International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou, Qiushun; Yu, Tianbao; Liu, Jiangtao; Wang, Tongbiao; Liao, Qinghua; Liu, Nianhua
2015-01-01
We report an acoustic multimode interference effect and self-imaging phenomena in an acoustic multimode waveguide system which consists of M parallel phononic crystal waveguides (M-PnCWs). Results show that the self-imaging principle remains applicable for acoustic waveguides just as it does for optical multimode waveguides. To achieve the dispersions and replicas of the input acoustic waves produced along the propagation direction, we performed the finite element method on M-PnCWs, which support M guided modes within the target frequency range. The simulation results show that single images (including direct and mirrored images) and N-fold images (N is an integer) are identified along the propagation direction with asymmetric and symmetric incidence discussed separately. The simulated positions of the replicas agree well with the calculated values that are theoretically decided by self-imaging conditions based on the guided mode propagation analysis. Moreover, the potential applications based on this self-imaging effect for acoustic wavelength de-multiplexing and beam splitting in the acoustic field are also presented. (paper)
Nonreciprocal frequency conversion in a multimode microwave optomechanical circuit
Feofanov, A. K.; Bernier, N. R.; Toth, L. D.; Koottandavida, A.; Kippenberg, T. J.
Nonreciprocal devices such as isolators, circulators, and directional amplifiers are pivotal to quantum signal processing with superconducting circuits. In the microwave domain, commercially available nonreciprocal devices are based on ferrite materials. They are barely compatible with superconducting quantum circuits, lossy, and cannot be integrated on chip. Significant potential exists for implementing non-magnetic chip-scale nonreciprocal devices using microwave optomechanical circuits. Here we demonstrate a possibility of nonreciprocal frequency conversion in a multimode microwave optomechanical circuit using solely optomechanical interaction between modes. The conversion scheme and the results reflecting the actual progress on the experimental implementation of the scheme will be presented.
FDTD simulation of microwave sintering of ceramics in multimode cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iskander, M.F.; Smith, R.L.; Andrade, A.O.M.; Walsh, L.M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Kimrey, H. Jr. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))
1994-05-01
At present, various aspects of the sintering process such as preparation of sample sizes and shapes, types of insulations, and the desirability of including a process stimulus such as SiC rods are considered forms of art and highly dependent on human expertise. The simulation of realistic sintering experiments in a multimode cavity may provide an improved understanding of critical parameters involved and allow for the development of guidelines towards the optimization of the sintering process. In this paper, the authors utilize the FDTD technique to model various geometrical arrangements and material compatibility aspects in multimode microwave cavities and to simulate realistic sintering experiments. The FDTD procedure starts with the simulation of a field distribution in multimode microwave cavities that resembles a set of measured data using liquid crystal sheets. Also included in the simulation is the waveguide feed as well as a ceramic loading plate placed at the base of the cavity. The FDTD simulation thus provides realistic representation of a typical sintering experiment. Aspects that have been successfully simulated include the effects of various types of insulation, the role of SiC rods on the uniformity of the resulting microwave fields, and the possible shielding effects that may result from excessive use of SiC. These results as well as others showing the electromagnetic fields and power-deposition patterns in multiple ceramic samples are presented.
Phonon-Mediated Quasiparticle Poisoning of Superconducting Microwave Resonators
Patel, U.; Pechenezhskiy, Ivan V.; Plourde, B. L. T.; Vavilov, M. G.; McDermott, R.
2016-01-01
Nonequilibrium quasiparticles represent a significant source of decoherence in superconducting quantum circuits. Here we investigate the mechanism of quasiparticle poisoning in devices subjected to local quasiparticle injection. We find that quasiparticle poisoning is dominated by the propagation of pair-breaking phonons across the chip. We characterize the energy dependence of the timescale for quasiparticle poisoning. Finally, we observe that incorporation of extensive normal metal quasipar...
Electromagnetic microwaves in metal films with electron-phonon interaction and a dc magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasselberg, L.E.
1976-01-01
A quantum-mechanical treatment of electromagnetic microwaves is performed for a metal film. The directions of the exterior ac and dc fields are taken to be arbitrary and boundary conditions for the electrons are assumed to be specular. The relation between the current and the electromagnetic field...... in the transmission spectrum can perhaps be obtained by assuming a finite Debye temperature and specular reflections of the electrons at the boundary surfaces. A sharp peak entirely caused by the finite electron-phonon interaction is also discussed....
Levin, A D; Momtaz, Z S; Gusev, G M; Raichev, O E; Bakarov, A K
2015-11-13
We observe the phonon-drag voltage oscillations correlating with the resistance oscillations under microwave irradiation in a two-dimensional electron gas in perpendicular magnetic field. This phenomenon is explained by the influence of dissipative resistivity modified by microwaves on the phonon-drag voltage perpendicular to the phonon flux. When the lowest-order resistance minima evolve into zero-resistance states, the phonon-drag voltage demonstrates sharp features suggesting that current domains associated with these states can exist in the absence of external dc driving.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Zheng-hua [Xiangnan University-Gospell Joint Laboratory of Microwave Communication Technology, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000 (China); Jiang, Zheng-Sheng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen, Tao [Laboratory of Quantum Information and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lei, Da-Jun [Xiangnan University-Gospell Joint Laboratory of Microwave Communication Technology, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000 (China); Yan, Wen-Yan, E-mail: yanwenyan88@126.com [School of Software and Communication Engineering, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000 (China); Qiu, Feng; Huang, Jian-Quan; Deng, Hai-Ming; Yao, Min [Xiangnan University-Gospell Joint Laboratory of Microwave Communication Technology, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000 (China)
2016-04-29
A novel phoxonic crystal using the piezoelectric (PMN-PT) and piezomagnetic (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) superlattices with three types of domains in a unit cell (PPSUC) is present, in which dual microwave photonic and phononic band gaps can be obtained simultaneously. Two categories of phononic band gaps, originating from both the Bragg scattering of acoustic waves in periodic structures at the Brillouin zone boundary and the electromagnetic wave-lattice vibration couplings near the Brillouin zone center, can be observed in the phononic band structures. The general characteristics of the microwave photonic band structures are similar to those of pure piezoelectric or piezomagnetic superlattices, with the major discrepancy being the appearance of nearly dispersionless branches within the microwave photonic band gaps, which show an extremely large group velocity delay. Thus, the properties may also be applied to compact acoustic-microwave devices. - Highlights: • Dual microwave photonic and phononic band gaps can coexist in the PPSUC. • Two categories of phononic band gaps with different mechanism can be obtained. • Nearly dispersionless branches appear in the microwave photonic band gaps.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazarov, M. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Institute of Applied Physics, Academiei Street 5, Chisinau MD-2028 (Moldova, Republic of); Brik, M.G. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Spassky, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tsukerblat, B., E-mail: tsuker@bgu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Palii, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academiei Street 5, Chisinau MD-2028 (Moldova, Republic of); Nazida, A. Nor [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Faculty of Art and Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA (Perak), Seri Iskandar 32610, Bandar Baru Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Ahmad-Fauzi, M.N. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)
2013-12-09
A stoichiometric powder composed of nanosized grains of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} was synthesized by combustion method at 500 °C with the subsequent calcination at 1000 °C. The zero-phonon line position, parameter of the Stokes shift, heat release factor and effective phonon energy were studied experimentally and analyzed in the framework of the multimode Pekar–Huang–Rhys model. Experimental data show that the optical 4f–5d transitions in Eu{sup 2+} ion exhibit a broad asymmetric electron–vibrational bands with a pronounced structure near the maxima. The form-function of the absorption and luminescence bands are theoretically analyzed in the framework of the model of the linear electron–vibrational interaction assuming strong coupling with the local vibration (estimated Pekar–Huang–Rhys parameter a=2S=10 and frequency ℏω=509 cm{sup −1}) and relatively weak interaction with the crystal phonons. The last results in an effective temperature dependent broadening of the discrete lines corresponding to the local vibrations and to a specific shape of the whole phonon assisted band (multimode Pekarian). Providing specific interrelation between the key parameters the calculated absorption and luminescence bands exhibit peculiar temperature dependent structured peaks in a qualitative agreement with the experimental data.
FDTD simulation of microwave sintering in large (500/4000 liter) multimode cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Subirats, M.; Iskander, M.F.; White, M.J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Kiggans, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1996-12-31
To help develop large-scale microwave-sintering processes and to explore the feasibility of the commercial utilization of this technology, the authors used the recently developed multi-grid 3D Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) code and the 3D Finite-Difference Heat-Transfer (FDHT) code to determine the electromagnetic (EM) fields, the microwave power deposition, and temperature-distribution patterns in layers of samples processed in large-scale multimode microwave cavities. This paper presents results obtained from the simulation of realistic sintering experiments carried out in both 500 and 4,000 liter furnaces operating at 2.45 GHz. The ceramic ware being sintered is placed inside a cubical crucible box made of rectangular plates of various ceramic materials with various electrical and thermal properties. The crucible box can accommodate up to 5 layers of ceramic samples with 16 to 20 cup-like samples per layer. Simulation results provided guidelines regarding selection of crucible-box materials, crucible-box geometry, number of layers, shelf material between layers, and the fraction volume of the load vs. that of the furnace. Results from the FDTD and FDHT simulations will be presented and various tradeoffs involved in designing an effective microwave-processing system will be compared graphically.
Teng, Yichao; Zhang, Pin; Zhang, Baofu; Chen, Yiwang
2018-02-01
A scheme to realize low-phase-noise frequency-quadrupled microwave generation without any filter is demonstrated. In this scheme, a multimode optoelectronic oscillator is mainly contributed by dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators, fiber, photodetector, and microwave amplifier. The local source signal is modulated by a child MZM (MZMa), which is worked at maximum transmission point. Through properly adjusting the bias voltages of the other child MZM (MZMb) and the parent MZM (MZMc), optical carrier is effectively suppressed and second sidebands are retained, then the survived optical signal is fed back to the photodetector and MZMb to form an optoelectronic hybrid resonator and realize frequency-quadrupled signal generation. Due to the high Q-factor and mode selection effect of the optoelectronic hybrid resonator, compared with the source signal, the generated frequency-quadrupled signal has a lower phase noise. The approach has verified by experiments, and 18, 22, and 26 GHz frequency-quadrupled signal are generated by 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 GHz local source signals. Compared with 4.5 GHz source signal, the phase noise of generated 18 GHz signal at 10 kHz frequency offset has 26.5 dB reduction.
Hänßler, Olaf C.
2018-01-01
The work covers a multimodal microscope technology for the analysis, manipulation and transfer of materials and objects in the submicrometer range. An atomic force microscope (AFM) allows imaging of the surface topography and a Scanning Microwave Microscope (SMM) detects electromagnetic properties, both operating in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The described technology demonstrator allows to observe the region-of-interest live with the SEM, while at the same time a characterization w...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buhl, Mie
2010-01-01
In this paper, I address an ongoing discussion in Danish E-learning research about how to take advantage of the fact that digital media facilitate other communication forms than text, so-called ‘multimodal' communication, which should not be confused with the term ‘multimedia'. While multimedia...... on their teaching and learning situations. The choices they make involve e-learning resources like videos, social platforms and mobile devices, not just as digital artefacts we interact with, but the entire practice of using digital media. In a life-long learning perspective, multimodality is potentially very...
Ultrarapid Multimode Microwave Synthesis of Nano/Submicron β-SiC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Zhao
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design, development and realization of a fast and novel process for the synthesis of 3C silicon carbide (β-SiC nanorods and submicron powder. Using SiO2 (or Si and activated carbon (AC, this process allows β-SiC to be synthesized with almost 100% purity in timeframes of seconds or minutes using multimode microwave rotary tube reactors under open-air conditions. The synthesis temperature used was 1460 ± 50 °C for Si + AC and 1660 ± 50 °C for SiO2 + AC. The shortest β-SiC synthesis time achieved was about 20 s for Si + AC and 100 s for SiO2 + AC. This novel synthesis method allows for scaled-up flow processes in the rapid industrial-scale production of β-SiC, having advantages of time/energy saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction over comparable modern processes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buhl, Mie
In this paper, I address an ongoing discussion in Danish E-learning research about how to take advantage of the fact that digital media facilitate other communication forms than text, so-called ‘multimodal’ communication, which should not be confused with the term ‘multimedia’. While multimedia...... and learning situations. The choices they make involve E-learning resources like videos, social platforms and mobile devices, not just as digital artefacts we interact with, but the entire practice of using digital media. In a life-long learning perspective, multimodality is potentially very useful...
Multimode Adaptable Microwave Radar Sensor Based on Leaky-Wave Antennas
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hudec, P.; Pánek, Petr; Jeník, V.
2017-01-01
Roč. 65, č. 9 (2017), s. 3464-3473 ISSN 0018-9480 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : adaptable sensor * low-range radar * multimode sensor Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2016
Detecting the phonon spin in magnon-phonon conversion experiments
Holanda, J.; Maior, D. S.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.
2018-05-01
Recent advances in the emerging field of magnon spintronics have stimulated renewed interest in phenomena involving the interaction between spin waves, the collective excitations of spins in magnetic materials that quantize as magnons, and the elastic waves that arise from excitations in the crystal lattice, which quantize as phonons. In magnetic insulators, owing to the magnetostrictive properties of materials, spin waves can become strongly coupled to elastic waves, forming magnetoelastic waves—a hybridized magnon-phonon excitation. While several aspects of this interaction have been subject to recent scrutiny, it remains unclear whether or not phonons can carry spin. Here we report experiments on a film of the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet under a non-uniform magnetic field demonstrating the conversion of coherent magnons generated by a microwave field into phonons that have spin. While it is well established that photons in circularly polarized light carry a spin, the spin of phonons has had little attention in the literature. By means of wavevector-resolved Brillouin light-scattering measurements, we show that the magnon-phonon conversion occurs with constant energy and varying linear momentum, and that the light scattered by the phonons is circularly polarized, thus demonstrating that the phonons have spin.
Baar, Marsha R.; Gammerdinger, William; Leap, Jennifer; Morales, Erin; Shikora, Jonathan; Weber, Michael H.
2014-01-01
Five reactions were rate-accelerated relative to the standard reflux workup in both multi-mode and mono-mode microwave ovens, and the results were compared to determine whether the sequential processing of a mono-mode unit could provide for better lab logistics and pedagogy. Conditions were optimized so that yields matched in both types of…
Li, Li; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Xiuli; Chen, Xi; Dong, Xue
2014-12-01
A series of urchin-like CdS/ZrO2 nanocomposites with different mole ratios of Cd/Zr were prepared by a two-step method combining the microwave-assisted hydrothermal and ion exchange methods. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The results of the study revealed that the CdS/ZrO2 nanocomposites had mixed phases of tetragonal ZrO2 and hexagonal CdS. Moreover, the samples prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method possessed the urchin-like structure with a surface composed of protrude-like nanoparticles in large quantities. The absorption in the visible region changed slightly with increasing mole ratio of Cd/Zr. Moreover, compared to the nanocomposites prepared by the conventional heating, the nanocomposites prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis showed significantly different Brunauer-Emmett-Teller values, and the urchin-like CdS/ZrO2 structures were obtained. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation indicated that the photocatalytic activity of the CdS/ZrO2 nanocomposite with CdS/ZrO2 molar ratio of 30 % was higher than those of CdS, ZrO2, and other different ratios of CdS/ZrO2 nanocomposites. Moreover, under UV light, visible light, and microwave-assisted multimode photocatalytic degradation, the urchin-like CdS/ZrO2 nanocomposites significantly affected the photodegradation of various dyes. To understand the possible reaction mechanism of the photocatalysis by the CdS/ZrO2 nanocomposites, a series of controlled experiments were performed, and the stability and reusability of the CdS/ZrO2 nanocomposites were further investigated by the photocatalytic reaction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Li; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Xiuli; Chen, Xi; Dong, Xue
2014-01-01
A series of urchin-like CdS/ZrO 2 nanocomposites with different mole ratios of Cd/Zr were prepared by a two-step method combining the microwave-assisted hydrothermal and ion exchange methods. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and N 2 adsorption–desorption measurements. The results of the study revealed that the CdS/ZrO 2 nanocomposites had mixed phases of tetragonal ZrO 2 and hexagonal CdS. Moreover, the samples prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method possessed the urchin-like structure with a surface composed of protrude-like nanoparticles in large quantities. The absorption in the visible region changed slightly with increasing mole ratio of Cd/Zr. Moreover, compared to the nanocomposites prepared by the conventional heating, the nanocomposites prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis showed significantly different Brunauer–Emmett–Teller values, and the urchin-like CdS/ZrO 2 structures were obtained. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation indicated that the photocatalytic activity of the CdS/ZrO 2 nanocomposite with CdS/ZrO 2 molar ratio of 30 % was higher than those of CdS, ZrO 2 , and other different ratios of CdS/ZrO 2 nanocomposites. Moreover, under UV light, visible light, and microwave-assisted multimode photocatalytic degradation, the urchin-like CdS/ZrO 2 nanocomposites significantly affected the photodegradation of various dyes. To understand the possible reaction mechanism of the photocatalysis by the CdS/ZrO 2 nanocomposites, a series of controlled experiments were performed, and the stability and reusability of the CdS/ZrO 2 nanocomposites were further investigated by the photocatalytic reaction
Wette, Frederik
1991-01-01
In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...
