WorldWideScience

Sample records for multinational force ii

  1. Modular Structures in a Multinational Force Headquarters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, K; Christie, M

    2004-01-01

    .... It is proposed that future Multinational Force (MNF) military headquarters (HQ) can achieve this flexibility through a modular organizational structure enabled by networked information management and communication technologies...

  2. The Multinational Logistics Joint Task Force (MLJTF)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higginbotham, Matthew T

    2007-01-01

    In this monograph, by analyzing the UN, NATO and the US Army's evolving Modular Logistics Doctrine, the author integrates the key areas from each doctrine into a multinational logistics joint task force (MLJTF) organization...

  3. Toward Unity of Command for Multinational Air Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asjes, David

    1998-01-01

    To assure unity of command in future multinational air operations, combatant commanders must embrace the necessity of multinational air forces, maximize the integration of allied officers within air...

  4. US/UK Sensor-To-Shooter Multinational C4 Interoperability Study Force-On-Force Effectiveness Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Timothy J

    2000-01-01

    .... This methodology has been successfully applied to Army, joint, and multinational studies. The latest of these studies, the US/UK Sensor-To-Shooter Multinational C4 Interoperability Study Force-On-Force Analysis, was an effort to measure the value...

  5. Taxing the Multinational Enterprise : On the Forced Redesign of Global Value Chains and Other Inefficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Mudambi, Ram; Murtinu, Samuele

    2018-01-01

    The taxation of the multinational enterprise (MNE) has been a continuing concern for policy-makers. We argue that the changing nature of the mobile MNE (e.g., its improved ability to fine-slice the value chain and disperse it geographically) makes it increasingly important to rethink current tax

  6. Systems Concepts for Integrated Air Defense of Multinational Mobile Crisis Reaction Forces (Concepts de systemes pour la defense aerienne integree de forces internationales mobiles d'intervention en situation de crise)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The meeting proceedings from this symposium on System Concepts for Integrated Air Defense of Multinational Mobile Crisis Reaction Forces was organized and sponsored by the Systems Concepts and Integration (SCI...

  7. Psychophysical testing of visual prosthetic devices: a call to establish a multi-national joint task force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Ayton, Lauren N.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of visual prostheses, as showcased in this special feature of Journal of Neural Engineering , have led to promising results from clinical trials of a number of devices. However, as noted by these groups there are many challenges involved in assessing vision of people with profound vision loss. As such, it is important that there is consistency in the methodology and reporting standards for clinical trials of visual prostheses and, indeed, the broader vision restoration research field. Two visual prosthesis research groups, the Boston Retinal Implant Project (BRIP) and Bionic Vision Australia (BVA), have agreed to work cooperatively to establish a multi-national Joint Task Force. The aim of this Task Force will be to develop a consensus statement to guide the methods used to conduct and report psychophysical and clinical results of humans who receive visual prosthetic devices. The overarching goal is to ensure maximum benefit to the implant recipients, not only in the outcomes of the visual prosthesis itself, but also in enabling them to obtain accurate information about this research with ease. The aspiration to develop a Joint Task Force was first promulgated at the inaugural 'The Eye and the Chip' meeting in September 2000. This meeting was established to promote the development of the visual prosthetic field by applying the principles of inclusiveness, openness, and collegiality among the growing body of researchers in this field. These same principles underlie the intent of this Joint Task Force to enhance the quality of psychophysical research within our community. Despite prior efforts, a critical mass of interested parties could not congeal. Renewed interest for developing joint guidelines has developed recently because of a growing awareness of the challenges of obtaining reliable measurements of visual function in patients who are severely visually impaired (in whom testing is inherently noisy), and of the importance of

  8. Forced convection heat transfer in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, A.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of forced convection heat transfer in He II is conducted. The study includes both experimental and theoretical treatments of the problem. The experiment consists of a hydraulic pump and a copper flow tube, 3 mm in ID and 2m long. The system allows measurements of one-dimensional heat and mass transfer in He II. The heat transfer experiments are performed by applying heat at the midpoint along the length of the flow tube. Two modes of heat input are employed, i.e., step function heat input and square pulse heat input. The heat transfer results are discussed in terms of temperature distribution in the tube. The experimental temperature profiles are compared with numerical solutions of an analytical model developed from the He II energy equation. The bath temperature is set at three different values of 1.65, 1.80, and 1.95 K. The He II flow velocity is varied up to 90 cm/s. Pressure is monitored at each end of the flow tube, and the He II pressure drop is obtained for different flow velocities. Results indicate that He II heat transfer by forced convention is considerably higher than that by internal convection. The theoretical model is in close agreement with the experiment. He II pressure drop and friction factor are very similar to those of an ordinary fluid

  9. US/UK Sensor-To-Shooter Multinational C4 Interoperability Study Force-On-Force Effectiveness Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    performance. A team of military and Multiple gamers and analysts Augmented by Study SMEs •Threats •Service reps •Scenario •Data Typical VIC Team...OPLAN) for the Combined Forces Command (CFC) in Korea . CFC has since requested TRAC to conduct similar analyses on the new OPLANs during 1999-2000

  10. Computer-Controlled Force Generator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research, Inc. is developing a compact, low power, Next-Generation Exercise Device (NGRED) that can generate any force between 5 and 600 lbf. We use a closed...

  11. Multinational Force Integration: The ROK Army’s Integration With The US Army In The Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    recommitments of all US-Korea treaty and military obligations on the Korean peninsula, economic and technological assistance to South Korea...assimilating inbound ROK Army forces into US-led operations because of a lack of formal command relationships. Fortunately, MACV Commander General William

  12. Studies of heat transport to forced-flow He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Kashani, A.; Van Sciver, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of heat transport to forced-flow He II are reported. The work is pertinent to the transfer of He II in space. An analytical model has been developed that establishes a condition for two-phase flow to occur in the transfer line. This condition sets an allowable limit to the heat leak into the transfer line. Experimental measurements of pressure drop and flow meter performances indicate that turbulent He II can be analyzed in terms of classical pressure drop correlations

  13. International Competition for Foreign Multinational Investment,

    OpenAIRE

    Jan I. Haaland; Ian Wooton

    1998-01-01

    We examine the economic justification for providing investment subsidies to foreign-owned multinationals. These provide employment opportunities and generate demand for domestic intermediate inputs, produced by domestic workers with increasing returns to scale. Offering subsidies to multinationals may be in the national interest if the investment raises the net value of domestic production. When agglomerative forces are sufficiently strong, a subsidy that attracts the first foreign firm may i...

  14. Regorafenib for the Treatment of Advanced Gastric Cancer (INTEGRATE): A Multinational Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, Nick; Sjoquist, Katrin M; Martin, Andrew J; Tsobanis, Eric; Yip, Sonia; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Bang, Yung-Jue; Alcindor, Thierry; O'Callaghan, Christopher J; Burnell, Margot J; Tebbutt, Niall C; Rha, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyun; Cho, Jae-Yong; Lipton, Lara R; Wong, Mark; Strickland, Andrew; Kim, Jin Won; Zalcberg, John R; Simes, John; Goldstein, David

    2016-08-10

    We evaluated the activity of regorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. We conducted an international (Australia and New Zealand, South Korea, and Canada) randomized phase II trial in which patients were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio and stratified by lines of prior chemotherapy for advanced disease (one v two) and region. Eligible patients received best supportive care plus regorafenib 160 mg or matching placebo orally on days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle until disease progression or prohibitive adverse events occurred. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Final analysis included data to December 31, 2014. A total of 152 patients were randomly assigned from November 7, 2012, to February 25, 2014, yielding 147 evaluable patients (regorafenib, n = 97; placebo, n = 50). Baseline characteristics were balanced. Median PFS significantly differed between groups (regorafenib, 2.6 months; 95% CI, 1.8 to 3.1 and placebo, 0.9 months; 95% CI, 0.9 to 0.9; hazard ratio [HR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.59; P regorafenib was seen (median, 5.8 months; 95% CI, 4.4 to 6.8 v 4.5 months; 95% CI, 3.4 to 5.2; HR, 0.74; P = .147). Twenty-nine patients assigned to placebo received open-label regorafenib after disease progression. Regorafenib toxicity was similar to that previously reported. In this phase II trial, regorafenib was effective in prolonging PFS in refractory advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Regional differences were found, but regorafenib was effective in both regional groups. A phase III trial is planned. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Multinationality and Opaqueness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Park, Jung Chul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether and how multinationality affects the opaqueness of the firm. We use multiple alternative measurements of multinationality and opaqueness. Spanning nearly three decades for a large sample of US non-financial firms, we find a statistically and economically significant, positi...

  16. Multinationals and Institutional Competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    This article discusses how institutional competitiveness and multinationals are mutually enriching concepts. Seen from the perspective of Multinationals, institutional competitiveness becomes expressed at two levels. At the level of corporate HQs institutional competitiveness proves itself...... competitiveness of Liberal Market Economies and Coordinated Markets Economies under the current competitive regime....

  17. Investigations on cooling with forced flow of He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Hofmann, A.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations on heat transfer to flowing subcooled He II at a pressure of 7 bar have been carried out. The value of the conductivity function, f(T), at a temperature greater than Tsub(max), drops rapidly with increasing pressure. Below Tsub(max) the change in f(T) with pressure is less drastic. The Gorter-Mellink constant Asub(GM), increases linearly with pressure in the range 1.5-2 K and its pressure coefficient at 1 bar is 0.038+-0.01 per bar, independent of temperature. The temperature distribution in the test section with and without flow is adequately described by the one-dimensional model discussed in Part 1. It is concluded that for heat transfer to He II in forced flow there is no advantage in working at pressures > 1 bar. (author)

  18. Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Hobdari, Bersant

    2017-01-01

    International knowledge flows and innovation are becoming ever more important to the competitiveness of multinational corporations. Emerging market multinationals (EMNCs) in specific are deploying increasingly activist measures to harness foreign sources of knowledge and innovation as a strategy...... in which this disagreement can be reconciled through recognition of other EMNC advantages, particularly abilities to leverage country-specific assets, and possession and development of dynamic capabilities. Finally, we identify a set of core themes in the recent literature on strategic asset...

  19. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Zuzik

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  20. DIMENSIONS OF MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria - Ramona SARBU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Capital, creating new jobs, innovation, advanced technologies and the know-how transfer to local firms, human resources with a high level of training, effective management capacity, providing the necessary inputs for the evolution of the activity under the best conditions of efficiency, the access of local consumers to a variety of products and services are the main advantages that multinational enterprises (MNEs bring in the countries where they expand their activities, with a significant impact on economic activities, between national economies. The purpose of this study is the analysis of the main non-financial multinationals in the world, based on the assets held abroad and depending on the transnationality index (TNI in 2013. In order to achieve the purpose of the current paper we employed data from UNCTAD database and the World Investment Report (WIR from 2015. Information on multinationals ranked by foreign assets according to the World Investment Report in 2015 show that, based on the TNI, European multinationals, such as the ones in France, Italy, Germany and Norway, have a higher transnationality index compared to multinationals from larger countries, such as the US and China. Among the top 10 European multinationals, the transnationality index reached an average of 55 % in 2013.

  1. Horizontal Multinational Firms, Vertical Multinational Firms and Domestic Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Emami Namini (Julian); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe build a dynamic general equilibrium model with 2 countries, horizontal and vertical multinational activity and endogenous domestic and foreign investment. It is found that horizontal multinational activity always leads to a complementary relationship between domestic and foreign

  2. Organizational architecture of multinational company

    OpenAIRE

    Vrbová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The Bachelor's Thesis ,,Organizational architecture of multinational company" sets the target to analyse organizational structures used in multinational companies at present. In the teoretical section is briefly described development of this subject, basic concepts associated with organizational architecture such as globalization, multinational companies and organizational architecture. I also generalized main characteristics of organizational forms and describe their pros and cons. The pract...

  3. The Multinational Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Glenn; Hull Kristensen, Peer; Whitley, Richard

    . These processes occur at a number of levels which are explored in different empirical settings. Firstly, at the level of governance, multinational firms may develop conflicts between investors from different national contexts, for example between the arms-length orientation of Anglo-Saxon institutional investors...

  4. Multinational Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Multinational colleges and universities pose numerous challenges to the traditional models of quality assurance that are designed to validate domestic higher education. When institutions cross international borders, at least two quality assurance protocols are involved. To guard against fraud and abuse, quality assurance in the host country is…

  5. Nato Multinational Brigade Interoperability: Issues, Mitigating Solutions and is it Time for a Nato Multinational Brigade Doctrine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiller Mark

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multinational Brigade Operations involving NATO and its European Partners are the norm in the post-Cold War Era. Commonplace today are Multinational Brigades, composed of staffs and subordinate units representing almost every NATO Country and Partner, participating in training exercises or actual operations in both the European and Southwest Asian Theatres. Leadership challenges are prevalent for the Multinational Brigade Commander and his staff, especially those challenges they face in achieving an effective level of brigade interoperability in order to conduct successful operations in NATO’s present and future operating environments. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to examine the major interoperability obstacles a multinational brigade commander and his staff are likely to encounter during the planning and execution of brigade operations; and, to recommend actions and measures a multinational brigade commander and his staff can implement to facilitate interoperability in a multinational brigade operating environment. Several key interoperability topics considered integral to effective multinational brigade operations will be examined and analysed to include understanding partner unit capabilities and limitations facilitated by an integration plan, appropriate command and support relationships, compatible communications, synchronized intelligence and information collection, establishing effective liaison, and fratricide prevention. The paper conclusion will urge for a NATO land brigade doctrine considering doctrine’s critical importance to effective brigade command and control interoperability and the expected missions a land brigade will encounter in future NATO operating environments as part of the NATO Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF.

  6. TET Offensive II Field Force Vietnam After Action Report 31 January - 18 February 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-03-01

    and the 5th VC Division. V During this same period of time there were no majur shifts in ARVN forces . However III Corps shifted three...8217-".•: ’ ’SSIFJED U.S. ARMY. VIETNAM. II FIELD FORCE . TET OFFENSIVE II FIELD FORCE VIETNAM AFTER ACTION REPORT, 31 JANUARY-18 FEB- RUARY 1968...H FIELD FORCE VIETNAM AFTER ACTION REPORT 31 January-18 February 1968 RECORD K0- ! FlSjl fi-.-A-,>-•: it tT*\\ : *si h s» -wP Mr-, £< St

  7. Multiple Learning Tracks: For Training Multinational Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Michael G.; Kerin, Roger A.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of identifying and training college students to be effective multinational marketing managers is investigated in three parts: (1) Identification of multinational manager attributes, (2) selection of multinational managers, and (3) multiple "track" training programs. (TA)

  8. Forces necessary for the disruption of the cisternal segments of cranial nerves II through XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Wellons, John C; Blount, Jeffrey P; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2007-04-01

    Manipulation of the cisternal segment of cranial nerves is often performed by the neurosurgeon. To date, attempts at quantifying the forces necessary to disrupt these nerves in situ, to our knowledge, has not been performed. The present study seeks to further elucidate the forces necessary to disrupt the cranial nerves while within the subarachnoid space. The cisternal segments of cranial nerves II through XII were exposed in six unfixed cadavers, all less than 6 hr postmortem. Forces to failure were then measured. Mean forces necessary to disrupt nerves for left sides in increasing order were found for cranial nerves IX, VII, IV, X, XII, III, VIII, XI, VI, V, and II, respectively. Mean forces for right-sided cranial nerves in increasing order were found for cranial nerves IX, VII, IV, X, XII, VIII, V, VI, XI, III, and II, respectively. Overall, cranial nerves requiring the least amount of force prior to failure included cranial nerves IV, VII, and IX. Those requiring the highest amount of force included cranial nerves II, V, VI, and XI. There was an approximately ten-fold difference between the least and greatest forces required to failure. Cranial nerve III was found to require significantly (P cranial nerves II through XII. We found that cranial nerve IX consistently took the least amount of force until its failure and cranial nerve II took the greatest. Other cranial nerves that took relatively small amount of force prior to failure included cranial nerves IV and VII. Although in vivo damage can occur prior to failure of a cranial nerve, our data may serve to provide a rough estimation for the maximal amount of tension that can be applied to a cranial nerve that is manipulated while within its cistern.

  9. Regional Military Integration in West Africa: A Case Study of the Multi-National Joint Task Force in the Fight against Boko Haram

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    forces of globalization and global governance, external agencies and the vagaries of the ecological system (Omeje 2006, 4). Violent Conflicts in...drawn. Apart from the land mass and water area of an ethnicity’s historical homeland, no other geographic, ecological , historical, and ethnic...opponents, led by Charles Taylor, exploited the resentment of the disaffected ethic groups. Taylor formed the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) and

  10. Investigating the Process of Valuing Investments in Intangibles: A Case Study in Safety and Security in the Multinational Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Punpugdee, Nuttapon

    2005-01-01

    Safety and security have emerged as a major force driving change in the multinational hotel industry. As a problem area not well-developed in the literature but considered a crucial force influencing hotel firms' value by the multinational hotel community, safety and security provide an excellent opportunity for industry professionals and academic researchers to improve the value creation of multinational hotel firms. A research need is more urgent in the upscale sector of the industry, and t...

  11. Multinationals and international environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.

    2009-01-01

    Multinationals with relatively poor environmental policy establish themselves in countries with weak environmental regulation. These activities are not undertaken in the poorest or most corrupt countries though. The question arises if multinationals with relatively developed environmental behavior settle less or more often in countries with environmental legislation. [mk] [nl

  12. Multinational alternatives and nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.

    1981-01-01

    The use of multinational institutional arrangements to control sensitive nuclear-fuel-cycle activities has interested policymakers since the dawn of the nuclear age. Several such ventures have been tried in the past, largely for economic, commercial, or technical reasons, and they have enjoyed varying degrees of success. More recently, with the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies, multinational arrangements have received increasing attention as a means of reinforcing international safeguards which, together with political commitments on peaceful use, have been the principal components of the nonproliferation regime. The political acceptability and efficacy of multinational arrangements is related to the historic experience with multinational ventures, the changed political circumstances of the 1970s, and the probable requirements for constructive future cooperation. As part of a comprehensive regime covering the development of sensitive nuclear activities, multinational arrangements can reinforce the regime in a manner that is widely acceptable. A political effort to win support for such arrangements is thus worthwhile. 29 references

  13. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    circularly pierced with ragged edges, exposing a white globe in base market with light gray land areas and dark gray lines of latitude and longitude...34 SQUADRONS 459 EMBLEM. Over and through an Jun 1943 (operated from Guadalcanal, ultramarine blue disc. a white unicorn , 25 Aug-14 Oct 1943; 24 Nov-31... unicorn in flight, horn Air Force yellow, shaded golden brown; outlines and details black throughout. LINEAGE. Constituted 817 th Bombard- Motto: On

  14. Electromagnetic forces on type-II superconducting rotating cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, A.G.; Refai, T.F.; El-Sabagh, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical solutions of the electromagnetic fields are presented for a system composed of an infinitely long superconducting cylinder rotating about its axis and placed parallel to two infinitely long normal conducting wires. Both wires carry the same alternating current. From the obtained electromagnetic fields the electromagnetic power loss on the cylinder surface, electromagnetic forces due to induced currents, electromagnetic torque, and the work opposing the rotation of the cylinder are calculated. (orig.)

  15. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  16. Multinational Risk and Performance Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2012-01-01

    A multinational presence can diversify corporate business activities and provide access to diverse overseas resources. This can enhance operational flexibility and create new business propositions that increase responsiveness to global market changes. Establishing an international corporate...... cross-sectional dataset, we find that flexibility and responsiveness thrives on a multinational presence among firms operating in information-driven knowledge businesses. In contrast, internationalizing firms in capital-based network services display adverse risk effects........ Consistent with the rationales of the OLI paradigm, we argue that multinational reach particularly in knowledge-based industries can reduce downside risk and enhance upside potential. These results introduce more nuances to the ongoing debate about multinational risk and performance effects. Based on a large...

  17. Corporate Taxation and Multinational Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Simon Loretz; Michael Pfaffermayr; Hannes Winner

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of corporate taxation on multinational activity. A numerically solvable general equilibrium model of trade and multinational firms is used to incorporate the following components of corporate taxation: parent and host country statutory corporate tax rates, withholding tax rates, and parent and host country depreciation allowances. We account for their differential impact under alternative methods of double taxation relief (i.e., credit, exemption, and deduction)...

  18. Organizational architecture of multinational companies

    OpenAIRE

    Sikorová, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of the bachelor thesis Organizational Architecture of Multinational Companies is to elaborate the overview of organizational structures that are used by modern global companies. The thesis contains an analysis of such companies development, principles of functioning, pros and cons and the opportunities which these brings. It also contains a description of the basic concepts associated with organizational architecture such as globalization, multinational companies and organizatio...

  19. Lean Transformation of Multinational Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rikke Vestergaard; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    triggered. This paper reports on exploratory studies from a multinational company adopting centrally managed pilot projects as a transformation mechanism for continuous change towards a lean business system and an organizational culture of continuous improvements (CI). Competitive pressure demands...... from a multinational company adopting centrally managed pilot projects as a transformation mechanism for continuous change towards a lean business system and an organizational culture of continuous improvements (CI)....

  20. Forming a multinational joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, N.K.; Garb, R.H.; Statton, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the basis and mechanics for forming a multinational joint venture. The topics of the paper include the motivations for a joint venture, selection of the appropriate co-venturer, management of the multinational joint venture, and the joint venture agreement. The authors state that a joint venture is not applicable or desirable in all instances and to be successful, must be carefully planned

  1. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  2. The Impact of NATO/Multinational Military Missions on Health Care Management (l'Impact des missions OTAN/militaires internationales sur la gestion des soins de sante)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... (peacekeeping, humanitarian, disaster relief, etc.). Most of these missions are performed by multinational forces, which requires the cooperation of all military services including the medical support systems...

  3. Chaos in periodically forced Holling type II predator-prey system with impulsive perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuwen; Tan Dejun; Chen Lansun

    2006-01-01

    The effect of periodic forcing and impulsive perturbations on predator-prey model with Holling type II functional response is investigated. The periodic forcing is affected by assuming a periodic variation in the intrinsic growth rate of prey. The impulsive perturbation is affected by introducing periodic constant impulsive immigration of predator. The dynamical behavior of the system is simulated and bifurcation diagrams are obtained for different parameters. The results show that periodic forcing and impulsive perturbation can very easily give rise to complex dynamics, including (1) quasi-periodic oscillating, (2) period doubling cascade, (3) chaos, (4) period halfing cascade, (5) non-unique dynamics

  4. Interaction forces between salivary proteins and Streptococcus mutans with and without antigen I/II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.P.; Belt-Gritter, van de B.; Dijkstra, R.J.B.; Norde, W.; Mei, van der H.C.; Busscher, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The antigen I/II family of surface proteins is expressed by oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans, and mediates specific binding to, among others, salivary films. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction forces between salivary proteins and S. mutans with (LT11) and

  5. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  6. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  7. The multinational Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (MALES) Study Phase II: understanding PDE5 inhibitor treatment seeking patterns, among men with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Rosen, Raymond C; Eardley, Ian; Niederberger, Craig; Nadel, Andrea; Kaufman, Joel; Sand, Michael

    2004-09-01

    The aim of Phase II of the Men's Attitudes to Life Events and Sexuality (MALES) Study is to explore PDE5 inhibitor treatment seeking among men with erectile dysfunction (ED). Phase II of the MALES study involved 2,912 men, aged 20-75 years, from 8 countries (U.S., U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Mexico, and Brazil), who reported ED. Participants were recruited from the MALES Phase I sample [1] and via booster methods (e.g., physician referral, street interception), and completed self-report questionnaires concerning the characteristics of their ED, their efforts to seek PDE5 inhibitor treatment for their sexual dysfunction, and attitudinal and referent influences that potentially affect treatment-seeking. Statistical analyses focus on identification of correlates of PDE5 inhibitor treatment seeking. PDE5 inhibitor utilization is strongly associated with ED sufferers' assessment of the severity of their sexual dysfunction, with their belief that medication for ED is dangerous, and with their perceptions of whether physicians, other professionals, and spouses or family members are supportive of their seeking treatment. ED sufferers who evaluate their sexual dysfunction as severe, who believe that medication for ED is not dangerous, and who perceive support for treatment seeking from referent others, are more likely to utilize PDE5 inhibitor treatment. Findings indicate that perceived ED severity, beliefs about ED medication, and referent influences are strongly correlated with utilization of PDE5 inhibitor therapy. These findings aid our understanding of factors that may incline men with ED to seek-or to avoid-PDE5 inhibitor therapy for their sexual dysfunction, and provide a basis for clinical and educational interventions to assist men with ED to seek appropriate treatment.

  8. Multinational Oil Companies and Corporate Social Responsibilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Niger Delta Region, Nigeria), the concept of corporate social responsibility must be fully imbibed by the multinational oil companies. Therefore, this study examines multinational oil companies and corporate social responsibilities with particular ...

  9. The Risk Implications of Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Multinational structure has been linked to operational flexibilities that can improve corporate adaptability and a knowledge-based view suggests that multinational resource diversity can facilitate responsive opportunities. The enhanced maneuverability from this can reduce earnings vola...

  10. The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Foreign Exchange Exposure of Japanese Multinational Corporations. ... African Journal of Finance and Management ... We also find that keiretsu multinationals are more exposed to exchange rate risk that non-keiretsu firms.

  11. Innovation and Institutional Embeddedness of Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Innovation and Institutional Embeddedness of Multinational Corporations / edited by Martin Heidenreich. (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2012)......Review of: Innovation and Institutional Embeddedness of Multinational Corporations / edited by Martin Heidenreich. (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2012)...

  12. Human resource policy and Danish multinational companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore.......A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore....

  13. Multinational Companies, Technology Spillovers, and Plant Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Görg; Eric Strobl

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the presence of multinational companies on plant survival in the host country. We postulate that multinational companies can impact positively on plant survival through technology spillovers. We study the nature of the effect of multinationals using a Cox proportional hazard model which we estimate using plant level data for Irish manufacturing industries. Our results show that the presence of multinationals has a life enhancing effect only on indigenous plan...

  14. Exploration of Logistics Information Technology (IT) Solutions for the Royal Saudi Naval Force Within the Saudi Naval Expansion Program II (SNEP II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT EXPLORATION OF LOGISTICS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SOLUTIONS FOR THE...INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SOLUTIONS FOR THE ROYAL SAUDI NAVAL FORCE WITHIN THE SAUDI NAVAL EXPANSION PROGRAM II (SNEP II) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...Expansion Program II (SNEP II). A part of this program includes upgrading and rebuilding its information technology (IT) infrastructure. The United

  15. Validation of Multibody Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II Parachute Simulation with Interacting Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Queen, Eric M.; Hotchko, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    A capability to simulate trajectories of multiple interacting rigid bodies has been developed, tested and validated. This capability uses the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2). The standard version of POST 2 allows trajectory simulation of multiple bodies without force interaction. In the current implementation, the force interaction between the parachute and the suspended bodies has been modeled using flexible lines, allowing accurate trajectory simulation of the individual bodies in flight. The POST 2 multibody capability is intended to be general purpose and applicable to any parachute entry trajectory simulation. This research paper explains the motivation for multibody parachute simulation, discusses implementation methods, and presents validation of this capability.

  16. Single molecule imaging of RNA polymerase II using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodin, Thor; Fu Jianhua; Umemura, Kazuo; Gad, Mohammed; Jarvis, Suzi; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the shape, orientation and surface topology of RNA polymerase II supported on silanized freshly cleaved mica was made. The overall aim is to define the molecular topology of RNA polymerase II in appropriate fluids to help clarify the relationship of conformational features to biofunctionality. A Nanoscope III atomic force microscope was used in the tapping mode with oxide-sharpened (8-10 nm) Si 3 N 4 probes in aqueous zinc chloride buffer. The main structural features observed by AFM were compared to those derived from electron-density plots based on X-ray crystallographic studies. The conformational features included a bilobal silhouette with an inverted umbrella-shaped crater connected to a reaction site. These studies provide a starting point for constructing a 3D-AFM profiling analysis of proteins such as RNA polymerase complexes

  17. LICC: L-BLP25 in patients with colorectal carcinoma after curative resection of hepatic metastases--a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational, double-blinded phase II trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimanski Carl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 15-20% of all patients initially diagnosed with colorectal cancer develop metastatic disease and surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment available. Current 5-year survival following R0-resection of liver metastases is 28-39%, but recurrence eventually occurs in up to 70%. To date, adjuvant chemotherapy has not improved clinical outcomes significantly. The primary objective of the ongoing LICC trial (L-BLP25 In Colorectal Cancer is to determine whether L-BLP25, an active cancer immunotherapy, extends recurrence-free survival (RFS time over placebo in colorectal cancer patients following R0/R1 resection of hepatic metastases. L-BLP25 targets MUC1 glycoprotein, which is highly expressed in hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. In a phase IIB trial, L-BLP25 has shown acceptable tolerability and a trend towards longer survival in patients with stage IIIB locoregional NSCLC. Methods/Design This is a multinational, phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a sample size of 159 patients from 20 centers in 3 countries. Patients with stage IV colorectal adenocarcinoma limited to liver metastases are included. Following curative-intent complete resection of the primary tumor and of all synchronous/metachronous metastases, eligible patients are randomized 2:1 to receive either L-BLP25 or placebo. Those allocated to L-BLP25 receive a single dose of 300 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide (CP 3 days before first L-BLP25 dose, then primary treatment with s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg once weekly for 8 weeks, followed by s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg maintenance doses at 6-week (years 1&2 and 12-week (year 3 intervals unless recurrence occurs. In the control arm, CP is replaced by saline solution and L-BLP25 by placebo. Primary endpoint is the comparison of recurrence-free survival (RFS time between groups. Secondary endpoints are overall survival (OS time, safety, tolerability, RFS/OS in MUC-1 positive

  18. Unravelling learning within multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saka-Helmhout, Ayse

    This article explores the impact of institutional variation on the extent to which subsidiary firms learn from multinational corporations. Learning is conceptualized here as consisting of two aspects: knowledge flow and reinforcement of or change in routines to incorporate the behaviourist

  19. Multinationals and corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to shed some more light on the current debate related to corporate social responsibility (CSR), specifically considering multinational enterprises (MNEs) and the complexities they face when dealing with international issues and a range of stakeholders. It discusses notions of CSR in

  20. Multinational Heterogenity and Knowledge Diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    During the past two decades, governments all around the world have spent millions of dollars to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of multinational companies. The large sums of money spent in this way have been justified on grounds of the alleged benefits of such activities in terms of domestic

  1. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  2. COMPETITIVE STRATEGY OF A FOREIGN MULTINATIONAL IN BRAZILIAN POULTRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Barros de Azevedo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of the strategies involved in the import process of cages for laying hens, directed at the multinational enterprise distribution center. Identifies the reasons why a multinational company invests in Brazil, specifically in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo, where it is implementing a distribution center (DC. Developing the study of the strategies involved in the process, according to the main issue of the work, it took place through the exploratory analysis of the current logistics process of the Company, identifying the strategies adopted and the advantages of the new process. In order to achieve the objectives, the study is based on the theoretical study of Porter's five competitive forces, SWOT analysis, generic strategies adopted to achieve return on investment and, based on issues such as import , logistics, warehousing and distribution center. The survey shows that deployment of the DC, the strategy involves the insertion in the national market, specifically in São Paulo that is the biggest market of laying hens in the country to gain competitive advantage, and the multinational also adopts the strategy generic differentiation, with regard to technology and product quality. Despite the high costs of construction and maintenance of the DC, they represent a barrier to market entry, have no financial risk for the multinational enterprise, since this deployment will also increase the demand for the product, allowing the return on invested capital.

  3. Investigation of the transition from forced to natural convection in the research reactor Munich II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skreba, S.; Adamek, J.; Unger, H.

    1999-01-01

    The new research reactor Munich II (FRM-II), which is under construction at the Technical University Munich, Germany, makes use of a newly developed compact reactor core consisting of a single fuel element, which is assembled of two concentric pipes. Between the fuel element's inner and outer pipe 113 involutely bent fuel plates are placed rotationally symmetric, forming 113 cooling channels of a constant width of 2.2 mm. After a shut down of the reactor, battery supported cooling pumps are started by the reactor safety system in order to remove the decay heat by a downwards directed forced flow. Three hours after they have been started, the cooling pumps are shut down and so-called 'natural convection flaps' are opened by their own weight. Through a flow path, which is provided by the opening of the natural convection flaps, the decay heat is given off to the water in the reactor pool after the direction of the flow has changed and an upwards directed natural convection flow has developed. At the Department for Nuclear and New Energy Systems of the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, a test facility has been built in order to confirm the concept of the decay heat removal in the FRM-II, to acquire data of single and two phase natural convection flows and to detect the dry out in a narrow channel. The thermohydraulics of the FRM-II are simulated by an electrically heated test section, which represents one cooling channel of the fuel element. At first experiments have been performed, which simulated the transition from forced to natural convection in the core of the FRM-II, both at normal operation and at a complete loss of the decay heat removal pumps. In case of normal operation, the transition from forced to natural convection takes place single phased. If a complete loss of the active decay heat removal system occurs, the decay heat removal is ensured by a quasi-steady two phase flow. In a second test series minimum heat flux densities leading to pressure pulsations

  4. European project for a multinational macrosectoral model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Alcantara, G; Italianer, A

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the HERMES project, a multinational macrosectoral European econometric modelling effort, sponsored by the Directorates General II (Economic and Financial Affairs), XII (Science, Research and Development), XVII (Energy) and the SOEC. The set-up of the model is sketched against the background of problems of growth, unemployment, inflation, trade balances, government balances and energy policy. Although the definitions of the variables and a complete specification of the model are given in the Appendix, the major features of the model are described extensively in the text. These include private and collective consumption (incl. a consumer demand system), the putty-clay production process, price and wage formation, sectoral bilateral trade flows and integrated energy economy modelling.

  5. Democratizing the Multinational Corporation (MNC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Hallin, Carina Antonia

    2017-01-01

    insights that can be used strategically if management at headquarters is cognizant about its existence and able to collect this information. We introduce the notion of democratizing the strategic engagement of managers and employees at all levels and locations of the multinational corporation (MNC......) as an essential leadership paradigm. The implied interaction between slow central analytical reasoning at headquarters and updated insights from fast decentralized initiatives in local subsidiaries constitutes an effective dynamic responsive mechanism. This dynamic interaction implies that critical strategic...

  6. The Army in Multinational Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    multinational commanders may be faced with nations refusing to perform assigned tasks. The term “national red card” using a soccer simile has been coined...human rights of individuals and groups must be respected. Impartiality. Humanitarian assistance must be provided without discrimination . Relief is...given without regard to nationality, political or ideological beliefs, race, religion, sex , or ethnicity, but only on the basis of the urgency of

  7. Multinational banks and development finance

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Christian E.; Scher, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Financial market recommendations for less industrialized economies, particularly in the wake of the recent financial crises, have included a push for more international financial competition. The entry of multinational banks (MNBs) into developing economies is supposed to create more market discipline for domestic banks, thus making them more efficient, and enhancing financial stability. Using data from the BIS and the IMF, we look at the determinants of MNB presence, at MNB activities, and t...

  8. Anisotropic Magnus Force in Type-II Superconductors with Planar Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Ricardo Vega; Gomez, Eliceo Cortés

    2015-02-01

    The effect of planar defects on the Magnus force in type-II superconductors is studied. It is shown that the deformation of the vortex due to the presence of a planar defect leads to a local decrease in the mean free path of electrons in the vortex. This effect reduces the effective Magnus coefficient in normal direction to the planar defect, leading to an anisotropic regime of the Hall effect. The presented developments here can qualitatively explain experimental observations of the anisotropic Hall effect in high- T c superconductors in the mixed state.

  9. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in develo...

  10. Multinational Firms and The New Trade Theory

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Markusen; Anthony J. Venables

    1995-01-01

    A model is constructed in which multinational firms may arise endogenously. Multinationals exist in equilibrium when transport and tariff costs are high, incomes are high, and firm-level scale economies are important relative to plant-level scale economies. Less obvious, multinationals are more important in total economic activity when countries are more similar in incomes, relative factor endowments, and technologies. The model may thus be useful in explaining several stylized facts, includi...

