Contrast optimization in multiphase arterial spin labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Fernando F.; Paschoal, Andre M.; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Moll, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Multiphase ASL is an effective way to overcome the regional variation of the transit time that difficult the estimation of perfusion values. However, with conventional multiple phases ASL techniques, the ASL contrast at later phases is impaired due to repeated application of excitation pulses and longitudinal relaxation making it difficult to evaluate the tissue perfusion in regions where the transit time is longer. In the present study, we show an improvement of the acquisition scheme by exploring a modulation on the flip angle of the MR acquisition to keep the ASL contrast constant over multiple phases. (author)

  10. Method of treating Ti--Nb--Zr--Ta superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, T.; Monju, Y.; Tatara, I.; Nagai, N.; Hisata, M.; Matsumoto, K.

    1975-01-01

    A superconducting alloy is formulated from 10 to 50 at. percent Ti, 20 to 50 at. percent Nb, 10 to 40 at. percent Zr, and 5 to 12 at. percent Ta. A Ti--Nb--Zr--Ta superconducting alloy with a fine, non-homogeneous structure is obtained by forming a β solid solution of Ti--Nb--Zr--Ta alloy by heating to a temperature within the β solid solution range, cooling, and then cold working the heated alloy. The cold worked alloy is heated to a temperature within the (β' + β'') alloy to maintain the peritectoid structure, cold worked, then heated to a temperature within the eutectoid range to form a multiphase alloy structure and then cooled and finally cold worked. (U.S.)

  11. Influence of different etchants on the representation of microstructures in nickel alloys; Einfluss verschiedener Aetzmittel auf die Gefuegedarstellung in Nickellegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speicher, Magdalena; Scheck, Rudi; Maile, Karl [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Materialpruefungsanstalt

    2016-04-15

    This work presents a comparison of selected nickel alloys of the same condition which were treated by means of specifically chosen etching techniques. Microstructures on microscope images of wrought Alloy 617, a casting variant of Alloy 625, a polycrystalline casting alloy IN-738 LC, as well as of a monocrystalline superalloy CM 247 LC SX, respectively, are juxtaposed and evaluated. This approach allows for a comprehensive optical microscopy characterization of the characteristic microstructural features.

  12. Axisymmetric multiphase lattice Boltzmann method for generic equations of state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, S.A.; Gelderblom, H.; Toschi, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present an axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann model based on the Kupershtokh et al. multiphase model that is capable of solving liquid–gas density ratios up to 103. Appropriate source terms are added to the lattice Boltzmann evolution equation to fully recover the axisymmetric multiphase conservation

  13. A Senior Project-Based Multiphase Motor Drive System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalik, Ayman S.; Massoud, Ahmed M.; Ahmed, Shehab

    2016-01-01

    Adjustable-speed drives based on multiphase motors are of significant interest for safety-critical applications that necessitate wide fault-tolerant capabilities and high system reliability. Although multiphase machines are based on the same conceptual theory as three-phase machines, most undergraduate electrical machines and electric drives…

  14. Industrial applications of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, G.J.; Chewter, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    To reveal trends in the design and operation of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors, this paper describes, in historical sequence, three industrial applications of multi-functional, multi-phase reactors developed and operated by Shell Chemicals during the last five decades. For each case, we

  15. Giant 1/f noise in two-dimensional polycrystalline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snarskii, A.; Bezsudnov, I.

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of excess (1/f noise) in two-dimensional polycrystalline media is investigated. On the base of current trap model, it is shown that there exists a certain anisotropy value of conductivity tensor for polycrystalline media when the amplitude of 1/f noise becomes giant

  16. Multiphase averaging of periodic soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The multiphase averaging of periodic soliton equations is considered. Particular attention is given to the periodic sine-Gordon and Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equations. The periodic sine-Gordon equation and its associated inverse spectral theory are analyzed, including a discussion of the spectral representations of exact, N-phase sine-Gordon solutions. The emphasis is on physical characteristics of the periodic waves, with a motivation from the well-known whole-line solitons. A canonical Hamiltonian approach for the modulational theory of N-phase waves is prescribed. A concrete illustration of this averaging method is provided with the periodic sine-Gordon equation; explicit averaging results are given only for the N = 1 case, laying a foundation for a more thorough treatment of the general N-phase problem. For the KdV equation, very general results are given for multiphase averaging of the N-phase waves. The single-phase results of Whitham are extended to general N phases, and more importantly, an invariant representation in terms of Abelian differentials on a Riemann surface is provided. Several consequences of this invariant representation are deduced, including strong evidence for the Hamiltonian structure of N-phase modulational equations

  17. Structural evolution and mechanisms of fatigue in polycrystalline brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejloe Carstensen, J.

    1998-03-01

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. This complicates the contstruction of a cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve and thus the comparison with copper. A method to overcome this complication has been suggested. Surface observations on fatigued brass specimens show that individual grains tend to deform by Sachs type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the secondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence of short-range order (SRO). SRO promote the formation of extended dipole arrays which hardens the material. The formation of intense shear bands destroy the dipole arrays, which explains the cyclic softening. The present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn in a pure planar slip alloy, while Cu-15%Zn displays both planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This emphasizes brass as being a convenient model system for the industrially important austenitic steels. (au)

  18. Structural evolution and mechanisms of fatigue in polycrystalline brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejloe Carstensen, J

    1998-03-01

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. This complicates the contstruction of a cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve and thus the comparison with copper. A method to overcome this complication has been suggested. Surface observations on fatigued brass specimens show that individual grains tend to deform by Sachs type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the secondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence of short-range order (SRO). SRO promote the formation of extended dipole arrays which hardens the material. The formation of intense shear bands destroy the dipole arrays, which explains the cyclic softening. The present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn in a pure planar slip alloy, while Cu-15%Zn displays both planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This emphasizes brass as being a convenient model system for the industrially important austenitic steels. (au) 9 tabs., 94 ills., 177 refs.; The thesis is also available as DCAMM-R-S80 and as an electronic document on http://www.risoe.dk/rispubl

  19. Multiphase forces on bend structures – critical gas fraction for transition single phase gas to multiphase flow behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Nennie, E.D.; Lewis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Piping structures are generally subjected to high dynamic loading due to multiphase forces. In particular subsea structures are very vulnerable as large flexibility is required to cope for instance with thermal stresses. The forces due to multiphase flow are characterized by a broadband spectrum

  20. Polycrystalline Diamond Schottky Diodes and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ganming

    In this work, four-hot-filament CVD techniques for in situ boron doped diamond synthesis on silicon substrates were extensively studied. A novel tungsten filament shape and arrangement used to obtain large-area, uniform, boron doped polycrystalline diamond thin films. Both the experimental results and radiative heat transfer analysis showed that this technique improved the uniformity of the substrate temperature. XRD, Raman and SEM studies indicate that large area, uniform, high quality polycrystalline diamond films were obtained. Schottky diodes were fabricated by either sputter deposition of silver or thermal evaporation of aluminum or gold, on boron doped diamond thin films. High forward current density and a high forward-to-reverse current ratio were exhibited by silver on diamond Schottky diodes. Schottky barrier heights and the majority carrier concentrations of both aluminum and gold contacted diodes were determined from the C-V measurements. Furthermore, a novel theoretical C-V-f analysis of deep level boron doped diamond Schottky diodes was performed. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased I-V characteristics of the diamond Schottky diodes, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. The stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. This result shows that CVD diamond device has potential for mechanical transducer applications. The quantitative photoresponse characteristics of the diodes were studied in the spectral range of 300 -1050 nm. Semi-transparent gold contacts were used for better photoresponse. Quantum efficiency as high as 50% was obtained at 500 nm, when a reverse bias of over 1 volt was applied. The Schottky barrier heights between either gold or

  1. A mass-conserving multiphase lattice Boltzmann model for simulation of multiphase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiao-Dong; Li, You; Ma, Yi-Ren; Chen, Mu-Feng; Li, Xiang; Li, Qiao-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a mass-conserving multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for simulating the multiphase flows. The proposed model developed in the present study is to improve the model of Shao et al. ["Free-energy-based lattice Boltzmann model for simulation of multiphase flows with density contrast," Phys. Rev. E 89, 033309 (2014)] by introducing a mass correction term in the lattice Boltzmann model for the interface. The model of Shao et al. [(the improved Zheng-Shu-Chew (Z-S-C model)] correctly considers the effect of the local density variation in momentum equation and has an obvious improvement over the Zheng-Shu-Chew (Z-S-C) model ["A lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flows with large density ratio," J. Comput. Phys. 218(1), 353-371 (2006)] in terms of solution accuracy. However, due to the physical diffusion and numerical dissipation, the total mass of each fluid phase cannot be conserved correctly. To solve this problem, a mass correction term, which is similar to the one proposed by Wang et al. ["A mass-conserved diffuse interface method and its application for incompressible multiphase flows with large density ratio," J. Comput. Phys. 290, 336-351 (2015)], is introduced into the lattice Boltzmann equation for the interface to compensate the mass losses or offset the mass increase. Meanwhile, to implement the wetting boundary condition and the contact angle, a geometric formulation and a local force are incorporated into the present mass-conserving LB model. The proposed model is validated by verifying the Laplace law, simulating both one and two aligned droplets splashing onto a liquid film, droplets standing on an ideal wall, droplets with different wettability splashing onto smooth wax, and bubbles rising under buoyancy. Numerical results show that the proposed model can correctly simulate multiphase flows. It was found that the mass is well-conserved in all cases considered by the model developed in the present study. The developed

  2. Enhanced activity and stability of Pt–La and Pt–Ce alloys for oxygen electroreduction: the elucidation of the active surface phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malacrida, Paolo; Escribano, Maria Escudero; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau

    2014-01-01

    Three different Pt-lanthanide metal alloys (Pt5La, Pt5Ce and Pt3La) have been studied as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts. Sputter-cleaned polycrystalline Pt5La and Pt5Ce exhibit more than a 3-fold activity enhancement compared to polycrystalline Pt at 0.9 V, while Pt3La heavily c......, suggesting that these alloys hold promise as cathode catalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs)....

  3. Fatigue damage assessment of recycled metals and alloys | Ayensu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyclic fatigue tests were conducted on recycled polycrystalline metals and alloys at room and elevated tempera-ures to determine the fatigue strength, endurance limit and endurance ratio. Annealed and polished stainless steel (Fe-18Cr-8Ni), mild steel (Fe-0.25Cr), aluminium (Al), alpha-brass (Cu-30 % Zn) and copper ...

  4. Considerations for improved polycrystalline cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.L.; Shaw, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Polycrystalline cuprate superconductors exhibit two-stage superconducting transitions, that are characteristic of granular systems. This behaviour suggests approaches involving improvements in intra and inter-grain properties in order to improve the technologically important superconducting properties such as the magnetic remanent moment and transport critical current density. This paper reports results of our studies on oxygenation, twin density control through grain size and changes in flux pinning within the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ matrix with Ag substitution under the heading of intra-grain properties and the detrimental effect of grain boundary phases and the effect of Ag substitution on grain boundary pinning under the heading of inter-grain properties

  5. Process Research of Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culik, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was begun into the usefulness of molecular hydrogen annealing on polycrystalline solar cells. No improvement was realized even after twenty hours of hydrogenation. Thus, samples were chosen on the basis of: (1) low open circuit voltage; (2) low shunt conductance; and (3) high light generated current. These cells were hydrogenated in molecular hydrogen at 300 C. The differences between the before and after hydrogenation values are so slight as to be negligible. These cells have light generated current densities that indicate long minority carrier diffusion lengths. The open circuit voltage appears to be degraded, and quasi-neutral recombination current enhanced. Therefore, molecular hydrogen is not usful for passivating electrically active defects.

  6. Mechanical properties of porous PNZT polycrystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, D.R.; Fulrath, R.M.

    1977-08-01

    Niobium-doped lead zirconate-titanate (PNZT) was used to investigate the effect of porosity on the mechanical properties of a polycrystalline ceramic. Spherical pores (110 to 150 μm diameter) were introduced by using organic materials in the initial specimen fabrication. The matrix grain size (2 to 5 μm) was kept constant. Small pores (2 to 3 μm diameter) of the order of the grain size were formed by varying the sintering conditions. The effect of porosity on strength was predicted quite well by Weibull's probabilistic approach. The Young's modulus showed a linear relationship with increase in porosity. A decrease in fracture toughness with increase in porosity was also observed. It was found that at equivalent porosities, small pore specimens gave higher strength, Young's modulus and fracture toughness compared to specimens containing large pores. Fracture surface analysis, by scanning electron microscopy, showed fracture originated either at the tensile surface or at the edge of the specimen

  7. IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCRYSTALLINE TIN DIOXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Adamchuck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of the influence of annealing in an inert atmosphere on the electrical properties and structure of non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films by means of impedance spectroscopy method. Non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films were fabricated by two-step oxidation of metallic tin deposited on the polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. In order to modify the structure and stoichiometric composition, the films were subjected to the high temperature annealing in argon atmosphere in temperature range 300–800 °С. AC-conductivity measurements of the films in the frequency range 20 Hz – 2 MHz were carried out. Variation in the frequency dependencies of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance of tin dioxide films was found to occur as a result of high-temperature annealing. Equivalent circuits for describing the properties of films with various structure and stoichiometric composition were proposed. Possibility of conductivity variation of the polycrystalline tin dioxide films as a result of аnnealing in an inert atmosphere was demonstrated by utilizing impedance spectroscopy. Annealing induces the recrystallization of the films, changing in their stoichiometry as well as increase of the sizes of SnO2 crystallites. Variation of electrical conductivity and structure of tin dioxide films as a result of annealing in inert atmosphere was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analysis of the impedance diagrams of tin dioxide films was found to be a powerful tool to study their electrical properties. 

  8. A development of multiphase flow facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Mustapha; Jaafar Abdullah

    2004-01-01

    Multiphase liquid flow facility shall be enabling to transport of oil/gas/water in pipelines. In horizontal pipelines, the different flow patterns that could be observed. The flow pattern will depend mainly on the gas and liquid velocities, and gas liquid ratio. For very high liquid velocities and low gas liquid ratios, the dispersed bubble flow is observed. For low flow rates of liquid and gas, a smooth or wavy stratified flow is expected. For intermediate liquid velocities, rolling waves of liquids are formed. The rolling waves increase to the point of forming a plug flow and a slug flow. For very high gas velocities, the annular flow is observed Also include a tillable test section allowing for testing at any angle between 0 0 degree from horizontal, lowering the measurement uncertainties and increased capabilities with respect to flow rates and gas fractions. (Author)

  9. Multiphase Flow Dynamics 5 Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    The present Volume 5 of the successful book package "Multiphase Flow Dynamics" is devoted to nuclear thermal hydraulics which is a substantial part of nuclear reactor safety. It provides knowledge and mathematical tools for adequate description of the process of transferring the fission heat released in materials due to nuclear reactions into its environment. It step by step introduces into the heat release inside the fuel, temperature fields in the fuels, the "simple" boiling flow in a pipe described using ideas of different complexity like equilibrium, non equilibrium, homogeneity, non homogeneity. Then the "simple" three-fluid boiling flow in a pipe is described by gradually involving the mechanisms like entrainment and deposition, dynamic fragmentation, collisions, coalescence, turbulence. All heat transfer mechanisms are introduced gradually discussing their uncertainty. Different techniques are introduced like boundary layer treatments or integral methods. Comparisons with experimental data at each step...

  10. Multiphase flow dynamics 5 nuclear thermal hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    This Volume 5 of the successful book package "Multiphase Flow Dynamics" is devoted to nuclear thermal hydraulics which is a substantial part of nuclear reactor safety. It provides knowledge and mathematical tools for adequate description of the process of transferring the fission heat released in materials due to nuclear reactions into its environment. It step by step introduces into the heat release inside the fuel, temperature fields in the fuels, the "simple" boiling flow in a pipe described using ideas of different complexity like equilibrium, non equilibrium, homogeneity, non homogeneity. Then the "simple" three-fluid boiling flow in a pipe is described by gradually involving the mechanisms like entrainment and deposition, dynamic fragmentation, collisions, coalescence, turbulence. All heat transfer mechanisms are introduced gradually discussing their uncertainty. Different techniques are introduced like boundary layer treatments or integral methods. Comparisons with experimental data at each step demons...

  11. Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and diffusion to silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Akasaka, Y.; Horie, K.

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and drive-in diffusion to silicon substrate have been investigated by MeV He + backscattering analysis and also by electrical measurements. The range distributions of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon are well fitted to Gaussian distributions over the energy range 60--350 keV. The measured values of R/sub P/ and ΔR/sub P/ are about 10 and 20% larger than the theoretical predictions, respectively. The effective diffusion coefficient of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon is expressed as D=0.63 exp[(-3.22 eV/kT)] and is independent of the arsenic concentration. The drive-in diffusion of arsenic from the implanted polycrystalline silicon layer into the silicon substrate is significantly affected by the diffusion atmosphere. In the N 2 atmosphere, a considerable amount of arsenic atoms diffuses outward to the ambient. The outdiffusion can be suppressed by encapsulation with Si 3 N 4 . In the oxidizing atmosphere, arsenic atoms are driven inward by growing SiO 2 due to the segregation between SiO 2 and polycrystalline silicon, and consequently the drive-in diffusion of arsenic is enhanced. At the interface between the polycrystalline silicon layer and the silicon substrate, arsenic atoms are likely to segregate at the polycrystalline silicon side

  12. Multiphasic MDCT in small bowel volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shiting; Chan Tao; Sun Canhui; Li Ziping; Guo Huanyi; Yang Guangqi; Peng Zhenpeng; Meng Quanfei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the use of MDCT with 3D CT angiography (CTA) and CT portal venography (CTPV) reconstruction for the diagnosis of small bowel volvulus (SBV). Methods: Multiphasic MDCT findings in nine patients (seven males and two females, age range 2-70) with surgically proven SBV were retrospectively reviewed. Non-contrast and double phase contrast enhanced MDCT including 3D CTA and CTPV reconstruction were performed in all the patients. Two experienced abdominal radiologists evaluated the images and defined the location, direction and degree of SBV. Results: On axial MDCT images, all cases show segmental or global dilatation of small intestine. Other findings include circumferential bowel wall thickening in eight cases, halo appearance and hyperemia in seven cases, whirl sign in six cases, beak-like appearance in six cases, closed loops in six cases and ascites in one case. CTA/CTPV showed abnormal courses involving main trunks of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) in seven cases, with or without distortion of their tributaries. Normal course of SMA but abnormal course of SMV was seen in the other two cases. Of all the nine cases, whirl sign was seen in six cases and barber's pole sign in five cases. Dilated SMV was observed in eight cases and abrupt termination of SMA was found in one case. Compared with surgical findings, the location, direction and degree of SBV were correctly estimated in all cases based on CTA/CTPV. Conclusion: Multiphasic MDCT with CTA/CTPV reconstruction can play an important role in the diagnosis of SBV. The location, direction and degree of SBV can all be defined preoperatively using this method.

  13. Multiphasic MDCT in small bowel volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Shiting, E-mail: fst1977@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chan Tao, E-mail: taochan@hku.hk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Hong Kong, Room 406, Block K, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Sun Canhui, E-mail: canhuisun@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Li Ziping, E-mail: liziping163@tom.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Guo Huanyi, E-mail: guohuanyi@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Yang Guangqi, E-mail: shwy03@126.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Peng Zhenpeng, E-mail: ppzhen@21cn.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Meng Quanfei, E-mail: mzycoco@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58th The Second Zhongshan Road, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Objective: Evaluate the use of MDCT with 3D CT angiography (CTA) and CT portal venography (CTPV) reconstruction for the diagnosis of small bowel volvulus (SBV). Methods: Multiphasic MDCT findings in nine patients (seven males and two females, age range 2-70) with surgically proven SBV were retrospectively reviewed. Non-contrast and double phase contrast enhanced MDCT including 3D CTA and CTPV reconstruction were performed in all the patients. Two experienced abdominal radiologists evaluated the images and defined the location, direction and degree of SBV. Results: On axial MDCT images, all cases show segmental or global dilatation of small intestine. Other findings include circumferential bowel wall thickening in eight cases, halo appearance and hyperemia in seven cases, whirl sign in six cases, beak-like appearance in six cases, closed loops in six cases and ascites in one case. CTA/CTPV showed abnormal courses involving main trunks of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) in seven cases, with or without distortion of their tributaries. Normal course of SMA but abnormal course of SMV was seen in the other two cases. Of all the nine cases, whirl sign was seen in six cases and barber's pole sign in five cases. Dilated SMV was observed in eight cases and abrupt termination of SMA was found in one case. Compared with surgical findings, the location, direction and degree of SBV were correctly estimated in all cases based on CTA/CTPV. Conclusion: Multiphasic MDCT with CTA/CTPV reconstruction can play an important role in the diagnosis of SBV. The location, direction and degree of SBV can all be defined preoperatively using this method.

  14. Multiphase Flow and Fluidization Continuum and Kinetic Theory Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Gidaspow, Dimitri

    1994-01-01

    Useful as a reference for engineers in industry and as an advanced level text for graduate engineering students, Multiphase Flow and Fluidization takes the reader beyond the theoretical to demonstrate how multiphase flow equations can be used to provide applied, practical, predictive solutions to industrial fluidization problems. Written to help advance progress in the emerging science of multiphase flow, this book begins with the development of the conservation laws and moves on through kinetic theory, clarifying many physical concepts (such as particulate viscosity and solids pressure) and i

  15. 2nd International Conference on Multiphase Flow - ICMF '95

    CERN Document Server

    Fukano, T; Bataille, Jean

    1995-01-01

    There is increasing world-wide interest in obtaining an understanding of various multiphase flow phenomena and problems in terms of a common language of multiphase flow. This volume contains state-of-the-art papers which have been contributed from all over the world by experts working on all aspects of multiphase flows. The volume also highlights international technology-sharing in the fields of energy, environment and public health, in order to create a brighter and sustainable future for man and for all life in the next century. It is intended that this volume will serve as a major source of

  16. Magnetization, shape memory and hysteresis behavior of single and polycrystalline FeNiCoTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehitoglu, H.; Efstathiou, C.; Maier, H.J.; Chumlyakov, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the shape memory characteristics and magnetic behavior of polycrystalline and single crystalline FeNiCoTi. Predeforming the samples in the martensitic state and biasing of the martensite variants produced anisotropy in the magnetization behavior allowing the 'easy axis' to be identified as the 'a-axis' in the martensitic state. Based on these results, we provide an estimate of the magnetic anisotropy energy as 8.34x10 5 ergs/cm 3 . The results confirm the different magnetization behavior in the martensitic and austenitic states, and the shift in transformation temperatures upon application of a magnetic field. Shape memory strains near 2.5% are demonstrated under constant stress temperature cycling and upon heating at zero stress after deformation. We present a thermodynamics based theory that explains the origin of the hysteresis in this class of alloys emanating from the dissipation of energy due to plastic deformation. We predict the thermal hysteresis (135 K), and the shift in transformation temperature (14 K) with applied magnetic fields in agreement with the experimental results. The possibility of utilizing these classes of alloys as magnetic shape memory alloys is discussed

  17. Comparative investigation of smooth polycrystalline diamond films on dental burs by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Htet; Ahmed, Waqar; Rego, Christopher; Jackson, Mark; Polini, Riccardo

    2006-04-01

    Depositions of hot filament chemical vapor-deposited diamond on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) rotary cutting dental burs are presented. Conventional dental tools made of sintered polycrystalline diamond have a number of problems associated with the heterogeneity of the crystallite, decreased cutting efficiency, and short life. A preferential (111) faceted diamond was obtained after 15 h of deposition at a growth rate of 1.1 µm/h. Diamond-coated WC-Co dental burs and conventional sintered burs are mainly used in turning, milling, and drilling operations for machining metal ceramic hard alloys such as CoCr, composite teeth, and aluminum alloy in the dental laboratory. The influence of structure, the mechanical characteristics of both diamond grains and hard alloys on the wear behavior, as well as the regimen of grinding on diamond wear are considered. Erosion wear properties are also investigated under air-sand erosion testing. After machining with excessive cutting performance, calculations can be made on flank and crater wear areas. Diamond-coated WC-Co dental burs offered significantly better erosion and wear resistance compared with uncoated WC-Co tools and sintered burs.

  18. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction techniques for bulk polycrystalline materials under dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, P. K.; Hustedt, C. J.; Zhao, M.; Ananiadis, A. G.; Hufnagel, T. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Vecchio, K. S. [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Huskins, E. L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Casem, D. T. [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Gruner, S. M. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tate, M. W.; Philipp, H. T.; Purohit, P.; Weiss, J. T. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Woll, A. R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kannan, V.; Ramesh, K. T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Kenesei, P.; Okasinski, J. S.; Almer, J. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    We have developed two techniques for time-resolved x-ray diffraction from bulk polycrystalline materials during dynamic loading. In the first technique, we synchronize a fast detector with loading of samples at strain rates of ∼10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} s{sup −1} in a compression Kolsky bar (split Hopkinson pressure bar) apparatus to obtain in situ diffraction patterns with exposures as short as 70 ns. This approach employs moderate x-ray energies (10–20 keV) and is well suited to weakly absorbing materials such as magnesium alloys. The second technique is useful for more strongly absorbing materials, and uses high-energy x-rays (86 keV) and a fast shutter synchronized with the Kolsky bar to produce short (∼40 μs) pulses timed with the arrival of the strain pulse at the specimen, recording the diffraction pattern on a large-format amorphous silicon detector. For both techniques we present sample data demonstrating the ability of these techniques to characterize elastic strains and polycrystalline texture as a function of time during high-rate deformation.

  19. A New Multiphase Equation of State for SiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maerzke, Katie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gammel, J. Tinka [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-06

    SiO2 is found as α-quartz at ambient conditions. Under shock compression, it transforms into a much higher density stishovite-like phase around 20 GPa, then into a liquid phase above 100 GPa. The SESAME library contains older equations of state for α-quartz, polycrystalline quartz, and fused quartz. These equations of state model the material as a single phase; i.e., there is no high pressure phase transition. Somewhat more recently (in 1992), Jon Boettger published equations of state for α-quartz, coesite, and stishovite, along with a phase transition model to mix them. However, we do not have a multiphase EOS that captures the phase transitions in this material. Others are working on a high-accuracy model for very high pressure SiO2, since liquid quartz is used as an impedance matching standard above 100 GPa; however, we are focused on the 10-50 GPa range. This intermediate pressure range is most relevant for modeling the decomposition products of silicone polymers such as Sylgard 184 and SX358.

  20. Metal induced crystallization of silicon germanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjukic, M.

    2007-05-15

    In the framework of this thesis the applicability of the aluminium-induced layer exchange on binary silicon germanium alloys was studied. It is here for the first time shown that polycrstalline silicon-germanium layers can be fabricated over the whole composition range by the aluminium-induced layer exchange. The experimental results prove thet the resulting material exhibits a polycrystalline character with typocal grain sizes of 10-100 {mu}m. Raman measurements confirm that the structural properties of the resulting layers are because of the large crystallites more comparable with monocrystalline than with nano- or microcrystalline silicon-germanium. The alloy ratio of the polycrystalline layer correspondes to the chemical composition of the amorphous starting layer. The polycrystalline silicon-germanium layers possess in the range of the interband transitions a reflection spectrum, as it is otherwise only known from monocrystalline reference layers. The improvement of the absorption in the photovoltaically relevant spectral range aimed by the application of silicon-germanium could be also proved by absorption measurments. Strongly correlated with the structural properties of the polycrystalline layers and the electronic band structure resulting from this are beside the optical properties also the electrical properties of the material, especially the charge-carrier mobility and the doping concentration. For binary silicon-germanium layers the hole concentration of about 2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} for pure silicon increrases to about 5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sub -3} for pure germanium. Temperature-resolved measurements were applied in order to detect doping levels respectively semiconductor-metal transitions. In the last part of the thesis the hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline thin silicon-germanium layers, which were fabricated by means of aluminium-induced layer exchange, is treated.

  1. Polycrystalline silicon semiconducting material by nuclear transmutation doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, John W.; Westbrook, Russell D.; Wood, Richard F.; Young, Rosa T.

    1978-01-01

    A NTD semiconductor material comprising polycrystalline silicon having a mean grain size less than 1000 microns and containing phosphorus dispersed uniformly throughout the silicon rather than at the grain boundaries.

  2. Loss of shear strength in polycrystalline tungsten under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandekar, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    A reexamination of existing data on shock compression of polycrystalline tungsten at room temperature indicates that tungsten may be an exception to the common belief that metals do not behave like elastic-isotropic solids under shock compression

  3. Fundamentals of Turbulent and Multi-Phase Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Kenneth Kuan-yun

    2012-01-01

    Detailed coverage of advanced combustion topics from the author of Principles of Combustion, Second Edition Turbulence, turbulent combustion, and multiphase reacting flows have become major research topics in recent decades due to their application across diverse fields, including energy, environment, propulsion, transportation, industrial safety, and nanotechnology. Most of the knowledge accumulated from this research has never been published in book form-until now. Fundamentals of Turbulent and Multiphase Combustion presents up-to-date, integrated coverage of the fundamentals of turbulence

  4. Constitutive relationships and models in continuum theories of multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R.

    1989-09-01

    In April, 1989, a workshop on constitutive relationships and models in continuum theories of multiphase flows was held at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of constitutive relationships for the partial or per phase stresses, including the concept of solid phase pressure are discussed. Models used for the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the phases in a multiphase flow are also discussed. The program, abstracts, and texts of the presentations from the workshop are included

  5. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  6. Deuterium transport and trapping in polycrystalline tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Trybus, C.L.; Sellers, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that deuterium permeation studies for polycrystalline tungsten foil have been conducted to provide data for estimating tritium transport and trapping in tungsten-clad divertors proposed for advanced fusion-reactor concepts. Based on a detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microstructural characterization of the specimen material and on analyses of permeation data measured at temperatures ranging form 610 to 823 K for unannealed and annealed tungsten foil (25 μm thick), the authors note the following key results: deuterium transport in tungsten foil is dominated by extensive trapping that varies inversely with prior anneal temperatures of the foil material, the reduction in the trapped fraction correlates with a corresponding elimination of a high density of dislocations in cell-wall structures introduced during the foil fabrication process, trapping behavior in these foils can be modelled using trap energies between 1.3 eV and 1.5 eV and trap densities ranging from 1 x 10 -5 atom fraction

  7. Thermomechanical characterization of pure polycrystalline tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittel, D.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Poon, B.; Zhao, J.; Ravichandran, G.

    2007-01-01

    The thermomechanical behavior of pure polycrystalline tantalum has been characterized over a wide range of strain rates, using the recently developed shear compression specimen [D. Rittel, S. Lee, G. Ravichandran, Experimental Mechanics 42 (2002) 58-64]. Dynamic experiments were carried out using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, and the specimen's temperature was monitored throughout the tests using an infrared radiometer. The results of the mechanical tests confirm previous results on pure Ta. Specifically, in addition to its significant strain rate sensitivity, it was observed that pure Ta exhibits very little strain hardening at high strain rates. The measured temperature rise in the specimen's gauge was compared to theoretical predictions which assume a total conversion of the mechanical energy into heat (β = 1) [G.I. Taylor, H. Quinney, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. A, 1934, pp. 307-326], and an excellent agreement was obtained. This result confirms the previous result of Kapoor and Nemat-Nasser [R. Kapoor, S. Nemat-Nasser, Mech. Mater. 27 (1998) 1-12], while a different experimental approach was adopted here. The assumption that β = 1 is found to be justified in this specific case by the lack of dynamic strain hardening of pure Ta. However, this assumption should be limited to non-hardening materials, to reflect the fact that strain hardening implies that part of the mechanical energy is stored into the material's microstructure

  8. Tritium diffusion in polycrystalline lithium tungstate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutyakov, A.N.; Shadrin, A.A.; Saunin, E.I.; Gromov, V.V.; Shafiev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    Using radiometric method the investigation of tritium separation from neutron irradiated (neutron flux density 1.2x10 13 n/cm 2 xs) polycrystalline Li 2 WO 4 in the temperature range 200-680 deg C has been carried out. It is established that the use of helium as gas-carrier of flow-type gas-discharge counter permits to conduct continuous stable measurements of concentrations of tritium extracted depending on its chemical state. It is shown that volume diffusion is the process, limiting tritiated particle separation rate from Li 2 WO 4 . It is found that the process of tritium volume diffusion in Li 2 WO 4 corresponds to two different mechanisms respectively in low- (200-300 deg C) and high-temperature (350-680 deg C) ranges. A supposition is made that in the low-temperature range the process of diffusion is conditioned by the dissociation of the radiation defect-tritiated particle complex, which is confirmed by the data on radiation defect annealing in Li 2 WO 4 . The value of activation energy of tritium separation process in the range 350-680 deg C, proved to be equal to 13.3 kJ/mol. Possible role of crystal structure peculiarities of Li 2 WO 4 for diffusion process is pointed out

  9. Deformation localization and cyclic strength in polycrystalline molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, O.T.; Rakshin, A.F.; Fenyuk, M.I.

    1983-06-01

    Conditions of deformation localization and its interrelation with cyclic strength in polycrystalline molybdenum were investigated. A fatigue failure of polycrystalline molybdenum after rolling and in an embrittled state reached by recrystallization annealing under cyclic bending at room temperature takes place under nonuniform distribution of microplastic strain resulting in a temperature rise in separate sections of more than 314 K. More intensive structural changes take place in molybdenum after rolling than in recrystallized state.