Detecting phonon blockade with photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Didier, Nicolas; Pugnetti, Stefano; Fazio, Rosario; Blanter, Yaroslav M.
2011-01-01
Measuring the quantum dynamics of a mechanical system, when few phonons are involved, remains a challenge. We show that a superconducting microwave resonator linearly coupled to the mechanical mode constitutes a very powerful probe for this scope. This new coupling can be much stronger than the usual radiation pressure interaction by adjusting a gate voltage. We focus on the detection of phonon blockade, showing that it can be observed by measuring the statistics of the light in the cavity. The underlying reason is the formation of an entangled state between the two resonators. Our scheme realizes a phonotonic Josephson junction, giving rise to coherent oscillations between phonons and photons as well as a self-trapping regime for a coupling smaller than a critical value. The transition from the self-trapping to the oscillating regime is also induced dynamically by dissipation.
Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III
2012-01-01
In this work, we demonstrated engineered modification of propagation of thermal phonons, i.e. at THz frequencies, using phononic crystals. This work combined theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Carnegie Mellon University; the MESA fabrication facilities at Sandia; and the microfabrication facilities at UNM to produce world-leading control of phonon propagation in silicon at frequencies up to 3 THz. These efforts culminated in a dramatic reduction in the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystals by a factor of almost 30 as compared with the bulk value, and about 6 as compared with an unpatterned slab of the same thickness. This work represents a revolutionary advance in the engineering of thermoelectric materials for optimal, high-ZT performance. We have demonstrated the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystal structuring using MEMS-compatible fabrication techniques and in a planar platform that is amenable to integration with typical microelectronic systems. The measured reduction in thermal conductivity as compared to bulk silicon was about a factor of 20 in the cross-plane direction [26], and a factor of 6 in the in-plane direction. Since the electrical conductivity was only reduced by a corresponding factor of about 3 due to the removal of conductive material (i.e., porosity), and the Seebeck coefficient should remain constant as an intrinsic material property, this corresponds to an effective enhancement in ZT by a factor of 2. Given the number of papers in literature devoted to only a small, incremental change in ZT, the ability to boost the ZT of a material by a factor of 2 simply by reducing thermal conductivity is groundbreaking. The results in this work were obtained using silicon, a material that has benefitted from enormous interest in the microelectronics industry and that has a fairly large thermoelectric power
Chang, John; Fok, Mable P; Meister, James; Prucnal, Paul R
2013-03-11
In this paper we present a fully tunable and reconfigurable single-laser multi-tap microwave photonic FIR filter that utilizes a special SM-to-MM combiner to sum the taps. The filter requires only a single laser source for all the taps and a passive component, a SM-to-MM combiner, for incoherent summing of signal. The SM-to-MM combiner does not produce optical interference during signal merging and is phase-insensitive. We experimentally demonstrate an eight-tap filter with both positive and negative programmable coefficients with excellent correspondence between predicted and measured values. The magnitude response shows a clean and accurate function across the entire bandwidth, and proves successful operation of the FIR filter using a SM-to-MM combiner.
Alberte, Lasma; Ammon, Martin; Jiménez-Alba, Amadeo; Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol
2018-04-01
We present a class of holographic massive gravity models that realize a spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry—they exhibit transverse phonon modes whose speed relates to the elastic shear modulus according to elasticity theory. Massive gravity theories thus emerge as versatile and convenient theories to model generic types of translational symmetry breaking: explicit, spontaneous, and a mixture of both. The nature of the breaking is encoded in the radial dependence of the graviton mass. As an application of the model, we compute the temperature dependence of the shear modulus and find that it features a glasslike melting transition.
Manipulation of Phonons with Phononic Crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leseman, Zayd Chad [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-07-09
There were three research goals associated with this project. First, was to experimentally demonstrate phonon spectrum control at THz frequencies using Phononic Crystals (PnCs), i.e. demonstrate coherent phonon scattering with PnCs. Second, was to experimentally demonstrate analog PnC circuitry components at GHz frequencies. The final research goal was to gain a fundamental understanding of phonon interaction using computational methods. As a result of this work, 7 journal papers have been published, 1 patent awarded, 14 conference presentations given, 4 conference publications, and 2 poster presentations given.
Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.
1999-10-05
A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).
Zhu, Hanyu; Yi, Jun; Li, Ming-yang; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Lifa; Yang, Chih-Wen; Kaindl, Robert A.; Li, Lain-Jong; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang
2018-01-01
Chirality reveals symmetry breaking of the fundamental interaction of elementary particles. In condensed matter, for example, the chirality of electrons governs many unconventional transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect. Here we show that phonons can exhibit intrinsic chirality in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The broken inversion symmetry of the lattice lifts the degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise phonon modes at the corners of the Brillouin zone. We identified the phonons by the intervalley transfer of holes through hole-phonon interactions during the indirect infrared absorption, and we confirmed their chirality by the infrared circular dichroism arising from pseudoangular momentum conservation. The chiral phonons are important for electron-phonon coupling in solids, phonon-driven topological states, and energy-efficient information processing.
Zhu, Hanyu
2018-02-01
Chirality reveals symmetry breaking of the fundamental interaction of elementary particles. In condensed matter, for example, the chirality of electrons governs many unconventional transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect. Here we show that phonons can exhibit intrinsic chirality in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The broken inversion symmetry of the lattice lifts the degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise phonon modes at the corners of the Brillouin zone. We identified the phonons by the intervalley transfer of holes through hole-phonon interactions during the indirect infrared absorption, and we confirmed their chirality by the infrared circular dichroism arising from pseudoangular momentum conservation. The chiral phonons are important for electron-phonon coupling in solids, phonon-driven topological states, and energy-efficient information processing.
Proposal for an optomechanical traveling wave phonon-photon translator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Painter, Oskar, E-mail: safavi@caltech.edu, E-mail: opainter@caltech.edu [Thomas J Watson, Sr., Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2011-01-15
In this paper, we describe a general optomechanical system for converting photons to phonons in an efficient and reversible manner. We analyze classically and quantum mechanically the conversion process and proceed to a more concrete description of a phonon-photon translator (PPT) formed from coupled photonic and phononic crystal planar circuits. The application of the PPT to RF-microwave photonics and circuit QED, including proposals utilizing this system for optical wavelength conversion, long-lived quantum memory and state transfer from optical to superconducting qubits, is considered.
Gorishnyy, T; Ullal, C K; Maldovan, M; Fytas, G; Thomas, E L
2005-03-25
In this Letter we propose the use of hypersonic phononic crystals to control the emission and propagation of high frequency phonons. We report the fabrication of high quality, single crystalline hypersonic crystals using interference lithography and show that direct measurement of their phononic band structure is possible with Brillouin light scattering. Numerical calculations are employed to explain the nature of the observed propagation modes. This work lays the foundation for experimental studies of hypersonic crystals and, more generally, phonon-dependent processes in nanostructures.
Phonon engineering for nanostructures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aubry, Sylvie (Stanford University); Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Peebles, Diane Elaine; Hurley, David H. (Idaho National Laboratory); Shinde, Subhash L.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Emerson, John Allen
2010-01-01
Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for {Sigma}29(001) and {Sigma}3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.
Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Roy, Ajit K
2010-10-15
Field-induced phonon tunneling, a previously unknown mechanism of interfacial thermal transport, has been revealed by ultrahigh vacuum inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Using thermally broadened Fermi-Dirac distribution in the STM tip as in situ atomic-scale thermometer we found that thermal vibrations of the last tip atom are effectively transmitted to sample surface despite few angstroms wide vacuum gap. We show that phonon tunneling is driven by interfacial electric field and thermally vibrating image charges, and its rate is enhanced by surface electron-phonon interaction.
Birefringent phononic structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. E. Psarobas
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Within the framework of elastic anisotropy, caused in a phononic crystal due to low crystallographic symmetry, we adopt a model structure, already introduced in the case of photonic metamaterials, and by analogy, we study the effect of birefringence and acoustical activity in a phononic crystal. In particular, we investigate its low-frequency behavior and comment on the factors which determine chirality by reference to this model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russell, F.M.
1989-05-01
Energetic particles moving with a solid, either from nuclear reactions or externally injected, deposit energy by inelastic scattering processes which eventually appears as thermal energy. If the transfer of energy occurs in a crystalline solid then it is possible to couple some of the energy directly to the nuclei forming the lattice by generating phonons. In this paper the transfer of energy from a compound excited nucleus to the lattice is examined by introducing a virtual particle Π. It is shown that by including a Π in the nuclear reaction a substantial amount of energy can be coupled directly to the lattice. In the lattice this particle behaves as a spatially localized phonon of high energy, the so-called supra-ballistic phonon. By multiple inelastic scattering the supra-ballistic phonon eventually thermalizes. Because both the virtual particle Π and the equivalent supra-ballistic phonon have no charge or spin and can only exist within a lattice it is difficult to detect other than by its decay into thermal phonons. The possibility of a Π removing excess energy from a compound nucleus formed by the cold fusion of deuterium is examined. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, A.S.; Rumiantsev, A.Yu.
1999-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Phonon dispersion curves in Vanadium metal are investigated by neutron inelastic scattering using three-axis spectrometers. Due to extremely low coherent scattering amplitude of neutrons in natural isotope mixture of vanadium the phonon frequencies could be determined in the energy range below about 15 meV. Several phonon groups were measured with the polarised neutron scattering set-up. It is demonstrated that the intensity of coherent inelastic scattering observed in the non-spin-flip channel vanishes in the spin-flip channel. The phonon density of states is measured on a single crystal keeping the momentum transfer equal to a vector of reciprocal lattice where the coherent inelastic scattering is suppressed. Phonon dispersion curves in vanadium, as measured by neutron and earlier by X-ray scattering, are described in frames of a charge-fluctuation model involving monopolar and dipolar degrees of freedom. The model parameters are compared for different transition metals with body-centred cubic-structure. (author)
Flexural phonon limited phonon drag thermopower in bilayer graphene
Ansari, Mohd Meenhaz; Ashraf, SSZ
2018-05-01
We investigate the phonon drag thermopower from flexural phonons as a function of electron temperature and carrier concentration in the Bloch-Gruneisen regime in non-strained bilayer graphene using Boltzmann transport equation approach. The flexural phonons are expected to be the major source of intrinsic scattering mechanism in unstrained bilayer graphene due to their large density. The flexural phonon modes dispersion relation is quadratic so these low energy flexural phonons abound at room temperature and as a result deform the bilayer graphene sheet in the out of plane direction and affects the transport properties. We also produce analytical result for phonon-drag thermopower from flexural phonons and find that phonon-drag thermopower depicts T2 dependence on temperature and n-1 on carrier concentration.
Phonon superradiance and phonon laser effect in nanomagnets.
Chudnovsky, E M; Garanin, D A
2004-12-17
We show that the theory of spin-phonon processes in paramagnetic solids must take into account the coherent generation of phonons by the magnetic centers. This effect should drastically enhance spin-phonon rates in nanoscale paramagnets and in crystals of molecular nanomagnets.
Perrin, Bernard
2007-06-01
logo.jpg" ALT="Conference logo"/> The conference PHONONS 2007 was held 15-20 July 2007 in the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM) Paris, France. CNAM is a college of higher technology for training students in the application of science to industry, founded by Henri Grégoire in 1794. This was the 12th International Conference on Phonon Scattering in Condensed Matter. This international conference series, held every 3 years, started in France at Sainte-Maxime in 1972. It was then followed by meetings at Nottingham (1975), Providence (1979), Stuttgart (1983), Urbana-Champaign (1986), Heidelberg (1989), Ithaca (1992), Sapporo (1995), Lancaster (1998), Dartmouth (2001) and St Petersburg (2004). PHONONS 2007 was attended by 346 delegates from 37 different countries as follows: France 120, Japan 45, Germany 25, USA 25, Russia 21, Italy 13, Poland 9, UK 9, Canada 7, The Netherlands 7, Finland 6, Spain 6, Taiwan 6, Greece 4, India 4, Israel 4, Ukraine 4, Serbia 3, South Africa 3, Argentina 2, Belgium 2, China 2, Iran 2, Korea 2, Romania 2, Switzerland 2, and one each from Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Egypt, Estonia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Turkey. There were 5 plenary lectures, 14 invited talks and 84 oral contributions; 225 posters were presented during three poster sessions. The first plenary lecture was given by H J Maris who presented fascinating movies featuring the motion of a single electron in liquid helium. Robert Blick gave us a review on the new possibilities afforded by nanotechnology to design nano-electomechanical systems (NEMS) and the way to use them to study elementary and fundamental processes. The growing interest for phonon transport studies in nanostructured materials was demonstrated by Arun Majumdar. Andrey Akimov described how ultrafast acoustic solitons can monitor the optical properties of quantum wells. Finally, Maurice Chapellier told us how phonons can help tracking dark matter. These 328
The Synthesis of Unsubstituted Cyclic Imides Using Hydroxylamine under Microwave Irradiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yousef Hijji
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Unsubstituted cyclic imides were synthesized from a series of cyclic anhydrides,hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH2OHÃ‚Â·HCl, and 4-N,N-dimethylamino-pyridine (DMAP,base catalyst under microwave irradiation in monomode and multimode microwaves. Thisnovel microwave synthesis produced high yields of the unsubstituted cyclic imides forboth the monomode (61 - 81% and multimode (84 - 97% microwaves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, P.
1976-04-01
Effects on graphite thermal conductivities due to controlled alterations of the graphite structure by impurity addition, porosity, and neutron irradiation are shown to be consistent with the phonon-scattering formulation 1/l = Σ/sub i equals 1/sup/n/ 1/l/sub i/. Observed temperature effects on these doped and irradiated graphites are also explained by this mechanism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgios Gkantzounis
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We employ a recently introduced class of artificial structurally-disordered phononic structures that exhibit large and robust elastic frequency band gaps for efficient phonon guiding. Phononic crystals are periodic structures that prohibit the propagation of elastic waves through destructive interference and exhibit large band gaps and ballistic propagation of elastic waves in the permitted frequency ranges. In contrast, random-structured materials do not exhibit band gaps and favour localization or diffusive propagation. Here, we use structures with correlated disorder constructed from the so-called stealthy hyperuniform disordered point patterns, which can smoothly vary from completely random to periodic (full order by adjusting a single parameter. Such amorphous-like structures exhibit large band gaps (comparable to the periodic ones, both ballistic-like and diffusive propagation of elastic waves, and a large number of localized modes near the band edges. The presence of large elastic band gaps allows the creation of waveguides in hyperuniform materials, and we analyse various waveguide architectures displaying nearly 100% transmission in the GHz regime. Such phononic-circuit architectures are expected to have a direct impact on integrated micro-electro-mechanical filters and modulators for wireless communications and acousto-optical sensing applications.
Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy
Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Fathi, Zakaryae; Wei, Jianghua
1998-01-01
Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.
Phonon properties of americium phosphide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arya, B. S., E-mail: bsarya13@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Narmada P G College, Hoshangabad -461001 (India); Aynyas, Mahendra [Department of Physics, C. S. A. Govt. P. G. College Sehore-46601 (India); Sanyal, S. P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026 (India)
2016-05-23
Phonon properties of AmP have been studied by using breathing shell models (BSM) which includes breathing motion of electrons of the Am atoms due to f-d hybridization. The phonon dispersion curves, specific heat calculated from present model. The calculated phonon dispersion curves of AmP are presented follow the same trend as observed in uranium phosphide. We discuss the significance of this approach in predicting the phonon dispersion curves of these compounds and examine the role of electron-phonon interaction.
Phonon operators for deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.
1982-01-01
The mathematical formalism with the phonon operators independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection turns out to be inadequate for describing excited states of deformed nuclei. New phonon operators are introduced which depend on the signature of the angular momentum projection on the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. It is shown that the calculations with the new phonons take correctly into account the Pauli principle in two-phonon components of wave functions. The results obtained differ from those given by the phonons independent of the signature of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons must be used in deformed nuclei at taking systematically the Pauli principle into account and in calculations involving wave functions of excited states having components with more than one-phonon operator
Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications
Adibi, Ali
2016-01-01
This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.
Multimodality and Ambient Intelligence
Nijholt, Antinus; Verhaegh, W.; Aarts, E.; Korst, J.
2004-01-01
In this chapter we discuss multimodal interface technology. We present eexamples of multimodal interfaces and show problems and opportunities. Fusion of modalities is discussed and some roadmap discussions on research in multimodality are summarized. This chapter also discusses future developments
Direct observation of magnon-phonon coupling in yttrium iron garnet
Man, Haoran; Shi, Zhong; Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Yadong; Chen, Xi; Sullivan, Sean; Zhou, Jianshi; Xia, Ke; Shi, Jing; Dai, Pengcheng
2017-09-01
The magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) with a ferrimagnetic transition temperature of ˜560 K has been widely used in microwave and spintronic devices. Anomalous features in spin Seeback effect (SSE) voltages have been observed in Pt/YIG and attributed to magnon-phonon coupling. Here, we use inelastic neutron scattering to map out low-energy spin waves and acoustic phonons of YIG at 100 K as a function of increasing magnetic field. By comparing the zero and 9.1 T data, we find that instead of splitting and opening up gaps at the spin wave and acoustic phonon dispersion intersecting points, magnon-phonon coupling in YIG enhances the hybridized scattering intensity. These results are different from expectations of conventional spin-lattice coupling, calling for different paradigms to understand the scattering process of magnon-phonon interactions and the resulting magnon polarons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khurgin, Jacob B., E-mail: jakek@jhu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Bajaj, Sanyam; Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
2015-12-28
Longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in GaN generated in the channel of high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) are shown to undergo nearly elastic scattering via collisions with hot electrons. The net result of these collisions is the diffusion of LO phonons in the Brillouin zone causing reduction of phonon and electron temperatures. This previously unexplored diffusion mechanism explicates how an increase in electron density causes reduction of the apparent lifetime of LO phonons, obtained from the time resolved Raman studies and microwave noise measurements, while the actual decay rate of the LO phonons remains unaffected by the carrier density. Therefore, the saturation velocity in GaN HEMT steadily declines with increased carrier density, in a qualitative agreement with experimental results.
Phonon operators in deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1981-01-01
For the description of the excited states in deformed nuclei new phonon operators are introduced, which depend on the sign of the angular momentum projection onto the symmetry axis of a deformed nucleus. In the calculations with new phonons the Pauli principle is correctly taken into account in the two-phonon components of the wave functions. There is a difference in comparison with the calculation with phonons independent of the sign of the angular momentum projection. The new phonons should be used in deformed nuclei if the Pauli principle is consistently taken into account and in the calculations with the excited state wave functions having the components with more than one phonon operator [ru
... Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1030.10 - Microwave Ovens Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting ...
Phonon-induced optical superlattice.
de Lima, M M; Hey, R; Santos, P V; Cantarero, A
2005-04-01
We demonstrate the formation of a dynamic optical superlattice through the modulation of a semiconductor microcavity by stimulated acoustic phonons. The high coherent phonon population produces a folded optical dispersion relation with well-defined energy gaps and renormalized energy levels, which are accessed using reflection and diffraction experiments.
Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals
Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying
2016-01-01
Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.
Tunable Topological Phononic Crystals
Chen, Zeguo
2016-05-27
Topological insulators first observed in electronic systems have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial band gaps. Such band gaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that we verify by the Chern number calculation and edge-mode analysis. We develop a complete model based on the tight binding to uncover the physical mechanisms of the topological transition. Both the model and numerical simulations show that the topology of the band gap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.
Pozar, David M
2012-01-01
The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance. Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large
Quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1977-01-01
The general assumptions of the quasiparticle-phonon model of complex nuclei are given. The choice of the model hamiltonian as an average field and residual forces is discussed. The phonon description and quasiparticle-phonon interaction are presented. The system of basic equations and their approximate solutions are obtained. The approximation is chosen so as to obtain the most correct description of few-quasiparticle components rather than of the whole wave function. The method of strenght functions is presented, which plays a decisive role in practical realization of the quasiparticle-phonon model for the description of some properties of complex nuclei. The range of applicability of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model is determined as few-quasiparticle components of the wave functions at low, intermediate and high excitation energies averaged in a certain energy interval
Polar phonon anomalies in single-crystalline TbScO.sub.3./sub..
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kamba, Stanislav; Goian, Veronica; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin; Prokleška, J.; Bernhagen, M.; Uecker, R.; Schlom, D. G.
2013-01-01
Roč. 86, 2-3 (2013), s. 206-216 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/1163; GA MŠk LD12026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferromagnetic phase transition * phonons * infrared and microwave spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.044, year: 2013
Multimode waveguide speckle patterns for compressive sensing.
Valley, George C; Sefler, George A; Justin Shaw, T
2016-06-01
Compressive sensing (CS) of sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using microwave photonics may achieve better performances with smaller size, weight, and power than electronic CS or conventional Nyquist rate sampling. The critical element in a CS system is the device that produces the CS measurement matrix (MM). We show that passive speckle patterns in multimode waveguides potentially provide excellent MMs for CS. We measure and calculate the MM for a multimode fiber and perform simulations using this MM in a CS system. We show that the speckle MM exhibits the sharp phase transition and coherence properties needed for CS and that these properties are similar to those of a sub-Gaussian MM with the same mean and standard deviation. We calculate the MM for a multimode planar waveguide and find dimensions of the planar guide that give a speckle MM with a performance similar to that of the multimode fiber. The CS simulations show that all measured and calculated speckle MMs exhibit a robust performance with equal amplitude signals that are sparse in time, in frequency, and in wavelets (Haar wavelet transform). The planar waveguide results indicate a path to a microwave photonic integrated circuit for measuring sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using CS.
Spacetime representation of topological phononics
Deymier, Pierre A.; Runge, Keith; Lucas, Pierre; Vasseur, Jérôme O.
2018-05-01
Non-conventional topology of elastic waves arises from breaking symmetry of phononic structures either intrinsically through internal resonances or extrinsically via application of external stimuli. We develop a spacetime representation based on twistor theory of an intrinsic topological elastic structure composed of a harmonic chain attached to a rigid substrate. Elastic waves in this structure obey the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations and possesses spinorial character. We demonstrate the mapping between straight line trajectories of these elastic waves in spacetime and the twistor complex space. The twistor representation of these Dirac phonons is related to their topological and fermion-like properties. The second topological phononic structure is an extrinsic structure composed of a one-dimensional elastic medium subjected to a moving superlattice. We report an analogy between the elastic behavior of this time-dependent superlattice, the scalar quantum field theory and general relativity of two types of exotic particle excitations, namely temporal Dirac phonons and temporal ghost (tachyonic) phonons. These phonons live on separate sides of a two-dimensional frequency space and are delimited by ghost lines reminiscent of the conventional light cone. Both phonon types exhibit spinorial amplitudes that can be measured by mapping the particle behavior to the band structure of elastic waves.
Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.
1991-01-01
A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs
Pastorino, Matteo
2010-01-01
An introduction to the most relevant theoretical and algorithmic aspects of modern microwave imaging approaches Microwave imaging-a technique used in sensing a given scene by means of interrogating microwaves-has recently proven its usefulness in providing excellent diagnostic capabilities in several areas, including civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering. Microwave Imaging offers comprehensive descriptions of the most important techniques so far proposed for short-range microwave imaging-in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing
2010-01-01
Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: α → β → γ → (delta) → (delta)(prime) → (var e psilon) → liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature ∼640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS
Phonon-induced enhancements of the energy gap and critical current in superconducting aluminum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seligson, D.
1983-01-01
The enhancement of the energy gap, Δ, and critical current, i/sub c/, in superconducting aluminum thin films were under the influence of 8 to 10 GHz phonons. The phonons were generated by piezoelectric transduction of a 1 kW microwave pulse of about 1 μsec duration. By means of a quartz delay line, the phonons were allowed to enter the aluminum only after the microwaves had long since disappeared. The critical current was measured in long narrow Al strips, in which the current flow is 1-dimensional and well described by Ginsburg-Landau theory. To measure Δ the Al film was used as one electrode in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction whose current-voltage characteristic gave Δ directly. For the measurements of i/sub c/, the total critical current was measured in the presence of the phonon perturbation. For the measurements of Δ the change of Δ away from its equilibrium value was measured. In both cases the first measurements of enhancement of these macroscopic variables under phonon irradiation is reported. The gap-enhancement was found to be in good agreement with theory, but only for relatively and surprisingly low input power. The critical current measurements are predicted to be in rough agreement with the Δ measurements but this was not observed
Yu, Chung; Chong, Yat C.; Fong, Chee K.
1989-06-01
Interaction of GHz and MHz radiation with CO2 laser propagation in a silver halide fiber using sBs based phonon coupling is furthet investigated. The external signal serves to both probe and enhance laser generated sBs phonons in the fiber. Efficient coupling of microwave radiation into the fiber is accomplished by placing the fiber in a hollow metallic waveguide, designed and constructed to transmit the dominant mode in the 0.9-2.0 GHz band. MHz radiation is conveniently coupled into the fiber using the guided microwave radiation as carrier. Phonon emissions from the fiber under CO2 laser pumping are first established on a spectrum analyzer; low frequency generators ale then tuned to match these frequencies and their maximum interaction recorded. Such interactions are systematically studied by monitoring the amplitude and waveform of the reflected and transmitted laser pulse at various power levels and frequencies of the externally coupled radiation. A plot of reflected laser power versus incident laser power reveals a distinct sBs generated phonon threshold. Variouslaunch directions of the GHz and MHz radiation with respect to the direction of laser propagation are realized to verify theory governing sBs interactions. The MHz radiation and its associated phonons in the fiber are convenient tools for probing sBs related phenomenon in infrared fibers.
Creation of high-energy phonons by four-phonon processes in anisotropic phonon system of He II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamenko, I.N.; Nemchenko, K.E.; Slipko, V.A.; Kitsenko, Yu.A.; Wyatt, A.F.G.
2007-01-01
The problem of the creation of high-energy phonons (h-phonons) by a pulse of low-energy phonons (I-phonons) moving from a heater to a detector in superfluid helium, is solved. The rate of h-phonon creation is obtained and it is shown that created h-phonons occupy a much smaller solid angle in momentum space, than the I-phonons. Analytical expression for the creation rate of h-phonon, along the symmetry axis of a pulse, are derived. It allows us to get useful approximate analytical expressions for creation rate of h-phonons. The time dependences of the parameters which describe the I-phonon pulse are obtained. This shows that half of the initial energy of I-phonon pulse can be transferred into h-phonons. The results of the calculations are compared with experimental data and we show that this theory explains a number of experimental results. The value of the momentum, which separates the I- and h-phonon subsystems, is found
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi ... The rapid heating of food in the kitchen using microwave ovens ... analysis; application to waste treatment; polymer technology; ... of microwave heating in organic synthesis since the first contri-.
Enhancing of optic phonon contribution in hydrodynamic phonon transport
de Tomas, C.; Cantarero, A.; Lopeandia, A. F.; Alvarez, F. X.
2015-10-01
In the framework of the kinetic-collective model of phonon heat transport, we analyze how each range of the phonon frequency spectrum contributes to the total thermal conductivity both in the macro and the nanoscale. For this purpose, we use two case study samples: naturally occurring bulk silicon and a 115 nm of diameter silicon nanowire. We show that the contribution of high-energy phonons (optic branches) is non-negligible only when N-collisions are strongly present. This contribution increases when the effective size of the sample decreases, and it is found to be up to a 10% at room temperature for the 115 nm nanowire, corroborating preliminar ab-initio predictions.
Precision microwave applicators and systems for plasma and materials processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asmussen, J.; Garard, R.
1988-01-01
Modern applications of microwave energy have imposed new requirements upon microwave processing systems. Interest in energy efficiency, processing uniformity and control of process cycles has placed new design conditions upon microwave power oscillators, microwave systems and microwave applicator design. One approach of meeting new application requirements is the use of single-mode or controlled multimode applicators. The use of a single-mode applicator for plasma generation and materials processing will be presented. Descriptions of actual applicator designs for heating, curing, and processing of solid materials and the generations of high and low pressure discharges will be given. The impact of these applicators on the total microwave system including the microwave power source will be described. Specific examples of applicator and associated microwave systems will be detailed for the applications of (1) plasma thin film deposition and (2) the precision processing and diagnosis of materials. Methods of process control and diagnosis, control of process uniformity and process scale up are discussed
Scattering of phonons by dislocations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, A.C.
1979-01-01
By 1950, an explicit effort had been launched to use lattice thermal conductivity measurements in the investigation of defect structures in solids. This technique has been highly successful, especially when combined with the measurements of other properties such as optical absorption. One exception has been the study of dislocations. Although dislocations have a profound effect on the phonon thermal conductivity, the mechanisms of the phonon-dislocation interaction are poorly understood. The most basic questions are still debated in the literature. It therefore is pointless to attempt a quantitative comparison between an extensive accumulation of experimental data on the one hand, and the numerous theoretical models on the other. Instead, this chapter will attempt to glean a few qualitative conclusions from the existing experimental data. These results will then be compared with two general models which incorporate, in a qualitative manner, most of the proposed theories of the phonon-dislocation interaction. Until very recently, measurement of thermal conductivity was the only means available to probe the interaction between phonons and defects at phonon frequencies above the standard ultrasonic range of approx. = 10 9 Hz. The introductory paragraphs provide a brief review of the thermal-conductivity technique and the problems which are encountered in practice. There is also a brief presentation of the theoretical models and the complications that may occur in more realistic situations
Optimizing phonon space in the phonon-coupling model
Tselyaev, V.; Lyutorovich, N.; Speth, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.
2017-08-01
We present a new scheme to select the most relevant phonons in the phonon-coupling model, named here the time-blocking approximation (TBA). The new criterion, based on the phonon-nucleon coupling strengths rather than on B (E L ) values, is more selective and thus produces much smaller phonon spaces in the TBA. This is beneficial in two respects: first, it curbs the computational cost, and second, it reduces the danger of double counting in the expansion basis of the TBA. We use here the TBA in a form where the coupling strength is regularized to keep the given Hartree-Fock ground state stable. The scheme is implemented in a random-phase approximation and TBA code based on the Skyrme energy functional. We first explore carefully the cutoff dependence with the new criterion and can work out a natural (optimal) cutoff parameter. Then we use the freshly developed and tested scheme for a survey of giant resonances and low-lying collective states in six doubly magic nuclei looking also at the dependence of the results when varying the Skyrme parametrization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vincent, B [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Krueger, J K [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Fachrichtung 7.2, Experimentalphysik, Univ. des Saarlandes, Bau 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Elmazria, O [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Bouvot, L [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Mainka, J [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Fachrichtung 7.2, Experimentalphysik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Bau 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Sanctuary, R [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire: Saarland-Lorraine, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Campus Luxembourg-Limpertsberg, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Rouxel, D [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France); Alnot, P [Lab. Europeen de Recherche Univ.: Saarland-Lorraine, Univ. des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany)]|[Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications, CNRS-UMR 7040, Univ. H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 (France)
2005-06-21
High performance Brillouin microscopy (BM) has been used to characterize the spatial distribution of piezoelectrically induced acoustic fields excited at microwave frequencies in a LiNbO{sub 3} single crystal. It is demonstrated that under suitable conditions BM is able to detect microwave-induced bulk as well as surface acoustic waves. Brillouin spectroscopy is able to probe sound wave intensities of induced phonons, which are as small as those of thermal phonons.