  11. Class II young adult treatment with Twin Force Bite corrector: 10-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Uslu-Akcam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most preferred compliance free fixed functional appliances in nongrowing patients is Twin Force Bite corrector (TFBC. The aim of this case report is to evaluate the effectiveness of TFBC in the treatment of an adult Class II case. A 16-year 1-month-old boy having skeletal and dental Class II relationship was selected. Roth 0.018 × 0.025 inch slots brackets were attached; a fixed lingual arch in the mandibular dental arch and a Nance appliance in the maxillary dental arch were used to increase anchorage. The TFBC therapy used for sagittal activation and stimulation of forward mandibular growth lasted for 3 months. The post-TFBC treatment lasted 6 months and the total treatment time was 9 months. Treatment of a young adult Class II malocclusion with TFBC resulted in a Class I molar occlusion, an ideal overjet, overbite, and incisor angulation in a short time and maintained in the 10-year follow-up.

  12. Model of the naval base logistic interoperability within the multinational operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Pac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the model of the naval base logistics interoperability within the multinational operations conducted at sea by NATO or EU nations. The model includes the set of logistic requirements that NATO and EU expect from the contributing nations within the area of the logistic support provided to the forces operating out of the home bases. Model may reflect the scheme configuration, the set of requirements and its mathematical description for the naval base supporting multinational forces within maritime operations.

  13. Cephalometric effects of the use of 10-hour Force Theory for Class II treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise de Castro Cabrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric effects promoted by the orthodontic treatment of Class II malocclusion patients with the use of the 10-Hour Force Theory, that consists in the use of fixed appliances with 8 hours a day using a cervical headgear appliance and 16 hours a day using Class II elastics, 8 hours on the first mandibular molar and 8 hours in the second mandibular molar. METHODS: Sample comprised 31 patients with mean initial age of 14.90 years, final mean age of 17.25 years and mean treatment time of 2.35 years. The lateral cephalograms in pre-treatment and post-treatment stages were evaluated. Evaluation of cephalometric changes between initial and final treatment phases was performed by paired t test. RESULTS: The cases treated with the 10-Hour Force Theory presented a slight restriction of anterior displacement of the maxilla, increase in the effective length of the mandible, significant improvement of the maxillomandibular relationship, significant increase in anterior lower face height, distal tipping of the maxillary premolar crowns, extrusion and distal tipping of the roots of maxillary molars, significant proclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors, significant extrusion and mesialization of mandibular molars, besides a significant correction of the molar relationship, overjet and overbite. CONCLUSION: The use of the 10-Hour Force Theory in treatment of Class II malocclusion provided satisfactory results.OBJETIVO: esse estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cefalométricos promovidos pelo tratamento ortodôntico de pacientes com má oclusão de Classe II com o uso da Teoria de Força das 10 Horas, que consiste no uso de aparelho ortodôntico fixo, 8 horas diárias de uso de aparelho extrabucal cervical e 16 horas de uso de elásticos de Classe II, sendo 8 horas com apoio no primeiro molar inferior e 8 horas com apoio no segundo molar inferior. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 31 pacientes, com idade m

  14. How powerful are the multinational corporations?

    OpenAIRE

    Pausenberger, Ehrenfried

    1983-01-01

    Much unease, distrust and criticism is being expressed in the current debate about the potential power of multinational corporations and the possibilities of abuse. What is the basis for the power of the multinationals, and what possibilities are available for controlling and limiting that power?

  15. Lending Behavior of Multinational Bank Affiliates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis; Podpiera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2011), s. 19-36 ISSN 2077-429X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Multinational bank * Contagion * Substitution * Agency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/derviz-lending behavior of multinational bank affiliates.pdf

  16. Response of EBR-II to a complete loss of primary forced flow during power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Mohr, D.; Tokar, J.V.; Sullivan, J.E.; Dean, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the thermal, hydraulic, and neutronic response of EBR-II to a complete loss of primary forced flow followed by a PPS-activated scram are presented. The experimental results clearly indicate a smooth transition to natural convective flow with a quite modest incore temperature transient. The accompanying calculations using the NATDEMO code agree quite well with the measured temperatures and flow rates throughout the primary system. The only region of the plant where a significant discrepancy between the measurements and calculations occurred was in the IHX. The reasons for this result could not be definitively determined, but it is speculated that the one-dimensional assumptions used in the modeling may not be valid in the IHX during buoyancy driver flows

  17. The Comprehensive Approach Concept in Multinational Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neag Mihai-Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The planning of operations is regulated by documents covering the participation of forces in military actions in a national and multinational context. The process of planning the operations has been adapted to conceptual planning progress. The concept of allied effect-based operations, which was an alternative to old national concepts, has undergone transformations, so the process of planning operations at allied level is currently based on the concept of a comprehensive approach, which is a strategic concept, do not give up effects. The term action-based operations has been replaced by the term “thought-based thinking” and belongs to the general concept of comprehensive approach. If the planning process meant the effects, so the main planning objectives were the effects, then the planning was based on concrete objectives, the effects being maintained for the economy of effort and maximizing efficiency, the main purpose of the effects being the evaluation of the operations. From this point of view, we consider that the concept has not been abandoned, what has changed, it was just the working method, the subject being still topical.

  18. Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Successes and Challenges of Emerging Economy Multinationals investigates a broad variety of cases presenting clear evidence of fast successful internationalization of emerging economy multinationals originating not only from big economic players such as China, India and Russia but also from other...... successfully internationalizing emerging countries, namely South Africa and Poland. In terms of size, the firms vary from huge multinational firms such as Huawei, Tata and Gazprom, to really small high technology firms. The in-depth analysis conducted in this book leads to the indication of numerous novel...

  19. Non-proliferation and multinational enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The paper supplements CC/WG.2/9 in presenting the Japanese delegation's contribution in the areas of non-proliferation and multi-national enterprises. The paper questions whether multinational enrichment enterprises would constitute a significant non-proliferation factor, noting that the nature of the venture might create a potential for the dissemination of sensitive information. The paper also argues that a multi-national venture which was not economically competitive (with national facilities) would have questionable viability. The conclusion is that non-proliferation advantages, if any, would be a result, not an objective of such a venture

  20. Subsidiary Performance in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Forsgren, Mats; Pedersen, Torben

    2001-01-01

    are then tested in a LISREL model based on data concerning 98 subsidiaries belonging to Swedish MNCs. Our empirical results indicate that technology embeddedness has a positive, direct, impact on subsidiary market performance, and a positive, but indirect, impact on subsidiary organizational performance.......Subsidiaries have access to different types of resources and therefore perform differently in their market-place and within a multinational corporation (MNC). Yet, even though subsidiaries are the object of intense interest, remarkably little has been written about the assessment of subsidiary...... performance. In short, the strategic opportunities of subsidiaries seem to generate more attention in the literature than their results. The two distinctive features of this paper are the development of the concept of subsidiary performance and the exploration of the linkage between subsidiary business...

  1. Danish Multinational Corporations in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen

    2017-01-01

    markets, which are significantly different from MNCs' traditional locations. As globalisation progresses, internationalisation increasingly involves exploitation strategies, i.e., offshoring of production; market access; and exploration strategies such as internationalisation of innovation. This article......Multinational corporations (MNCs) strategise in a dynamic multi-polar world consisting of changing environments at home and abroad. They continuously face a new set of push- and pull-factors for internationalising activities. In recent decades, internationalisation has been reaching into emerging...... looks into how Danish MNCs have evolved into the Chinese economy, investigating the trajectories of how and when four Danish MNCs entered the Chinese economy and how the strategy patterns have emerged from cost reduction, to market access, and recently to innovation. Over 30 years, China has developed...

  2. Financialization and the Multinational Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    The terrain on which states, trade unions and social movements confront multinational corporations has changed dramatically over the last two decades as a result of two phenomena – the disaggregation of the supply chain and the financialization of corporations. Trade unions and social movements...... have increasingly challenged the inequalities and unfairnesses which have emerged from the globalization of supply chains. However, issues of financialization, although increasingly high profile since 2008, have generally been treated separately. This article argues that the two phenomena...... are integrally related within the same process of neoliberal globalization. It argues that trade unions and social movements need to connect together issues to do with the relocation and restructuring of employment with issues of financialization and the need for financial reform. Change will only be effective...

  3. Battle Staff Training System II: Computer-Based Instruction Supporting the Force XXI Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wampler, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the methodology and lessons learned in the development of the Innovative Tools and Techniques for Brigade and Below Staff Training II - Battle Staff Training System II (ITTBBST-BSTS II...

  4. Three Organizational Challenges for Multinational Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drogendijk, Rian; van Tulder, Rob; Verbeke, Alain; van Tulder, Rob; Verbeke, Alain; Drogendijk, Rian

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly changing and volatile institutional environments, within which Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) must operate, have put traditional organisational forms under pressure. Globalization and regionalism develop at the same time, whereas regulation facilitating Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

  5. Knowledge Flows, Governance and the Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben

    This work contributes to the understanding of knowledge governance in the multinational corporation. Intra-firm and inter-firm processes of knowledge creation, sharing and exploitation have attracted increasingly managerial and scholarly interest. However the relation between particular knowledge...

  6. Emerging Market Multinational Companies and Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estrin, Saul; Nielsen, Bo B.; Nielsen, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    We develop a multilevel theoretical framework for investigating the role of home country urbanization for emerging market multinational companies' (EMNCs) international expansion. We propose that more urbanized home environments directly increase EMNC's proclivity to internationalize and moderate...

  7. Emerging Market Multinational Companies and Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Estrin, Saul; Nielsen, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    This paper furthers our understanding of the role of contextual conditions influencing internationalization of emerging market multinational companies (EMNCs). We use resource-based, industrial organization, and economic development theories to develop a multilevel theoretical framework...

  8. Taxing the Financially Integrated Multinational Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    partly fall on investment and thus workers in the former country. This tax exporting mechanism introduces a scope for corporate taxes, which is not present in standard models of international taxation. Accounting for the internal capital markets of multinational firms thus represents a way to resolve......This paper develops a theoretical model of corporate taxation in the presence of financially integrated multinational firms. Under the assumption that multinational firms at least partly use internal loans to finance foreign investment, we find that the optimal corporate tax rate is positive from...... the perspective of a small, open economy. This finding contrasts the standard result that the optimal source based capital tax is zero. Intuitively, to the extent that multinational firms finance investment in country i with loans from affiliates in country j, the burden of corporate taxes in the latter country...

  9. Knowledge transfer and expatriation in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    Research on multinational corporation (MNC) knowledge transfer has argued continuously for the behavior of knowledge senders to be a determinant of knowledge transfer. Although the importance of disseminative capacity regarding knowledge transfer has been illustrated in numerous conceptual studies...

  10. International taxation and multinational firm location decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Cobos, Salvador; Huizinga, Harry; Laeven, Luc; Nicodème, Gaëtan J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we estimate separate effects of host and parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. In fact, the impact of parent country taxation is estimated to be relatively large, possibly reflecting its international discriminatory nature. For the cross-section of multinational firms, we find that parent firms tend to ...

  11. Cultural Specifics of Management in Multinational Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Křečková Kroupová, Zuzana

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays the world is becoming increasingly economically connected, and cultural diversity of employees is gaining importance as a crucial competitive advantage. Cross-cultural communication ability is becoming a key management skill in multinational firms and is equally important for other employees who are exposed to other cultures in the workplace. This work mainly focuses on cultural specifics of management in multinational firms. The goal of this thesis is to discover how different natio...

  12. Comparisons of hypertension-related costs from multinational clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C Daniel; Sikirica, Mirko; Seneviratne, Viran; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Akhras, Kasem S

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and compares the individual cost components of hospital and ambulatory services that manage the care of hypertensive patients in eight countries: the US, the UK, France, Spain, Germany, Italy, Canada and Australia. Hypertension-related costs are classified according to four major cardiovascular events: (i) acute myocardial infarction; (ii) congestive heart failure; (iii) stroke; and (iv) renal failure, which was subdivided into renal failure treated by dialysis and renal failure treated by kidney transplantation. To make cross-country costs comparisons, we used the DRG codes used in the US and DRG-like codes from each country. US cost information was obtained from hypertension data available from the literature and health economics researchers. For costs in other countries, we consulted with national health economics experts in each country, used analyses by the Research Triangle Institute, and performed Medline and international literature searches. When available, we obtained information from the countries' public and private nationally representative data sources. For cross-country currency adjustments, all currencies were converted using the Purchasing Power Parities from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and then converted into inflation-adjusted year 2000 US dollars. There exists considerable variation in hypertension-related costs from multinational clinical studies. This study documents that costs are generally higher in the US than in other countries; however, this is not always true. In particular, costs of treating heart failure in France and the costs of renal failure without transplantation in Germany and the UK are relatively high. While analysing multinational hypertensive cost data, this study also addresses the impact of cross-country cost variations on cost analyses. During the last decade, drug-development researchers have drawn extensively upon multinational trials to resolve enrollment problems and

  13. A Survey of Telecommunications Technology. Part II. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper One, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    The document contains the final four appendices to a staff paper submitted to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy. "The Digital Loop" describes changes in urban telecommunications which are predicted for 1970-80, considering three possible systems: paired wires with single analog signals (present telephones), coaxial…

  14. Queen Margarethe II Wants You! Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... and realistic goals, systematically developing recruitment, development, and retention policies, and the superiority of an all-volunteer force over conscription in fulfilling this societal imperative....

  15. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation of flow generated by two rotating concentric cylinders: II. Lateral dissipative and random forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovic, N; Haber, S; Kojic, M; Tsuda, A

    2008-01-01

    Traditional DPD methods address dissipative and random forces exerted along the line connecting neighbouring particles. Espanol (1998 Phys. Rev. E 57 2930-48) suggested adding dissipative and random force components in a direction perpendicular to this line. This paper focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of such an addition as compared with the traditional DPD method. Our benchmark system comprises fluid initially at rest occupying the space between two concentric cylinders rotating with various angular velocities. The effect of the lateral force components on the time evolution of the simulated velocity profile was also compared with that of the known analytical solution. The results show that (i) the solution accuracy at steady state has improved and the error has been reduced by at least 30% (in one case by 75%), (ii) the DPD time to reach steady state has been halved, (iii) the CPU time has increased by only 30%, and (iv) no significant differences exist in density and temperature distributions

  16. Conceptual design of a superconducting coil system cooled by forced flow HE II for the central column of net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.L.; Turck, B.

    1987-01-01

    In order to increase the maximum flux sweep, a present trend is to design ohmic coils producing fields as high as II teslas. In Niobium-Titanium, critical current densities of 10 9 A/m 2 at 1.8 K under a field of 11 teslas are now claimed by several manufacturers. This in addition enables to make use of the outstanding cooling properties of He II. The forced flow technics can again be envisaged for He II to remove the heat load. Two solutions are investigated. The first one uses a 40 kA cable wound in double pancakes. The second one makes use of several conductors layer wound and current supplied in parallel

  17. Corporate Responsible Behavior in Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze how leadership influenced corporate responsible behavior in a complex multinational organization with ethical principles imposed by concrete actions on regulatory, environmental and international labor issues. Increasing functional specialization, multinational...... diversification and global expansion also diluted those values. Originality/value: Corporate responsible behavior is a significant challenge in large organizations with many and diverse multinational stakeholders. Ethical conduct derives from executive morality, but the role of leaders as instigators...... diversity and business acquisitions challenged the core values and called for more formal enforcement. Core values executed through investment in positive economic externalities enhanced the reputation and facilitated sustainable collaborative solutions. Design/methodology/approach: This single-case study...

  18. Effective Strategy-Making in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersson, Ulf; Palmié, Maximilian

    for global efficiencies and autonomy for effective local responses. Strategic guidance from headquarters frames subsidiary decisions in line with corporate priorities and distributed decision power coupled with informal exchange of information facilitates strategic responses in tune with local market......We outline commonalities between studies of subsidiary decentralization and autonomous strategy-making in the international business and strategic management fields. This suggests that corporate headquarters should engage in strategy-making processes that provide a combination of formal direction...... requirements. We identify some important nuances in the integration-responsiveness conundrum supported by an empirical study of 351 multinational subsidiaries. We discuss the implications for multinational strategy practice and suggest future research venues to investigate strategy-making in multinational...

  19. Multinationals' Political Activities on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the international dimensions of multinationals' corporate political activities, focusing on an international issue - climate change - being implemented differently in a range of countries. Analyzing data from Financial Times Global 500 firms, it examines the influence on types and process of multinationals' political strategies, reckoning with institutional contexts and issue saliency. Findings show that the type of political activities can be characterized as an information strategy to influence policy makers toward market-based solutions, not so much withholding action on emission reduction. Moreover, multinationals pursue self-regulation, targeting a broad range of political actors. The process of political strategy is mostly one of collective action. International differences particularly surface in the type of political actors aimed at, with U.S. and Australian firms focusing more on non-government actors (voluntary programs) than European and Japanese firms. Influencing home-country (not host-country) governments is the main component of international political strategy on climate change

  20. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in developed economies. In the economies in which they operate, they bring capital, technology transfer, improve the national reputation and influence the other companies to invest in this countries, they provide a substantial source of revenue for the government and always improve the balance of payments in the host country.

  1. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  2. CRM System Implementation in a Multinational Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    The concept of customer relationship management (CRM) resonates with managers in today's competitive economy. As more and more organizations realize the significance of becoming customer-centric in today's competitive era, they embrace CRM as a core business strategy. CRM an integration of information technology and relationship marketing provides the infrastructure that facilitates long-term relationship building with customers at an enterprise-wide level. Successful CRM implementation is a complex, expensive and rarely technical projects. This paper presents the successful implementation of CRM in a multinational organization. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of CRM in multinational enterprises.

  3. THE EXPANSION OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES GLOBALLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUDUIALĂ POPESCU LORENA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The multinational firms now have a very important role to play in all countries' economies and international economic relations, turning into an increasingly important issue for governments. Through foreign direct investment, these firms can bring substantial gains to both home and host states by contributing to the efficient use of capital, technology and human resources across countries, and thus can play an important role in the development of economic prosperity and social issues. So the common goal of all countries is to stimulate positive contributions by which multinational firms can make economic and social progress and reduce or solve the difficulties that may arise from their operations.

  4. Who Gets to Lead the Multinational Team?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna

    2017-01-01

    of their core self-evaluations. A study of over 230 individuals from 46 nationalities working in 36 self-managing teams generally supports the expected main and moderation effects. Individual core self-evaluations enhance an otherwise weak effect of English proficiency, but compensate for low levels of national......This article examines the emergence of informal leadership in multinational teams. Building on and extending status characteristics theory, the article proposes and tests a model that describes how global inequalities reproduce in multinational teams, and accounts for who gets to lead these teams...

  5. LOCATION DECISIONS OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the location decisions of foreign direct investments by the most important global multinational companies in Romania. The study covers the top 100 multinational companies, according to Fortune and underline that all of them have the headquarters location in the United States. In particular, this analysis presents the distribution of global companies based on the main industry and major economic sectors. The first company, from the rank 100, that invests in our country is Exxon Mobil (the number two on the list and has numerous projects in petroleum refining industry in many other countries, because energy sector is one of the most important ones in the global economy.

  6. Cultural Penetration in Latin America through Multinational Advertising Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Toro, Wanda

    Few studies have addressed the issue of cultural penetration of Latin American countries by multinational corporations (MNCs) and multinational advertising agencies (MAAs). Whether they are considered multinational or transnational, MAAs have expanded as a form of international communication in the global market, forming the backbone of MNCs.…

  7. Single Particle Optical Sizing (SPOS). II. Hydrodynamic forces and application to aggregating dispersions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelssers, E.G.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Fleer, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The shear and extension forces occurring during the hydrodynamic focusing in our SPOS instrument which is described in the preceding paper ([1.]), are analyzed and compared with estimates for the binding forces between particles in salt coagulation and polymer flocculation. It is found that the

  8. Six-Axis Force-Torque Transducer for Mars 2018 Mission, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A transducer element that is hearty enough for a Mars lander mission needs to be developed so that a six-axis force and torque transducer is possible. The technical...

  9. International taxation and multinational firm decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrios, S.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2012-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we examine the separate effects of host and additional parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. The impact of

  10. Taxing Multinationals 'Post-BEPS' - What's Next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe taxation of multinational companies has been attracting a great deal of attention in recent years. Com- pany tax planning and country tax competition have increasingly been questioned, by the general public, media, in politics and academia. Countries compete for investment, reducing

  11. Risk Management Practices of Multinational and indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Construction projects' high uncertainty rates make them unattractive to non-risk takers. Construction companies are therefore necessarily risk takers, albeit, to varying degrees. This study made an inquiry into the risk management (RM) practices of multinational and indigenous construction companies (MCCs and ICCs, ...

  12. Acquisitions by Multinationals and Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper develops a theoretical framework where a multinational firm (MNE) is allowed to acquire or sell a productive asset in multiple segmented asset markets. The asset is used to produce a final good which can be sold in multiple countries, with segmented product markets, undergoing

  13. International HR Strategy of Brazilian Technology Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Morilha Muritiba

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of Brazilian Multinationals from the information technology [IT] sector were compared in their international Human Resources strategy. The analysis is focused on the development and application of two research models. One analyzes the level of subsidiary autonomy in terms of strategic HR decisions, including difficult decisions regarding coordination in multinationals, following the theoretical approach of the autonomy of subsidiaries (Kidger, 2002; Nohria & Ghoshal, 1997. The other is related to the level of internationalization of HR strategies, defined as the capacity to take advantage of globalization, providing the best resources for the company regardless of where they are located (Sparrow, 2007. Both models were applied in a multiple case study method (Eisenhardt, 1989. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and company reports, and analyzed through content analysis. The results show: (a a more centralizing characteristic of the multinational companies examined, despite the limitations of this choice as shown by the literature; and (b that Brazilian IT multinationals tend to rely more on their national competencies when managing human resources instead of going global to aggregate differentiated competencies.

  14. Global Oligopolistic Competition and Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Hoenen, Anne Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary International Business (IB) literature has ’forgotten’ a key insight of the early foreign direct investment (FDI) literature, namely that FDI often is driven by strategic interaction of multinational corporations (MNCs) in oligopolistic industries. Instead, the IB literature has ...

  15. Managing Human Resources in a Multinational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumetzberger, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To develop more sensitivity for different patterns of human resource management in multinational companies. Design/methodology/approach: Systemic approach; the concepts and models are based on the evaluation of consulting projects in the field of human resource management. Findings: A concept of four typical varieties of human resource…

  16. Employment Practices of Multinational Companies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Minbaeva, Dana

    Globaliseringen er en udfordring for såvel ledere som ansatte i multinationale selskaber. En analyse af ledere og medarbejderes relationer er afgørende for at forstå ledelse, forretningsforhold og arbejdsmarkedsrelationer i Danmark. Tilstedeværelsen af multinationale selskaber (Multinational Comp...

  17. Multinational Taxation and R&D Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waegenaere, A.; Sansing, R.C.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of taxation on the incentives of multinational firms to develop and use intellectual property. We model optimal investment and production decisions by firms that engage in a patent race by making R&D investments. We investigate how taxes affect the level and

  18. Multinational taxation and R&D investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Sansing, R.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of taxation on the incentives of multinational firms to develop and use intellectual property. We model optimal investment and production decisions by firms that engage in a patent race by making R&D investments. We investigate how taxes affect the level and

  19. Helping Behavior in Multinational Executive Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mors, Marie Louise; Miller, Stewart; McDonald, Michael

    This study develops a framework that draws upon the socio-psychology and network literatures to explain helping behavior in an executive’s multinational network. Focusing on executives' perceptions of willingness to help, we examine network structure (geographic and organizational boundaries), st...

  20. Multinational Subsidiary Performance: Evidence from the Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to ascertain the factors that contribute to the performance of multinational subsidiary banks in Ghana. Using an unbalanced random effects panel regression estimation following the Hausman specification test, the study found that increasing bank size does not necessarily lead to performance. As it stands ...

  1. Shaping Regional Strategies of Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich; Heinicke, Patrick; Rasche, Andreas

    This paper examines the factors that drive the success of multinational corporations (MNCs) in their pursuit of regional strategies. We develop a comprehensive regional success factor model to investigate the effects of regional management autonomy and regional product/service adaption...... management autonomy and regional product/service adaption are higly contingent upon contextual influences on MNCs....

  2. Intercultural Communication Problems in Japanese Multinationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    Many large Japanese-owned multinational corporations have established successful subsidiaries in the United States, but distinct ethnic and cultural differences have caused communication problems between Japanese managers and American laborers and business people. Many top executives of the Japanese subsidiaries are sent to the United States on a…

  3. Forces between a rigid probe particle and a liquid interface. II. The general case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagastine, R R; White, L R

    2002-03-15

    The semianalytic theory developed previously (Chan, D. Y. C., Dagastine, R. R., and White, L. R., J. Colloid Interface Sci. 236, 141 (2001)) to predict the force curve of an AFM measurement at a liquid interface using a colloidal probe has been expanded to incorporate a general force law with both attractive and repulsive forces. Expressions for the gradient of the force curve are developed to calculate the point at which the probe particle on the cantilever will spontaneously jump in toward the liquid interface. The calculation of the jump instability is reduced to a straightforward embroidery of the simple algorithms presented in Chan et al. In a variety of sample calculations using force laws including van der Waals, electrostatic, and hydrophobic forces for both oil/water and bubble/water interfaces, we have duplicated the general behaviors observed in several AFM investigations at liquid interfaces. The behavior of the drop as a Hookean spring and the numerical difficulties of a full numerical calculation of F(deltaX) are also discussed.

  4. Multinational Corporations and Stock Price Crash Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony May

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A nascent literature in finance and accounting on tail risk in individual stock returns concludes that bad news hoarding by corporate managers engenders sudden, extreme crashes in a firm’s stock price when the bad news is eventually made public. This literature finds that firm-specific crash risk is higher among firms with more severe asymmetric information and agency problems. A hitherto disjointed literature spanning the fields of international business, finance, and accounting suggests that geographic dispersion in a firm’s operations, and especially dispersion across different countries, gives rise to organizational complexities and greater costs of monitoring that can exacerbate asymmetric information and agency problems. Motivated by the confluence of arguments and findings from these two strands of literature, this paper examines whether stock price crash risk is higher among multinational firms than domestic firms. Using a large sample of U.S. headquartered firms during 1987-2011, we find robust evidence that multinational firms are significantly more likely to crash than domestic firms. Moreover, we show that the difference in crash risk between multinational and domestic firms is most acute among firms with weaker corporate governance mechanisms, including weaker shareholder rights, less independent boards, and less stable institutional ownership. Our analysis indicates that stronger monitoring from each of these three governance mechanisms significantly attenuates the positive relation between crash risk and multinationality. Our findings are robust to the use of alternative measures of crash risk and to controlling for known determinants of crash risk identified in prior studies. Our study offers new insights that should hold value for scholars and market participants interested in understanding the implications of heighted agency problems that multinational firms are likely to encounter and scholars and market participants

  5. Simulation and Sensitivity in a Nested Modeling System for South America. Part II: GCM Boundary Forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maisa; Seth, Anji

    2003-08-01

    of this study, the RegCM's ability to simulate circulation and rainfall observed in the two extreme seasons was demonstrated when driven at the lateral boundaries by reanalyzed forcing. Seasonal integrations with the RegCM driven by GCM ensemble-derived lateral boundary forcing demonstrate that the nested model responds well to the SST forcing, by capturing the major features of the circulation and rainfall differences between the two years. The GCM-driven model also improves upon the monthly evolution of rainfall compared with that from the GCM. However, the nested model rainfall simulations for the two seasons are degraded compared with those from the reanalyses-driven RegCM integrations. The poor location of the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the GCM leads to excess rainfall in Nordeste in the nested model.An expanded domain was tested, wherein the RegCM was permitted more internal freedom to respond to SST and regional orographic forcing. Results show that the RegCM is able to improve the location of the ITCZ, and the seasonal evolution of rainfall in Nordeste, the Amazon region, and the southeastern region of Brazil. However, it remains that the limiting factor in the skill of the nested modeling system is the quality of the lateral boundary forcing provided by the global model.

  6. Experimental study of the transition from forced to natural circulation in EBR-II at low power and flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, J.L.; Singer, R.M.; Tokar, J.V.; Sullivan, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests have been conducted in EBR-II which studied the dynamics of the transition from forced to natural circulation flow in a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Each test was initiated by abruptly tripping an electromagnetic pump which supplies 5 to 6% of the normal full operational primary flow rate. The ensuing flow coast-down reached a minimum value after which the flow increased as natural circulation was established. The effects of secondary system flow through the intermediate heat exchanger and reactor decay power level on the minimum in-core flow rates and maximum in-core temperatures were examined

  7. [Constitutive correlations for wire-wrapped subchannel analysis under forced and mixed convection conditions]. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.K.; Todreas, N.E.

    1984-08-01

    A new version of the ENERGY series code, ENERGY-IV, was written for predicting coolant temperature distributions in wire-wrapped rod assemblies used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. The ENERGY-IV Code is applicable to both steady-state forced and mixed convection operation for a single isolated assembly. (The SUPERENERGY Code, [Basehore (1980)] is applicable to core wide forced convection analysis.) ENERGY-IV is an empirical code designed to be fast running. Hence the core designer can use it as an inexpensive thermal hydraulic design or diagnosis tool

  8. Expanding Simulations as a Means of Tactical Training with Multinational Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    threat.8 “Strengthen our global network of allies and partners” remains a national military objective.9 The eight key components of globally integrated ...validity of the simulations environment.23 What LVC-IA was developed to do was create an Integrated Training Environment (ITE). Through the ITE, a...with multinational partners. Through comparative document analysis, the research focused on understanding the mission of regionally aligned forces

  9. Report of the Secretary of Defense Task Force on DoD Nuclear Weapons Management. Phase II: Review of the DoD Nuclear Mission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlesinger, James R; Carns, Michael P; Crouch, II, J. D; Gansler, Jacques S; Giambastiani, Jr., Edmund P; Hamre, John J; Miller, Franklin C; Williams, Christopher A; Blackwell, Jr, James A

    2008-01-01

    ...). This report covers Phase II findings and recommendations. In Phase II, the Task Force found that the lack of interest in and attention to the nuclear mission and nuclear deterrence, as discussed in our Phase I report, go well beyond the Air...

  10. Brownian motion in a field of force and the diffusion theory of chemical reactions. II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, H.C.

    1956-01-01

    H. A. Kramers has studied the rate of chemical reactions in view of the Brownian forces caused by a surrounding medium in temperature equilibrium. In a previous paper 3) the author gave a solution of Kramers' diffusion equation in phase space by systematic development. In this paper the general

  11. Burnout in boiling heat transfer. Part II: subcooled and low quality forced-convection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergles, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experimental and analytical developments regrading burnout in subcooled and low quality forced-convection systems are reviewed. Much data have been accumulated which clarify the parametric trends and lead to new design correlations for water and a variety of other coolants in both simple and complex geometries. A number of critical experiments and models have been developed to attempt to clarify the burnout mechanism(s) in simpler geometries and power transients

  12. Emerging Multinational Companies and Strategic Fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Filatotchev, Igor; Hobdari, Bersant

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness in international business that institutional factors need to be better incorporated into the understanding of international investments decisions of multinational companies. This applies equally to outward foreign direct investment by emerging economy firms...... has been suggested in terms of integrating various theoretical frameworks however and developing a more holistic understanding of these new investment flows. In this Editorial we propose that outward FDI from emerging economies can be better understood by analyzing them within a broad institutional...... which considers flows of outward investment from emerging economies as framed by institutional pressures at the firm level towards achieving fit between the environment, strategies, structures, resources and practices of the firm. For the multinational firm this fit must be attained along multiple...

  13. Lending behavior of multinational bank affiliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Derviz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the parent influence on lending by affiliates of a multinational bank. In the proposed theoretical model, local lending is influenced by shareholder-affiliate manager delegation and precautionary motives. The outcome is either contagion (the loan volume in the affiliate follows the direction of the parent bank country shock or performance-based reallocation of funds (substitution, depending on the degree of manager delegation in the affiliate and the liquidity-sensitivity in theparent bank. Empirical investigation, deliberately conducted on a sample not covering the latest financial crisis, shows that also in “normal” times, multinational banks that are likely to delegate lending decisions or be more liquidity-sensitive are more inclined towards contagionist behavior.

  14. Japanese Intercultural Communiccative Strategies in Multinational Companies

    OpenAIRE

    大山, 中勝

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe, from a sociolinguistic perspective, major language functions during which Japanese-American communication occurs in multinational companies in the United States. Comparing communication problems across major language functions and research memos, five major themes emerged: (1)foramlity; (2)social hierarchical distinctons; (3)ambiguous communication strategies; (4)consensus making; and (5)language attitudes. This paper also aims to identify the intercu...

  15. Japanese Intercultural Communication Strategies in Multinational Companies

    OpenAIRE

    大山, 中勝

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe, from a sociolinguistic perspective, major language functions during which Japanese-American communication occurs in multinational companies in the United States. Comparing communication problems across major language functions and research memos, five major themes emerged: (1)foramlity; (2)social hierarchical distinctons; (3)ambiguous communication strategies; (4)consensus making; and (5)language attitudes. This paper also aims to identify the intercu...

  16. Redistributive taxation, multinational enterprises, and economic integration

    OpenAIRE

    Haufler, Andreas; Klemm, Alexander; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2008-01-01

    Increased activity of multinational firms exposes national corporate tax bases to cross-country profit shifting, but also leads to rising profitability of the corporate sector. We incorporate these two effects of economic integration into a simple political economy model where the median voter decides on a redistributive income tax rate. In this setting economic integration may raise or lower the equilibrium tax rate, and it is more likely to raise the tax rate of a low-tax country. The impli...

  17. Monitoring Costs and Multinational-Bank Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph de Haas

    2006-01-01

    We use a two-country model to examine how endogenous changes in monitoring intensity and exogenous changes in monitoring efficiency affect multinational-bank lending. First, an endogenous decline in monitoring intensity limits the amount of deposits that banks can attract. This lowers bank lending. Shocks that reduce bank capital relative to firm capital therefore have a stronger negative effect on bank lending compared to a model with exogenous monitoring intensity. Second, international dif...

  18. Taxes and Decision Rights in Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2006-01-01

    We examine how a multinational's choice to centralize or de-centralize itsdecision structure is affected by country tax differentials. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs — here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax manipulation...... commitment and non-commitment to transfer prices, and for alternative modes of competition.Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, transfer prices, MNEs.JEL-Classification: H25, F23, L23....

  19. Corporate Profit Shifting and the Multinational Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes ways in which Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) shift profits from one country to another to reduce their income tax expense. This is an important topic for a number of reasons. From a country’s perspective, its income tax rates and policies can have a significant impact upon its tax revenue, economic competitiveness, and the vibrancy of its economy. From the MNE’s perspective, income tax rates and policies determine a firm’s tax obligations, and thus ...

  20. Regional Multinationals and the Korean Comestics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hoon Oh; Alan M. Rugman

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the market penetration and expansion strategy of cosmetics and toiletries multinational enterprises (MNEs) in South Korea from the perspective of regional strategy as developed recently by Rugman. We find that MNEs have different market entry and expansion strategies in the home region and in the foreign region. Home region MNEs (Japanese MNEs in this case), in general, utilize their firm-specific advantages (FSAs) better than foreign region MNEs (European and MNEs from th...

  1. Multinational teams in European and American companies

    OpenAIRE

    Numic, Aida

    2007-01-01

    Incorporating team context into research and practice concerning team effectiveness in multinational organizations still remains an ongoing challenge. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the influence of industry, corporate culture, structure, strategy and task characteristics on MNTs in business organizations and to develop a more comprehensive framework connecting the internal dynamics with contextual aspects of MNTs functioning in companies in Europe and the USA. The study was ...

  2. Intra-industry trade with multinational firms

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, H; Egger, P; Greenaway, D

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments, including the analysis of firm-level adjustment to falling trade costs, have contributed to a revival of interest in intra-industry trade (IIT). Most empirical work still relies on the standard Grubel–Lloyd measure. This however refers only to international trade, disregarding income flows stimulated by repatriated profits of multinational firms. Given the overwhelming importance of the latter, this is a major shortcoming. This paper provides a guide to measurement and es...

  3. How Subsidiaries Gain Power in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Pedersen, Torben; Andersson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    in multinational firms. Data collected from 2107 foreign-owned subsidiaries in seven European countries is used to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that mutual dependence and dependence imbalance provide strong explanations for subsidiary power. Furthermore, subsidiary power over strategic decisions...... in the MNC is gained through functional power, notably the possession of technological, rather than business-related, power or by the possession of both as they reinforce each other in strengthening the subsidiary's strategic power in the MNC network...

  4. Role of Special Forces Liaison Elements in Future Multinational Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swatek, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    ... of variables than those experienced during the Gulf War and subsequent combined operations. Thus, US commanders will require a conduit, such as SFLEs, also referred to as coalition support teams (CSTs...