  10. Uncertainty Quantification of Multi-Phase Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-10-27

    In the ensemble-averaged dispersed phase formulation used for CFD of multiphase ows in nuclear reactor thermohydraulics, closures of interphase transfer of mass, momentum, and energy constitute, by far, the biggest source of error and uncertainty. Reliable estimators of this source of error and uncertainty are currently non-existent. Here, we report on how modern Validation and Uncertainty Quanti cation (VUQ) techniques can be leveraged to not only quantify such errors and uncertainties, but also to uncover (unintended) interactions between closures of di erent phenomena. As such this approach serves as a valuable aide in the research and development of multiphase closures. The joint modeling of lift, drag, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion|forces that lead to tranfer of momentum between the liquid and gas phases|is examined in the frame- work of validation of the adiabatic but turbulent experiments of Liu and Banko , 1993. An extensive calibration study is undertaken with a popular combination of closure relations and the popular k-ϵ turbulence model in a Bayesian framework. When a wide range of super cial liquid and gas velocities and void fractions is considered, it is found that this set of closures can be validated against the experimental data only by allowing large variations in the coe cients associated with the closures. We argue that such an extent of variation is a measure of uncertainty induced by the chosen set of closures. We also nd that while mean uid velocity and void fraction pro les are properly t, uctuating uid velocity may or may not be properly t. This aspect needs to be investigated further. The popular set of closures considered contains ad-hoc components and are undesirable from a predictive modeling point of view. Consequently, we next consider improvements that are being developed by the MIT group under CASL and which remove the ad-hoc elements. We use non-intrusive methodologies for sensitivity analysis and calibration (using

  11. Surface damages of polycrystalline W and La2O3-doped W induced by high-flux He plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Li, Shouzhe; Liu, Dongping; Benstetter, Günther; Zhang, Yang; Hong, Yi; Fan, Hongyu; Ni, Weiyuan; Yang, Qi; Wu, Yunfeng; Bi, Zhenhua

    2018-04-01

    In this study, polycrystalline tungsten (W) and three oxide dispersed strengthened W with 0.1 vol %, 1.0 vol % and 5.0 vol % lanthanum trioxide (La2O3) were irradiated with low-energy (200 eV) and high-flux (5.8 × 1021 or 1.4 × 1022 ions/m2ṡs) He+ ions at elevated temperature. After He+ irradiation at a fluence of 3.0 × 1025/m2, their surface damages were observed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy-electron backscatter diffraction, and conductive atomic force microscopy. Micron-sized holes were formed on the surface of W alloys after He+ irradiation at 1100 K. Analysis shows that the La2O3 grains doped in W were sputtered preferentially by the high-flux He+ ions when compared with the W grains. For irradiation at 1550 K, W nano-fuzz was formed at the surfaces of both polycrystalline W and La2O3-doped W. The thickness of the fuzz layers formed at the surface of La2O3-doped W is 40% lower than the one of polycrystalline W. The presence of La2O3 could suppress the diffusion and coalescence of He atoms inside W, which plays an important role in the growth of nanostructures fuzz.

  12. FOREWORD: International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and

  13. International Symposium of Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The International Symposium on Cavitation and Multiphase Flow (ISCM 2014) was held in Beijing, China during 18th-21st October, 2014, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China. The co-organizer was the State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Beijing, China. Cavitation and multiphase flow is one of paramount topics of fluid mechanics with many engineering applications covering a broad range of topics, e.g. hydraulic machinery, biomedical engineering, chemical and process industry. In order to improve the performances of engineering facilities (e.g. hydraulic turbines) and to accelerate the development of techniques for medical treatment of serious diseases (e.g. tumors), it is essential to improve our understanding of cavitation and Multiphase Flow. For example, the present development towards the advanced hydrodynamic systems (e.g. space engine, propeller, hydraulic machinery system) often requires that the systems run under cavitating conditions and the risk of cavitation erosion needs to be controlled. The purpose of the ISCM 2014 was to discuss the state-of-the-art cavitation and multiphase flow research and their up-to-date applications, and to foster discussion and exchange of knowledge, and to provide an opportunity for the researchers, engineers and graduate students to report their latest outputs in these fields. Furthermore, the participants were also encouraged to present their work in progress with short lead time and discuss the encountered problems. ISCM 2014 covers all aspects of cavitation and Multiphase Flow, e.g. both fundamental and applied research with a focus on physical insights, numerical modelling and applications in engineering. Some specific topics are: Cavitating and Multiphase Flow in hydroturbines, pumps, propellers etc. Numerical simulation techniques Cavitation and multiphase flow erosion and anti-erosion techniques Measurement techniques for cavitation and

  14. Amorphous and Polycrystalline Photoconductors for Direct Conversion Flat Panel X-Ray Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim S. Karim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten to fifteen years there has been much research in using amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors as x-ray photoconductors in various x-ray image sensor applications, most notably in flat panel x-ray imagers (FPXIs. We first outline the essential requirements for an ideal large area photoconductor for use in a FPXI, and discuss how some of the current amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors fulfill these requirements. At present, only stabilized amorphous selenium (doped and alloyed a-Se has been commercialized, and FPXIs based on a-Se are particularly suitable for mammography, operating at the ideal limit of high detective quantum efficiency (DQE. Further, these FPXIs can also be used in real-time, and have already been used in such applications as tomosynthesis. We discuss some of the important attributes of amorphous and polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors such as their large area deposition ability, charge collection efficiency, x-ray sensitivity, DQE, modulation transfer function (MTF and the importance of the dark current. We show the importance of charge trapping in limiting not only the sensitivity but also the resolution of these detectors. Limitations on the maximum acceptable dark current and the corresponding charge collection efficiency jointly impose a practical constraint that many photoconductors fail to satisfy. We discuss the case of a-Se in which the dark current was brought down by three orders of magnitude by the use of special blocking layers to satisfy the dark current constraint. There are also a number of polycrystalline photoconductors, HgI2 and PbO being good examples, that show potential for commercialization in the same way that multilayer stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors were developed for commercial applications. We highlight the unique nature of avalanche multiplication in a-Se and how it has led to the development of the commercial HARP video-tube. An all solid state version of the

  15. Discrete modeling considerations in multiphase fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, V.H.; Ramshaw, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The modeling of multiphase flows play a fundamental role in light water reactor safety. The main ingredients in our discrete modeling Weltanschauung are the following considerations: (1) Any physical model must be cast into discrete form for a digital computer. (2) The usual approach of formulating models in differential form and then discretizing them is potentially hazardous. It may be preferable to formulate the model in discrete terms from the outset. (3) Computer time and storage constraints limit the resolution that can be employed in practical calculations. These limits effectively define the physical phenomena, length scales, and time scales which cannot be directly represented in the calculation and therefore must be modeled. This information should be injected into the model formulation process at an early stage. (4) Practical resolution limits are generally so coarse that traditional convergence and truncation-error analyses become irrelevant. (5) A discrete model constitutes a reduced description of a physical system, from which fine-scale details are eliminated. This elimination creates a statistical closure problem. Methods from statistical physics may therefore be useful in the formulation of discrete models. In the present paper we elaborate on these themes and illustrate them with simple examples. 48 refs

  16. Quantitative tomographic measurements of opaque multiphase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GEORGE,DARIN L.; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; O' HERN,TIMOTHY J.; CECCIO,STEVEN L.

    2000-03-01

    An electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed for quantitative measurements of radial phase distribution profiles in two-phase and three-phase vertical column flows. The EIT system is described along with the computer algorithm used for reconstructing phase volume fraction profiles. EIT measurements were validated by comparison with a gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) system. The EIT system was used to accurately measure average solid volume fractions up to 0.05 in solid-liquid flows, and radial gas volume fraction profiles in gas-liquid flows with gas volume fractions up to 0.15. In both flows, average phase volume fractions and radial volume fraction profiles from GDT and EIT were in good agreement. A minor modification to the formula used to relate conductivity data to phase volume fractions was found to improve agreement between the methods. GDT and EIT were then applied together to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions within several vertical three-phase flows. For average solid volume fractions up to 0.30, the gas distribution for each gas flow rate was approximately independent of the amount of solids in the column. Measurements made with this EIT system demonstrate that EIT may be used successfully for noninvasive, quantitative measurements of dispersed multiphase flows.

  17. Multiphase flow metering: 4 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, G.; Hewitt, G.F.; Alimonti, C.; Harrison, B.

    2005-07-01

    Since the authors' last review in 2001 [1], the use of Multiphase Flow Metering (MFM) within the oil and gas industry continues to grow apace, being more popular in some parts of the world than others. Since the early 1990's, when the first commercial meters started to appear, there have been more than 1,600 field applications of MFM for field allocation, production optimisation and mobile well testing. As the authors predicted, wet gas metering technology has improved to such an extent that its use has rapidly increased worldwide. A ''who's who'' of the MFM sector is provided, which highlights the mergers in the sector and gives an insight into the meters and measurement principles available today. Cost estimates, potential benefits and reliability in the field of the current MFM technologies are revisited and brought up to date. Several measurements technologies have resurfaced, such as passive acoustic energy patterns, infrared wavelengths, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT), and they are becoming commercial. The concept of ''virtual metering'', integrated with ''classical MFM'', is now widely accepted. However, sometimes the principles of the MFM measurements themselves are forgotten, submerged in the sales and marketing hype. (author) (tk)

  18. Surface of Ti-Ni alloys after their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldan, I.; Frenzel, J.; Shekhah, O.; Chelmowski, R.; Birkner, A.; Woell, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    The Ti 3.87 Ni 1.73 Fe 0.7 O 0.3, Ti 3.87 Ni 1.73 Fe 0.4 N 0.3 and Ti 3.87 Ni 1.73 Fe 0.4 C 0.3 alloys were investigated regarding their surface characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used for phase characterization. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of alloy surface. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe alloy surface topography after cutting and electrochemical polishing separately has been done. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with X-ray diffraction was carried out to get a high contrast images and the diffraction pattern from alloy surface. The results clearly shown, that all alloys were multiphase, and their surface was totally oxidized with no pure metals

  19. Workshop on Scientific Issues in Multiphase Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanratty, Thomas J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2003-01-02

    This report outlines scientific issues whose resolution will help advance and define the field of multiphase flow. It presents the findings of four study groups and of a workshop sponsored by the Program on Engineering Physics of the Department of Energy. The reason why multiphase flows are much more difficult to analyze than single phase flows is that the phases assume a large number of complicated configurations. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the understanding of why the phases configure in a certain way is the principal scientific issue. Research is needed which identifies the microphysics controlling the organization of the phases, which develops physical models for the resultant multi-scale interactions and which tests their validity in integrative experiments/theories that look at the behavior of a system. New experimental techniques and recently developed direct numerical simulations will play important roles in this endeavor. In gas-liquid flows a top priority is to develop an understanding of why the liquid phase in quasi fully-developed pipe flow changes from one configuration to another. Mixing flows offer a more complicated situation in which several patterns can exist at the same time. They introduce new physical challenges. A second priority is to provide a quantitative description of the phase distribution for selected fully-developed flows and for simple mixing flows (that could include heat transfer and phase change). Microphysical problems of interest are identified – including the coupling of molecular and macroscopic behavior that can be observed in many situations and the formation/destruction of interfaces in the coalescence/breakup of drops and bubbles. Solid-fluid flows offer a simpler system in that interfaces are not changing. However, a variety of patterns exist, that depend on the properties of the particles, their concentration and the Reynolds number characterizing the relative velocity. A top priority is the

  20. Influence of liquid copper-silver brazing alloy on properties of high-strength and heat resistant alloys and steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of temperature, heating rate, microstructure, the duration of Cu-Ag melt attack during brazing, the thickness and the material of barrier coating on properties of materials (Ni-Cr alloys, Cr-Ni steals, a Fe-Ni base EhJ-702 alloy) being brazed is studied. The tests of specimens with a brazing alloy are carried out in the temperature range of 780-1000 deg C. It is revealed that heat resistant alloys under brazing conditions experience brittle fracture. Multiphase structure coarse grain, increased hydrogen content mechanical stress concentrators are found to intensity embrittlement of the materials. The use of barrier coating displaying a chemical affinity to the brazing alloy results in a decrease of the tendency to embrittlement

  1. MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the open-quotes User's Guide and Referenceclose quotes companion document

  2. Single-phase high-entropy alloys. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, Roksolana; Steurer, Walter [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. of Crystallography; Sologubenko, Alla [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. of Nanotechnology

    2015-02-01

    The term 'high-entropy alloys (HEAs)' first appeared about 10 years ago defining alloys composed of n=5-13 principal elements with concentrations of approximately 100/n at.% each. Since then many equiatomic (or near equiatomic) single- and multi-phase multicomponent alloys were developed, which are reported for a combination of tunable properties: high hardness, strength and ductility, oxidation and wear resistance, magnetism, etc. In our paper, we focus on probably single-phase HEAs (solid solutions) out of all HEAs studied so far, discuss ways of their prediction, mechanical properties. In contrast to classical multielement/multiphase alloys, only single-phase multielement alloys (solid solutions) represent the basic concept underlying HEAs as mixing-entropy stabilized homogenous materials. The literature overview is complemented by own studies demonstrating that the alloys CrFeCoNi, CrFeCoNiAl{sub 0.3} and PdFeCoNi homogenized at 1300 and 1100 C, respectively, for 1 week are not single-phase HEAs, but a coherent mixture of two solid solutions.

  3. Viscous and gravitational fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moortgat, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    Viscous and gravitational fingering refer to flow instabilities in porous media that are triggered by adverse mobility or density ratios, respectively. These instabilities have been studied extensively in the past for (1) single-phase flow (e.g., contaminant transport in groundwater, first-contact-miscible displacement of oil by gas in hydrocarbon production), and (2) multi-phase immiscible and incompressible flow (e.g., water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection in oil reservoirs). Fingering in multiphase compositional and compressible flow has received much less attention, perhaps due to its high computational complexity. However, many important subsurface processes involve multiple phases that exchange species. Examples are carbon sequestration in saline aquifers and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by gas or WAG injection below the minimum miscibility pressure. In multiphase flow, relative permeabilities affect the mobility contrast for a given viscosity ratio. Phase behavior can also change local fluid properties, which can either enhance or mitigate viscous and gravitational instabilities. This work presents a detailed study of fingering behavior in compositional multiphase flow in two and three dimensions and considers the effects of (1) Fickian diffusion, (2) mechanical dispersion, (3) flow rates, (4) domain size and geometry, (5) formation heterogeneities, (6) gravity, and (7) relative permeabilities. Results show that fingering in compositional multiphase flow is profoundly different from miscible conditions and upscaling techniques used for the latter case are unlikely to be generalizable to the former.

  4. Methods for compressible multiphase flows and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choe, Y.; Kim, H.; Min, D.; Kim, C.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an efficient and robust numerical framework to deal with multiphase real-fluid flows and their broad spectrum of engineering applications. A homogeneous mixture model incorporated with a real-fluid equation of state and a phase change model is considered to calculate complex multiphase problems. As robust and accurate numerical methods to handle multiphase shocks and phase interfaces over a wide range of flow speeds, the AUSMPW+_N and RoeM_N schemes with a system preconditioning method are presented. These methods are assessed by extensive validation problems with various types of equation of state and phase change models. Representative realistic multiphase phenomena, including the flow inside a thermal vapor compressor, pressurization in a cryogenic tank, and unsteady cavitating flow around a wedge, are then investigated as application problems. With appropriate physical modeling followed by robust and accurate numerical treatments, compressible multiphase flow physics such as phase changes, shock discontinuities, and their interactions are well captured, confirming the suitability of the proposed numerical framework to wide engineering applications.

  5. A high precision extrapolation method in multiphase-field model for simulating dendrite growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cong; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng

    2018-05-01

    The phase-field method coupling with thermodynamic data has become a trend for predicting the microstructure formation in technical alloys. Nevertheless, the frequent access to thermodynamic database and calculation of local equilibrium conditions can be time intensive. The extrapolation methods, which are derived based on Taylor expansion, can provide approximation results with a high computational efficiency, and have been proven successful in applications. This paper presents a high precision second order extrapolation method for calculating the driving force in phase transformation. To obtain the phase compositions, different methods in solving the quasi-equilibrium condition are tested, and the M-slope approach is chosen for its best accuracy. The developed second order extrapolation method along with the M-slope approach and the first order extrapolation method are applied to simulate dendrite growth in a Ni-Al-Cr ternary alloy. The results of the extrapolation methods are compared with the exact solution with respect to the composition profile and dendrite tip position, which demonstrate the high precision and efficiency of the newly developed algorithm. To accelerate the phase-field and extrapolation computation, the graphic processing unit (GPU) based parallel computing scheme is developed. The application to large-scale simulation of multi-dendrite growth in an isothermal cross-section has demonstrated the ability of the developed GPU-accelerated second order extrapolation approach for multiphase-field model.

  6. Estimation of Single-Crystal Elastic Constants of Polycrystalline Materials from Back-Scattered Grain Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldipur, P.; Margetan, F. J.; Thompson, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    Single-crystal elastic stiffness constants are important input parameters for many calculations in material science. There are well established methods to measure these constants using single-crystal specimens, but such specimens are not always readily available. The ultrasonic properties of metal polycrystals, such as velocity, attenuation, and backscattered grain noise characteristics, depend in part on the single-crystal elastic constants. In this work we consider the estimation of elastic constants from UT measurements and grain-sizing data. We confine ourselves to a class of particularly simple polycrystalline microstructures, found in some jet-engine Nickel alloys, which are single-phase, cubic, equiaxed, and untextured. In past work we described a method to estimate the single-crystal elastic constants from measured ultrasonic velocity and attenuation data accompanied by metallographic analysis of grain size. However, that methodology assumes that all attenuation is due to grain scattering, and thus is not valid if appreciable absorption is present. In this work we describe an alternative approach which uses backscattered grain noise data in place of attenuation data. Efforts to validate the method using a pure copper specimen are discussed, and new results for two jet-engine Nickel alloys are presented

  7. Atomistic modeling of mechanical properties of polycrystalline graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Bohayra; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2014-01-01

    We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanical properties of polycrystalline graphene. By constructing molecular models of ultra-fine-grained graphene structures, we studied the effect of different grain sizes of 1–10 nm on the mechanical response of graphene. We found that the elastic modulus and tensile strength of polycrystalline graphene decrease with decreasing grain size. The calculated mechanical proprieties for pristine and polycrystalline graphene sheets are found to be in agreement with experimental results in the literature. Our MD results suggest that the ultra-fine-grained graphene structures can show ultrahigh tensile strength and elastic modulus values that are very close to those of pristine graphene sheets. (papers)

  8. Polycrystalline Materials as a Cold Neutron and Gamma Radiation Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, N.

    2009-01-01

    The total neutron cross-section of polycrystalline beryllium, graphite and iron has been calculated beyond their cut-off wavelength using a general formula. The computer Cold Filter code was developed in order to provide the required calculations. The code also permits the calculation of attenuation of reactor gamma radiation, The calculated neutron transmissions through polycrystalline Be graphite and iron at different temperatures were compared with the experimental data measured at the ETRR-1 reactor using two TOF spectrometers. An overall agreement is obtained between the formula fits and experimental data at different temperatures. A feasibility study is carried on using polycrystalline Be, graphite and iron an efficient filter for cold neutrons and gamma radiation.

  9. Atomistic modeling of mechanical properties of polycrystalline graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Bohayra; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2014-05-30

    We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanical properties of polycrystalline graphene. By constructing molecular models of ultra-fine-grained graphene structures, we studied the effect of different grain sizes of 1-10 nm on the mechanical response of graphene. We found that the elastic modulus and tensile strength of polycrystalline graphene decrease with decreasing grain size. The calculated mechanical proprieties for pristine and polycrystalline graphene sheets are found to be in agreement with experimental results in the literature. Our MD results suggest that the ultra-fine-grained graphene structures can show ultrahigh tensile strength and elastic modulus values that are very close to those of pristine graphene sheets.

  10. Hysteresis in multiphase microfluidics at a T-junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagnoni, Michele; Anderson, Jamie; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2010-06-15

    Multiphase microfluidics offer a wide range of functionalities in the fields of fluid dynamics, biology, particle synthesis, and, more recently, also in logical computation. In this article, we describe the hysteresis of immiscible, multiphase flow obtained in hydrophilic, microfluidic systems at a T-junction. Stable and unstable state behaviors, in the form of segmented and parallel flow patterns of oil and water, were reliably produced, depending upon the history of the flow rates applied to the phases. The transition mechanisms between the two states were analyzed both experimentally and using numerical simulations, describing how the physical and fluid dynamic parameters influenced the hysteretic behavior of the flow. The characteristics of these multiphase systems render them suitable to be used as pressure comparators and also for the implementation of microfluidic logic operations.

  11. A Cell-Centered Multiphase ALE Scheme With Structural Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Timothy Alan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-04-16

    A novel computational scheme has been developed for simulating compressible multiphase flows interacting with solid structures. The multiphase fluid is computed using a Godunov-type finite-volume method. This has been extended to allow computations on moving meshes using a direct arbitrary-Eulerian- Lagrangian (ALE) scheme. The method has been implemented within a Lagrangian hydrocode, which allows modeling the interaction with Lagrangian structural regions. Although the above scheme is general enough for use on many applications, the ultimate goal of the research is the simulation of heterogeneous energetic material, such as explosives or propellants. The method is powerful enough for application to all stages of the problem, including the initial burning of the material, the propagation of blast waves, and interaction with surrounding structures. The method has been tested on a number of canonical multiphase tests as well as fluid-structure interaction problems.

  12. Electrification of particulates in industrial and natural multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Zhaolin

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces comprehensive fundamentals, numerical simulations and experimental methods of electrification of particulates entrained multiphase flows. The electrifications of two particulate forms, liquid droplets and solid particles, are firstly described together. Liquid droplets can be charged under preset or associated electric fields, while solid particles can be charged through contact. Different charging ways in gas (liquid)-liquid or gas-solid multiphase flows are summarized, including ones that are beneficial to industrial processes, such as electrostatic precipitation, electrostatic spraying, and electrostatic separation, etc., ones harmful for shipping and powder industry, and ones occurring in natural phenomenon, such as wind-blown sand and thunderstorm. This book offers theoretical references to the control and utilization of the charging or charged particulates in multiphase flows as well.

  13. Multiphase flow models for hydraulic fracturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiptsov, Andrei A.

    2017-10-01

    drift-flux approaches. The derivation of the drift-flux model from conservation olaws is criticall revisited in order to define the list of underlying assumptions and to mark the applicability margins of the model. All these fundamental problems share the same technological application (hydraulic fracturing) and the same method of research, namely, the multi-fluid approach to multiphase flow modeling and the consistent use of asymptotic methods. Multi-fluid models are then discussed in comparison with semi-empirical (often postulated) models widely used in the industry.

  14. Nucleation and growth of polycrystalline SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, M.; Schimmel, S.; Jokubavicius, V.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleation and bulk growth of polycrystalline SiC in a 2 inch PVT setup using isostatic and pyrolytic graphite as substrates was studied. Textured nucleation occurs under near-thermal equilibrium conditions at the initial growth stage with hexagonal platelet shaped crystallites of 4H, 6H and 15......R polytypes. It is found that pyrolytic graphite results in enhanced texturing of the nucleating gas species. Reducing the pressure leads to growth of the crystallites until a closed polycrystalline SiC layer containing voids with a rough surface is developed. Bulk growth was conducted at 35 mbar Ar...

  15. Hall measurements and grain-size effects in polycrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Rose, A.; Maruska, H.P.; Eustace, D.J.; Feng, T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of grain size on Hall measurements in polycrystalline silicon are analyzed and interpreted, with some modifications, using the model proposed by Bube. This modified model predicts that the measured effective Hall voltage is composed of components originating from the bulk and space-charge regions. For materials with large grain sizes, the carrier concentration is independent of the intergrain boundary barrier, whereas the mobility is dependent on it. However, for small grains, both the carrier density and mobility depend on the barrier. These predictions are consistent with experimental results of mm-size Wacker and μm-size neutron-transmutation-doped polycrystalline silicon

  16. Spectral response of a polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, B.; Kane, M.

    1994-10-01

    A theoretical study of the spectral response of a polycrystalline silicon n-p junction solar cell is presented. The case of a fibrously oriented grain structure, involving grain boundary recombination velocity and grain size effects is discussed. The contribution of the base region on the internal quantum efficiency Q int is computed for different grain sizes and grain boundary recombination velocities in order to examine their influence. Suggestions are also made for the determination of base diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells using the spectral response method. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  17. Software optimization for electrical conductivity imaging in polycrystalline diamond cutters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, G.; Ludwig, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Rd, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K. [US Synthetic, 1260 South 1600 West, Orem, UT 84058 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    We previously reported on an electrical conductivity imaging instrument developed for measurements on polycrystalline diamond cutters. These cylindrical cutters for oil and gas drilling feature a thick polycrystalline diamond layer on a tungsten carbide substrate. The instrument uses electrical impedance tomography to profile the conductivity in the diamond table. Conductivity images must be acquired quickly, on the order of 5 sec per cutter, to be useful in the manufacturing process. This paper reports on successful efforts to optimize the conductivity reconstruction routine, porting major portions of it to NVIDIA GPUs, including a custom CUDA kernel for Jacobian computation.

  18. Laser induced single-crystal transition in polycrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitali, G.; Bertolotti, M.; Foti, G.; Rimini, E.

    1978-01-01

    Transition to single crystal of polycrystalline Si material underlying a Si crystal substrate of 100 orientation was obtained via laser irradiation. The changes in the structure were analyzed by reflection high energy electron diffraction and by channeling effect technique using 2.0 MeV He Rutherford scattering. The power density required to induce the transition in a 4500 A thick polycrystalline layer is about 70 MW/cm 2 (50ns). The corresponding amorphous to single transition has a threshold of about 45 MW/cm 2 . (orig.) 891 HPOE [de

  19. Influence of the γ{sup '} phase on the creep behavior of a new polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy (AD 730); Einfluss der γ{sup '}-Phase auf das Kriechverhalten einer neuen polykristallinen Nickelbasis-Superlegierung (AD 730)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselink, Anne; Tiemann, Jan-Marc; Solovev, Mikhail; Kruppe, Ulrich [Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Fakulaet fuer Ingenieurwissenschaften und Informatik

    2017-07-01

    Demands for cost-efficiency and a flexible use of gas turbines are constantly increasing, creating a call for new alloys which allow achieving better efficiencies. Today's limit of use of common polycrystalline wrought alloys is 650 C, whereas the new γ / γ{sup '} wrought alloy AD 730 is designed for use at 700 C. The presented work examines and discusses the impact of the microstructure on the alloy's creep behavior. Supersolvus and subsolvus solution annealing was performed to provide for a coarse-grained and fine-grained microstructure which was subsequently aged at different aging times.

  20. Direct numerical simulations of gas-liquid multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Tryggvason, Grétar; Zaleski, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Accurately predicting the behaviour of multiphase flows is a problem of immense industrial and scientific interest. Modern computers can now study the dynamics in great detail and these simulations yield unprecedented insight. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to direct numerical simulations of multiphase flows for researchers and graduate students. After a brief overview of the context and history the authors review the governing equations. A particular emphasis is placed on the 'one-fluid' formulation where a single set of equations is used to describe the entire flow field and

  1. Recent developments in biocatalysis in multiphasic ionic liquid reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lars-Erik; von Langermann, Jan; Kragl, Udo

    2018-06-01

    Ionic liquids are well known and frequently used 'designer solvents' for biocatalytic reactions. This review highlights recent achievements in the field of multiphasic ionic liquid-based reaction concepts. It covers classical biphasic systems including supported ionic liquid phases, thermo-regulated multi-component solvent systems (TMS) and polymerized ionic liquids. These powerful concepts combine unique reaction conditions with a high potential for future applications on a laboratory and industrial scale. The presence of a multiphasic system simplifies downstream processing due to the distribution of the catalyst and reactants in different phases.

  2. CFD Modeling of a Multiphase Gravity Separator Vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Narayan, Gautham

    2017-05-23

    The poster highlights a CFD study that incorporates a combined Eulerian multi-fluid multiphase and a Population Balance Model (PBM) to study the flow inside a typical multiphase gravity separator vessel (GSV) found in oil and gas industry. The simulations were performed using Ansys Fluent CFD package running on KAUST supercomputer, Shaheen. Also, a highlight of a scalability study is presented. The effect of I/O bottlenecks and using Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) for collective and independent parallel reading of case file is presented. This work is an outcome of a research collaboration on an Aramco project on Shaheen.

  3. CFD Modeling of a Multiphase Gravity Separator Vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Narayan, Gautham; Khurram, Rooh Ul Amin; Elsaadawy, Ehab

    2017-01-01

    The poster highlights a CFD study that incorporates a combined Eulerian multi-fluid multiphase and a Population Balance Model (PBM) to study the flow inside a typical multiphase gravity separator vessel (GSV) found in oil and gas industry. The simulations were performed using Ansys Fluent CFD package running on KAUST supercomputer, Shaheen. Also, a highlight of a scalability study is presented. The effect of I/O bottlenecks and using Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) for collective and independent parallel reading of case file is presented. This work is an outcome of a research collaboration on an Aramco project on Shaheen.

  4. Development of Next Generation Multiphase Pipe Flow Prediction Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cem Sarica; Holden Zhang

    2006-05-31

    The developments of oil and gas fields in deep waters (5000 ft and more) will become more common in the future. It is inevitable that production systems will operate under multiphase flow conditions (simultaneous flow of gas, oil and water possibly along with sand, hydrates, and waxes). Multiphase flow prediction tools are essential for every phase of hydrocarbon recovery from design to operation. Recovery from deep-waters poses special challenges and requires accurate multiphase flow predictive tools for several applications, including the design and diagnostics of the production systems, separation of phases in horizontal wells, and multiphase separation (topside, seabed or bottom-hole). It is crucial for any multiphase separation technique, either at topside, seabed or bottom-hole, to know inlet conditions such as flow rates, flow patterns, and volume fractions of gas, oil and water coming into the separation devices. Therefore, the development of a new generation of multiphase flow predictive tools is needed. The overall objective of the proposed study is to develop a unified model for gas-oil-water three-phase flow in wells, flow lines, and pipelines to predict flow characteristics such as flow patterns, phase distributions, and pressure gradient encountered during petroleum production at different flow conditions (pipe diameter and inclination, fluid properties and flow rates). In the current multiphase modeling approach, flow pattern and flow behavior (pressure gradient and phase fractions) prediction modeling are separated. Thus, different models based on different physics are employed, causing inaccuracies and discontinuities. Moreover, oil and water are treated as a pseudo single phase, ignoring the distinct characteristics of both oil and water, and often resulting in inaccurate design that leads to operational problems. In this study, a new model is being developed through a theoretical and experimental study employing a revolutionary approach. The

  5. Application of neutron radiography to visualization of multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, N.; Fujii, T.; Nishizaki, K.; Asano, H.; Ono, A.; Sonoda, K.; Akagawa, K.

    1990-01-01

    Visualizations by real-time neutron radiography are demonstrated of various flow patterns of nitrogen gas-water two-phase flow in a stainless-steel tube, water inverted annular flow in a stainless-steel tube, flashing flow in an aluminium nozzle and fluidized bed in aluminium tube and vessels. Photographs every 1/60 s are presented by an image processing method to show the dynamic behaviours of the various flow patterns. It is shown that this visualization method can be applied efficiently to multiphase flow researches and will be applicable to multiphase flows in industrial machines. (author)

  6. Multiphase Return Trajectory Optimization Based on Hybrid Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid trajectory optimization method consisting of Gauss pseudospectral method (GPM and natural computation algorithm has been developed and utilized to solve multiphase return trajectory optimization problem, where a phase is defined as a subinterval in which the right-hand side of the differential equation is continuous. GPM converts the optimal control problem to a nonlinear programming problem (NLP, which helps to improve calculation accuracy and speed of natural computation algorithm. Through numerical simulations, it is found that the multiphase optimal control problem could be solved perfectly.

  7. Finite-deformation phase-field chemomechanics for multiphase, multicomponent solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Bob; Shanthraj, Pratheek; Raabe, Dierk

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this work is the development of a framework for the formulation of geometrically non-linear inelastic chemomechanical models for a mixture of multiple chemical components diffusing among multiple transforming solid phases. The focus here is on general model formulation. No specific model or application is pursued in this work. To this end, basic balance and constitutive relations from non-equilibrium thermodynamics and continuum mixture theory are combined with a phase-field-based description of multicomponent solid phases and their interfaces. Solid phase modeling is based in particular on a chemomechanical free energy and stress relaxation via the evolution of phase-specific concentration fields, order-parameter fields (e.g., related to chemical ordering, structural ordering, or defects), and local internal variables. At the mixture level, differences or contrasts in phase composition and phase local deformation in phase interface regions are treated as mixture internal variables. In this context, various phase interface models are considered. In the equilibrium limit, phase contrasts in composition and local deformation in the phase interface region are determined via bulk energy minimization. On the chemical side, the equilibrium limit of the current model formulation reduces to a multicomponent, multiphase, generalization of existing two-phase binary alloy interface equilibrium conditions (e.g., KKS). On the mechanical side, the equilibrium limit of one interface model considered represents a multiphase generalization of Reuss-Sachs conditions from mechanical homogenization theory. Analogously, other interface models considered represent generalizations of interface equilibrium conditions consistent with laminate and sharp-interface theory. In the last part of the work, selected existing models are formulated within the current framework as special cases and discussed in detail.

  8. The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, W.; King, A.; Herbig, M.

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer new possibilities for non-destructive bulk characterization of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (diff...

  9. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization of microstrain in some iron and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, G.; Dayan, D.; Frank, G.A.; Landau, A.

    1996-01-01

    The high linear attenuation coefficient of steel, uranium and uranium based alloys is associated with the small penetration depth of X-rays with the usual wavelength used for diffraction. Nevertheless, by using the proper surface preparation technique, it is possible of obtaining surfaces with bulk properties (free of residual mechanical microstrain). Taking advantage of the feasibility to obtain well prepared surfaces, extensive work has been conducted in studying XRD line broadening effects from flat polycrystalline samples of steel, uranium and uranium alloys

  10. Effect of adding Si on shape memory effect in Co-Ni alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Weimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Liu Yan [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Jiang Bohong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: bhjiang@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhou Pingnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-11-25

    In this paper, the effect of adding Si to Co-31.5 mass% Ni alloys on fcc-hcp martensitic transformation is investigated. The Co-Ni-Si ternary alloys with different amount of Si from 1 to 5 mass% were prepared. The stacking fault probability of Co-Ni-Si polycrystalline alloys were determined by X-ray diffraction profile analysis and compared with the binary Co-Ni alloy. The results show that the stacking fault probability of the fcc phase of alloys increases with increasing Si content. The effect of Si on phase transformation and shape memory behavior is evaluated. The experimental results show that both the critical strength and the shape memory effect of the ternary alloys will increase by the addition of Si. The improvement mechanism of the shape memory effect by adding Si to binary Co-Ni alloys is discussed.

  11. Electrical Transport Properties of Polycrystalline Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-14

    Lou, Sina Najmaei, Matin Amani, Matthew L. Chin, Zheng Se. TASK NUMBER Liu Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 8...Transport Properties of Polycrystalline Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Sina Najmaei,t.§ Matin Ama ni,M Matthew L. Chin,* Zhe ng liu/ ·"·v: A. Gle n

  12. Electroreduction of CO on Polycrystalline Copper at Low Overpotentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Vagn Hogg, Thomas; Abghoui, Younes

    2018-01-01

    C uis the only monometallic electrocatalyst to produce highly reduced products from CO2 selectively because of its intermediate binding of CO. We investigate the performance of polycrystalline Cu for the electroreduction of CO in alkaline media (0.1 M KOH) at low overpotentials (−0.4 to −0.6 V vs...

  13. A study of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation on polycrystalline Ni ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion of Fe3O4 particles at 800°C. Industrial grade particles of Ni and Zn oxides were ..... domain wall movements, which leads to electronic migrations: this can ... properties of polycrystalline Mn–Zn Ferrites, Ph.D. Thesis,. Osmania University ...