Sound and heat revolutions in phononics
Maldovan, Martin
2013-11-01
The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batchelor, K.
1986-03-01
The theory of a microwave undulator utilizing a plane rectangular waveguide operating in the TE/sub 10n/ mode and other higher order modes is presented. Based on this, a possible undulator configuration is analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the microwave undulator represents a viable option for undulator wavelength down to about 1 cm where peak voltage and available microwave power considerations limit effectiveness. 4 refs., 4 figs
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...
Multimodal fluorescence imaging spectroscopy
Stopel, Martijn H W; Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod; Engelborghs, Yves; Visser, Anthonie J.W.G.
2014-01-01
Multimodal fluorescence imaging is a versatile method that has a wide application range from biological studies to materials science. Typical observables in multimodal fluorescence imaging are intensity, lifetime, excitation, and emission spectra which are recorded at chosen locations at the sample.
Multimodality in organization studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Van Leeuwen, Theo
2017-01-01
This afterword reviews the chapters in this volume and reflects on the synergies between organization and management studies and multimodality studies that emerge from the volume. These include the combination of strong sociological theorizing and detailed multimodal analysis, a focus on material...
A holographic perspective on phonons and pseudo-phonons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amoretti, Andrea [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Würzburg,97074 Würzburg (Germany); Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes,Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Areán, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805, Munich (Germany); Argurio, Riccardo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes,Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Musso, Daniele [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostelaand Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxías (IGFAE),E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Michigan,Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)
2017-05-10
We analyze the concomitant spontaneous breaking of translation and conformal symmetries by introducing in a CFT a complex scalar operator that acquires a spatially dependent expectation value. The model, inspired by the holographic Q-lattice, provides a privileged setup to study the emergence of phonons from a spontaneous translational symmetry breaking in a conformal field theory and offers valuable hints for the treatment of phonons in QFT at large. We first analyze the Ward identity structure by means of standard QFT techniques, considering both spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking. Next, by implementing holographic renormalization, we show that the same set of Ward identities holds in the holographic Q-lattice. Eventually, relying on the holographic and QFT results, we study the correlators realizing the symmetry breaking pattern and how they encode information about the low-energy spectrum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Amita; Rathore, R.P.S.
1992-01-01
Born-Mayer potential has been modified to account for the unpaired (three body) forces among the common nearest neighbours of the ordered binary fcc alloys i.e. Ni 3 Fe 7 , Ni 5 Fe 5 and Ni 75 Fe 25 . The three body potential is added to the two body form of Morse to formalize the total interaction potential. Measured inverse ionic compressibility, cohesive energy, lattice constant and one measured phonon frequency are used to evaluate the defining parameters of the potential. The potential seeks to bring about the binding among 140 and 132 atoms though pair wise (two body) and non-pair wise (three body) forces respectively. The phonon-dispersion relations obtained by solving the secular equation are compared with the experimental findings on the aforesaid alloys. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs
Engineering dissipation with phononic spectral hole burning
Behunin, R. O.; Kharel, P.; Renninger, W. H.; Rakich, P. T.
2017-03-01
Optomechanics, nano-electromechanics, and integrated photonics have brought about a renaissance in phononic device physics and technology. Central to this advance are devices and materials supporting ultra-long-lived photonic and phononic excitations that enable novel regimes of classical and quantum dynamics based on tailorable photon-phonon coupling. Silica-based devices have been at the forefront of such innovations for their ability to support optical excitations persisting for nearly 1 billion cycles, and for their low optical nonlinearity. While acoustic phonon modes can persist for a similar number of cycles in crystalline solids at cryogenic temperatures, it has not been possible to achieve such performance in silica, as silica becomes acoustically opaque at low temperatures. We demonstrate that these intrinsic forms of phonon dissipation are greatly reduced (by >90%) by nonlinear saturation using continuous drive fields of disparate frequencies. The result is a form of steady-state phononic spectral hole burning that produces a wideband transparency window with optically generated phonon fields of modest (nW) powers. We developed a simple model that explains both dissipative and dispersive changes produced by phononic saturation. Our studies, conducted in a microscale device, represent an important step towards engineerable phonon dynamics on demand and the use of glasses as low-loss phononic media.
Phonon lineshapes in atom-surface scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
MartInez-Casado, R [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sanz, A S; Miret-Artes, S [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)
2010-08-04
Phonon lineshapes in atom-surface scattering are obtained from a simple stochastic model based on the so-called Caldeira-Leggett Hamiltonian. In this single-bath model, the excited phonon resulting from a creation or annihilation event is coupled to a thermal bath consisting of an infinite number of harmonic oscillators, namely the bath phonons. The diagonalization of the corresponding Hamiltonian leads to a renormalization of the phonon frequencies in terms of the phonon friction or damping coefficient. Moreover, when there are adsorbates on the surface, this single-bath model can be extended to a two-bath model accounting for the effect induced by the adsorbates on the phonon lineshapes as well as their corresponding lineshapes.
Temperature dependence of phonons in pyrolitic graphite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brockhouse, B.N.; Shirane, G.
1977-01-01
Dispersion curves for longitudinal and transverse phonons propagating along and near the c-axis in pyrolitic graphite at temperatures between 4 0 K and 1500 0 C have been measured by neutron spectroscopy. The observed frequencies decrease markedly with increasing temperature (except for the transverse optical ''rippling'' modes in the hexagonal planes). The neutron groups show interesting asymmetrical broadening ascribed to interference between one phonon and many phonon processes
Tunable infrared reflectance by phonon modulation
Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Beechem, III, Thomas E.
2018-03-06
The present invention pertains to the use of mobile coherent interfaces in a ferroelectric material to interact with optical phonons and, ultimately, to affect the material's optical properties. In altering the optical phonon properties, the optical properties of the ferroelectric material in the spectral range near-to the phonon mode frequency can dramatically change. This can result in a facile means to change to the optical response of the ferroelectric material in the infrared.
Electron-phonon coupling in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Apostol, M.; Baldea, I.
1981-08-01
The Ward identity is derived for the electron-phonon coupling in one dimension and the spectrum of elementary excitations is calculated by assuming that the Fermi distribution is not strongly distorted by interaction. The electron-phonon vertex is renormalized in the case of the forward scattering and Migdal's theorem is discussed. A model is proposed for the giant Kohn anomaly. The dip in the phonon spectrum is obtained and found to be in agreement with the experimental data for KCP. (author)
Tunable infrared reflectance by phonon modulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Beechem, III, Thomas E.
2018-03-06
The present invention pertains to the use of mobile coherent interfaces in a ferroelectric material to interact with optical phonons and, ultimately, to affect the material's optical properties. In altering the optical phonon properties, the optical properties of the ferroelectric material in the spectral range near-to the phonon mode frequency can dramatically change. This can result in a facile means to change to the optical response of the ferroelectric material in the infrared.
Ballistic phonon transport in holey silicon.
Lee, Jaeho; Lim, Jongwoo; Yang, Peidong
2015-05-13
When the size of semiconductors is smaller than the phonon mean free path, phonons can carry heat with no internal scattering. Ballistic phonon transport has received attention for both theoretical and practical aspects because Fourier's law of heat conduction breaks down and the heat dissipation in nanoscale transistors becomes unpredictable in the ballistic regime. While recent experiments demonstrate room-temperature evidence of ballistic phonon transport in various nanomaterials, the thermal conductivity data for silicon in the length scale of 10-100 nm is still not available due to experimental challenges. Here we show ballistic phonon transport prevails in the cross-plane direction of holey silicon from 35 to 200 nm. The thermal conductivity scales linearly with the length (thickness) even though the lateral dimension (neck) is as narrow as 20 nm. We assess the impact of long-wavelength phonons and predict a transition from ballistic to diffusive regime using scaling models. Our results support strong persistence of long-wavelength phonons in nanostructures and are useful for controlling phonon transport for thermoelectrics and potential phononic applications.
Skinner, A D
2007-01-01
The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme
Lee, Chi H
2006-01-01
Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o
Multimodal freight investment criteria.
2010-07-01
Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...
Effect of magnon-phonon interaction on transverse acoustic phonon excitation at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Taimin; Li Lin; Xianyu Ze
2007-01-01
A magnon-phonon interaction model is developed on the basis of two-dimensional square Heisenberg ferromagnetic system. By using Matsubara Green function theory transverse acoustic phonon excitation is studied and transverse acoustic phonon excitation dispersion curves is calculated on the main symmetric point and line in the first Brillouin zone. On line Σ it is found that there is hardening for transverse acoustic phonon on small wave vector zone (nearby point Γ), there is softening for transverse acoustic phonon on the softening zone and there is hardening for transverse acoustic phonon near point M. On line Δ it is found there is no softening and hardening for transverse acoustic phonon. On line Z it is found that there is softening for transverse acoustic phonon on small wave vector zone (nearby point X) and there is hardening for transverse acoustic phonon nearby point M. The influences of various parameters on transverse acoustic phonon excitation are also explored and it is found that the coupling of the magnon-phonon and the spin wave stiffness constant play an important role for the softening of transverse acoustic phonon
Learning multimodal dictionaries.
Monaci, Gianluca; Jost, Philippe; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Mailhé, Boris; Lesage, Sylvain; Gribonval, Rémi
2007-09-01
Real-world phenomena involve complex interactions between multiple signal modalities. As a consequence, humans are used to integrate at each instant perceptions from all their senses in order to enrich their understanding of the surrounding world. This paradigm can be also extremely useful in many signal processing and computer vision problems involving mutually related signals. The simultaneous processing of multimodal data can, in fact, reveal information that is otherwise hidden when considering the signals independently. However, in natural multimodal signals, the statistical dependencies between modalities are in general not obvious. Learning fundamental multimodal patterns could offer deep insight into the structure of such signals. In this paper, we present a novel model of multimodal signals based on their sparse decomposition over a dictionary of multimodal structures. An algorithm for iteratively learning multimodal generating functions that can be shifted at all positions in the signal is proposed, as well. The learning is defined in such a way that it can be accomplished by iteratively solving a generalized eigenvector problem, which makes the algorithm fast, flexible, and free of user-defined parameters. The proposed algorithm is applied to audiovisual sequences and it is able to discover underlying structures in the data. The detection of such audio-video patterns in audiovisual clips allows to effectively localize the sound source on the video in presence of substantial acoustic and visual distractors, outperforming state-of-the-art audiovisual localization algorithms.
Multimodality Registration without a Dedicated Multimodality Scanner
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bradley J. Beattie
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Multimodality scanners that allow the acquisition of both functional and structural image sets on a single system have recently become available for animal research use. Although the resultant registered functional/structural image sets can greatly enhance the interpretability of the functional data, the cost of multimodality systems can be prohibitive, and they are often limited to two modalities, which generally do not include magnetic resonance imaging. Using a thin plastic wrap to immobilize and fix a mouse or other small animal atop a removable bed, we are able to calculate registrations between all combinations of four different small animal imaging scanners (positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and computed tomography [CT] at our disposal, effectively equivalent to a quadruple-modality scanner. A comparison of serially acquired CT images, with intervening acquisitions on other scanners, demonstrates the ability of the proposed procedures to maintain the rigidity of an anesthetized mouse during transport between scanners. Movement of the bony structures of the mouse was estimated to be 0.62 mm. Soft tissue movement was predominantly the result of the filling (or emptying of the urinary bladder and thus largely constrained to this region. Phantom studies estimate the registration errors for all registration types to be less than 0.5 mm. Functional images using tracers targeted to known structures verify the accuracy of the functional to structural registrations. The procedures are easy to perform and produce robust and accurate results that rival those of dedicated multimodality scanners, but with more flexible registration combinations and while avoiding the expense and redundancy of multimodality systems.
Splash, pop, sizzle: Information processing with phononic computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sophia R. Sklan
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information processing are examined. Given the relative similarity of vibrational transport at different length scales, the related fields of acoustic, phononic, and thermal information processing are all included, as are quantum and classical computer implementations. Connections are made between the fundamental questions in phonon transport and phononic control and the device level approach to diodes, transistors, memory, and logic.
Resonant tunneling in a pulsed phonon field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kral, P.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
1999-01-01
, The nonequilibrium spectral function for the resonance displays the formation and decay of the phonon sidebands on ultrashort time scales. The time-dependent tunneling current through the individual phonon satellites reflects this quasiparticle formation by oscillations, whose time scale is set by the frequency...
Microwave SQUID multiplexer demonstration for cosmic microwave background imagers
Dober, B.; Becker, D. T.; Bennett, D. A.; Bryan, S. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gard, J. D.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Hilton, G. C.; Hubmayr, J.; Mates, J. A. B.; Reintsema, C. D.; Vale, L. R.; Ullom, J. N.
2017-12-01
Key performance characteristics are demonstrated for the microwave superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer (μmux) coupled to transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers that have been optimized for cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. In a 64-channel demonstration, we show that the μmux produces a white, input referred current noise level of 29 pA/ √{H z } at a microwave probe tone power of -77 dB, which is well below the expected fundamental detector and photon noise sources for a ground-based CMB-optimized bolometer. Operated with negligible photon loading, we measure 98 pA/ √{H z } in the TES-coupled channels biased at 65% of the sensor normal resistance. This noise level is consistent with that predicted from bolometer thermal fluctuation (i.e., phonon) noise. Furthermore, the power spectral density is white over a range of frequencies down to ˜100 mHz, which enables CMB mapping on large angular scales that constrain the physics of inflation. Additionally, we report cross-talk measurements that indicate a level below 0.3%, which is less than the level of cross-talk from multiplexed readout systems in deployed CMB imagers. These measurements demonstrate the μmux as a viable readout technique for future CMB imaging instruments.
Microwave SQUID Multiplexer Demonstration for Cosmic Microwave Background Imagers.
Dober, B; Becker, D T; Bennett, D A; Bryan, S A; Duff, S M; Gard, J D; Hays-Wehle, J P; Hilton, G C; Hubmayr, J; Mates, J A B; Reintsema, C D; Vale, L R; Ullom, J N
2017-12-01
Key performance characteristics are demonstrated for the microwave SQUID multiplexer (µmux) coupled to transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers that have been optimized for cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. In a 64-channel demonstration, we show that the µmux produces a white, input referred current noise level of [Formula: see text] at -77 dB microwave probe tone power, which is well below expected fundamental detector and photon noise sources for a ground-based CMB-optimized bolometer. Operated with negligible photon loading, we measure [Formula: see text] in the TES-coupled channels biased at 65% of the sensor normal resistance. This noise level is consistent with that predicted from bolometer thermal fluctuation (i.e. phonon) noise. Furthermore, the power spectral density is white over a range of frequencies down to ~ 100 mHz, which enables CMB mapping on large angular scales that constrain the physics of inflation. Additionally, we report cross-talk measurements that indicate a level below 0.3%, which is less than the level of cross-talk from multiplexed readout systems in deployed CMB imagers. These measurements demonstrate the µmux as a viable readout technique for future CMB imaging instruments.
Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Aravantinos-Zafiris
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.
Multimodal Resources in Transnational Adoption
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa
The paper discusses an empirical analysis which highlights the multimodal nature of identity construction. A documentary on transnational adoption provides real life incidents as research material. The incidents involve (or from them emerge) various kinds of multimodal resources and participants...
Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat
2016-02-01
While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning
Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc
2014-01-01
We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674
Hot LO-phonon limited electron transport in ZnO/MgZnO channels
Šermukšnis, E.; Liberis, J.; Matulionis, A.; Avrutin, V.; Toporkov, M.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.
2018-05-01
High-field electron transport in two-dimensional channels at ZnO/MgZnO heterointerfaces has been investigated experimentally. Pulsed current-voltage (I-V) and microwave noise measurements used voltage pulse widths down to 30 ns and electric fields up to 100 kV/cm. The samples investigated featured electron densities in the range of 4.2-6.5 × 1012 cm-2, and room temperature mobilities of 142-185 cm2/V s. The pulsed nature of the applied field ensured negligible, if any, change in the electron density, thereby allowing velocity extraction from current with confidence. The highest extracted electron drift velocity of ˜0.5 × 107 cm/s is somewhat smaller than that estimated for bulk ZnO; this difference is explained in the framework of longitudinal optical phonon accumulation (hot-phonon effect). The microwave noise data allowed us to rule out the effect of excess acoustic phonon temperature caused by Joule heating. Real-space transfer of hot electrons into the wider bandgap MgZnO layer was observed to be a limiting factor in samples with a high Mg content (48%), due to phase segregation and the associated local lowering of the potential barrier.
Critical Analysis of Multimodal Discourse
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Leeuwen, Theo
2013-01-01
This is an encyclopaedia article which defines the fields of critical discourse analysis and multimodality studies, argues that within critical discourse analysis more attention should be paid to multimodality, and within multimodality to critical analysis, and ends reviewing a few examples of re...
Multimodality imaging techniques.
Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sopena, Ramón; Bartumeus, Paula; Sopena, Pablo
2010-01-01
In multimodality imaging, the need to combine morphofunctional information can be approached by either acquiring images at different times (asynchronous), and fused them through digital image manipulation techniques or simultaneously acquiring images (synchronous) and merging them automatically. The asynchronous post-processing solution presents various constraints, mainly conditioned by the different positioning of the patient in the two scans acquired at different times in separated machines. The best solution to achieve consistency in time and space is obtained by the synchronous image acquisition. There are many multimodal technologies in molecular imaging. In this review we will focus on those multimodality image techniques more commonly used in the field of diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, PET-CT) and new developments (as PET-MR). The technological innovations and development of new tracers and smart probes are the main key points that will condition multimodality image and diagnostic imaging professionals' future. Although SPECT-CT and PET-CT are standard in most clinical scenarios, MR imaging has some advantages, providing excellent soft-tissue contrast and multidimensional functional, structural and morphological information. The next frontier is to develop efficient detectors and electronics systems capable of detecting two modality signals at the same time. Not only PET-MR but also MR-US or optic-PET will be introduced in clinical scenarios. Even more, MR diffusion-weighted, pharmacokinetic imaging, spectroscopy or functional BOLD imaging will merge with PET tracers to further increase molecular imaging as a relevant medical discipline. Multimodality imaging techniques will play a leading role in relevant clinical applications. The development of new diagnostic imaging research areas, mainly in the field of oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry, will impact the way medicine is performed today. Both clinical and experimental multimodality studies, in
Phonon scattering in metallic glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black, J.L.
1979-01-01
The purpose of this article is to review some recent theoretical and experimental developments in the study of metallic glasses at temperatures near or below 1K. In this temperature regime, it appears that practically all glasses, whether metallic or insulating, behave in a similar fashion. The fact that such similarities occur, despite substantial structural differences between metallic and insulating glasses, constitutes a major theoretical challenge. This challenge, however, is not directly addressed in what follows. Instead, the evidence for universal behavior and the theory which is necessary to understand this evidence are emphasized. It turns out that most of this evidence involves a comparison of phonon scattering in metallic glasses with its counterpart in insulating glasses
Multimodal Processes Rescheduling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Banaszak, Zbigniew A.; Nielsen, Peter
2013-01-01
Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe-cuted in the......Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe...
Mutual interactions of phonons, rotons, and gravity
Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo
2018-04-01
We introduce an effective point-particle action for generic particles living in a zero-temperature superfluid. This action describes the motion of the particles in the medium at equilibrium as well as their couplings to sound waves and generic fluid flows. While we place the emphasis on elementary excitations such as phonons and rotons, our formalism applies also to macroscopic objects such as vortex rings and rigid bodies interacting with long-wavelength fluid modes. Within our approach, we reproduce phonon decay and phonon-phonon scattering as predicted using a purely field-theoretic description of phonons. We also correct classic results by Landau and Khalatnikov on roton-phonon scattering. Finally, we discuss how phonons and rotons couple to gravity, and show that the former tend to float while the latter tend to sink but with rather peculiar trajectories. Our formalism can be easily extended to include (general) relativistic effects and couplings to additional matter fields. As such, it can be relevant in contexts as diverse as neutron star physics and light dark matter detection.
Electron-phonon coupling from finite differences
Monserrat, Bartomeu
2018-02-01
The interaction between electrons and phonons underlies multiple phenomena in physics, chemistry, and materials science. Examples include superconductivity, electronic transport, and the temperature dependence of optical spectra. A first-principles description of electron-phonon coupling enables the study of the above phenomena with accuracy and material specificity, which can be used to understand experiments and to predict novel effects and functionality. In this topical review, we describe the first-principles calculation of electron-phonon coupling from finite differences. The finite differences approach provides several advantages compared to alternative methods, in particular (i) any underlying electronic structure method can be used, and (ii) terms beyond the lowest order in the electron-phonon interaction can be readily incorporated. But these advantages are associated with a large computational cost that has until recently prevented the widespread adoption of this method. We describe some recent advances, including nondiagonal supercells and thermal lines, that resolve these difficulties, and make the calculation of electron-phonon coupling from finite differences a powerful tool. We review multiple applications of the calculation of electron-phonon coupling from finite differences, including the temperature dependence of optical spectra, superconductivity, charge transport, and the role of defects in semiconductors. These examples illustrate the advantages of finite differences, with cases where semilocal density functional theory is not appropriate for the calculation of electron-phonon coupling and many-body methods such as the GW approximation are required, as well as examples in which higher-order terms in the electron-phonon interaction are essential for an accurate description of the relevant phenomena. We expect that the finite difference approach will play a central role in future studies of the electron-phonon interaction.
Phonon excitations in multicomponent amorphous solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vakarchuk, I.A.; Migal', V.M.; Tkachuk, V.M.
1988-01-01
The method of two-time temperature-dependent Green's functions is used to investigate phonon excitations in multicomponent amorphous solids. The equation obtained for the energy spectrum of the phonon excitations takes into account the damping associated with scattering of phonons by structure fluctuations. The quasicrystal approximation is considered, and as an example explicit expressions are obtained for the case of a two-component amorphous solid for the frequencies of the acoustical and optical modes and for the longitudinal and transverse velocities of sound. The damping is investigated
One-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals.
Gomopoulos, N; Maschke, D; Koh, C Y; Thomas, E L; Tremel, W; Butt, H-J; Fytas, G
2010-03-10
We report experimental observation of a normal incidence phononic band gap in one-dimensional periodic (SiO(2)/poly(methyl methacrylate)) multilayer film at gigahertz frequencies using Brillouin spectroscopy. The band gap to midgap ratio of 0.30 occurs for elastic wave propagation along the periodicity direction, whereas for inplane propagation the system displays an effective medium behavior. The phononic properties are well captured by numerical simulations. The porosity in the silica layers presents a structural scaffold for the introduction of secondary active media for potential coupling between phonons and other excitations, such as photons and electrons.
Electron–phonon superconductivity in YIn3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Billington, D; Llewellyn-Jones, T M; Maroso, G; Dugdale, S B
2013-01-01
First-principles calculations of the electron–phonon coupling were performed on the cubic intermetallic compound YIn 3 . The electron–phonon coupling constant was found to be λ ep = 0.42. Using the Allen–Dynes formula with a Coulomb pseudopotential of μ* = 0.10, a T c of approximately 0.77 K is obtained which is reasonably consistent with the experimentally observed temperature (between 0.8 and 1.1 K). The results indicate that conventional electron–phonon coupling is capable of producing the superconductivity in this compound. (paper)
Electron-phonon superconductivity in YIn3
Billington, D.; Llewellyn-Jones, T. M.; Maroso, G.; Dugdale, S. B.
2013-08-01
First-principles calculations of the electron-phonon coupling were performed on the cubic intermetallic compound YIn3. The electron-phonon coupling constant was found to be λep = 0.42. Using the Allen-Dynes formula with a Coulomb pseudopotential of μ* = 0.10, a Tc of approximately 0.77 K is obtained which is reasonably consistent with the experimentally observed temperature (between 0.8 and 1.1 K). The results indicate that conventional electron-phonon coupling is capable of producing the superconductivity in this compound.
Kuleev, I G
2001-01-01
The effect of normal processes of the phonon-phonon scattering on the thermal conductivity of the germanium crystals with various isotopic disorder degrees is considered. The phonon pulse redistribution in the normal scattering processes both inside each oscillatory branch (the Simons mechanism) and between various phonon oscillatory branches (the Herring mechanism) is accounted for. The contributions of the longitudinal and cross-sectional phonons drift motion into the thermal conductivity are analyzed. It is shown that the pulse redistribution in the Herring relaxation mechanism leads to essential suppression of the longitudinal phonons drift motion in the isotopically pure germanium crystals. The calculations results of thermal conductivity for the Herring relaxation mechanism agree well with experimental data on the germanium crystals with various isotopic disorder degrees
Analysis and synthesis of multi-qubit, multi-mode quantum devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solgun, Firat
2015-03-27
In this thesis we propose new methods in multi-qubit multi-mode circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit-QED) architectures. First we describe a direct parity measurement method for three qubits, which can be realized in 2D circuit-QED with a possible extension to four qubits in a 3D circuit-QED setup for the implementation of the surface code. In Chapter 3 we show how to derive Hamiltonians and compute relaxation rates of the multi-mode superconducting microwave circuits consisting of single Josephson junctions using an exact impedance synthesis technique (the Brune synthesis) and applying previous formalisms for lumped element circuit quantization. In the rest of the thesis we extend our method to multi-junction (multi-qubit) multi-mode circuits through the use of state-space descriptions which allows us to quantize any multiport microwave superconducting circuit with a reciprocal lossy impedance response.
Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre
2014-11-04
A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).
Multimodal training between agents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rehm, Matthias
2003-01-01
In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...
Multimodal news framing effects
Powell, T.E.
2017-01-01
Visuals in news media play a vital role in framing citizens’ political preferences. Yet, compared to the written word, visual images are undervalued in political communication research. Using framing theory, this thesis redresses the balance by studying the combined, or multimodal, effects of visual
Multimodal Strategies of Theorization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cartel, Melodie; Colombero, Sylvain; Boxenbaum, Eva
This paper examines the role of multimodal strategies in processes of theorization. Empirically, we investigate the theorization process of a highly disruptive innovation in the history of architecture: reinforced concrete. Relying on archival data from a dominant French architectural journal from...... with well-known rhetorical strategies and develop a process model of theorization....
Topological chiral phonons in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices
Xu, Xifang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Lifa
2018-06-01
Since chiral phonons were found in an asymmetric two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, there has been growing interest in the study of phonon chirality, which were experimentally verified very recently in monolayer tungsten diselenide (2018 Science 359 579). In this work, we find chiral phonons with nontrivial topology in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices. At the Brillouin-zone corners, (), circularly polarized phonons and nonzero phonon Berry curvature are observed. Moreover, we find that the phonon chirality remain robust with changing sublattice mass ratio and interlayer coupling. The chiral phonons at the valleys are demonstrated in doubler-layer sodium chloride along the [1 1 1] direction. We believe that the findings on topological chiral phonons in triangle lattices will give guidance in the study of chiral phonons in real materials and promote the phononic applications.
Electromagnetic decay of two-phonon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catara, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Van Giai, N.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay
1991-01-01
The electromagnetic decay of two-phonon states corresponding to the multi-excitation of giant resonances is studied. The calculations are performed within a boson expansion approach and the elementary modes are constructed in random phase approximation (RPA). The rates for direct transition of two-phonon states to the ground state turn out to be not negligibly smaller than those from the (single) giant resonances. The former transitions are accompanied by a γ-ray whose energy is equal to the sum of the two phonon energies. Thus the detection of such high energy γ-rays could provide a signature of the excitation of two-phonon states. (author) 9 refs., 3 tabs
Toward stimulated interaction of surface phonon polaritons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kong, B. D.; Trew, R. J.; Kim, K. W., E-mail: kwk@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7911 (United States)
2013-12-21
Thermal emission spectra mediated by surface phonon polariton are examined by using a theoretical model that accounts for generation processes. Specifically, the acoustic phonon fusion mechanism is introduced to remedy theoretical deficiencies of the near thermal equilibrium treatments. The model clarifies the thermal excitation mechanism of surface phonon polaritons and the energy transfer path under non-zero energy flow. When applied to GaAs and SiC semi-infinite surfaces, the nonequilibrium model predicts that the temperature dependence of the quasi-monochromatic peak can exhibit distinctly different characteristics of either sharp increase or slow saturation depending on the materials, which is in direct contrast with the estimate made by the near-equilibrium model. The proposed theoretical tool can accurately analyze the nonequilibrium steady states, potentially paving a pathway to demonstrate stimulated interaction/emission of thermally excited surface phonon polaritons.
Phonon limited electronic transport in Pb
Rittweger, F.; Hinsche, N. F.; Mertig, I.
2017-09-01
We present a fully ab initio based scheme to compute electronic transport properties, i.e. the electrical conductivity σ and thermopower S, in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. We explicitly investigate the \
Influence of phonons on semiconductor quantum emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feldtmann, Thomas
2009-07-06
A microscopic theory of interacting charge carriers, lattice vibrations, and light modes in semiconductor systems is presented. The theory is applied to study quantum dots and phonon-assisted luminescence in bulk semiconductors and heterostructures. (orig.)
Phonon broadening in high entropy alloys
Körmann, Fritz; Ikeda, Yuji; Grabowski, Blazej; Sluiter, Marcel H. F.
2017-09-01
Refractory high entropy alloys feature outstanding properties making them a promising materials class for next-generation high-temperature applications. At high temperatures, materials properties are strongly affected by lattice vibrations (phonons). Phonons critically influence thermal stability, thermodynamic and elastic properties, as well as thermal conductivity. In contrast to perfect crystals and ordered alloys, the inherently present mass and force constant fluctuations in multi-component random alloys (high entropy alloys) can induce significant phonon scattering and broadening. Despite their importance, phonon scattering and broadening have so far only scarcely been investigated for high entropy alloys. We tackle this challenge from a theoretical perspective and employ ab initio calculations to systematically study the impact of force constant and mass fluctuations on the phonon spectral functions of 12 body-centered cubic random alloys, from binaries up to 5-component high entropy alloys, addressing the key question of how chemical complexity impacts phonons. We find that it is crucial to include both mass and force constant fluctuations. If one or the other is neglected, qualitatively wrong results can be obtained such as artificial phonon band gaps. We analyze how the results obtained for the phonons translate into thermodynamically integrated quantities, specifically the vibrational entropy. Changes in the vibrational entropy with increasing the number of elements can be as large as changes in the configurational entropy and are thus important for phase stability considerations. The set of studied alloys includes MoTa, MoTaNb, MoTaNbW, MoTaNbWV, VW, VWNb, VWTa, VWNbTa, VTaNbTi, VWNbTaTi, HfZrNb, HfMoTaTiZr.
Nonlinear electron-phonon heat exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woods, L.M.; Mahan, G.D.