  5. Rethinking the Functionality of the Multinational Joint Task Force in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017. (ISSN: 0850 3907) ... This study presents the Boko Haram crisis as a collective security threat to ... normative framework for conflict intervention in Africa, which places the.

  6. Multinational uranium enrichment in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Ali; Salahieh, Sidra; Snyder, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) agreed to by Iran and the P5+1 in July 2015 placed restrictions on Iran’s nuclear program while other Middle Eastern countries– Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates–are planning to build their own nuclear power plants to meet increasing electricity demands. Although the JCPOA restricts Iran's uranium enrichment program for 10–15 years, Iran's neighbors may choose to develop their own national enrichment programs giving them a potential nuclear weapons capability. This paper argues that converting Iran's national enrichment program to a more proliferation-resistant multinational arrangement could offer significant economic benefits–reduced capital and operational costs–due to economies of scale and the utilization of more efficient enrichment technologies. In addition, the paper examines policy aspects related to financing, governance, and how multinational enrichment could fit into the political and security context of the Middle East. A multinational enrichment facility managed by regional and international partners would provide more assurance that it remains peaceful and could help build confidence between Iran and its neighbors to cooperate in managing other regional security challenges. - Highlights: • Freezing Iran's nuclear program is an opportunity to launch joint initiatives in ME. • A joint uranium enrichment program in the Middle East offers economic benefits. • Other benefits include improved nuclear security and transparency in the region.

  7. Revisiting Asian monsoon formation and change associated with Tibetan Plateau forcing: II. Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong; Duan, Anmin; Bao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Hong, Jieli; Zhou, Linjiong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Dong, Buwen [University of Reading, Department of Meteorology, National Centre for Atmospheric Science, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    Data analysis based on station observations reveals that many meteorological variables averaged over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are closely correlated, and their trends during the past decades are well correlated with the rainfall trend of the Asian summer monsoon. However, such correlation does not necessarily imply causality. Further diagnosis confirms the existence of a weakening trend in TP thermal forcing, characterized by weakened surface sensible heat flux in spring and summer during the past decades. This weakening trend is associated with decreasing summer precipitation over northern South Asia and North China and increasing precipitation over northwestern China, South China, and Korea. An atmospheric general circulation model, the HadAM3, is employed to elucidate the causality between the weakening TP forcing and the change in the Asian summer monsoon rainfall. Results demonstrate that a weakening in surface sensible heating over the TP results in reduced summer precipitation in the plateau region and a reduction in the associated latent heat release in summer. These changes in turn result in the weakening of the near-surface cyclonic circulation surrounding the plateau and the subtropical anticyclone over the subtropical western North Pacific, similar to the results obtained from the idealized TP experiment in Part I of this study. The southerly that normally dominates East Asia, ranging from the South China Sea to North China, weakens, resulting in a weaker equilibrated Sverdrup balance between positive vorticity generation and latent heat release. Consequently, the convergence of water vapor transport is confined to South China, forming a unique anomaly pattern in monsoon rainfall, the so-called ''south wet and north dry.'' Because the weakening trend in TP thermal forcing is associated with global warming, the present results provide an effective means for assessing projections of regional climate over Asia in the context of global

  8. A Clinical Evaluation of Three Force Delivery Systems in Stage II of the Begg Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincy Antony Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Materials and methods: The present study was designed to compare the rates of retraction and anchorage loss between elastics, elastomeric chains and nickel-titanium (NiTi closed coil springs, using a continuous archwire system with the Begg light wire differential force technique. Results: The rate of canine retraction was faster by 0.6 mm per month with the NiTi closed coil spring compared to elastics and elastomeric chains. The NiTi closed coil springs produced more rapid rate of canine retraction but they also produced the greatest amount of anchorage loss.

  9. Air Force Support of Army Ground Operations Lessons Learned during World War II, Korea, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-06

    Th ;e 8epre--cdin this paper .rv thoe. of ’:ceauhor IDep 2rtmt-nt of Diefense rayo t gr: s hsPcC % FOC, O P 0- C GOUND OP!-txA’TONS ’A NS tTAI.D 11...NOTE S T edder, Wi.th Preudice: The War Memoirs . - y Air Force. Lord Tedaer. rr- 40-43. 2.".~ : X :"~ , M~.c, ’ = A r Power in Three Wars WW 7:, Kora...that FEAF assume operational control over land based Marine air units and over carri.er bjdsed aviation operating over Korea effective as soon as X

  10. U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II. Combat Chronology 1941-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    B-17’s and B-24’s bomb M/Ys at Troyes , Reims, Sarreguemines, Metz, Liege, and Brussels. 5/1/44 Ninth AF The last of the 11 bomb gps (8 medium and 3...weather and photo rcn over Shimushu and bomb Matsuwa area. 5/25/44 Eighth AF 859 B-17’s and B-24’s operating in 4 forces bomb M/Ys at Mulhouse, Troyes ...Dessau, Oschersleben, Halberstadt, Rotenburg, Zwischenahn, Oldenburg, Diepholz, and Handorf; M/Ys at Brussels, Troyes , and Reims; V-weapon sites at Watten

  11. Burnout in boiling heat transfer. II. Subcooled and low-quality forced-convection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergles, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experimental and analytical developments regarding burnout in subcooled and low-quality forced-convection systems are reviewed. Many data have been accumulated which clarify the parametric trends and lead to new design correlations for water and a variety of other coolants in both simple and complex geometries. A number of critical experiments and models have been developed to attempt to clarify the burnout mechanism(s) in simpler geometries. Other topics discussed include burnout with power transients and techniques to augment burnout. 86 references

  12. The Decay of Forced Turbulent Coflow of He II Past a Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuin, S.; Varga, E.; Skrbek, L.

    2014-04-01

    We present an experimental study of the decay of He II turbulence created mechanically, by a bellows-induced flow past a stationary grid in a 7×7 mm2 superfluid wind tunnel. The temporal decay L( t) originating from various steady-states of vortex line length per unit volume, L 0, has been observed based on measurements of the attenuation of second-sound, in the temperature range 1.17 Kbench-mark Oregon towed grid experiments and, despite our turbulence being non-homogeneous, find strong similarities.

  13. Madumycin II inhibits peptide bond formation by forcing the peptidyl transferase center into an inactive state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterman, Ilya A.; Khabibullina, Nelli F.; Komarova, Ekaterina S.; Kasatsky, Pavel; Kartsev, Victor G.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Dontsova, Olga A.; Konevega, Andrey L.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Polikanov, Yury S. (InterBioScreen); (UIC); (MSU-Russia); (Kurchatov)

    2017-05-13

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is limiting the effectiveness of commonly used antibiotics, which spurs a renewed interest in revisiting older and poorly studied drugs. Streptogramins A is a class of protein synthesis inhibitors that target the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) on the large subunit of the ribosome. In this work, we have revealed the mode of action of the PTC inhibitor madumycin II, an alanine-containing streptogramin A antibiotic, in the context of a functional 70S ribosome containing tRNA substrates. Madumycin II inhibits the ribosome prior to the first cycle of peptide bond formation. It allows binding of the tRNAs to the ribosomal A and P sites, but prevents correct positioning of their CCA-ends into the PTC thus making peptide bond formation impossible. We also revealed a previously unseen drug-induced rearrangement of nucleotides U2506 and U2585 of the 23S rRNA resulting in the formation of the U2506•G2583 wobble pair that was attributed to a catalytically inactive state of the PTC. The structural and biochemical data reported here expand our knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms by which peptidyl transferase inhibitors modulate the catalytic activity of the ribosome.

  14. Forces of vortice trapping and critical current in type II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bormio, C.

    1985-12-01

    The vortice-centers interactions of trapping in type II superconductor materials were studied by two theories: thermodynamic (Hampshire-Taylor) and microscopic (Larkin - Ovchinnikov). The study was applied to NbTi with composition of 50% weight of Ti. They are commercial cables containing 361 filaments with final diameter of 0.35 mm for the wire and 9.2 μm foi filaments. The material presents high deformation rate in area and high density of dislocations. These defects actuate as centers of trapping. Variations in themomechanical treatments of superconductor cables modify the interaction mechanisms. The specific mechanism for each treatment type was identified. Measurements of critical current density in function of magnetic field in the range from 1 to 7 Tesla were done, which the usual superconductor parameters as upper critical field and Ginzburg - Landau (Kappa-k) parameter are estimated from literature data. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Canadian Forces Experience with Turbofan HCF - Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinart, Corey; Theriault, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) cracking of a Canadian Forces (CF) turbofan engine fuel tube resulted in a six year, multinational effort to identify the root cause and to ultimately develop and implement a solution...

  16. Contact lens wear by Royal Air Force aircrew in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Richard M

    2014-04-01

    To provide an overview of the use of contact lenses by RAF aircrew in World War II by identifying some of the fitters and wearers and appraising the clinical results that they achieved. A wide-ranging literature search was undertaken that encompassed peer-reviewed journals, non-refereed publications, books, official publications, newspapers and archived documents. Thirty-one aircrew are known to have worn sealed scleral lenses in order to meet the required visual standards. Of these, only two were considered to be completely unsuccessful, one of whom was unilaterally aphakic. One additional case of undisclosed contact lens wear was found and the identity of this officer was established. Brief biographies of a few pilots establish the context of their contact lens wear. Overall, the results of scleral lens wear were variable reflecting those achieved by civilian patients of the period. While three men complained of discomfort due to heat and glare, one pilot experienced no photophobia when flying above white clouds in brilliant sunshine and another found no difficulty caused by altitude or tropical climate. Wearing time ranged from about 2h to 16, or more, hours. In about a third of the cases, wearing time was limited due to the onset of a form of contact lens induced-epithelial oedema known as Sattler's veil and effective solutions to this problem were not implemented until after the war. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Institutional arrangements for a multinational reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.B.; Chayes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper lists some of the major issues that would have to be faced in negotiating the institutional structure of a multinational nuclear-fuel center. None of the organization problems is inherently insoluble. Difficulties are exacerbated by the large number of questions, their interrelations, and the complexity of the assumed structure. However, the assumptions posed the most difficult case. A reduction in membership and in the ambitious scope of the enterprise, at least at the outset, would greatly reduce the complexity of the organizational structure and the difficulty of negotiations. The analysis suggests that multinational fuel-cycle activities should start out more modestly, perhaps only with joint appraisal by a relatively few countries with existing geographic or economic connections. If operations are contemplated it would seem that the first step should be joint arrangements for spent-fuel storage, with the decision to go forward to more elaborate activities deferred. This approach would not only be simpler and permit the parties to gain experience working together, but it would have the virtue of delaying reprocessing until it was clear that there was a real need for it. Even on this reduced basis, the negotiating task would not be easy. The key, of course, to overcoming difficult technical problems of institutional structure is politial will--the genuine commitment of the participants to the aims and values of the enterprise. This suggests that any effort to cajole--not to say coerce--participation in a multinational fuel-cycle enterprise would be wholly misplaced. A reluctant partner would have available an infinitude of points and issues to create plausible, irritating, and ultimately defeating delay and complication in the negotiating process. Only assent freely given in the perception that the enterprise really serves the interest of the countries involved will be able to surmount the many institutional problems that will inevitably arise

  18. The Anticipation of the ENSO: What Resonantly Forced Baroclinic Waves Can Teach Us (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Pinault

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to take advantage of recent work on the study of resonantly forced baroclinic waves in the tropical Pacific to significantly reduce systematic and random forecasting errors resulting from the current statistical models intended to predict El Niño. Their major drawback is that sea surface temperature (SST, which is widely used, is very difficult to decipher because of the extreme complexity of exchanges at the ocean-atmosphere interface. In contrast, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO forecasting can be performed between 7 and 8 months in advance precisely and very simply from (1 the subsurface water temperature at particular locations and (2 the time lag of the events (their expected date of occurrence compared to a regular 4-year cycle. Discrimination of precursor signals from objective criteria prevents the anticipation of wrong events, as occurred in 2012 and 2014. The amplitude of the events, their date of appearance, as well as their potential impact on the involved regions are estimated. Three types of ENSO events characterize their climate impact according to whether they are (1 unlagged or weakly lagged, (2 strongly lagged, or (3 out of phase with the annual quasi-stationary wave (QSW (Central Pacific El Niño events. This substantial progress is based on the analysis of baroclinic QSWs in the tropical basin and the resulting genesis of ENSO events. As for cold events, the amplification of La Niña can be seen a few months before the maturation phase of an El Niño event, as occurred in 1998 and 2016.

  19. Multinational Firms and Business Cycle Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menno, Dominik Francesco

    This paper studies the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) on the transmission of international business cycles. I document for the G7 countries between 1991 and 2006 that increases in bilateral FDI linkages are associated with more synchronized investment cycles. I also find...... that the relation between FDI integration and synchronization of gross domestic product (GDP) is - yet positive - statistically insignificant after controlling for time fixed effects. I then study a model of international business cycles with an essential role for FDI and shocks to multinational activity...

  20. Disruptive Innovation by Emerging Multinational Latecomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    Despite the growing interest in the emerging-economy multinational enterprise (EMNE), there is little knowledge about the underlying mechanism for EMNEs as latecomers to catch up with and even leapfrog the traditional MNEs as early-movers. The cross-fertilization between the research streams...... of latecomer innovation as a special DI by EMNE at BOP to provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the trajectories of catching up and leapfrogging. Built upon latecomer innovation, EMNEs at BOP can emerge as the most disruptive challengers to the MNE incumbents at TOP. The implications of reframed...... constructs, integrative typology, and emerging theory for research and practice are also discussed....

  1. Towards strategic CSR in the multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Thorup-Jensen, Line

    2014-01-01

    CSR is a context-specific phenomenon, which makes working strategically with CSR particularly challenging for multinational corporation as it must allow for the various contexts of operation. Based on the extant literature, this article provides a conceptual presentation of MNC's opportunities...... to work with CSR acknowledging and taking into account the the context embeddedness of CSR. We propose that MNCs consider four decision areas establishwhen developing strategic CSR. Furthermore, we present a framework model for CSR that takes into account the MNC's need to consider both a local...

  2. Essays on Multinational Production and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico

    This Thesis consists of an introduction followed by three independent chapters. Each chapter is a self-contained paper that can be read independently. They cover different topics of international economics with a specific focus on multinational production and international trade. A common feature...... the intensity of spillovers to local suppliers. Domestic firms benefit only from the activity of foreign clients that are not vertically integrated in their industry. In the last chapter, I use a detailed dataset of international transactions of Danish companies to study the impact of Chinese competition...

  3. Establishing a Communication Link between Multinational Companies and Their Subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hema; Golen, Steven

    A key characteristic of multinational companies is a worldwide perspective and orientation in managerial decision making. In its quest for international opportunities, a multinational company confronts many problems and uncertainties in evaluating and dealing with political, legal, economic, social, cultural, and governmental policy variables and…

  4. Internal capital markets and lending by multinational bank subsidiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Lelyveld, Iman

    We use new panel data on the intra-group ownership structure and the balance sheets of 45 of the largest multinational bank holdings to analyze what determines the credit growth of their subsidiaries. We find evidence for the existence of internal capital markets through which multinational banks

  5. Nationality Divides and Shared Leadership in Multinational Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna

    2015-01-01

    How shared leadership is enacted in teams that are nationally diverse is currently under- researched, despite the increasing presence of multinational teams in the workplace. To better understand the phenomenon of shared leadership in multinational team contexts, we propose two ways in which...

  6. Consulting-Research Froblems with German and American Multinational Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    International researchers need to be aware of international problems and multinational managerial codes when they work with worldwide organizations. This paper develops the premise that consulting with German multinational companies is more complex than consulting with or researching for American firms. Discussion focuses on the following three…

  7. Funding Costs and Loan Pricing by Multinational Bank Affiliates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2009), s. 1-48 ISSN 1803-7070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multinational banks * bank loan pricing * internal capital market Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/derviz- funding costs and loan pricing by multinational bank affiliates.pdf

  8. Ethics in international business: multinational approaches to child labor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    How do multinationals address conflicting norms and expectations? This article focuses on corporate codes of ethics in the area of child labor as possible expressions of Strategic International Human Resource Management. It analyses whether fifty leading multinational adopt universal ethical norms

  9. Multinationality as real option facilitator – Illusion or reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Park, Jung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature provides multiple conflicting arguments on why and when multinationality should enhance or impede the value-relevance of firms’ real options. We address this issue by examining whether the relationship between stock returns and changes in return volatility varies with multinat......Previous literature provides multiple conflicting arguments on why and when multinationality should enhance or impede the value-relevance of firms’ real options. We address this issue by examining whether the relationship between stock returns and changes in return volatility varies...... with multinationality. Our results indicate that multinationality does indeed act as a real option facilitator. Furthermore, we show that, consistent with the notion that there are limits to the operating flexibility associated with multinationality this benefit only accrues fully if the firm is not financially...

  10. The Features of Transformation of Multinational Enterprises in Conditions of Influence of External Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Viktoriia S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of transforming the environment of multinational enterprises are considered from the standpoint of the general system theory. Tendencies of growth of pressure of the international competition on the Ukrainian branch markets have been identified. Special attention is paid to the nature of interaction between global and local forces that determine the type of operating environment. On the basis of the allocated nine main directions of transformational processes at the enterprise, the matrix of decision-making on ways of integration of the enterprise in business space has been proposed. Attention is focused on the problem of the local and the global, which is manifested in the decisions on standardization and adaptation of strategies. The dependence of degree of adaptation and standardization of strategic decisions from the correlation of local and global factors of environment, from the type of environment, in which a multinational enterprise works, has been characterized. The national and international aspects of both the internal networks and the external cooperation agreements, advantages of the joint innovative efforts in the form of cooperation are researched. The international importance of multinational enterprises is very topical, as the interaction between own capital and external sources increases the innovation potential of enterprises.

  11. Multimodal Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Investigations of a Photovoltaic WSe2/MoS2 Type-II Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadori, Yann; Bendiab, Nedjma; Grévin, Benjamin

    2018-01-10

    Atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) have become a new platform for the development of next-generation optoelectronic and light-harvesting devices. Here, we report a Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) investigation carried out on a type-II photovoltaic heterojunction based on WSe 2 monolayer flakes and a bilayer MoS 2 film stacked in vertical configuration on a Si/SiO 2 substrate. Band offset characterized by a significant interfacial dipole is pointed out at the WSe 2 /MoS 2 vertical junction. The photocarrier generation process and phototransport are studied by applying a differential technique allowing to map directly two-dimensional images of the surface photovoltage (SPV) over the vertical heterojunctions (vHJ) and in its immediate vicinity. Differential SPV reveals the impact of chemical defects on the photocarrier generation and that negative charges diffuse in the MoS 2 a few hundreds of nanometers away from the vHJ. The analysis of the SPV data confirms unambiguously that light absorption results in the generation of free charge carriers that do not remain coulomb-bound at the type-II interface. A truly quantitative determination of the electron-hole (e-h) quasi-Fermi levels splitting (i.e., the open-circuit voltage) is achieved by measuring the differential vacuum-level shift over the WSe 2 flakes and the MoS 2 layer. The dependence of the energy-level splitting as a function of the optical power reveals that Shockley-Read-Hall processes significantly contribute to the interlayer recombination dynamics. Finally, a newly developed time-resolved mode of the KPFM is applied to map the SPV decay time constants. The time-resolved SPV images reveal the dynamics of delayed recombination processes originating from photocarriers trapping at the SiO 2 /TMDC interfaces.

  12. Performance/Design Requirements and Detailed Technical Description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem for Integration into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. K.; And Others

    The performance/design requirements and a detailed technical description for a Computer-Directed Training Subsystem to be integrated into the Air Force Phase II Base Level System are described. The subsystem may be used for computer-assisted lesson construction and has presentation capability for on-the-job training for data automation, staff, and…

  13. Antimicrobial Exposure Assessment Task Force II (AEATF II) Volume 5: Governing Document for a Multi-Year Antimicrobial Chemical Exposure Monitoring Program (interim draft document with changes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the overall scope of the AEATF II program, demonstrates the need for additional human exposure monitoring data and explains the proposed methodology for the exposure monitoring studies proposed for conduct by the AEATF II.

  14. Antimicrobial Exposure Assessment Task Force II (AEATF II) Volume 5: Governing Document for a Multi-Year Antimicrobial Chemical Exposure Monitoring Program (interim draft document)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the overall scope of the AEATF II program, demonstrates the need for additional human exposure monitoring data and explains the proposed methodology for the exposure monitoring studies proposed for conduct by the AEATF II.

  15. Global Cities and Multinational Enterprise Location Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goerzen, Anthony; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    We combine the concept of location derived by economic geographers with theories of the multinational enterprise (MNE) and the liability of foreignness developed by international business scholars, to examine the factors that propel MNEs toward, or away from, “global cities”. We argue that three...... distinctive characteristics of global cities – global interconnectedness, cosmopolitanism, and abundance of advanced producer services – help MNEs overcome the costs of doing business abroad, and we identify the contingencies under which these characteristics combine with firm attributes to exert......- and subsidiary-level factors, including investment motives, proprietary capabilities, and business strategy. Our study provides important insights for international business scholars by shedding new light on MNE location choices and also contributes to our understanding of economic geography by examining...

  16. Low-intensity conflict in multinational corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Andersen, Poul Houman; Storgaard, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    in four Danish MNCs. Findings: They describe consequences of low-intensity conflict and identify three types of actions by headquarters’ representatives that could lead to the development of low-intensity conflicts, namely, ignoring, bypassing and educating. Originality/value: Very few studies have dealt......Purpose: This paper aims to identify antecedents for, and consequences of, low-intensity inter-unit conflict in multinational corporations (MNCs). Inter-unit conflict in MNCs is an important and well-researched theme. However, while most studies have focused on open conflict acknowledged by both...... parties, much less research has dealt with low-intensity conflicts. Still, low-intensity conflicts can be highly damaging – not least because they are rarely resolved. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a qualitative approach to understanding low-intensity conflict relying on 170 interviews...

  17. Human Resource Outsourcing: Lesson from Multinational Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasliza Abdul Halim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the consequence of the organization internalization on the practice of human resource (HR outsourcing among manufacturing organizations. The assumption is that HR outsourcing is perceived as an innovative practice and that multinational enterprise (MNEs will employ this practice more than local organizations. The data was gathered from survey questionnaires of 232 manufacturing organizations. Of the sample, 113 organizations engaged with HR outsourcing, and 71 are MNEs that partially outsource their HR functions. The findings reveal that HR outsourcing among MNEs is used to a greater extent than local organizations. A significant difference is found in the extent of outsourcing payroll, benefits, training and recruitment between MNEs and in local organizations.

  18. Multinational Corporation and International Strategic Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆兮

    2015-01-01

    The world is now deeply into the second great wave of globalization, in which product, capital, and markets are becoming more and more integrated across countries. Multinational corporations are gaining their rapid growth around the globe and playing a significant role in the world economy. Meanwhile, the accelerated rate of globalization has also imposed pressures on MNCs, left them desperately seeking overseas alliances in order to remain competitive. International strategic alliances, which bring together large and commonly competitive firms for specific purposes, have gradual y shown its importance in the world market. And the form of international joint venture is now widely adopted. Then after the formation of alliances, selecting the right partner, formulating right strategies, establishing harmonious and effective partnership are generally the key to success.

  19. Subsidiary Initiative Taking in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörrenbacher, Christoph; Gammelgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the political maneuvering that accompanies subsidiary initiative taking in multinational corporations. On the basis of an explorative empirical investigation of subsidiary initiative taking in the French subsidiaries of six German MNCs, the paper explores the activities...... that subsidiaries undertake to sell their initiatives, and the relationships among issue selling, subsidiary power and headquarters’ hierarchical power. The findings suggest that the use of issue-selling tactics is common when subsidiaries engage in initiative taking. In addition, the paper demonstrates that a low...... degree of issue selling is needed to obtain approval of an initiative in less asymmetrical headquarters–subsidiary power relationships (i.e. relationships in which subsidiaries are relatively powerful). In cases where power relationships are highly asymmetrical, issue selling is a necessity...

  20. Identifying motivational factors within a multinational company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bradutanu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the main motivational factors within a multinational company. The first objective is to identify work functions, formulated on Abraham Maslow’s pyramid, following the identification of the key characteristics that motivate an employee at the work place and last, but not least, the type of motivation that employees focus, intrinsic or extrinsic. The research method targeted a questionnaire based survey, including various company employees and an interview with the manager. The results confirmed that in Romania, employees put great emphasis on extrinsic motivation, a certain income and job security being primary. These results have implications for managers that in order to effectively motivate staff, first, must know their needs and expectations. To identify the main needs and motivational factors we had as a starting point Maslow's pyramid.

  1. International Transfer Pricing in Multinational Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Cools, Martine; Rohde, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Current curricula in management accounting stress the role of transfer pricing as a tool for measuring the performance of responsibility centers and their managers. Recently, however, multinational enterprises (MNEs) have felt increasing pressure to comply with transfer pricing tax regulation...... of responsibility accounting. Specifically, the case study is a fictional MNE, allowing you to apply the OECD Guidelines in practice to cross-border transfers within an MNE, and to discuss the implications of tax-based transfer pricing for responsibility accounting. As a basis for working on the case study....... As a result, tax risk management considerations play a key role in the transfer pricing decisions of MNEs today. This case seeks to provide you with examples of the core principles of international transfer pricing, as well as to allow you to discuss international transfer pricing in the context...

  2. Multinational surveys for monitoring eHealth policy implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilstad, Heidi; Faxvaag, Arild; Hyppönen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    Development of multinational variables for monitoring eHealth policy implementations is a complex task and requires multidisciplinary, knowledgebased international collaboration. Experts in an interdisciplinary workshop identified useful data and pitfalls for comparative variable development...

  3. FIRMS’ TRANSNATIONALIZATION. EVOLUTION OF MULTINATIONAL GROUPS OPERATING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen NISTOR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available International business development is a complex phenomenon, characterized by a particularly dynamic due both to external and internal factors of the company and the need to foreshadow future directions in the development of the economic, social, political framework. Taking into consideration the ways that a company can expand, this article aims to analyse the evolution of multinational corporations operating in Romania in 2007-2012. Using data provided by The National Institute of Statistics (NIS, we focus on the multinationals groups that entered Romanian market in the period mentioned above. In this regard, we compared the multinational groups with the national ones, identifying the concentration of foreign capital by country. The results show that although has been recorded a significant variation of multinational groups in Romania, especially during the financial crisis period, the companies from Deutschland occupy first place by number of employees.

  4. Multinational subsidiary knowledge protection - Do mandates and clusters matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Shehu, Edlira; de Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    International knowledge spillovers, especially through multinational companies (MNCs), have recently been a major topic of academic and management debate. However, most studies treat MNC subsidiaries as relatively passive actors. We challenge this assumption by investigating the drivers of knowledge

  5. Business Communication Consulting and Research in Multinational Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes three issues involved in communication research and consulting for multinational companies, particularly those in Germany: qualifications for doing international consulting and research, problems of American scholar-researchers in those firms, and suggestions for dealing with those issues. (JMF)

  6. Corporate Social Responsibility of Multinational Oil Corporations to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate Social Responsibility of Multinational Oil Corporations to Host ... Exxon Mobil and Elf oil Nigeria Limited within their corporate-community relations strategy in the ... The paper concludes by exploring the implications for partnerships' ...

  7. Decision-making in multinational enterprises: concepts and research approaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghertman M

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on decision making processes in multinational enterprises - gives definition, type and classification of decision making in large enterprises; outlines the centralization decentralization theory and the iterative process; notes research needs. Bibliography.

  8. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavian Clipa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  9. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Flavian Clipa; Raluca Irina Clipa

    2009-01-01

    When the multinational firms employ human resources from different countries they have to submit to the restrictions concerning cultural differences. The paper is an attempt to show how the human resource management administrates these cultural differences.

  10. PERAN OECD DALAM MEMINIMALKAN UPAYA TAX AGRESIVENESS PADA PERUSAHAAN MULTINATIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanindia Hajjar Damayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: OECD's Role in Minimizing Tax Aggressiveness Efforts at Multinationality Companies. This paper aims to prove the relation between multinationality transaction of tax heaven countries and the tax investigation toward the tax aggressiveness. This research is done by quantitative approach upon the companies registered in BEI for 2010-2014 periods. The findings denote the tax heaven countries have no effort to conduct the tax aggressiveness on which the multinationality negatively has no effect since the occurrence in the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines as the guideline for both the taxing authority and the multinational companies in accomplishing the transfer pricing matter. In contrary, the investigation does not influence the tax aggressiveness.

  11. Can NATO's new Very High Readiness Joint Task Force deter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rynning, Sten; Ringsmose, Jens

    2017-01-01

    ” a distinct strategic rival – Russia. Chief among the Welsh summit initiatives was the decision to set up a new multinational spearhead force – the Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF) – as part of an enhanced NATO Response Force (NRF) and within the framework of a so-called Readiness Action Plan (RAP...

  12. The Tax Sensitivity of Debt in Multinationals: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2015-01-01

    The OECD in its BEPS action plan 4 addresses tax base erosion by profit shifting through the use of tax deductible interest payments. Their main concern is interest deductions between outbound and inbound investment by groups. Studies of multinational firms show that the tax sensitivity of debt is more modest than what one would expect given the incentives for profit shifting. The purpose of this paper is to review existing literature and to add new knowledge on multinational firm behavior th...

  13. COMPETITIVE STRATEGY OF A FOREIGN MULTINATIONAL IN BRAZILIAN POULTRY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Barros de Azevedo; Liane Aparecida Aires da Silva Rengel; Guilherme Cunha Malafaia; Karim Marini Thomé

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the strategies involved in the import process of cages for laying hens, directed at the multinational enterprise distribution center. Identifies the reasons why a multinational company invests in Brazil, specifically in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo, where it is implementing a distribution center (DC). Developing the study of the strategies involved in the process, according to the main issue of the work, it took place through the exploratory analysis ...

  14. The Transfer of Organisational Culture in Multinational Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Donmez, Ozlem

    2007-01-01

    The business world started to integrate internationally; therefore, it is likely to say that the multinational companies have become one of the key actors in international business. Since the multinational companies operate in many countries simultaneously; they face to multicultural challenges. The organisational culture is also influenced by the cultural diversity. It is possible to state that the transfer of the organisational culture is essential for the creation of the compatibility in t...

  15. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THEIR ATITUDE TOWARDS UNION ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina BÃLÃNEASA

    2013-01-01

    The intensification of the global economic activity has generated changes in working relations. The intensification of the activities within multinational companies has determined greater employment flexibility, but also a lower collective bargaining power of the employees, because the multinationals attempted to weaken the power of trade unions. The purpose of this paper is precisely to identify the attitude of these companies towards trade union activity and the reaction of labour organizat...

  16. International expansion of Chinese multinationals: the new challenge of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Quer, Diego; Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Rienda, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, a new generation of Chinese multinationals has set out to conquer global markets, featuring major international acquisitions that were unthinkable until very recently. This work seeks to analyze the nature of this emerging phenomenon, illustrating the reasons behind the international expansion of Chinese multinationals, the factors that facilitate and hinder this process, the entry modes that they use and the strategic implications for Western companies of their sudde...

  17. The expatriates in multinational companies: A trend in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of international operations has imposed new demands to multinational companies, especially in the area of human resource management. International human resource management is primarily characterized by movement of employees across the boundaries of one country in order to take various roles in foreign subsidiaries of multinational companies. One of the most important decisions a multinational company has to make refers to selection of employees to fill in positions in its foreign subsidiaries depending on nationality of employees. This paper tends to explore the significance and roles of expatriates in obtaining success of multinational company in international operations in order to emphasize the advantages expatriates may bring to a multinational company. This paper aims to analyze one of crucial issues that multinational companies face in global environment - the process of expatriation, particularly focusing on the number of expatriates (parent country nationals in subsidiaries of foreign multinational companies in Serbia and the tendency of changing their number in these subsidiaries, as well as nationality of managers in key positions in these subsidiaries (CEO and HR manager. Empirical research performed through a questionnaire has shown certain features of subsidiaries of multinational companies in Serbia, indicating that the number of expatriates has increased since their founding until today (contrary to expectations based on theoretical concepts and results of studies performed in other countries and environments. However, as it was expected, the analysis of results has shown that most subsidiaries in Serbia have replaced their expatriates in the position of CEO (and HR manager, which has brought companies numerous benefits, such as lower expenses.

  18. Multinational Firms, National Culture, and Gender-Based Employment Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    John Lawler

    1995-01-01

    Sex segregation in the workplace has been related to a variety of economic, institutional, and social factors. An issue that has only been explored to a limited extent is the role that multinational firms might play in promoting or inhibiting employment discrimination and sex segregation in developing countries. This study focuses on this issue within the context of Thailand, one of the world's most rapidly growing economies and a country with considerable investment by multinational firms. T...

  19. Multinational Corporations, FDI and the East Asian Economic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-Han YANG; Deng-Shing HUANG

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of fast-growing business activities of multinational corporations around the world has generated much interest in understanding its implications for the development of the world economy as well as the relationships among national economies. By analyzing the world's top 2000 firms published by Forbes Magazine (the Forbes Global 2000), this article first investigates the contents and structural evolution of these giant multinational firms and their relationship with national fore...

  20. Multinational/regional repository - an illusion or solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.

    2006-01-01

    The concept and current status of multinational and regional repositories are presented in the paper. Particular emphasis is given to the results and findings of the recent EU project SAPIERR, investigating the feasibility of regional repository concepts in Europe. Prospects for further development of multinational repositories are also brought forward and the impact and potential benefits of this approach to our national disposal programme are discussed as well. (author)

  1. Multinational design evaluation programme - 2009 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) was established in 2006 as a multinational initiative to develop innovative approaches to leverage the resources and knowledge of the national regulatory authorities who are currently or will be tasked with the review of new reactor power plant designs. MDEP comprises 13 countries' nuclear regulatory authorities and is structured under 3 design-specific working groups and 3 issue-specific working groups which meet several times a year. The OECD/NEA facilitates MDEP's activities by acting as technical secretariat for the programme. The MDEP Policy Group (PG) and the Steering Technical Committee (STC) oversee the programme. MDEP's main objectives can be defined as follows: - to enhance multilateral co-operation within existing regulatory frameworks; - to encourage multinational convergence of codes, standards and safety goals; - to implement the MDEP products in order to facilitate the licensing of new reactors, including those being developed by the Generation IV International Forum. To carry out the work, two main lines of activity have been implemented: - the exploration of opportunities for harmonisation of regulatory practices; - the cooperation on the safety reviews of specific reactor designs. MDEP engages with key stakeholders involved in ensuring the safety of new reactor designs, manufacturing, construction and operation. At this time, these stakeholders include other national regulatory authorities and international organisations involved in ensuring nuclear safety including the IAEA, Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA), NEA Committees on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), the various reactor vendors, nuclear component manufacturers, mechanical and electrical standards development organisations, reactor operators and licensees and key industry representatives such as World Nuclear Association (WNA). To this end, the MDEP has organised a

  2. Innovation in the strategies of Internationalization of Brazilian Multinationals: Evaluation of the Cultural National Dimensions: A Study Case of the Meat Processing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rovai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sketches the evolution of Brazilian multinational companies, from the perspective of the development of Latin-American multinational companies, with respect to the process of globalization. With this article, we looked to characterize the typical profile of these enterprises in agreement with the Dunning Model to confirm if this typology is adequate for the characterization of internationalization strategies. We also explored the Theory of the Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede. While doing this, we analyzed which model measures the strategic alignment and is more orientated in terms of: (i exploration of natural resources and advantages of costs of labor not qualified (resource seeking, advantages; (ii location and synergies of market (market seeking, investments; (iii search of strategic assets of the type efficiency seeking (for what they look to rationalize the production and to explore savings of specialization and location, investments; and (iv type of strategic asset seeking (turned to the acquisition of resources and competences with the objective to develop competitiveness through of the innovation and growth of strategic capacities. We also summarize the referential system that makes possible the development of future inquiries for the delineation of the principal strategies, of the public politics of the National States, and also the financial strategies of these enterprises. Keywords: Strategic innovation; Brazilian multinationals; foreign investment; globalization; Latin American multinationals and multinationals from emerging countries

  3. Foreign investment multinational companies and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign investors bring with them brand new types of economic activities and in that way shifting the limits of business opportunities in the countries of penetration. But if the investments are implemented in markets protected with protectionist barriers of various kinds, then they could have negative effects. The negative effects are in particularly reflected in the inefficient use of domestic resources. Foreign investments depend on the macro and micro institutional reforms, low inflation, real exchange rate, and reasonably efficient legal system that protects the property rights and encourages savings and investment. The low level of corruption, together with the foregoing conditions is a prerequisite for the creation of a stimulating environment for foreign investments.