  14. A novel photocatalytic monolith reactor for multiphase heterogeneous photocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, P.; Carneiro, J.T.; Moulijn, J.A.; Mul, Guido

    2008-01-01

    A novel reactor for multi-phase photocatalysis is presented, the so-called internally illuminated monolith reactor (IIMR). In the concept of the IIMR, side light emitting fibers are placed inside the channels of a ceramic monolith, equipped with a TiO2 photocatalyst coated on the wall of each

  15. Multi-phase alternative current machine winding design | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... single-phase to 18-phase excitation. Experimental results of a five-phase induction machine supplied from a static five-phase supply are provided to support the proposed design. Keywords: AC machine, Multi-phase machine, Stator winding, Five-phase. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol.

  16. Development and Research of Peristaltic Multiphase Piezoelectric Micro-Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Alexander N.; Ivanikin, Igor A.; Lubchenco, Roman V.; Matveev, Yegor V.; Titov, Pavel A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of existing models and mathematical representations of a range of truly peristaltic multiphase micro-pumps with a piezoelectric actuator (piezo drive). Piezo drives with different types of substrates use vertical movements at deformation of individual piezoelectric elements, which define device…

  17. A Transformerless Medium Voltage Multiphase Motor Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A multiphase motor has several major advantages, such as high reliability, fault tolerance, and high power density. It is a critical issue to develop a reliable and efficient multiphase motor drive system. In this paper, a transformerless voltage source converter-based drive system for a medium-voltage (MV multiphase motor is proposed. This drive converter employs cascaded H-bridge rectifiers loaded by H-bridge inverters as the interface between the grid and multiphase motor. The cascaded H-bridge rectifier technique makes the drive system able to be directly connected to the MV grid without the phase-shifting transformer because it can offset the voltage level gap between the MV grid and the semiconductor devices, provide near-sinusoidal AC terminal voltages without filters, and draw sinusoidal line current from the grid. Based on a digital signal processor (DSP, a complete improved Phase Disposition Pulse Width Modulation (PD-PWM method is developed to ensure the individual DC-link capacitor voltage balancing for enhancing the controllability and limiting the voltage and power stress on the H-bridge cells. A downscaled prototype is designed and developed based on a nine-phase motor. The experimental results verify the excellent performances of the proposed drive system and control strategy in steady-state and variant-frequency startup operations.

  18. Multiphase flow of immiscible fluids on unstructured moving meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...

  19. RAND-Based Formulations for Isothermal Multiphase Flash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paterson, Duncan; Michelsen, Michael L.; Stenby, Erling H.

    2018-01-01

    Two algorithms are proposed for isothermal multiphase flash. These are referred to as modified RAND and vol-RAND. The former uses the chemical potentials and molar-phase amounts as the iteration variables, while the latter uses chemical potentials and phase volumes to cosolve a pressure...

  20. Multiphase fluid structure interaction in bends and T-joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cargnelutti, M.F.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Schiferli, W.; Osch, M.M.E. van

    2010-01-01

    Air-water experiments were carried out in a horizontal 1" pipe system to measure the magnitude of the forces induced by the multiphase flow. Forces and accelerations were measured on a number of bends and T-joint configurations for a wide range of operating conditions. Five different configurations

  1. Convection in multiphase fluid flows using lattice Boltzmann methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Perlekar, P.; Sbragaglia, M.; Toschi, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution numerical simulations of convection in multiphase flows (boiling) using a novel algorithm based on a lattice Boltzmann method. We first study the thermodynamical and kinematic properties of the algorithm. Then, we perform a series of 3D numerical simulations changing the

  2. Application of multiphase flow methods to horizontal underbalanced drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S. P.; Gregory, G. A.; Munro, N.; Muqeem, M.

    1998-12-31

    Ways in which multiphase flow pressure loss calculations can be used in the design and optimization of underbalanced drilling operations are demonstrated. Existing pressure loss calculation methods are evaluated using detailed field measurements for three oil wells and one gas well drilled underbalanced with coiled tubing. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs.

  3. Analysis of hygral induced crack growth in multiphase materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadouki, H.; Van Mier, J.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a numerical model for simulating crack growth processes caused by moisture movement in a porous multiphase material like concrete is proposed. In the model, the material is schematized as a regular triangular network of beam elements. The meso-material structure of the material is

  4. A New Multiphase Equation of State for Composition B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Joshua Damon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Margevicius, Madeline Alma [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division

    2016-07-25

    We describe the construction of a complete equation of state for the high explosive Composition B in its unreacted (inert) form, as well as chemical equilibrium calculations of its detonation products. The multiphase reactant EOS is of SESAME type, and was calibrated to ambient thermal and mechanical data, the shock initiation experiments of Dattelbaum, et al., and the melt line of trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  5. Continuum-Kinetic Models and Numerical Methods for Multiphase Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Isaac Michael

    This thesis presents a continuum-kinetic approach for modeling general problems in multiphase solid mechanics. In this context, a continuum model refers to any model, typically on the macro-scale, in which continuous state variables are used to capture the most important physics: conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A kinetic model refers to any model, typically on the meso-scale, which captures the statistical motion and evolution of microscopic entitites. Multiphase phenomena usually involve non-negligible micro or meso-scopic effects at the interfaces between phases. The approach developed in the thesis attempts to combine the computational performance benefits of a continuum model with the physical accuracy of a kinetic model when applied to a multiphase problem. The approach is applied to modeling a single particle impact in Cold Spray, an engineering process that intimately involves the interaction of crystal grains with high-magnitude elastic waves. Such a situation could be classified a multiphase application due to the discrete nature of grains on the spatial scale of the problem. For this application, a hyper elasto-plastic model is solved by a finite volume method with approximate Riemann solver. The results of this model are compared for two types of plastic closure: a phenomenological macro-scale constitutive law, and a physics-based meso-scale Crystal Plasticity model.

  6. Multiphase lattice Boltzmann on the Cell Broadband Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belletti, F.; Mantovani, F.; Tripiccione, R.; Biferale, L.; Schifano, S.F.; Toschi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Computational experiments are one of the most used and flexible investigation tools in fluid dynamics. The Lattice Boltzmann Equation is a well established computational method particularly promising for multi-phase flows at micro and macro scales. Here we present preliminary results on performances of the Lbe method on the Cell Broadband Engine platform.

  7. Multiphase Flow of Immiscible Fluids on Unstructured Moving Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...

  8. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  9. Photoelectron spectroscopic study on the electronic structures of the dental gold alloys and their interaction with L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Koji; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Azuma, Junpei; Kamada, Masao; Tsujibayashi, Toru; Ichimiya, Masayoshi; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Sumimoto, Michinori

    2011-01-01

    The valence electronic structures of the dental gold alloys, type 1, type 3, and K14, and their interaction with L-cysteine have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. It was found that the electronic structures of the type-1 and type-3 dental alloys are similar to that of polycrystalline Au, while that of the K14 dental alloy is much affected by Cu. The peak shift and the change in shape due to alloying are observed in all the dental alloys. It is suggested that the new peak observed around 2 eV for the L-cysteine thin films on all the dental alloys may be due to the bonding of S 3sp orbitals with the dental alloy surfaces, and the Cu-S bond, as well as the Au-S and Au-O bonds, may cause the change in the electronic structure of the L-cysteine on the alloys.

  10. Hydrogen in niobium-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.R.G. da; Cabral, F.A.O.; Florencio, O.

    1985-01-01

    High purity Nb-Ti polycrystalline alloys were doped with hydrogen in equilibrium with the gaseous atmosphere at a pressure of 80 torr. at different temperatures. The partial molar enthalpy and entropy of the hydrogen solution at high dilution, ΔH sup(-) 0 and ΔS sup(-) 0 , were calculated from the equilibrium solubility data. The ΔH sup(-) 0 values are compared with the electron screened proton model of metal-hydrogen solutions. The addition of titanium to niobium has the effect to increase the hydrogen solubility at a given equilibrium temperature. (Author) [pt

  11. Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, B.; Chang, I.T.H.; Knight, P.; Vincent, A.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Multicomponent alloys containing several components in equal atomic proportions have been manufactured by casting and melt spinning, and their microstructures and properties have been investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffractrometry and microhardness measurements. Alloys containing 16 and 20 components in equal proportions are multiphase, crystalline and brittle both as-cast and after melt spinning. A five component Fe 20 Cr 20 Mn 20 Ni 20 Co 20 alloy forms a single fcc solid solution which solidifies dendritically. A wide range of other six to nine component late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys exhibit the same majority fcc primary dendritic phase, which can dissolve substantial amounts of other transition metals such as Nb, Ti and V. More electronegative elements such as Cu and Ge are less stable in the fcc dendrites and are rejected into the interdendritic regions. The total number of phases is always well below the maximum equilibrium number allowed by the Gibbs phase rule, and even further below the maximum number allowed under non-equilibrium solidification conditions. Glassy structures are not formed by casting or melt spinning of late transition metal rich multicomponent alloys, indicating that the confusion principle does not apply, and other factors are more important in promoting glass formation

  12. Microstructure of two phases alloy Al3Ti/Al3Ti0.75Fe0.25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles, C.; Rosas, G.; Perez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The titanium-aluminium system presents three intermetallic compounds from those Al 3 Ti is what less attention has received. The objective of this work is to generate and characterize the microstructure of multiphase alloys nearby to Al 3 Ti compound through Fe addition as alloying. This is because it has been seen that little precipitates of Al 2 Ti phase over Al 3 Ti intermetallic compound increases its ductility. (Author)

  13. Nonswelling alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-12-23

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses.

  14. Nonswelling alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses

  15. A macroscopic constitutive model of temperature-induced phase transition of polycrystalline Ni2MnGa by directional solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yuping; Gu, Yunling; Liu, Hongguang

    2015-01-01

    Directional solidification technology has been widely used to improve the properties of polycrystalline Ni 2 MnGa materials. Mechanical training can adjust the internal organizational structures of the materials, reduce the stress of twin boundaries motion, and then result in larger strain at lower outfield levels. In this paper, we test the microscopic structure of Ni 2 MnGa polycrystalline ferromagnetic shape memory alloy produced by directional solidification and compress it along two axes successively for mechanical training. The influences of pre-compressive stresses on the temperature-induced strains are analyzed. The macroscopic mechanical behaviors show anisotropy. According to the generating mechanism of the macroscopic strain, a three-dimensional constitutive model is established. Based on thermodynamic method, the kinetic equations of the martensitic transformation and inverse transformation are presented considering the driving force and energy dissipation. The prediction curves of temperature-induce strains along two different directions are investigated. And the results coincide well with the experiment data. It well explains the macroscopic anisotropy mechanical behaviors and fits for using in engineering

  16. Zero and low coefficient of thermal expansion polycrystalline oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-09-01

    Polycrystalline oxide systems with zero to low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) investigated by the author include hafnia-titania and hafnia. The CTE for 30 to 40 mol% TiO 2 in HfO 2 is less than or equal to 1 x 10 -6 / 0 C, while for other compositions in the range 25 to 60 mol% it is approximately 4 x 10 -6 / 0 C. An investigation of the CTE of 99.999% HfO 2 yielded a value of 4.6 x 10 -6 / 0 C from room temperature to 1000 0 C. Correlation with data on HfO 2 by other investigators shows a definite relationship between the CTE and the amount of ZrO 2 present. Data are listed for comparison of the CTE of several other polycrystalline oxides investigated by Holcombe at Oak Ridge

  17. Zero and low coefficient of thermal expansion polycrystalline oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Polycrystalline oxide systems with zero to low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) investigated by the author include hafnia-titania and hafnia. The CTE for 30 to 40 mol percent TiO 2 in HfO 2 is less than or equal to 1 x 10 -6 / 0 C, while for other compositions in the range 25 to 60 mol percent approximately 4 x 10 -6 / 0 C. An investigation of the CTE of 99.999 percent HfO 2 yielded a value of 4.6 x 10 -6 / 0 C from room temperature to 1000 0 C. Correlation with data on HfO 2 by other investigators shows a definite relationship between the CTE and the amount of ZrO 2 present. Data are listed for comparison of the CTE of several other polycrystalline oxides investigated by Holcombe at Oak Ridge

  18. Surface Potential of Polycrystalline Hematite in Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Preočanin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface potential of polycrystalline hematite in aqueous sodium perchlorate environment as a function of pH was examined. Surface potential of hematite was obtained from measured electrode potential of a nonporous polycrystalline hematite electrode. Acidic solution was titrated with base, and the backward titration with acid was performed. Substantial hysteresis was obtained which enabled location of the point of zero potential and equilibrium values of surface potentials. The theoretical interpretation of the equilibrium data was performed by applying the surface complexation model and the thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the first and the second step of surface protonation was obtained as logK1∘=11.3;logK2∘=2.8.

  19. Inelastic x-ray scattering from polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, I.

    2008-09-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is a tool to determine the phonon dispersion along high symmetry directions in single crystals. However, novel materials and crystals under extreme conditions are often only available in form of polycrystalline samples. Thus the investigation is limited to orientation-averaged properties. To overcome these limitations, a methodology to extract the single crystal phonon dispersion from polycrystalline materials was developed. The approach consists of recording IXS spectra over a large momentum transfer region and confront them with a Born - von Karman model calculation. A least-square refinement of the model IXS spectra then provides the single crystal dispersion scheme. In this work the method is developed on the test case Be. Further studies were performed on more and more complex systems, in order to explore the limitations. This novel application of IXS promises to be a valuable tool in cases where single crystalline materials are not available. (author)

  20. Ultrathin polycrystalline 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Min-Cherl; Zhang, Dongrong; Nikiforov, Gueorgui O.; Lee, Michael V.; Qi, Yabing, E-mail: Yabing.Qi@oist.jp [Energy Materials and Surface Sciences Unit (EMSS), Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Joo Shin, Tae; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Han-Koo; Baik, Jaeyoon; Shin, Hyun-Joon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Ultrathin (<6 nm) polycrystalline films of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-P) are deposited with a two-step spin-coating process. The influence of spin-coating conditions on morphology of the resulting film was examined by atomic force microscopy. Film thickness and RMS surface roughness were in the range of 4.0–6.1 and 0.6–1.1 nm, respectively, except for small holes. Polycrystalline structure was confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements suggested that the plane through aromatic rings of TIPS-P molecules was perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  1. Development of a Knowledge Base of Ti-Alloys From First-Principles and Thermodynamic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Cassie

    ensuring that the sublattice models are compatible with each other. For subsystems, such as the Sn-Ta system, where no thermodynamic description had been evaluated and minimal experimental data was available, first-principles calculations based on DFT were used. The Sn-Ta system has two intermetallic phases, TaSn2 and Ta3Sn, with three solution phases: bcc, body centered tetragonal (bct) and diamond. First-principles calculations were completed on the intermetallic and solution phases. Special quasirandom structures (SQS) were used to obtain information about the solution phases across the entire composition range. The Debye-Gruneisen approach, as well as the quasiharmonic phonon method, were used to obtain the finite-temperature data. Results from the first-principles calculations and experiments were used to complete the thermodynamic description. The resulting phase diagram reproduced the first-principles calculations and experimental data accurately. In order to determine the effect of alloying on the elastic properties, first-principles calculations based on DFT were systematically done on the pure elements, five Ti-X binary systems and Ti-X-Y ternary systems (X ≠ Y = Mo, Nb, Sn, Ta Zr) in the bcc phase. The first-principles calculations predicted the single crystal elastic stiffness constants cij 's. Correspondingly, the polycrystalline aggregate properties were also estimated from the cij's, including bulk modulus B, shear modulus G and Young's modulus E. The calculated results showed good agreement with experimental results. The CALPHAD method was then adapted to assist in the database development of the elastic properties as a function of composition. On average, the database predicted the elastic properties of higher order Ti-alloys within 5 GPa of the experimental results. Finally, the formation of the metastable phases, o and alpha" was studied in the Ti-Ta and Ti-Nb systems. The formation energy of these phases, calculated from first-principles at 0 K

  2. Recent advances in alloy design of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for structural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; George, E.P.

    1996-12-31

    This is a comprehensive review of recent advances in R&D of Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys for structural use at elevated temperatures in hostile environments. Recent studies indicate that polycrystalline Ni{sub 3}Al is intrinsically quite ductile at ambient temperatures, and its poor tensile ductility and brittle grain-boundary fracture are caused mainly by moisture-induced hydrogen embrittlement when the aluminide is tested in moisture- or hydrogen-containing environments. Tensile ductility is improved by alloying with substitutional and interstitial elements. Among these additives, B is most effective in suppressing environmental embrittlement and enhancing grain-boundary cohesion, resulting in a dramatic increase of tensile ductility at room temperature. Both B-doped and B-free Ni{sub 3}Al alloys exhibit brittle intergranular fracture and low ductility at intermediate temperatures (300-850 C) because of oxygen-induced embrittlement in oxidizing environments. Cr is found to be most effective in alleviating elevated-temperature embrittlement. Parallel efforts on alloy development using physical metallurgy principles have led to development of several Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for industrial use. The unique properties of these alloys are briefly discussed. 56 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs.

  3. Growth of high-quality CuInSe sub 2 polycrystalline films by magnetron sputtering and vacuum selenization

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Da Tao; Wang Li; Zhu Feng; Quan Sheng Wen; Meng Tie Jun; Zhang Bao Cheng; Chen J

    2002-01-01

    High-quality CuInSe sub 2 thin films have been prepared using a two stages process. Cu and In were co-deposited onto glass substrates by magnetron sputtering method to produce a predominant Cu sub 1 sub 1 In sub 9 phase. The alloy films were selenised and annealed in vacuum at different temperature in the range of 200-500 degree C using elemental selenium in a closed graphite box. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the films. It is found that the polycrystalline and single-phase CuInSe sub 2 films were uniform and densely packed with a grain size of about 3.0 mu m

  4. Effect of hydrogen passivation on polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honda, Shinya; Mates, Tomáš; Ledinský, Martin; Oswald, Jiří; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan; Yamazaki, T.; Uraoka, Y.; Fuyuki, T.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 487, - (2005), s. 152-156 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010316; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010413; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hydrogen passivation * polycrystalline silicon * photoluminescence * Raman spectroscopy * Si-H 2 * hydrogen molecules Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.569, year: 2005

  5. Formation of photovoltaic modules based on polycrystalline solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; A. Januszka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of the paper is formation of photovoltaic modules and analysis of their main electric parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Photovoltaic modules were produced from four polycrystalline silicon solar cells, that were cut and next joined in series. Soft soldering technique and copper-tin strip were used for joining cells.Findings: In order to provide useful power for any application, the individual solar cells must be connected together to give the appropriate current an...

  6. Polycrystalline diamond film UV detectors for excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralchenko, V G; Savel'ev, A V; Konov, Vitalii I; Mazzeo, G; Spaziani, F; Conte, G; Polyakov, V I

    2006-01-01

    Photoresistive metal-semiconductor-metal detectors based on polycrystalline diamond films are fabricated for recording cw and pulsed UV radiation. The detectors have a high spectral selectivity (the UV-to-VIS response ratio is ∼10 5 ) and a temporal resolution of the order of 10 9 s. 'Solar-blind' photostable diamond detectors are promising for applications in UV lithography, laser micromachining, medicine, and space research. (letters)

  7. Ferromagnetic clusters in polycrystalline BaCoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, P.M.; Pardo, V.; Calle, C. de la; Baldomir, D.; Alonso, J.A.; Rivas, J.

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline BaCoO 3 was synthesized by a citrate technique using thermal treatments at high oxygen pressure. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on the compound were carried out under AC conditions. The magnetic properties of the material at low temperatures were found to be determined by the appearance of nanoscale ferromagnetic (FM) regions and not by a true magnetic phase transition. These clusters have a mean size of about 1 nm in diameter and obey an Arrhenius-like thermal relaxation

  8. Multiphase flow parameter estimation based on laser scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Tiago P.; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cicero; Rodrigues, Rômulo L. P.; Morales, Rigoberto E. M.; da Silva, Marco J.

    2015-07-01

    The flow of multiple constituents inside a pipe or vessel, known as multiphase flow, is commonly found in many industry branches. The measurement of the individual flow rates in such flow is still a challenge, which usually requires a combination of several sensor types. However, in many applications, especially in industrial process control, it is not necessary to know the absolute flow rate of the respective phases, but rather to continuously monitor flow conditions in order to quickly detect deviations from the desired parameters. Here we show how a simple and low-cost sensor design can achieve this, by using machine-learning techniques to distinguishing the characteristic patterns of oblique laser light scattered at the phase interfaces. The sensor is capable of estimating individual phase fluxes (as well as their changes) in multiphase flows and may be applied to safety applications due to its quick response time.

  9. Calculation of Multiphase Chemical Equilibrium by the Modified RAND Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsanas, Christos; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Yan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    method. The modified RAND extends the classical RAND method from single-phase chemical reaction equilibrium of ideal systems to multiphase chemical equilibrium of nonideal systems. All components in all phases are treated in the same manner and the system Gibbs energy can be used to monitor convergence....... This is the first time that modified RAND was applied to multiphase chemical equilibrium systems. The combined algorithm was tested using nine examples covering vapor–liquid (VLE) and vapor–liquid–liquid equilibria (VLLE) of ideal and nonideal reaction systems. Successive substitution provided good initial......A robust and efficient algorithm for simultaneous chemical and phase equilibrium calculations is proposed. It combines two individual nonstoichiometric solving procedures: a nested-loop method with successive substitution for the first steps and final convergence with the second-order modified RAND...

  10. Eulerian Multiphase Population Balance Model of Atomizing, Swirling Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana P. Rayapati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An Eulerian/Eulerian multiphase flow model coupled with a population balance model is used as the basis for numerical simulation of atomization in swirling flows. The objective of this exercise is to develop a methodology capable of predicting the local point-wise drop size distribution in a spray, such as would be measured by the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDA. Model predictions are compared to experimental measurements of particle size distributions in an air-blast atomizer spray to demonstrate good qualitative and quantitative agreement. It is observed that the dependence of velocity on drop size inherent in a multiphase description of the drop cloud appears necessary to capture some features of the experimental data. Using this model, we demonstrate the relative contributions of secondary atomization and transport to the variation observed in the downstream spray drop size distribution.

  11. Analysis of Voltage Forming Methods for Multiphase Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Lipinskis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses advantages of the multiphase AC induction motor over three or less phase motors. It presents possible stator winding configurations for a multiphase induction motor. Various fault control strategies were reviewed for phases feeding the motor. The authors propose a method for quality evaluation of voltage forming algorithm in the inverter. Simulation of a six-phase voltage source inverter, voltage in which is formed using a simple SPWM control algorithm, was performed in Matlab Simulink. Simulation results were evaluated using the proposed method. Inverter’s power stage was powered by 400 V DC source. The spectrum of output currents was analysed and the magnitude of the main frequency component was at least 12 times greater than the next biggest-magnitude component. The value of rectified inverter voltage was 373 V.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Measurement Of Multiphase Flow Water Fraction And Water-cut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cheng-gang

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes a microwave transmission multiphase flow water-cut meter that measures the amplitude attenuation and phase shift across a pipe diameter at multiple frequencies using cavity-backed antennas. The multiphase flow mixture permittivity and conductivity are derived from a unified microwave transmission model for both water- and oil-continuous flows over a wide water-conductivity range; this is far beyond the capability of microwave-resonance-based sensors currently on the market. The water fraction and water cut are derived from a three-component gas-oil-water mixing model using the mixture permittivity or the mixture conductivity and an independently measured mixture density. Water salinity variations caused, for example, by changing formation water or formation/injection water breakthrough can be detected and corrected using an online water-conductivity tracking technique based on the interpretation of the mixture permittivity and conductivity, simultaneously measured by a single-modality microwave sensor.

  13. Multiphase flow parameter estimation based on laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendruscolo, Tiago P; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cicero; Da Silva, Marco J; Rodrigues, Rômulo L P; Morales, Rigoberto E M

    2015-01-01

    The flow of multiple constituents inside a pipe or vessel, known as multiphase flow, is commonly found in many industry branches. The measurement of the individual flow rates in such flow is still a challenge, which usually requires a combination of several sensor types. However, in many applications, especially in industrial process control, it is not necessary to know the absolute flow rate of the respective phases, but rather to continuously monitor flow conditions in order to quickly detect deviations from the desired parameters. Here we show how a simple and low-cost sensor design can achieve this, by using machine-learning techniques to distinguishing the characteristic patterns of oblique laser light scattered at the phase interfaces. The sensor is capable of estimating individual phase fluxes (as well as their changes) in multiphase flows and may be applied to safety applications due to its quick response time. (paper)

  14. Annihilation Radiation Gauge for Relative Density and Multiphase Fluid Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the multi-phase flow parameters are important for the petroleum industry, specifically during the transport in pipelines and network related to exploitation’s wells. Crude oil flow is studied by Monte Carlo simulation and experimentally to determine transient liquid phase in a laboratory system. Relative density and fluid phase time variation is monitored employing a fast nuclear data acquisition setup that includes two large volume BaF2 scintillator detectors coupled to an electronic chain and data display in a LabView® environment. Fluid parameters are determined by the difference in count rate of coincidence pulses. The operational characteristics of the equipment indicate that 2 % deviation in the CCR corresponds to a variation, on average, of 20 % in the fraction of liquid of the multiphase fluid.

  15. Mesoscopic approach to modeling elastic-plastic polycrystalline material behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Cizelj, L.

    2001-01-01

    Extreme loadings during severe accident conditions might cause failure or rupture of the pressure boundary of a reactor coolant system. Reliable estimation of the extreme deformations can be crucial to determine the consequences of such an accident. One of important drawbacks of classical continuum mechanics is idealization of inhomogenous microstructure of materials. This paper discusses the mesoscopic approach to modeling the elastic-plastic behavior of a polycrystalline material. The main idea is to divide the continuum (e.g., polycrystalline aggregate) into a set of sub-continua (grains). The overall properties of the polycrystalline aggregate are therefore determined by the number of grains in the aggregate and properties of randomly shaped and oriented grains. The random grain structure is modeled with Voronoi tessellation and random orientations of crystal lattices are assumed. The elastic behavior of monocrystal grains is assumed to be anisotropic. Crystal plasticity is used to describe plastic response of monocrystal grains. Finite element method is used to obtain numerical solutions of strain and stress fields. The analysis is limited to two-dimensional models.(author)

  16. Physics of grain boundaries in polycrystalline photovoltaic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yanfa, E-mail: yanfa.yan@utoledo.edu; Yin, Wan-Jian; Wu, Yelong; Shi, Tingting; Paudel, Naba R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Li, Chen [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Poplawsky, Jonathan [The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Wang, Zhiwei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Moseley, John; Guthrey, Harvey; Moutinho, Helio; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Thin-film solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) and CdTe photovoltaic semiconductors have reached remarkable laboratory efficiencies. It is surprising that these thin-film polycrystalline solar cells can reach such high efficiencies despite containing a high density of grain boundaries (GBs), which would seem likely to be nonradiative recombination centers for photo-generated carriers. In this paper, we review our atomistic theoretical understanding of the physics of grain boundaries in CIGS and CdTe absorbers. We show that intrinsic GBs with dislocation cores exhibit deep gap states in both CIGS and CdTe. However, in each solar cell device, the GBs can be chemically modified to improve their photovoltaic properties. In CIGS cells, GBs are found to be Cu-rich and contain O impurities. Density-functional theory calculations reveal that such chemical changes within GBs can remove most of the unwanted gap states. In CdTe cells, GBs are found to contain a high concentration of Cl atoms. Cl atoms donate electrons, creating n-type GBs between p-type CdTe grains, forming local p-n-p junctions along GBs. This leads to enhanced current collections. Therefore, chemical modification of GBs allows for high efficiency polycrystalline CIGS and CdTe thin-film solar cells.

  17. Polycrystalline silicon availability for photovoltaic and semiconductor industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.; Pellin, R.

    1982-01-01

    Markets, applications, and production techniques for Siemens process-produced polycrystalline silicon are surveyed. It is noted that as of 1982 a total of six Si materials suppliers were servicing a worldwide total of over 1000 manufacturers of Si-based devices. Besides solar cells, the Si wafers are employed for thyristors, rectifiers, bipolar power transistors, and discrete components for control systems. An estimated 3890 metric tons of semiconductor-grade polycrystalline Si will be used in 1982, and 6200 metric tons by 1985. Although the amount is expected to nearly triple between 1982-89, research is being carried out on the formation of thin films and ribbons for solar cells, thereby eliminating the waste produced in slicing Czolchralski-grown crystals. The free-world Si production in 1982 is estimated to be 3050 metric tons. Various new technologies for the formation of polycrystalline Si at lower costs and with less waste are considered. New entries into the industrial Si formation field are projected to produce a 2000 metric ton excess by 1988.

  18. Polycrystalline diamond detectors with three-dimensional electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S., E-mail: lagomarsino@fi.infn.it [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bellini, M. [INO-CNR Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carzino, R. [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Cindro, V. [Joseph Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Corsi, C. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); LENS Firenze, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Servoli, L. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The three-dimensional concept in diamond detectors has been applied, so far, to high quality single-crystal material, in order to test this technology in the best available conditions. However, its application to polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond could be desirable for two reasons: first, the short inter-electrode distance of three-dimensional detectors should improve the intrinsically lower collection efficiency of polycrystalline diamond, and second, at high levels of radiation damage the performances of the poly-crystal material are not expected to be much lower than those of the single crystal one. We report on the fabrication and test of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors with several inter-electrode distances, and we demonstrate that their collection efficiency is equal or higher than that obtained with conventional planar detectors fabricated with the same material. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser fabrication of polycristalline diamond detectors with 3D electrodes. • Measurement of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) under beta irradiation. • Comparation between the CCE of 3D and conventional planar diamond sensors. • A rationale for the behavior of three-dimensional and planar sensors is given.

  19. Comparative FEM-based Analysis of Multiphase Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Livadaru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of multiphase induction motor, which has alternately three-, five- and six-phase stator winding. The machine has been designed particularly for this purpose and has individual ring coils placed in each stator slot. The study consists in FEM analyses and mainly looks for the particularities of magnetic quantities such as air-gap flux density and electromagnetic torque.

  20. International symposium on cavitation and multiphase flow noise - 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.E.A.; Billet, M.L.; Blake, W.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on multiphase flow and cavitation. Topics considered at the conference included the development of a cavitation-free sodium pump for a breeder reactor, the stochastic behavior (randomness) of acoustic pressure pulses in the near-subcavitating range, cavitation monitoring of two axial-flow hydroturbines, and noise generated by cavitation in orifice plates with some gaseous effects

  1. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  2. Theory and modeling of microstructural evolution in polycrystalline materials: Solute segregation, grain growth and phase transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning

    2005-11-01

    To accurately predict microstructure evolution and, hence, to synthesis metal and ceramic alloys with desirable properties involves many fundamental as well as practical issues. In the present study, novel theoretical and phase field approaches have been developed to address some of these issues including solute drag and segregation transition at grain boundaries and dislocations, grain growth in systems of anisotropic boundary properties, and precipitate microstructure development in polycrystalline materials. The segregation model has allowed for the prediction of a first-order segregation transition, which could be related to the sharp transition of solute concentration of grain boundary as a function of temperature. The incorporating of interfacial energy and mobility as functions of misorientation and inclination in the phase field model has allowed for the study of concurrent grain growth and texture evolution. The simulation results were analyzed using the concept of local grain boundary energy density, which simplified significantly the development of governing equations for texture controlled grain growth in Ti-6Al-4V. Quantitative phase field modeling techniques have been developed by incorporating thermodynamic and diffusivity databases. The models have been validated against DICTRA simulations in simple 1D problems and applied to simulate realistic microstructural evolutions in Ti-6Al-4V, including grain boundary a and globular a growth and sideplate development under both isothermal aging and continuous cooling conditions. The simulation predictions agree well with experimental observations.

  3. Growth and characterization of polycrystalline Ge1-xCx by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.P.; Farias, M.H.; Castillon, F.F.; Diaz, Jesus A.; Avalos, M.; Ulloa, L.; Gallegos, J.A.; Yee-Madeiros, H.

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of Ge-C were grown on Si (1 1 1) substrates by means of reactive pulsed laser deposition with methane pressure of 100 mTorr. Effect substrate temperature, T s , on C incorporation to substitutional sites (x) in Ge 1-x C x was investigated systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyzes. The substrate temperatures were ranging from 250 to 400 deg. C. The substitutional C composition x in the films by XRD were estimated using the Vegard's linear law. The maximum value of x calculated by XRD was 0.032 for T s of 350 deg. C. The position of the C 1s peak at 283.4 eV in the XPS spectrum confirmed the germanium-carbon alloys. XRD measurements indicated that x increased with T s from 250 deg. C to 350 deg. C. At T s = 400 deg. C, the estimation of x was lowered. However, the C content calculated by XPS analyzes increased with T s being more these values than substitutional C composition x. XPS and XRD analyzes demonstrate that the remaining C atoms are incorporated to interstitial sites. The use of the T s plays important roles in the incorporation of substitutional C and in restraining C-cluster formation in the reactive pulsed laser deposition growth of Ge-C/Si.

  4. Large exchange bias induced by polycrystalline Mn3Ga antiferromagnetic films with controlled layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haokaifeng; Sudoh, Iori; Xu, Ruihan; Si, Wenshuo; Vaz, C. A. F.; Kim, Jun-young; Vallejo-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2018-05-01

    Polycrystalline Mn3Ga layers with thickness in the range from 6–20 nm were deposited at room temperature by a high target utilisation sputtering. To investigate the onset of exchange-bias, a ferromagnetic Co0.6Fe0.4 layer (3.3–9 nm thick) capped with 5 nm Ta, were subsequently deposited. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the presence of Mn3Ga (0 0 0 2) and (0 0 0 4) peaks characteristic of the D019 antiferromagnetic structure. The 6 nm thick Mn3Ga film shows the largest exchange bias of 430 Oe at 120 K with a blocking temperature of 225 K. The blocking temperature is found to decrease with increasing Mn3Ga thickness. These results in combination with x-ray reflectivity measurements confirm that the quality of the Mn3Ga/Co0.6Fe0.4 interface controls the exchange bias, with the sharp interface with the 6-nm-thick Mn3Ga inducing the largest exchange bias. The magneto-crystalline anisotropy for 6 nm thick Mn3Ga thin film sample is calculated to be . Such a binary antiferromagnetic Heusler alloy is compatible with the current memory fabrication process and hence has a great potential for antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  5. Multiphase pumping: indoor performance test and oilfield application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangling; Zhu, Hongwu; Zhang, Shousen; Li, Jifeng

    2010-03-01

    Multiphase pumping is essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed effluent which enables the liquid and gas mixture to be transported over a long distances without prior separation. A reduction, consolidation, or elimination of the production infrastructure, such as separation equipments and offshore platforms can be developed more economically. Also it successfully lowed the backpressure of wells, revived dead wells and improved the production and efficiency of oilfield. This paper reviews the issues related to indoor performance test and an oilfield application of the helico-axial multiphase pump designed by China University of Petroleum (Beijing). Pump specification and its hydraulic design are given. Results of performance testing under different condition, such as operational speed and gas volume fraction (GVF) etc are presented. Experimental studies on combination of theoretical analysis showed the multiphase pump satisfies the similitude rule, which can be used in the development of new MPP design and performance prediction. Test results showed that rising the rotation speed and suction pressure could better its performance, pressure boost improved, high efficiency zone expanding and the flow rate related to the optimum working condition increased. The pump worked unstable as GVF increased to a certain extent and slip occurred between two phases in the pump, creating surging and gas lock at a high GVF. A case of application in Nanyang oilfield is also studied.