1998-01-01
A calculation of the energy exchange between phonons and electrons is done for a metal at very low temperatures. We consider the energy exchange due to two-phonon processes. Second-order processes are expected to be important at temperatures less than 1 K. We include two different second-order processes: (i) the Compton-like scattering of phonons, and (ii) the electron-dual-phonon scattering from the second-order electron-phonon interaction. It is found that the Compton-like process contains a singular energy denominator. The singularity is removed by introducing quasiparticle damping. For pure metals we find that the energy exchange depends upon the lifetime of the electrons and it is proportional to the temperature of the lattice as T L 8 . The same calculation is performed for the electron-dual-phonon scattering and it is found that the temperature dependence is T L 9 . The results can be applied to quantum dot refrigerators. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Waveguiding in supported phononic crystal plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasseur, J; Hladky-Hennion, A-C; Deymier, P; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Duval, F; Dubus, B; Pennec, Y
2007-01-01
We investigate, with the help of the finite element method, the existence of absolute band gaps in the band structure of a free-standing phononic crystal plate and of a phononic crystal slab deposited on a substrate. The two-dimensional phononic crystal is constituted by a square array of holes drilled in an active piezoelectric (PZT5A or AlN) matrix. For both matrix materials, an absolute band gap occurs in the band structure of the free-standing plate provided the thickness of the plate is on the order of magnitude of the lattice parameter. When the plate is deposited on a Si substrate, the absolute band gap still remains when the matrix of the phononic crystal is made of PZT5A. The AlN phononic crystal plate losses its gap when supported by the Si substrate. In the case of the PZT5A matrix, we also study the possibility of localized modes associated with a linear defect created by removing one row of air holes in the deposited phononic crystal plate
Squeezed Phonons: Modulating Quantum Fluctuations of Atomic Displacements.
Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco
1997-03-01
We have studied phonon squeezed states and also put forward several proposals for their generation(On phonon parametric process, X. Hu and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 2294 (1996); on polariton mechanism, X. Hu and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 53, 2419 (1996); on second-order Raman scattering, X. Hu and F. Nori, preprint.. Here, we compare the relative merits and limitations of these approaches, including several factors that will limit the amount of phonon squeezing. In particular, we investigate the effect of the initial thermal states on the phonon modes. Using a model for the phonon density matrix, we also study the mixing of the phonon squeezed states with thermal states, which describes the decay of the phonon coherence. Finally, we calculate the maximum possible squeezing from a phonon parametric process limited by phonon decay.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kokkedee, J.J.J.
1963-01-01
As predicted by harmonic theory the coherent inelastic spectrums of neutrons, scattered by a single, non-conducting crystal, for a particular angle of scattering consists of a number of delta-function peaks superposed on a continuous background. The peaks correspond to one-phonon processes in which one phonon is absorbed or emitted by the neutron; the background arises from multi-phonon processes. When anharmonic forces (phonon-phonon interactions) are present, the delta-function peaks are broadened into finite peaks, while their central frequencies are shifted with respect to the harmonic values. In the case of a metal there is in addition to phonon-phonon interactions an interaction between phonons and conduction electrons, which also gives a contribution to the displacement and broadening oftheone-phononpeaks. Continuing earlier work of Van Hove (sho considered the relatively simple case of a non-conductin crystal in its ground state (T = 0 o K) ), we have studied the shifts and widths of the scattering peaks as a 'result of the above-mentioned interactions by means of many particle perturbation theory, making extensive use of diagram techniques. Prerequisite to the entire discussion is the assumption that, independent of the strength of the interactions, the width of each peak is small compared to the value of the frequency at its centre; only then the peaks can be considered as being well defined with respect to the background to higher order in the interactions. This condition is expected to be fulfilled for temperatures which are not too high and values of the phonon wave vector which are not too large. Our procedure yields closed formulae for the partial scattering function describing the peaks, which can be evaluated to arbitrarily high accuracy. In particular an expansion for calculating the line shift and line width in powers of u/d and in terms of simple connected diagrams is obtained (u is an average atomic or ionic displacement, d is the smallest
Keates, Simeon; Robinson, Peter
1999-01-01
For users with motion impairments, the standard keyboard and mouse arrangement for computer access often presents problems. Other approaches have to be adopted to overcome this. In this paper, we will describe the development of a prototype multimodal input system based on two gestural input channels. Results from extensive user trials of this system are presented. These trials showed that the physical and cognitive loads on the user can quickly become excessive and detrimental to the interac...
Phonon optimized interatomic potential for aluminum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murali Gopal Muraleedharan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We address the problem of generating a phonon optimized interatomic potential (POP for aluminum. The POP methodology, which has already been shown to work for semiconductors such as silicon and germanium, uses an evolutionary strategy based on a genetic algorithm (GA to optimize the free parameters in an empirical interatomic potential (EIP. For aluminum, we used the Vashishta functional form. The training data set was generated ab initio, consisting of forces, energy vs. volume, stresses, and harmonic and cubic force constants obtained from density functional theory (DFT calculations. Existing potentials for aluminum, such as the embedded atom method (EAM and charge-optimized many-body (COMB3 potential, show larger errors when the EIP forces are compared with those predicted by DFT, and thus they are not particularly well suited for reproducing phonon properties. Using a comprehensive Vashishta functional form, which involves short and long-ranged interactions, as well as three-body terms, we were able to better capture interactions that reproduce phonon properties accurately. Furthermore, the Vashishta potential is flexible enough to be extended to Al2O3 and the interface between Al-Al2O3, which is technologically important for combustion of solid Al nano powders. The POP developed here is tested for accuracy by comparing phonon thermal conductivity accumulation plots, density of states, and dispersion relations with DFT results. It is shown to perform well in molecular dynamics (MD simulations as well, where the phonon thermal conductivity is calculated via the Green-Kubo relation. The results are within 10% of the values obtained by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE, employing Fermi’s Golden Rule to predict the phonon-phonon relaxation times.
Phonon optimized interatomic potential for aluminum
Muraleedharan, Murali Gopal; Rohskopf, Andrew; Yang, Vigor; Henry, Asegun
2017-12-01
We address the problem of generating a phonon optimized interatomic potential (POP) for aluminum. The POP methodology, which has already been shown to work for semiconductors such as silicon and germanium, uses an evolutionary strategy based on a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the free parameters in an empirical interatomic potential (EIP). For aluminum, we used the Vashishta functional form. The training data set was generated ab initio, consisting of forces, energy vs. volume, stresses, and harmonic and cubic force constants obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Existing potentials for aluminum, such as the embedded atom method (EAM) and charge-optimized many-body (COMB3) potential, show larger errors when the EIP forces are compared with those predicted by DFT, and thus they are not particularly well suited for reproducing phonon properties. Using a comprehensive Vashishta functional form, which involves short and long-ranged interactions, as well as three-body terms, we were able to better capture interactions that reproduce phonon properties accurately. Furthermore, the Vashishta potential is flexible enough to be extended to Al2O3 and the interface between Al-Al2O3, which is technologically important for combustion of solid Al nano powders. The POP developed here is tested for accuracy by comparing phonon thermal conductivity accumulation plots, density of states, and dispersion relations with DFT results. It is shown to perform well in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as well, where the phonon thermal conductivity is calculated via the Green-Kubo relation. The results are within 10% of the values obtained by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), employing Fermi's Golden Rule to predict the phonon-phonon relaxation times.
Electron-phonon contribution to the phonon and excited electron (hole) linewidths in bulk Pd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sklyadneva, I Yu; Leonardo, A; Echenique, P M; Eremeev, S V; Chulkov, E V
2006-01-01
We present an ab initio study of the electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling and its contribution to the phonon linewidths and to the lifetime broadening of excited electron and hole states in bulk Pd. The calculations, based on density-functional theory, were carried out using a linear-response approach in the plane-wave pseudopotential representation. The obtained results for the Eliashberg spectral function α 2 F(ω), e-ph coupling constant λ, and the contribution to the lifetime broadening, Γ e-ph , show strong dependence on both the energy and momentum of an electron (hole) state. The calculation of phonon linewidths gives, in agreement with experimental observations, an anomalously large broadening for the transverse phonon mode T 1 in the Σ direction. In addition, this mode is found to contribute most strongly to the electron-phonon scattering processes on the Fermi surface
Young, Leo
2013-01-01
Advances in Microwaves, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the circuit forms for microwave integrated circuits; the analysis of microstrip transmission lines; and the use of lumped elements in microwave integrated circuits. The text also describes the microwave properties of ferrimagnetic materials, as well as their interaction with electromagnetic waves propagating in bounded waveguiding structures. The integration techniques useful at high frequencies; material technology for microwave integrated circuits; specific requirements on technology for d
Microwave power engineering applications
Okress, Ernest C
2013-01-01
Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni
Ionizing particle detection based on phononic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aly, Arafa H., E-mail: arafa16@yahoo.com, E-mail: arafa.hussien@science.bsu.edu.eg; Mehaney, Ahmed; Eissa, Mostafa F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt)
2015-08-14
Most conventional radiation detectors are based on electronic or photon collections. In this work, we introduce a new and novel type of ionizing particle detector based on phonon collection. Helium ion radiation treats tumors with better precision. There are nine known isotopes of helium, but only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable. Helium-4 is formed in fusion reactor technology and in enormous quantities during Big Bang nucleo-synthesis. In this study, we introduce a technique for helium-4 ion detection (sensing) based on the innovative properties of the new composite materials known as phononic crystals (PnCs). PnCs can provide an easy and cheap technique for ion detection compared with conventional methods. PnC structures commonly consist of a periodic array of two or more materials with different elastic properties. The two materials are polymethyl-methacrylate and polyethylene polymers. The calculations showed that the energies lost to target phonons are maximized at 1 keV helium-4 ion energy. There is a correlation between the total phonon energies and the transmittance of PnC structures. The maximum transmission for phonons due to the passage of helium-4 ions was found in the case of making polyethylene as a first layer in the PnC structure. Therefore, the concept of ion detection based on PnC structure is achievable.
Phonon dynamics of graphene on metals
Taleb, Amjad Al; Farías, Daniel
2016-03-01
The study of surface phonon dispersion curves is motivated by the quest for a detailed understanding of the forces between the atoms at the surface and in the bulk. In the case of graphene, additional motivation comes from the fact that thermal conductivity is dominated by contributions from acoustic phonons, while optical phonon properties are essential to understand Raman spectra. In this article, we review recent progress made in the experimental determination of phonon dispersion curves of graphene grown on several single-crystal metal surfaces. The two main experimental techniques usually employed are high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The different dispersion branches provide a detailed insight into the graphene-substrate interaction. Softening of optical modes and signatures of the substrate‧s Rayleigh wave are observed for strong graphene-substrate interactions, while acoustic phonon modes resemble those of free-standing graphene for weakly interacting systems. The latter allows determining the bending rigidity and the graphene-substrate coupling strength. A comparison between theory and experiment is discussed for several illustrative examples. Perspectives for future experiments are discussed.
A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.
Cohn, Neil
2016-01-01
Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality. Copyright © 2015.
Electrons and Phonons in Semiconductor Multilayers
Ridley, B. K.
1996-11-01
This book provides a detailed description of the quantum confinement of electrons and phonons in semiconductor wells, superlattices and quantum wires, and shows how this affects their mutual interactions. It discusses the transition from microscopic to continuum models, emphasizing the use of quasi-continuum theory to describe the confinement of optical phonons and electrons. The hybridization of optical phonons and their interactions with electrons are treated, as are other electron scattering mechanisms. The book concludes with an account of the electron distribution function in three-, two- and one-dimensional systems, in the presence of electrical or optical excitation. This text will be of great use to graduate students and researchers investigating low-dimensional semiconductor structures, as well as to those developing new devices based on these systems.
Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villegas, Diosdado; León-Pérez, Fernando de; Pérez-Álvarez, R.; Arriaga, J.
2015-01-01
The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices
Single-photon indistinguishability: influence of phonons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2012-01-01
of indistinguishability, absent in the approximate theories. The maximum arises due to virtual processes in the highly non-Markovian short-time regime, which dominate the decoherence for small QD-cavity coupling, and phonon-mediated real transitions between the upper and lower polariton branches in the long-time regime......Recent years have demonstrated that the interaction with phonons plays an important role in semiconductor based cavity QED systems [2], consisting of a quantum dot (QD) coupled to a single cavity mode [Fig. 1(a)], where the phonon interaction is the main decoherence mechanism. Avoiding decoherence...... as a function of the QD-cavity coupling strength for light emitted from the QD and the cavity, respectively, for all the employed methods. Both the Lindblad and TCL theories deviate significantly from our exact results, where, importantly, the exact results predict a pronounced maximum in the degree...
Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: arriaga@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)
2015-04-15
The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.
Modal noise impact in radio over fiber multimode fiber links.
Gasulla, I; Capmany, J
2008-01-07
A novel analysis is given on the statistics of modal noise for a graded-index multimode fiber (MMF) link excited by an analog intensity modulated laser diode. We present the speckle contrast as a function of the power spectrum of the modulated source and the transfer function of the MMF which behaves as an imperfect transversal microwave photonic filter. The theoretical results confirm that the modal noise is directly connected with the coherence properties of the optical source and show that the performance of high-frequency Radio Over Fiber (ROF) transmission through MMF links for short and middle reach distances is not substantially degraded by modal noise.
Experiments in Multimodal Information Presentation
van Hooijdonk, Charlotte; Bosma, W.E.; Krahmer, Emiel; Maes, Alfons; Theune, Mariet; van den Bosch, Antal; Bouma, Gosse
In this chapter we describe three experiments investigating multimodal information presentation in the context of a medical QA system. In Experiment 1, we wanted to know how non-experts design (multimodal) answers to medical questions, distinguishing between what questions and how questions. In
Theory of Raman scattering in coupled electron-phonon systems
Itai, K.
1992-01-01
The Raman spectrum is calculated for a coupled conduction-electron-phonon system in the zero-momentum-transfer limit. The Raman scattering is due to electron-hole excitations and phonons as well. The phonons of those branches that contribute to the electron self-energy and the correction of the electron-phonon vertex are assumed to have flat energy dispersion (the Einstein phonons). The effect of electron-impurity scattering is also incorporated. Both the electron-phonon interaction and the electron-impurity interaction cause the fluctuation of the electron distribution between different parts of the Fermi surface, which results in overdamped zero-sound modes of various symmetries. The scattering cross section is obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The spectrum shows a lower threshold at the smallest Einstein phonon energy when only the electron-phonon interaction is taken into consideration. When impurities are also taken into consideration, the threshold disappears.
Collective two-phonon states in deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.; Shirikova, N.Y.
1982-01-01
The Pauli principle in the two-phonon components of the wave functions is taken into account within the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model of the nucleus with phonon operators depending on the sign of the projection of the angular momentum. The centroid energies of collective two-phonon states in even-even deformed nuclei are calculated and it is shown that the inclusion of the Pauli principle shifts them by 1--3 MeV to higher energies. The shifts of the three-phonon poles due to the inclusion of the Pauli principle in the three-phonon components of the wave functions are calculated. Strong fragmentation of collective two-phonon states whose energy centroids are 3--5 MeV should be expected. It is concluded that collective two-phonon states need not exist in deformed nuclei. The situation with the 168 Er nucleus and the Th and U isotopes is analyzed
Situation with collective two-phonon states in deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.; Shirikova, N.Yu.
1982-01-01
Within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with the operators of phonons depending on the sign of the angular momentum projection, the Pauli principle is taken into account in the two-phonon components of the wave functions. The centroid energies of the collective two-phonon states in even-even deformed nuclei are calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of the Pauli principle leads to their shift by 1-3 MeV towards high energies. The shifts of three-phonon poles due to the Pauli principle are calculated in the three-phonon components of the wave functions. The collective two-phonon states, the centroid energies of which are 3-5 MeV, are expected to be strongly fragmented. The conclusion is confirmed that the collective two-phonon states should not exist in deformed nuclei. The situation in 168 Er and in the 228 Th isotopes is analysed
Phonon dispersion curves for CsCN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaur, N.K.; Singh, Preeti; Rini, E.G.; Galgale, Jyostna; Singh, R.K.
2004-01-01
The motivation for the present work was gained from the recent publication on phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) of CsCN from the neutron scattering technique. We have applied the extended three-body force shell model (ETSM) by incorporating the effect of coupling between the translation modes and the orientation of cyanide molecules for the description of phonon dispersion curves of CsCN between the temperatures 195 and 295 K. Our results on PDCs in symmetric direction are in good agreement with the experimental data measured with inelastic neutron scattering technique. (author)
Phonon structure in proximity tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarate, H.G.; Carbotte, J.P.