  4. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  5. Revelation of susceptibility differences due to Hg(II) accumulation in Streptococcus pyogenes against CX-AgNPs and Cefixime by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Wasia; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Perveen, Samina; Ahmed, Shakil; Uzzaman, Sami

    2018-01-01

    Solution based method for the formation of chemically modified silver nanoparticles (CX-AgNPs) using Cefixime as stabilizing and reducing agent was developed. The CX-AgNPs were characterized by AFM, UV-visible, FT-IR and MALDI-TOF MS. Bactericidal efficiency of CX-AgNPs and Cefixime against Streptococcus pyogenes was evaluated. Afterwards, susceptibility differences of Streptococcus pyogenes due to accumulation of Hg(II) against CX-AgNPs and Cefixime were estimated and validated through Atomic force microscopy. Selectivity and sensitivity of CX-AgNPs against Hg(II) was evaluated in a systematic manner. The CX-AgNPs was titrated against optically silent Hg(II) which induced enhancement in the SPR band of CX-AgNPs. The increase in intensity of SPR band of CX-AgNPs was determined to be proportionate to the concentration of Hg(II) in the range of 33.3-700µM obeying linear regression equation of y = 0.125x + 8.962 with the detection limit of 0.10µM and the coefficient of determination equals to 0.985 (n = 3). The association constant Ka of CX-AgNPs-Hg(II) was found to be 386.0095mol -1 dm 3 by using the Benesi Hildebrand plot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Organization of multinational undertakings in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    1982-01-01

    Various proposals have been put forward to establish multinational undertakings for enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, spent fuel storage and waste management. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the legal, institutional framework aspects of multinational undertakings in the field of nuclear fuel cycle. The selection of the appropriate bodies representing the interest of participating countries would largely depend on the object or role of multinational undertakings. Regarding the principle of formation, URENCO is a much informative model of formation, which distinguishes the equity participation at national level and multinational level. The allocation of service between equity participants and non-equity participants depends on the objective of establishing business. Some priority in service allocation should be given to equity participants, and the participants having non-proliferation objective may require service allocation to avoid proliferation risk. The degree of achieving non-proliferation goal is related to the scope of participation. The experience in the field of nuclear energy seems to suggest that the concept of two-tiered decisionmaking structure is generally accepted. Various legal instruments appropriate to constitute multinational fuel cycle arrangement were examined, referring to the precedents and experience. (Kako, I.)

  7. Responsible tax as corporate social responsibility: the case of multinational enterprises and effective tax in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.; Kolk, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence often suggests that multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in developing countries "exploit their multinationality" to avoid paying taxes to host governments. This article explores the concept of "responsible tax" as a corporate social responsibility (CSR) issue for MNEs,

  8. Danish recommendations on treatment of ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthritis based on multinational project initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Erlendsson, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The multinational initiative "3e Initiative in Rheumatology - Multi-national Recommendations for the Management of Ankylosing Spondylitis 2006-7" served the primary purpose of providing specific recommendations for the management of ankylosing spondylitis and spondyloarthritis...

  9. The Performance and Risk Management Implications of Multinationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Andersen, Torben

    Multinational enterprise in control of dispersed overseas resources and capabilities has been linked to strategic flexibility that allows the firm to take advantage of opportunities and manage exposures imposed by changing environmental conditions. This paper analyzes the implied performance...... and risk management effects in a comprehensive sample of public firms and finds supportive evidence for the proposition that multinationality can enhance performance across industries. However, the ability to exploit upside potential and avoid downside risk is industry specific. The positive effects...... of multinationality are found particularly pronounced among firms operating in knowledge intensive service industries while firms in capital-intensive primary industries display the inverse relationships. Keywords: Strategic flexibility, Real options, Risk management...

  10. Foreign acquisitions, domestic multinationals, and R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the causal effect of foreign acquisition on R&D intensity in targeted domestic firms. We are able to distinguish domestic multinationals and non-multinationals, which allows us to investigate the fear that the change in ownership of domestic to foreign...... multinationals leads to a reduction in R&D activity in the country. We use unique and rich firm level data for the Swedish manufacturing sector and micro-econometric estimation strategies in order to control for the potential endogeneity of the acquisition decision. Overall, our results give no support...... to the fears that foreign acquisition of domestic firms lead to a relocation of R&D activity in Swedish MNEs. Rather, this paper finds robust evidence that foreign acquisitions lead to increasing R&D intensity in acquired domestic MNEs and non-MNEs....

  11. Leadership styles of nurse managers in a multinational environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Wafika A

    2009-01-01

    This is a descriptive study conducted at a multinational working environment, where 1500 nurses representing 52 nationalities are employed. The study aimed at exploring the predominant leadership style of nurse managers through self-evaluation and staff nurses' evaluation and the impact of working in a multinational environment on their intention to stay or quit. The value lies in its focus on leadership styles in an environment where national diversity among managers, staff, and patients is very challenging. The study included 31 nurse managers and 118 staff nurses using Bass and Avolio's (1995) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results showed that nurse managers and staff nurses reported transformational leadership as predominant with significant difference in favor of nurse managers. Participants' nationality and intention to stay or quit affected their perception of transformational leadership as a predominant style. The implications highlight the need for senior nursing management to set effective retention strategies for transformational nurse managers who work at multinational environments.

  12. Orchestration of Globally Distributed Knowledge for Innovation in Multinational Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadirad, Solmaz; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    Conducting a multiple-case study in five companies from Danish industry, this paper explores how multinational companies orchestrate knowledge from their globally distributed subsidiaries for innovation. Comparisons of knowledge orchestration within headquarter and subsidiaries for improvement...... and innovation show that a combination of the dynamic use of inter-firm objects and a well-established knowledge orchestration process underlies knowledge orchestration for innovation in multinational companies, as it advances headquarters’ abilities to effectively acquire, evaluate, disseminate, and utilize...... globally distributed knowledge. This study contributes to the understanding of knowledge orchestration between headquarter and distributed subsidiaries in multinational companies and how it is related to innovation. Specifically, this paper has important implications regarding the use of inter-firm objects...

  13. Overview on the Multinational Collaborative Waste Storage and Disposal Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARGEANU, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The main drivers for a Safe, Secure and Global Energy future become clear and unequivocal: Security of supply for energy sources, Low-carbon electricity generation and Extended nuclear power assuring economic nuclear energy production, safe nuclear facilities and materials, safe and secure radioactive waste management and public acceptance. Responsible use of nuclear power requires that – in addition to safety, security and environmental protection associated with NPPs operation – credible solutions to be developed for dealing with the radioactive waste produced and especially for a responsible long term radioactive waste management. The paper deals with the existing multinational initiative in nuclear fuel cycle and the technical documents sustaining the multinational/regional disposal approach. Meantime, the paper far-reaching goal is to highlight on: What is offering the multinational waste storage and disposal solutions in terms of improved nuclear security ‽

  14. Study on the control mechanism of China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jian; Li Hanling; Wu Weiwei

    2008-01-01

    China's aerospace enterprises carry on the multinational operation and participate in the international competition and the international division of labor and cooperation positively.This article first analyzs China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational business control objective and constructes its model.Then the article analyzes the tangible and intangible control mechanism of China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational operation respectively.Finally,the article constructs the model of China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational operation mechanisms.

  15. On Transfer Pricing: Conceptual Thoughts on the Nature of the Multinational Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Brem Markus; Tucha Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper deploys Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) to elaborate on the shortcomings of “mainstream” transfer pricing in multinational firms. Departing from the notion that multinationals increasingly (re-)organize their business along multinational value chains irrespective of jurisdictional borders, the paper discusses the nature of the multinational firm and the problem of choosing the right intra-group (transfer) price. The mainstream transfer pricing approach derived from the Arm´s Lengt...

  16. A Multinational perspective to managing end-of-life electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, M.

    2007-07-01

    This thesis focuses on how multinational electronics manufacturers manage used products in the EU, USA, Japan and China. Managing used or end-of-life products has interesting environmental and commercial implications. Recovering end-of-life products can reduce the environmental effects of disposal, raw material extraction, transport, and production. Whereas the commercial effects include image benefits and savings on raw material costs. Manufacturer involvement in end-of-life management is especially topical in the electronics industry, which is the focus of this thesis. Electronics products, such as TVs and computers, have been targeted with extended producer responsibility (EPR) legislation in different countries across the world. EPR is an environmental policy approach that forces manufacturers to take physical and/or financial responsibility for end-of-life products. The main objective of this dissertation was to increase understanding of how multinational manufacturers manage end-of-life products in the EU, in the USA, and in China and Japan, and the regional and company-specific factors explain their levels of involvement. This study consisted of an inductive 16-case multiple case study. The products and companies included in the study were as follows: Refrigerators (Bosch und Siemens Hausgeraete, Electrolux, Whirlpool); TVs (Samsung, Philips, Hitachi); PCs (Hewlett Packard, NEC, Fujitsu Limited and Fujitsu-Siemens Computers and an anonymous company, Alpha Computers); Mobile phones (Nokia, Motorola, Samsung); Telecommunication network equipment (Nokia, Motorola, Huawei). A manufacturer's level of involvement in end-of-life management can be characterized in terms of the level of organizational capabilities. These capabilities range from none to running a treatment facility and recovering value from own branded products. Levels in between can be characterized by outsourcing end-of-life management to industry-wide schemes, managing contracts for treating

  17. Foreign acquisitions, domestic multinationals, and R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Görg, Holger; Karpaty, Patrik

    endogeneity of the acquisition dummy.  Overall, our results give no support to the fears that foreign acquisition of domestic firms lead to a brain drain of R&D activity in Swedish MNEs. Rather, this paper finds robust evidence that foreign acquisitions lead to increasing R&D intensity in acquired domestic......The aim of this paper is to evaluate the causal effect of foreign acquisition on R&D intensity in targeted domestic firms. We are able to distinguish domestic multinationals and non-multinationals, which allows us to investigate the fear that the change in ownership of domestic to foreign...

  18. The role of a multinational nuclear fuel fabrication supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    The author argues that international markets and multinational suppliers provide large benefits to utilities. It represents a long term commitment to the nuclear business that these companies will be able to supply nuclear technology on the long haul. The technology that is available around the world becomes available to everyone through the international markets and multinational suppliers. The increased experience base is seen as valuable in that errors that have been made or have not been made yet can be avoided through the transfer or experience. The security of supply is discussed as important to any utility that is operating a reactor

  19. Process-based interpretation of conceptual hydrological model performance using a multinational catchment set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, Carine; Merz, Ralf; Merz, Bruno; Parajka, Juraj; Oudin, Ludovic; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles

    2017-08-01

    Most of previous assessments of hydrologic model performance are fragmented, based on small number of catchments, different methods or time periods and do not link the results to landscape or climate characteristics. This study uses large-sample hydrology to identify major catchment controls on daily runoff simulations. It is based on a conceptual lumped hydrological model (GR6J), a collection of 29 catchment characteristics, a multinational set of 1103 catchments located in Austria, France, and Germany and four runoff model efficiency criteria. Two analyses are conducted to assess how features and criteria are linked: (i) a one-dimensional analysis based on the Kruskal-Wallis test and (ii) a multidimensional analysis based on regression trees and investigating the interplay between features. The catchment features most affecting model performance are the flashiness of precipitation and streamflow (computed as the ratio of absolute day-to-day fluctuations by the total amount in a year), the seasonality of evaporation, the catchment area, and the catchment aridity. Nonflashy, nonseasonal, large, and nonarid catchments show the best performance for all the tested criteria. We argue that this higher performance is due to fewer nonlinear responses (higher correlation between precipitation and streamflow) and lower input and output variability for such catchments. Finally, we show that, compared to national sets, multinational sets increase results transferability because they explore a wider range of hydroclimatic conditions.

  20. Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations (II): thrombocytopenia and skin manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, R; Tektonidou, M G; Espinosa, G; Cabral, A R; González, E B; Erkan, D; Vadya, S; Adrogué, H E; Solomon, M; Zandman-Goddard, G; Shoenfeld, Y

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of the 'Task Force on Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) and Non-criteria APS Manifestations' were to assess the clinical utility of the international consensus statement on classification criteria and treatment guidelines for the catastrophic APS, to identify and grade the studies that analyze the relationship between the antiphospholipid antibodies and the non-criteria APS manifestations, and to present the current evidence regarding the accuracy of these non-criteria APS manifestations for the detection of patients with APS. This article summarizes the studies analyzed on thrombocytopenia and skin manifestations, and presents the recommendations elaborated by the Task Force after this analysis.

  1. Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy

  2. Pre-Interaction Management in Multinational Companies in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvapil, Jiri; Sherman, Tamah

    2009-01-01

    This article is devoted to the linguistic, communicative and sociocultural situation in branches of multinational companies located in the Czech Republic and Hungary. There are typically several languages used in these branches. In addition to the local languages, there are the languages of the parent companies--most commonly English or German,…

  3. Multinational banks and credit growth in transition economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Ralph Theodoor Anna de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the impact of multinational banks (MNBs) on the financial development of European transition countries. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the gradual deepening of the banking systems in Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries (CEB) has enabled firms to

  4. Business & IT Alignment in a Multinational Company; Issues and approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. A.J.G. Silvius

    This chapter explores the theory and practice of Business & IT Alignment in multinational companies. In the first part of the chapter an overview of the theory is presented. In this part the familiar frameworks for Business & IT Alignment are put in perspective in an ‘Alignment development model’.

  5. Variation in Approaches to European Works Councils in Multinational Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Marginson; Jonathan Lavelle; Javier Quintanilla; Duncan Adam; Roc'o S?nchez-Mangas

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a unique international data set of multinational companies' employment practices, the authors use logistic regression analysis to address variation in the existence of and management practice toward transnational social dialogue through European Works Councils (EWCs). Adopting a contingency perspective, they find that the degree of internationalization of companies' operations and management organization, international HR structure, and the presence of workforce organization exerci...

  6. AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Schilirò

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

  7. Are less developed countries more exposed to multinational tax avoidance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels; Tørsløv, Thomas Rasmusen; Wier, Ludvig

    We use a global dataset with information on 210,000 corporations in 102 countries to investigate whether cross-border profit shifting by multinational firms is more prevalent in less developed countries. We propose a novel technique to study aggressive profit shifting and improve the credibility ...

  8. Multinational cash management and conglomerate discounts in the euro zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eije, Henk von; Westerman, Wim

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the impact of liberalisation, deregulation and the introduction of a single currency on cash management within multinationals in the euro zone. The developments in the euro zone reduce financial market imperfections in transferring cash and diminish the need for separate local cash

  9. Competitive Advantage and the Existence of the Multinational Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a counterpoint to Hashai and Buckley's article ‘Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the multinational enterprise?’ We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind thi...

  10. Corporate governance and international location decisions of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.; Sterken, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses international location decisions of corporations based on corporate governance considerations. Using firm level data on 540 Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) with 44,149 subsidiaries in 188 countries, we test whether firms with relatively good governance standards are more often

  11. The Transmission of Real Estate Shocks Through Multinational Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertay, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates the credit supply of banks in response to domestic and foreign real estate price changes. Using a large international dataset of multinational banks, we find evidence of a significant transmission of domestic real estate shocks into lending abroad. A 1% decrease in

  12. Thin Capitalization Rules and Multinational Firm Capital Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using

  13. Winds of change: corporate strategy, climate change and oil multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Behind pessimistic expectations regarding the future of an international climate treaty, substantial changes can be observed in company positions. Multinationals in the oil and car industries are increasingly moving toward support for the Kyoto Protocol, and take measures to address climate change.

  14. Leadership and diversity effectiveness in a large multinational organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brassey-Schouten, J.

    2011-01-01

    Effectiviteit van leiderschap en diversiteit krijgen veel aandacht binnen de multinationals van vandaag. De belangrijkste reden is een groeiend geloof en vertrouwen dat leiders en diversiteit een verschil kunnen maken voor de prestatie van een organisatie. In dit onderzoek zijn deze onderwerpen

  15. Serving low-income markets : Rethinking multinational corporations' strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadreghazi, S.; Duijsters, G.M.; Dolfsma, W.; Duysters, G.M.; Costa, I.

    2009-01-01

    The global economy is changing rapidly and multinational corporations (MNCs) are at the forefront of this transformation. This book provides novel and profound analyses of how MNCs and emerging economies are related, and how this relationship affects the dynamics of the global economy. In

  16. Small Nations in Multinational Operations and Armenian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    assigned in different positions gain experience in working in multinational and multicultural environments. 25 Megan Hart, “Kansas National Guard...comes from various internet publications and printed materials provided by the online Combined Arms Research Library . Although there were not many

  17. The Management of Training in Multinational Corporations: Comparative Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Case studies of British and Australian multinational corporations in the food and drink industry investigated how training and development are managed. Competency-based education and industry boards are important elements in both countries. Lack of a training culture in the industry and little innovation in training were observed. (SK)

  18. Ownership Concentration and CSR Policy of European Multinational Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, Lammertjan; Scholtens, Bert

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how ownership concentration in European multinational firms is associated with these firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR). We employ factor analysis on responsibility data from EIRiS and use a regression analysis. Using firm-level data for almost 700 European firms,

  19. Multinationals, CSR and partnerships in Central African conflict countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F.

    2013-01-01

    Attention has increased for the potential role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for MNEs to

  20. HRM implementation in multinational companies : the dynamics of multifaceted scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-Nehles, Anna; Bondarouk, Tanya; Labrenz, Soren

    2017-01-01

    This study explores why the subsidiary line managers of multinational companies (MNCs) implement HRM practices differently than intended by headquarters. HRM implementation is understood as a process in which one has to differentiate between a range of multifaceted HRM implementation scenarios. We

  1. Multinationals, CSR and Partnerships in Central African Conflict Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kolk (Ans); F. Lenfant (François)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAttention has increased for the potential role of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) in helping address conflict issues and/or furthering peace and reconciliation as part of their corporate social responsibility policies. However, while existing literature emphasises the importance for

  2. Current Status of Diversity Initiatives in Selected Multinational Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Palma-Rivas, Nilda

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with eight diversity managers in multinational corporations revealed a variety of domestic and international diversity initiatives, especially in leadership and management. Formal and informal methods were used to plan them. Business unit managers were responsible for implementation. Evaluation was difficult and time consuming. (SK)

  3. The Dual Role of Multinational Corporations in Cluster Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Park, Eun Kyung

    2017-01-01

    This chapter shows that multinational corporations play a dual role in cluster evolution through the case of the wireless communications cluster in Northern Denmark. On the one hand, they bring in resources to the cluster, such as financial resources, technology, knowledge, innovation networks, a...

  4. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax...

  5. Multinational corporations and skills development in Nigeria: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quest for skills development perhaps accounts for why developing countries like Nigeria attract multinational corporations (MNCs) to their territories to invest in their economies. MNCs are the custodians of skills vital for social and economic transformation of any nation. However, despite their skills advantage, Nigeria ...

  6. Decision-making regarding restructuring in multinational enterprises.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghertman M

    1986-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper, evaluation of three case studies of decision making regarding enterprise restructuring in multinational enterprises originating in Canada, the USA and Western Europe - examines the role of management attitude, business organization, capital resources and size of enterprise in determining subsidiary enterprise creation, enterprise takeover, plant shutdown, resource allocation, labour utilization, etc. Diagrams, organigrams, references, tables.

  7. Development of Barnwell as a multinational demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, L.J. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The author takes an existing private business venture (Barnwell) with its assets of facilities, personnel, technology and domestic business commitments (past, present, and future) and develops a role for it which will be compatible with the advancement of multinational reprocessing facilities under international control

  8. A license to mine? : Community organizing against multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Krämer (Romy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWhat does it mean when a corporation claims to have a ‘license to operate’ in a local community? How does a member of an indigenous tribe make it to London to protest against a multinational mining company? How do managers perceive and speak about protest against their company and how

  9. Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) - Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the aims of the NEA's Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is to work towards greater harmonisation of regulatory requirements. To achieve this aim, it is necessary that there is a degree of convergence on the safety goals that are required to be met by designers and operators. The term 'safety goals' is defined to cover all health and safety requirements which must be met: these may be deterministic rules and/or probabilistic targets. They should cover the safety of workers, public and the environment in line with the IAEA's Basic Safety Objective; encompassing safety in normal operation through to severe accidents. MDEP is also interested in how its work can be extended to future reactors, which may use significantly different technology to the almost ubiquitous LWRs used today and in the next generation, building on the close co-operation within MDEP between the regulators who are currently engaged in constructing or carrying out design reviews on new designs. For two designs this work has involved several regulators sharing their safety assessments and in some cases issuing statements on issues that need to be addressed. Work is also progressing towards joint regulatory position statements on specific assessment areas. Harmonisation of safety goals will enhance the cooperation between regulators as further developments in design and technology occur. All regulators have safety goals, but these are expressed in many different ways and exercises in comparing them frequently are done at a very low level eg specific temperatures in the reactor vessel of a specific reactor type. The differences in the requirements from different regulators are difficult to resolve as the goals are derived using different principles and assumptions and are often for a specific technology. Therefore a different approach is being investigated, starting with the top-level safety goals and try to derive a structure and means of deriving lower tier

  10. Lessons Learned in Afghanistan: A Multi-national Military Mental Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall C. Nedegaard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available America has been at war for almost 10 years. Because of this, continuing missions in the Middle East require the support and cooperation of our allied North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO forces from around the world. In this paper we provide an overview of the mission at Kandahar Air Field (KAF and the Multi-National Role 3 hospital located at KAF. Next, we explain the mental health capabilities and unique perspectives among our teammates from Canada, Great Britain, and the United States to include a discussion of the relevant cross-cultural differences between us. Within this framework we also provide an overview of the mental health clientele seen at KAF during the period of April 2009 through September 2009. Finally, we discuss the successes, limitations, and lessons learned during our deployment to Kandahar, Afghanistan.

  11. Multinationals and global climate change. Issues for the automotive and oil industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.

    2003-07-01

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by U.S. and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional economic drivers of strategy do not provide a satisfactory account for these differences, and the chapter focuses instead on the conflicting institutional pressures on MNEs and the implications for their climate strategy. The home-country institutional context and individual corporate histories can create divergent pressures on strategy for MNEs based in different countries. At the same time, the location of MNEs in global industries and their participation in 'global issues arenas' such as climate change generate institutional forces for strategic convergence. It appears that local context influenced initial corporate reactions, but that convergent pressures predominate as the issue matures.

  12. Multinationals and global climate change. Issues for the automotive and oil industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, A.; Levy, D.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the strategic responses by U.S. and European multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the oil and automobile industries to the global climate change issue. We examine and attempt to explain the differences across regions, across industries, and the changes over time. Traditional economic drivers of strategy do not provide a satisfactory account for these differences, and the chapter focuses instead on the conflicting institutional pressures on MNEs and the implications for their climate strategy. The home-country institutional context and individual corporate histories can create divergent pressures on strategy for MNEs based in different countries. At the same time, the location of MNEs in global industries and their participation in 'global issues arenas' such as climate change generate institutional forces for strategic convergence. It appears that local context influenced initial corporate reactions, but that convergent pressures predominate as the issue matures

  13. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  14. Thermodynamic Description of Synergy in Solvent Extraction: II Thermodynamic Balance of Driving Forces Implied in Synergistic Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J; Bley, M; Dufrêche, J-F; Gourdin, S; Pellet-Rostaing, S; Zemb, T; Dourdain, S

    2017-11-21

    In the second part of this study, we analyze the free energy of transfer in the case of synergistic solvent extraction. This free energy of the transfer of an ion in dynamic equilibrium between two coexisting phases is decomposed into four driving forces combining long-range interactions with the classical complexation free energy associated with the nearest neighbors. We demonstrate how the organometallic complexation is counterbalanced by the cost in free energy related to structural change on the colloidal scale in the solvent phase. These molecular forces of synergistic extraction are driven not only by the entropic term associated with the tight packing of electrolytes in the solvent and by the free energy cost of coextracting water toward the hydrophilic core of the reverse aggregates present but also by the entropic costs in the formation of the reverse aggregate and by the interfacial bending energy of the extractant molecules packed around the extracted species. Considering the sum of the terms, we can rationalize the synergy observed, which cannot be explained by classical extraction modeling. We show an industrial synergistic mixture combining an amide and a phosphate complexing site, where the most efficient/selective mixture is observed for a minimal bending energy and maximal complexation energy.

  15. The Role of Formal and Informal Forces in Shaping Consumption and Implications for Sustainable Society: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Mont

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Looking at consumption from a societal perspective, we can see that purchasing and behavior decisions are influenced by many factors, not the least which are what the people around us and in the media are doing. Other factors include economic influences, the marketing of products and technological innovations, and regulations governing consumption. This article, Part II, argues that in order to understand consumption, we need to move beyond the dominant (economic understanding of consumers and consumer behavior, and think about the origins of our preferences, needs, and desires. A thorough understanding of consumption is informed by the contributions of sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists, and behavioral scientists, who study the socio-cultural, social, and psychological contexts in which consumer behavior is embedded. These disciplines offer rich and complex explanations of human behavior, which in turn illuminate the discussion on how consumer behavior can be made more sustainable.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside clinical trials II-An ISPOR Good Research Practices Task Force report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Scott D; Willke, Richard J; Glick, Henry; Reed, Shelby D; Augustovski, Federico; Jonsson, Bengt; Briggs, Andrew; Sullivan, Sean D

    2015-03-01

    Clinical trials evaluating medicines, medical devices, and procedures now commonly assess the economic value of these interventions. The growing number of prospective clinical/economic trials reflects both widespread interest in economic information for new technologies and the regulatory and reimbursement requirements of many countries that now consider evidence of economic value along with clinical efficacy. As decision makers increasingly demand evidence of economic value for health care interventions, conducting high-quality economic analyses alongside clinical studies is desirable because they broaden the scope of information available on a particular intervention, and can efficiently provide timely information with high internal and, when designed and analyzed properly, reasonable external validity. In 2005, ISPOR published the Good Research Practices for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Alongside Clinical Trials: The ISPOR RCT-CEA Task Force report. ISPOR initiated an update of the report in 2014 to include the methodological developments over the last 9 years. This report provides updated recommendations reflecting advances in several areas related to trial design, selecting data elements, database design and management, analysis, and reporting of results. Task force members note that trials should be designed to evaluate effectiveness (rather than efficacy) when possible, should include clinical outcome measures, and should obtain health resource use and health state utilities directly from study subjects. Collection of economic data should be fully integrated into the study. An incremental analysis should be conducted with an intention-to-treat approach, complemented by relevant subgroup analyses. Uncertainty should be characterized. Articles should adhere to established standards for reporting results of cost-effectiveness analyses. Economic studies alongside trials are complementary to other evaluations (e.g., modeling studies) as information for decision

  17. Preparing General Purpose Forces in the United States and British Armies for Counterinsurgent Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Operations In Iraq: Planning, Combat, And Occupation,” Thomas Ricks’ Fiasco, and reports by Army historian Major Isaiah Wilson, and former CENCTOM J-4...established Multi-National Forces-Iraq, and Lieutenant General Thomas Metz, commander of the Army’s III Corps, assumed the mantle of Multi-National Corps...Donald P. Wright and Colonel Timothy R. Reese or Thomas Ricks’ Fiasco among other books. 18Dr. Carter Malkasian, “Counterinsurgency in Iraq: May 2003

  18. Value-Chain Networks and Entrepreneurial Output in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks...... and non value-chain networks; because they may provide the subsidiary knowledge with market opportunities that it lacks and that the other types of networks cannot effectively provide. However, value-chain networks have a negative effect on entrepreneurial output of a subsidiary operating...... in an environment of high uncertainty; because they can constrain the exploration and creation of new knowledge that cannot be provided by any of the networks. Contrary to our expectations, the combined effect of value-chain and non-value chain networks has a negative influence on entrepreneurial output; and...

  19. Functional Upgrading and Value Capture of Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Anže; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    survey-based business function indicators with longitudinal accounting data for a representative sample of multinational subsidiaries located in six Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs), we assess the impact of functional upgrading on foreign subsidiaries' value capture. The results provide......This paper investigates the relationship between the value capture of multinational subsidiaries and functional upgrading, which is defined as a diversification of employment from primary business functions to higher value adding activities such as ICT, R&D, marketing or logistics. By combining...... robust evidence that the breadth as well as the scope of functional upgrading induces an upward shift of subsidiaries' value added. The effect of functional upgrading is stronger in the earlier phases after entry of the foreign investor, while the long-term growth trend remains unaffected....

  20. APPROACHING COMPETITIVENESS AT THE LEVEL OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORINA NIŢĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of multinational corporations is a particularly complex concept due to the fact that at present this type of company represents economic entities which continue to develop in the context of the process of internationalization and the transition to the use of global strategies. Competitiveness is a competition between corporations for new positions on the markets. With regard to the competitiveness of multinational corporations, the most accurate description was given by Gilbert Abraham Frois who believed these businesses must think globally, but act locally. In the competitive global market, emphasis is laid on plus – the value given by the competitiveness of the human element, taking into account the fact that the human resource doesn’t run out, and its value doesn’t decrease over time, but on the contrary, its value increases on condition that it is rigorously managed and developed.

  1. Multinational Enterprises and Social Capital as Location Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt; Svendsen, Gunnar L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    across borders. We review the literature and identify a gap regarding social capital as a potential instrument for reducing the level of volatility. An existing stock of social capital may be advantageous not only to the host country but also to the MNE in the sense that optimal in-company resource......It is generally assumed that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are more volatile than local firms. From the viewpoint of host countries, the volatility of MNE subsidiaries is often seen as a problem. Therefore it becomes relevant to look for ways to reduce the volatility of multinational activity...... allocation and profits could be improved even further. Thus, the dominating theory of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), the eclectic paradigm as developed by John Dunning, offers a relevant opportunity to fill a gap in the literature and include social capital in FDI decisions as a new location factor....

  2. Multinational repositories: Ethical, legal and political/public aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutellier, C.; McCombie, C.; Mele, I.

    2006-01-01

    Concepts for shared multinational repositories face a great challenge in achieving acceptance, despite the fact that they promise advantages in safety, security, environmental protection and costs. When considering advantages of shared multinational repositories, it is instructive to examine which are the ethical, legal and political issues that mostly affect the feasibility of implementing such facilities. This paper addresses the key questions from two opposite sides. The early part takes a 'top-down' view, looking at the international debate on ethical issues, summarising a wide range of national political attitudes and identifying relevant international legislation and treaties. The latter looks 'bottom-up' at the problem, by discussing the situation of a small country, Slovenia. Slovenia has limited financial resources for implementing disposal - but it has a firm commitment to fulfilling its responsibilities for safely managing all Radioactive Wastes (RAW) arising in the country. Strategies considered to do so are laid out in this paper. (author)

  3. Multinational fuel-cycle proposal for Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, JR, W C

    1980-03-01

    The growth of energy demand projected for Latin America could be met by nuclear generated electricity if a multinational arrangement can be set up to meet the proliferation containment requirements and develop economies of scale that are satisfactory to all parties. A regionalized fuel-cycle center is outlined as a possible prototype for Latin America. A satisfactory operation there would indicate export feasibiltiy of the concept to other developing areas. The international strategies already in place have a heavy emphasis on weapons proliferation and have not been adequate. A multinational fuel-cycle concept with co-location technologies has the advantages of cost sharing, acceptable safeguards, and institutional barriers to proliferation. Security and cooperation between participants could be problems. 17 references. (DCK)

  4. Komi oil spill - An assessment by a multinational team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenis, P.

    1995-12-31

    The mission objectives, findings of an on-site visit, and recommendations of a multinational United Nations team who assessed the Komi oil spill in Russia were discussed, combined with a discussion of the findings and field work of Russian investigators, whose work preceded that of the UN team. Concern was expressed over spring flooding as a unique problem that might well complicate the cleanup. Areas of serious concern were identified by the group and recommendations for remediation were made, and described in detail. It was found that the multinational team approach was a successful answer in this particular situation in that the diverse backgrounds and experiences of the team members resulted in better solutions and recommendations for remediation than would have been possible otherwise. Access to information provided by EMERCOM (the Russian Ministry for Emergency Response to Natural Disasters) and the Russian consulting firm, helped the UN team in overcoming time constraints and other obstructions affecting their work. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  5. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Site. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Minnis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SCF) are analyzed to determine the monthly and hourly variations of cloud fraction and radiative forcing between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (more than 6 km) using ARM SCG ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements with uncertainties of approximately 10 Wm(exp -2). The annual averages of total, and single-layered low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Both total and low cloud amounts peak during January and February and reach a minimum during July and August, high clouds occur more frequently than other types of clouds with a peak in summer. The average annual downwelling surface SW fluxes for total and low clouds (151 and 138 Wm(exp-2), respectively) are less than those under middle and high clouds (188 and 201 Wm(exp -2), respectively), but the downwelling LW fluxes (349 and 356 Wm(exp -2)) underneath total and low clouds are greater than those from middle and high clouds (337 and 333 Wm(exp -2)). Low clouds produce the largest LW warming (55 Wm(exp -2) and SW cooling (-91 Wm(exp -2)) effects with maximum and minimum absolute values in spring and summer, respectively. High clouds have the smallest LW warming (17 Wm(exp -2)) and SW cooling (-37 Wm(exp -2)) effects at the surface. All-sky SW CRF decreases and LW CRF increases with increasing cloud fraction with mean slopes of -0.984 and 0.616 Wm(exp -2)%(exp -1), respectively. Over the entire diurnal cycle, clouds deplete the amount of surface insolation more than they add to the downwelling LW flux. The calculated CRFs do not appear to be significantly

  6. Drivers of the international expansion of emerging-market multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Boșcor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the drivers of the international expansion of emerging market multinationals and the strategies applied by these companies in other emerging and developed markets. The paper applies a conceptual approach combined with analyses of statistics and secondary material and presents the company and the country specific advantages. The proposals for the Romanian companies and institutions are based on the comparison between the drivers of expansion in the BRIC countries.

  7. Key Success Factors of Innovation in Multinational Agrifood Prospector Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuin, Frances T.J.M.; Batterink, Maarten H.; Omta, S.W.F. (Onno)

    2007-01-01

    The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) assesses a company’s drivers and barriers to innovation and benchmarks the critical success and failure factors of its innovation projects with data of agrifood prospector companies around the world. The present paper discusses its application in 12 multinational agrifood prospector companies in the Netherlands and France. It is concluded that WIAT by uncovering the tacit knowledge of the innovation project team creates opportunities for subs...

  8. The internationalisation of Indian multinationals: determinants of expansion through acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Rienda, Laura; Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Quer, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing number of papers focusing on the internationalisation process of Indian multinationals. However, there is still a gap in understanding the determinants of their outward foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions. Thus, this paper analyses the factors influencing the choice between FDI modes by Indian firms. Our findings show that industry technological intensity, host country risk, host market attractiveness, previous international experience and the vol...

  9. Level of Harmonization and ERP Architecture in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles

    2013-01-01

    multinational corporations. The ERP distribution decision in MNCs has been mainly associated with the corporate strategy and governance structure. As global ERP deployment benefits mainly come from business consolidation, and as there are significant costs and risks associated with centralized ERP...... to be more directly affected by the factors prohibiting further divergence, namely the corporate business process governance structure and the degree of similarity of its business models....

  10. MULTI-NATIONAL COMPANIES AND TRANSITION COUNTRIES: A MACEDONIAN EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Patoska; Branko Dimeski

    2015-01-01

    The process of globalization and liberalization is further accelerated by the growing expansion of multinational companies in post-communist transition countries. Transition countries improve their technological development, increase the exports and gain better access to global markets. On other hand, global companies maximize their profits by employing cheaper resources, paying lower taxes and using a number of benefits that the transition countries offer to them. The main purpose of the pap...

  11. Multinational Channel Strategy and Customer Value in an Emerging Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrick O. Aila, Hazel Mumbo; Odhiambo Odera; Gerald Ondiek; Jairo K. Mise; Eddy Owaga

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of multinational channel strategy on customer value by assessing customer demand side issues. It assess the relationship between order cycle time, stock availability and sales to describe the impact of distribution strategy on customer value. The study was carried in locations comprised of Equator Bottlers Limited franchise territory within five districts in Western Kenya. A cross-section survey using a structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data wa...