  6. High-Voltage, Multiphasic, Nanosecond Pulses to Modulate Cellular Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Hollie A; Hirakawa, Shinji; Yang, Enbo; Zhou, Chunrong; Xiao, Shu

    2018-04-01

    Nanosecond electric pulses are an effective power source in plasma medicine and biological stimulation, in which biophysical responses are governed by peak power and not energy. While uniphasic nanosecond pulse generators are widely available, the recent discovery that biological effects can be uniquely modulated by reversing the polarity of nanosecond duration pulses calls for the development of a multimodal pulse generator. This paper describes a method to generate nanosecond multiphasic pulses for biomedical use, and specifically demonstrates its ability to cancel or enhance cell swelling and blebbing. The generator consists of a series of the fundamental module, which includes a capacitor and a MOSFET switch. A positive or a negative phase pulse module can be produced based on how the switch is connected. Stacking the modules in series can increase the voltage up to 5 kV. Multiple stacks in parallel can create multiphase outputs. As each stack is independently controlled and charged, multiphasic pulses can be created to produce flexible and versatile pulse waveforms. The circuit topology can be used for high-frequency uniphasic or biphasic nanosecond burst pulse production, creating numerous opportunities for the generator in electroporation applications, tissue ablation, wound healing, and nonthermal plasma generation.

  7. Multiphase Interface Tracking with Fast Semi-Lagrangian Contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaosheng; He, Xiaowei; Liu, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian J; Liu, Baoquan; Wu, Enhua

    2016-08-01

    We propose a semi-Lagrangian method for multiphase interface tracking. In contrast to previous methods, our method maintains an explicit polygonal mesh, which is reconstructed from an unsigned distance function and an indicator function, to track the interface of arbitrary number of phases. The surface mesh is reconstructed at each step using an efficient multiphase polygonization procedure with precomputed stencils while the distance and indicator function are updated with an accurate semi-Lagrangian path tracing from the meshes of the last step. Furthermore, we provide an adaptive data structure, multiphase distance tree, to accelerate the updating of both the distance function and the indicator function. In addition, the adaptive structure also enables us to contour the distance tree accurately with simple bisection techniques. The major advantage of our method is that it can easily handle topological changes without ambiguities and preserve both the sharp features and the volume well. We will evaluate its efficiency, accuracy and robustness in the results part with several examples.

  8. Flow Rate Measurement in Multiphase Flow Rig: Radiotracer and Conventional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrul Hizam Yusoff; Noraishah Othman; Nurliyana Abdullah; Amirul Syafiq Mohd Yunos; Rasif Mohd Zain; Roslan Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Applications of radiotracer technology are prevalent throughout oil refineries worldwide, and this industry is one of the main users and beneficiaries of the technology. Radioactive tracers have been used to a great extent in many applications i.e. flow rate measurement, RTD, plant integrity evaluation and enhancing oil production in oil fields. Chemical and petrochemical plants are generally continuously operating and technically complex where the radiotracer techniques are very competitive and largely applied for troubleshooting inspection and process analysis. Flow rate measurement is a typical application of radiotracers. For flow measurements, tracer data are important, rather than the RTD models. Research is going on in refining the existing methods for single phase flow measurement, and in developing new methods for multiphase flow without sampling. The tracer techniques for single phase flow measurements are recognized as ISO standards. This paper presents technical aspect of laboratory experiments, which have been carried out using Molybdenum-99 - Mo99 (radiotracer) to study and determine the flow rate of liquid in multiphase flow rig. The multiphase flow rig consists of 58.7 m long and 20 cm diameter pipeline that can accommodate about 0.296 m 3 of liquid. Tap water was used as liquid flow in pipeline and conventional flow meters were also installed at the flow rig. The flow rate results; radiotracer and conventional flow meter were compared. The total count method was applied for radiotracer technique and showed the comparable results with conventional flow meter. (author)

  9. Nonlinear acoustic properties of the B95 aluminum alloy and the B95/nanodiamond composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobov, A. I.; Prokhorov, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Research results for the nonlinear acoustic properties of the B95 polycrystalline aluminum alloy and the B95/nanodiamond composite have been described. The nonlinear properties of the alloys have been studied by the spectral method that measures the efficiency of generation of the second harmonic of a bulk acoustic wave at a frequency of 2 f = 10 MHz in the field of a finite-amplitude longitudinal acoustic wave at a frequency of f = 5 MHz. The results derived by this method have been compared with the results of studies of the nonlinear acoustic properties of the test alloys using the Thurston-Brugger quasi-static method.

  10. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...... thermoelastic coefficients and age hardenable low expansion alloys....

  11. Numerical simulation of complex multi-phase fluid of casting process and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Li-liang

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fluid of casting process is a typical kind of multi-phase flow. Actually, many casting phenomena have close relationship with the multi-phase flow, such as molten metal filling process, air entrapment, slag movement, venting process of die casting, gas escaping of lost foam casting and so on. Obviously, in order to analyze these phenomena accurately, numerical simulation of the multi-phase fluid is necessary. Unfortunately, so far, most of the commercial casting simulation systems do not have the ability of multi-phase flow modeling due to the difficulty in the multi-phase flow calculation. In the paper, Finite Different Method (FDM technique was adopt to solve the multi-phase fluid model. And a simple object of the muiti-phase fluid was analyzed to obtain the fluid rates of the liquid phase and the entrapped air phase.

  12. Multiphase flow measurement in the slug regime using ultrasonic measurement techniques and slug closure model

    OpenAIRE

    Al-lababidi , Salem

    2006-01-01

    Multiphase flow in the oil and gas industry covers a wide range of flows. Thus, over the last decade, the investigation, development and use of multiphase flow metering system have been a major focus for the industry worldwide. However, these meters do not perform well in slug flow conditions. The present work involves experimental investigations of multiphase flow measurement under slug flow conditions. A two-phase gas/liquid facility was designed and constructed at Cranfie...

  13. X-ray diffraction analysis of cold rolled strip from jewelry 585 gold alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karastojković Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here is investigated an golden alloy 585 as one of widely used gold alloy in jewelry production. Insufficient data, even in nowadays, exist about the production schedule of gold alloys, including melting, rolling and heat treatment regimes. The structures of complex alloys, such as used golden alloy, are less known and/or investigated. Principally, the constitutional diagram of Au-Ag-Cu system is known, as a (metastable equilibrium diagram. But, after relatively fast cooling from liquid state during casting will be obtained polycrystalline grains, different from equilibrium conditions. Such polycrystalline material frequently undergoes to rolling for obtaining a desired shape of (semiproduct. Those processes, casting and rolling, will show the influence on the final structure to be obtained, also on properties of such treated alloy. The structural changes and obtained phases in metal working processes of 585 gold alloy still are not well examined, so here is provided an XRD examination after heavy reduction at cold rolling of a strip. The castings were in the flat form in dimension of 4,5x50x50mm, than cold rolled to 1,5mm, intermediate annealed and finally cold rolled to thickness of 0,5mm with height reduction of 66,7%.

  14. Diffusive Interaction Between Ni-Cr-Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz-Śmiech, Katarzyna; Danielewski, Marek; Bożek, Bogusław; Berent, Katarzyna; Zientara, Dariusz; Zajusz, Marek

    2017-05-01

    In high-temperature coatings, welded parts, and a range of other applications, components in the contact zone interdiffuse at elevated temperatures and may react to change the phase composition. The diffusion zone can be complex and can consist of sequential layers of intermediate phases, solid solutions, and in the case of multicomponent systems also of multiphase layers. In this work, the interdiffusion in Ni-Cr-Al alloys is studied experimentally and modeled numerically. The diffusion multiples were prepared by hot isostatic pressing and post-annealing at 1473 K (1200 °C). The concentration profiles were measured with wide-line EDS technique which allowed obtaining high-accuracy diffusion paths. The experimental profiles and diffusion paths were compared with numerical results simulated with application of very recent model of interdiffusion in muticomponent-multiphase systems. The calculated and experimental data show good agreement.

  15. Structural, thermal and magnetic investigations on immiscible Ag–Co nanocrystalline alloy with addition of Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, B.N., E-mail: bholanath_mondal@yahoo.co.in [Department of Central Scientific Services, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chabri, S. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India); Sardar, G. [Department of Zoology, Baruipur College, South 24 Parganas 743610 (India); Nath, D.N. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chattopadhyay, P.P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)

    2016-08-15

    50Ag–50Co (at%) and 40Ag–40Co–20Mn (at%) alloys prepared by ball milling up to 50 h and subsequent isothermal annealing at the temperature range of 350–650 °C for 1 h has been investigated systematically. Mn promotes early formation of the nanostructures and solid solutions of the alloys by ball milling. In contrast, annealing at 350 °C of Ag–Co alloy resulted the dissolution of hcp Co. Annealing above 350 °C decomposes the metastable Ag–Co alloy into the polycrystalline and segregated Ag and fcc Co. Enthalpy of mixing of both the alloy has increased with increase in milling time. Both the nanocrystalline alloys prepared by ball milling and annealing have been revealed the ferromagnetic behavior. The most significant improvement of magnetic properties is yielded in as-milled Ag–Co–Mn alloy obtained after annealing at 550 °C for 1 h. - Highlights: • A complete solid solution of Ag–Co–Mn alloy obtained after 50 h of milling. • A complete solid solution of milled Ag–Co alloy forms annealed at 350 {sup °}C for 1 h. • Precipitation of fcc Co are observed after annealing above 350 °C. • Enthalpy of mixing of the alloys increased with increase in milling time. • The superior magnetic properties achieved of Ag–Co–Mn alloy annealed at 550 °C.

  16. A new spectral framework for crystal plasticity modeling of cubic and hexagonal polycrystalline metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Marko

    Crystal plasticity physics-based constitutive theories are used in understanding and predicting the evolution of the underlying microstructure and the concomitant anisotropic stress-strain response in polycrystalline metals subjected to finite plastic strains. A new scheme for efficient crystal plasticity computations for both cubic and hexagonal polycrystalline metals subjected to arbitrary deformation modes has been developed in this thesis. This new computational scheme involves building material databases comprised of spectral coefficients. These spectral coefficients are computed using discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs) and allow for compact representation and fast retrieval of crystal plasticity solutions for a crystal of any orientation subjected to any deformation mode. The novel approach is able to speed up the conventional crystal plasticity computations by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mathematical procedures for delineation of property closures that identify the complete set of theoretically feasible combinations of macroscale effective properties has been developed for a broad set of mechanical properties. Subsequently, these constructs were used in microstructure design for identifying an optimal microstructure for selected performance criteria. And finally, hybrid processing recipes that transform a given initial microstructure into a member of the set of optimal microstructures that exhibit superior properties or performance characteristics have been described. Insights and tremendous potential of these novel materials knowledge systems are discussed and demonstrated through specific case-studies. The anisotropic stress-strain response measured in simple compression and simple tension tests in different sample directions on an annealed, strongly textured, AZ31 sheet has been studied. New insights into the mechanical response of this material were obtained by correlating the changes in the measured strain-hardening rates in the different

  17. Palladium assisted silver transport in polycrystalline SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neethling, J.H., E-mail: Jan.Neethling@nmmu.ac.za [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); O' Connell, J.H.; Olivier, E.J. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-10-15

    The transport of silver in polycrystalline 3C-SiC and hexagonal 6H-SiC has been investigated by annealing the SiC samples in contact with a Pd-Ag compound at temperatures of 800 and 1000 Degree-Sign C and times of 24 and 67 h. The Pd was added in an attempt to improve the low wetting of SiC by Ag and further because Pd is produced in measurable concentrations in coated particles during reactor operation. Pd is also known to coalesce at the IPyC-SiC interface and to chemically attack the SiC layer. SEM, TEM and EDS were used to show that the Ag penetrates polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries together with Pd. It is suggested that Ag transport in SiC takes place along grain boundaries in the form of moving nodules consisting of a Ag-Pd mixture. It is assumed that the nodules move along grain boundaries by dissolving the SiC at the leading edge followed by the reprecipitation of SiC at the trailing edge. Since the solubility of Cs in Ag and Pd is extremely low, it is unlikely that Cs will penetrate the SiC together with the Ag-Pd compound if present at the IPyC-SiC interface. If it is assumed that the dominant transport mechanism of Ag in intact polycrystalline SiC is indeed the Pd assisted mechanism, then the stabilization of Pd (and other metallic fission products) in the kernel could be a way of mitigating Ag release from TRISO-coated particles.

  18. Palladium assisted silver transport in polycrystalline SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neethling, J.H.; O’Connell, J.H.; Olivier, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of silver in polycrystalline 3C-SiC and hexagonal 6H-SiC has been investigated by annealing the SiC samples in contact with a Pd–Ag compound at temperatures of 800 and 1000 °C and times of 24 and 67 h. The Pd was added in an attempt to improve the low wetting of SiC by Ag and further because Pd is produced in measurable concentrations in coated particles during reactor operation. Pd is also known to coalesce at the IPyC–SiC interface and to chemically attack the SiC layer. SEM, TEM and EDS were used to show that the Ag penetrates polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries together with Pd. It is suggested that Ag transport in SiC takes place along grain boundaries in the form of moving nodules consisting of a Ag–Pd mixture. It is assumed that the nodules move along grain boundaries by dissolving the SiC at the leading edge followed by the reprecipitation of SiC at the trailing edge. Since the solubility of Cs in Ag and Pd is extremely low, it is unlikely that Cs will penetrate the SiC together with the Ag–Pd compound if present at the IPyC–SiC interface. If it is assumed that the dominant transport mechanism of Ag in intact polycrystalline SiC is indeed the Pd assisted mechanism, then the stabilization of Pd (and other metallic fission products) in the kernel could be a way of mitigating Ag release from TRISO-coated particles.

  19. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kamal P. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D. [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2017-01-30

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  20. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kamal P.; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D.; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  1. Hydrogen retention properties of polycrystalline tungsten and helium irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.; Koyama, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hirohata, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The hydrogen retention properties of a polycrystalline tungsten and tungsten irradiated by helium ions with an energy of 5 keV were examined by using an ECR ion irradiation apparatus and a technique of thermal desorption spectroscopy, TDS. The polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated at RT with energetic hydrogen ions, with a flux of 10 15 H cm -2 and an energy of 1.7 keV up to a fluence of 5 x 10 18 H cm -2 . Subsequently, the amount of retained hydrogen was measured by TDS. The heating temperature was increased from RT to 1000 C, and the heating rate was 50 C min -1 . Below 1000 C, two distinct hydrogen desorption peaks were observed at 200 C and 400 C. The retained amount of hydrogen was observed to be five times smaller than that of graphite, but the concentration in the implantation layer was comparable with that of graphite. Also, the polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated with 5 keV helium ions up to a fluence of 1.4 x 10 18 He cm -2 , and then re-irradiated with 1.7 keV hydrogen ions. The amount of retained hydrogen in this later experiment was close to the value in the case without prior helium ion irradiation. However, the amount of hydrogen which desorbed around the low temperature peak, 200 C, was largely enhanced. The desorption amount at 200 C saturated for the helium fluence of more than 5 x 10 17 He cm -2 . The present data shows that the trapping state of hydrogen is largely changed by the helium ion irradiation. Additionally, 5 keV helium ion irradiation was conducted on a sample pre-implanted with hydrogen ions to simulate a helium ion impact desorption of hydrogen retained in tungsten. The amount of the hydrogen was reduced as much as 50%. (orig.)

  2. Trace diffusion of different nuclear reactions products in polycrystalline tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, G.J.; Fromm, W.D.; Novgorodov, A.F.

    1976-07-01

    Measurements of the lattice diffusion coefficients for carrier free isotopes of Hf, Lu, Yb, Tm, Tb, Gd, Eu, Ba, Cs, Y, Sr, Rb and As in polycrystalline tantalum were made over the temperature range 1700 Fsub(As)>Fsub(lanthanides)>Fsub(Sr)>Fsub(Ba)>Fsub(Hf)>Fsub(Rb)>Fsub(Cs). The data indicate, that the Arrhenius relation was obeyed over the entire temperature range. Within the lanthanide-group no differences in the diffusion velocities could be detected, this fact points to a diffusion mechanism of Me 3+ -ions of lanthanides, Me 2+ -ions of earth alkaline elements and Me + -ions of alkaline elements. (author)

  3. Progress and issues in polycrystalline thin-film PV technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.; Roedern, B. von [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Substantial progress has occurred in polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic technologies in the past 18 months. However, the transition to first-time manufacturing is still under way, and technical problems continue. This paper focuses on the promise and the problems of the copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride technologies, with an emphasis on continued R&D needs for the near-term transition to manufacturing and for next-generation improvements. In addition, it highlights the joint R&D efforts being performed in the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Thin-Film Photovoltaic Partnership Program.

  4. Compensation for thermally induced birefringence in polycrystalline ceramic active elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, M A; Khazanov, E A

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramics differ significantly from single crystals in that the crystallographic axes (and hence of the axes of thermally induced birefringence) are oriented randomly in each granule of the ceramic. The quaternion formalism is employed to calculate the depolarisation in the ceramics and the efficiency of its compensation. The obtained analytic expressions are in good agreement with the numerical relations. It is shown that the larger the ratio of the sample length to the granule size, the closer the properties of the ceramics to those of a single crystal with the [111] orientation (in particular, the uncompensated depolarisation is inversely proportional to this ratio). (active media)

  5. Modeling chemisorption kinetics of carbon monoxide on polycrystalline platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, R.G.; Modell, M.; Baddour, R.F.

    1978-04-01

    Seven distinct desorption surface states of carbon monoxide on polycrystalline platinum were detected by deconvoluting temperature-programed desorption spectra of 4-100% carbon monoxide monolayer coverage. The adstates had fixed activation energies of desorption (22.5-32.6 kcal/mole) over the entire coverage range. Rates of formation and populations were derived. The chemisorption was modeled by a Hinshelwood-type expression which allowed for site creation and suggested that adsorbed molecules are sufficiently mobile during desorption heating to fill ordered states of minimum energy and that chemisorption into these states is noncompetitive and determined by the surface. Spectra, diagrams, graphs, tables, and 49 references.

  6. Laser beam machining of polycrystalline diamond for cutting tool manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, Dominik; Ostrowski, Robert; Zwolak, Marek; Bryk, Witold

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns application of DPSS Nd: YAG 532nm pulse laser source for machining of polycrystalline WC based diamond inserts (PCD). The goal of the research was to determine optimal laser cutting parameters for cutting tool shaping. Basic criteria to reach the goal was cutting edge quality (minimalization of finishing operations), material removal rate (time and cost efficiency), choice of laser beam characteristics (polarization, power, focused beam diameter). The research was planned and realised and analysed according to design of experiment rules (DOE). The analysis of the cutting edge was prepared with use of Alicona Infinite Focus measurement system.

  7. Rotary Ultrasonic Machining of Poly-Crystalline Cubic Boron Nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruc Marcel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly-crystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN is one of the hardest material. Generally, so hard materials could not be machined by conventional machining methods. Therefore, for this purpose, advanced machining methods have been designed. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM is included among them. RUM is based on abrasive removing mechanism of ultrasonic vibrating diamond particles, which are bonded on active part of rotating tool. It is suitable especially for machining hard and brittle materials (such as glass and ceramics. This contribution investigates this advanced machining method during machining of PCBN.

  8. An acoustic emission study of plastic deformation in polycrystalline aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Frederick, J. R.; Felbeck, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic emission experiments were performed on polycrystalline and single crystal 99.99% aluminum while undergoing tensile deformation. It was found that acoustic emission counts as a function of grain size showed a maximum value at a particular grain size. Furthermore, the slip area associated with this particular grain size corresponded to the threshold level of detectability of single dislocation slip events. The rate of decline in acoustic emission activity as grain size is increased beyond the peak value suggests that grain boundary associated dislocation sources are giving rise to the bulk of the detected acoustic emissions.

  9. An electrical conductivity inspection methodology of polycrystalline diamond cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, G.; Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-05-01

    The polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) is widely used in oil and gas drilling operations. It is manufactured by sintering diamond powder onto a tungsten carbide substrate at 6 GPa and 1500 C. During sintering, molten cobalt from the substrate infiltrates the diamond table. The residual metal content correlates with cutter performance. We present an instrument that employs electrical impedance tomography capable of imaging the 3D metal content distribution in the diamond table. These images can be used to predict cutter performance as well as detect flaws.

  10. High energy argon ion irradiations of polycrystalline iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, A.; Lesueur, D.; Lorenzelli, N.; Boulanger, L.

    1986-09-01

    We present here the results of our recent irradiations of polycrystalline iron targets with very energetic (1.76 GeV) Ar ions. The targets consist of piles of thin iron samples, the total thickness of each target being somewhat greater than the theoretical range (450 μm) of the ions. We can thus separate the phenomena which occur at different average energies of the ions and study during the slowing-down process: the different types of induced nuclear reactions. They allow us to determine the experimental range of the ions, the defect profiles in the targets, the structure of the displacement cascades (electron microscopy) and their stability

  11. Complex strain paths in polycrystalline copper: microstructural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Vieira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural aspects of polycrystalline copper sheets subjected to complex strain paths were analysed in this work. Dislocation structures developed during the strain paths (rolling and tension and the evolution of this microstructure during reloading have been studied. The active slip systems developed in each strain path were used to explain the microstructural evolution. The heterogeneous surface deformation observed on polished tensile specimens prestrained in rolling was also analysed. The structural aspects are related with the mechanical behaviour of the material, namely with the increase in yield stress in reloading, the work hardening evolution and the premature occurrence of plastic instability for some prestrain values.

  12. Shape memory effects in a uranium + 14 at. % niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeer, R.A.; Ogle, J.C.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    There is a class of alloys that, on cooling from elevated temperatures, experience a martensitic phase change. Some of these, when stressed in the martensitic state to an apparently plastic strain, recover their predeformed shape simply by heating. This striking shape recovery is known as the ''shape memory effect'' (SME). Up to a certain limiting strain, epsilon/sub L/, 100% shape recovery may be accomplished. This memory phenomenon seems to be attributable to the thermoelastic nature of and deformational modes associated with the phase transformation in the alloy. Thus, shape recovery results when a stress-biased martensite undergoes a heat-activated reversion back to the parent phase from which it originated. There are uranium alloys that demonstrate SME-behavior. Uranium-rich, uranium--niobium alloys were the first to be documented; New experimental observations of SME in a polycrystalline uranium--niobium alloy are presented. This alloy can exhibit a two-way memory under cetain circumstances. Additional indirect evidence is presented suggesting that the characteristics of the accompanying phase transformation in this alloy meet the criteria or ''selection rules'' deemed essential for SME

  13. Search for high entropy alloys in the X-NbTaTiZr systems (X = Al, Cr, V, Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletti, Marco Gabriele, E-mail: marcogabriele.poletti@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Fiore, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Szost, Blanka A. [Strategic and Emerging Technologies Team (TEC-TS), European Space Agency, ESTEC, 1 Keplerlaan, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Battezzati, Livio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • Composition of refractory high entropy alloys predicted. • Solid solutions found in VNbTaTiZr and AlNbTaTiZr. • Alloys containing Cr and Sn are multi-phased. - Abstract: High entropy alloys, i.e. solid solution phases, are sought in the X-NbTaTiZr equiatomic system where the X element was chosen as Al, Cr, V and Sn by applying recent criteria based on size and electronegativity mismatch of alloy components, number of itinerant and total valence electrons, and the temperature at which the free energy of mixing changes at the alloy composition. The alloys containing V and Al are mostly constituted by solid solutions in good agreement with prediction.

  14. Eutectic gamma (Nickel)/gamma vprime(Nickel Aluminide) delta (Nickel Niobium) polycrystalline nickel-base superalloys: Chemistry, processing, microstructure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mengtao

    Directionally solidified (D.S.) gamma(Ni)/gamma'(Ni 3A1)-delta(Ni3Nb) eutectic alloys were considered as candidate turbine blade materials. Currently, the properties of polycrystalline gamma/gamma'-delta alloys are of interest as they inherit many advantageous attributes from the D.S. gamma/gamma'-delta alloys. This thesis is therefore dedicated towards the development of a fundamental understanding of these novel eutectic alloys from several important perspectives. This thesis will first be focused on quantifying the effect of several elements. A set of Ni-Cr-Al-Nb alloy compositions with increasing levels of Cr was designed to investigate the influence of Cr on the primary phase formation, solidus and liquidus temperatures and g-d eutectic morphology. A matrix of complex gamma/gamma'-delta alloy compositions with the same (Ta+Nb) content but varying Ta/Nb ratios was designed to study the influence of Ta on elemental segregation and solid state partitioning behaviors. Thermodynamic predicaitons using the Computherm Pandat database (PanNi7) were compared to experimental results in these investigations. The second part of this thesis will provide a more general understanding of the effects of common elements. A large number of experimental alloys covering a broad range of compositions were selected for the analysis. Important alloy attributes were characterized as a function of element concentration. Linear regression analysis was performed to reveal the relative effectiveness of different elements. An extensive comparison between the experimental observations and Pandat predictions was provided to critically evaluate the strength and weakness of existing thermodynamic database model in this novel alloy system. The last part of this thesis emphasizes the development of cast and wrought processes for cast gamma/gamma'-delta alloys as a cost effective alternative to the powder metallurgy route. Hot rolling of workpieces encapsulated within a steel can was performed on

  15. Multiphase simulation of mine waters and aqueous leaching processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajarre Risto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing of large amounts of water in mining and mineral processing sites remains a concern in both actively operated and closed mining areas. When the mining site with its metal or concentrate producing units is operational, the challenge is to find either ways for economical processing with maximum yields, while minimizing the environmental impact of the water usage and waste salt treatments. For safe closure of the site, the environmental control of possible drainage will be needed. For both challenges, the present-day multiphase process simulations tools can be used to provide improved accuracy and better economy in controlling the smooth and environmentally sound operation of the plant. One of the pioneering studies in using the multiphase thermodynamic software in simulation of hydrometallurgical processes was that of Koukkari et al. [1]. The study covered the use of Solgasmix equilibrium software for a number of practical acid digesters. The models were made for sulfuric acid treatments in titania pigment production and in NPK fertilizer manufacturing. During the past two decades the extensive data assessment has taken place particularly in geochemistry and a new versions of geochemical multiphase equilibrium software has been developed. On the other hand, there has been some progress in development of the process simulation software in all the aforementioned fields. Thus, the thermodynamic simulation has become a tool of great importance in development of hydrometallurgical processes. The presentation will cover three example cases of either true pilot or industrial systems including a South African acid mine water drainage treatment, hydrometallurgical extraction of rare earths from uranium leachate in Russia and a multistage process simulation of a Finnish heap leaching mine with its subsequent water treatment system.

  16. Noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric monitoring of multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaouki, J.; Dudukovic, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    A condensed review of recent advances accomplished in the development and the applications of noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric measurement techniques to multiphase flows and systems is presented. In recent years utilization of such noninvasive techniques has become widespread in many engineering disciplines that deal with systems involving two immiscible phases or more. Tomography provides concentration, holdup, or 2D or 3D density distribution of at least one component of the multiphase system, whereas velocimetry provides the dynamic features of the phase of interest such as the flow pattern, the velocity field, the 2D or 3D instantaneous movements, etc. The following review is divided into two parts. The first part summarizes progress and developments in flow imaging techniques using γ-ray and X-ray transmission tomography; X-ray radiography; neutron transmission tomography and radiography; positron emission tomography; X-ray diffraction tomography; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; electrical capacitance tomography; optical tomography; microwave tomography; and ultrasonic tomography. The second part of the review summarizes progress and developments in the following velocimetry techniques: positron emission particle tracking; radioactive particle tracking; cinematography; laser-Doppler anemometry; particle image velocimetry; and fluorescence particle image velocimetry. The basic principles of tomography and velocimetry techniques are outlined, along with advantages and limitations inherent to each technique. The hydrodynamic and structural information yielded by these techniques is illustrated through a literature survey on their successful applications to the study of multiphase systems in such fields as particulate solids processes, fluidization engineering, porous media, pipe flows, transport within packed beds and sparged reactors, etc

  17. Design, processing and characterization of mechanically alloyed galfenol & lightly rare-earth doped FeGa alloys as smart materials for actuators and transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Parisa

    Smart materials find a wide range of application areas due to their varied response to external stimuli. The different areas of application can be in our day to day life, aerospace, civil engineering applications, and mechatronics to name a few. Magnetostrictive materials are a class of smart materials that can convert energy between the magnetic and elastic states. Galfenol is a magnetostrictive alloy comprised primarily of the elements iron (Fe) and gallium (Ga). Galfenol exhibits a unique combination of mechanical and magnetostrictive (magnetic) properties that legacy smart materials do not. Galfenol's ability to function while in tension, mechanical robustness and high Curie temperature (600 °C) is attracting interest for the alloy's use in mechanically harsh and elevated temperature environments. Applications actively being investigated include transducers for down-hole use, next-generation fuel injectors, sensing, and energy harvesting devices. Understanding correlations between microstructure, electronic structure, and functional response is key to developing novel magnetostrictive materials for sensor and actuator technologies. To this end, in the first part of this thesis we report successful fabrication and investigation of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of mechanically alloyed Fe81Ga19 compounds. For the first time, we could measure magnetostrictive properties of mechanically alloyed FeGa compounds. A maximum saturation magnetostriction of 41 ppm was achieved which is comparable to those measured from polycrystalline FeGa alloys prepared by other processing techniques, namely gas atomization and cold rolling. Overall, this study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale production of FeGa polycrystalline alloys powders by a simple and cost-effective mechanical alloying technique. In the second part of this work, we report for the first time, experimental results pertaining to successful fabrication and advanced characterization of a series

  18. Separation of Nanoparticles in Aqueous Multiphase Systems through Centrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Akbulut, Ozge; Mace, Charles R.; Martinez, Ramses V.; Kumar, Ashok A.; Nie, Zhihong; Patton, Matthew R.; Whitesides, George M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of aqueous multiphase systems (MuPSs) as media for rate-zonal centrifugation to separate nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes. The properties of MuPSs do not change with time or during centrifugation; this stability facilitates sample collection after separation. A three-phase system demonstrates the separation of the reaction products (nanorods, nanospheres, and large particles) of a synthesis of gold nanorods, and enriches the nanorods from 48 to 99% in less than ten minutes using a benchtop centrifuge. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Transient Phenomena in Multiphase and Multicomponent Systems: Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur Beurteilung von Stoffen in der Landwirtschaft, Senatskommission

    2000-09-01

    Due to the reinforced risk and safety-analysis of industrial plants in chemical and energy-engineering there has been increased demand in industry for more information on thermo- and fluiddynamic effects of non-equilibria during strong transients. Therefore, the 'Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft' initiated a special research program focusing on the study of transient phenomena in multiphase systems with one or several components. This book describes macroscopic as well as microscopic transient situations. A large part of the book deals with numerical methods for describing transients in two-phase mixtures. New developments in measuring techniques are also presented.

  20. Multiphasic helical CT of hepatocellular carcinoma. Evaluation after chemo embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, O.; Esposito, M.; Sandomenico, F.; Siani, A.; Nunziata, A.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to report the personal experience with addition of contrast-enhanced multiphase helical CT to unenhanced CT (Lipiodol CT) in the evaluation of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with chemoembolization and to analyze the present role of oily agent CT. It has been retrospectively reviewed the examinations of 42 consecutive patients submitted to globla chemoembolization over a 2-year period. CT was performed 18-30 days after the treatment. The Lipiodol CT study was carried out with volume acquisitions. It has been considered as nodules all well-defined areas with dense oily agent uptake; uptake itself was classified as: 0=absent, I=lower tha 10% of the tumor volume; II=lower than 50%, III=50%, IV=homogeneous. Contrast-enhanced helical CT was performed with the 2-phase technique in 28 patients and with the 3-phase technique in 14; it has been considered as nodules all well-defined and relatively homogeneous areas with hyperattenuation in the arterial phase and hypo-isoattenuation in the portal and/or delayed phase, or with hypo-isoattenuation in the arterial phase and in the portal and/or delayed phase. Lipiodol CT permitted to recognize 65 nodules (1-5/patient, mean 1.5), namely 15 grade I, 21 grade II, 20 grade III and 9 grade IV. Multiphase CT identified 6 additional nodules in 5 patients, 5 hypervascular and 1 hypovascular, and better assessed the correct morphology and volume of grade I nodules. Only 4 of 6 nodules missed on Lipiodol CT showed oily agent uptake after a new chemoembolization session. Moreover after retreatment, carried out in 6 of 9 patients with grade I uptake (11 nodules in all), it has been found persistence of the grade I pattern in 5 nodules, grade II in 5, and grade III in 1. Lipiodol CT may miss liver nodules and underestimate the volume of nodules with poor uptake. Though Lipiodol CT should still be considered slightly more sensitive than multiphase CT, in the general opinion this technique has

  1. AM363 martensitic stainless steel: A multiphase equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia; Crockett, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    A multiphase equation of state for stainless steel AM363 has been developed within the Opensesame approach and has been entered as material 4295 in the LANL-SESAME Library. Three phases were constructed separately: the low pressure martensitic phase, the austenitic phase and the liquid. Room temperature data and the explicit introduction of a magnetic contribution to the free energy determined the martensitic phase, while shock Hugoniot data was used to determine the austenitic phase and the phase boundaries. More experimental data or First Principles calculations would be useful to better characterize the liquid.