1985-01-01
We have iterated to convergence, for the first time, a set of four coupled real axis Eliashberg equations for the superconducting gap and renormalization functions on each side of a proximity sandwich. We find that the phenomenological procedures developed to extract the size of the normal side electron-phonon interaction from tunneling data are often reasonable but may in some cases need modifications. In all the cases considered the superconducting phonon structure reflected on the normal side, as well as other structures, shows considerable agreement with experiment as to size, shape, and variation with barrier transmission coefficient. Finally, we study the effects of depairing on these structures
Evidence for second-phonon nuclear wobbling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, D.R.; Hagemann, G.B.; Herskind, B.; Sletten, G.; Wilson, J.N.; Hamamoto, I.; Odegaard, S.W.; Spohr, K.; Huebel, H.; Bringel, P.; Neusser, A.; Schoenwasser, G.; Singh, A.K.; Ma, W.C.; Amro, H.; Bracco, A.; Leoni, S.; Benzoni, G.; Maj, A.; Petrache, C.M.
2002-01-01
The nucleus 163 Lu has been populated through the reaction 139 La( 29 Si,5n) with a beam energy of 157 MeV. Three triaxial, strongly deformed (TSD) bands have been observed with very similar rotational properties. The first excited TSD band has earlier been assigned as a one-phonon wobbling excitation built on the lowest-lying (yrast) TSD band. The large B(E2) out /B(E2) in value obtainable for one of four observed transitions between the second and first excited TSD bands is in good agreement with particle-rotor calculations for a two-phonon wobbling excitation
Self-consistency in the phonon space of the particle-phonon coupling model
Tselyaev, V.; Lyutorovich, N.; Speth, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.
2018-04-01
In the paper the nonlinear generalization of the time blocking approximation (TBA) is presented. The TBA is one of the versions of the extended random-phase approximation (RPA) developed within the Green-function method and the particle-phonon coupling model. In the generalized version of the TBA the self-consistency principle is extended onto the phonon space of the model. The numerical examples show that this nonlinear version of the TBA leads to the convergence of results with respect to enlarging the phonon space of the model.
Simplified Multimodal Biometric Identification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abhijit Shete
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Multibiometric systems are expected to be more reliable than unimodal biometric systems for personal identification due to the presence of multiple, fairly independent pieces of evidence e.g. Unique Identification Project "Aadhaar" of Government of India. In this paper, we present a novel wavelet based technique to perform fusion at the feature level and score level by considering two biometric modalities, face and fingerprint. The results indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in multimodal matching performance. The proposed technique is simple because of no preprocessing of raw biometric traits as well as no feature and score normalization.
Multimodality, politics and ideology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Machin, David; Van Leeuwen, T.
2016-01-01
This journal's editorial statement is clear that political discourse should be studied not only as regards parliamentary type politics. In this introduction we argue precisely for the need to pay increasing attention to the way that political ideologies are infused into culture more widely...... of power, requires meanings and identities which can hold them in place. We explain the processes by which critical multimodal discourse analysis can best draw out this ideology as it is realized through different semiotics resources. © John Benjamins Publishing Company....
Enhancing phonon flow through one-dimensional interfaces by impedance matching
Polanco, Carlos A.; Ghosh, Avik W.
2014-08-01
We extend concepts from microwave engineering to thermal interfaces and explore the principles of impedance matching in 1D. The extension is based on the generalization of acoustic impedance to nonlinear dispersions using the contact broadening matrix Γ(ω), extracted from the phonon self energy. For a single junction, we find that for coherent and incoherent phonons, the optimal thermal conductance occurs when the matching Γ(ω) equals the Geometric Mean of the contact broadenings. This criterion favors the transmission of both low and high frequency phonons by requiring that (1) the low frequency acoustic impedance of the junction matches that of the two contacts by minimizing the sum of interfacial resistances and (2) the cut-off frequency is near the minimum of the two contacts, thereby reducing the spillage of the states into the tunneling regime. For an ultimately scaled single atom/spring junction, the matching criterion transforms to the arithmetic mean for mass and the harmonic mean for spring constant. The matching can be further improved using a composite graded junction with an exponential varying broadening that functions like a broadband antireflection coating. There is, however, a trade off as the increased length of the interface brings in additional intrinsic sources of scattering.
Phonon emission in a degenerate semiconductor at low lattice temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Midday, S.; Nag, S.; Bhattacharya, D.P.
2015-01-01
The characteristics of phonon growth in a degenerate semiconductor at low lattice temperatures have been studied for inelastic interaction of non-equilibrium electrons with the intravalley acoustic phonons. The energy of the phonon and the full form of the phonon distribution are taken into account. The results reveal significant changes in the growth characteristics compared to the same for a non-degenerate material
A Dual-Mode Microwave Applicator for Liver Tumor Thermotherapy
Reimann, Carolin; Schüßler, Martin; Jakoby, Rolf; Bazrafshan, Babak; Hübner, Frank; Vogl, Thomas
2018-03-01
The concept of a novel dual-mode microwave applicator for diagnosis and thermal ablation treatment of tumorous tissue is presented in this paper. This approach is realized by integrating a planar resonator array to, firstly, detect abnormalities by a relative dielectric analysis, and secondly, perform a highly localized thermal ablation. A further essential advantage is addressed by designing the applicator to be MRI compatible to provide a multimodal imaging procedure. Investigations for an appropriate frequency range lead to the use of much higher operating frequencies between 5 GHz and 10 GHz, providing a significantly lower power consumption for microwave ablation of only 20 W compared to commercial available applicators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lester, Edward; Kingman, Sam; Wong, Kok Hoong; Rudd, Chris; Pickering, Stephen; Hilal, Nidal
2004-01-01
Carbon fibre composites with an epoxy resin matrix were subjected to microwave-heating experiments in order to volatilise the polymer content and to produce clean fibres for potential reuse in high-grade applications. The composites were processed at 3 kW for 8 s in a multimode microwave applicator. The recovered fibres were characterised by tensile tests and electron microscopy. The results compare favourably with virgin fibre properties
A Monte Carlo Sampling Technique for Multi-phonon Processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoegberg, Thure
1961-12-15
A sampling technique for selecting scattering angle and energy gain in Monte Carlo calculations of neutron thermalization is described. It is supposed that the scattering is separated into processes involving different numbers of phonons. The number of phonons involved is first determined. Scattering angle and energy gain are then chosen by using special properties of the multi-phonon term.
Optical pumping of hot phonons in GaAs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, C.L.; Yu, P.Y.
1982-01-01
Optical pumping of hot LO phonons in GaAs has been studied as a function of the excitation photon frequency. The experimental results are in good agreement with a model calculation which includes both inter- and intra-valley electron-phonon scatterings. The GAMMA-L and GAMMA-X intervalley electron-phonon interactions in GaAs have been estimated
Frictional drag between quantum wells mediated by phonon exchange
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bønsager, M.C.; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1998-01-01
We use the Kubo formalism to evaluate the contribution of acoustic-phonon exchange to the frictional drag between nearby two-dimensional electron systems. In the case of free phonons, we find a divergent drag rate (tau(D)(-l)). However, tau(D)(-l) becomes finite when phonon scattering from either...
Practical microwave electron devices
Meurant, Gerard
2013-01-01
Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.
Multimodal Speaker Diarization.
Noulas, A; Englebienne, G; Krose, B J A
2012-01-01
We present a novel probabilistic framework that fuses information coming from the audio and video modality to perform speaker diarization. The proposed framework is a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) that is an extension of a factorial Hidden Markov Model (fHMM) and models the people appearing in an audiovisual recording as multimodal entities that generate observations in the audio stream, the video stream, and the joint audiovisual space. The framework is very robust to different contexts, makes no assumptions about the location of the recording equipment, and does not require labeled training data as it acquires the model parameters using the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. We apply the proposed model to two meeting videos and a news broadcast video, all of which come from publicly available data sets. The results acquired in speaker diarization are in favor of the proposed multimodal framework, which outperforms the single modality analysis results and improves over the state-of-the-art audio-based speaker diarization.
Electron-phonon interactions and the phonon anomaly in β-phase NiTi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, G.L.; Harmon, B.N.
1993-01-01
The electronic structure of β-phase NiTi has been calculated using a first-principles linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals method. The resulting band structure was fitted with a nonorthogonal tight-binding Hamiltonian from which electron-phonon matrix elements were evaluated. The soft phonon near Q 0 =(2/3, 2) / (3 ,0)π/a, which is responsible for the premartensitic phase transition in β-phase NiTi, is found to arise from the strong electron-phonon coupling of nested electronic states on the Fermi surface. Thermal vibrations and changes in electronic occupation cause a smearing of the nested features, which in turn cause a hardening of the phonon anomaly
Low frequency phononic band structures in two-dimensional arc-shaped phononic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Zhenlong; Wu, Fugen; Guo, Zhongning
2012-01-01
The low frequency phononic band structures of two-dimensional arc-shaped phononic crystals (APCs) were studied by the transfer matrix method in cylindrical coordinates. The results showed the first phononic band gaps (PBGs) of APCs from zero Hz with low modes. Locally resonant (LR) gaps were obtained with higher-order rotation symmetry, due to LR frequencies corresponding to the speeds of acoustic waves in the materials. These properties can be efficiently used in a structure for low frequencies that are forbidden, or in a device that permits a narrow window of frequencies. -- Highlights: ► We report a new class of quasi-periodic hetero-structures, arc-shaped phononic crystals (APCs). ► The results show the first PBGs start with zero Hz with low modes. ► Locally resonant (LR) gaps were obtained with higher-order rotation symmetry, due to LR frequencies corresponding to the speeds of acoustic waves in the materials.
Hydrodynamic states of phonons in insulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.A. Sokolovsky
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The Chapman-Enskog method is generalized for accounting the effect of kinetic modes on hydrodynamic evolution. Hydrodynamic states of phonon system of insulators have been studied in a small drift velocity approximation. For simplicity, the investigation was carried out for crystals of the cubic class symmetry. It has been found that in phonon hydrodynamics, local equilibrium is violated even in the approximation linear in velocity. This is due to the absence of phonon momentum conservation law that leads to a drift velocity relaxation. Phonon hydrodynamic equations which take dissipative processes into account have been obtained. The results were compared with the standard theory based on the local equilibrium validity. Integral equations have been obtained for calculating the objects of the theory (including viscosity and heat conductivity. It has been shown that in low temperature limit, these equations are solvable by iterations. Steady states of the system have been considered and an expression for steady state heat conductivity has been obtained. It coincides with the famous result by Akhiezer in the leading low temperature approximation. It has been established that temperature distribution in the steady state of insulator satisfies a condition of heat source absence.
Phonon limited electronic transport in Pb
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rittweger, Florian; Hinsche, Nicki Frank; Mertig, Ingrid
2017-01-01
We present a fully ab initio based scheme to compute electronic transport properties, i.e. the electrical conductivity σ and thermopower S, in the presence of electron-phonon interaction. We explicitly investigate the k-dependent structure of the Éliashberg spectral function, the coupling strength...
Phonon affected transport through molecular quantum
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Loos, Jan; Koch, T.; Alvermann, A.; Bishop, A. R.; Fehske, H.
2009-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 39 (2009), 395601/1-395601/18 ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum dots * electron - phonon interaction * polarons Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.964, year: 2009
Electron-phonon interactions in correlated systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wysokinski, K.I.
1996-01-01
There exist attempts to describe the superconducting mechanism operating in HTS as based on antiferromagnetic fluctuations. It is not our intention to dwell on the superconducting mechanism, even though this is very a important issue. The main aim is to discuss the problem of interplay between electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in correlated systems. We believe such analysis can be of importance for various materials and not only HTS'S. We shall however mainly refer to experiments on this last class of superconductors. Severe complications are to be expected by studying the problem. As is well known electron correlations are very important in narrow band systems, where the relevant electronic scale E F is quite small. In those circumstances, the phonon energy scale ω D is of comparable magnitude, with the ratio ω D /E F of order 1 signalling a possible break down of the Migdal - Eliashberg description of the electron-phonon interaction in metals. Here we shall assume the validity of the Migdal-Eliashberg approximation and concentrate on the mutual influence of electron and phonon subsystems. In the next section we shall discuss experimental motivation for and theoretical work related to the present problem. Section 3 contains a brief discussion of our theory. It is a self-consistent theory a la Migdal with strong correlations treated with an auxiliary boson technique. We conclude with results and their discussion. (orig.)
Phononic fluidics: acoustically activated droplet manipulations
Reboud, Julien; Wilson, Rab; Bourquin, Yannyk; Zhang, Yi; Neale, Steven L.; Cooper, Jonathan M.
2011-02-01
Microfluidic systems have faced challenges in handling real samples and the chip interconnection to other instruments. Here we present a simple interface, where surface acoustic waves (SAWs) from a piezoelectric device are coupled into a disposable acoustically responsive microfluidic chip. By manipulating droplets, SAW technologies have already shown their potential in microfluidics, but it has been limited by the need to rely upon mixed signal generation at multiple interdigitated electrode transducers (IDTs) and the problematic resulting reflections, to allow complex fluid operations. Here, a silicon chip was patterned with phononic structures, engineering the acoustic field by using a full band-gap. It was simply coupled to a piezoelectric LiNbO3 wafer, propagating the SAW, via a thin film of water. Contrary to the use of unstructured superstrates, phononic metamaterials allowed precise spatial control of the acoustic energy and hence its interaction with the liquids placed on the surface of the chip, as demonstrated by simulations. We further show that the acoustic frequency influences the interaction between the SAW and the phononic lattice, providing a route to programme complex fluidic manipulation onto the disposable chip. The centrifugation of cells from a blood sample is presented as a more practical demonstration of the potential of phononic crystals to realize diagnostic systems.
Anomalous Doppler effects in bulk phononic crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Feiyan; He Zhaojian; Zhang Anqi; Ding Yiqun; Liu Zhengyou
2010-01-01
Doppler effects in simple cubic phononic crystal are studied theoretically and numerically. In addition to observing Doppler shifts from a moving source's frequencies inside the gap, we find that Doppler shifts can be multi-order, anisotropic, and the dominant order of shift depends on the band index that the source's frequency is in.
Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sevincli, Haldun; Brandbyge, Mads
2014-01-01
We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance...
Phonon dispersion curves of fcc La
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stassis, C.; Loong, C.; Zarestky, J.
1982-01-01
Large single crystals of fcc La were grown in situ and were used to study the lattice dynamics of this phase of La by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves have been measured along the [xi00], [xixi0], [xixixi], and [0xi1] symmetry directions at 660 and 1100 K. The T[xixixi] branch exhibits anomalous dispersion for xi>0.25 and, in addition, close to the zone boundary, the phonon frequencies of this branch decrease with decreasing temperature. This soft-mode behavior may be related to the #betta→α# transformation in La, an assumption supported by recent band-theoretical calculations of the generalized susceptibility of fcc La. At X the frequencies of the L[xi00] branch are considerably lower than those of the corresponding branch of #betta#-Ce; a similar but not as pronounced effect is observed for the frequencies of the L[xixixi] branch close to the point L. Since the calculated generalized susceptibility of fcc La exhibits strong peaks at X and L, these anomalies may be due to the renormalization of the phonon frequencies by virtual fbold-arrow-left-rightd transitions to the unoccupied 4f level in La. The data were used to evaluate the elastic constants, the phonon density of states, and the lattice specific heat at constant pressure C/sub P//sup
Phononic band gap structures as optimal designs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2003-01-01
In this paper we use topology optimization to design phononic band gap structures. We consider 2D structures subjected to periodic loading and obtain the distribution of two materials with high contrast in material properties that gives the minimal vibrational response of the structure. Both in...