  12. Mobile advertising adoption by multinationals: Senior executives' initial responses

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Shintaro

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - Although the wireless internet attracts more and more interest from marketers and researchers, there is little empirical evidence of multinational corporations' (MNCs) adoption of pulltype mobile advertising in global markets. The aim of this study is to fill this research gap, by conducting an empirical survey of the perceptions of MNCs operating in Europe regarding SMSbased mobile advertising adoption. Design/methodology/approach - The study proposes six basic const...

  13. The Regional Sales of Multinationals in the World Cosmetics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Hoon Oh; Alan M. Rugman

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the regional characteristics and strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the world cosmetics and toiletries industry, based on the new work by Rugman on regional strategy. We test the proposition that MNEs may asymmetrically develop their upstream and downstream firm specific advantages (FSAs). We find that the upstream activities of the MNEs in cosmetics are home region based but that downstream activities are less so. Further, the asymmetry of FSAs in the world...

  14. Centralized vs. de-centralized multinationals and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs – here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax manipulation instrument –, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large. Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs. ...

  15. Global Account Management for Sales Organization in Multinational Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Canegrati, Tino

    2009-01-01

    A Global Company is not just a Multinational Company, but on top it has developed an organizational structure, an overall governance and a set of operational decision making processes which allow running a significant percentage of business processes as a unique body across borders. Successful Global Companies have a clear setup and governance of local versus centralized decision making processes, as well as budget ownership. Corporations focused on global opportunities need to re-think their...

  16. Personnel motivation in multinational companies : standardization and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanyan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing emergence of multinational companies and the increased popularity of these companies, the question of the organization of their activities becomes interesting for the HR community worldwide. These companies are renowned for deliberate management structure of human resources and their effective use. For effective use of employees’ skills and knowledge the company has to constantly motivate them by intrinsic and extrinsic motivational tools. Motivational tools which use a co...

  17. Do multinational retailers affect the export competitiveness of host countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheptea, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates how the overseas activity of multinational retailers (MRs) affects the global export patters of host country firms. Recent empirical work testifies that the entry of foreign retailers leads to a productivity upgrade in the domestic upstream sectors. Combined with the main result of the new new international trade theory on firm heterogeneity, an increase in the export capacity of local firms should also follow. The current paper establishes a connection between these em...

  18. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Minnis, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility are analyzed for determining the variability of cloud fraction and radiative forcing at several temporal scales between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layer low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (greater than 6 km) using ARM SGP ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and net cloud radiative forcings (CRF) are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements. The annual averages of total, and single-layer, nonoverlapped low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Total and low cloud amounts were greatest from December through March and least during July and August. The monthly variation of high cloud amount is relatively small with a broad maximum from May to August. During winter, total cloud cover varies diurnally with a small amplitude, mid-morning maximum and early evening minimum, and during summer it changes by more than 0.14 over the daily cycle with a pronounced early evening minimum. The diurnal variations of mean single-layer cloud cover change with season and cloud height. Annual averages of all-sky, total, and single-layer high, middle, and low LW CRFs are 21.4, 40.2, 16.7, 27.2, and 55.0 Wm(sup -2), respectively; and their SW CRFs are -41.5, -77.2, -37.0, -47.0, and -90.5 Wm(sup -2). Their net CRFs range from -20 to -37 Wm(sup -2). For all-sky, total, and low clouds, the maximum negative net CRFs of -40.1, -70, and -69.5 Wm(sup -2), occur during April; while the respective minimum values of -3.9, -5.7, and -4.6 Wm(sup -2), are found during December. July is the month having maximum negative net CRF of -46.2 Wm(sup -2) for middle clouds, and May has the maximum value of -45.9 Wm(sup -2) for high clouds. An

  19. Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential cracks under combined internal pressure, axial force and bending moment − Part II: Finite element validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuebing; Lei, Yuebao; Gao, Zengliang

    2014-01-01

    Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential internal/external surface and through-wall defects under combined positive/negative axial force, positive/negative global bending moment and internal pressure have been developed in Part I of this paper. In this Part II, elastic-perfectly plastic 3-D finite element (FE) analyses are performed for selected cases, covering a wide range of geometries and load combinations, to validate the developed limit load solutions. The results show that these limit load solutions can predict the FE data very well for the cases with shallow or deep and short cracks and are conservative. For the cases with very long and deep cracks, the predictions are reasonably accurate and more conservative. -- Highlights: • Elastic-perfectly plastic 3D finite element limiting analyses of cylinders. • Thin/thick-walled cylinders with circumferential surface defects. • Combined loading for pressure, end-force and global bending moment. • Totally 1458 cases analysed and tabulated normalised results provided. • Results used to validate the developed limit load solutions in Part I of this paper

  20. Multinational design evaluation programme. Annual Report April 2015-April 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is a multinational initiative to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities that are, or will shortly be, undertaking the review of new reactor power plant designs. MDEP incorporates a broad range of activities including enhancing multilateral co-operation within existing regulatory frameworks, and increasing multinational convergence of codes, standards, guides, and safety goals. A key concept throughout the work of MDEP is that national regulators retain sovereign authority for all licensing and regulatory decisions. Working groups are implementing the activities in accordance with programme plans with specific activities and goals, and have established the necessary interfaces both within and outside of MDEP. This report provides a status of the programme after its eighth year of implementation. Content: Executive Summary; 1 - Introduction; 2 - Programme goals and outcomes; 3 - Programme implementation (Membership, Organizational structure, MDEP Library, Common positions); 4 - Interactions with other organizations; 5 - Current activities (EPR Working Group (EPRWG), AP1000 Working Group (AP1000WG), APR1400 Design-specific Working Group (APR1400WG), VVER Working Group (VVERWG), ABWR Working Group (ABWRWG), Vendor Inspection Co-operation Working Group (VICWG), Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG), Digital Instrumentation and Controls Working Group (DICWG); 6 - Interim results; 7 - Next steps - future of the programme; appendix 1: List of abbreviations and acronyms; Appendix 2: Revised documents and publications; Appendix 3: Photographs of reactors considered within MDEP

  1. THE AMAZING UNIVERSE OF RUSSIAN MULTINATIONALS: NEW INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, large multinational companies originating from Russia have shown outstanding performances alongside their road from regional dominance to global leaders. Taking stock of recent approaches in the literature and statistical data released by well-known international organizations, our papers aims to provide some new insights from the amazing universe of Russian multinationals, following the 2008-2009 global economic crisis. The list of the largest multinationals from Russia shows that corporations from oil & gas and metallurgical sector are prevailing, as a consequence of the resource – based character of the Russian economy. Although Russian giants represents a quite heterogeneous class of companies, they do share several common features such as their propel mechanism of expansion on the global business stage (leveraged by the resource-based nature of their home economy, their tendency to invest in the neighboring countries (like Commonwealth of Independent States or East European countries, their modes of entry (through brownfield projects etc.

  2. Multinational Design Evaluation Programme. Annual Report - April 2014-April 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is a multinational initiative to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities who are, or will shortly be, undertaking the review of new reactor power plant designs. MDEP incorporates a broad range of activities including enhancing multilateral co-operation within existing regulatory frameworks, and increasing multinational convergence of codes, standards, guides and safety goals. A key concept throughout the work of MDEP is that national regulators retain sovereign authority for all licensing and regulatory decisions. Working groups are implementing the activities in accordance with programme plans with specific activities and goals, and have established the necessary interfaces both within and outside of MDEP. This report provides a status of the programme after its seventh year of implementation. Content: Executive summary; 1. Introduction; 2. Programme goals and outcomes; 3. Programme implementation (Membership, Organisational structure, MDEP Library, Common positions); 4. Interactions with other organisations; 5. Current activities (EPR Working Group (EPRWG), AP1000 Working Group (AP1000WG), APR1400 Working Group (APR1400WG), VVER Working Group (VVERWG), AVBWR Working Group (ABWRWG), Vendor Inspection Co-operation Working Group (VICWG), Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG), Digital Instrumentation and Controls Working Group (DICWG)); 6. Interim results; 7. Next steps - Future of the programme; Appendix 1 - List of abbreviations and acronyms; Appendix 2 - Revised documents and publications; Appendix 3 - Photographs of reactors considered within MDEP

  3. Two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in core in SCTF Core-II forced feed reflood tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Sobajima, Makoto; Okubo, Tsutomu; Ohnuki, Akira; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi

    1987-01-01

    Major purpose of the Slab Core Test Program is to investigate the two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in the core during the reflood phase of a PWR-LOCA. It was revealed in the previous Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) Core-II test results that the heat transfer was enhanced in the higher power bundles and degraded in the lower power bundles in the non-uniform radial power profile tests. In order to separately evaluate the effect of the radial power (Q) distribution itself and the effect of the radial temperature (T) distribution, four tests were performed with steep Q and T, flat Q and T, steep Q and flat T, and flat Q and steep T. Based on the test results, it was concluded that the radial temperature distribution which accompanied the radial power distribution was the dominant factor of the two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in the core during the initial period. Selected data from these four tests are also presented in this report. Some data from Test S2-12 (steep Q, T) were compared with TRAC post-test calculations performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. (author)

  4. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lethbridge Jane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. Methods This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. Results The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. Conclusions The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change.

  5. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. Methods This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. Results The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. Conclusions The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change. PMID:21722372

  6. Understanding multinational companies in public health systems, using a competitive advantage framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a study which developed five case studies of five multinational health care companies involved in public health care systems. Strategies were analysed in terms of attitude to marketing, pricing and regulation. The company strategies have been subjected to an analysis using Porter's Five Forces, a business strategy framework, which is unusual in health policy studies. This paper shows how analysing company strategy using a business tool can contribute to understanding the strategies of global capital in national health systems. It shows how social science methodologies can draw from business methods to explain company strategies. The five companies considered in this paper demonstrate that their strategies have many dimensions, which fit into Porter's Five Forces of comparative advantage. More importantly the Five Forces can be used to identify factors that influence company entry into public health care systems. The process of examining the strategic objectives of five health care companies shows that a business tool can help to explain the actions and motives of health care companies towards public health care systems, and so contribute to a better understanding of the strategies of global capital in national health systems. Health service commissioners need to understand this dynamic process, which will evolve as the nature of public health care systems change.

  7. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. II. Aerodynamic force production, flight control and performance limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wang, Yi; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T-C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    The superior manoeuvrability of hummingbirds emerges from complex interactions of specialized neural and physiological processes with the unique flight dynamics of flapping wings. Escape manoeuvring is an ecologically relevant, natural behaviour of hummingbirds, from which we can gain understanding into the functional limits of vertebrate locomotor capacity. Here, we extend our kinematic analysis of escape manoeuvres from a companion paper to assess two potential limiting factors of the manoeuvring performance of hummingbirds: (1) muscle mechanical power output and (2) delays in the neural sensing and control system. We focused on the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g) and the black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g), which represent large and small species, respectively. We first estimated the aerodynamic forces, moments and the mechanical power of escape manoeuvres using measured wing kinematics. Comparing active-manoeuvring and passive-damping aerodynamic moments, we found that pitch dynamics were lightly damped and dominated by the effect of inertia, while roll dynamics were highly damped. To achieve observed closed-loop performance, pitch manoeuvres required faster sensorimotor transduction, as hummingbirds can only tolerate half the delay allowed in roll manoeuvres. Accordingly, our results suggested that pitch control may require a more sophisticated control strategy, such as those based on prediction. For the magnificent hummingbird, we estimated that escape manoeuvres required muscle mass-specific power 4.5 times that during hovering. Therefore, in addition to the limitation imposed by sensorimotor delays, muscle power could also limit the performance of escape manoeuvres. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Multinational corporations and corporate social responsibility in the peace building in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Peña, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of the multinational corporations in the Colombian peace process. First a theoretical frame work is built which aims to shed light on the significance of multinationals in this process. The study then presents the specific Colombian experience with relation to the role of multinationals in the peace process. The penultimate section deals with the relation between peace, corporate social responsibility, and the UN Global Compact. Finally it offers a conclusion wi...

  9. Multinational design evaluation programme. Annual Report April 2016-April 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-08-01

    The Multinational Design Evaluation Program (MDEP) is a multinational initiative to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities that are currently, or will shortly be, undertaking the review of new reactor power plant designs. MDEP was launched in 2006. In the past ten years, MDEP's reputation as an effective organisation for leveraging the resources and experiences of multiple nations in the regulatory review of new reactors has grown significantly. As a result, the portfolio of new reactor designs that are being addressed have increased from two in 2006 to five in 2017, with a possibility of adding more new reactor designs in the coming years. MDEP's membership has grown from the original 10 national regulators to 15. Over the past year, MDEP design specific working groups have all completed their common positions to address the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on new reactor designs. New reactor commissioning activities are a major part of all design specific working groups. The EPR and AP1000 Working Groups are particularly active in this area, as together they are overseeing 12 new reactor constructions worldwide. The design specific working groups have finalised a common position to provide high-level guidance to applicants and licensees that wish to take credit for a first plant only test (FPOT). This common position was first implemented in March 2017 at the Taishan 1 plant in China, where regulators and licensees from the United Kingdom, France and Finland witnessed reactor pressure vessel internals vibration tests. The FPOT marked a significant milestone for MDEP since it provided a unique opportunity for regulators involved to demonstrate the efficiency of using common positions to effectively collaborate and share information on test results. This model should be followed as much as possible in other MDEP co-operation areas. Another significant step in multinational regulatory co

  10. Corporate social responsibility in global health: an exploratory study of multinational pharmaceutical firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droppert, Hayley; Bennett, Sara

    2015-04-09

    As pharmaceutical firms experience increasing civil society pressure to act responsibly in a changing globalized world, many are expanding and/or reforming their corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. We sought to understand how multinational pharmaceutical companies currently engage in CSR activities in the developing world aimed at global health impact, their motivations for doing so and how their CSR strategies are evolving. We conducted a small-scale, exploratory study combining (i) an in-depth review of publicly available data on pharmaceutical firms' CSR with (ii) interviews of representatives from 6 firms, purposively selected, from the highest earning pharmaceutical firms worldwide. Corporate social responsibility differed for each firm particularly with respect to how CSR is defined, organizational structures for managing CSR, current CSR activities, and motivations for CSR. Across the firms studied, the common CSR activities were: differential pharmaceutical pricing, strengthening developing country drug distribution infrastructure, mHealth initiatives, and targeted research and development. Primary factors that motivated CSR engagement were: reputational benefits, recruitment and employee satisfaction, better rankings in sustainability indices, entrance into new markets, long-term economic returns, and improved population health. In terms of CSR strategy, firms were at different points on a spectrum ranging from philanthropic donations to integrated systemic shared value business models. CSR is of increasing importance for multinational pharmaceutical firms yet understanding of the array of CSR strategies employed and their effects is nascent. Our study points to the need to (i) develop clearer and more standardized definitions of CSR in global health (2) strengthen indices to track CSR strategies and their public health effects in developing countries and (iii) undertake more country level studies that investigate how CSR engages with

  11. An Exploratory Investigation of Locally Constituted Challenges to Communication Management in Multinational Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Jonassson, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that multinational teams create a number of competitive advantages when used strategically. However, multinational teams are not always successful, and a number of studies indicate that communication between team members may be the main obstacle. The purpose of this article...... is to investigate communication problems in organizations consisting of multinational teams. It is argued that researchers should not only look for differences in national culture when analyzing barriers to the communication flow. Challenges to communication may also develop in the locally constituted...... organizational culture. This is illustrated by an ethnographic field study in a multinational department of a Danish organization....

  12. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced

  13. A non-traditional multinational approach to construction inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Srinivasan; Smith, M.E.; Walker, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    The next generation of nuclear plants would be fabricated, constructed and licensed in markedly different ways than the present light water reactors. Non-traditional commercial nuclear industry suppliers, shipyards in Usa and international fabricators, would be a source to supply major components and subsystems. The codes of construction may vary depending upon the prevailing codes and standards used by the respective supplier. Such codes and standards need to be reconciled with the applicable regulations (e.g., 10 CFR 52). A Construction Inspection Program is an integral part of the Quality Assurance Measures required during the Construction Phase of the power plant. In order to achieve the stated cost and schedule goals of the new build plants, a nontraditional multi-national approach would be required. In lieu of the traditional approach of individual utility inspecting the quality of fabrication and construction, a multi-utility team approach is a method that will be discussed. Likewise, a multinational cooperative licensing approach is suggested taking advantage of inspectors of the regulatory authority where the component would be built. The multi-national approach proposed here is based on the principle of forming teaming agreements between the utilities, vendors and the regulators. For instance, rather than sending Country A's inspectors all over the world, inspectors of the regulator in Country B where a particular component is being fabricated would in fact be performing the required inspections for Country A's regulator. Similarly teaming arrangements could be set up between utilities and vendors in different countries. The required oversight for the utility or the vendor could be performed by their counterparts in the country where a particular item is being fabricated

  14. Knowledge Transfer and Accommodation Effects in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai J.; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Foreign subsidiaries in multinational corporations (MNCs) possess knowledge that has different sources (e.g., the firm itself or various sources in the environment). How such sources influence knowledge transfer is not well understood. Drawing on the "accommodation effect" from cognitive psychology...... if a certain tipping point of internally sourced knowledge has been surpassed. This suggests that subsidiary knowledge stocks that are balanced in terms of their origins tend to be more valuable, congruous, and fungible, and therefore more likely to be transferred to other MNC units...

  15. A Strategic Risk Management Framework for Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Andersen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    and economic risks that can be monitored within conventional reporting systems and managed through use of various derivative instruments. All the while, a dispersed multinational structure can be vulnerable to disruptions caused by changing economic conditions, competitive moves, and geopolitical developments......-frequency high-impact disaster events based on scenario analyses. Hence, there is a need to consider risk management approaches that integrate relatively transparent financial exposures with the consequences of uncertain and hard-to-quantify event risks. This paper outlines the contours of such a strategic risk...

  16. Multinational Exploration of Acquired R&D Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    R&D. This paper establishes the connection between amultinational corporation that follows a capability-motivated acquisition strategy and theR&D role new subsidiaries should play in order for the acquired resources to be utilizedcorporation-wide. Statistical findings reveal the need to follow......This paper presents the results of a survey of 54 Danish multinational corporations that haveacquired activities abroad. The role of the acquired R&D units was the focus of the survey,particularly with respect to the schism between basic and applied R&D, and the schismbetween autonomous and network...

  17. Pierre Moscovici:"Nieuwe belasting multinationals moet voor verkiezingen"

    OpenAIRE

    Roels, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Pierre Moscovici, the European Commissioner for economy and taxation, met in Brussels with representatives of the S&D fraction in de European Parliament, and of the European Trade Unions. All want the Member States to approve a novel temporary tax on big internet multinationals such as Apple, fB, Google, Amazon; and this before the EP elections of 2019. The number of customers and income from advertisements will be used as tax base. Paul Tang, MEP for the PvdA (NL), is leading the campaign a...

  18. HRM and IR in Multinational Corporations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Minbaeva, Dana

    2009-01-01

    As multinational corporations operate in multiple countries, headquarters must take into account differences in local settings when seeking the means to coordinate and control subsidiaries. The local system of industrial relations sets the framework for what kind of human resource management......, that a shift from a stakeholder to a shareholder management style and an increased degree of HQ control have an effect on the whole cooperative atmosphere in each of the companies. In the long run, they may affect the collective bargaining system as such....

  19. A license to mine?: Community organizing against multinational corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Romy

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWhat does it mean when a corporation claims to have a ‘license to operate’ in a local community? How does a member of an indigenous tribe make it to London to protest against a multinational mining company? How do managers perceive and speak about protest against their company and how does this discourse matter for social movement repression? First, I argue, based on a literature review, that responsiveness to local community needs has become an important factor influencing the ab...

  20. Confocal arthroscopy-based patient-specific constitutive models of cartilaginous tissues - II: prediction of reaction force history of meniscal cartilage specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zeike A; Kirk, Thomas B; Miller, Karol

    2007-10-01

    The theoretical framework developed in a companion paper (Part I) is used to derive estimates of mechanical response of two meniscal cartilage specimens. The previously developed framework consisted of a constitutive model capable of incorporating confocal image-derived tissue microstructural data. In the present paper (Part II) fibre and matrix constitutive parameters are first estimated from mechanical testing of a batch of specimens similar to, but independent from those under consideration. Image analysis techniques which allow estimation of tissue microstructural parameters form confocal images are presented. The constitutive model and image-derived structural parameters are then used to predict the reaction force history of the two meniscal specimens subjected to partially confined compression. The predictions are made on the basis of the specimens' individual structural condition as assessed by confocal microscopy and involve no tuning of material parameters. Although the model does not reproduce all features of the experimental curves, as an unfitted estimate of mechanical response the prediction is quite accurate. In light of the obtained results it is judged that more general non-invasive estimation of tissue mechanical properties is possible using the developed framework.

  1. Management Control Systems in Subsidiaries of Multinationals in the Emerging Market of Central Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusc, J.S.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Using transaction cost theory and the theory of multinational enterprise, this study examines the extent of the degree to which management of multinational companies can control over its subsidiaries' configuration and coordination abilities. Empirical results showed that the subsidiaries enjoyed a

  2. Evaluating the Investment Benefit of Multinational Enterprises' International Projects Based on Risk Adjustment: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the international risks faced by multinational enterprises to understand their impact on the evaluation of investment projects. Moreover, it establishes a 'three-dimensional' theoretical framework of risk identification to analyse the composition of international risk indicators of multinational enterprises based on the theory…

  3. A theoretical assessment of the empirical literature on the impact of multinationality on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennart, J.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    I assess the theoretical basis for the existence of a relationship between the size of a firm's foreign footprint (its multinationality) and its performance. I argue that multinationality results from a firm's choice between coordinating internally the stages of its value chain and letting them be

  4. Coordinated vs. liberal market HRM: the impact of institutionalisation on multinational firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farndale, E.; Brewster, C.; Poutsma, F.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of institutionalized contexts on the HRM activities of multinational firms has become a focus of increasing attention in recent literature. However, theories of how different types of business systems or market economies may influence HRM, and the impact of context on multinational

  5. A Cost-based Explanation of Gradual, Regional Internationalization of Multinationals on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    of internationalization. Data on 5827 country pages of 240 multinational firms on Facebook, the most popular SNS today, is used. Creating a foreign country-specific Facebook page is considered the SNS equivalent of opening a physical subsidiary in that country. The data show that multinationals exhibit...

  6. The Effects of Organization Design on Media Richness in Multinational Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, J. Michael; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines effects of two organizational design parameters, divisionalization and centralization, on the media richness choices of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of multinational enterprises in obtaining information from foreign subsidiaries on strategic issues. Samples 86 US multinationals; finds formal divisional structure affects CEOs' use of…

  7. Testing the Link Between Multinationality and the Return on Foreign Assets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George); A. Kudina; A.M. Rugman (Alan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA large and robust emperical literature demonstrates that there is a strong relationship between the performance of a multinational enterprise (MNE) and its degree of multinationality. We develop a new metric to capture the return on foreign assets (ROFA), which we use as an alternative

  8. Bi-National Corps of Nato’s Main Defense Forces in Central Europe: Creating Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-04

    reductions of their forces after the desintegration of the Soviet Union. Moreover, the European countries, whose force structure focused solely on...Korps--Anspruch und Wirklichkeit (A House for many families ; about the example LANDJUT: Multinational Corps--Request and Reality)," Truopenpraxis, 4/1992

  9. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN CONDITIONS OF INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Lyasnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the conceptual basis for the formation of international marketing, the characteristic of the main exit strategies on the world market, revealed features of international marketing that national companies are obliged to take into account the examples of international marketing strategies of international companies such as Apple, Google, Nike, the Russian company Natura Siberica.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international marketing activities of multinational companies and the development of proposals for improving this process.Methodology. To complete this article, no such analysis methods were used as comparative and Economics and Statistics.Conclusions / relevance. The results are of practical value, they can be used in a lecture course teachers of educational institutions in the preparation of managers, as well as direct marketing specialists. In the study, the author was able to draw a number of conclusions that facilitate the development of the set of eff ective combinations, each of which represents a unique scenario of territorial expansion. Promising further expansion of the practice of implementation of marketing approaches in the organization of the entities of multinational companies, in Vol. H. The use of new technologies.

  10. 'A question of balance': addressing the public health impacts of multinational enterprises in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joshua S; McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    The global community is beginning to address non-communicable diseases, but how to increase the accountability of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for the health impacts of their products and practices remains unclear. We examine the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) efforts to do so through voluntary MNE guidelines. We developed a historical case study of how the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises were developed and revised from 1973 to 2000 through an analysis of publicly available archived OECD and tobacco industry documents. The first edition of the Guidelines was a purely economic instrument. Outside pressures and a desire to ward off more stringent regulatory efforts resulted in the addition over time of guidelines related to the environment, consumer interests, sustainable development and human rights. Despite their voluntary nature, the Guidelines can play a role in efforts to help balance the interests of MNEs and public health by providing a starting point for efforts to create binding provisions addressing MNEs' contributions to disease burden or disease reduction.

  11. Report of the Secretary of Defense Task Force on DoD Nuclear Weapons Management. Phase II: Review of the DoD Nuclear Mission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlesinger, James R; Carns, Michael P; Crouch, II, J. D; Gansler, Jacques S; Giambastiani, Jr., Edmund P; Hamre, John J; Miller, Franklin C; Williams, Christopher A; Blackwell, Jr, James A

    2008-01-01

    Incidents related to the Air Force's mishandling of nuclear weapons and components led to the creation of the Task Force in June 2008 to provide advice on nuclear matters for the Secretary of Defense...

  12. The Role of Multinational Companies in the Deployment of Foreign Direct Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Botescu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades multinational firms have become the leading actors of the international markets, including markets in developing countries. A multinational firm’s decision to open a branch or a subsidiary in another country, thus to invest abroad, is based on efficiency criteria, the obtained profit having a primordial aspect. We mustn’t forget the various advantages the host country befits of, here mentioning the transfer of technology. The unprecedented foreign amalgamation of multinational firms was brought on by the continuous liberalization of international commerce and investment fluxes.

  13. Brazilian Multinationals ́ Competences: Impacts of a “Tug of War” Between Cultural Legacies and Global Mindedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Glufke Reis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the simultaneous influences of culture and global mindedness on the foreign subsidiaries of Brazilian multinationals (B rMNs. Because the ability to develop competences abroad is critical for emerging multina tionals competitiveness, we proposed hypotheses and tested a model for how the competenc es of subsidiaries may be affected by the dimensions of global mindedness and culture. To do so, we conducted a multilevel survey involving the headquarters and subsidiaries of majo r BrMNs. The results suggest that global mindedness, which encompasses global orientation, g lobal knowledge, and global skills, is positively related to the development of subsidiari es ́ competences. By contrast, cultural factors, including power distance and uncertainty a voidance, are negatively related to competences development. Therefore, these dimension s may exert simultaneous and opposing stimuli and unaligned forces that affect the develo pment of competences abroad, generating a “tug of war” effect.

  14. Organizational Values and Knowledge Sharing in Multinational Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailova, Snejina; Minbaeva, Dana

    2012-01-01

    While the existing knowledge sharing literature, in general, emphasizes the link between organizational culture and knowledge sharing, it remains rather ambiguous about how certain components of the former may shape the latter. This issue is especially relevant to multinational corporations (MNCs......), which typically consist of multiple organizational (sub)cultures and whose existence depends, to a great extent, on sharing knowledge across borders. The present study examines the influence of one key component of organizational culture – organizational values – on knowledge sharing. From 2003 to 2007......, we studied Danisco, a Danish MNC, to examine the processes of espousement, enactment and internalization of a core organizational value – dialogue. In particular, we studied how these processes influence knowledge sharing behavior among employees. We collected original empirical data using content...

  15. THE RELEVANCE OF SUBSIDIARY INITIATIVES FOR BRAZILIAN MULTINATIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Junior

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze relationship patterns between headquarters and subsidiaries of Brazilian Multinationals Enterprises (BrMNEs. The key construct for that investigation is Subsidiary Initiative, which comprises Subsidiary Entrepreneurial Orientation, Autonomy, Integration, Local Competitive Context and Business Network.A survey was carried out in a sample of 65 subsidiaries of 29 BrMNEs. The main outcome is that subsidiaries are highly integrated and receive Entrepreneurial Orientation from Headquarters (HQs, but Initiative is limited. Actually, the main determinants of subsidiary’s initiatives are Local Context and Business Networking in the host country. This apparent paradox may be explained by what we call ‘rebellious subsidiaries’, which take initiatives based on their business environment and connections, regardless of their HQs’ directions or delegation of autonomy.

  16. Knowledge Transfer and Innovation in Brazilian Multinational Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Eduardo Maehler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes how innovation generation occurs in subsidiaries of Brazilian multinational corporations acting in Portugal, specifically the role of customers in the process and the knowledge dynamics. A multiple case study approach was conducted in four subsidiaries operating in the Portuguese market for at least one year. Firms came from different activity sectors and sizes. Results identify permanent knowledge exchange flows between subsidiaries and headquarters, while the largest pour is from the later ones (in Brazil to their wings in Portugal. There are frequent innovations taking place in Portuguese subsidiaries. Such innovation processes are typically incremental in nature and occur predominantly in only some areas of the organization, where greater specialization and expertise are located. The most relevant results regard the existing strong interaction between subsidiaries and markets, especially with the larger customers that contribute with suggestions and are able to influence the new products creation in the subsidiaries.

  17. Implications of multinational arrangements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.

    1980-01-01

    In the recently concluded INFCE study a variety of possibilities to minimize the proliferation risk was discussed, and their applicability in the nuclear fuel cycle was investigated. It was found that safeguards still play a central part as an anti-proliferation measure. Aspect of institutional arrangements with the aim of placing nuclear material processing and storage facilities under multinational or international auspices is the basis and goal of this study, as in international discussions some degree of proliferation hindrance is attributed to such models. In the assessment of the internationalization of nuclear facilities as an anti-proliferation measure two aspects have to be emphasized: Firstly, internationalization may be understood as a political measure to hinder proliferation, and secondly, no additional control effort should be caused by the possible complementary character to safeguards. 5 refs

  18. Multinational design evaluation programme - Annual report March 2013-March 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is a multinational initiative to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities who are, or will shortly be, undertaking the review of new reactor power plant designs. MDEP incorporates a broad range of activities including enhancing multilateral cooperation within existing regulatory frameworks, and increasing multinational convergence of codes, standards, guides, and safety goals. A key concept throughout the work of MDEP is that national regulators retain sovereign authority for all licensing and regulatory decisions. Working groups are implementing the activities in accordance with programme plans with specific activities and goals, and have established the necessary interfaces both within and outside of the MDEP members. In the past year, MDEP has expanded to include cooperation on the VVER and ABWR designs and additional members have begun participating in the programme to share their experiences on these design reviews. This report provides the current status of the programme. Significant progress is being made on the overall MDEP goals of increased cooperation and enhanced convergence of requirements and practices. In addition, the lessons learnt from the 11 March 2011, events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant are being incorporated into MDEP activities through the programme plans of design-specific working groups (DSWG). On this topic, the EPR Working Group has issued a common position which will be supplemented by five technical appendices by the end of 2014. Other DSWG are in the process of drafting such common positions. Several DSWGs' are facilitating the MDEP programme goal of enhanced cooperation: the EPRWG, the Vendor Inspection Cooperation Working Group (VICWG), the Digital Instrumentation and Controls Working Group (DICWG), the Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG). Accomplishments to date provide confidence that the MDEP membership, structure and processes

  19. ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS ENGAGED BY JAPANESE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the most visible feature of globalization was the new trend of the capital flow which moves from the stage of nternalization to the stage of transnationalization. The decisive factor that led to this development was the trans-nationalization of production/ distribution networks by multinational companies (MNCs. MNCs, which are also frequently referred to as transnational corporations (TNCs, are conglomerate organizations which carry out multiple and diverse economic activities and they consists of a parent company and a large number of subsidiaries operating in various countries of the world. Japan has been worthy of note on the international business scene not only by the high competitiveness of its companies on the global markets, but especially through the transnationalization of the activities of these enterprises, a process which has resulted in the implementation, via Foreign Direct Investments (FDI of Japanese production units abroad, with significant positive impact both on the global economy and on the domestic economy. A great number of empirical studies since the mid-1990s, using firm-level data, have shown that multinational companies (MNCs dominate today the Japanese business environment. The paper puts together the findings of some interesting working papers published by Japanese researchers in recent years, trying to provide a scientific answer to the following question: “In what way do FDI undertaken by MNCs influence the level of performances achieved by Japanese companies at home?” The conclusion is that FDI and the activity carried out by Japanese MNCs abroad have indubitable positive effects on both countries and firms involved - such as raises in production, employment and productivity at firms’ level or increases in competition intensity among firms, improvements in real wage and welfare at macroeconomic level.

  20. Resource costing for multinational neurologic clinical trials: methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, K; Burke, J; Drummond, M; Davies, L; Carlsson, P; Gruger, J; Harris, A; Lucioni, C; Gisbert, R; Llana, T; Tom, E; Bloom, B; Willke, R; Glick, H

    1998-11-01

    We present the results of a multinational resource costing study for a prospective economic evaluation of a new medical technology for treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage within a clinical trial. The study describes a framework for the collection and analysis of international resource cost data that can contribute to a consistent and accurate intercountry estimation of cost. Of the 15 countries that participated in the clinical trial, we collected cost information in the following seven: Australia, France, Germany, the UK, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. The collection of cost data in these countries was structured through the use of worksheets to provide accurate and efficient cost reporting. We converted total average costs to average variable costs and then aggregated the data to develop study unit costs. When unit costs were unavailable, we developed an index table, based on a market-basket approach, to estimate unit costs. To estimate the cost of a given procedure, the market-basket estimation process required that cost information be available for at least one country. When cost information was unavailable in all countries for a given procedure, we estimated costs using a method based on physician-work and practice-expense resource-based relative value units. Finally, we converted study unit costs to a common currency using purchasing power parity measures. Through this costing exercise we developed a set of unit costs for patient services and per diem hospital services. We conclude by discussing the implications of our costing exercise and suggest guidelines to facilitate more effective multinational costing exercises.

  1. Determinants of reverse knowledge transfer for emerging market multinationals: the role of complexity, autonomy and embeddedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Freitas Silveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Subsidiaries conduct innovation activities in foreign markets either to capture valuable knowledge that is necessary to adapt their products to local markets or to create valuable knowledge for headquarters. For emerging market multinationals, most studies have overlooked the determinants of successful reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiaries located in emerging and developed markets. This paper analyzed the responses of a survey administered to 78 Brazilian multinationals that own subsidiaries in developed and emerging markets. We found that knowledge complexity developed at the subsidiary, its autonomy and embeddedness in the foreign market determine the successful reverse knowledge transfer to headquarters of emerging market multinationals. This paper contributes to previous studies of reverse knowledge transfer by underlying the main drivers for emerging market multinationals.

  2. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in immunocompromised patients : The Efraim multinational prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azoulay, Elie; Pickkers, Peter; Soares, Marcio; Perner, Anders; Rello, Jordi; Bauer, Philippe R.; van de Louw, Andry; Hemelaar, Pleun; Lemiale, Virginie; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Loeches, Ignacio Martin; Meyhoff, Tine Sylvest; Salluh, Jorge; Schellongowski, Peter; Rusinova, Katerina; Terzi, Nicolas; Mehta, Sangeeta; Antonelli, Massimo; Kouatchet, Achille; Barratt-Due, Andreas; Valkonen, Miia; Landburg, Precious Pearl; Bruneel, Fabrice; Bukan, Ramin Brandt; Pene, Frederic; Metaxa, Victoria; Moreau, Anne Sophie; Souppart, Virginie; Burghi, Gaston; Girault, Christophe; Silva, Ulysses V. A.; Montini, Luca; Barbier, Francois; Nielsen, Lene B.; Gaborit, Benjamin; Mokart, Djamel; Chevret, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Background: In immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF), initial management aims primarily to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Methods: To assess the impact of initial management on IMV and mortality rates, we performed a multinational observational

  3. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in immunocompromised patients: the Efraim multinational prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azoulay, E.; Pickkers, P.; Soares, M.; Perner, A.; Rello, J.; Bauer, P.R.; Louw, A. van de; Hemelaar, P.; Lemiale, V.; Taccone, F.S.; Loeches, I.M.; Meyhoff, T.S.; Salluh, J.; Schellongowski, P.; Rusinova, K.; Terzi, N.; Mehta, S.; Antonelli, M.; Kouatchet, A.; Barratt-Due, A.; Valkonen, M.; Landburg, P.P.; Bruneel, F.; Bukan, R.B.; Pene, F.; Metaxa, V.; Moreau, A.S.; Souppart, V.; Burghi, G.; Girault, C.; Silva, U.V.A.; Montini, L.; Barbier, F.; Nielsen, L.B.; Gaborit, B.; Mokart, D.; Chevret, S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF), initial management aims primarily to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). METHODS: To assess the impact of initial management on IMV and mortality rates, we performed a multinational observational

  4. Knowledge protection strategies of multinational firms-A cross-country comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Faria, Pedro; Sofka, Wolfgang

    International knowledge spillovers, especially through multinational companies (MNCs), have recently been a major topic of discussion among academics and practitioners. Most research in this field focuses on knowledge sharing activities of MNC subsidiaries. Relatively little is known about their

  5. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.