  2. Approaching multiphase flows from the perspective of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, A.O.

    1992-01-01

    Thermalhydraulic simulation methodologies based on subchannel and porous-medium concepts are briefly reviewed and contrasted with the general approach of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). An outline of the advanced CFD methods for single-phase turbulent flows is followed by a short discussion of the unified formulation of averaged equations for turbulent and multiphase flows. Some of the recent applications of CFD at Chalk River Laboratories are discussed, and the complementary role of CFD with regard to the established thermalhydraulic methods of analysis is indicated. (author). 8 refs

  3. Slush Fund: Modeling the Multiphase Physics of Oceanic Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, J.; Schmidt, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of ice interacting with an ocean, both on Earth and throughout the solar system, and its crucial role as the mediator of exchange between the hydrosphere below and atmosphere above, have made quantifying the thermodynamic, chemical, and physical properties of the ice highly desirable. While direct observations of these quantities exist, their scarcity increases with the difficulty of obtainment; the basal surfaces of terrestrial ice shelves remain largely unexplored and the icy interiors of moons like Europa and Enceladus have never been directly observed. Our understanding of these entities thus relies on numerical simulation, and the efficacy of their incorporation into larger systems models is dependent on the accuracy of these initial simulations. One characteristic of seawater, likely shared by the oceans of icy moons, is that it is a solution. As such, when it is frozen a majority of the solute is rejected from the forming ice, concentrating in interstitial pockets and channels, producing a two-component reactive porous media known as a mushy layer. The multiphase nature of this layer affects the evolution and dynamics of the overlying ice mass. Additionally ice can form in the water column and accrete onto the basal surface of these ice masses via buoyancy driven sedimentation as frazil or platelet ice. Numerical models hoping to accurately represent ice-ocean interactions should include the multiphase behavior of these two phenomena. While models of sea ice have begun to incorporate multiphase physics into their capabilities, no models of ice shelves/shells explicitly account for the two-phase behavior of the ice-ocean interface. Here we present a 1D multiphase model of floating oceanic ice that includes parameterizations of both density driven advection within the `mushy layer' and buoyancy driven sedimentation. The model is validated against contemporary sea ice models and observational data. Environmental stresses such as supercooling and

  4. Separation of Nanoparticles in Aqueous Multiphase Systems through Centrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Akbulut, Ozge

    2012-08-08

    This paper demonstrates the use of aqueous multiphase systems (MuPSs) as media for rate-zonal centrifugation to separate nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes. The properties of MuPSs do not change with time or during centrifugation; this stability facilitates sample collection after separation. A three-phase system demonstrates the separation of the reaction products (nanorods, nanospheres, and large particles) of a synthesis of gold nanorods, and enriches the nanorods from 48 to 99% in less than ten minutes using a benchtop centrifuge. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  5. Characterizing the stretch-flangeability of hot rolled multiphase steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, N.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.; Gao, J.

    2013-01-01

    Hole expansion tests are commonly used to characterize the edge stretching limit of a material. Traditionally, a conical punch is used to expand a punched hole until a through-thickness crack appears. However, many automotive stretch flanging operations involve in-plane edge stretching that is best captured with a flat punch. In this paper, hole expansion tests were carried out on two different hot-rolled multiphase steels using both flat and conical punches. The fracture mechanisms for both punch types were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  6. Conceptual study of multiphase structure of high uranium density alloys to reduce chemical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.

    2014-01-01

    The basic factor that limits the serviceability of fuel elements developing in the framework of RERTR Program (transition from HEU to LEU fuel of research reactors) is interaction between U10Mo fuel and aluminium matrix . Interaction results in extra swelling of fuels, disappearance of a heat conducting matrix, a temperature rise in the fuel centre, penetration porosity, etc. Several methods exist to prevent fuel-matrix interaction. In terms of simplifying fuel element fabrication technology and reducing interaction, doping of fuel is the most optimal version

  7. Appropriate materials and preparation techniques for polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1997-03-01

    Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells have excellent potential for reducing the cost of TPV generators so as to address the hitherto inaccessible and highly competitive markets such as self-powered gas-fired residential warm air furnaces and energy-efficient electric cars, etc. Recent progress in polycrystalline-thin-film solar cells have made it possible to satisfy the diffusion length and intrinsic junction rectification criteria for TPV cells operating at high fluences. Continuous ranges of direct bandgaps of the ternary and pseudoternary compounds such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Pb1-xCdxTe, Hg1-xZnxTe, and Pb1-xZnxS cover the region of interest of 0.50-0.75 eV for efficient TPV conversion. Other ternary and pseudoternary compounds which show direct bandgaps in most of or all of the 0.50-0.75 eV range are Pb1-xZnxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, Pb1-xCdxSe, Pb1-xZnxSe, and Pb1-xCdxS. Hg1-xCdxTe (with x~0.21) has been studied extensively for infrared detectors. PbTe and Pb1-xSnxTe have also been studied for infrared detectors. Not much work has been carried out on Hg1-xZnxTe thin films. Hg1-xCdxTe and Pb1-xCdxTe alloys cover a wide range of cut-off wavelengths from the far infrared to the near visible. Acceptors and donors are introduced in these materials by excess non-metal (Te) and excess metal (Hg and Pb) respectively. Extrinsic acceptor impurities are Cu, Au, and As while and In and Al are donor impurities. Hg1-xCdxTe thin films have been deposited by isothermal vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), electrodeposition, sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), laser-assisted evaporation, and vacuum evaporation with or without hot-wall enclosure. The challenge in the preparation of Hg1-xCdxTe is to provide excess mercury incidence rate, to optimize the deposition parameters for enhanced mercury incorporation, and to achieve the requisite stoichiometry, grain size, and doping. MBE and MOCVD

  8. Shape Memory Alloys (Part II: Classification, Production and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ivanic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs have been extensively investigated because of their unique shape memory behaviour, i.e. their ability to recover their original shape they had before deformation. Shape memory effect is related to the thermoelastic martensitic transformation. Austenite to martensite phase transformation can be obtained by mechanical (loading and thermal methods (heating and cooling. Depending on thermomechanical conditions, SMAs demonstrate several thermomechanical phenomena, such as pseudoelasticity, superelasticity, shape memory effect (one-way and two-way and rubber-like behaviour. Numerous alloys show shape memory effect (NiTi-based alloys, Cu-based alloys, Fe-based alloys etc.. Nitinol (NiTi is the most popular and the most commonly used SMA due to its superior thermomechanical and thermoelectrical properties. NiTi alloys have greater shape memory strain and excellent corrosion resistance compared to Cu – based alloys. However, they are very costly. On the other hand, copper-based alloys (CuZn and CuAl based alloys are much less expensive, easier to manufacture and have a wider range of potential transformation temperatures. The characteristic transformation temperatures of martensitic transformation of CuAlNi alloys can lie between −200 and 200 °C, and these temperatures depend on Al and Ni content. Among the Cu – based SMAs, the most frequently applied are CuZnAl and CuAlNi alloys. Although CuZnAl alloys with better mechanical properties are the most popular among the Cu-based SMAs, they lack sufficient thermal stability, while CuAlNi shape memory alloys, in spite of their better thermal stability, have found only limited applications due to insufficient formability owing to the brittle γ2 precipitates. The most important disadvantage of polycrystalline CuAlNi alloys is a small reversible deformation (one-way shape memory effect: up to 4 %; two-way shape memory effect: only approximately 1.5 % due to intergranular

  9. Superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to superconductors having high critical currents. The superconductor described comprises an alloy consisting of a matrix of a Type II superconductor which is a homogeneous mixture of 50 to 95 at.% Pb and 5 to 40 at.%Bi and/or 10 to 50 at.%In. Dispersed in the matrix is a material to provide pinning centres comprising from 0.01% to 20% by volume of the alloy; this material is a stable discontinuous phase of discrete crystalline particles of Cu, Mn, Te, Se, Ni, Ca, Cr, Ce, Ge or La, either in the form of the element or a compound with a component of the matrix. These particles should have an average diameter of not more than 2μ. A method for making this alloy is described. (U.K.)

  10. Fracture properties of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.F.; Shaw, T.M.; Duncombe, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O x has been prepared by sintering pre-reacted powder in oxygen to yield a material with 15 μm grain size, 86% relative density and which superconducts above liquid nitrogen temperatures. Indentation crack length measurements give a toughness K c = 1.3 ± 0.2 MPa m 1/2 , above a threshold contact load for radial crack initiation of approximately 5 N (compared with 1.1 MPa m 1/2 and < 0.1 N, respectively, for single crystals). The increased toughness and threshold contact load are controlled by the deviation of cracks from the plane of maximum driving force for fracture by weak grain boundaries and preferred fracture planes within grains. Optical microscopy of indentation cracks and scanning electron microscopy of fracture surfaces reveals approximately 50% intergranular fracture. The hardness of the polycrystal was H = 2.0 ± 0.5 GPa (compared with 8.7 GPa for single crystals). The decreased hardness arises from the porosity of the polycrystalline material and grain boundary sliding under the indentation contact. Time dependent growth of lateral cracks at the indentation contacts suggests that these materials are susceptible to moisture controlled non-equilibrium crack growth

  11. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh E. Patil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2 thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT. The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, ethanol vapors (C2H5OH, NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 and O2. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the sensor response as a function of various controlling factors like operating temperature, operating voltages (1 V, 5 V, 10 V 15 V, 20 V and 25 V and concentration of gases. The sensor response measurement showed that the SnO2 has maximum response to hydrogen. Furthermore; the SnO2 based sensor exhibited fast response and good recovery towards hydrogen at temperature 150 oC. The result of response towards H2 reveals that SnO2 thin film prepared by SPT would be a suitable material for the fabrication of the hydrogen sensor.

  12. Microdamage in polycrystalline ceramics under dynamic compression and tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K.S.; Zhang, D.; Feng, R.; Wu, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In-grain microplasticity and intergranular microdamage in polycrystalline hexagonal-structure ceramics subjected to a sequence of dynamic compression and tension are studied computationally using the Voronoi polycrystal model, by which the topological heterogeneity and material anisotropy of the crystals are simulated explicitly. The constitutive modeling considers crystal plasticity by basal slip, intergranular shear damage during compression, and intergranular mode-I cracking during tension. The model parameters are calibrated with the available shock compression and spall strength data on polycrystalline α-6H silicon carbide. The numerical results show that microplasticity is a more plausible micromechanism for the inelastic response of the material under shock compression. On the other hand, the spallation behavior of the shocked material can be well predicted by intergranular mode-I microcracking during load reversal from dynamic compression to tension. The failure process and the resulting spall strength are, however, affected strongly by the intensity of local release heterogeneity induced by heterogeneous microplasticity, and by the grain-boundary shear damage during compression

  13. Semantic modeling of plastic deformation of polycrystalline rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Hassan A.; Davarpanah, Armita

    2018-02-01

    We have developed the first iteration of the Plastic Rock Deformation (PRD) ontology by modeling the semantics of a selected set of deformational processes and mechanisms that produce, reconfigure, displace, and/or consume the material components of inhomogeneous polycrystalline rocks. The PRD knowledge model also classifies and formalizes the properties (relations) that hold between instances of the dynamic physical and chemical processes and the rock components, the complex physio-chemical, mathematical, and informational concepts of the plastic rock deformation system, the measured or calculated laboratory testing conditions, experimental procedures and protocols, the state and system variables, and the empirical flow laws that define the inter-relationships among the variables. The ontology reuses classes and properties from several existing ontologies that are built for physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics. With its flexible design, the PRD ontology is well positioned to incrementally develop into a model that more fully represents the knowledge of plastic deformation of polycrystalline rocks in the future. The domain ontology will be used to consistently annotate varied data and information related to the microstructures and the physical and chemical processes that produce them at different spatial and temporal scales in the laboratory and in the solid Earth. The PRDKB knowledge base, when built based on the ontology, will help the community of experimental structural geologists and metamorphic petrologists to coherently and uniformly distribute, discover, access, share, and use their data through automated reasoning and integration and query of heterogeneous experimental deformation data that originate from autonomous rock testing laboratories.

  14. Dielectric and conducting behaviour of polycrystalline holmium octa-molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Want, Basharat; Zahoor Ahmad, Bhat; Hamid Bhat, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline holmium octa-molybdate spherulites have been obtained by using gel diffusion technique and characterized by different physio-chemical techniques. The surfaces of these spherulites are composed of nano-rod with an average diameter of about 80 nm. At room temperature the initial crystal structure is triclinic, space group P1. Thermal studies suggested a phase transition occurring in holmium octa-molybdate crystals at about 793 K. The electrical properties of the system have been studied as a function of frequency and temperature in the ranges of 20 Hz–3 MHz and 290–570 K, respectively. A giant dielectric constant and two loss peaks have been observed in the permittivity formalism. The conducting behaviour of the material is also discussed. The conductivity was found to be 1572 μ Ω −1 m −1 at room temperature and 3 MHz frequency. The conductivity of the polycrystalline material was attributed to the fact that it arises due to the migration of defects on the oxygen sub-lattice. Impedance studies were also performed in the frequency domain to infer the bulk and grain boundary contributions to the overall electric response of the material. The electrical responses have been attributed to the grain, grain-boundary, and interfacial effects. (paper)

  15. Shear strength of shock-loaded polycrystalline tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.R.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Dandekar, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    Previous experiments have suggested that tungsten undergoes a significant loss of shear strength when shock loaded to stresses greater than 7 GPa. In order to investigate this effect in more detail, a series of experiments was conducted in which polycrystalline tungsten was first shock loaded to approximately 10 GPa and then either unloaded or reloaded from the shocked state. Analysis of measured time-resolved wave profiles indicates that during initial compression to 9.7 GPa, the shear stress in polycrystalline tungsten increases to a maximum value of 1.1 GPA near a longitudinal stress of 5 GPa, but decreases to a final value of 0.8 GPa for stresses approaching 10 GPa. During reloading from a longitudinal stress of 9.7 GPa to a final value of approx.14 GPa, the shear stress increases to a peak value of 1.2 GPa and softens to 1.0 GPa in the final state. During unloading from the shocked state, the initial response is elastic with a strong Baushinger effect. Examination of a recovered sample shows evidence for both deformation slipping and twinning, which may be responsible for the observed softening

  16. Three dimensional grain boundary modeling in polycrystalline plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçinkaya, Tuncay; Özdemir, Izzet; Fırat, Ali Osman

    2018-05-01

    At grain scale, polycrystalline materials develop heterogeneous plastic deformation fields, localizations and stress concentrations due to variation of grain orientations, geometries and defects. Development of inter-granular stresses due to misorientation are crucial for a range of grain boundary (GB) related failure mechanisms, such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fatigue cracking. Local crystal plasticity finite element modelling of polycrystalline metals at micron scale results in stress jumps at the grain boundaries. Moreover, the concepts such as the transmission of dislocations between grains and strength of the grain boundaries are not included in the modelling. The higher order strain gradient crystal plasticity modelling approaches offer the possibility of defining grain boundary conditions. However, these conditions are mostly not dependent on misorientation of grains and can define only extreme cases. For a proper definition of grain boundary behavior in plasticity, a model for grain boundary behavior should be incorporated into the plasticity framework. In this context, a particular grain boundary model ([l]) is incorporated into a strain gradient crystal plasticity framework ([2]). In a 3-D setting, both bulk and grain boundary models are implemented as user-defined elements in Abaqus. The strain gradient crystal plasticity model works in the bulk elements and considers displacements and plastic slips as degree of freedoms. Interface elements model the plastic slip behavior, yet they do not possess any kind of mechanical cohesive behavior. The physical aspects of grain boundaries and the performance of the model are addressed through numerical examples.

  17. The fabrication of YBCO superconductor polycrystalline powder by CCSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosyan, K S; Luss, D; Galstyan, E; Xue, Y Y

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel, cost-effective and simple method to produce polycrystalline superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) powder by a self-sustaining one-step process called carbon combustion synthesis of oxides (CCSO). In this process the exothermic oxidation of carbon nanoparticles generates a thermal wave that propagates at a velocity of about 1 mm s -1 through the solid yttrium, barium, and copper precursors, converting them rapidly (in the order of seconds) to polycrystalline YBCO. The carbon is not incorporated in the product and is emitted as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the sample, generating a highly porous (∼70%) and friable product. Most of the grains have a plate-like shape, are well connected, and have a size of between 1 and 3 μm. The concentration of the residual carbon was less than 0.06 wt%. The magnetization of as-synthesized samples (without external post-annealing in oxygen), as determined by a SQUID magnetometer, showed an onset of the superconducting (SC) transition at ∼91 K, with a 44% shielding fraction of the -1/(4π) value

  18. Grain-boundary unzipping by oxidation in polycrystalline graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Simone; Lucio, Aline; Nunes, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    The need for large-scale production of graphene will inevitably lead to synthesis of the polycrystalline material [1,2]. Understanding the chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties of grain boundaries in graphene polycrystals will be crucial for the development of graphene-based electronics. Oxidation of this material has been suggested to lead to graphene ribbons, by the oxygen-driven unzipping mechanism. A cooperative-strain mechanism, based on the formation of epoxy groups along lines of parallel bonds in the hexagons of graphene's honeycomb lattice, was proposed to explain the unzipping effect in bulk graphene In this work we employ ab initio calculations to study the oxidation of polycrystalline graphene by chemisorption of oxygen at the grain boundaries. Our results indicate that oxygen tends to segregate at the boundaries, and that the unzipping mechanism is also operative along the grain boundaries, despite the lack of the parallel bonds due to the presence of fivefold and sevenfold carbon rings along the boundary core. We acknowledge support from the Brazilian agencies: CNPq, Fapemig, and INCT-Materiais de Carbono.

  19. Effect of oxygen on the strength and ductility of polycrystalline vanadium in the range of 4.2 to 400 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, O.N.; Alexander, D.G.; Elssner, G.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of oxygen on the yield stress and ductility of polycrystalline vanadium was investigated for concentrations of 0.004 to 1.25 at pct oxygen over the temperature range of 4.2 to 400 K. The dependence of the resolved shear stress on temperature and composition was tested against the different interstitial solute strengthening theories. A parabolic dependence of tau on concentration was found to hold in the low solute concentration range and a linear dependence was observed at high oxygen concentrations. A statistical model proposed by Labusch gives a good description of the concentration dependence of the shear stress for the entire temperature-composition range investigated. This correlation suggests that a spectrum of defects may be contributing to the strengthening of vanadium-oxygen alloys. The combined effects of oxygen content and temperature on the strain hardening exponent and reduction in area was investigated. Alloys containing 0.83 at. pct or less do not exhibit a brittle-ductile transition down to 4.2 K but a 1 at. pct alloy is brittle at 77 K and a 1.25 at. pct alloy has a BDTT between 135 and 195 K

  20. Downhole multiphase metering in wells by means of soft-sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, M.; Kruif, B. de; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Gryzlov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphase flow meters are indispensable tools for achieving optimal operation and control of wells as these meters deliver real-time information about their performance. For example, multiphase flow meters located downhole can improve the production of multilateral and multizone wells by timely

  1. Advancement and Application of Multi-Phase CFD Modeling to High Speed Supercavitating Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    October 2008 - December 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advancement and Application of Multi-Phase CFD Modeling to High Speed Supercavitating Flows...influence cavity hysteresis behavior. These observations are used to guide improved supercavitating -vehicle analyses including numerical predictions...experiments, and modeling 15. SUBJECT TERMS supercavitation , computational fluid dynamics, multiphase flow 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a

  2. A multiphase series-resonant converter with a new topology and a reduced number of thyristors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, H.

    1995-01-01

    Multiphase series resonant (SR) power converters provide a flexible way to transform power between a utility grid and a multiphase load or source. The current implementations all suffer from a high component count, which makes the use of these power converters unattractive from an economical point

  3. Application of GPU to computational multiphase fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatake, T; Kunugi, T

    2010-01-01

    The MARS (Multi-interfaces Advection and Reconstruction Solver) [1] is one of the surface volume tracking methods for multi-phase flows. Nowadays, the performance of GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) is much higher than the CPU (Central Processing Unit). In this study, the GPU was applied to the MARS in order to accelerate the computation of multi-phase flows (GPU-MARS), and the performance of the GPU-MARS was discussed. From the performance of the interface tracking method for the analyses of one-directional advection problem, it is found that the computing time of GPU(single GTX280) was around 4 times faster than that of the CPU (Xeon 5040, 4 threads parallelized). From the performance of Poisson Solver by using the algorithm developed in this study, it is found that the performance of the GPU showed around 30 times faster than that of the CPU. Finally, it is confirmed that the GPU showed the large acceleration of the fluid flow computation (GPU-MARS) compared to the CPU. However, it is also found that the double-precision computation of the GPU must perform with very high precision.

  4. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Subsea Multiphase Pump Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Shobowale Kafayat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Finding oil and gas reserves in deep/harsh environment with challenging reservoir and field conditions, subsea multiphase pumping benefits has found its way to provide solutions to these issues. Challenges such as failure issues that are still surging the industry and with the current practice of information hiding, this issues becomes even more difficult to tackle. Although, there are some joint industry projects which are only accessible to its members, still there is a need to have a clear understanding of these equipment groups so as to know which issues to focus attention on. A failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA is a potential first aid in understanding this equipment groups. A survey questionnaire/interview was conducted with the oil and gas operating company and equipment manufacturer based on the literature review. The results indicates that these equipment’s group are similar with its onshore counterpart, but the difference is the robustness built into the equipment internal subsystems for subsea applications. The results from the manufacturer perspectives indicates that Helico-axial multiphase pump have a mean time to failure of more than 10 years, twin-screw and electrical submersible pumps are still struggling with a mean time to failure of less than 5 years.

  5. Multiphase flows in complex geometries: a UQ perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays computer simulations are widely used in many multiphase flow applications involving interphases, dispersed particles, and complex geometries. Most of these problems are solved with mixed models composed of fundamental physical laws, rigorous mathematical upscaling, and empirical correlations/closures. This means that classical inference techniques or forward parametric studies, for example, becomes computationally prohibitive and must take into account the physical meaning and constraints of the equations. However mathematical techniques commonly used in Uncertainty Quantification can come to the aid for the (i) modeling, (ii) simulation, and (iii) validation steps. Two relevant applications for environmental, petroleum, and chemical engineering will be presented to highlight these aspects and the importance of bridging the gaps between engineering applications, computational physics and mathematical methods. The first example is related to the mathematical modeling of sub-grid/sub-scale information with Probability Density Function (PDF) models in problems involving flow, mixing, and reaction in random environment. After a short overview of the research field, some connections and similarities with Polynomial Chaos techniques, will be investigated. In the second example, averaged correlations laws and effective parameters for multiphase flow and their statistical fluctuations, will be considered and efficient computational techniques, borrowed from high-dimensional stochastic PDE problems, will be applied. In presence of interfacial flow, where small spatial scales and fast time scales are neglected, the assessment of robustness and predictive capabilities are studied. These illustrative examples are inspired by common problems arising, for example, from the modeling and simulation of turbulent and porous media flows.

  6. Numerical modelling of diesel spray using the Eulerian multiphase approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujanović, Milan; Petranović, Zvonimir; Edelbauer, Wilfried; Baleta, Jakov; Duić, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical model for fuel disintegration was presented. • Fuel liquid and vapour were calculated. • Good agreement with experimental data was shown for various combinations of injection and chamber pressure. - Abstract: This research investigates high pressure diesel fuel injection into the combustion chamber by performing computational simulations using the Euler–Eulerian multiphase approach. Six diesel-like conditions were simulated for which the liquid fuel jet was injected into a pressurised inert environment (100% N 2 ) through a 205 μm nozzle hole. The analysis was focused on the liquid jet and vapour penetration, describing spatial and temporal spray evolution. For this purpose, an Eulerian multiphase model was implemented, variations of the sub-model coefficients were performed, and their impact on the spray formation was investigated. The final set of sub-model coefficients was applied to all operating points. Several simulations of high pressure diesel injections (50, 80, and 120 MPa) combined with different chamber pressures (5.4 and 7.2 MPa) were carried out and results were compared to the experimental data. The predicted results share a similar spray cloud shape for all conditions with the different vapour and liquid penetration length. The liquid penetration is shortened with the increase in chamber pressure, whilst the vapour penetration is more pronounced by elevating the injection pressure. Finally, the results showed good agreement when compared to the measured data, and yielded the correct trends for both the liquid and vapour penetrations under different operating conditions

  7. Stability Analysis of Reactive Multiphase Slug Flows in Microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro A. Munera Parra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Conducting multiphase reactions in micro-reactors is a promising strategy for intensifying chemical and biochemical processes. A major unresolved challenge is to exploit the considerable benefits offered by micro-scale operation for industrial scale throughputs by numbering-up whilst retaining the underlying advantageous flow characteristics of the single channel system in multiple parallel channels. Fabrication and installation tolerances in the individual micro-channels result in different pressure losses and, thus, a fluid maldistribution. In this work, an additional source of maldistribution, namely the flow multiplicities, which can arise in a multiphase reactive or extractive flow in otherwise identical micro-channels, was investigated. A detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of the flow stability with and without reaction for both gas-liquid and liquid-liquid slug flow has been developed. The model has been validated using the extraction of acetic acid from n-heptane with the ionic liquid 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate. The results clearly demonstrate that the coupling between flow structure, the extent of reaction/extraction and pressure drop can result in multiple operating states, thus, necessitating an active measurement and control concept to ensure uniform behavior and optimal performance.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of incompressible multiphase flow with phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon Soo; Riaz, Amir; Aute, Vikrant

    2017-09-01

    Simulation of multiphase flow with phase change is challenging because of the potential for unphysical pressure oscillations, spurious velocity fields and mass flux errors across the interface. The resulting numerical errors may become critical when large density contrasts are present. To address these issues, we present a new approach for multiphase flow with phase change that features, (i) a smooth distribution of sharp velocity jumps and mass flux within a narrow region surrounding the interface, (ii) improved mass flux projection from the implicit interface onto the uniform Cartesian grid and (iii) post-advection velocity correction step to ensure accurate velocity divergence in interfacial cells. These new features are implemented in combination with a sharp treatment of the jumps in pressure and temperature gradient. A series of 1-D, 2-D, axisymmetric and 3-D problems are solved to verify the improvements afforded by the new approach. Axisymmetric film boiling results are also presented, which show good qualitative agreement with heat transfer correlations as well as experimental observations of bubble shapes.

  9. Using simulation-optimization techniques to improve multiphase aquifer remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The T2VOC computer model for simulating the transport of organic chemical contaminants in non-isothermal multiphase systems has been coupled to the ITOUGH2 code which solves parameter optimization problems. This allows one to use linear programming and simulated annealing techniques to solve groundwater management problems, i.e. the optimization of operations for multiphase aquifer remediation. A cost function has to be defined, containing the actual and hypothetical expenses of a cleanup operation which depend - directly or indirectly - on the state variables calculated by T2VOC. Subsequently, the code iteratively determines a remediation strategy (e.g. pumping schedule) which minimizes, for instance, pumping and energy costs, the time for cleanup, and residual contamination. We discuss an illustrative sample problem to discuss potential applications of the code. The study shows that the techniques developed for estimating model parameters can be successfully applied to the solution of remediation management problems. The resulting optimum pumping scheme depends, however, on the formulation of the remediation goals and the relative weighting between individual terms of the cost function.

  10. Multiphase flows in complex geometries: a UQ perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo

    2015-01-07

    Nowadays computer simulations are widely used in many multiphase flow applications involving interphases, dispersed particles, and complex geometries. Most of these problems are solved with mixed models composed of fundamental physical laws, rigorous mathematical upscaling, and empirical correlations/closures. This means that classical inference techniques or forward parametric studies, for example, becomes computationally prohibitive and must take into account the physical meaning and constraints of the equations. However mathematical techniques commonly used in Uncertainty Quantification can come to the aid for the (i) modeling, (ii) simulation, and (iii) validation steps. Two relevant applications for environmental, petroleum, and chemical engineering will be presented to highlight these aspects and the importance of bridging the gaps between engineering applications, computational physics and mathematical methods. The first example is related to the mathematical modeling of sub-grid/sub-scale information with Probability Density Function (PDF) models in problems involving flow, mixing, and reaction in random environment. After a short overview of the research field, some connections and similarities with Polynomial Chaos techniques, will be investigated. In the second example, averaged correlations laws and effective parameters for multiphase flow and their statistical fluctuations, will be considered and efficient computational techniques, borrowed from high-dimensional stochastic PDE problems, will be applied. In presence of interfacial flow, where small spatial scales and fast time scales are neglected, the assessment of robustness and predictive capabilities are studied. These illustrative examples are inspired by common problems arising, for example, from the modeling and simulation of turbulent and porous media flows.

  11. Seeking simplicity for the understanding of multiphase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Howard A.

    2017-10-01

    Fluid mechanics is a discipline with rich phenomena, with motions occurring over an enormous range of length scales, and spanning a wide range of laminar and turbulent flows, instabilities, and applications in industry, nature, biology, and medicine. The subfield of complex fluids typically refers to those flows where the complexity is introduced, for example, by the presence of suspended particles, multiple phases, soft boundaries, and electrokinetic effects; several distinct multiphase flows of Newtonian fluids make up the examples in this article. Interfaces play a significant role and modify the flow with feedback that further changes the shapes of the interfaces. I will provide examples of our work highlighting (i) new features of classical instabilities triggered by changes in geometry, (ii) multiphase flows relevant to the design of liquid-infused substrates exhibiting effective slip while retaining the trapped liquid, and (iii) unexpected dynamics in flow at a T-junction. The interplay of experiments and mathematical models and/or simulations is critical to the new understanding developed.

  12. Biphilicity and Superbiphilicity for Wettability Control of Multiphase Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, Daniel; Betz, Amy Rachel; Schutzius, T. M.; Jenkins, J.; Kim, C.-J.; Megaridis, C. M.

    2012-11-01

    Multiphase energy transport, such as in boiling, suggests contradictory requirements on the wettability of the solid surfaces coming into contact with the working fluid. On the one hand, a hydrophobic wall promotes nucleation. On the other hand, a hydrophilic wall promotes water contact and enhances the critical heat flux. An analogous situation appears in the opposite thermodynamic process, i.e. condensation. These apparently contradictory requirements can be accommodated with biphilic surfaces, which juxtapose hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Biphilic surfaces were first manufactured in 1964 by Young and Hummel, who sprayed Teflon drops onto a smooth steel surface: they showed enhanced heat transfer coefficient during boiling of water. Our recent work has revisited the manufacturing of biphilic surfaces using micro- and nanofabrication processes (Betz et al. 2010, Schutzius et al. 2012); for instance, we fabricated the first superbiphilic surfaces, which juxtapose superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic areas. Using these surfaces, we measured significant enhancement during pool boiling of both the heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux. This enhanced performance can be explained by the inherent ability of the surfaces to control multiphase flow, decreasing nucleation energies and shaping drops, bubbles and jets, to maximize transport and prevent instabilities.

  13. Multi-phase chemistry in process simulation - MASIT04 (VISTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, A.; Li Bingzhi; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi University, Combustion and Materials Chemistry, Turku (Finland)) (and others)

    2008-07-01

    A new generation of process models has been developed by using advanced multi-phase thermochemistry. The generality of the thermodynamic free energy concept enables use of common software tools for high and low temperature processes. Reactive multi-phase phenomena are integrated to advanced simulation procedures by using local equilibrium or constrained state free energy computation. The high-temperature applications include a process model for the heat recovery of copper flash smelting and coupled models for converter and bloom casting operations in steel-making. Wet suspension models are developed for boiler and desalination water chemistry, flash evaporation of black liquor and for selected fibre-line and paper-making processes. The simulation combines quantitative physical and chemical data from reactive flows to form their visual images, thus providing efficient tools for engineering design and industrial decision-making. Economic impacts are seen as both better process operations and improved end products. The software tools developed are internationally commercialised and being used to support Finnish process technology exports. (orig.)

  14. Black hole feedback in a multiphase interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Martin A.; Nayakshin, Sergei; Hobbs, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are thought to regulate the growth of SMBHs and host galaxies, resulting in a number of observational correlations. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the impact of a thermalized UFO on the ambient gas in the inner part of the host galaxy. Our results depend strongly on whether the gas is homogeneous or clumpy. In the former case all of the ambient gas is driven outward rapidly as expected based on commonly used energy budget arguments, while in the latter the flows of mass and energy de-couple. Carrying most of the energy, the shocked UFO escapes from the bulge via paths of least resistance, taking with it only the low-density phase of the host. Most of the mass is however in the high-density phase, and is affected by the UFO much less strongly, and may even continue to flow inwards. We suggest that the UFO energy leakage through the pores in the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) may explain why observed SMBHs are so massive despite their overwhelmingly large energy production rates. The multiphase ISM effects reported here are probably under-resolved in cosmological simulations but may be included in prescriptions for active galactic nuclei feedback in future simulations and in semi-analytical models.

  15. Stress corrosion cracking of several high strength ferrous and nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength ferrous and nickel base alloys has been determined in a sodium chloride solution. Results indicate that under these test conditions Multiphase MP35N, Unitemp L605, Inconel 718, Carpenter 20Cb and 20Cb-3 are highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. AISI 410 and 431 stainless steels, 18 Ni maraging steel (250 grade) and AISI 4130 steel are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under some conditions.

  16. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  17. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Garg, Rahul [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  18. Electromechanical Response of Polycrystalline Barium Titanate Resolved at the Grain Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkut, Marta; Daniels, John E.; Wright, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    critical for understanding bulk polycrystalline ferroic behavior. Here, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction is used to reconstruct a 3D grain map (grain orientations and neighborhoods) of a polycrystalline barium titanate sample and track the grain-scale non-180° ferroelectric domain switching strains...

  19. Friction and dynamically dissipated energy dependence on temperature in polycrystalline silicon MEMS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkouzou, A.; Kokorian, J.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.; van Spengen, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the influence of capillary condensation on the sliding friction of sidewall surfaces in polycrystalline silicon micro-electromechanical
    systems (MEMS). We developed a polycrystalline silicon MEMS tribometer, which is a microscale test device with two components

  20. Development of Next Generation Multiphase Pipe Flow Prediction Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulsa Fluid Flow

    2008-08-31

    The developments of fields in deep waters (5000 ft and more) is a common occurrence. It is inevitable that production systems will operate under multiphase flow conditions (simultaneous flow of gas-oil-and water possibly along with sand, hydrates, and waxes). Multiphase flow prediction tools are essential for every phase of the hydrocarbon recovery from design to operation. The recovery from deep-waters poses special challenges and requires accurate multiphase flow predictive tools for several applications including the design and diagnostics of the production systems, separation of phases in horizontal wells, and multiphase separation (topside, seabed or bottom-hole). It is very crucial to any multiphase separation technique that is employed either at topside, seabed or bottom-hole to know inlet conditions such as the flow rates, flow patterns, and volume fractions of gas, oil and water coming into the separation devices. The overall objective was to develop a unified model for gas-oil-water three-phase flow in wells, flow lines, and pipelines to predict the flow characteristics such as flow patterns, phase distributions, and pressure gradient encountered during petroleum production at different flow conditions (pipe diameter and inclination, fluid properties and flow rates). The project was conducted in two periods. In Period 1 (four years), gas-oil-water flow in pipes were investigated to understand the fundamental physical mechanisms describing the interaction between the gas-oil-water phases under flowing conditions, and a unified model was developed utilizing a novel modeling approach. A gas-oil-water pipe flow database including field and laboratory data was formed in Period 2 (one year). The database was utilized in model performance demonstration. Period 1 primarily consisted of the development of a unified model and software to predict the gas-oil-water flow, and experimental studies of the gas-oil-water project, including flow behavior description and

  1. Mechanisms limiting the performance of large grain polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culik, J. S.; Alexander, P.; Dumas, K. A.; Wohlgemuth, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of large-grain (1 to 10 mm grain diameter) polycrystalline silicon solar cells is determined by the minority-carrier diffusion length within the bulk of the grains. This was demonstrated by irradiating polycrystalline and single-crystal (Czochralski) silicon solar cells with 1 MeV electrons to reduce their bulk lifetime. The variation of short-circuit current with minority-carrier diffusion length for the polycrystalline solar cells is identical to that of the single-crystal solar cells. The open-circuit voltage versus short-circuit current characteristic of the polycrystalline solar cells for reduced diffusion lengths is also identical to that of the single-crystal solar cells. The open-circuit voltage of the polycrystalline solar cells is a strong function of quasi-neutral (bulk) recombination, and is reduced only slightly, if at all, by grain-boundary recombination.

  2. On the Young's moduli of Ti-6Al-4V alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Zhongyun

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the authors will present an iterative approach to Young's modulus of multi-phase composites developed by Fan et al. The iterative approach will then be applied to Ti-6Al-4V alloys to predict their effective Young's moduli. It is hoped that the theoretical predictions will offer a quantitative explanation to the peculiar shape of the E c -f β curve and will shed some light on controlling the Young's moduli of Ti-6Al-4V alloys by choosing the proper heat treatment procedure

  3. Corrosion characteristics of several thermal spray cermet-coating/alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashary, A.A.; Tucker, R.C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion characteristics of a thermal spray multiphase cermet coating can be quite complex. Factors such as porosity and galvanic effects between different phases in the coating and the substrate, as well as the inherent general and localized corrosion resistance of each phase, can play an important role. The present paper describes the corrosion of several cermet-coating/alloy systems as studied by a potentiodynamic cyclic polarization technique. The corrosion of these coating systems was found to be most often dominated by corrosion of the metallic phases in the coating or of the substrate alloy. (orig.)

  4. Surface hardening alloy VT6 of electric explosion and by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Yu. F.; Kobzareva, T. Yu.; Gromov, V. E.; Soskova, N. A.; Budovskikh, E. A.; Raikov, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to study the phase composition, structure and properties of the surface layer of the VT6 titanium alloy, subjected to combined treatment, consisting of alloying by the plasma of an electric explosion of a graphite fiber with a charge of the SiC powder and subsequent exposure by a high-intense electron beam. As a result of such treatment, a multiphase surface layer with a submicron and nanosize structure forms with the microhardness manifold exceeding its value in the sample volume are presented

  5. Low cycle fatigue behavior of polycrystalline NiAl at 300 and 1000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1993-01-01

    The low cycle fatigue behavior of polycrystalline NiAl was determined at 300 and 1000 K - temperatures below and above the brittle- to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT). Fully reversed, plastic strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted on two differently fabricated alloy samples: hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) prealloyed powder and hot extruded castings. HIP'ed powder (HP) samples were tested only at 1000 K, whereas the more ductile cast-and-extruded (C+E) NiAl samples were tested at both 1000 and 300 K. Plastic strain ranges of 0.06 to 0.2 percent were used. The C+E NiAl cyclically hardened until fracture, reaching stress levels approximately 60 percent greater than the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy. Compared on a strain basis, NiAl had a much longer fatigue life than other B2 ordered compounds in which fracture initiated at processing-related defects. These defects controlled fatigue life at 300 K, with fracture occurring rapidly once a critical stress level was reached. At 1000 K, above the BDTT, both the C+E and HP samples cyclically softened during most of the fatigue tests in air and were insensitive to processing defects. The processing method did not have a major effect on fatigue life; the lives of the HP samples were about a factor of three shorter than the C+E NiAl, but this was attributed to the lower stress response of the C+E material. The C+E NiAl underwent dynamic grain growth, whereas the HP material maintained a constant grain size during testing. In both materials, fatigue life was controlled by intergranular cavitation and creep processes, which led to fatigue crack growth that was primarily intergranular in nature. Final fracture by overload was transgranular in nature. Also, HP samples tested in vacuum had a life three times longer than their counterparts tested in air and, in contrast to those tested in air, hardened continuously over half of the sample life, thereby indicating an environmentally assisted fatigue damage

  6. Thermodynamic and experimental study on phase stability in nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wenwu; Song Xiaoyan; Lu Nianduan; Huang Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline alloys exhibit apparently different phase transformation characteristics in comparison to the conventional polycrystalline alloys. The special phase stability and phase transformation behavior, as well as the essential mechanisms of the nanocrystalline alloys, were described quantitatively in a nanothermodynamic point of view. By introducing the relationship between the excess volume at the grain boundary and the nanograin size, the Gibbs free energy was determined distinctly as a function of temperature and the nanograin size. Accordingly, the grain-size-dependence of the phase stability and phase transformation characteristics of the nanocrystalline alloy were calculated systematically, and the correlations between the phase constitution, the phase transformation temperature and the critical nanograin size were predicted. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the phase transformations at room temperature and high temperatures using the nanocrystalline Sm 2 Co 17 alloy as an example. The phase constitution and phase transformation sequence found in nanocrystalline Sm 2 Co 17 alloys with various grain-size levels agree well with the calculations by the nanothermodynamic model.

  7. Impurity composition effect on work function in cylindrical specimens of niobium and low zirconium niobium base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobyakov, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made into poly- and single crystal cylindrical niobium specimens, prepared by various methods as well as into polycrystalline specimens of niobium base alloys doped with 1.2 and 1.6 % Zr. Thermionic work function is measured using a full current method. Several techniques are applied to determine the content of substitutional and interstitial impurities in specimens. The phase composition of polished section surface is also investigated. A work function increase is observed when a considerable amount of carbide phases occurs at the surface. This increase is comparable with the effect of going from a polycrystalline niobium specimen to a single crystal with (110) surface orientation [ru

  8. Resistive switching in polycrystalline YMnO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bogusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a unipolar, nonvolatile resistive switching in polycrystalline YMnO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and sandwiched between Au top and Ti/Pt bottom electrodes. The ratio of the resistance in the OFF and ON state is larger than 103. The observed phenomena can be attributed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments within the multiferroic YMnO3 film. The generation of conductive paths under applied electric field is discussed in terms of the presence of grain boundaries and charged domain walls inherently formed in hexagonal YMnO3. Our findings suggest that engineering of the ferroelectric domains might be a promising route for designing and fabrication of novel resistive switching devices.

  9. Mueller matrix mapping of biological polycrystalline layers using reference wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubolazov, A.; Ushenko, O. G.; Ushenko, Yu. O.; Pidkamin, L. Y.; Sidor, M. I.; Grytsyuk, M.; Prysyazhnyuk, P. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper consists of two parts. The first part is devoted to the short theoretical basics of the method of differential Mueller-matrix description of properties of partially depolarizing layers. It was provided the experimentally measured maps of differential matrix of the 1st order of polycrystalline structure of the histological section of brain tissue. It was defined the statistical moments of the 1st-4th orders, which characterize the distribution of matrix elements. In the second part of the paper it was provided the data of statistic analysis of birefringence and dichroism of the histological sections of mice liver tissue (normal and with diabetes). It were defined the objective criteria of differential diagnostics of diabetes.

  10. Analysis of Operating Temperature of the Polycrystalline Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír GÁLL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the solar cells with orientation on the calculation of operating temperature of the polycrystalline solar cell, which is under actual load. Operating conditions have a significant effect on the efficiency of solar cells. In the summer with increasing temperature, the efficiency decreases. In the winter, efficiency and output voltage are rising. The operating temperature is determined by intensity of solar radiation, the types of materials used by construction and operating condition. The aim of this work was simplify of the calculation of operating temperature of solar cells. The result of this work is a derived equation that allows a more accurate and faster calculation this temperature with using Matlab software.

  11. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kohyama, Akira [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test has been utilized to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Qualitative, S-shaped 1hr BSR curves were compared for three selected advanced SiC fiber types and standard Nicalon CG fiber. The temperature corresponding to the middle of the S-curve (where the BSR parameter m = 0.5) is a measure of a fiber`s thermal stability as well as it creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, the measured transition temperatures were Nicalon S (1450{degrees}C), Sylramic (1420{degrees}C), Hi-Nicalon (1230{degrees}C) and Nicalon CG (1110{degrees}C).

  12. Microcracking in polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.S.; Suasmoro, S.; Huger, M.; Gault, C.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of microcracks can have a significant role for the electrical properties of polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ due to the reduction of the effective current carrying cross section. This results in an increase of the normal state resistivity and a decrease of the critical current density, j c . Shaw et.al have reported an onset of microcracking for grain sizes greater than 1-2 μm. In this work we focus attention on the geometrical aspects of the microstructure by using ultrasonic measurements to characterize the mechanical properties of the ceramic for comparison to the electrical data. The studies have been extended with experiments as a function of temperature and atmosphere in order to investigate the origins of the microcracks. (orig./BHO)

  13. Characterization of CdSe polycrystalline films by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasil, M.J.S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The characterization of CdSe polycristalline films were done by photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, diagrams IxV, and efficiency of solar energy conversion for cells done by these films. The experimental data shown strong temperature dependence of annealing, and the optimum temperature around 650 0 C was determined. The films did not present photoluminescence before heat treatment, but the annealed sample spectrum showed fine structures in the excitonic region, crystal phase transformation, enhancement of grain size, and better efficiency of the cell. Measurements of photoluminescence between 2 and 300 K, showed two bands of infrared emission, width and intense enough. The shape, at half-width, and the integrated intensity of one these bands were described by a configuration coordinate model for deep centers. Based on obtained results, some hypothesis about the origin of these bands and its correlation with efficiency of cells done with CdSe polycrystalline films, are proposed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Mechanical properties of amorphous and polycrystalline multilayer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzen, I.; Edinger, M.; Scherer, J.; Ulrich, S.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous and polycrystalline multilayer structures containing materials with metallic (Cr, Cr 3 C 2 ), ionic (Al 2 O 3 ) and covalent (SiC) bonding have been prepared by magnetron sputtering and ion plating in a dual-source apparatus. Up to 1000 layers have been deposited with a constant total thickness of 2.3 μm. Below a single-layer thickness of 10-30 nm the mechanical properties stress and hardness show strong variations. On one hand it is possible that below a certain thickness the mechanical properties of a single layer change. On the other hand electrical resistance and electron spin density measurements indicate that electronic effects may be involved. An attempt is made to explain the observed correlations by transport mechanisms of the electrons, by saturation of dangling bonds with delocalized electrons and by changes in the electronic band structure. (orig.)

  15. Polycrystalline Diamond Coating of Additively Manufactured Titanium for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Aaqil; Tran, Nhiem; Lau, Desmond W; Elbourne, Aaron; Zhan, Hualin; Stacey, Alastair D; Mayes, Edwin L H; Sarker, Avik; Ivanova, Elena P; Crawford, Russell J; Tran, Phong A; Gibson, Brant C; Greentree, Andrew D; Pirogova, Elena; Fox, Kate

    2018-03-14

    Additive manufacturing using selective laser melted titanium (SLM-Ti) is used to create bespoke items across many diverse fields such as medicine, defense, and aerospace. Despite great progress in orthopedic implant applications, such as for "just in time" implants, significant challenges remain with regards to material osseointegration and the susceptibility to bacterial colonization on the implant. Here, we show that polycrystalline diamond coatings on these titanium samples can enhance biological scaffold interaction improving medical implant applicability. The highly conformable coating exhibited excellent bonding to the substrate. Relative to uncoated SLM-Ti, the diamond coated samples showed enhanced mammalian cell growth, enriched apatite deposition, and reduced microbial S. aureus activity. These results open new opportunities for novel coatings on SLM-Ti devices in general and especially show promise for improved biomedical implants.

  16. Structural Evolution and Mechanisms of Fatigue in Polycrystalline Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jesper Vejlø

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic...... type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass....... It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the sec-ondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence...

  17. X-ray stress analysis in textured polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryouichi; Harada, Jimpei

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between stress and strain in polycrystalline materials with fibre texture is examined on the basis of the strain analysis in the constituent crystallites within the Reuss approximation. By introducing the symmetry of reciprocal lattices for the constituent crystallites, the physical meaning of taking an average of the strains observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) is made clear. By using formulae obtained by the present treatment for the stress-strain relation in cubic specimens with fibre texture in the Laue classes m3-bar m hkl Bragg reflections with h≠k≠l split into doublets owing to the existence of crystallites with two different orientations under the stress field. This technique was confirmed by the profile analysis in XRD data observed for reflections of 222 and 420 in a cubic TiN thin film sputtered on a polyimide film. The technique of the stress analysis and its confirmation are introduced. (author)

  18. Polycrystalline Silicon Gettered by Porous Silicon and Heavy Phosphorous Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zuming(刘祖明); Souleymane K Traore; ZHANG Zhongwen(张忠文); LUO Yi(罗毅)

    2004-01-01

    The biggest barrier for photovoltaic (PV) utilization is its high cost, so the key for scale PV utilization is to further decrease the cost of solar cells. One way to improve the efficiency, and therefore lower the cost, is to increase the minority carrier lifetime by controlling the material defects. The main defects in grain boundaries of polycrystalline silicon gettered by porous silicon and heavy phosphorous diffusion have been studied. The porous silicon was formed on the two surfaces of wafers by chemical etching. Phosphorous was then diffused into the wafers at high temperature (900℃). After the porous silicon and diffusion layers were removed, the minority carrier lifetime was measured by photo-conductor decay. The results show that the lifetime's minority carriers are increased greatly after such treatment.

  19. Wavelet analysis of polarization maps of polycrystalline biological fluids networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Y. A.

    2011-12-01

    The optical model of human joints synovial fluid is proposed. The statistic (statistic moments), correlation (autocorrelation function) and self-similar (Log-Log dependencies of power spectrum) structure of polarization two-dimensional distributions (polarization maps) of synovial fluid has been analyzed. It has been shown that differentiation of polarization maps of joint synovial fluid with different physiological state samples is expected of scale-discriminative analysis. To mark out of small-scale domain structure of synovial fluid polarization maps, the wavelet analysis has been used. The set of parameters, which characterize statistic, correlation and self-similar structure of wavelet coefficients' distributions of different scales of polarization domains for diagnostics and differentiation of polycrystalline network transformation connected with the pathological processes, has been determined.

  20. Effect of localized polycrystalline silicon properties on solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, D.; Iles, P. A.; Hyland, S.; Kachare, A.

    1984-01-01

    Several forms of polycrystalline silicon, mostly from cast ingots, (including UCP, SILSO and HEM) were studied. On typical slices, localized properties were studied in two ways. Small area (about 2.5 sq mm) mesa diodes were formed, and localized photovoltaic properties were measured. Also a small area (about .015 sq mm) light spot was scanned across the cells; the light spot response was calibrated to measure local diffusion length directly. Using these methods, the effects of grain boundaries, or of intragrain imperfections were correlated with cell performance. Except for the fine grain portion of SILSO, grain boundaries played only a secondary role in determining cell performance. The major factor was intra-grain material quality and it varied with position in ingots and probably related to solidification procedure.

  1. Dislocation structures around crack tips of fatigued polycrystalline copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihisa; Ishikawa, Masao; Hashimoto, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Dislocation structures near fatigue cracks of polycrystalline copper specimens were analyzed using the electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI) technique. Prior to the ECCI observations, optical microscopy was conducted to classify the fatigue crack morphologies into several kinds. It was found that the dislocation structures were correlated with the slip morphologies observed using the optical microscope. The cell structure almost corresponded to the severely deformed plastic zone where the individual slip bands could not be identified. The labyrinth dislocation structure was detected at the double-slip region. Ladder-like dislocation structure was detected ahead of the Stage I type fatigue crack. Hence, it can be said that the persistent slip band (PSB) was a favorable crack path. However, the microscopic route of the crack growth was not along the PSB but along the cell structure, which was developed locally in the vicinity of the crack tip

  2. Slip activity of persistent slip bands in polycrystalline nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, A.; Beyer, R.; Blochwitz, C.; Holste, C.; Schwab, A.; Tirschler, W.

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of glide localizations after cyclic deformation in the saturation stage was investigated for polycrystalline nickel. It was shown that persistent slip bands (PSBs) are formed in a wide range of grain orientations. Concerning the grain size it was found, that the probability for the appearance of PSBs is higher for larger grains. The local slip activity of the formed PSBs was studied after half-cycle deformation using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fraction of grains with glide-active PSBs and the glide-active PSB volume itself is very small after the half-cycle loading. The obtained local shear strain amplitudes are quite high and vary in the range of 0.2-5%. They are comparable with those found in nickel single crystals at the same loading procedure

  3. Surface roughness effects on blister formation in polycrystalline molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Sone, Kazuho; Yamada, Rayji; Ohtsuka, Hidewo; Murakami, Yoshio

    1977-07-01

    Polycrystalline molybdenum targets with electropolished and roughened surfaces were bombarded with 100 keV He + and 200 keV H 2 + ions at room temperature. It has been demonstrated that the blister formation is largely or completely suppressed by roughening the electropolished surface with emery paper of No. 1200, No. 400 and No. 100. Up to a He + fluence of 1.0 x 10 19 particles/cm 2 , no blisters are observed in the targets with the two roughest surfaces, while on the smooth surface blisters begin to occur at a fluence of 7.5 x 10 17 particles/cm 2 . The surface roughness effect on blister suppression is discussed in relation to the projected range of incident particles. (auth.)

  4. Sputtering mechanisms of polycrystalline platinum by low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernysh, V.S.; Eckstein, W.; Haidarov, A.A.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Mashkova, E.S.; Molchanov, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental study and a computer simulation with the TRIM.SP code of the angular distributions of atoms sputtered from polycrystalline platinum under 1.5-9 keV He + bombardment at the normal ion incidence are presented. It has been found that angular distributions of sputtered atoms are overcosine and that their shape is practically independent of the bombarding ion species and ion energy. Good agreement between experimental results and computer simulation data was found. Computer simulations of the partial angular distributions of Pt atoms ejected due to various sputtering mechanisms for He and Ar bombardments were performed. The role of different mechanisms in the formation of angular distributions of sputtered atoms has been analyzed

  5. Incorporation, diffusion and segregation of impurities in polycrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville, J.P.; Soltani, M.L. (Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)); Quesada, J. (Laboratoire de Metallurgie-Chimie des Materiaux, E.N.S.A.I.S., 67 - Strasbourg (France))

    1982-01-01

    We studied by means of X-Ray photoelectron Spectroscopy the nature, distribution and, when possible, the chemical bond of impurities at the surface of polycrystalline silicon samples grown on a carbon ribbon. Besides main impurities (carbon and oxygen), always present at concentrations around their limit of solubility in silicon, metal impurities have been found: their nature varies from one sample to another. Their spatial distribution is not random: some are strictly confined at the surface (sodium), whereas others are in the superficial oxidized layer (calcium, magnesium) or localized at the oxide-bulk silicon interface (iron). Metal impurities are coming from the carbon ribbon and are incorporated to silicon during the growth process. It is not yet possible to give a model of diffusion processes of impurities since they are too numerous and interact one with the other. However oxygen seems to play a leading role in the spatial distribution of metal impurities.

  6. Polycrystalline CdTe solar cells on elastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibinski, M.; Lisik, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The presented article is a report on progress in photovoltaic devices and material processing. A cadmium telluride solar cell as one of the most attractive option for thin-film polycrystalline cell constructions is presented. All typical manufacturing steps of this device, including recrystallisation and junction activation are explained. A new potential field of application for this kind of device - the BIPV (Building Integrated Photovoltaic) is named and discussed. All possible configuration options for this application, according to material properties and exploitation demands are considered. The experimental part of the presented paper is focused on practical implementation of the high - temperature polymer foil as the substrate of the newly designed device by the help of ICSVT (Isothermal Close Space Vapour Transport) technique. The evaluation of the polyester and polyamide foils according to the ICSVT/CSS manufacturing process parameters is described and discussed. A final conclusion on practical verification of these materials is also given. (authors)

  7. Electronic properties of polycrystalline graphene under large local strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xin; Tang, Ning; Duan, Junxi; Mei, Fuhong; Meng, Hu; Lu, Fangchao; Xu, Fujun; Yang, Xuelin; Gao, Li; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo; Ge, Weikun

    2014-01-01

    To explore the transport properties of polycrystalline graphene under large tensile strain, a strain device has been fabricated using piezocrystal to load local strain onto graphene, up to 22.5%. Ionic liquid gate whose capability of tuning carrier density being much higher than that of a solid gate is used to survey the transfer characteristics of the deformed graphene. The conductance of the Dirac point and field effect mobility of electrons and holes is found to decrease with increasing strain, which is attributed to the scattering of the graphene grain boundaries, the strain induced change of band structure, and defects. However, the transport gap is still not opened. Our study is helpful to evaluate the application of graphene in stretchable electronics.

  8. Improved orientation sampling for indexing diffraction patterns of polycrystalline materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Mahler; Schmidt, Søren

    2017-01-01

    to that of optimally distributing points on a four‐dimensional sphere. In doing so, the number of orientation samples needed to achieve a desired indexing accuracy is significantly reduced. Orientation sets at a range of sizes are generated in this way for all Laue groups and are made available online for easy use.......Orientation mapping is a widely used technique for revealing the microstructure of a polycrystalline sample. The crystalline orientation at each point in the sample is determined by analysis of the diffraction pattern, a process known as pattern indexing. A recent development in pattern indexing...... in the presence of noise, it has very high computational requirements. In this article, the computational burden is reduced by developing a method for nearly optimal sampling of orientations. By using the quaternion representation of orientations, it is shown that the optimal sampling problem is equivalent...

  9. Smart behaviour in a CuZnAl single crystal alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, G.; Besseghini, S.; Airoldi, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Step-wise Martensite to Austenite Reversible Transformation (SMART) has been widely investigated in polycrystalline shape memory alloys and its key features are, on the whole, well established. Though some working hypothesis have been put in advance, the full understanding of this ''micromemory'' phenomenon is still open. Specifically, the most probable origin of the SMART, relies on a local relaxation of the elastic energy. In order to clarify the advanced hypothesis, a CuZnAl single crystal alloy, where the elastic energy contribution to the thermoelastic balance is typically smaller than in the case of polycrystalline specimens, has been examined. All the investigated specimens have shown, though at different extent the SMART: results have shown that the larger the elastic energy involved, the more evident the SMART phenomenology is. Thus, the present findings further support the role of the elastic energy in the SMART. (orig.)

  10. On the Grand Challenges in Physical Petrology: the Multiphase Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergantz, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid progress in experimental, micro-analytical and textural analysis at the crystal scale has produced an unprecedented record of magmatic processes. However an obstacle to further progress is the lack of understanding of how mass, energy and momentum flux associated with crystal-rich, open-system events produces identifiable outcomes. Hence developing a physically-based understanding of magmatic systems linking micro-scale petrological observations with a physical template operating at the macro-scale presents a so-called "Grand Challenge." The essence of this challenge is that magmatic systems have characteristic length and feedback scales between those accessible by classical continuum and discrete methods. It has become increasingly obvious that the old-school continuum methods have limited resolution and power of explanation for multiphase (real) magma dynamics. This is, in part, because in crystal-rich systems the deformation is non-affine, and so the concept of constitutive behavior is less applicable and likely not even relevant, especially if one is interested in the emergent character of micro-scale processes. One expression of this is the cottage industry of proposing viscosity laws for magmas, which serves as "blunt force" de facto corrections for what is intrinsically multiphase behavior. Even in more fluid-rich systems many of these laws are not suitable for use in the very transport theories they aim to support. The alternative approach is the discrete method, where multiphase interactions are explicitly resolved. This is a daunting prospect given the numbers of crystals in magmas. But perhaps all crystals don't need to be modeled. I will demonstrate how discrete methods can recover critical state behavior, resolve crystal migration, the onset of visco-elastic behavior such as melt-present shear bands which sets the large-scale mixing volumes, some of the general morpho-dynamics that underlies purported rheological models, and transient controls on

  11. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  12. Brine migration in hot-pressed polycrystalline sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggers, J.V.; Dayton, G.O.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes experiments designed to provide data on brine migration in polycrystalline salt. Polycrystalling samples of various grain sizes, density, and purity were prepared from several commercial-grade salts by hot-pressing. Three distinct experimental set-ups were used to place salt billets in an induced thermal gradient in contact with brine source. The test designs varied primarily in the way in which the thermal gradient was applied and monitored and the way in which brine migration was determined. All migration was in enclosed vessels which precluded visual observation of brine movement through the microstructure. Migration velocities were estimated either by the timed appearance of brine at the hot face of the sample, or by determination of the penetration distance of migration artifacts in the microstructure after tests of fixed duration. For various reasons both of these methods were subject to a large degree of error. Our results suggest, however, that the migration velocity in dense polycrystalline salt may be at least an order of magnitude greater than that suggested by single-crystal experiments. Microstructural analysis shows that brine prefers to migrate along paths of high crystalline activity such as grain and subgrain boundaries and is dispersed rather quickly in the microstructure. A series of tests were performed using various types of tracers in brine in order to flag migration paths and locate brine in the microstructure more decisively. These attempts failed and it appears that only the aqueous portion of the brine moves through the microstructure with the dissolved ions being lost and replaced rather quickly. This suggests the use of deuterium as a tracer in future work

  13. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  14. Physically-based modelling of polycrystalline semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2000-01-01

    Thin-film technology using polycrystalline semiconductors has been widely applied to active-matrix-addressed liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) where thin-film transistors act as digital pixel switches. Research and development is in progress to integrate the driver circuits around the peripheral of the display, resulting in significant cost reduction of connections between rows and columns and the peripheral circuitry. For this latter application, where for instance it is important to control the greyscale voltage level delivered to the pixel, an understanding of device behaviour is required so that models can be developed for analogue circuit simulation. For this purpose, various analytical models have been developed based on that of Seto who considered the effect of monoenergetic trap states and grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials but not the contribution of the grains to the electrical properties. The principal aim of this thesis is to describe the use of a numerical device simulator (ATLAS) as a tool to investigate the physics of the trapping process involved in the device operation, which additionally takes into account the effect of multienergetic trapping levels and the contribution of the grain into the modelling. A study of the conventional analytical models is presented, and an alternative approach is introduced which takes into account the grain regions to enhance the accuracy of the analytical modelling. A physically-based discrete-grain-boundary model and characterisation method are introduced to study the effects of the multienergetic trap states on the electrical characteristics of poly-TFTs using CdSe devices as the experimental example, and the electrical parameters such as the density distribution of the trapping states are extracted. The results show excellent agreement between the simulation and experimental data. The limitations of this proposed physical model are also studied and discussed. (author)

  15. Multiphase CFD simulation of a solid bowl centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romani Fernandez, X.; Nirschl, H. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Institut fuer MVM, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    This study presents some results from the numerical simulation of the flow in an industrial solid bowl centrifuge used for particle separation in industrial fluid processing. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software Fluent was used to simulate this multiphase flow. Simplified two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometries were built and meshed from the real centrifuge geometry. The CFD results show a boundary layer of axially fast moving fluid at the gas-liquid interface. Below this layer there is a thin recirculation. The obtained tangential velocity values are lower than the ones for the rigid-body motion. Also, the trajectories of the solid particles are evaluated. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Design of multi-phase dynamic chemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenrui; Tan, Junjun; Hsieh, Ming-Chien; Pan, Ting; Goodwin, Jay T.; Mehta, Anil K.; Grover, Martha A.; Lynn, David G.

    2017-08-01

    Template-directed polymerization reactions enable the accurate storage and processing of nature's biopolymer information. This mutualistic relationship of nucleic acids and proteins, a network known as life's central dogma, is now marvellously complex, and the progressive steps necessary for creating the initial sequence and chain-length-specific polymer templates are lost to time. Here we design and construct dynamic polymerization networks that exploit metastable prion cross-β phases. Mixed-phase environments have been used for constructing synthetic polymers, but these dynamic phases emerge naturally from the growing peptide oligomers and create environments suitable both to nucleate assembly and select for ordered templates. The resulting templates direct the amplification of a phase containing only chain-length-specific peptide-like oligomers. Such multi-phase biopolymer dynamics reveal pathways for the emergence, self-selection and amplification of chain-length- and possibly sequence-specific biopolymers.

  17. 4. Workshop - Measurement techniques of stationary and transient multiphase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasser, H.M. (ed.)

    2001-05-01

    In November 2000, the 4th Workshop on Measurement Techniques for Stationary and Transient Multiphase Flows took place in Rossendorf. Three previous workshops of this series were national meetings; this time participants from different countries took part. The programme comprised 14 oral presentations, 9 of which are included in these proceedings in full length. A special highlight of the meeting was the main lecture ''Ultrasonic doppler method for bubbly flow measurement'' of Professor Masanori Aritomi, Dr. Hiroshige Kikura and Dr. Yumiko Suzuki. The workshop again dealt with high-resolution phase distribution and phase velocity measurement techniques based on electrical conductivity, ultrasound, laser light and high-speed cinematography. A number of presentations were dedicated to the application of wire-mesh sensors developed by FZR for different applications used by the Technical Universities of Delft and Munich and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. (orig.)

  18. Universality Results for Multi-phase Hele-Shaw Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2013-03-01

    Saffman-Taylor instability is a well known viscosity driven instability of an interface separating two immiscible fluids. We study linear stability of displacement processes in a Hele-Shaw cell involving an arbitrary number of immiscible fluid phases. This is a problem involving many interfaces. Universal stability results have been obtained for this multi-phase immiscible flow in the sense that the results hold for arbitrary number of interfaces. These stability results have been applied to design displacement processes that are considerably less unstable than the pure Saffman-Taylor case. In particular, we derive universal formula which gives specific values of the viscosities of the fluid layers corresponding to smallest unstable band. Other similar universal results will also be presented. The talk is based on the following paper. This work was supported by the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  19. Segmented motor drive - with multi-phase induction motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Flemming Buus

    of the induction motor is set up. The model is able to calculate dynamical electric, magnetic and mechanic state variables, but initially it is used to calculate static characteristics in motors with different number of phases and different voltage supply shapes. This analysis show i.e. that the efficiency....... The multi-phase motor is selected for further analysis. The project is limited to examine if increasing the number of phases can improve the characteristics for induction motor drives. In the literature it is demonstrated that torque production in a six-phase motor can be increased, if a 3rd harmonic......This PhD project commences in modulation of motor drives, i.e. having the advantage of reducing the number of variants and improves the system reliability at error situations. Four different motor drive topologies with modular construction as common denominator are compared on a general level...

  20. Multi-phase outflows as probes of AGN accretion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Emanuele; Zubovas, Kastytis

    2018-05-01

    Powerful outflows with a broad range of properties (such as velocity, ionization, radial scale and mass loss rate) represent a key feature of active galactic nuclei (AGN), even more so since they have been simultaneously revealed also in individual objects. Here we revisit in a simple analytical framework the recent remarkable cases of two ultraluminous infrared quasars, IRAS F11119+3257 and Mrk 231, which allow us to investigate the physical connection between multi-phase AGN outflows across the ladder of distance from the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We argue that any major deviations from the standard outflow propagation models might encode unique information on the past SMBH accretion history, and briefly discuss how this could help address some controversial aspects of the current picture of AGN feedback.

  1. A programmable CCD driver circuit for multiphase CCD operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewin, A.J.; Reed, K.V.

    1989-01-01

    A programmable CCD driver circuit was designed to drive CCD's in multiphased modes. The purpose of the drive electronics was to operate developmental CCD imaging arrays for NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Tiltable (MODIS-T). Five prototype arrays were designed. Valid's Graphics Editor (GED) was used to design the driver. With this driver design, any of the five arrays can be readout. Designing the driver with GED allowed functional simulation, timing verification, and certain packaging analyses to be done on the design before fabrication. The driver verified its function with the master clock running up to 10 MHz. This suggests a maximum rate of 400 Kpixels/sec. Timing and packaging parameters were verified. the design uses 54 TTL component chips

  2. Cesium incorporation in hollandite-rich multiphasic ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumurugoti, P.; Clark, B.M. [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, The New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Amoroso, Jake [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Sundaram, S.K. [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, The New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Hollandite-rich multiphase waste form compositions processed by melt-solidification and spark plasma sintering (SPS) were characterized, compared, and validated for nuclear waste incorporation. Phase identification by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) confirmed hollandite as the major phase present in these samples along with perovskite, pyrochlore and zirconolite. Distribution of selected elements observed by wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) maps indicated that Cs formed a secondary phase during SPS processing, which was considered undesirable. On the other hand, Cs partitioned into the hollandite phase in melt-processed samples. Further analysis of hollandite structure in melt-processed composition by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) revealed ordered arrangement of tunnel ions (Ba/Cs) and vacancies, suggesting efficient Cs incorporation into the lattice.

  3. RF sensor for multiphase flow measurement through an oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, S. R.; Shaw, A.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.

    2006-08-01

    We have developed, in conjunction with Solartron ISA, an electromagnetic cavity resonator based sensor for multiphase flow measurement through an oil pipeline. This sensor is non-intrusive and transmits low power (10 mW) radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 100-350 MHz and detects the pipeline contents using resonant peaks captured instantaneously. The multiple resonances from each captured RF spectrum are analysed to determine the phase fractions in the pipeline. An industrial version of the sensor for a 102 mm (4 inch) diameter pipe has been constructed and results from this sensor are compared to those given by simulations performed using the electromagnetic high frequency structure simulator software package HFSS. This paper was presented at the 13th International Conference on Sensors and held in Chatham, Kent, on 6-7 September 2005.

  4. Current and Voltage Mode Multiphase Sinusoidal Oscillators Using CBTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sagbas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Current-mode (CM and voltage-mode (VM multiphase sinusoidal oscillator (MSO structures using current backward transconductance amplifier (CBTA are proposed. The proposed oscillators can generate n current or voltage signals (n being even or odd equally spaced in phase. n+1 CBTAs, n grounded capacitors and a grounded resistor are used for nth-state oscillator. The oscillation frequency can be independently controlled through transconductance (gm of the CBTAs which are adjustable via their bias currents. The effects caused by the non-ideality of the CBTA on the oscillation frequency and condition have been analyzed. The performance of the proposed circuits is demonstrated on third-stage and fifth-stage MSOs by using PSPICE simulations based on the 0.25 µm TSMC level-7 CMOS technology parameters.

  5. 4. Workshop - Measurement techniques of stationary and transient multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, H.M.

    2001-05-01

    In November 2000, the 4th Workshop on Measurement Techniques for Stationary and Transient Multiphase Flows took place in Rossendorf. Three previous workshops of this series were national meetings; this time participants from different countries took part. The programme comprised 14 oral presentations, 9 of which are included in these proceedings in full length. A special highlight of the meeting was the main lecture ''Ultrasonic doppler method for bubbly flow measurement'' of Professor Masanori Aritomi, Dr. Hiroshige Kikura and Dr. Yumiko Suzuki. The workshop again dealt with high-resolution phase distribution and phase velocity measurement techniques based on electrical conductivity, ultrasound, laser light and high-speed cinematography. A number of presentations were dedicated to the application of wire-mesh sensors developed by FZR for different applications used by the Technical Universities of Delft and Munich and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. (orig.)