  6. The Impact of Headquarter and Subsidiary Locations on Multinationals' Effective Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin S. Markle; Douglas A. Shackelford

    2013-01-01

    We examine effective tax rates (ETRs) for 9,022 multinationals from 87 countries from 2006 to 2011. We find that, despite extensive investments in international tax avoidance, multinationals headquartered in Japan, the United States, and some high-tax European countries continue to face substantially higher worldwide taxes than their counterparts in havens and other less heavily taxed locations. Other findings include: (1) effective tax rates remained steady over the investigation period; (2)...

  7. The budgeting and reporting process of a multinational organisation across regions and trade centres

    OpenAIRE

    Robusti, Fiorenza

    2012-01-01

    In the contemporary international business environment, a multinational organisation faces great challenges when it comes to budgeting and reporting. The complexity of budgeting and reporting is even greater when it implies the coordination of budgets and reports of trade centres located in other countries than the country of origin. A multinational organisation often adopts the participative budgeting method. The purpose of participative budgeting is to involve managers at lower manage...

  8. Socially acceptable enterprising of the Netherlands in China. Investigation of the performance of Dutch multinationals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, H.G.M.; Koppert, P.

    2005-01-01

    An effective tool has been developed by means of which companies can investigate their foreign offices or establishments with respect to people (labor conditions), planet (environmental effects), and profit (economic efficiency). In order to test the tool, offices and establishments of multinational enterprises in both the Netherlands and in China were visited. The Dutch offices perform better than the offices in China, although claims of the main office of the multinationals could not be verified on the 'shop-floor' [nl

  9. Econometric Study of the Relationship between Dimensions of Corporate Responsibility in the Multinational Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Grosu Maria

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Responsibility, seen as a fundamental principle of corporate governance, aims contribution must have companies in the development of the modern society. Although it is widely discussed in the literature, the association of corporate responsibility - multinationals assumes, that the globalization of business, multinational companies are ones that have to initiate socially responsible actions, in order to meet changing requirements interest of more sophisticated. Most studies focused ...

  10. Expatriate training and support: How effective are multinational companies’ practices in Cyprus?

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjiyianni, Chara

    2009-01-01

    Most of the literature demonstrates that multinational companies do not adequately train and support expatriates prior to and during overseas assignments. If expatriates do not sufficiently adjust to host-country conditions, this can have detrimental effects on expatriate managers themselves, the assignment and the sending organisation. This study examines the effectiveness of expatriate training and support practices of multinational companies in Cyprus. The dissertation builds on three them...

  11. ERP systems in multi-national companies: support, maintenance and further development

    OpenAIRE

    Vymetal, Dominik; Matysek, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Multi-national companies introduce centralized or centrally administered ERP systems to cope with challenges of globalization. Introduction of such systems need careful planning. The planning should take not only the project and its deployment into consideration. Very important are the support and maintenance rules. The paper deals with rules used in case of a large multi-national company and resulting reaction of users in several subsidiaries in Central and Eastern Europe. The statistics obt...

  12. Social Networking as a Facilitator for Lifelong Learning in Multinational Employee’s Career

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Nicoleta VISAN; Florentina Marinela OLTEANU

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses how multinational employees who are leaving in Bucharest, Romania use social networks as a tool for their everyday tasks and work, and how they want to satisfy their personal development needs by having access to information from these digital platforms. The case study described was conducted in Bucharest in 2017 and followed a results analysis with structured tables and graphs. In the study took part 24 participants who were selected among multinational IT employees in B...

  13. Technical, institutional and economic factors important for developing a multinational radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    Countries planning and implementing nuclear energy programmes should assume responsibility for the safe management and final disposal of radioactive waste from their programmes. However, there are countries whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository, and/or countries which do not have the resources or favorable natural conditions for waste disposal to dedicate to a national repository project. These countries would benefit from multinational co-operation for the disposal. Interest in the concept of a multinational repository for radioactive waste has been expressed by several Member States and the waste management community in the light of the potential benefit to the partner countries from the safety, technical and economic standpoints. However, such an approach involves many political and public acceptance issues and therefore a consensus among countries or regions concerned is a prerequisite. In this context, it was deemed appropriate that the IAEA access the technical, institutional, ethical and economic factors to be taken into account in the process of such consensus building. This report is intended to provide an assessment which can serve as a general basis for establishing a waste management policy and/or further assessing specific issues such as ownership and liability, institutional aspects and problems related to long term commitments. This report is divided into five sections where the first section gives background, objectives, scope and structure of the report. Section 2 discusses multinational repository concept in terms of needs and the role of a multinational repository, interaction between host and partner countries and formulation of a multinational repository. Section 3 identifies basic issues to be considered for establishing a multinational repository, and some specific issues relating to specific waste categories. Section 4 analyses potential benefits and challenges to be addresses in establishing a

  14. The Evolution of the Security Order in Europe: Importance of Multinational Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-25

    facto-- prevented the economic self - sufficiency of the republics.1 Therefore, it would have been necessary to agree some form of common market and...Defense Identity", Survival (July/August 1991), 336. 32 Douglas T. Stuart, "Can NATO Trascend Its Europeans Borders? NATO Out of Area Disputes", Strategic...Overaio (Novembre 1990): 1-18. Stuart, Douglas T. "Can NATO Trascend Its European Borders?." Strateoic Studies Institute (USAWC): 1-21. 48 Taylor

  15. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety

  16. Analysis and Prototyping of the United States Marine Corps Total Force Administration System (TFAS), Echelon II - A Web Enabled Database for the Small Unit Leader

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Steven

    2002-01-01

    ...), Echelon II - A Web Enabled Database for The Small Unit Leader. The analysis consisted of researching the characteristics of the current manpower system, MCTFS, and the conceptual tenets of the TFAS program...

  17. Endearing Leadership of Enduring Organizations: General Nathan F. Twining and the Dichotomous Air Wars of the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Air Forces During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    American Airmen, but also fostered the cognitive dissonance played out in the divergent bombing strategies employed by the US and Great Britain...was very attuned to their force protection needs and made sure his forces supported the troops to their level of satisfaction —not to his level of... satisfaction based on arbitrary metrics. With the Thirteenth, Twining was perhaps more receptive to the feedback and cues he received from his joint

  18. Adaptive local basis set for Kohn–Sham density functional theory in a discontinuous Galerkin framework II: Force, vibration, and molecular dynamics calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Gaigong [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lin, Lin, E-mail: linlin@math.berkeley.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hu, Wei, E-mail: whu@lbl.gov [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yang, Chao, E-mail: cyang@lbl.gov [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pask, John E., E-mail: pask1@llnl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Recently, we have proposed the adaptive local basis set for electronic structure calculations based on Kohn–Sham density functional theory in a pseudopotential framework. The adaptive local basis set is efficient and systematically improvable for total energy calculations. In this paper, we present the calculation of atomic forces, which can be used for a range of applications such as geometry optimization and molecular dynamics simulation. We demonstrate that, under mild assumptions, the computation of atomic forces can scale nearly linearly with the number of atoms in the system using the adaptive local basis set. We quantify the accuracy of the Hellmann–Feynman forces for a range of physical systems, benchmarked against converged planewave calculations, and find that the adaptive local basis set is efficient for both force and energy calculations, requiring at most a few tens of basis functions per atom to attain accuracies required in practice. Since the adaptive local basis set has implicit dependence on atomic positions, Pulay forces are in general nonzero. However, we find that the Pulay force is numerically small and systematically decreasing with increasing basis completeness, so that the Hellmann–Feynman force is sufficient for basis sizes of a few tens of basis functions per atom. We verify the accuracy of the computed forces in static calculations of quasi-1D and 3D disordered Si systems, vibration calculation of a quasi-1D Si system, and molecular dynamics calculations of H{sub 2} and liquid Al–Si alloy systems, where we show systematic convergence to benchmark planewave results and results from the literature.

  19. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  20. Multiculturalism and Multi-nation Federalism. New challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Kymlicka

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Thank you for the kind introduction and for the very clear summary of the arguments of Multicultural Citizenship. So I thought I’d just mention a couple of the ideas that I’ve been working with more recently. The first concerns this. There are two main types of groups that I’ve been thinking of - immigrant groups and national minorities. What kinds of rights are appropriate for these two different types of groups. I discuss this in the book. I’ve been thinking a little bit just about trying to be more precise about the types of institutions and policies that are appropriate for these two kinds of groups and I’ve changed the terminology a bit. I would now talk about these in terms of immigrant multiculturalism for immigrant groups and multi-nation federalism for national minorities. So let me just say that I hope it’s not dramatically different from what’s in the book but let me just clarify what I mean by those terms, because I will use them.

  1. Social business in multinational corporations: an analysis of marketing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago José de Chaves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Social business (SB as a category of organization that seeks to create long-term economic and social value for the majority of the people has attracted the attention of policy-makers, practitioners, and scholars. Some authors highlight the role that multinational corporations (MNCs have in mitigating social and environmental problems by offering products and services to meet the demands of lower-income populations. Based on a discussion of social business and such initiatives inside MNCs, this article investigates how the Brazilian subsidiaries of two large MNCs (Coca-Cola and Danone are performing SB in a developing country. More specifically, we focused on how they are using their marketing know-how to achieve the desired results. The cases were chosen based on their global relevance, reach, and representativeness in SB efforts. Our study has shown that their social initiatives are linked to the corporate mission, values and strategies, and that they aim to achieve social transformation in connection to their core business. Our goal is to contribute both to academic research and to future initiatives in Brazil and other developing countries.

  2. TOWARDS A GERMAN LANGUAGE FRAMEWORK FOR MALAYSIABASED MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES (MNCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Waltraud Brigitte Mayr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The aim of this study is to introduce an approach to managing business communication based on the German language needs of employees in multinational companies in Malaysia and the expectations of employers in the teaching of German in their companies. As additional variables, training for sustainable development (ESD and for maximizing the mutual understanding in personal interactions is included. Design / methodology / approach – This paper is reflecting on the spectrum of ideas about the teaching of German in German companies in Malaysia that was obtained through the author’s earlier target situation analysis in MNCs in Malaysia. In addition to a variety of methods that is incorporated to engage students in the learning process, a ‘meaning negotiation’ approach is applied in order to deal with the intercultural communication practices. Results - The paper outlines a set of topics and strategies that can assist employees in intercultural interaction contexts in a German Malaysia-based company. It draws them together into a conceptual framework of required skills in a German beginner class. Originality / Benefits - This study contributes to the current issues concerning the German mediation requirements in the management field.

  3. ERP systems selection in multinational enterprises: a practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Haddara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP system selection is an early phase in the ERP adoption process. When organizations evaluate an ERP, they commonly develop their own selection criteria that usually involve various system and vendor related factors. While the selection process is critical, however, there is an apparent research gap in literature. The ERP selection effort also focuses on the system’s fit with the organizational requirements and needs. Thus, the selection phase is critical, because if an organization chooses an unfit ERP, the whole project could be predestined to fail. This research provides an overview of an ERP selection process at an overseas branch office of a multinational company. The process employed a simple multi-attribute rating technique (SMART for evaluation. In addition, this research presents how cross-border data protection laws between the parent company and its branch have influenced the selection process. As the ERP system has been implemented successfully, the method and the selection factors have been proven adequate for the selection process.

  4. Reputation of multinational companies: Corporate social responsibility and internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aguilera-Caracuel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to use stakeholder theory as the theoretical reference framework to study the influence of internationalization (geographic international diversification and social performance on multinational companies’ (MNCs reputation. Design/methodology/approach - The authors confirm the research hypotheses using a sample of 113 US MNCs in the chemical, energy and industrial machinery sectors during the period 2005-2010. Findings - This study contributes to the literature in three ways. First, it incorporates literature on internationalization to study the possible connection between geographic international diversification and social performance in MNCs. Second, it sheds light on the debate between corporate social responsibility (CSR and the reputation of MNCs in a very diverse transnational context in which MNCs must meet the needs of stakeholders at both local and global levels. Third, it incorporates the mediating role of social performance in the relationship between geographic international diversification and the firm’s reputation. Originality/value - Prior studies have hardly analyzed this relationship, which becomes especially relevant for MNCs, since their implementation of advanced CSR practices in the different markets in which they operate will gain them a good reputation, not only in specific local contexts but also globally, benefitting the organization as a whole and enabling it to gain internal consistency (improvement in internal efficiency, transparency and legitimacy.

  5. Global Organization of Innovation and Cooperability in Brazilian Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rezende da Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dissipation of innovations is necessary to develop them, as a company on its own does not have all the capabilities that it needs. On the contrary, they are increasingly spread over internal and external contexts, and are not developed in isolation. Most of the time, they depend on interactive, innovative processes in a global context. The aim of this study is to evaluate how the global organizational structure of innovation affects the dynamic capability of cooperation (cooperability in Brazilian multinationals (BMNs. To achieve this goal, we conducted a survey of BMNs, and a final sample of 60 companies answered a structured questionnaire. We performed statistical tests such as Factor Analysis, Cronbach's Alpha, Multiple Regression and Hierarchical Cluster, and cross-analysis of quantitative results that enabled us to create a Cooperability Model, that is, a model of local, international and global development for a dynamic capability of cooperation in BMNs. The results show that technological strengths of foreign subsidiaries and the reverse transfer of their capabilities to the parent company and technology partners affect the dynamics of cooperation in BMNs (inputs and results of cooperability. Furthermore, we detected an inverse relationship between the autonomy of foreign subsidiaries and the dynamic of cooperation in BMNs.

  6. Stimulating Sustainability in Multinational Companies: the Significance of Regional Headquarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas G. M. NACHBAGAUER

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, regional headquarters have gained practical importance and theoretical attention. Traditionally considered a mere transmission facility to manage complex organisations, advanced approaches, however, locate regional headquarters in a field of tension between hierarchical integration and strategic independence. Given the growing concern for global responsibility, stimulating sustainability also and particularly addresses regional headquarters. This conceptual article combines the call for sustainability with the upcoming importance of regional headquarters: which contributions can the regional headquarters of a multinational company deliver to stimulate the development of sustainable corporate strategy and operations? The main topics are the effects different versions of embedding regional headquarters into the corporate context have on opportunities to implement sustainability policies: Are there different chances for successful implementation depending on the strategic setup of the company? Does the distribution of competences matter? Which types of interaction between headquarters and branch are suitable to introduce sustainability sustainably? Is the mix of national contexts of headquarters and branch of importance? First results show that depending on the companywide strategy, and especially on the structure and distribution of competences, regional headquarters can play a significant role as trigger of sustainability. The literature favours strong involvement and large autonomy of both branches as well as regional headquarters for the development and management of sustainability. The parts of the company involved in a critical environment often are the starting point of sustainability policies.

  7. Management Strategies in Multinational PricewaterhouseCoopers Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina Popovici

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the key strategies that underpin multinational firms acting in this global environment. The paper underlines the importance of strategy, in the current economic context, for a complex company such as PriceWaterhouse Coopers. After a laborious documentation, theoretical and practical, the paper presents the main strategic options which ensure the business development in the context of globalization. Due to complexity of work carried out by PricewaterhouseCoopers, due to a developed organizational structure and the large number of employees , the need for the strategy is " vital " for achieve the desired performance . In the past 10 years, PriceWaterhouse Coopers turned its global work on expanding the network size and diversity of services offered. Challenges and opportunities of today require a new strategic vision. Therefore, PriceWaterhouse Coopers calls for integrating the concept of sustainability as a management philosophy. In this context, which shapes the economy based on knowledge, management is a science which, through instruments such as corporate social responsibility, coaching procces, attracting talents, can help businesses to develop, diversify or to survive. The research of this company that led to the application of these tools work in Romanian companies, depending on the particular circumstances.

  8. Can NATO's new very high readiness joint task force deter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rynning, Sten; Ringsmose, Jens

    2017-01-01

    When NATO-allies met at their Wales summit in September 2014, the D-word was back in vogue. Not in a muttering, shy or implicit way, but unambiguously and straightforward. For the first time in more than two decades NATO’s heads of states and governments openly discussed how best to “deter......” a distinct strategic rival – Russia. Chief among the Welsh summit initiatives was the decision to set up a new multinational spearhead force – the Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF) – as part of an enhanced NATO Response Force (NRF) and within the framework of a so-called Readiness Action Plan (RAP...

  9. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT): A Multinational Science Mission using a CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, J. F.; Habash Krause, L.; Swenson, C.; Heelis, R. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Le, G.; Abdu, M. A.; Durão, O.; Loures, L.; De Nardin, C. M.; Shibuya, L.; Casas, J.; Nash-STevenson, S.; Muralikrishana, P.; Costa, J. E. R.; Wrasse, C. M.; Fry, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) is a 6U CubeSat pathfinder mission to address the very compelling but difficult problem of understanding the preconditions leading to equatorial plasma bubbles. The scientific literature describes the preconditions in both the plasma drifts and the density profiles related to bubble formations that occur several hours later in the evening. Most of the scientific discovery has resulted from observations at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory from Peru, a single site, within a single longitude sector. SPORT will provide a systematic study of the state of the pre-bubble conditions at all longitudes sectors to allow us to understand the differences between geography and magnetic geometry. This talk will present an overview of the mission and the anticipated data products. Products include global maps of scintillation occurrence as a function of local time, and magnetic conjugacy occurrence observations. SPORT is a multinational partnership between NASA, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE), and the Technical Aeronautics Institute under the Brazilian Air Force Command Department (DCTA/ITA). It has been encouraged by U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) to foster increased cooperation and ties between academics, civilian space programs and the militaries. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is coordinating this investigation by overseeing the launch to orbit and the flight instruments, which are being built by the Aerospace Corporation, University of Texas Dallas, Utah State University, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The Brazilian partners are contributing the spacecraft, observatory integration and test, ground observation networks, and mission operations and data management. The science data will be distributed from and archived at the INPE/EMBRACE regional space-weather forecasting center in Brazil, and mirrored at the NASA GSFC Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF).

  10. Domestic Multinationals and Foreign-Owned Firms in Italy: Evidence from Quantile Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasseni, Mara

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance differences across and within foreign-owned firms and domestic multinationals in Italy. Used for the empirical analysis are non-parametric tests based on the concept of first order stochastic dominance and quantile regression technique. The firm-level analysis distinguishes between foreign-owned firms of different nationalities and domestic MNEs according to the location of their FDI, and it focuses not only on productivity but also on differences in average wages, capital intensity, and financial and non-financial indicators, namely ROS, ROI and debt leverage. Overall, the results provide evidence of remarkable heterogeneity across and within multinationals. In particular, it seems not possible to identify a clear foreign advantage at least in terms of productivity, because foreign-owned firms do not outperform domestic multinationals. Interesting results are obtained when focusing on ROS and ROI, where the profitability gaps change as one moves from the bottom to the top of the conditional distribution. Domestic multinationals investing only in developed countries present higher ROS and ROI compared with the subgroups of foreign-owned firms, but only at the lower quantiles, while at the upper quantiles the advantage seems to favour foreign firms. Finally, in regard to domestic multinationals, there is strong evidence that those active only in less developed countries persistently exhibit the worst performances

  11. Lean Manufacturing Implementation for Multinational Companies with Production Subsidiary in Brazil: Development of A Roadmap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Goehnera,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign multinational companies with a production subsidiary in Brazil are in general recognized as high-level productive companies; however, their productivity potential is mostly not fully achieved. Lean Manufacturing (LM has been proved as a valuable aid to achieve competitiveness in the long run. Regarding the rising importance of successfully implementing LM at multinationals in Brazil and an apparent lack of discussion regarding LM in Brazil this paper aims to propose a comprehensive implementation roadmap, which enables a multinational on a basis of a systematic approach, to achieve an advanced sustainable LM system in a practical manner. The insights of literature and case studies are combined to develop the roadmap. The roadmap was developed so that both companies, those, which have not started yet their journey towards LM, as well as those that have taken already the first steps can use the roadmap. However, the roadmap was built on a broad empirical basis. It should be noticed that it is impossible to consider all factors influencing the LMI at multinationals operating in Brazil in a real world setting. As a result, the roadmap should not be regarded as a ready implementation plan, which has to be strictly followed. Instead, it should be seen as a guideline, which helps a multinational to develop its own, detailed and fitted plan for successfully implementing LM and establishing a learning organization.

  12. Framework and Challenges for Initiating Multinational Cooperation for the Development of a Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is concerned with radioactive waste that requires geological disposal. It discusses the partnership arrangements necessary for the development of a multinational repository for disposal of this waste, but it also emphasizes that countries should not rely solely on a multinational solution and should in addition have coherent national plans for disposal (a dual track strategy). The publication focuses on multinational approaches based on the IAEA scenario for cooperation among countries in joint projects for the establishment of a shared geological repository. It describes the phased approach that would be needed, indicating the decision processes to be undertaken by partners in the multinational project, both within a national context and in the scope of the joint endeavour. It highlights a wide range of legal and institutional aspects, including the contractual obligations among partners, the economic and financial arrangements, liabilities, nuclear security, regulatory and legislative aspects, waste transportation arrangements, and social issues. It also addresses the uncertainties and risks involved in the implementation of a multinational repository

  13. URENCO: A Multinational Contribution to Non-Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbmacher, T.

    2015-01-01

    URENCO was founded in 1970 following the signing of the Treaty of Almelo by the governments of Germany, the Netherlands and the UK. The fundamental principles for effective supervision of URENCO's technology and enrichment operations with respect to non-proliferation issues have been laid down in this treaty. In order to enable the construction of a URENCO enrichment facility in the USA and to permit the transfer of classified information into the USA, another treaty has been concluded in 1992. The US government entered into the Treaty of Washington together with the governments of Germany, the Netherlands and the UK to ensure that the same conditions that had been agreed in the Treaty of Almelo would also apply to the US. To allow for the completion of the joint venture with Areva regarding the URENCO Group's technology business ETC, the Treaty of Cardiff has been signed on 12 July 2005 by the governments of Germany, the Netherlands, the UK and France. Through this treaty, France is obliged to adhere to the principles of the Treaty of Almelo. For each treaty, control bodies have been formed with representatives of the governments of the signatory countries. These committees exercise the role of effective supervision of the technology and operations with respect to non-proliferation issues. They also consider all questions concerning the safeguards system (as established by IAEA/Euratom), classification arrangements and security procedures, exports of the technology and enriched uranium, as well as other non-proliferation issues. The presentation describes how the multinational structure of URENCO contributes to Non-Proliferation on the basis of the above mentioned treaties. Beyond that, the international cross linking of operational working groups and committees within the URENCO Group structure is explained. This structure implies an additional assurance to achieve the safeguards goals set. (author)

  14. Physical security in multinational nuclear-fuel-cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1977-01-01

    Whether or not multinationalization will reduce or increase risks of theft or sabotage will depend on the form and location of the enterprise, the precise nature of the physical security arrangements applied to the enterprise, and the future course of crime and terrorism in the nuclear age. If nuclear operations are multinationalized, the host government is likely to insist on physical security measures that are at least as stringent as those for a national or private enterprise subject to its jurisdiction. At the same time, the other participants will want to be sure the host government, as well as criminal groups, do not steal nuclear material from the facility. If designed to be reasonably effective, the physical security arrangements at a multinational nuclear enterprise seem likely to reduce the risk that any participating government will seek to divert material from the facility for use in a nuclear weapons program. Hence, multinationalization and physical security will both contribute to reducing the risks of nuclear weapons proliferation to additional governments. If economic considerations dominate the timing, scale and location of fuel-cycle facilities, the worldwide nuclear power industry is likely to develop along lines where the problems of physical security will be manageable. If, however, nuclear nationalism prevails, and numerous small-scale facilities become widely dispersed, the problem of security against theft and sabotage may prove to be unmanageable. It is ironic, although true, that in attempting to strengthen its security by pursuing self-sufficiency in nuclear power, a nation may be reducing its internal security against criminal terrorists

  15. The Contribution of Local Environments to Competence Creation in Multinational Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Dellestrand, Henrik; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the competence development of subsidiaries in multinational enterprises. We analyze how local subsidiary environments affect the development of technological and business competencies among other units in the multinational enterprise. We test our predictions using data from 2......,107 foreign-owned subsidiaries located in seven European countries, by means of structural equation modeling — namely, LISREL. By bringing the local environment to the fore, we contribute to the literature on the emergence and determinants of firm-specific advantages. We link local subsidiary environments...... throughout the organization. Thus, we contribute to an enhanced understanding of location as a determinant of the creation of units of competence and centers of excellence within multinational enterprises. In other words, we demonstrate that country-specific advantages are beneficial for competence creation...

  16. Subatomic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    1989-01-01

    Inside the atom, particles interact through two forces which are never felt in the everyday world. But they may hold the key to the Universe. These ideas on subatomic forces are discussed with respect to the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the electroweak force. (author)

  17. Multi-national knowledge strategies, policy and the upgrading process of regions: Revisiting the automotive industry in Ostrava and Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijl, E. van; Carvalho, L.; Winden, W. van; Jacobs, W.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits how and why new multinational knowledge-based strategies and multi-level governmental policies influence the upgrading process of regions in developing economies. Automotive multinationals traditionally exploited local asset conditions, but it is shown that they have also been

  18. Clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Manzanaro Miriam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in bipolar disorder (BD to date are limited in their ability to provide a whole-disease perspective - their scope has generally been confined to a single disease phase and/or a specific treatment. Moreover, most clinical trials have focused on the manic phase of disease, and not on depression, which is associated with the greatest disease burden. There are few longitudinal studies covering both types of patients with BD (I and II and the whole course of the disease, regardless of patients' symptomatology. Therefore, the Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of Bipolar Disorder (WAVE-bd (NCT01062607 aims to provide reliable information on the management of patients with BD in daily clinical practice. It also seeks to determine factors influencing clinical outcomes and resource use in relation to the management of BD. Methods WAVE-bd is a multinational, multicentre, non-interventional, longitudinal study. Approximately 3000 patients diagnosed with BD type I or II with at least one mood event in the preceding 12 months were recruited at centres in Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela. Site selection methodology aimed to provide a balanced cross-section of patients cared for by different types of providers of medical aid (e.g. academic hospitals, private practices in each country. Target recruitment percentages were derived either from scientific publications or from expert panels in each participating country. The minimum follow-up period will be 12 months, with a maximum of 27 months, taking into account the retrospective and the prospective parts of the study. Data on demographics, diagnosis, medical history, clinical management, clinical and functional outcomes (CGI-BP and FAST scales, adherence to treatment (DAI-10 scale and Medication Possession Ratio, quality of life (EQ-5D scale, healthcare resources, and caregiver burden (BAS scale

  19. Full non-linear treatment of the global thermospheric wind system. I - Mathematical method and analysis of forces. II - Results and comparison with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, P. W.; Harris, I.

    1975-01-01

    The equations of horizontal motion of the neutral atmosphere between 120 and 500 km are integrated with the inclusion of all nonlinear terms of the convective derivative and the viscous forces due to vertical and horizontal velocity gradients. Empirical models of the distribution of neutral and charged particles are assumed to be known. The model of velocities developed is a steady state model. In Part I the mathematical method used in the integration of the Navier-Stokes equations is described and the various forces are analyzed. Results of the method given in Part I are presented with comparison with previous calculations and observations of upper atmospheric winds. Conclusions are that nonlinear effects are only significant in the equatorial region, especially at solstice conditions and that nonlinear effects do not produce any superrotation.

  20. Developing multinational radioactive waste repositories: Infrastructural framework and scenarios of cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    Currently the management of radioactive wastes centres on national strategies for collection, treatment, interim storage and disposal. This tendency to focus exclusively on national strategies reflects the fact that radioactive waste is a sensitive political issue, making cooperation among countries difficult. It is consistent with the accepted principle that a country that enjoys the benefit of nuclear energy, or the utilization of nuclear technology, should also take full responsibility for managing the generated radioactive waste. However, there are countries whose radioactive waste volumes do not easily justify a national repository, and/or countries that do not have the resources or favourable natural conditions for waste disposal to dedicate to a national repository project or would prefer to collaborate in shared initiatives because of their economic advantages. In such cases it may be appropriate for these countries to engage in a multinational collaborative effort to ensure that they have access to a common repository, in order that they can fulfil their responsibilities for their managing wastes safely. In response to requests from several Member States expressing an interest in multinational disposal options, the IAEA produced in 1998 a TECDOC outlining the important factors to be taken into account in the process of realizing such options. These factors include for example, technical (safety), institutional (legal, safeguards), economic (financial) socio-political (public acceptance) and ethical considerations. The present report reviews the work done in the previous study, taking into account developments since its publication as well as current activities in the field of multinational repositories. The report attempts to define the concepts involved in the creation of multinational repositories, to explore the likely scenarios, to examine the conditions for successful implementation, and to point out the benefits and challenges inherent to

  1. On the quantum electrodynamics of a dispersive mirror. II. The boundary condition and the applied force via Dirac's theory of constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calogeracos, A.; Barton, G.

    1995-01-01

    A covariant Action describing a mobile dispersive mirror in one dimension is presented. We construct the Hamiltonian in the comoving (noninertial) frame, with emphasis on the treatment of the boundary condition. The Hamiltonian in the nonrelativistic approximation is derived. We consider the case where the mirror moves along a prescribed trajectory, and we calculate the operator expression for the force applied to the mirror by the external agency to balance the radiative reaction. copyright 1995 Academic Press, Inc

  2. Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. Freemont): Part II. Determination of quality parameters during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Alibas, Ilknur; Koksal, Nezihe

    2015-01-01

    Cauliflower heads, which were precooled using four different methods including vacuum, forced-air, and high and low flow hydro precooling, were stored under controlled atmosphere and room conditions. Controlled atmosphere conditions (CA) were as follows: 1°C temperature, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and 0:21 [(%CO2:%O2) – (0:21) control] atmosphere composition. Room conditions (RC) were: 22±1°C temperature and 55-60% humidity. Various quality parameters of the cauliflo...

  3. Study of hydrogen-molecule guests in type II clathrate hydrates using a force-matched potential model parameterised from ab initio molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Christian J.; Futera, Zdenek; English, Niall J.

    2018-03-01

    The force-matching method has been applied to parameterise an empirical potential model for water-water and water-hydrogen intermolecular interactions for use in clathrate-hydrate simulations containing hydrogen guest molecules. The underlying reference simulations constituted ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) of clathrate hydrates with various occupations of hydrogen-molecule guests. It is shown that the resultant model is able to reproduce AIMD-derived free-energy curves for the movement of a tagged hydrogen molecule between the water cages that make up the clathrate, thus giving us confidence in the model. Furthermore, with the aid of an umbrella-sampling algorithm, we calculate barrier heights for the force-matched model, yielding the free-energy barrier for a tagged molecule to move between cages. The barrier heights are reasonably large, being on the order of 30 kJ/mol, and are consistent with our previous studies with empirical models [C. J. Burnham and N. J. English, J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 16561 (2016) and C. J. Burnham et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 717 (2017)]. Our results are in opposition to the literature, which claims that this system may have very low barrier heights. We also compare results to that using the more ad hoc empirical model of Alavi et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 024507 (2005)] and find that this model does very well when judged against the force-matched and ab initio simulation data.

  4. Bayer HealthCare Delivers a Dose of Reality for Cloud Payoff Mantras in Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Benlian, Alexander; Piper, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Cloud services provide high cost advantages” is one of several often-quoted assertions (called mantras in this article) about payoffs from cloud computing. These mantras, however, have their origins in the experiences of small and mid-size companies, but, as the case of Bayer HealthCare’s cloud-b......-based CRM rollout program shows, may not always be true for large multinational companies. To ensure payoffs from the cloud, multinationals must adopt strategies for coping with the inhibitors identified in this article....

  5. A Cost-based Explanation of Gradual, Regional Internationalization of Multinationals on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines firm internationalization on social networking sites (SNS). It systematically examines costs faced by an internationalizing firm and how firms react to these costs according to “distance-dependent” (gradual and regional) and “distance-invariant” (born-global) explanations...... of internationalization. Data on 5827 country pages of 240 multinational firms on Facebook, the most popular SNS today, is used. Creating a foreign country-specific Facebook page is considered the SNS equivalent of opening a physical subsidiary in that country. The data show that multinationals exhibit...

  6. Human factors and technology environment in multinational project: problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardi Besa, X.; Munoz Cervantes, A.

    2012-01-01

    At the onset of nuclear projects in Spain, there was an import of nuclear technology. In a second phase, there was a transfer of technology. Subsequently, there was an adaptation of the technology. In this evolution, comparable to that of other countries, were involved several countries, overcoming the difficulties of human factors involved. The current nuclear projects multinationals have a new difficulty: the different industrial technological environments. This paper will address the organizational challenges of multinational engineering projects, in the type of project and the human factors of the participating companies.

  7. A MULTINATIONAL COMPANY PROBLEM: INFILTRATING INTO THE CLUSTERS TO GAIN COMPETITIVE EDGE IN THE TRADITIONAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KOC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with one of the main challenges of the Multinational Companies which they face in the traditional and thus in local markets. Multinational Companies aims to gain competitive advantage through differentiation in terms of their globalization strategy. However, in the local markets where the organic relationship of firms are more designed in local habits, and markets react with stable consumer behaviors, it gets harder to enter into market and drive a competitive edge. This paper aims to understand the reasons of this challenge, the analysis of resistance of traditional markets, successful sample breaking into local market and the strategy around it.

  8. Advancing Understanding on Industrial Relations in Multinational Companies: Key Research Challenges and the INTREPID Contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnigle, Patrick; Valeria, Pulignano; Edwards, Tony

    2015-01-01

    companies using INTREPID (Investigation of Transnationals’ Employment Practices: an International Database) data. Finally, the paper identifies some of the main industrial relations issues that remain to be addressed, in effect charting a form of research agenda for future work using the INTREPID data......This paper has three principal aims. It firstly provides some theoretical background on the key current research issues and challenges in regard to industrial relations in multinational companies. It then presents a concise review of scholarship to date on industrial relations in multinational...