  6. Thermodynamic framework for discrete optimal control in multiphase flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieniutycz, Stanislaw

    1999-08-01

    Bellman's method of dynamic programming is used to synthesize diverse optimization approaches to active (work producing) and inactive (entropy generating) multiphase flow systems. Thermal machines, optimally controlled unit operations, nonlinear heat conduction, spontaneous relaxation processes, and self-propagating wave fronts are all shown to satisfy a discrete Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and a corresponding discrete optimization algorithm of Pontryagin's type, with the maximum principle for a Hamiltonian. The extremal structures are always canonical. A common unifying criterion is set for all considered systems, which is the criterion of a minimum generated entropy. It is shown that constraints can modify the entropy functionals in a different way for each group of the processes considered; thus the resulting structures of these functionals may differ significantly. Practical conclusions are formulated regarding the energy savings and energy policy in optimally controlled systems.

  7. Microstructural modelling of nuclear graphite using multi-phase models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berre, C.; Fok, S.L.; Marsden, B.J.; Mummery, P.M.; Marrow, T.J.; Neighbour, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new modelling technique using three-dimensional multi-phase finite element models in which meshes representing the microstructure of thermally oxidised nuclear graphite were generated from X-ray micro-tomography images. The density of the material was related to the image greyscale using Beer-Lambert's law, and multiple phases could thus be defined. The local elastic and non-linear properties of each phase were defined as a function of density and changes in Young's modulus, tensile and compressive strength with thermal oxidation were calculated. Numerical predictions compared well with experimental data and with other numerical results obtained using two-phase models. These models were found to be more representative of the actual microstructure of the scanned material than two-phase models and, possibly because of pore closure occurring during compression, compressive tests were also predicted to be less sensitive to the microstructure geometry than tensile tests

  8. Linear Power-Flow Models in Multiphase Distribution Networks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Andrey; Dall' Anese, Emiliano

    2017-05-26

    This paper considers multiphase unbalanced distribution systems and develops approximate power-flow models where bus-voltages, line-currents, and powers at the point of common coupling are linearly related to the nodal net power injections. The linearization approach is grounded on a fixed-point interpretation of the AC power-flow equations, and it is applicable to distribution systems featuring (i) wye connections; (ii) ungrounded delta connections; (iii) a combination of wye-connected and delta-connected sources/loads; and, (iv) a combination of line-to-line and line-to-grounded-neutral devices at the secondary of distribution transformers. The proposed linear models can facilitate the development of computationally-affordable optimization and control applications -- from advanced distribution management systems settings to online and distributed optimization routines. Performance of the proposed models is evaluated on different test feeders.

  9. Insitu multiphase fluid experiments in hydrothermal carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogotsi, Yury; Libera, Joseph A.; Guevenc -Yazicioglu, Almila; Megaridis, Constantine M.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrothermal multiwall closed carbon nanotubes are shown to contain an encapsulated multiphase aqueous fluid, thus offering an attractive test platform for unique in situ nanofluidic experiments in the vacuum of a transmission electron microscope. The excellent wettability of the graphitic inner tube walls by the aqueous liquid and the mobility of this liquid in the nanotube channels are observed. Complex interface dynamic behavior is induced by means of electron irradiation. Strong atomic-scale interactions between the entrapped liquid phase and the wetted terminated graphite layers are revealed by means of high-resolution electron microscopy. The documented phenomena in this study demonstrate the potential of implementing such tubes in future nanofluidic devices. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  10. Orientation-dependent ion beam sputtering at normal incidence conditions in FeSiAl alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batic, Barbara Setina; Jenko, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The authors have performed Ar+ broad ion beam sputtering of a polycrystalline Fe-Si-Al alloy at normal incidence at energies varying from 6 to 10 keV. Sputtering results in the formation of etch pits, which can be classified in three shapes: triangular, rectangular, and square. As each grain of individual orientation exhibits a certain type of pattern, the etch pits were correlated with the crystal orientations by electron backscattered diffraction technique.

  11. New look at magnetism in single-crystal Gd-Y alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Legvold, S.; Beaudry, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and specific-heat measurements have been made on a number of polycrystalline and single-crystal samples of Gd-rich Gd-Y alloys. It has been found (i) that samples with more than 30 at. % Y exhibit a helical structure phase; (ii) that samples between 10 and 30 at. % Y exhibit two different Curie-Weiss regimes leading to ''double'' ferromagnetism; and (iii) that samples with less than 10 at. % Y have Gd-like behavior

  12. Multiscale Modeling of Hydrogen Embrittlement for Multiphase Material

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Khalid A.

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen Embrittlement (HE) is a very common failure mechanism induced crack propagation in materials that are utilized in oil and gas industry structural components and equipment. Considering the prediction of HE behavior, which is suggested in this study, is one technique of monitoring HE of equipment in service. Therefore, multi-scale constitutive models that account for the failure in polycrystalline Body Centered Cubic (BCC) materials due to hydrogen embrittlement are developed. The polycrystalline material is modeled as two-phase materials consisting of a grain interior (GI) phase and a grain boundary (GB) phase. In the first part of this work, the hydrogen concentration in the GI (Cgi) and the GB (Cgb) as well as the hydrogen distribution in each phase, were calculated and modeled by using kinetic regime-A and C, respectively. In the second part of this work, this dissertation captures the adverse effects of hydrogen concentration, in each phase, in micro/meso and macro-scale models on the mechanical behavior of steel; e.g. tensile strength and critical porosity. The models predict the damage mechanisms and the reduction in the ultimate strength profile of a notched, round bar under tension for different hydrogen concentrations as observed in the experimental data available in the literature for steels. Moreover, the study outcomes are supported by the experimental data of the Fractography and HE indices investigation. In addition to the aforementioned continuum model, this work employs the Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to provide information regarding bond formulation and breaking. The MD analyses are conducted for both single grain and polycrystalline BCC iron with different amounts of hydrogen and different size of nano-voids. The simulations show that the hydrogen atoms could form the transmission in materials configuration from BCC to FCC (Face Centered Cubic) and HCP (Hexagonal Close Packed). They also suggest the preferred sites of hydrogen for

  13. Oxidation Behavior of Mo-Si-B Alloys in Wet Air; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Kramer; A. Thom; O. Degirmen; V. Behrani; M. Akinc

    2002-01-01

    Multiphase composite alloys based on the Mo-Si-B system are candidate materials for ultra-high temperature applications. In non load-bearing uses such as thermal barrier coatings or heat exchangers in fossil fuel burners, these materials may be ideally suited. The present work investigated the effect of water vapor on the oxidation behavior of Mo-Si-B phase assemblages. Three alloys were studied: Alloy 1= Mo(sub 5)Si(sub 3)B(sub x) (T1)- MoSi(sub 2)- MoB, Alloy 2= T1- Mo(sub 5)SiB(sub 2) (T2)- Mo(sub 3)Si, and Alloy 3= Mo- T2- Mo(sub 3)Si. Tests were conducted at 1000 and 1100C in controlled atmospheres of dry air and wet air nominally containing 18, 55, and 150 Torr H(sub 2)O. The initial mass loss of each alloy was approximately independent of the test temperature and moisture content of the atmosphere. The magnitude of these initial losses varied according to the Mo content of the alloys. All alloys formed a continuous, external silica scale that protected against further mass change after volatilization of the initially formed MoO(sub 3). All alloys experienced a small steady state mass change, but the calculated rates cannot be quantitatively compared due to statistical uncertainty in the individual mass measurements. Of particular interest is that Alloy 3, which contains a significant volume fraction of Mo metal, formed a protective scale. All alloys formed varying amounts of subscale Mo and MoO(sub 2). This implies that oxygen transport through the external silica scale has been significantly reduced. For all alloys, water vapor accelerated the growth of a multiphase interlayer at the silica scale/unoxidized alloy interface. This interlayer is likely composed of fine Mo and MoO(sub 2) that is dispersed within a thin silica matrix. Alloy 3 was particularly sensitive to water accelerated growth of this interlayer. At 1100 C, the scale thickness after 300 hours increased from about 20 mm in dry air to nearly 100 mm in wet air

  14. Multiphase flow analysis using population balance modeling bubbles, drops and particles

    CERN Document Server

    Yeoh, Guan Heng; Tu, Jiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Written by leading multiphase flow and CFD experts, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the use of PBM and CFD frameworks. Population balance approaches can now be used in conjunction with CFD, effectively driving more efficient and effective multiphase flow processes. Engineers familiar with standard CFD software, including ANSYS-CFX and ANSYS-Fluent, will be able to use the tools and approaches presented in this book in the effective research, modeling and control of multiphase flow problems. Builds a complete understanding of the theory behind the

  15. Development and application of a fully implicit fluid dynamics code for multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morii, Tadashi; Ogawa, Yumi

    1996-01-01

    Multiphase flow frequently occurs in a progression of accidents of nuclear reactor severe core damage. The CHAMPAGNE code has been developed to analyze thermohydraulic behavior of multiphase and multicomponent fluid, which requires for its characterization more than one set of velocities, temperatures, masses per unit volume, and so forth at each location in the calculation domain. Calculations of multiphase flow often show physical and numerical instability. The effect of numerical stabilization obtained by the upwind differencing and the fully implicit techniques gives one a convergent solution more easily than other techniques. Several results calculated by the CHAMPAGNE code are explained

  16. Alloying effect of 3D transition elements on the ductility of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Fukumori, J.; Morinaga, M.; Furui, M.; Nambu, T.; Sakaki, T.

    1996-01-01

    Chromium and its alloys have good corrosion resistance in corrosive environments and good oxidation resistance at high temperatures. In addition, they exhibit an excellent combination of low density and high creep strength. However, there is still a large barrier to the practical use because of their poor ductility at room temperature. According to recent investigations, an environmental effect was found on the ductility of high purity polycrystalline chromium. In this study, in order to find a way to improve the ductility of chromium at room temperature, the alloying effect on the ductility of chromium was investigated experimentally in several test environments

  17. Impact of graphene polycrystallinity on the performance of graphene field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez, David; Chaves, Ferney; Cummings, Aron W.; Van Tuan, Dinh; Kotakoski, Jani; Roche, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    We have used a multi-scale physics-based model to predict how the grain size and different grain boundary morphologies of polycrystalline graphene will impact the performance metrics of graphene field-effect transistors. We show that polycrystallinity has a negative impact on the transconductance, which translates to a severe degradation of the maximum and cutoff frequencies. On the other hand, polycrystallinity has a positive impact on current saturation, and a negligible effect on the intrinsic gain. These results reveal the complex role played by graphene grain boundaries and can be used to guide the further development and optimization of graphene-based electronic devices

  18. Impact of graphene polycrystallinity on the performance of graphene field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, David; Chaves, Ferney [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Cummings, Aron W.; Van Tuan, Dinh [ICN2, Institut Català de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Kotakoski, Jani [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Roche, Stephan [ICN2, Institut Català de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08070 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-01-27

    We have used a multi-scale physics-based model to predict how the grain size and different grain boundary morphologies of polycrystalline graphene will impact the performance metrics of graphene field-effect transistors. We show that polycrystallinity has a negative impact on the transconductance, which translates to a severe degradation of the maximum and cutoff frequencies. On the other hand, polycrystallinity has a positive impact on current saturation, and a negligible effect on the intrinsic gain. These results reveal the complex role played by graphene grain boundaries and can be used to guide the further development and optimization of graphene-based electronic devices.

  19. Hydrogen-induced structural changes in polycrystalline silicon as revealed by positron lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arole, V.M.; Takwale, M.G.; Bhide, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline silicon wafer is carried out in order to reduce the deleterious effects of grain boundaries. A systematic variation is made in the process parameters implemented during hydrogen passivation and the results of room temperature resistivity measurements are reported. As an efficient tool to study the structure change, positron lifetime spectroscopic measurements are performed on original and hydrogenated polycrystalline silicon wafers and a systematic correlation is sought between the changes that take place in the electrical and structural properties of polycrystalline silicon wafer, brought about by hydrogen passivation. (author)

  20. CdCl2 passivation of polycrystalline CdMgTe and CdZnTe absorbers for tandem photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Drew E.; Reich, Carey; Abbas, Ali; Shimpi, Tushar; Liu, Hanxiao; Ponce, Fernando A.; Walls, John M.; Zhang, Yong-Hang; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Sampath, W. S.; Holman, Zachary C.

    2018-05-01

    As single-junction silicon solar cells approach their theoretical limits, tandems provide the primary path to higher efficiencies. CdTe alloys can be tuned with magnesium (CdMgTe) or zinc (CdZnTe) for ideal tandem pairing with silicon. A II-VI/Si tandem holds the greatest promise for inexpensive, high-efficiency top cells that can be quickly deployed in the market using existing polycrystalline CdTe manufacturing lines combined with mature silicon production lines. Currently, all high efficiency polycrystalline CdTe cells require a chloride-based passivation process to passivate grain boundaries and bulk defects. This research examines the rich chemistry and physics that has historically limited performance when extending Cl treatments to polycrystalline 1.7-eV CdMgTe and CdZnTe absorbers. A combination of transmittance, quantum efficiency, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy clearly reveals that during passivation, Mg segregates and out-diffuses, initially at the grain boundaries but eventually throughout the bulk. CdZnTe exhibits similar Zn segregation behavior; however, the onset and progression is localized to the back of the device. After passivation, CdMgTe and CdZnTe can render a layer that is reduced to predominantly CdTe electro-optical behavior. Contact instabilities caused by inter-diffusion between the layers create additional complications. The results outline critical issues and paths for these materials to be successfully implemented in Si-based tandems and other applications.

  1. Dynamic properties of nickel-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackenberg, Robert; Thoma, Dan; Cooley, Jason; Swift, Damian; Paisley, Dennis; Bourne, Neil; Gray, George III; Hauer, Allan

    2004-01-01

    The shock response of near-equiatomic Ni-Ti alloys have been investigated to support studies of shock-induced martensitic transitions. The equation of state (EOS) and elasticity were predicted using ab initio quantum mechanics. Polycrystalline NiTi samples were prepared with a range of compositions, and thickesses between about 100 and 400 μm. Laser-driven flyer impact experiments were used to verify the EOS and to measure the flow stress from the amplitude of the elastic precursor; the spall strength was also obtained from these experiments. The laser flyer EOS data were consistent with Hugoniot points deduced from gas gun experiments. Decaying shocks were induced in samples, by direct laser irradiation with a variety of pressures and durations, to investigate the threshold for martensite formation

  2. Constitutive Models for Shape Memory Alloy Polycrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, R. J., Jr.; Somerday, M.; Wert, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) exhibiting the superelastic or one-way effects can produce large recoverable strains upon application of a stress. In single crystals this stress and resulting strain are very orientation dependent. We show experimental stress/strain curves for a Ni-Al single crystal for various loading orientations. Also shown are model predictions; the open and closed circles indicate recoverable strains obtained at various stages in the transformation process. Because of the strong orientation dependence of shape memory properties, crystallographic texture can be expected to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline SMA. It is desirable to formulate a constitutive model to better understand and exploit the unique properties of SMA.

  3. Reversibility in martensitic transformation and shape memory in high Mn ferrous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomota, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The reversibility of austenite (γ : fcc) epsilon (ε : hcp) martensitic transformation and shape memory effect in high Mn ferrous alloys are discussed. A particular emphasis is put on the ε → γ reverse transformation behavior in two poly-crystalline alloys, Fe-24Mn and Fe-24Mn-6Si, where the latter exhibits excellent shape memory while the former shows poor memory although their forward γ → ε transformation behavior is quite similar. TEM in situ observations have revealed that the motion of Shockley partial dislocations during ε → γ reverse transformation is different from each other in these two alloys. The influence of alloying elements on the shape memory effect can be related to solid solution hardening of austenite, suggesting an important role of internal stress. The effect of training on enhancing the shape memory is explained by such an internal stress distribution associated with the formation of very thin, i.e., nano-scale ε/γ lamellae. (orig.)

  4. Fracture behaviour of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys obtained by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P. P.; Perez-Saez, R. B.; Recarte, V.; San Juan, J.M.; Ruano, O. A.; No, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Polycrystalline Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys have been scarcely employed for technological applications due to their high brittleness. The development of a new elaboration technique based on powder metallurgy has recently overcome this problem, through the improvement of the ductility of the produced alloys without affecting its shape memory properties. The fracture behaviour of an alloy obtained using the elaboration technique has been studied by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy and mechanical testing. The results show a ductile fracture with a maximum strain close to 13%, which is the best fracture behaviour obtained for Cu-Al-Ni polycrystals. The microstructure of such alloys ha been studied by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy, showing a poligonyzed structure in which martensite plated passing through the subboundaries easily. (Author) 19 refs

  5. Study of the Metallurgical Aspects of Steel Micro-Alloying by Titan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijac, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal properties upgrading applying it’s alloying with the simultaneous limitation of the impurities represents a prospective possibility of the metallurgical production further development. The interaction of the alloying substance active element with oxygen in metal and adjacent multiphase environment occurs under the actual conditions. Present paper is oriented particularly to the thermodynamic aspects of deoxygenation by titan in process of production of micro alloyed low carbon steel in two plants (oxygen converter 1-OC1 and 2-OC2 with the different effect of micro-alloy exploitation. Analysis of the effect of the metallurgical factors on the titan smelting loss in micro-alloyed steel production points at the need to master the metal preparation for the alloying and especially has got the decisive effect upon the oxidizing ability and rate of the slag phase availability. When comparing the micro-alloying matter yield among the individual production units, disclosed have been better results obtained in plant OC 2. Confirmed has been the effect of the slag amount (average amount of 7,3 t at OC 1 and 5,83 t at OC 2 and its quality during the steel tapping as one among the most significant factors affecting the alloying process and which also represent its oxidizing potential.

  6. The Importance of Rare-Earth Additions in Zr-Based AB2 Metal Hydride Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hsiung Young

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of substitutions of rare earth (RE elements (Y, La, Ce, and Nd to the Zr-based AB2 multi-phase metal hydride (MH alloys on the structure, gaseous phase hydrogen storage (H-storage, and electrochemical properties were studied and compared. Solubilities of the RE atoms in the main Laves phases (C14 and C15 are very low, and therefore the main contributions of the RE additives are through the formation of the RENi phase and change in TiNi phase abundance. Both the RENi and TiNi phases are found to facilitate the bulk diffusion of hydrogen but impede the surface reaction. The former is very effective in improving the activation behaviors. −40 °C performances of the Ce-doped alloys are slightly better than the Nd-doped alloys but not as good as those of the La-doped alloys, which gained the improvement through a different mechanism. While the improvement in ultra-low-temperature performance of the Ce-containing alloys can be associated with a larger amount of metallic Ni-clusters embedded in the surface oxide, the improvement in the La-containing alloys originates from the clean alloy/oxide interface as shown in an earlier transmission electron microscopy study. Overall, the substitution of 1 at% Ce to partially replace Zr gives the best electrochemical performances (capacity, rate, and activation and is recommended for all the AB2 MH alloys for electrochemical applications.

  7. In vitro corrosion properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys as potential biodegradable metallic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henan; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Li, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The in vitro biodegradable properties and cytocompatibility of Fe-Ga alloys including Fe 81 Ga 19 , (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 98 B 2 and (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 99.5 (TaC) 0.5 , and pure Fe were investigated for biomedical applications. The microstructure of the alloys was characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The results showed that A2 and D0 3 phases were detected for the three types of Fe-Ga alloys, and additional Fe 2 B and TaC phases were found in the (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 98 B 2 and (Fe 81 Ga 19 ) 99.5 (TaC) 0.5 alloys, respectively. The corrosion rates of the Fe-Ga alloys were higher than that of pure Fe, as demonstrated by both potentiodynamic polarization measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid. The alloying element Ga lowered the corrosion potential of the Fe matrix and made it more susceptible to corrosion. Severe pitting corrosion developed on the surface of the Fe 81 Ga 19 alloy after the addition of ternary B or TaC due to the multi-phase microstructures. The MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited good adhesion and proliferation behavior on the surfaces of the Fe-Ga alloys after culture for 4h and 24h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Singlet exciton fission in polycrystalline pentacene: from photophysics toward devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark W B; Rao, Akshay; Ehrler, Bruno; Friend, Richard H

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission is the process in conjugated organic molecules bywhich a photogenerated singlet exciton couples to a nearby chromophore in the ground state, creating a pair of triplet excitons. Researchers first reported this phenomenon in the 1960s, an event that sparked further studies in the following decade. These investigations used fluorescence spectroscopy to establish that exciton fission occurred in single crystals of several acenes. However, research interest has been recently rekindled by the possibility that singlet fission could be used as a carrier multiplication technique to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. The most successful architecture to-date involves sensitizing a red-absorbing photoactive layer with a blue-absorbing material that undergoes fission, thereby generating additional photocurrent from higher-energy photons. The quest for improved solar cells has spurred a drive to better understand the fission process, which has received timely aid from modern techniques for time-resolved spectroscopy, quantum chemistry, and small-molecule device fabrication. However, the consensus interpretation of the initial studies using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was that exciton fission was suppressed in polycrystalline thin films of pentacene, a material that would be otherwise expected to be an ideal model system, as well as a viable candidate for fission-sensitized photovoltaic devices. In this Account, we review the results of our recent transient absorption and device-based studies of polycrystalline pentacene. We address the controversy surrounding the assignment of spectroscopic features in transient absorption data, and illustrate how a consistent interpretation is possible. This work underpins our conclusion that singlet fission in pentacene is extraordinarily rapid (∼80 fs) and is thus the dominant decay channel for the photoexcited singlet exciton. Further, we discuss our demonstration that triplet excitons

  9. A macroscopic constitutive model of temperature-induced phase transition of polycrystalline Ni{sub 2}MnGa by directional solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuping, E-mail: zhuyuping@126.com; Gu, Yunling; Liu, Hongguang

    2015-02-25

    Directional solidification technology has been widely used to improve the properties of polycrystalline Ni{sub 2}MnGa materials. Mechanical training can adjust the internal organizational structures of the materials, reduce the stress of twin boundaries motion, and then result in larger strain at lower outfield levels. In this paper, we test the microscopic structure of Ni{sub 2}MnGa polycrystalline ferromagnetic shape memory alloy produced by directional solidification and compress it along two axes successively for mechanical training. The influences of pre-compressive stresses on the temperature-induced strains are analyzed. The macroscopic mechanical behaviors show anisotropy. According to the generating mechanism of the macroscopic strain, a three-dimensional constitutive model is established. Based on thermodynamic method, the kinetic equations of the martensitic transformation and inverse transformation are presented considering the driving force and energy dissipation. The prediction curves of temperature-induce strains along two different directions are investigated. And the results coincide well with the experiment data. It well explains the macroscopic anisotropy mechanical behaviors and fits for using in engineering.

  10. Development of axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann flux solver for complex multiphase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Shu, Chang; Yang, Li-Ming; Yuan, Hai-Zhuan

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann flux solver (LBFS) for simulating axisymmetric multiphase flows. In the solver, the two-dimensional (2D) multiphase LBFS is applied to reconstruct macroscopic fluxes excluding axisymmetric effects. Source terms accounting for axisymmetric effects are introduced directly into the governing equations. As compared to conventional axisymmetric multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, the present solver has the kinetic feature for flux evaluation and avoids complex derivations of external forcing terms. In addition, the present solver also saves considerable computational efforts in comparison with three-dimensional (3D) computations. The capability of the proposed solver in simulating complex multiphase flows is demonstrated by studying single bubble rising in a circular tube. The obtained results compare well with the published data.

  11. Parametric Study on the Characteristics of Multiphase Laminar Flow with Density Difference in Various Microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, Seung Ho; Kim, Dong Sung; Choi, Young Ki

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have performed a parametric study on the characteristics of multiphase laminar flow with density difference in various microchannels. The interface between multiphase fluids is rotated by the gravitational forces induced by density difference. The numerical simulations were carried out via commercial CFD package to study the characteristics of multiphase laminar flow. The results of the numerical simulations in this study were verified by comparing with the previously reported experimental results in the literature. We have also proposed a new dimensionless relationship between dimensionless rotation angle of interface and dimensionless parameters are proposed for square microchannels with various aspect ratios. The dimensionless relationship could be widely applied to the reliable design of various microfluidic devices dealing with multiphase laminar flow

  12. Powder Metallurgy Processing of a WxTaTiVCr High-Entropy Alloy and Its Derivative Alloys for Fusion Material Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Owais Ahmed; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2017-05-16

    The W x TaTiVCr high-entropy alloy with 32at.% of tungsten (W) and its derivative alloys with 42 to 90at.% of W with in-situ TiC were prepared via the mixing of elemental W, Ta, Ti, V and Cr powders followed by spark plasma sintering for the development of reduced-activation alloys for fusion plasma-facing materials. Characterization of the sintered samples revealed a BCC lattice and a multi-phase structure. The selected-area diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of TiC in the high-entropy alloy and its derivative alloys. It revealed the development of C15 (cubic) Laves phases as well in alloys with 71 to 90at.% W. A mechanical examination of the samples revealed a more than twofold improvement in the hardness and strength due to solid-solution strengthening and dispersion strengthening. This study explored the potential of powder metallurgy processing for the fabrication of a high-entropy alloy and other derived compositions with enhanced hardness and strength.

  13. Novel image reconstruction algorithm for multi-phase flow tomography system using γ ray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Kuihong; Wang Huaxiang; Gao Mei

    2007-01-01

    After analyzing the reason of image reconstructed algorithm by using the conventional back projection (IBP) is prone to produce spurious line, and considering the characteristic of multi-phase flow tomography, a novel image reconstruction algorithm is proposed, which carries out the intersection calculation using back projection data. This algorithm can obtain a perfect system point spread function, and can eliminate spurious line better. Simulating results show that the algorithm is effective for identifying multi-phase flow pattern. (authors)

  14. Efficiency Improvement of a High Dynamic BLDC Linear Motor by Multiphase Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmens, Joris; Vanvlasselaer, Kris; Mulier, Kristof; Goossens, Stijn; Symens, Wim; Driesen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiphase control strategy for a high dynamic brushless DC linear motor as an alternative for conventional three-phase field-oriented control. Analysis of the magnetic field waveforms shows that three-phase control is not optimal for the 6-slot 7-pole motor topology. Therefore, a multiphase control strategy is elaborated which injects currents proportional to the electromotive force into each of the nine stator coil groups. This results in a maximal alignment force ...

  15. Synthesis and nonlinear optical property of polycrystalline MnTeMoO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chengguo [Yibin University, Key Laboratory of Computational Physics of Sichuan Province, Yibin (China); Yibin University, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Yibin (China)

    2017-04-15

    Polycrystalline MnTeMoO{sub 6} powder has been synthesized by a new approach that MnO{sub 2} is used as the manganese source. The transformation mechanism of manganese ions in the new approach has been discussed. The nonlinear optical property of polycrystalline MnTeMoO{sub 6} has been investigated, and compared with single-crystalline samples. The transformation Mn{sup 4+} → Mn{sup 2+} may be formed directly without stable intermediates, and TeO{sub 2} may serve as catalyst. The SHG response of polycrystalline MnTeMoO{sub 6} powder is worse than that of single-crystalline powder in the same particle size distribution as its pseudo-size. The results indicate that it should pay special attention with the pseudo-size of polycrystalline powder when the potential nonlinear optical materials are screened by powder second harmonic generation measurements. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of the Anisotropic Thermoelectric Properties of Oriented Polycrystalline SnSe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline SnSe was synthesized by a melting-annealing-sintering process. X-ray diffraction reveals the sample possesses pure phase and strong orientation along [h00] direction. The degree of the orientations was estimated and the anisotropic thermoelectric properties are characterized. The polycrystalline sample shows a low electrical conductivity and a positive and large Seebeck coefficient. The low thermal conductivity is also observed in polycrystalline sample, but slightly higher than that of single crystal. The minimum value of thermal conductivity was measured as 0.3 W/m·K at 790 K. With the increase of the orientation factor, both electrical and thermal conductivities decrease, but the thermopowers are unchanged. As a consequence, the zT values remain unchanged in the polycrystalline samples despite the large variation in the degree of orientation.

  17. Solvent-free synthesis of nanosized hierarchical sodalite zeolite with a multi-hollow polycrystalline structure

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Shangjing; Wang, Runwei; Li, Ang; Huang, Weiwei; Zhang, Zongtao; Qiu, Shilun

    2016-01-01

    A solvent-free route is developed for preparing nanoscale sodalite zeolite with a multi-hollow structure. Furthermore, the synthesis of nanosized hollow sodalite polycrystalline aggregates with a mesoporous structure and high crystallinity

  18. The adhesion and tribology analysis of polycrystalline diamond coated on Si3N4 substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, E.; Purniawan, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cauliflower and octahedral structure of polycrystalline diamond was deposited on silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) substrate by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD). In our earlier work, the effects of deposition parameters namely, % Methane (CH 4 ) diluted in hydrogen (H 2 ), microwave power and chamber pressure on surface morphology were studied. In the present work the polycrystalline diamond coating adhesion and tribology behaviour were investigated. Rockwell C hardness tester and pin-on-disk tribometer were used to determine the adhesion and tribology properties on diamond coating, respectively. The morphology of the diamond before and after indentation was observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Based on the adhesion analysis results, it was found that octahedral morphology has better adhesion than cauliflower structure. It was indicated by few cracks and less peel-off than cauliflower structure of polycrystalline diamond after indentation. Based on tribology analysis, polycrystalline diamond coated on substrate has better tribology properties than uncoated substrate. (author)

  19. Synthesis and nonlinear optical property of polycrystalline MnTeMoO_6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Chengguo

    2017-01-01

    Polycrystalline MnTeMoO_6 powder has been synthesized by a new approach that MnO_2 is used as the manganese source. The transformation mechanism of manganese ions in the new approach has been discussed. The nonlinear optical property of polycrystalline MnTeMoO_6 has been investigated, and compared with single-crystalline samples. The transformation Mn"4"+ → Mn"2"+ may be formed directly without stable intermediates, and TeO_2 may serve as catalyst. The SHG response of polycrystalline MnTeMoO_6 powder is worse than that of single-crystalline powder in the same particle size distribution as its pseudo-size. The results indicate that it should pay special attention with the pseudo-size of polycrystalline powder when the potential nonlinear optical materials are screened by powder second harmonic generation measurements. (orig.)

  20. 3-D growth of a short fatigue crack within a polycrystalline microstructure studied using combined diffraction and phase-contrast X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbig, Michael [Universite de Lyon, Lyon, MATEIS, UMR5510 CNRS, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); King, Andrew [GKSS-Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Reischig, Peter [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Proudhon, Henry [MINES ParisTech, Centre des materiaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Lauridsen, Erik M. [Riso-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Marrow, James [Manchester Materials Science Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Buffiere, Jean-Yves [Universite de Lyon, Lyon, MATEIS, UMR5510 CNRS, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Ludwig, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.ludwig@insa-lyon.fr [Universite de Lyon, Lyon, MATEIS, UMR5510 CNRS, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2011-01-15

    X-ray diffraction contrast tomography is a recently developed, non-destructive synchrotron imaging technique which characterizes microstructure and grain orientation in polycrystalline materials in three dimensions. By combining it with propagation-based phase-contrast tomography it is possible to get a full picture description for the analysis of local crack growth rate of short fatigue cracks in three dimensions: the three-dimensional crack morphology at different propagation stages, and the shape and orientation of the grains around the crack. An approach has been developed on the metastable beta titanium alloy Ti 21S that allows for visualization and analysis of the growth rate and crystallographic orientation of the fracture surface.

  1. 3-D growth of a short fatigue crack within a polycrystalline microstructure studied using combined diffraction and phase-contrast X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbig, Michael; King, Andrew; Reischig, Peter; Proudhon, Henry; Lauridsen, Erik M.; Marrow, James; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Ludwig, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction contrast tomography is a recently developed, non-destructive synchrotron imaging technique which characterizes microstructure and grain orientation in polycrystalline materials in three dimensions. By combining it with propagation-based phase-contrast tomography it is possible to get a full picture description for the analysis of local crack growth rate of short fatigue cracks in three dimensions: the three-dimensional crack morphology at different propagation stages, and the shape and orientation of the grains around the crack. An approach has been developed on the metastable beta titanium alloy Ti 21S that allows for visualization and analysis of the growth rate and crystallographic orientation of the fracture surface.

  2. Multiphase porous media modelling: A novel approach to predicting food processing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Imran H; Joardder, M U H; Kumar, Chandan; Karim, M A

    2018-03-04

    The development of a physics-based model of food processing is essential to improve the quality of processed food and optimize energy consumption. Food materials, particularly plant-based food materials, are complex in nature as they are porous and have hygroscopic properties. A multiphase porous media model for simultaneous heat and mass transfer can provide a realistic understanding of transport processes and thus can help to optimize energy consumption and improve food quality. Although the development of a multiphase porous media model for food processing is a challenging task because of its complexity, many researchers have attempted it. The primary aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the multiphase models available in the literature for different methods of food processing, such as drying, frying, cooking, baking, heating, and roasting. A critical review of the parameters that should be considered for multiphase modelling is presented which includes input parameters, material properties, simulation techniques and the hypotheses. A discussion on the general trends in outcomes, such as moisture saturation, temperature profile, pressure variation, and evaporation patterns, is also presented. The paper concludes by considering key issues in the existing multiphase models and future directions for development of multiphase models.