  9. Common QA/QM Criteria for Multinational Vendor Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This VICWG document provides the 'Common QA/QM Criteria' which will be used in Multinational Vendor Inspection. The 'Common QA/QM Criteria' provides the basic consideration when performing the Vendor Inspection. These criteria has been developed in conformity with International Codes and Standards such as IAEA, ISO and so on that MDEP member countries adopted. The purpose of the VICWG is to establish areas of co-operation in the Vendor Inspection practices among MDEP member countries as described in the MDEP issue-specific Terms of Reference (ToR). As part of this, from the beginning, a survey was performed to understand and to identify areas of commonality and differences between regulatory practices of member countries in the area of vendor inspection. The VICWG also collaborated by performing Witnessed Inspections and Joint Inspections. Through these activities, it was recognized that member countries commonly apply the IAEA safety standard (GS-R-3) to the vendor inspection criteria, and almost ail European member countries apply the ISO standard (ISO9001). In the US, the NRC regulatory requirement in 10 CFR, Part 50, Appendix B is used. South Korea uses the same criteria as in the US. As a result of the information obtained, a comparison table between codes and standards (IAEAGS-R-3, ISO 9001:2008.10CFR50 Appendix Band ASME NQA-1) has been developed in order to inform the development of 'Common QA/QM Criteria'. The result is documented in Table 1, 'MDEP CORE QA/QM Requirement and Comparison between Codes and Standards'. In addition, each country's criteria were compared with the US 10CFR50 Appendix B as a template. Table 2 shows VICWG Survey on Quality Assurance Program Requirements. Through these activities above, we considered that the core requirements should be consistent with both IAEA safety standard and ISO standard, and considered that the common requirements in the US 10CFR50 Appendix B used to the survey

  10. Good research practices for measuring drug costs in cost-effectiveness analyses: a societal perspective: the ISPOR Drug Cost Task Force report--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Mansley, Edward C; Abbott, Thomas A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Hay, Joel W; Smeeding, James

    2010-01-01

    Major guidelines regarding the application of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) have recommended the common and widespread use of the "societal perspective" for purposes of consistency and comparability. The objective of this Task Force subgroup report (one of six reports from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research [ISPOR] Task Force on Good Research Practices-Use of Drug Costs for Cost Effectiveness Analysis [Drug Cost Task Force (DCTF)]) was to review the definition of this perspective, assess its specific application in measuring drug costs, identify any limitations in theory or practice, and make recommendations regarding potential improvements. Key articles, books, and reports in the methodological literature were reviewed, summarized, and integrated into a draft review and report. This draft report was posted for review and comment by ISPOR membership. Numerous comments and suggestions were received, and the report was revised in response to them. The societal perspective can be defined by three conditions: 1) the inclusion of time costs, 2) the use of opportunity costs, and 3) the use of community preferences. In practice, very few, if any, published CEAs have met all of these conditions, though many claim to have taken a societal perspective. Branded drug costs have typically used actual acquisition cost rather than the much lower social opportunity costs that would reflect only short-run manufacturing and distribution costs. This practice is understandable, pragmatic, and useful to current decision-makers. Nevertheless, this use of CEA focuses on static rather than dynamic efficacy and overlooks the related incentives for innovation. Our key recommendation is that current CEA practice acknowledge and embrace this limitation by adopting a new standard for the reference case as one of a "limited societal" or "health systems" perspective, using acquisition drug prices while including indirect costs and community preferences. The

  11. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Volume 3. Europe: Argument to V-E Day, January 1944 to May 1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    ters, dispatching 3 2 8 heavy bombers and I 6 groups of fighters to drop more than 1,000 tons on the Troyes , Reims, Brussels, LiCge, Sarre...American bombers, nine of which were shot down on this occasion. On 3 0 May the Eighth attacked Troyes , Reims, and Brussels, and on 4 June it bombed...concentrated on forcing Seine crossings to the south where it passed the river barrier at Melun and Fontainebleau on the 24th an’d a t Troyes a day

  12. American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Task Force on Medical Clearance of Adult Psychiatric Patients. Part II: Controversies over Medical Assessment, and Consensus Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Wilson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to United States emergency departments (ED, usually termed “medical clearance,” often varies between EDs. A task force of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (AAEP, consisting of physicians from emergency medicine, physicians from psychiatry and a psychologist, was convened to form consensus recommendations for the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to U.S.EDs. Methods: The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED and then combined this with expert consensus. Consensus was achieved by group discussion as well as iterative revisions of the written document. The document was reviewed and approved by the AAEP Board of Directors. Results: Eight recommendations were formulated. These recommendations cover various topics in emergency medical examination of psychiatric patients, including goals of medical screening in the ED, the identification of patients at low risk for co-existing medical disease, key elements in the ED evaluation of psychiatric patients including those with cognitive disorders, specific language replacing the term “medical clearance,” and the need for better science in this area. Conclusion: The evidence indicates that a thorough history and physical examination, including vital signs and mental status examination, are the minimum necessary elements in the evaluation of psychiatric patients. With respect to laboratory testing, the picture is less clear and much more controversial.

  13. American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Task Force on Medical Clearance of Adult Psychiatric Patients. Part II: Controversies over Medical Assessment, and Consensus Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael P; Nordstrom, Kimberly; Anderson, Eric L; Ng, Anthony T; Zun, Leslie S; Peltzer-Jones, Jennifer M; Allen, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    The emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to United States emergency departments (ED), usually termed "medical clearance," often varies between EDs. A task force of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (AAEP), consisting of physicians from emergency medicine, physicians from psychiatry and a psychologist, was convened to form consensus recommendations for the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to U.S.EDs. The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED and then combined this with expert consensus. Consensus was achieved by group discussion as well as iterative revisions of the written document. The document was reviewed and approved by the AAEP Board of Directors. Eight recommendations were formulated. These recommendations cover various topics in emergency medical examination of psychiatric patients, including goals of medical screening in the ED, the identification of patients at low risk for co-existing medical disease, key elements in the ED evaluation of psychiatric patients including those with cognitive disorders, specific language replacing the term "medical clearance," and the need for better science in this area. The evidence indicates that a thorough history and physical examination, including vital signs and mental status examination, are the minimum necessary elements in the evaluation of psychiatric patients. With respect to laboratory testing, the picture is less clear and much more controversial.

  14. X-ray investigations of sulfur-containing fungicides. II. Intramolecular forces governing the conformation of four novel alpha-phenylazo- and alpha-phenylhydrazono-beta-ketosulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf , W M

    2001-02-01

    The crystal and molecular structures of four novel beta-ketosulfones, phenyl benzoyl(phenylhydrazono)methyl sulfone (I), phenyl benzoyl(4-nitrophenylhydrazono)methyl sulfone (II), (benzoyl)(phenyl)(phenylazo)methyl phenyl sulfone (III) and (benzoyl)(phenyl)(3-chlorophenylazo)methyl 4-tolyl sulfone (IV), have been investigated using X-ray analysis and density functional theory supplemented by ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations. The conformations of (I) and (II) are stabilized by strong intramolecular resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds formed between the sulfonyl and the alpha-hydrazono moieties. The following increase of a positive charge on the S atoms is compensated via pi-conjugation and stereoelectronic back-donation from the nearby beta-carbonyl group. Compounds (III) and (IV) adopt a strongly distorted propeller shape with pivotal tetrahedral C1 atoms. Distortion mostly follows from the approximate coplanarity of the alpha-azophenyl and alpha-phenyl moieties opposite each other. The main stereoelectronic interactions involve the donation of electron density from the alpha-azo N2 towards the sulfonyl S and the beta-carbonyl C2 atoms.

  15. Intraorganizational Career Advancement and Voluntary Turnover in a Multinational Bank in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Xueguang

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate how various aspects of intraorganizational career advancement--current career attainments, recent pace of upward mobility, and future prospect of career advancement--affect voluntary turnover, drawing empirical evidence from a multinational corporation (MNC) in Taiwan's cultural and labor market environment.…

  16. Multinational web uses and gratifications: Measuring the Social Impact of Online Participation Across National Boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.M. Dekkers; B. Sundararajan; L. Peters; P. Grace-Farfaglia; S.H. Park

    2014-01-01

    This paper will describe the rationale and findings from a multinational study of online uses and gratifications conducted in the United States, Korea, and the Netherlands in spring 2003. A survey research method of study was conducted using a questionnaire developed in three languages and was

  17. Analysing employment practices in Western European multinationals: coordination, industrial relations and employment flexibility in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahancová, M.; van der Meer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the fact that multinational companies (MNCs) in Central Eastern Europe significantly contribute to employment growth in the region, qualitative knowledge about diffusion of employment practices in this region, and about coordination of MNCs with local labour market actors and institutions is

  18. The Search for Synergy between Institutions and Multinationals: Institutional Uncertainty and Patterns of Internationalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Muller (Allan); R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe debate on globalization has long been characterized by theses of institutional convergence and divergence. The emergence of Anglo-Saxon shareholder capitalism as the dominant paradigm since the start of the 1990s is associated with the pursuit of global strategies by Multinational

  19. Alliance Concentration in Multinational Companies : Examining Alliance Portfolios, Firm Structure, and Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Brenda; Faems, Dries; Noseleit, Florian

    Research summary: This article explores the distribution of alliances across firms' internal structure. Focusing on multinational companies, we examine the impact of alliance portfolio concentrationi.e., the extent to which alliances are concentrated within a limited number of geographic unitson

  20. Alliance Concentration in Multinational Companies : Examining Alliance Portfolios, Firm Structure, and Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Brenda; Faems, Dries; Noseleit, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Research summary: This article explores the distribution of alliances across firms' internal structure. Focusing on multinational companies, we examine the impact of alliance portfolio concentrationi.e., the extent to which alliances are concentrated within a limited number of geographic unitson

  1. Measuring the Value of Succession Planning and Management: A Qualitative Study of Multinational Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…

  2. R&D activities in East Asia by Japanese, European, and US Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    We contribute to the expanding literature on the internationalization of R&D by providing evidence on the extent and pattern of R&D activities by European, Japanese, and US multinational firms in 10 Asian countries and regions: PR China, India, the Asian NIEs (South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and

  3. Commentary : Why and how can Multinational Enterprises be value-creating organizations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennart, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    Rugman made the valid point that Multinational Enterprises are value-creating organizations but in this piece I question his explanation of why this is the case. I argue that it is not, as Rugman proposed, because MNEs are better at safeguarding their firm-specific advantages (FSAs) but because

  4. The Cultural Challenges of Managing Global Project Teams: A Study of Brazilian Multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of Brazilian companies brings a new reality: the need for implementation of global projects that bring, in turn, the challenge of managing multicultural teams. Since this is a recent phenomenon with little theoretical development, this study sought to understand the relationships between cultural characteristics and management teams of global projects in Brazilian multinationals. To carry this discussion forward, we studied six cases of Brazilian multinational companies, with the aim of deepening the understanding of the management of global teams, involving the planning, deployment, development and management of human resources. Among the projects studied, it was found that there is very little concern with the specific issue of multiculturalism and little inter-cultural incentive to the development of team members, which ends up hindering the construction of a global mindset, important for the Brazilian multinational companies to perform successfully abroad. Faced with this situation, each of the managerial processes mentioned were presented with a number of actions to be undertaken by the project manager in three different dimensions: the project itself, the organization and the global environment. The work contributes, thus, to enable Brazilian multinational companies to manage their global teams in order to maximize the advantages of global teams, such as increased creativity and innovative capacity, but avoid the problems that multiculturalism can bring, ranging from conflicts between people to project failure.

  5. Cultural Sources of Variance in Telework Adoption in two Subsidiaries of an ICT-Multinational

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.; Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Oldenkamp, E.

    2009-01-01

    This comparative case-study examines to what extent telework adoption among line managers in two subsidiaries of the same ICT-multinational in France and the Netherlands mirrors cultural values. In the Dutch case, a formal telework program was discontinued, but managers viewed informal teleworking

  6. Child labor and multinational conduct : a comparison of international business and stakeholder codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing attention to the issue of child labor has been reflected in codes of conduct that emerged in the past decade in particular. This paper examines the way in which multinationals, business associations, governmental and non-governmental organizations deal with child labor in their codes.

  7. Continuous Linguistic Rhetorical Education as a Means of Optimizing Language Policy in Russian Multinational Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorozhbitova, Alexandra A.; Konovalova, Galina M.; Ogneva, Tatiana N.; Chekulaeva, Natalia Y.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the function of Russian as a state language the paper proposes a concept of continuous linguistic rhetorical (LR) education perceived as a means of optimizing language policy in Russian multinational regions. LR education as an innovative pedagogical system shapes a learner's readiness for self-projection as a strong linguistic…

  8. Language policies and communication in multinational companies : Alignment with strategic orientation and human resource management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Born, Floor; Peltokorpi, Vesa

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the degree of alignment among multinational company (MNC) strategic orientation, human resource management (HRM) practices, and language policies. On the one hand, the authors propose that the coherent, tight alignment among the HRM practices, language policies, and MNC

  9. THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THE LOW-COST MARKETS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaconu Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to be considered a low-cost market, the cost advantage of one or more factors of production offered by a state – generally, a developing one – must be exploited by the multinational firms. Therefore, we may speak about these markets only after 19

  10. Multinational banks and the global financial crisis : Weathering the perfect storm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, R.; van Lelyveld, I.

    We use data on the 48 largest multinational banking groups to compare the lending of their 199 foreign subsidiaries during the Great Recession with lending by a benchmark of 202 domestic banks. Contrary to earlier and more contained crises, parent banks were not a significant source of strength to

  11. Money or Ethics : Multinational corporations and religious organisations operating in an era of corporate responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. van Cranenburgh (Katinka)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIt is a general assumption that Religious Organisations (ROs) are driven by religious beliefs and values, whilst multinational corporations (MNCs) are considered to be concerned about their profits, their share price and their reputation. When ROs invest in capital markets, they

  12. Using Internet Resources in Teaching Financial Reporting and Analysis of Multinational Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agami, Abdel M.

    2003-01-01

    Provides some sources of corporate financial information on the Internet and illustrates how to use these resources in teaching international business and, more specifically, financial reporting and analysis of multinational enterprises. Points out some of the advantages and limitations of these resources. (EV)

  13. Multinational study exploring patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by chemo-radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg; Okera, Meena

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to prospectively assess the incidence, severity and patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multinational survey included patients with a diagnosis of gynaecological or head and neck cancer schedu...

  14. Theory of multinationals' choice of technique and locational decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Meza, D.

    1979-01-01

    A neoclassical explanation is presented of the failure of multinational corporations (MNCs) to adapt their technology in low-wage countries. MNCs are found to employ more labor-intensive techniques and pay lower wages than companies serving only domestic markets if transport and tariff costs are present. Product locational decisions are also analyzed. 6 references.

  15. Critical Success Factors: How One Multinational Company Develops Global E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Edward Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This research study examined how a multinational company determined what the critical success factors (CSFs) were for developing global e-learning. The study analyzed how these CSFs were grouped together to make their management more efficient. There were 21 participants in the study who were key stakeholders from the United States, Europe, Latin…

  16. Multinational Corporations and British Labour: A Review of Attitudes and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennard, John

    Multinational corporations operating in Great Britain, specifically American industry, are arousing fears on the part of British labor, which can be grouped into these categories: (1) a threat to the job security of union members, (2) a change in the balance of power at the collective bargaining table in favor of the employers, (3) a clash of…

  17. Labour standards application among multinational and domestic firms in Ghana’s manufacturing sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzom-Akorsu Angela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an empirical analysis of the labour standards application patterns and influences among multinational and domestic firms in Ghana. Discourses on labour standards application have continued to attract much interest in recent years. This is because globalization, in tandem with multinational corporations, has made the application of labour standards more challenging and ever more relevant. Yet competing viewpoints raised among social scientists on the subject are inconclusive and still on-going. While some are of the view that multinational companies (MNCs maintain higher labour standards than the domestic firms of their host countries, others concede that their standards are lower due to their exploitative tendencies. By means of a survey of 248 multinational and domestic firms in the manufacturing sector of Ghana, this paper concludes that there are a number of contingent factors that determine labour standards application, and so it is misleading to put all firms together and make blanket statements as to whether or not one group maintains higher labour standards than the other.

  18. Resource allocations, knowledge network characteristics and entrepreneurial orientation of multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; Lee, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in multinational corporations (MNCs) and develops a new typology of MNC EO based on combining R&D and asset growth investment intensities as orthogonal resource allocations. A cluster analysis of US MNCs on these two dimensions reveals three types

  19. Human Resource Development Practices, Managers and Multinational Enterprises in Australia: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablok, Gitika; Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Burgess, John; Boyle, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the HRD practices of multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in Australia to understand the value that MNEs place on investment in their human capital, particularly managerial talent. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on a representative sample of 211 MNEs operating in Australia, this paper…

  20. Multinational enterprises, foreign direct investment and trade in China : A cointegration and Granger-causality approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jianhong; Jacobs, Jan; Witteloostuijn, Arjen van

    2004-01-01

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs) play a dominant role in the international business (IB) literature. Traditionally, by far the majority of IB studies deal with issues at the micro level of the individual MNE, or at the meso level of a sample of individual MNEs. This paper focuses on a macro-level

  1. The Role of Language in National and Multinational Enterprises in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du-Babcock, Bertha; Babcock, Richard D.

    Communication patterns and language use in four national and multinational companies operating in Taiwan illustrate the potential for communication problems when more than one language is in use. The companies include Texas Instruments, Kaohsiung Monomer Company, Ltd., Bank of America, and Cheng-Yia International Corporation. In the four…

  2. Targets, drivers and metrics in software process improvement: results of a survey in a multinational organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.J.M.; Kusters, R.J.; Genuchten, van M.J.I.M.; Aerts, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey amongst software groups in a multinational organization. The survey was initiated by the Software Process Improvement (SPI) Steering Committee of Philips, a committee that monitors the status and quality of software process improvement in the global organization. The

  3. The impact of institutional hazards on foreign multinational activity : A contingency perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, Arjen H. L.; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd

    Prior studies have shown that institutional hazards in the form of formal governance deficiencies and informal cultural distance are both negatively related to the amount of foreign multinational activity in countries. We argue that the strength of these negative relationships varies systematically

  4. Global Standardization or National Differentiation of HRM Practices in Multinational Companies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Tony; Sanchez-Mangas, Rocio; Jalette, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on a dataset constructed from a parallel series of nationally representative surveys of multinational companies (MNCs), we compare the performance management (PM) practices of MNCs in the UK, Ireland, Canada, Spain, Denmark and Norway. In each country we analyze data relating to MNCs from...

  5. Multinationals' accountability on sustainability: the evolution of third-party assurance of sustainability reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, P.; Kolk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore how multinational corporations (MNCs) adopt assurance practices to develop and sustain organizational accountability for sustainability. Using a panel of Fortune Global 250 firms over a period of 10 years, we document the diffusion patterns of third-party assurance of

  6. Evaluating Organizational Change at a Multinational Transportation Corporation: Method and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective on practice is to share my experience conducting an organizational change evaluation using qualitative methodology at a multinational transportation company Global Logistics. I provide a detailed description of the three phase approach to data analysis and my reflections on the process.

  7. Lend Global, Fund Local? Price and Funding Cost Margins in Multinational Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.; Koetter, M.; Liesegang, C.

    2016-01-01

    In a proposed model of a multinational bank, interest margins determine local lending by foreign affiliates and the internal funding by parent banks. We exploit detailed parent-affiliate-level data of all German banks to empirically test our theoretical predictions in pre-crisis times. Local lending

  8. Taxation of Multinational Enterprises in a Global Market: Moving to Corporate Tax 2.0?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHow countries tax the profits of multinational enterprises has become hopelessly outdated. The recent OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project has left the existing international corporate taxation framework essentially intact. Perhaps it is time to consider a truly fundamental reform of corporate tax systems, i.e. Corporate Tax 2.0.

  9. Strategic R&D location by multinational firms : spillovers, technology sourcing, and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.; Lykogianni, E.; Veugelers, R.

    2005-01-01

    We analyse strategic interaction in R&D internationalization decisions by two multinational firms competing both abroad and in their home markets and examine different incentives for foreign R&D faced by technology leaders and technology laggards. The model takes into account the impact of local

  10. The Role of Culture on Knowledge Transfer: The Case of the Multinational Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Leyland M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to look at the issue of culture's role in knowledge transfer within multinational corporations (MNCs). Studies of MNCs have hinted at the importance of culture to the performance of subsidiaries. Using Hofstede's cultural dimensions of power distance, individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and…

  11. Does the meta-environment determine firm performance? Theory and evidence from European multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gjalt; Phan, T. Binh; van Ees, Hans; Phan, T.T.

    We study an underrepresented area in the international business literature: the effect of the meta-environment on multinational enterprise (MNE) performance. A meta-environment is a symbiosis of all country environments where an MNE operates. This conceptualization of a firm's external context is

  12. Relevance of Intelsat experience for organizational structure of multinational nuclear fuel facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnikoff, E.B.

    1977-01-01

    The multinational fuel centers will be a much more difficult development than creating an international organization for communications satellites, but there are obvious parallels that can be used or avoided. The relative success and effectiveness of Intelsat gives hope that the task can be achieved

  13. An Assessment of E-Training Effectiveness in Multinational Companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayah, Thurasamy; Ahmad, Noor Hazlina; Hong, Tan Say

    2012-01-01

    E-training has developed into a revolutionary way of learning in Malaysian organizations due to rapid growth in information technology infrastructure. The present study endeavors to determine the critical factors that influence e-training effectiveness in multinational companies (MNCs) in Malaysia. By integrating Technology Acceptance Model (TAM),…

  14. Global Talent Management in Multinational Corporations and the Role of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Dresselhaus, Lena; Olivas-Lujan, M.R.; Bondarouk, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose — Current global business challenges and circumstances are responsible for the need for global talent management (GTM) within multinational corporations (MNCs). Social media and networks are becoming key channels for global communication and collaboration. For GTM in MNCs, an effective usage

  15. Why and how multinational enterprises can be value-creating organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennart, J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Rugman made the valid point that Multinational Enterprises are value-creating organizations but in this piece I question his explanation of why this is the case. I argue that it is not, as Rugman proposed, because MNEs are better at safeguarding their firm-specific advantages (FSAs) but because

  16. International transfer of employee-oriented CSR practices by multinational SME’s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Dirk Johan

    2009-01-01

    Will multinational SMEs use internationalisation to achieve labour cost savings at the expense of employees both in their home country and abroad or will they transfer their existing employee-oriented practices to their foreign subsidiaries? This paper argues that the answer to this question is

  17. The Rights of Multinationals in the Global Transparency Framework : McCarthyism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this article is to analyse the rights of corporations (mainly multinationals) when dealing with tax authorities in this new era of transparency and “fair share”. The article addresses two questions: First, what are the rights and obligations of corporations as taxpayers in

  18. Taxation of Multinational Enterprises in a Global Market: Moving to Corporate Tax 2.0?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHow countries tax the profits of multinational enterprises has become hopelessly outdated. The recent OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project has left the existing international corporate taxation framework essentially intact. Perhaps it is time to consider a truly fundamental

  19. Developing Managerial Talent: Exploring the Link between Management Talent and Perceived Performance in Multinational Corporations (MNCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Maura

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the association between talent management (TM) and perceived subsidiary performance. Focus is given to the development of one key talent group--line managers--in subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs). Specifically, the paper examines: whether there is a positive relationship between Management Development (MD) and…

  20. Stellar mass spectrum within massive collapsing clumps. II. Thermodynamics and tidal forces of the first Larson core. A robust mechanism for the peak of the IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Ning; Hennebelle, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Context. Understanding the origin of the initial mass function (IMF) of stars is a major problem for the star formation process and beyond. Aim. We investigate the dependence of the peak of the IMF on the physics of the so-called first Larson core, which corresponds to the point where the dust becomes opaque to its own radiation. Methods: We performed numerical simulations of collapsing clouds of 1000 M⊙ for various gas equations of state (eos), paying great attention to the numerical resolution and convergence. The initial conditions of these numerical experiments are varied in the companion paper. We also develop analytical models that we compare to our numerical results. Results: When an isothermal eos is used, we show that the peak of the IMF shifts to lower masses with improved numerical resolution. When an adiabatic eos is employed, numerical convergence is obtained. The peak position varies with the eos, and using an analytical model to infer the mass of the first Larson core, we find that the peak position is about ten times its value. By analyzing the stability of nonlinear density fluctuations in the vicinity of a point mass and then summing over a reasonable density distribution, we find that tidal forces exert a strong stabilizing effect and likely lead to a preferential mass several times higher than that of the first Larson core. Conclusions: We propose that in a sufficiently massive and cold cloud, the peak of the IMF is determined by the thermodynamics of the high-density adiabatic gas as well as the stabilizing influence of tidal forces. The resulting characteristic mass is about ten times the mass of the first Larson core, which altogether leads to a few tenths of solar masses. Since these processes are not related to the large-scale physical conditions and to the environment, our results suggest a possible explanation for the apparent universality of the peak of the IMF.

  1. Assessment of pharmaceutical quality of furosemide tablets from multinational markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S A; McGilveray, I J

    1998-11-01

    about 20-38% of the variability in dissolution testing is not product related (i.e., it is from the dissolution testing itself), while the remaining 62-80% variability is product related (manufacturing, formulation, etc). The results of this multinational collaborative study showed that most of the furosemide products available in different countries met the required pharmaceutical quality standards, including drug-release characteristics. Based on an extensive statistical analysis, the main concern from the study was that the high variability in drug dissolution testing would require wide tolerance standards (e.g., pharmacopoeial standards). This may result in lack of needed discriminating ability of the test in revealing the impacts of formulation and manufacturing changes on in vitro, and perhaps in vivo, drug-release characteristics.

  2. Multinational Integration Newsletter, Number 10-51, July 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    center ( TOC ) battle drills, force protection, and cultural training. The mission required the synchronization of HCA, FTX and joint logistics adding to...de nadie”, Hoy, April 5, 2008, www.hoy. com.ec/impnoticia.asp?row=292584. 14. “FFAA activan sistema de defensa antiaéreo: El gabinete de Palacio se

  3. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I: a multinational cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey A Willis

    Full Text Available We conducted a prospective multinational study of muscle pathology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I. Thirty eight adult ambulant LGMD2I patients (19 male; 19 female with genetically identical mutations (c.826C>A in the fukutin-related protein (FKRP gene were recruited. In each patient, T1-weighted (T1w imaging was assessed by qualitative grading for 15 individual lower limb muscles and quantitative Dixon imaging was analysed on 14 individual lower limb muscles by region of interest analysis. We described the pattern and appearance of muscle pathology and gender differences, not previously reported for LGMD2I. Diffuse fat infiltration of the gastrocnemii muscles was demonstrated in females, whereas in males fat infiltration was more prominent in the medial than the lateral gastrocnemius (p = 0.05. In the anterior thigh of males, in contrast to females, median fat infiltration in the vastus medialis muscle (45.7% exceeded that in the vastus lateralis muscle (11.2% (p<0.005. MRI is non-invasive, objective and does not rely on patient effort compared to clinical and physical measures that are currently employed. We demonstrated (i that the quantitative Dixon technique is an objective quantitative marker of disease and (ii new observations of gender specific patterns of muscle involvement in LGMD2I.

  4. Budget impact analysis-principles of good practice: report of the ISPOR 2012 Budget Impact Analysis Good Practice II Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sean D; Mauskopf, Josephine A; Augustovski, Federico; Jaime Caro, J; Lee, Karen M; Minchin, Mark; Orlewska, Ewa; Penna, Pete; Rodriguez Barrios, Jose-Manuel; Shau, Wen-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Budget impact analyses (BIAs) are an essential part of a comprehensive economic assessment of a health care intervention and are increasingly required by reimbursement authorities as part of a listing or reimbursement submission. The objective of this report was to present updated guidance on methods for those undertaking such analyses or for those reviewing the results of such analyses. This update was needed, in part, because of developments in BIA methods as well as a growing interest, particularly in emerging markets, in matters related to affordability and population health impacts of health care interventions. The Task Force was approved by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Health Sciences Policy Council and appointed by its Board of Directors. Members were experienced developers or users of BIAs; worked in academia and industry and as advisors to governments; and came from several countries in North America and South America, Oceania, Asia, and Europe. The Task Force solicited comments on the drafts from a core group of external reviewers and, more broadly, from the membership of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The Task Force recommends that the design of a BIA for a new health care intervention should take into account relevant features of the health care system, possible access restrictions, the anticipated uptake of the new intervention, and the use and effects of the current and new interventions. The key elements of a BIA include estimating the size of the eligible population, the current mix of treatments and the expected mix after the introduction of the new intervention, the cost of the treatment mixes, and any changes expected in condition-related costs. Where possible, the BIA calculations should be performed by using a simple cost calculator approach because of its ease of use for budget holders. In instances, however, in which the changes in eligible population size

  5. Increasing Absorptive Capacity to Improve Internal and External Knowledge Transfer in Multinational Companies: A Multiple Case Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla-Gergely RÁCZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the absorptive capacity could be increased to improve internal and external knowledge transfer in subsidiaries of multinational companies. We look at the way in which the literature on absorptive capacity has evolved, and how it links the internal and external knowledge transfer. Based on 3 case studies conducted at Romanian subsidiaries of multinational companies, we find some patterns, which could explain how the successful knowledge flows should be managed within the multinational company and outside of it, in the supply chain network.

  6. Forced-air, vacuum, and hydro precooling of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. Freemont: Part II. Determination of quality parameters during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cauliflower heads, which were precooled using four different methods including vacuum, forced-air, and high and low flow hydro precooling, were stored under controlled atmosphere and room conditions. Controlled atmosphere conditions (CA were as follows: 1°C temperature, 90 ± 5% relative humidity, and 0:21 [(%CO2:%O2 – (0:21 control] atmosphere composition. Room conditions (RC were: 22±1°C temperature and 55-60% humidity. Various quality parameters of the cauliflower heads were assessed during storage (days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 under controlled atmosphere and room conditions (days 0, 5, and 10. During storage, weight loss, deterioration rate, overall sensory quality score, hardness, and colour (L, a, b, C and α were evaluated. In the present study, the strength and quality parameters of cauliflower under CA and RC conditions were obtained. Vacuum precooling was found to be most suitable method before cauliflower was submitted to cold storage and sent to market. Furthermore, the storage of cauliflower without precooling resulted in a significant decrease in quality parameters.

  7. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  8. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  9. THE EFFECT OF ISLAMIC WORK ETHICS ON THE PERFORMANCE RESULT OF MUSLIM EMPLOYEES OF MARKETING SECTOR IN THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Hadisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of Islam on efficiency of Muslim employees in multinational companies. The findings of the studies conducted to date examining the potential and actual impact of Islam in multinational setting indicates that although it seems that religion has no significant effect on multinational companies, but its internal effects such as internal and interpersonal conflicts with the type of activity of companies may be intensified. Moreover, these effects would be different based on the department of individual employees. For example, when the religious orientations of Muslims increase, their activities, according to the type of the product or service provided, in marketing sector of multinational companies may be affected. As the products and services offered would have more moral dimensions and marketing activities would be based on general moral rules, not a particular religion, we may achieve more effective results and personal and interpersonal conflicts can be reduced.

  10. The sustainable development effects of investment by emerging-market multinationals: Shaping beneficial outcomes for home and host country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G. (Guus)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEmerging-market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) play an increasingly important role as investors in developing economies. When certain conditions are met, their foreign investment can contribute to host-country progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Moreover,

  11. Correlation between Sales of Foreign Affiliates and Productivity of Multinational Firms: Evidence from Korean Firm-Level Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hur

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using firm-level panel data for Korean multinational enterprises (MNEs, we make a distinction between being the only affiliate of a parent firm and being one of the multiple affiliates of a parent firm. In particular, we attempt to find a correlation between the sales of foreign affiliates and the productivity of multinational firms. Our main empirical results in this paper suggest that productive Korean MNEs would enlarge the number of affiliates in the host country.

  12. Glass Ceiling in the Workplace: An Analysis within the Stated-owned Enterprises and Multi-national Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Mengxi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, although the increasingly number of women has gained leadership positions, the glass ceiling phenomenon still exists in China, especially in multi-national enterprise. In brief, the road to the upper rungs for female is still challenging and difficult. Due to the nature of the enterprises, the performance of glass ceiling is different. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss different performance and influence of glass ceiling in the context of the multi-national enterprises (MN...

  13. The Introduction of Western Psychiatry into Korea (II Psychiatric Education in Korea during the Forced Japanese Annexation of Korea (1910-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUNG Wonyong,

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the second report in our series on the historical investigation on the introduction of western psychiatry into Korea, authors deal with the status of psychiatric education during the Japanese forced annexation of Korea. The first lecture on psychiatry in Korea under the title "Mental Diseases" was held in Dae-han-eui-won around 1910. In 1913, the Department of Psychiatry branched off from the Department of Internal Medicine of Chosen-sotoku-fu-iing, the Colonial Governmental Clinic, the successor of Dae-han-eui-won. The chairman, Professor Suiju Sinji; and the Korean assistant Sim Ho-seop administered the psychiatric ward with 35 beds. Since 1913, an Australian missionary psychiatrist, Dr. McLaren began to teach neurology and psychiatry at Severance Union Medical College and established a Department of Psychiatry in 1923. Dr. McLaren was a faithful Christian and open minded toward Oriental religious thought such as in Buddhism and Taoism. He devoted himself to the humanitarian care of mentally ill patients and served there until 1937 when he had to leave the land due to Japanese persecution. His disciple, Dr. Lee Jung Cheol succeeded the chair of the Psychiatric Department of Severance Medical College and served until 1939. In 1916, Keijo(Seoul Medical College was established and in 1928, Keijo Teikoku Daigaku(Imperial University. From 1929 to 1941, the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry of Keijo Imperial University grew under the chairmanship of Professor Kubo Kioji followed by Professor Watanabe until 1945. Many assistants including a few Koreans were gathered to the Department for training and research. The main textbook used for the psychiatric education for medical students in Korea was on Kraepelinian German Psychiatry translated and edited by Japanese psychiatrists. Lectures and clerkships for Neurology and Psychiatry were allocated generally in the curriculum for senior students for weekly 1-3 hours. Postgraduate professional

  14. [Therapeutic management of bipolar disorder in France and Europe: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellivier, F; Delavest, M; Coulomb, S; Figueira, M L; Langosch, J M; Souery, D; Vieta, E

    2014-10-01

    Bipolar disorder is a complex disease which requires multiple healthcare resources and complex medical care programs including pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment. If mood stabilizers remain the corner stone for bipolar disorder treatment, the development of atypical antipsychotics and their use as mood stabilizers has significantly modified therapeutic care. At the present time, psychiatrists have a large variety of psychotropic drugs for bipolar disorder: mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics… However, despite the publication of guidelines on pharmacological treatment, with a high degree of consensus, everyday clinical practices remain heterogeneous. Moreover, there are few longitudinal studies to describe therapeutic management of bipolar disorder, whatever the phase of the disease is. Indeed, most of the studies are carried out on a specific phase of the disease or treatment. And there is no study comparing French and European practices. In this paper, we aim to present the comparison of the management of pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder between France and Europe, using the data of the observational Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder (WAVE-bd study). The WAVE-bd study is a multinational, multicentre and non-interventional cohort study of patients diagnosed with BD type I or type II, according to DSM IV-TR criteria, in any phase of the disorder, who have experienced at least one mood event during the 12 months before enrolment. In total, 2507 patients have been included across 8 countries of Europe (480 in France). Data collection was retrospective (from 3 to 12 months), but also prospective (from 9 to 15 months) for a total study length of 12 to 27 months. Main outcome measures were the healthcare resource use and pharmacological treatments. Our results show differences in the therapeutic management of bipolar disorder between France and other European

  15. International Acquisitons in Multinacionals: Under a Force Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo da Costa Ramos Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to debate the performance of multinational companies concerning the management alternatives of their foreign unities, especially the ones derived from acquisitions, with consequences on the interaction between the headquarters and its subsidiaries or colligates and the managerial learning and knowledge associated to this process. First the problematic of internationalized companies by foreign direct investments – FDI’s, mainly by acquisitions and strategic alliances, is discussed. The intensity of the assimilation and interchange of values and practices within organizations in interacting process is stressed, including a set of typologies derived from the existing related literature. After this, a more specific approach about intra and interorganization aspects of the multinationals is performed, related to strategies, competences and roles of headquarters and subsidiaries, as well as their impact on the knowledge flux and its derived learning modes, evolving a established typologies set. The next step is to discuss two visions about the opposition between the universal and the particular in international management, with global and contextual aspects: a convergence-divergence opposition, like a force field, impacting on the knowledge transfer. Finally, some concluding comments are made, emphasizing, for the purpose of contribution, another type of multinationals typology relating the convergence-divergence duality to the organizational and national levels, as well the positioning of the companies in the resulted matrix.

  16. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  17. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013

  18. Mapping R&D within Multinational Networks: Evidence from the Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urze, Paula; Manatos, Maria João

    Based on the final results of the R&D.COM - Local R&D COMpetencies within Global Value Chains project, this paper aims at mapping the trajectories of delocalised R&D units within a multinational’s global strategy and designing the knowledge flows within the global value chain. This analysis was performed using typologies proposed in the theoretical framework, which help us to have an overview of the network. The methodology is grounded on one extended case study that involves a local R&D unit (Portugal), a foreign R&D unit (Netherlands) and the headquarters (Norway) - developed on a multinational from the electronics industry. This case is an example of a multinational company where R&D is developed mainly in the headquarters but it is also delocalised to some subsidiaries with a certain level of autonomy.

  19. THE EFFECT OF MULTINATIONAL UNDERWRITING FIRMS ON INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL DISCLOCURE IN INDONESIAN IPO PROSPECTUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezie L. Warganegara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of multinational underwriters on intellectual capitaldisclosure in Indonesian IPO prospectuses. Intellectual capital disclosure practices were driven by the adviceof underwriters. Multinational underwriters had a greater capacity to produce more relevant information so itreduced the information gap for IPO market participants. The information included IC disclosure practices inIPO prospectuses. This study found that the nationality of underwriting firms positively affected the extent ofintellectual capital disclosure in Indonesian IPO prospectuses. Exposure to IPOs in other countries and theability to combine dispersed knowledge across their international branches seemed to have a positive effect onmulti-national underwriting firms in as much as it led to a higher standard of disclosure of intellectual capitalthan that of local underwriting firms.