  3. Correlation length estimation in a polycrystalline material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the correlation length estimated from a mesoscopic model of a polycrystalline material. The correlation length can be used in some macroscopic material models as a material parameter that describes the internal length. It can be estimated directly from the strain and stress fields calculated from a finite-element model, which explicitly accounts for the selected mesoscopic features such as the random orientation, shape and size of the grains. A crystal plasticity material model was applied in the finite-element analysis. Different correlation lengths were obtained depending on the used set of crystallographic orientations. We determined that the different sets of crystallographic orientations affect the general level of the correlation length, however, as the external load is increased the behaviour of correlation length is similar in all the analyzed cases. The correlation lengths also changed with the macroscopic load. If the load is below the yield strength the correlation lengths are constant, and are slightly higher than the average grain size. The correlation length can therefore be considered as an indicator of first plastic deformations in the material. Increasing the load above the yield strength creates shear bands that temporarily increase the values of the correlation lengths calculated from the strain fields. With a further load increase the correlation lengths decrease slightly but stay above the average grain size. (author)

  4. Estimating minimum polycrystalline aggregate size for macroscopic material homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2002-01-01

    During severe accidents the pressure boundary of reactor coolant system can be subjected to extreme loadings, which might cause failure. Reliable estimation of the extreme deformations can be crucial to determine the consequences of severe accidents. Important drawback of classical continuum mechanics is idealization of inhomogenous microstructure of materials. Classical continuum mechanics therefore cannot predict accurately the differences between measured responses of specimens, which are different in size but geometrical similar (size effect). A numerical approach, which models elastic-plastic behavior on mesoscopic level, is proposed to estimate minimum size of polycrystalline aggregate above which it can be considered macroscopically homogeneous. The main idea is to divide continuum into a set of sub-continua. Analysis of macroscopic element is divided into modeling the random grain structure (using Voronoi tessellation and random orientation of crystal lattice) and calculation of strain/stress field. Finite element method is used to obtain numerical solutions of strain and stress fields. The analysis is limited to 2D models.(author)

  5. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H.; Kohyama, Akira

    1997-01-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test is planned to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Baseline 1 hr and 100 hr BSR thermal creep open-quotes mclose quotes curves have been obtained for five selected advanced SiC fiber types and for standard Nicalon CG fiber. The transition temperature, that temperature where the S-shaped m-curve has a value 0.5, is a measure of fiber creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, with the 100 hr BSR transition temperature given in parenthesis, the fibers ranked: Sylramic (1261 degrees C), Nicalon S (1256 degrees C), annealed Hi Nicalon (1215 degrees C), Hi Nicalon (1078 degrees C), Nicalon CG (1003 degrees C) and Tyranno E (932 degrees C). The thermal creep for Sylramic, Nicalon S, Hi Nicalon and Nicalon CG fibers in a 5000 hr irradiation creep BSR test is projected from the temperature dependence of the m-curves determined during 1 and 100 hr BSR control tests

  6. The interpretation of polycrystalline coherent inelastic neutron scattering from aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Daniel L.; Ross, D. Keith; Gale, Julian D.; Taylor, Jon W.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to the interpretation and analysis of coherent inelastic neutron scattering from polycrystals (poly-CINS) is presented. This article describes a simulation of the one-phonon coherent inelastic scattering from a lattice model of an arbitrary crystal system. The one-phonon component is characterized by sharp features, determined, for example, by boundaries of the (Q, ω) regions where one-phonon scattering is allowed. These features may be identified with the same features apparent in the measured total coherent inelastic cross section, the other components of which (multiphonon or multiple scattering) show no sharp features. The parameters of the model can then be relaxed to improve the fit between model and experiment. This method is of particular interest where no single crystals are available. To test the approach, the poly-CINS has been measured for polycrystalline aluminium using the MARI spectrometer (ISIS), because both lattice dynamical models and measured dispersion curves are available for this material. The models used include a simple Lennard-Jones model fitted to the elastic constants of this material plus a number of embedded atom method force fields. The agreement obtained suggests that the method demonstrated should be effective in developing models for other materials where single-crystal dispersion curves are not available. PMID:24282332

  7. Monokinetic electron backsttering from amorphous or polycrystalline specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.E.D.H.

    1983-06-01

    We have considered the interaction of electrons with thin amorphous specimens: one part of these electrons is transmitted through the substance, the other being backscattered. This last phenomena, which is not perfectly understood, has been studied in the energy range from 0.3 to 3 MeV. First this work deals with the realization of a fully automatic apparatus which has been adapted to the column of the 3 MeV electron microscope of the HVFM laboratory in Toulouse. The variation of the transmission and backscattering coefficients, for amorphous and polycrystalline specimens, is determined. From this coefficient the electron range in this substance can be deduced. In addition the experimental results can be used to understand the image contrast in scanning electron microscopy. A short presentation of the cross-section, introduces the theoretical study of Monte-Carlo calculation. The Monte-Carlo calculation is used to take into account all elementary processus, which take place during electron scattering [fr

  8. Platinum-induced structural collapse in layered oxide polycrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Changhui; Huang, Haoliang; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Effect of a platinum bottom electrode on the SrBi 5 Fe 1−x Co x Ti 4 O 18 layered oxide polycrystalline films was systematically studied. The doped cobalt ions react with the platinum to form a secondary phase of PtCoO 2 , which has a typical Delafossite structure with a weak antiferromagnetism and an exceptionally high in-plane electrical conductivity. Formation of PtCoO 2 at the interface partially consumes the cobalt dopant and leads to the structural collapsing from 5 to 4 layers, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. Considering the weak magnetic contribution from PtCoO 2 , the observed ferromagnetism should be intrinsic of the Aurivillius compounds. Ferroelectric properties were also indicated by the piezoresponse force microscopy. In this work, the platinum induced secondary phase at the interface was observed, which has a strong impact on Aurivillius structural configuration and thus the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties

  9. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kohyama, Akira [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test is planned to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Baseline 1 hr and 100 hr BSR thermal creep {open_quotes}m{close_quotes} curves have been obtained for five selected advanced SiC fiber types and for standard Nicalon CG fiber. The transition temperature, that temperature where the S-shaped m-curve has a value 0.5, is a measure of fiber creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, with the 100 hr BSR transition temperature given in parenthesis, the fibers ranked: Sylramic (1261{degrees}C), Nicalon S (1256{degrees}C), annealed Hi Nicalon (1215{degrees}C), Hi Nicalon (1078{degrees}C), Nicalon CG (1003{degrees}C) and Tyranno E (932{degrees}C). The thermal creep for Sylramic, Nicalon S, Hi Nicalon and Nicalon CG fibers in a 5000 hr irradiation creep BSR test is projected from the temperature dependence of the m-curves determined during 1 and 100 hr BSR control tests.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and structural refinement of polycrystalline uranium substituted zirconolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, O.P.; Narendra Kumar; Sharma, I.B.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic precursors of Zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ) family have a remarkable property of substitution Zr 4+ cationic sites. This makes them potential material for nuclear waste management in 'synroc' technology. In order to simulate the mechanism of partial substitution of zirconium by tetravalent actinides, a solid phase of composition CaZr 0.95 U 0.5 Ti 2 O 7 has been synthesized through ceramic route by taking calculated quantities of oxides of Ca, Ti and nitrates of uranium and zirconium respectively. Solid state synthesis has been carried out by repeated pelletizing and sintering the finely powdered oxide mixture in a muffle furnace at 1050 degC. The polycrystalline solid phase has been characterized by its typical powder diffraction pattern. Step analysis data has been used for ab initio calculation of structural parameters. The uranium substituted zirconolite crystallizes in monoclinic symmetry with space group C2/c (15). The following unit cell parameters have been calculated: a =12.4883(15), b =7.2448(5), c 11.3973(10) and β = 100.615(9)0. The structure was refined to satisfactory completion. The Rp and Rwp are found to be 7.48% and 9.74% respectively. (author)

  11. Preparation and characterization of polycrystalline n-CdSe photoelectrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Thin layers of polycrystalline p-CdSe were prepared by the simultaneous eletrodeposition of cadmium and selenium from cadmium sulfate and selenious acid in a sulfuric acid solution at pH 0-1 on a titanium substrate. The adherence of the layers to the substrate, stoichiometric ratio of Cd:Se and photovoltaic property of the film depend upon the molar ratio of CdSO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ and current density as well as on the pH and temperature of the electrolysis bath. On increasing the current density or the ratio of CdSO/sub 4/:H/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ in the electrolysis bath, the Cd:Se of the electrodeposit increased. The semiconductor films so prepared were annealed at 550/sup 0/C in a nitrogen atmosphere, followed by etching in an acid solution and then used to construct the photo-electrochemical cell, Ti/CdSe/Na/sub 2/S-Na/sub 2/S/sub x/(aq.)/Pt, and the current-voltage curves have been studied. 11 references.

  12. Internal friction and elastic softening in polycrystalline Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussiere, J.F.; Faucher, B.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Welch, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    The vibrating-reed technique was used to measure internal friction and Young's modulus of polycrystalline Nb 3 Sn in the form of composite Nb/Nb 3 Sn tapes from 6 to 300 K. In tapes with only small residual strain in the A15 layers, a dramatic increase in internal friction with decreasing temperature is observed with an abrupt onset at approx.48 K. The internal friction Q -1 between 6 and 48 K is believed to be associated with stress-induced motion of martensitic-domain walls. In this temperature range, Q -1 is approximately proportional to the square of the tetragonal strain of the martensitic phase; Q -1 α (c/a-1) 2 . With residual compressive strains of approx.0.2%, the internal friction associated with domain-wall motion is considerably reduced. This is attributed to a biasing of domain-wall orientation with residual stress, which reduces wall motion induced by the (much smaller) applied stress. The transformation temperature, however, is unchanged (within +- 1 K) by residual strains of up to 0.2%. Young's modulus exhibits substantial softening on cooling from 300 to 6 K. This softening, is substantially reduced in the presence of small residual compressive strains, indicating a highly nonlinear stress-strain relationship as previously reported for V 3 Si

  13. Rare Earth Doped Lanthanum Calcium Borate Polycrystalline Red Phosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phased Sm3+ doped lanthanum calcium borate (SmxLa2−xCaB10O19, SLCB, x=0.06 polycrystalline red phosphor was prepared by solid-state reaction method. The phosphor has two main excitation peaks located at 398.5 nm and 469.0 nm, which are nicely in accordance with the emitting wavelengths of commercial near-UV and blue light emitting diode chips. Under the excitation of 398.0 nm, the dominant red emission of Sm3+ in SLCB phosphor is centered at 598.0 nm corresponding to the transition of 4G5/2 → 6H7/2. The Eu3+ fluorescence in the red spectral region is applied as a spectroscopic probe to reveal the local site symmetry in the host lattice and, hence, Judd-Ofelt parameters Ωt  (t=2, 4 of Eu3+ in the phosphor matrix are derived to be 3.62×10-20 and 1.97×10-20 cm2, indicating a high asymmetrical and strong covalent environment around rare earth luminescence centers. Herein, the red phosphors are promising good candidates employed in white light emitting diodes (LEDs illumination.

  14. CVD-graphene growth on different polycrystalline transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Lavin-Lopez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical vapor deposition (CVD graphene growth on two polycrystalline transition metals (Ni and Cu was investigated in detail using Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy as a way to synthesize graphene of the highest quality (i.e. uniform growth of monolayer graphene, which is considered a key issue for electronic devices. Key CVD process parameters (reaction temperature, CH4/H2flow rate ratio, total flow of gases (CH4+H2, reaction time were optimized for both metals in order to obtain the highest graphene uniformity and quality. The conclusions previously reported in literature about the performance of low and high carbon solubility metals in the synthesis of graphene and their associated reaction mechanisms, i.e. surface depositionand precipitation on cooling, respectively, was not corroborated by the results obtained in this work. Under the optimal reaction conditions, a large percentage of monolayer graphene was obtained over the Ni foil since the carbon saturation was not complete, allowing carbon atoms to be stored in the bulk metal, which could diffuse forming high quality monolayer graphene at the surface. However, under the optimal reaction conditions, the formation of a non-uniform mixture of few layers and multilayer graphene on the Cu foil was related to the presence of an excess of active carbon atoms on the Cu surface.

  15. Plastic strain caused by contraction of pores in polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, Ikuo; Yoda, Shinichi; Konishi, Takashi.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of porosity on mechanical properties and deformation behavior of four isotropic polycrystalline graphites were studied. The pore size distributions of the graphites were measured using a conventional mercury penetration technique. The average pore radius of ISO-88 graphite was about one-tenth of that of ISEM-1, IG-11 or IG-15 graphites. Young's modulus of the graphites decreased with increasing porosity. The stress-strain curve of each graphite was measured in its lateral and axial directions. Young's modulus of graphite decreased with increasing load. The plastic strain at a given compressive load was calculated from the stress-strain curve and the initial gradient of the unloading curve at the load. The ratio of lateral plastic strain to axial plastic strain for the graphites was less than 0.5, indicating that the volume of the graphites decreased during compressive loading. By assuming that the volume change was caused by contraction of pores, plastic strain associated with contraction of pores was calculated from the axial plastic strain and lateral plastic strain by slips along the basal planes. The plastic strain increased with increasing axial plastic strain and porosity of graphite. (author)

  16. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  17. Correlation between some mechanical and physical properties of polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Shinichi; Fujisaki, Katsuo

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of polycrystalline graphites, tensile strength, compressive strength, flexural strength, Young's modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, electrical resistivity, volume fraction of porosity, and graphitisation were measured for ten brand graphites. Correlation between the mechanical and physical properties of the graphites were studied. Young's modulus and thermal expansion coefficient of the graphites depend on volume fraction of porosity. The Young's modulus of the graphites tended to increase with increasing the thermal expansion coefficient. For an anisotropic graphite, an interesting relationship between the Young's modulus E and the thermal expansion coefficient al pha was found in any specimen orientations; alpha E=constant. The value of alphah E was dependent upon the volume fraction of porosity. It should be noted here that the electrical resistivity increased with decreasing grain size. The flexural and the compressive strength were related with the volume fraction of porosity while the tensile strength was not, The relationships between the tensile, the compressive and the flexural strength can be approximately expressed as linear functions over a wide range of the stresses. (author)

  18. Helium-induced hardening effect in polycrystalline tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanhang; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Ailin; Peng, Shixiang; Xue, Jianming; Wang, Yugang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, helium induced hardening effect of tungsten was investigated. 50 keV He2+ ions at fluences vary from 5 × 1015 cm-2 to 5 × 1017 cm-2 were implanted into polycrystalline tungsten at RT to create helium bubble-rich layers near the surface. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the irradiated specimens were studied by TEM and nano-indentor. Helium bubble rich layers are formed in near surface region, and the layers become thicker with the rise of fluences. Helium bubbles in the area of helium concentration peak are found to grow up, while the bubble density is almost unchanged. Obvious hardening effect is induced by helium implantation in tungsten. Micro hardness increases rapidly with the fluence firstly, and more slowly when the fluence is above 5 × 1016 cm-2. The hardening effect of tungsten can be attributed to helium bubbles, which is found to be in agreement with the Bacon-Orowan stress formula. The growing diameter is the major factor rather than helium bubbles density (voids distance) in the process of helium implantation at fluences below 5 × 1017 cm-2.

  19. Influence of wavelength on transient short-circuit current in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, B.; Kane, M.

    1993-10-01

    The influence of the wavelength of a monochromatic illumination on transient short-circuit current in an n/p polycrystalline silicon part solar cell junction is investigated. A wavelength dependence in the initial part of the current decay is observed in the case of cells with moderate grain boundary effects. This influence is attenuated in polycrystalline cells with strong grain boundary activity. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs

  20. In vitro study of color stability of polycrystalline and monocrystalline ceramic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Cibele Braga; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Santos-Pinto, Ary; Gandini J?nior, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze color stability of monocrystalline and polycrystalline ceramic brackets after immersion in dye solutions. METHODS: Seven ceramic brackets of four commercial brands were tested: Two monocrystalline and two polycrystalline. The brackets were immersed in four dye solutions (coffee, red wine, Coke and black tea) and in artificial saliva for the following times: 24 hours, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. Color changes were measured by a...

  1. Nanopores creation in boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Rouzbeh; Nezhad Shirazi, Ali Hossein; Alajlan, Naif; Rabczuk, Timon

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, molecular dynamic simulations have been conducted to investigate the nanopores creation on 10% of boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene by silicon and diamond nanoclusters. Two types of nanoclusters based on silicon and diamond are used to investigate their effect for the fabrication of nanopores. Therefore, three different diameter sizes of the clusters with five kinetic energies of 10, 50, 100, 300 and 500 eV/atom at four different locations in boron or nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene nanosheets have been perused. We also study the effect of 3% and 6% of boron doped polycrystalline graphene with the best outcome from 10% of doping. Our results reveal that the diamond cluster with diameter of 2 and 2.5 nm fabricates the largest nanopore areas on boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene, respectively. Furthermore, the kinetic energies of 10 and 50 eV/atom can not fabricate nanopores in some cases for silicon and diamond clusters on boron doped polycrystalline graphene nanosheets. On the other hand, silicon and diamond clusters fabricate nanopores for all locations and all tested energies on nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene. The area sizes of nanopores fabricated by silicon and diamond clusters with diameter of 2 and 2.5 nm are close to the actual area size of the related clusters for the kinetic energy of 300 eV/atom in all locations on boron doped polycrystalline graphene. The maximum area and the average maximum area of nanopores are fabricated by the kinetic energy of 500 eV/atom inside the grain boundary at the center of the nanosheet and in the corner of nanosheet with diameters of 2 and 3 nm for silicon and diamond clusters on boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene.

  2. Compositional multiphase flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, R U

    2000-07-01

    This work first treats the conceptual models for the description of multiphase flow processes in porous media. The thermodynamic laws are explained and the description and quantification of multi-fluid equilibria are discussed in order to account for fluid composition. The fully and weakly coupled approaches for the mathematical description of such flow processes with respect to systems consisting of two and three fluid phases as well as with respect to compositional single and multiphase systems are assessed. For the discretization of the two-phase flow equations node- and cell-centered finite volume methods and mixed and mixed-hybrid finite element approaches are applied. Based upon these methods five solution algorithms are developed. Four of these algorithms are based on the simultaneous solution of the discretized equations in combination with the Newton-Raphson technique. Methods 1 and 2 treat two- three-phase flow processes, Method 3 applies to the solution of partially miscible three-component systems while Method 4 is created for three-phase three-component systems. The latter method uses a variable substitution dependent on the local presence of the fluid phases. Method 5 is based on the IMPES/IMPESC concept. The time-implicit pressure equation is discretized with the mixed-hybrid finite element method. The saturation and concentration equations, respectively, are solved with a cell-centered finite volume scheme. The developed algorithms are applied to the two- and three-phase Buckley-Leverett problems. A partitioning interwell tracer test is simulated. The propagation behavior of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the saturated and unsaturated ground zone under the influence of heterogeneities are examined. In addition, a larger-scale experiment is simulated, which involves an injection of trichloroethylene into the subsurface and the subsequent distribution. Here, the development of a dissolved contaminant plume as well as the behavior of organic

  3. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  4. Phase composition, structure and magnetic behaviour of low neodymium rapid-quenched Nd-Fe-B alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ćosović, V.; Žák, Tomáš; Talijan, N.; Grujić, A.; Stajić-Trošić, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 456, 1-2 (2008), s. 251-256 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : multiphase Nd(Pr)-Fe-B alloys * rapid solidification * magnetic measurements * Mossbauer spectroscopy * X-ray diffraction * Nanocrystalline composite Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.510, year: 2008

  5. Characterization and electrochemical properties of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 multiphase coatings prepared by HVOF spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdian, M. M.; Raeissi, K.; Salehi, M.

    2012-11-01

    Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders were produced by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni-25 at.% Si powder mixture. Then, the as-milled powders were sprayed onto copper substrate using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process. The phase composition and microstructure of the coatings were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were also employed to study corrosion performance of the coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed that although single phase Ni3Si was formed during annealing of Ni(Si)/Ni5Si2 powders, but, only Ni(Si) and Ni5Si2 are present in HVOF coatings and no new phase has been formed during spraying. The coatings had microhardness up to 746 HV0.05. Further investigations showed the corrosion performance of multiphase coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution was better than that of copper substrate. The phase transitions during MA, HVOF and annealing processes were discussed in association with Ni-Si phase diagram and nature of each process.

  6. Growth and characterization of polycrystalline Ge{sub 1-x}C{sub x} by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.P., E-mail: mayrap@fisica.uh.cu [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Zapata y G, P.O. Box 10400, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Farias, M.H.; Castillon, F.F.; Diaz, Jesus A.; Avalos, M. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Ulloa, L. [Universidad de Guadalajara, (CUCEI) Blvd. Marcelino Garcia Barragan 1421, C.P. 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Gallegos, J.A.; Yee-Madeiros, H. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas-IPN, UP' ALM' , Colonia Lindavista 07738 (Mexico)

    2011-03-15

    Polycrystalline thin films of Ge-C were grown on Si (1 1 1) substrates by means of reactive pulsed laser deposition with methane pressure of 100 mTorr. Effect substrate temperature, T{sub s}, on C incorporation to substitutional sites (x) in Ge{sub 1-x}C{sub x} was investigated systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyzes. The substrate temperatures were ranging from 250 to 400 deg. C. The substitutional C composition x in the films by XRD were estimated using the Vegard's linear law. The maximum value of x calculated by XRD was 0.032 for T{sub s} of 350 deg. C. The position of the C 1s peak at 283.4 eV in the XPS spectrum confirmed the germanium-carbon alloys. XRD measurements indicated that x increased with T{sub s} from 250 deg. C to 350 deg. C. At T{sub s} = 400 deg. C, the estimation of x was lowered. However, the C content calculated by XPS analyzes increased with T{sub s} being more these values than substitutional C composition x. XPS and XRD analyzes demonstrate that the remaining C atoms are incorporated to interstitial sites. The use of the T{sub s} plays important roles in the incorporation of substitutional C and in restraining C-cluster formation in the reactive pulsed laser deposition growth of Ge-C/Si.

  7. Strain Amount Dependent Grain Size and Orientation Developments during Hot Compression of a Polycrystalline Nickel Based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoai He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlling grain size in polycrystalline nickel base superalloy is vital for obtaining required mechanical properties. Typically, a uniform and fine grain size is required throughout forging process to realize the superplastic deformation. Strain amount occupied a dominant position in manipulating the dynamic recrystallization (DRX process and regulating the grain size of the alloy during hot forging. In this article, the high-throughput double cone specimen was introduced to yield wide-range strain in a single sample. Continuous variations of effective strain ranging from 0.23 to 1.65 across the whole sample were achieved after reaching a height reduction of 70%. Grain size is measured to be decreased from the edge to the center of specimen with increase of effective strain. Small misorientation tended to generate near the grain boundaries, which was manifested as piled-up dislocation in micromechanics. After the dislocation density reached a critical value, DRX progress would be initiated at higher deformation region, leading to the refinement of grain size. During this process, the transformations from low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs to high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs and from subgrains to DRX grains are found to occur. After the accomplishment of DRX progress, the neonatal grains are presented as having similar orientation inside the grain boundary.

  8. Electronic structure of the L-cysteine films on dental alloys studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K; Takahashi, K; Azuma, J; Kamada, M; Tsujibayashi, T; Ichimiya, M

    2013-01-01

    The valence electronic structures of the dental alloys, type 1, type 3, K14, and MC12 and their interaction with L-cysteine have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. It was found that the electronic structures of the type-1 and type-3 dental alloys are similar to that of polycrystalline Au, while that of the K14 dental alloy is much affected by Cu. The electronic states of the MC12 dental alloy originate dominantly from Cu 3d states and Pd 4d states around the top of the valence bands, while the 4∼7-eV electronic structure of MC12 originates from the Ag 4d states. The peak shift and the change in shape due to alloying are observed in all the dental alloys. For the L-cysteine thin films, new peak or structure observed around 2 eV on all the dental alloys is suggested to be due to the bonding of S 3sp orbitals with the dental alloy surfaces. The Cu-S bond as well as the Au-S and Au-O bonds may cause the change in the electronic structure of the L-cysteine on type 1, type 3 and K14. For MC12, the interaction with L-cysteine may be dominantly due to the Pd-S, Cu-S, and Ag-O bonds, while the contribution of the Ag-S bond is small.

  9. Modeling Subgrid Scale Droplet Deposition in Multiphase-CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinelli, Giulia; Baglietto, Emilio

    2017-11-01

    The development of first-principle-based constitutive equations for the Eulerian-Eulerian CFD modeling of annular flow is a major priority to extend the applicability of multiphase CFD (M-CFD) across all two-phase flow regimes. Two key mechanisms need to be incorporated in the M-CFD framework, the entrainment of droplets from the liquid film, and their deposition. Here we focus first on the aspect of deposition leveraging a separate effects approach. Current two-field methods in M-CFD do not include appropriate local closures to describe the deposition of droplets in annular flow conditions. As many integral correlations for deposition have been proposed for lumped parameters methods applications, few attempts exist in literature to extend their applicability to CFD simulations. The integral nature of the approach limits its applicability to fully developed flow conditions, without geometrical or flow variations, therefore negating the scope of CFD application. A new approach is proposed here that leverages local quantities to predict the subgrid-scale deposition rate. The methodology is first tested into a three-field approach CFD model.

  10. Random Walk Particle Tracking For Multiphase Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Aaron; Yin, Xiaolong; Hrenya, Christine

    2017-11-01

    As computing capabilities have advanced, direct numerical simulation (DNS) has become a highly effective tool for quantitatively predicting the heat transfer within multiphase flows. Here we utilize a hybrid DNS framework that couples the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to the random walk particle tracking (RWPT) algorithm. The main challenge of such a hybrid is that discontinuous fields pose a significant challenge to the RWPT framework and special attention must be given to the handling of interfaces. We derive a method for addressing discontinuities in the diffusivity field, arising at the interface between two phases. Analytical means are utilized to develop an interfacial tracer balance and modify the RWPT algorithm. By expanding the modulus of the stochastic (diffusive) step and only allowing a subset of the tracers within the high diffusivity medium to undergo a diffusive step, the correct equilibrium state can be restored (globally homogeneous tracer distribution). The new RWPT algorithm is implemented within the SUSP3D code and verified against a variety of systems: effective diffusivity of a static gas-solids mixture, hot sphere in unbounded diffusion, cooling sphere in unbounded diffusion, and uniform flow past a hot sphere.

  11. Thermal expansion model for multiphase electronic packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, B.E.; Warren, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Control of thermal expansion is often necessary in the design and selection of electronic packages. In some instances, it is desirable to have a coefficient of thermal expansion intermediate between values readily attainable with single or two phase materials. The addition of a third phase in the form of fillers, whiskers, or fibers can be used to attain intermediate expansions. To help design the thermal expansion of multiphase materials for specific applications, a closed form model has been developed that accurately predicts the effective elastic properties of isotropic filled materials and transversely isotropic lamina. Properties of filled matrix materials are used as inputs to the lamina model to obtain the composite elastic properties as a function of the volume fraction of each phase. Hybrid composites with two or more fiber types are easily handled with this model. This paper reports that results for glass, quartz, and Kevlar fibers with beta-eucryptite filled polymer matrices show good agreement with experimental results for X, Y, and Z thermal expansion coefficients

  12. Speed Control of Multiphase Cage Induction Motors Incorporating Supply Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the control possibility of the multiphase cage induction motors having number of phases greater than 3. These motors have additional properties for speed control that distinguish them from the standard 3 phase motors: operation at various sequences of supplying voltages due to the inverter control and possible operation with few open-circuited phases. For each supply sequence different no load speeds at the same frequency can be obtained. This feature extends the motor application for miscellaneous drive demands including vector or scalar control. This depends mainly on the type of the stator winding for a given number of phases, since the principle of motor operation is based on co-operation of higher harmonics of magnetic field. Examples of operation are presented for a 9-phase motor, though general approach has been discussed. This motor was fed by a voltage source inverter at field oriented control with forced currents. The mathematical model of the motor was reduced to the form incorporating all most important physical features and appropriate for the control law formulation. The operation was illustrated for various supply sequences for “healthy” motor and for the motor operating at one phase broken. The obtained results have shown that parasitic influence of harmonic fields interaction has negligible influence on motor operation with respect to the useful coupling for properly designed stator winding.

  13. Radial Flow in a Multiphase Transport Model at FAIR Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Sarkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Azimuthal distributions of radial velocities of charged hadrons produced in nucleus-nucleus (AB collisions are compared with the corresponding azimuthal distribution of charged hadron multiplicity in the framework of a multiphase transport (AMPT model at two different collision energies. The mean radial velocity seems to be a good probe for studying radial expansion. While the anisotropic parts of the distributions indicate a kind of collective nature in the radial expansion of the intermediate “fireball,” their isotropic parts characterize a thermal motion. The present investigation is carried out keeping the upcoming Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM experiment to be held at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR in mind. As far as high-energy heavy-ion interactions are concerned, CBM will supplement the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC and Large Hadron Collider (LHC experiments. In this context our simulation results at high baryochemical potential would be interesting, when scrutinized from the perspective of an almost baryon-free environment achieved at RHIC and LHC.

  14. Dynamic dielectrophoresis model of multi-phase ionic fluids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yan

    Full Text Available Ionic-based dielectrophoretic microchips have attracted significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications in electro kinetic and biological experiments. In this work, a numerical method is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of ionic droplets in a microchannel under the effect of dielectrophoresis. When a discrete liquid dielectric is encompassed within a continuous fluid dielectric placed in an electric field, an electric force is produced due to the dielectrophoresis effect. If either or both of the fluids are ionic liquids, the magnitude and even the direction of the force will be changed because the net ionic charge induced by an electric field can affect the polarization degree of the dielectrics. However, using a dielectrophoresis model, assuming ideal dielectrics, results in significant errors. To avoid the inaccuracy caused by the model, this work incorporates the electrode kinetic equation and defines a relationship between the polarization charge and the net ionic charge. According to the simulation conditions presented herein, the electric force obtained in this work has an error exceeding 70% of the actual value if the false effect of net ionic charge is not accounted for, which would result in significant issues in the design and optimization of experimental parameters. Therefore, there is a clear motivation for developing a model adapted to ionic liquids to provide precise control for the dielectrophoresis of multi-phase ionic liquids.

  15. Dynamic dielectrophoresis model of multi-phase ionic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Luo, Jing; Guo, Dan; Wen, Shizhu

    2015-01-01

    Ionic-based dielectrophoretic microchips have attracted significant attention due to their wide-ranging applications in electro kinetic and biological experiments. In this work, a numerical method is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of ionic droplets in a microchannel under the effect of dielectrophoresis. When a discrete liquid dielectric is encompassed within a continuous fluid dielectric placed in an electric field, an electric force is produced due to the dielectrophoresis effect. If either or both of the fluids are ionic liquids, the magnitude and even the direction of the force will be changed because the net ionic charge induced by an electric field can affect the polarization degree of the dielectrics. However, using a dielectrophoresis model, assuming ideal dielectrics, results in significant errors. To avoid the inaccuracy caused by the model, this work incorporates the electrode kinetic equation and defines a relationship between the polarization charge and the net ionic charge. According to the simulation conditions presented herein, the electric force obtained in this work has an error exceeding 70% of the actual value if the false effect of net ionic charge is not accounted for, which would result in significant issues in the design and optimization of experimental parameters. Therefore, there is a clear motivation for developing a model adapted to ionic liquids to provide precise control for the dielectrophoresis of multi-phase ionic liquids.

  16. On the predictive capabilities of multiphase Darcy flow models

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo; Prudhomme, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Darcy s law is a widely used model and the limit of its validity is fairly well known. When the flow is sufficiently slow and the porosity relatively homogeneous and low, Darcy s law is the homogenized equation arising from the Stokes and Navier- Stokes equations and depends on a single effective parameter (the absolute permeability). However when the model is extended to multiphase flows, the assumptions are much more restrictive and less realistic. Therefore it is often used in conjunction with empirical models (such as relative permeability and capillary pressure curves), derived usually from phenomenological speculations and experimental data fitting. In this work, we present the results of a Bayesian calibration of a two-phase flow model, using high-fidelity DNS numerical simulation (at the pore-scale) in a realistic porous medium. These reference results have been obtained from a Navier-Stokes solver coupled with an explicit interphase-tracking scheme. The Bayesian inversion is performed on a simplified 1D model in Matlab by using adaptive spectral method. Several data sets are generated and considered to assess the validity of this 1D model.

  17. Electromagnetic fields in small systems from a multiphase transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Li; Ma, Yu-Gang; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2018-02-01

    We calculate the electromagnetic fields generated in small systems by using a multiphase transport (AMPT) model. Compared to A +A collisions, we find that the absolute electric and magnetic fields are not small in p +Au and d +Au collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and in p +Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We study the centrality dependencies and the spatial distributions of electromagnetic fields. We further investigate the azimuthal fluctuations of the magnetic field and its correlation with the fluctuating geometry using event-by-event simulations. We find that the azimuthal correlation 〈" close="〉cos(ϕα+ϕβ-2 ΨRP)〉">cos2 (ΨB-Ψ2) between the magnetic field direction and the second-harmonic participant plane is almost zero in small systems with high multiplicities, but not in those with low multiplicities. This indicates that the charge azimuthal correlation is not a valid probe to study the chiral magnetic effect (CME) in small systems with high multiplicities. However, we suggest searching for possible CME effects in small systems with low multiplicities.

  18. Generating a Multiphase Equation of State with Swarm Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Geoffrey

    2017-06-01

    Hydrocode calculations require knowledge of the variation of pressure of a material with density and temperature, which is given by the equation of state. An accurate model needs to account for discontinuities in energy, density and properties of a material across a phase boundary. When generating a multiphase equation of state the modeller attempts to balance the agreement between the available data for compression, expansion and phase boundary location. However, this can prove difficult because minor adjustments in the equation of state for a single phase can have a large impact on the overall phase diagram. Recently, Cox and Christie described a method for combining statistical-mechanics-based condensed matter physics models with a stochastic analysis technique called particle swarm optimisation. The models produced show good agreement with experiment over a wide range of pressure-temperature space. This talk details the general implementation of this technique, shows example results, and describes the types of analysis that can be performed with this method.

  19. Forcing scheme in pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Luo, K H; Li, X J

    2012-07-01

    The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is a widely used multiphase model in the LB community. In this model, an interaction force, which is usually implemented via a forcing scheme, is employed to mimic the molecular interactions that cause phase segregation. The forcing scheme is therefore expected to play an important role in the pseudoepotential LB model. In this paper, we aim to address some key issues about forcing schemes in the pseudopotential LB model. First, theoretical and numerical analyses will be made for Shan-Chen's forcing scheme [Shan and Chen, Phys. Rev. E 47, 1815 (1993)] and the exact-difference-method forcing scheme [Kupershtokh et al., Comput. Math. Appl. 58, 965 (2009)]. The nature of these two schemes and their recovered macroscopic equations will be shown. Second, through a theoretical analysis, we will reveal the physics behind the phenomenon that different forcing schemes exhibit different performances in the pseudopotential LB model. Moreover, based on the analysis, we will present an improved forcing scheme and numerically demonstrate that the improved scheme can be treated as an alternative approach to achieving thermodynamic consistency in the pseudopotential LB model.

  20. Couplings in multiphasic geo-materials: temperature and chemistry effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemzadeh, H.

    2006-05-01

    Transport of chemical components in soil through water is the major cause of pollution of the soil. This transport takes place around landfills and nuclear waste storage areas, tailings and mine wastes, and so on. A great number of these sites are unsaturated of water and in some cases heat can change the fate of chemical species, that lead us to a coupled problem. In this dissertation, numerical simulation with an existent thermo-hydro-mechanical model and theoretical modeling and numerical simulation of transport and interactions of one chemical species in multiphase media are presented. Integrated THM model in the Code-Aster is presented. Excavation, engineering barrier and thermal load of waste nuclear storage well are modeled. Verification of model is presented with these simulations. A thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour coupled with chemical phenomena is presented with a fully coupled method that water, gas, chemical species and soil skeleton were considered as constituents and corresponding unknowns are temperature, water pressure, gas pressure, chemical concentration and displacements. For each constituent, mass balance equation and linear momentum equation are written and solved simultaneously to find related unknowns. The results of this model have been compared with the theoretical and experimental results existing in the literature. Furthermore, results of some applications of this model are included. Some areas where further work is required are identified. In particular, there is a need to perform experiments to obtain necessary soil parameters to permit accurate modelling of the heat and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils. (author)