  20. Social Networking as a Facilitator for Lifelong Learning in Multinational Employee’s Career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Nicoleta VISAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how multinational employees who are leaving in Bucharest, Romania use social networks as a tool for their everyday tasks and work, and how they want to satisfy their personal development needs by having access to information from these digital platforms. The case study described was conducted in Bucharest in 2017 and followed a results analysis with structured tables and graphs. In the study took part 24 participants who were selected among multinational IT employees in Bucharest. Social networks contribute to employee’s lifelong educational process: besides providing them positive gratification, they also contribute to their personal development and careers growth. Even though all individuals who participated in this study use social networks, more efforts should be done in order for companies in Bucharest to know the benefits of social networks and employee’s opinion about their contribution to lifelong learning.

  1. A critical perspective on the measurement of performance in the empirical multinationality and performance literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Nicole Franziska; Schmidt, Robert; Ladwig, Tina J.

    2017-01-01

    used in empirical studies and the underlying theoretical streams that explain the effects on benefits and costs of multinationality. Our findings indicate that authors still largely rely on overall financial performance measures. Theoretical arguments, in contrast, refer to specific benefit and cost......This paper contributes to the core research in international business (IB), namely the relation between multinationality and performance, and is concerned with the quality of past empirical research designs. On the basis of 49 studies, we critically evaluate the match between performance measures...... positions that are better reflected in operational performance indicators. In our view, the idiosyncratic choice of the performance measures contributes to the varying results in past studies. We offer suggestions for improving future research designs....

  2. SOCIOLINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN THE MULTINATIONAL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ivanovna Skachkova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and increasing international cooperation in different spheres of life the issue of national security and economic prosperity of nations is becoming increasingly urgent.Purpose: Consideration of sociolinguistic and cultural characteristics of the functioning of foreign languages in a multinational state, the example of the United States.Methodology: We used general scientific methods: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, systematic approach.Results: It is concluded that foreign languages in a multinational state, such as the U.S., are studied through active actions of government, public and educational institutions, and the main purpose of language learning is to maintain national security and economic competitiveness in the international arena.Practical implications: The results of the work may be used both in linguistic theory, and sociolinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-51

  3. RUSSIAN MULTINATIONALS IN ROMANIA AND THEIR IMPACT UPON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper provides an insight into the universe of Russian multinationals and their influence upon the Romanian economy. Even if statistical data on foreign direct investment stock by country of origin do not prove the existence of Russian capital in Romania, it is a fact that the high values of foreign direct investment stock from the Netherlands, Austria, Germany or Switzerland are largely due to the investment projects undertaken in Romania by Russian multinationals. Despite the lack of relevant statistical data, we can say that the impact of Russian MNC’s on the Romanian economy is huge. Among positive influences we can mention: global employment opportunities for highly qualified workforce in the region; the transfer of advanced technologies to Romanian enterprises and the local markets; the awareness of business partners and public opinion on social responsibility; the insert of higher performance standards, competitiveness and managerial ethics.

  4. An exploration into the home field, global advantage and liability of unfamiliarness hypotheses in multinational banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to expand the efficiency paradigm of the eclectic theory in multinational banking within the context of a developing country banking sector. We employ the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method to examine the efficiency of multinational banks operating in the Malaysian banking sector from 1995 to 2007. We then employ the panel regression analysis to examine the impact of origins on bank efficiency. We find foreign banks from North America to be the most efficient banking group, providing support to the ‘limited form’ of the global advantage hypothesis. On the other hand, we do not find evidence on both the liability of unfamiliarness and home field advantage hypotheses.

  5. The Role of Home Country Political Resources for Brazilian Multinational Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Regina Vieira Bazuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs. Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationalization process of domestic companies and firms’ political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

  6. Multinational evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivera, Francisca; Andrés, Mariano; Carmona, Loreto

    2014-01-01

    with a systematic literature review. Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL and abstracts from 2010-2011 European League Against Rheumatism and American College of Rheumatology meetings were searched in each review. Relevant studies were independently reviewed by two individuals for data extraction and synthesis...... and risk of bias assessment. Using this evidence, rheumatologists from 14 countries (Europe, South America and Australasia) developed national recommendations. After rounds of discussion and voting, multinational recommendations were formulated. Each recommendation was graded according to the level...

  7. Health impact assessment in multinationals: A case study of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birley, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Health impact assessment is part of the risk management process of multinational corporations/companies. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS, and the 'paradox of plenty' are used as examples of the challenges they face. The 'business case' for impact assessment is explained. The policies, procedures, standards, and activities used by Shell to manage such risks are described. An approach to capacity building and competency development is presented that applies to both company staff and external contractors

  8. Introduction to Special Issue "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard; Wilsnack, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to a series of articles reporting results from the EU concerted action "Gender, Culture and Alcohol Problems: A Multi-national Study" which examined differences in drinking among women and men in 13 European and two non-European countries. The gender gap...... analyses the smallest gender differences in drinking behaviour were found in Nordic countries, followed by western and central European countries, with the largest gender differences in countries with developing economies....

  9. Key Success Factors of Innovation in Multinational Agri-food Prospector Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Batterink, M.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Wageningen Innovation Assessment Tool (WIAT) compares the self assessment of the drivers and barriers to innovation at the company level and the critical success and failure factors of innovation at the project level with data of agrifood prospector firms around the world. In total 46 innovation projects, 11 successfully concluded and 6 failed projects, as well as 29 running projects in 12 multinational agrifood prospector companies in the Netherlands and France, two innovation consortia ...

  10. Innovation Drivers, Value Chains and the Geography of Multinational Firms in European Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Crescenzi; Carlo Pietrobelli & Roberta Rabellotti

    2012-01-01

    "This paper investigates the geography of multinational corporations’ investments in the EU regions. The ‘traditional’ sources of location advantages (i.e. agglomeration economies, market access and labour market conditions) are considered together with innovation and socio-institutional drivers of investments, captured by means of regional social filter conditions. The introduction of a wider set of attraction factors makes is possible to empirically assess the different role played by such ...

  11. Innovation drivers, value chains and the geography of multinational firms in European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Crescenzi; Carlo Pietrobelli; Roberta Rabellotti

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the geography of multinational corporations’ investments in the EU regions. The ‘traditional’ sources of location advantages (i.e. agglomeration economies, market access and labour market conditions) are considered together with innovation and socio-institutional drivers of investments, captured by means of regional “social filter” conditions. The introduction of a wider set of attraction factors makes is possible to empirically assess the different role played by such...

  12. Competitive advantage and the existence of the multinational corporation: earlier research and the role of frictions

    OpenAIRE

    Asmussen, Christian Geisler; Foss, Nicolai J.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a counterpoint to Hashai and Buckley’s article ‘Is competitive advantage a necessary condition for the emergence of the multinational enterprise?’We agree with their conclusion that it is, in fact, not a necessary condition, but argue that the theoretical reasons behind this are different and more diverse than the ones they propose. We suggest that much extant economic theory is, in fact, consistent with their view that firms may internationalize without owning or achiev...

  13. Multinational ownership and R&D intensity: The role of external knowledge sources and spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    De Beule, Filip; Van Beveren, Ilke

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the drivers of multinational affiliates' R&D intensity, using a unique dataset based on the fourth Community Innovation Survey for Belgium. Specifically, we investigate the role of foreign affiliates' local (host country) embeddedness and of host country spillovers on foreign affiliates' research efforts. Our findings show that foreign affiliates who are able to tap into local knowledge sources demonstrate a higher research intensity, compared to firms lacking such access....

  14. Normative and systems integration in human resource management in Japanese multinational companies

    OpenAIRE

    Furusawa, Masayuki; Brewster, Chris; Takashina, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud This paper aims to conceptualise a framework of “transnational human resource management” (HRM) and to demonstrate the validity of the model.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud Evidence is drawn from survey of 93 large Japanese multinational companies (MNCs). Data are analysed through descriptive statistics, hierarchical multiple regression analyses and mediation effect analyses.\\ud \\ud Findings\\ud The analysis reveals that the practices for normative and systems integration are...

  15. Implementing a Brand Strategy for a New Product: Releasing a New Product in a Multinational Company

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra ION

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the issue of using marketing intruments (like innovation, creativity, revitalization) in multinational companies like Coca Cola. The research is about identifying the right options and marketing strategies, for implementing a new and healthy product on the market, and studying the consumer behavior, regarding the subject. In conclusion, this product could be a chance for this company to improve image and to take benefit by increasing the number of consumers.

  16. Internationalisation theory and technological accumulation - an investigation of multinational affiliates in East Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Jindra, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation applies the theory of technology accumulation to explain the internationalisation of foreign and West German multinational enterprises (MNEs) into East Germany. This theory shifts the focus from technology transfer to the international diffusion of innovation within the MNE. It rejects the position that all MNEs offer the same technological opportunities to host economies. Yet, most of the existing empirical research on postcommunist transition economies including East Germa...

  17. An exploratory study of international marketing in India: Indian firms, multinationals and their competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Oburai, Prathap

    2004-01-01

    Indian firms are more international than ever before. Internationalisation drives and export orientation are prominent in the organisational strategies of a number of leading Indian firms and multinationals located in India. This is a significant indicator of the growing competitiveness of firms, industries and the nation. This paper examines the sources of competitive advantages in a few chosen sectors, selected firms, and explores the internationalisation possibilities and potential. Intern...

  18. Multinational Experiment 7. Protecting Access to Space: Presentation to Senior Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    Multinational Experiment 7: Outcome 3: Space Access Briefing to SLS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...operations Consequence management Ship status during search & rescue Tele-medicine Broadband internet TV signal distribution Satellite radio Rural...military-usage • Significant economic & societal consequences Access to space at risk • Current approach unsustainable • Broad range of threats

  19. Sequential Foreign Investments, Regional Technology Platforms and the Evolution of Japanese Multinationals in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jaeyong

    2001-01-01

    IVABSTRACTIn this paper, we investigate the firm-level mechanisms that underlie the sequential foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions of multinational corporations (MNCs). To understand inter-firm heterogeneity in the sequential FDI behaviors of MNCs, we develop a firm capability-based model of sequential FDI decisions. In the setting of Japanese electronics MNCs in East Asia, we empirically examine how prior investments in firm capabilities affect sequential investments into existingprodu...

  20. Three Lenses on the Multinational Enterprise: Politics, Corruption and Corporate Social Responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Rodriguez; Donald S. Siegel; Amy Hillman; Lorraine Eden

    2006-01-01

    Scholars who analyze multinational enterprises (MNEs) recognize the complex relationship between international business (IB) and society. However, compared with other IB topics, research on politics, corruption and corporate social responsibility – ‘three lenses’ on the MNE – remains somewhat embryonic, with unresolved issues regarding frameworks, measurement, methods, and theory. This presents unique opportunities for integration and extension of disciplinary perspectives, which we explore i...

  1. Foreign Exchange Exposure of A Selected Number of Swedish Multinationals : The Capital Market Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shudzeka, Basile N; Kum, Hyceinth N.

    2007-01-01

    This research work analyses the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on firm value. It is based on a sample of 10 Swedish multinational companies selected from two market capitalization segments (Mid and Large Cap) according to the OMX index classification. A multiple linear regression model is used to explore the dependency of the log returns (continuously compounded returns) of each of the sampled companies to the percentage changes in the spot exchange rates for the SEK/U.S. Dollar and SEK...

  2. Corporate governance and international business: Essays on multinational enterprises, ownership, finance and institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rygh, Asmund

    2016-01-01

    This is an article based doctoral dissertation. Due to copyright matters, the attached pdf file only contains the mantel. This Thesis contributes to the literature on corporate governance in international business, with a focus on corporate ownership, corporate finance and institutions. It consists of five theoretical and empirical studies. Three studies focus on corporate ownership and consider, respectively, whether state ownership shields multinational enterprises (MNEs) from host-c...

  3. Up and Down the Multinational Corporations’ Global Labor Supply chains: Making Remedies that Work in China

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Today, multinational and domestic corporations in many industries are no longer self-contained vertical structures with permanent staff, but increasingly are horizontal organizations with fissured employment characteristics using outsourcing, franchising, and subcontracting with contractors and chains of subcontractors. Too often, the workers of the subcontractors suffer the consequences of the subcontractors’ cost cutting measures, work in unfavorable conditions, and have low wages and few b...

  4. Quality of environmental disclosure by multi-national oil companies: a corporate governance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, A.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, concern about the issue of environmental sustainability\\ud has increased considerably. Closely linked to this concern is the growing disquiet\\ud over the increasing pervasiveness of multi-national companies, especially oil\\ud companies, in shaping global politics and economics. Consequently, increased\\ud awareness about the environment has led to calls for better management of global\\ud resources and for ways in which to make the corporations that benefit the most\\ud ...

  5. The Size and Composition of Corporate Headquarters in Multinational Companies: Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Collis, David J.; Young, David; Goold, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Based on a six-country survey of nearly 250 multinationals (MNCs), this paper is the first empirical analysis to describe the size and composition of MNC headquarters and to account for differences among them. Findings are as follows: MNC corporate headquarters are more involved in "obligatory" and value creating and control functions than in operational activities; there are no systematic differences in the determinants of the size and composition of corporate headquarters between MNCs and p...

  6. Paradise profits : tax planning in multinational companies : a case study of Pfizer Inc.

    OpenAIRE

    Evensen, Håvard Skolseg; Nøstvik, Alexander Nymgaard

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that current tax regulations are not properly equipped to handle the business structures of multinational companies. A number of revelations and leakages have exposed how such companies, often from the US, make use of tax minimization strategies in order to shift profits and reduce tax liabilities. In this thesis, we examine the inner workings of these arrangements, and analyze the extent of aggressive tax planning in the phar...

  7. FOCUS THE CONSUMER MARKET A dream or reality for multinational companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAELO'NEILL

    2004-01-01

    As the Chinese economy maintains its near double digit growth, opportunities for foreign investors continue to emerge. But away from the staggering statistics, how realistic is the China dream for multinational companies (MNCs)? The messages are mixed. On the one hand are those who continue to hail the Chinese consumer revolution, pointing to market size as reason enough for entering the fray. O'n the other

  8. Multinational corporations and health care in the United States and Latin America: strategies, actions, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Waitzkin, Howard; Landwehr, Angela

    2004-01-01

    In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations' access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector

  9. Profit shifting and 'aggressive' tax planning by multinational firms: Issues and options for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Fuest, Clemens; Spengel, Christoph; Finke, Katharina; Heckemeyer, Jost; Nusser, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of profit shifting and ‘aggressive’ tax planning by multinational firms. The paper makes two contributions. Firstly, we provide some background information to the debate by giving a brief overview over existing empirical studies on profit shifting and by describing arrangements for IP-based profit shifting which are used by the companies currently accused of avoiding taxes. We then show that preventing this type of tax avoidance is, in principle, straightforward...

  10. Trade, Foreign Direct Investment or Acquisition: Optimal Entry Modes for Multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Theo Eicher; Jong Woo Kang

    2004-01-01

    We examine multinationals’ optimal entry modes into foreign markets as a function of market size, FDI fixed costs, tariffs and transport costs. Our results highlight why large countries are more likely to attract acquisition investment, while intermediate-sized countries may be served predominantly through trade, even in the presence of high tariffs. Small countries are most likely to experience either FDI or no entry. We also show how these results vary with the competition intensity in th...

  11. Multinational Corporation and Its Sustainable Engagement with Local Small Businesses : A Case Study of Unilever Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiga, Roméo; Thorngmun, Siriwimon

    2017-01-01

    Once the boundary in global investment does no longer exist, a substantial number of multinational corporations (MNCs) seek for the lower-cost countries such as developing countries or emerging countries to be their production bases. It is undeniable to say that these recipient countries will benefit abundantly in several aspects namely: capital and technical knowledge, employment boost and economic development stimulation. However, the disadvantages that occur may not be worth the trade-off ...

  12. Internationalization Strategies for Multinational Companies (MNCs) : In the case of KWH Mirka Oy to Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yigzaw, Tamirat

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is done for the fulfilment of Masters of Business Administration (MBA) degree program in Business Management and Entrepreneurship at Häme University of Applied Sciences (HAMK). The main focus of the study is internationalization of companies to a new market as a development task for the company. The commissioner of the thesis is Mirka Oy, a Finnish multinational company. The purpose of the thesis was to study factors that should be considered in internationalization strategies...

  13. An exploratory study of global leaders' and Chinese managers' leadership constructs in multinational corporations in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lake

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the leadership constructs of global leaders and Chinese managers in multi-national corporations (MNCs) in order to understand whether their constructs are misaligned, and if so, in what ways. To address these questions, data was gathered via repertory grid test interviews with 31 global leaders and 59 Chinese managers in six MNCs’ China organizations. Analysis subsequently revealed that global leaders rely upon twelve key constructs to define global leaders...

  14. How weak are the signals? International price indices and multinational enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Lorraine Eden; Peter Rodriguez

    2004-01-01

    International price indices (IPIs) provide the most timely and comprehensive market information available to international business. How do multinational enterprises (MNEs) affect the validity of IPIs? We review the earlier debate over methods for calculating IPIs, which concluded that unit values were inferior to specification prices, although most governments produce only unit value indexes. We explore three ways in which MNEs can affect the validity of IPIs: determining the ‘representative...

  15. Use of Information Technology in Business Processes In Pakistani and Multinational Pharmaceutical Companies in Korangi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRFAN UL HASAN

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of IT use and Business Processes (BP in Korangi pharmas. Information system usage and manufacturing performance are moderately associated within the sample. There is little difference in the utilization of IT between the multinational and Pakistani firms. The main deficiency of utilization are in decision support systems and external integration functions. Suggestions are presented for increasing effectiveness of IT use in business process

  16. Motivation of Czech Employees by the Balanced Scorecard of the Multinational Company – an Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Janasová, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review if the implemented balanced scorecard is an efficient way to motivate people and increase their work effort. The empirical research had been conducted in one of the big multinational companies. Balanced scorecards for such companies are mainly driven by global, strategic measures. It is questionable, if employees of the Czech local branch are interested and motivated by the global results. Perhaps, it would make more sense to put emphasis on the individual p...

  17. Institutionalism and culture in strategies of multinational firms: the case of Johnson controls Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze both the internal and external aspects that may pose a risk to the operations of the subsidiaries of the multinational Johnson Controls Inc. in the U.S. and Mexico from an institutional point of view. The main challenges are the impact in the achievement of goals both of workers and of the same organization and the influence institutions have on the organizational environment, for the decommissioning of some branch/ subsidiary.

  18. Understanding International Product Strategy in Multinational Corporations through New Product Development Approaches and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; Shi, Yongjiang

    2017-01-01

    International product strategy regarding global standardisation and local adaptation is one of the challenges faced by multinational corporations (MNCs). Studies in this area have tested the antecedents and consequences of standardisation/adaptation, but lack a new product development (NPD) perspective. In this study, we explore how product standardisation/adaptation is determined in the NPD context. Through a qualitative case study of four MNCs, we found three NPD approaches: multi-local, ad...

  19. Multinational Enterprises and New Trade Theory: Evidence for the Convergence Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios, Salvador; Görg, Holger; Strobl, Eric

    2001-01-01

    According to the ‘convergence hypothesis’ multinational companies will tend to displace national firms and trade as total market size increases and as countries converge in relative size, factor endowments, and production costs. Using a recent model developed by Markusen and Venables (1998) as a theoretical framework, we explicitly develop empirical measures to proxy bilateral FDI between two countries and address their properties with regard to the convergence hypothesis. Using a panel of da...

  20. Multinationals' accountability on sustainability: the evolution of third-party assurance of sustainability reports

    OpenAIRE

    Perego, P.; Kolk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore how multinational corporations (MNCs) adopt assurance practices to develop and sustain organizational accountability for sustainability. Using a panel of Fortune Global 250 firms over a period of 10 years, we document the diffusion patterns of third-party assurance of sustainability reports. We specifically investigate how evolving auditing practices, namely diversity of assurance standards and type of assurance providers, shape the quality of sustainability assuran...

  1. Role of Multinational Corporations in Automobile Industries: A Comparative Study Between India and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Kumaran

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Role of Multinational Corporations ( MNC’s in developing countries is not new in the arena of International business and global macroeconomics. One of the most significant economic developments of recent decades is the economic LPG process (Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation is reflected in the rapid growth in international trade and the surge in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. This process is to a large extent driven by new investments from multinational corporations. A rapidly growing share of MNC’s in India and Mexico in last decade was evident in various sector and in particular to automobile sector. Multinational Corporations are seeking to exploit the vast but also precarious market potentials in these emerging economies. Simultaneously, India and Mexico are increasingly embarking on economic development strategies aimed at attracting MNC’s Foreign Direct Investment as a means to access technology, capital, organizational and marketing know how, etc. This study does comparative analyses on the performance of automobile sector in India and Mexico, mainly in passenger car and Utility vehicles sector. It examines the impact and the role of MNC’s in these economies since 1990’s, with derived empirical quantitative and qualitative data analysis that would illustrate and reinforce some of the contemporary status.

  2. The Case of a Newly Implemented Modern Management Accounting System in a Multinational Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Watts

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary management accounting techniques (such as TQM, BSC, JIT are widely lauded by academia but the proposed relevance to business has not necessarily the view held by industry (e.g. Burns & Vaivio, 2001; Chenhall & Langfield-Smith, 1998; Innes et al., 2000. The purpose of this article is to investigate the acquisition by a modern multi-national firm of a major IT-based management accounting program to assess the relevance and usefulness of its functionality by identifying the type(s of systems that are utilised and the rationale for upgrading or modifying its system(s. This study relies on a single case based on two in-depth semi structured interviews with accounting and finance professionals in a multi-national manufacturing company that recently implemented a modern management accounting system. The findings indicate that despite demonstrating some relevance of the management accounting information, the manufacturer deactivated components of the system that were deemed irrelevant at particular levels of the organisation. This paper provides evidence about the non-reliance on management accounting information in a multinational company operating in Australia. The findings in the study imply that relevance is linked to implementation, planning and training will help managers to better prepare themselves in setting up contemporary management accounting systems.

  3. A Human Resources Perspective on Responsible Corporate Behavior. Case Study: The Multinational Companies in Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Obrad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the extent to which socially responsible Human Resource Management practices are implemented in multinational companies. As more recent studies highlight, the manner in which companies in Romania presently comprehend the social responsibility of their actions is mostly aimed towards the social component of the outer environment in which they function and less towards their own employees. In Romania, at the moment, there are only a few studies that catalogue the efforts made by companies in order to become more responsible towards their employees, or in other words, studies that present Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR within its relationship with Human Resources Management (HRM. The research method we used for our case study was the semi-structured interview, applied on 32 respondents from the multinational companies carrying out their activities in the automotive sector in western Romania. Our study shows that multinational companies from the automotive sector are aware that CSR effects a series of long-term advantages, either externally—enhancing the company’s reputation and consolidating its brand as employer, its competitive advantage on the market, its media visibility—or internally—fostering an organizational culture that may generate greater engagement from its own employees, and financial advantages.

  4. Current status and perspective of multinational design evaluation program in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Key Yong

    2008-01-01

    The Multinational Design Evaluation Program (MDEP) is a multinational initiative to develop innovative approaches to leverage the resources and knowledge of the national regulatory authorities who will be tasked with the review of new reactor power plant designs. MDEP consisted of three stages: Stage 1 involved multilateral cooperation within existing regulatory frameworks; Stage 2 focused on enhanced multinational cooperation and convergence of codes, standards, and safety goals; and Stage 3 involved implementation of Stage 2 products to facilitate licensing processes for new reactors, including those being developed by the Generation IV International Forum. A year-long pilot project was initiated to assess the feasibility of the Stage 2 goals since October 2006. The main objective of Stage 2, as set in the Terms of Reference (ToR), was to establish reference regulatory practices and regulations to enhance the safety of new nuclear reactor designs. The convergence of regulatory practices and regulations associated with the reactor design reviews should allow for enhanced cooperation among regulators, improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the regulatory design reviews, which are part of each country's licensing process. This is expected to lead to a convergence of codes, standards and safety goals in the participating countries. To this end, a pilot project, consisting of two working groups, was launched. The first working group investigated the licensing basis for new nuclear reactor designs, the scope of design safety reviews and overall safety goals. The second examined regulatory oversight of components manufactured for new nuclear reactors

  5. THE EXPANSION OF THE TRANSNATIONAL AND MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Bogdan Zamfir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of transnationalisation and multinationalisation evokes just the differences between the two types of corporations. It can be said that a transnational company is above geographical boundaries, wich from the perspective of revolutionary technological communications and transport have been dimmed, but above the borders represented by language, culture, mentalities and technology. The transnational company operates spot transactions because it is listed on the various first rank Stock Exchanges and the financial, technical, image and brand results recorded by this, are public information that it is measuring the success or unsucces of the transnationalisations phenomenon. By comparison, the multinational company is listed either at stock exchanges of secondary importance, or it is a group or family bussines which has the active abroad. At the same time the multinational corporations effectively produce without to generate significant resources for the development of it's own research activities, so, having failed to impose an uniform structure and culture regardless of the assets location. Another significant difference is at the financing access. The transnational company is standing in attention of the rating firms having a low-risk investment that it allows to access the financing at low cost. In most cases, multinational society has limited financial funding in the country of origin, sometimes exclusive relying on the raised funds of the branches which it controls.

  6. Convergence and Spanish technological specialization: the role of multinational companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urraca Ruiz, A.

    2007-01-01

    Using patent data from EPO from 1978 to 2003, this paper aims to identify the role of MNE in the determination of technological specialization trends and convergence in Spain and the extend to which the technological activity of these companies helps to define the technical distribution of competence in the country.The main findings are: (i) Spain reduces its technological distances to world along the whole period; (ii) Spanish convergence process does not seem to be accompanied by greater specialization, but greater diversification of its technological competence; (iii) Spain is specialized in a few technical fields characterized by being less dynamic and pervasive; (iv) MNE do not seem to hold strong competence in those technical fields where Spain holds technological strengths but do help to convergence process thought diversification of competence process, which is a consequence of the performance of MNE in host catching up countries, more focused on duplication of their home countries.(Author)

  7. Sexual violence by occupational forces during and after World War II: influence of experiencing and witnessing of sexual violence on current mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Zeilinger, Elisabeth L

    2012-08-01

    Wartime rape is an atrocity with long-lasting impacts not only on victims but whole societies. In this brief report, we present data on experience and witness of sexual violence during World War II (WWII) and subsequent time of occupation and on indicators of mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians. Interviews of 298 elderly Austrians from a larger epidemiological study on WWII traumatization were analyzed for the impact of experience and witness of sexual violence during the wartime committed by occupational forces. Interviews comprised a biographical/historical section and psychological measures (BSI, TLEQ, PCL-C). Participants were recruited in all nine provinces of Austria with respect to former zones of occupation (Western Allied/Soviet). Twelve persons reported direct experience of sexual violence, 33 persons witnessed such atrocities. One third of the victims and 18.2% of the witnesses reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD full/subthreshold). Sexual violence occurred more often in the former Soviet zone. Victims and witnesses displayed higher odds of post-traumatic symptoms and symptoms of depression and phobic fear than non-victims. Furthermore, witnesses displayed higher levels of aggression compared to victims and non-witnesses. Our results corroborate previous findings that wartime rape has long-lasting effects over decades on current mental health and post-traumatic distress in victims and witnesses. We recommend integration of psychotraumatological knowledge on consequences of sexual violence on mental health into geriatric care and the education of dedicated personnel.

  8. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  9. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  10. Force Method Optimization II. Volume II. User’s Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    One Record Per Element IE, IELT (I),IBUCKL,N5(I),N6(I),N7(i),N8(l),Nll(l),N13(I) (ITOT Records) N15(l),N17(I),(EM(IL,I),T1=1,11),JMAT(I),ANGLE(I...NRED,NBOU,NDOF,N2,NELI,NDTNX,NDL, IRSTNMODES Constants) 2nd Record ( IELT (1),ALL(I),wr(i),AREA(l),XC(1),YC(]),ALI.2(i), (Element Data SIGU(I,,I=I,ITOT...NII,NI3,N15,NOAL,NOAL2,KL,KL2,LNOD,LNOD2, DISPU,DISPL,NBDF,NBDF2,NSE,DELTA,15,NPOT,NSSI,NSS2, NSS3,NSS4,IBUKL, IELT ,IBK,N1,N2,NAA,NDL,NSG,NNZL, IELI

  11. A four-country comparison of healthcare systems, implementation of diagnostic criteria, and treatment availability for functional gastrointestinal disorders: a report of the Rome Foundation Working Team on cross-cultural, multinational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmulson, M; Corazziari, E; Ghoshal, U C; Myung, S-J; Gerson, C D; Quigley, E M M; Gwee, K-A; Sperber, A D

    2014-10-01

    Variations in healthcare provision around the world may impact how patients with functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGIDs) are investigated, diagnosed, and treated. However, these differences have not been reviewed. The Multinational Working Team of the Rome Foundation, established to make recommendations on the conduct of multinational, cross-cultural research in FGIDs, identified seven key issues that are analyzed herein: (i) coverage afforded by different healthcare systems/providers; (ii) level of the healthcare system where patients with FGIDs are treated; (iii) extent/types of diagnostic procedures typically undertaken to diagnose FGIDs; (iv) physicians' familiarity with and implementation of the Rome diagnostic criteria in clinical practice; (v) range of medications approved for FGIDs and approval process for new agents; (vi) costs involved in treating FGIDs; and (vii) prevalence and role of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) for FGIDs. Because it was not feasible to survey all countries around the world, we compared a selected number of countries based on their geographical and ethno-cultural diversity. Thus, we included Italy and South Korea as representative of nations with broad-based coverage of healthcare in the population and India and Mexico as newly industrialized countries where there may be limited provision of healthcare for substantial segments of the population. In light of the paucity of formal publications on these issues, we included additional sources from the medical literature as well as perspectives provided by local experts and the media. Finally, we provide future directions on healthcare issues that should be taken into account and implemented when conducting cross-cultural and multinational research in FGIDs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Regulatory approvals in a large multinational clinical trial: the ESPRIT experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Laura A; Tavel, Jorge A; Oseekey, Karen; McDermott, Cathy M; Mollerup, David; Bebchuk, Judith D

    2002-02-01

    While accepted as serving an important function to safeguard human subjects, the process of obtaining regulatory approvals to conduct clinical trials is generally regarded as cumbersome and time-consuming. For large multinational trials, U.S. federally sponsored human subject research abroad involves specific U.S. regulatory requirements, in addition to those of the host country, that act as further hurdles. These requirements may include obtaining an Assurance of Protection for Human Subjects from the Office of Human Research Protection of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, maintaining specific Ethics Committee/Institutional Review Board (EC/IRB) composition, and incorporating mandated elements in informed consents, all of which may differ from local policies and guidelines. Specific examples of issues that led to delays in regulatory approvals for sites participating in the multinational clinical trial entitled Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT) are presented here. While the goal of these requirements is to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects, they may create substantial delays and engender resentment over the notion of lack of respect for individual country sovereignty. Substudies within ESPRIT have been undertaken to obtain feedback from EC/IRB chairpersons, site personnel responsible for processing the required assurances, ESPRIT investigators, and study participants regarding aspects of current U.S. regulatory requirements related to human subject protection and ethical issues in multinational research. The purpose of these substudies is to compare the attitudes and experiences across countries regarding important ethical issues associated with conducting ESPRIT. One objective of the substudies is to gather additional insight to the impact of U.S. regulatory processes. Another is to help to inform the debate about how to best maximize the rights and welfare of clinical trial

  13. Examples of socially responsible practices of multinational enterprises from developed and developing countries in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Viviana Duque Orozco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available International business research has considered the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of the Multinational Enterprises (MNEs and so Multilateral Organizations have developed different recommendations about what these companies should do in different social areas, especially in labor practices. MNEs play a significant role given their influence and activities in both home and host countries. They play a double role: actor of the problem, but also the actor of the solution. The purpose of the paper is to identify the differences of Socially Responsible Practices (SRP between MNEs from developed countries and MNEs from developing countries in Colombia. The method used in this document is a literature review from several academic databases; and we check CSR programs published in Web sites in the host country (Colombia of six MNE´s The results suggest that Multinationals from developing countries focus their practices on the com­munity, mainly in education programs, while Multinationals from developed countries try to work with all stakeholders and involve particularly aspects related with their business in the programs they develop. This is possible because MNEs from developed countries use better divulgation me­chanisms. SRP less mentioned in both cases are related to employees. Commitment with ethical responsibilities, promote greater economic and social inclusion should be the goals for MNEs in developing countries. In the other hand, the government has to play a more important role in this ground establishing minimum standards for MNEs that want to operate in developing countries, and some education programs to sensitize society into a more responsible consumption, in order to generate social pressure.

  14. Multinational evidence-based recommendations for pain management by pharmacotherapy in inflammatory arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittle, Samuel L; Colebatch, Alexandra N; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    , 89 rheumatologists representing all 17 countries selected 10 clinical questions regarding the use of pain medications in IA. Bibliographic fellows undertook a systematic literature review for each question, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and 2008-09 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR......)/ACR abstracts. Relevant studies were retrieved for data extraction and quality assessment. Rheumatologists from each country used this evidence to develop a set of national recommendations. Multinational recommendations were then formulated and assessed for agreement and the potential impact on clinical...

  15. THE ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY OF MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISE - MANAGING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE HEADQUARTER AND SUBSIDIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselei Haag

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review that searches to understand how the environmental strategy must be diffused throughout the structure of the multinational enterprise (MNE, within the scope of the studies on enterprises’ internationalization. Literature has contributed to the understanding of the relationships between headquarters and subsidiaries of MNEs, identifying contingencies where the headquarters should grant greater autonomy to certain subsidiaries. After analyzing the literature, we propose a research agenda seeking to expand the field of knowledge on the adoption of sustainability strategies in subsidiaries.

  16. Anti-JC virus antibody prevalence in a multinational multiple sclerosis cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Tomas; Achiron, Anat; Alfredsson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is an opportunistic virus known to cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Anti-JC virus (Anti-JCV) antibody prevalence in a large, geographically diverse, multi-national multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort was compared in a cross-sectional study. Overall, anti-JCV antibody...... prevalence was 57.6%. Anti-JCV antibody prevalence in MS patients ranged from approximately 47% to 68% across these countries: Norway, 47.4%; Denmark, 52.6%; Israel, 56.6%; France, 57.6%; Italy, 58.3%; Sweden, 59.0%; Germany, 59.1%; Austria, 66.7% and Turkey, 67.7%. Prevalence increased with age (from 49...

  17. OVERVIEW OF THE STATE OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY WITHIN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, multinational companies should play a crucial role in supporting and developing a responsible corporate behavior from social, as well as ecological point of view, within the globalization framework. Thus, the process of globalization and liberalization of markets, of goods and services, must be accompanied by the real progress towards an effective system of global governance, with its own social and environmental dimensions. The paper dwells upon the diagnosis of the current state of corporate social responsibility within the international business environment, substantiated on the basis of a study carried out in 2010 by the American scientific and professional organization Business for Social Responsibility (BSR.

  18. The capitalization of knowledge in the multinational corporation. The strategy and role of national subsidiaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claver Cortes, E.; Carmen del Zaragoza Saez, P.; Quer Ramon, D.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing globalization and the importance of knowledge as a strategic resource are leading to the companies to cross the nacional borders and establish subsidiaries in the foreign countries when they try to transfer assets highly tacit and difficult to codify. The present work tries to contribute to light in the existing relation between knowledge and the multinational corporation, analyzing the flows of this resource and proposing a theoretical frame to identify gaps of knowledge that could be originated based on the chosen international competitive strategy. (Author) 43 refs

  19. Stock Market Autoregressive Dynamics: A Multinational Comparative Study with Quantile Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the nonlinear autoregressive dynamics of stock index returns in seven major advanced economies (G7 and China. The quantile autoregression model (QAR enables us to investigate the autocorrelation across the whole spectrum of return distribution, which provides more insightful conditional information on multinational stock market dynamics than conventional time series models. The relation between index return and contemporaneous trading volume is also investigated. While prior studies have mixed results on stock market autocorrelations, we find that the dynamics is usually state dependent. The results for G7 stock markets exhibit conspicuous similarities, but they are in manifest contrast to the findings on Chinese stock markets.

  20. Double income tax between UK and US, 1914-1945 – Impact on UK multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Izawa, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Tax rates on business income in many countries increased enormously during World War I and stayed at a much higher level than before the war. Particularly, the UK multinationals with subsidiaries based elsewhere other than the Empire suffered from the situation because the UK did not provide a foreign tax relief until 1945, when a tax treaty with US was signed. The aim of this paper is to clarify the historical premises of establishment of the tax treaty in 1945. The major premise of this pap...