Kohn anomaly in phonon driven superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, M P; Chaudhury, R
2014-01-01
Anomalies often occur in the physical world. Sometimes quite unexpectedly anomalies may give rise to new insight to an unrecognized phenomenon. In this paper we shall discuss about Kohn anomaly in a conventional phonon-driven superconductor by using a microscopic approach. Recently Aynajian et al.'s experiment showed a striking feature; the energy of phonon at a particular wave-vector is almost exactly equal to twice the energy of the superconducting gap. Although the phonon mechanism of superconductivity is well known for many conventional superconductors, as has been noted by Scalapino, the new experimental results reveal a genuine puzzle. In our recent work we have presented a detailed theoretical analysis with the help of microscopic calculations to unravel this mystery. We probe this aspect of phonon behaviour from the properties of electronic polarizability function in the superconducting phase of a Fermi liquid metal, leading to the appearance of a Kohn singularity. We show the crossover to the standard Kohn anomaly of the normal phase for temperatures above the transition temperature. Our analysis provides a nearly complete explanation of this new experimentally discovered phenomenon. This report is a shorter version of our recent work in JPCM.
Quasiparticles, phonons and beyond. Enlargement the basis of quasiparticle-phonon model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoyanov, Ch.
2000-01-01
The version of Quasiparticle-Phonon Model (QPM) which accounts up to three-phonons is discussed. The new basis is used to study the low-lying isovector mode and the low-energy E1 transitions forbidden in the ideal boson picture. The coupling to the continuum is incorporated in the formalism of QPM. The phenomenon of trapping of states is studied in the case of high-lying states with large angular momentum. (author)
Stern, Mark J.; René de Cotret, Laurent P.; Otto, Martin R.; Chatelain, Robert P.; Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Sutton, Mark; Siwick, Bradley J.
2018-04-01
Despite their fundamental role in determining material properties, detailed momentum-dependent information on the strength of electron-phonon and phonon-phonon coupling (EPC and PPC, respectively) across the entire Brillouin zone has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that ultrafast electron diffuse scattering (UEDS) directly provides such information. By exploiting symmetry-based selection rules and time resolution, scattering from different phonon branches can be distinguished even without energy resolution. Using graphite as a model system, we show that UEDS patterns map the relative EPC and PPC strength through their profound sensitivity to photoinduced changes in phonon populations. We measure strong EPC to the K -point TO phonon of A1' symmetry (K -A1' ) and along the entire TO branch between Γ -K , not only to the Γ -E2 g phonon. We also determine that the subsequent phonon relaxation of these strongly coupled optical phonons involve three stages: decay via several identifiable channels to TA and LA phonons (1 -2 ps), intraband thermalization of the non-equilibrium TA/LA phonon populations (30 -40 ps) and interband relaxation of the TA/LA modes (115 ps). Combining UEDS with ultrafast angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy will yield a complete picture of the dynamics within and between electron and phonon subsystems, helping to unravel complex phases in which the intertwined nature of these systems has a strong influence on emergent properties.
Strong Carrier–Phonon Coupling in Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals
2017-01-01
We highlight the importance of carrier–phonon coupling in inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. The low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of CsPbBr3 has been investigated under a nonresonant and a nonstandard, quasi-resonant excitation scheme, and phonon replicas of the main PL band have been identified as due to the Fröhlich interaction. The energy of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons has been determined from the separation of the zero phonon band and phonon replicas. We reason that the observed LO phonon coupling can only be related to an orthorhombically distorted crystal structure of the perovskite nanocrystals. Additionally, the strength of carrier–phonon coupling has been characterized using the ratio between the intensities of the first phonon replica and the zero-phonon band. PL emission from localized versus delocalized carriers has been identified as the source of the observed discrepancies between the LO phonon energy and phonon coupling strength under quasi-resonant and nonresonant excitation conditions, respectively. PMID:29019652
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oshima, Sae
; Raymond 2003; Schegloff and Lerner 2009), including those with multimodal actions (e.g. Olsher 2004; Fasulo & Monzoni 2009). Some responsive actions can also be completed with bodily behavior alone, such as: when an agreement display is achieved by using only nonvocal actions (Jarmon 1996), when...... the recipient’s gaze shift becomes a significant part of the speaker’s turn construction (Goodwin 1980), and when head nods show the recipient’s affiliation with the speaker’s stance (Stivers 2008). Still, much room remains for extending our current understanding of responding actions that necessarily involve...... a hairstylist and a client negotiate the quality of the service that has been provided. Here, the first action is usually the stylist’s question and/or explanation of the new cut that invites the client’s assessment/(dis)agreement, accompanied with embodied actions that project an imminent self...
Phonon Scattering and Confinement in Crystalline Films
Parrish, Kevin D.
The operating temperature of energy conversion and electronic devices affects their efficiency and efficacy. In many devices, however, the reference values of the thermal properties of the materials used are no longer applicable due to processing techniques performed. This leads to challenges in thermal management and thermal engineering that demand accurate predictive tools and high fidelity measurements. The thermal conductivity of strained, nanostructured, and ultra-thin dielectrics are predicted computationally using solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation. Experimental measurements of thermal diffusivity are performed using transient grating spectroscopy. The thermal conductivities of argon, modeled using the Lennard-Jones potential, and silicon, modeled using density functional theory, are predicted under compressive and tensile strain from lattice dynamics calculations. The thermal conductivity of silicon is found to be invariant with compression, a result that is in disagreement with previous computational efforts. This difference is attributed to the more accurate force constants calculated from density functional theory. The invariance is found to be a result of competing effects of increased phonon group velocities and decreased phonon lifetimes, demonstrating how the anharmonic contribution of the atomic potential can scale differently than the harmonic contribution. Using three Monte Carlo techniques, the phonon-boundary scattering and the subsequent thermal conductivity reduction are predicted for nanoporous silicon thin films. The Monte Carlo techniques used are free path sampling, isotropic ray-tracing, and a new technique, modal ray-tracing. The thermal conductivity predictions from all three techniques are observed to be comparable to previous experimental measurements on nanoporous silicon films. The phonon mean free paths predicted from isotropic ray-tracing, however, are unphysical as compared to those predicted by free path sampling
Microwave heating type evaporator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taura, Masazumi; Nishi, Akio; Morimoto, Takashi; Izumi, Jun; Tamura, Kazuo; Morooka, Akihiko.
1987-01-01
Purpose: To prevent evaporization stills against corrosion due to radioactive liquid wastes. Constitution: Microwaves are supplied from a microwave generator by way of a wave guide tube and through a microwave permeation window to the inside of an evaporatization still. A matching device is attached to the wave guide tube for transmitting the microwaves in order to match the impedance. When the microwaves are supplied to the inside of the evaporization still, radioactive liquid wastes supplied from a liquid feed port by way of a spray tower to the inside of the evaporization still is heated and evaporated by the induction heating of the microwaves. (Seki, T.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kresin, V.Z.; Wolf, S.A.; Deutscher, G.
1992-01-01
The theoretical model capable of calculating the superconducting properties (e.g. Tc, energy gaps, etc) of materials such as Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 which consist of two conducting subsystem (planes and chains) is developed. The system is characterized by two energies gaps. The interplay of two channels (phonon-mediated processes and the intrinsic proximity effect) inducing the superconducting state in the chains is studied. The proximity effect combined with the phonon-mediated channel appears to be favorable for superconductivity. The theory describes the effect of the oxygen ordering on Tc and the induced gap and allows us to explain a number of experiments including the plateau in Tc versus oxygen, the large residual microwave losses, zero-bias anomalies and the temperature dependence of the penetration depth. (orig.)
Yu, Jen-Kan; Mitrovic, Slobodan; Heath, James R.
2016-08-16
A nanomesh phononic structure includes: a sheet including a first material, the sheet having a plurality of phononic-sized features spaced apart at a phononic pitch, the phononic pitch being smaller than or equal to twice a maximum phonon mean free path of the first material and the phononic size being smaller than or equal to the maximum phonon mean free path of the first material.
Multimodal label-free microscopy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Pavillon
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews the different multimodal applications based on a large extent of label-free imaging modalities, ranging from linear to nonlinear optics, while also including spectroscopic measurements. We put specific emphasis on multimodal measurements going across the usual boundaries between imaging modalities, whereas most multimodal platforms combine techniques based on similar light interactions or similar hardware implementations. In this review, we limit the scope to focus on applications for biology such as live cells or tissues, since by their nature of being alive or fragile, we are often not free to take liberties with the image acquisition times and are forced to gather the maximum amount of information possible at one time. For such samples, imaging by a given label-free method usually presents a challenge in obtaining sufficient optical signal or is limited in terms of the types of observable targets. Multimodal imaging is then particularly attractive for these samples in order to maximize the amount of measured information. While multimodal imaging is always useful in the sense of acquiring additional information from additional modes, at times it is possible to attain information that could not be discovered using any single mode alone, which is the essence of the progress that is possible using a multimodal approach.
Electron-phonon coupling at metal surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellsing, B.; Eiguren, A.; Chulkov, E.V.
2002-01-01
Chemical reactions at metal surfaces are influenced by inherent dissipative processes which involve energy transfer between the conduction electrons and the nuclear motion. We shall discuss how it is possible to model this electron-phonon coupling in order to estimate its importance. A relevant quantity for this investigation is the lifetime of surface-localized electron states. A surface state, quantum well state or surface image state is located in a surface-projected bandgap and becomes relatively sharp in energy. This makes a comparison between calculations and experimental data most attractive, with a possibility of resolving the origin of the lifetime broadening of electron states. To achieve more than an order of magnitude estimate we point out the importance of taking into account the phonon spectrum, electron surface state wavefunctions and screening of the electron-ion potential. (author)
Phonon spectroscopy with superconducting tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimshaw, J.M.
1984-02-01
Superconducting tunnel junctions can be used as generators and detectors of monochromatic phonons of frequency larger than 80 GHz, as was first devised by Eisenmenger and Dayem (1967) and Kinder (1972a, 1973). In this report, we intend to give a general outline of this type of spectroscopy and to present the results obtained so far. The basic physics underlying phonon generation and detection are described in chapter I, a wider approach being given in the references therein. In chapter II, the different types of junctions are considered with respect to their use. Chapter III deals with the evaporation technique for the superconducting junctions. The last part of this report is devoted to the results that we have obtained on γ-irradiated LiF, pure Si and Phosphorous implanted Si. In these chapters, the limitations of the spectrometer are brought out and suggestions for further work are given [fr
Electron and Phonon Transport in Molecular Junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Qian
Molecular electronics provide the possibility to investigate electron and phonon transport at the smallest imaginable scale, where quantum effects can be investigated and exploited directly in the design. In this thesis, we study both electron transport and phonon transport in molecular junctions....... The system we are interested in here are π-stacked molecules connected with two semi-infinite leads. π-stacked aromatic rings, connected via π-π electronic coupling, provides a rather soft mechanical bridge while maintaining high electronic conductivity. We investigate electron transport...... transmission at the Fermi energy. We propose and analyze a way of using π stacking to design molecular junctions to control heat transport. We develop a simple model system to identify optimal parameter regimes and then use density functional theory (DFT) to extract model parameters for a number of specific...
Multiple topological phases in phononic crystals
Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying
2017-01-01
We report a new topological phononic crystal in a ring-waveguide acoustic system. In the previous reports on topological phononic crystals, there are two types of topological phases: quantum Hall phase and quantum spin Hall phase. A key point in achieving quantum Hall insulator is to break the time-reversal (TR) symmetry, and for quantum spin Hall insulator, the construction of pseudo-spin is necessary. We build such pseudo-spin states under particular crystalline symmetry (C-6v) and then break the degeneracy of the pseudo-spin states by introducing airflow to the ring. We study the topology evolution by changing both the geometric parameters of the unit cell and the strength of the applied airflow. We find that the system exhibits three phases: quantum spin Hall phase, conventional insulator phase and a new quantum anomalous Hall phase.
Magnon rainbows filtered through phonon clouds
Boona, Stephen R.
2016-06-01
The study of heat flow in magnetic insulators is a topic of significant interest in spin caloritronics, especially for understanding the nuanced origins of the spin Seebeck effect (SSE). Recent work by Diniz and Costa (2016 New J. Phys. 18 052002) provides insight into this subject by presenting a microscopic model for the spectral dependence of magnon-phonon interactions in magnetic insulators, which has been a challenging puzzle for decades. Their new paper shows that phonon-mediated magnon-magnon interactions affect the lifetime of magnons differently depending on the magnon wavelength. As a result, low energy magnons transport spin more efficiently, and are more sensitive to applied magnetic fields. These results help explain some unexpected behavior in the SSE recently reported in several experiments.
Beryllium phonon spectrum from cold neutron measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulat, I.A.
1979-01-01
The inelastic coherent scattering of neutrons with the initial energy E 0 =4.65 MeV on the spectrometer according to the time of flight is studied in polycrystalline beryllium. The measurements are made for the scattering angles THETA=15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 deg at 293 K. The phonon spectrum of beryllium, i-e. g(w) is reestablished from the experimental data. The data obtained are compared with the data of model calculations. It is pointed out that the phonon spectrum of beryllium has a bit excessive state density in the energy range from 10 to 30 MeV. It is caused by the insufficient statistical accuracy of the experiment at low energy transfer
From Planck's quanta to phonon in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez- Duart, J. M; Melo, O. de
2008-01-01
Planck's 1900 published results on the black body radiation had the first application in the quantification of radiation. This quantum hypothesis explained several noteworthy light- matter interaction effects in 1905. These were the electron emission, Stokes law and gas ionization. As soon as two years later, A. Einstein derived an expression for the specific heat of solids, applying the quantum hypothesis to the mechanical oscillation of the atoms. In the present work, the main ideas which led to the concept of phonon are discussed. From an historical point of view, the developments due to Einstein, Born, Debye, among others are analyzed and most important properties of the phonons are presented. Finally, the importance of this entity in the theory of solids is explained, in particular regarding the thermal and optical properties as well as the electrical conductivity
Multiple topological phases in phononic crystals
Chen, Zeguo
2017-11-20
We report a new topological phononic crystal in a ring-waveguide acoustic system. In the previous reports on topological phononic crystals, there are two types of topological phases: quantum Hall phase and quantum spin Hall phase. A key point in achieving quantum Hall insulator is to break the time-reversal (TR) symmetry, and for quantum spin Hall insulator, the construction of pseudo-spin is necessary. We build such pseudo-spin states under particular crystalline symmetry (C-6v) and then break the degeneracy of the pseudo-spin states by introducing airflow to the ring. We study the topology evolution by changing both the geometric parameters of the unit cell and the strength of the applied airflow. We find that the system exhibits three phases: quantum spin Hall phase, conventional insulator phase and a new quantum anomalous Hall phase.
Phonon heat transport through periodically stubbed waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Wenxia; Chen Keqiu
2006-01-01
We investigate the acoustic phonon band structure, transmission spectrum and thermal conductance in a periodically stubbed waveguide structure by use of the transfer matrix method and the scattering matrix method. We find that the existence of stop-frequencies or dips in the transmission spectrum, which corresponds to the stop bands or gaps in the acoustic band structure. The dependence of the stop band width and the dip width on the stub height is also demonstrated. We also find that the universal quantum thermal conductance can be clearly observed and the thermal conductance increases monotonically with increasing temperature. Our results show that the acoustic phonon band structure, transmission spectrum and thermal conductance can be artificially controlled by adjusting the height of the stub
Photon-phonon interaction in photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueta, T
2010-01-01
Photon-phonon interaction on the analogy of electron-phonon interaction is considered in one-dimensional photonic crystal. When lattice vibration is artificially introduced to the photonic crystal, a governing equation of electromagnetic field is derived. A simple model is numerically analysed and the following novel phenomena are found out. The lattice vibration generates the light of frequency which added the integral multiple of the vibration frequency to that of the incident wave and also amplifies the incident wave resonantly. On a resonance, the amplification factor increases very rapidly with the number of layers increases. Resonance frequencies change with the phases of lattice vibration. The amplification phenomenon is analytically discussed for low frequency of the lattice vibration.
Electron-optical phonon coupling in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rietschel, H.
1975-01-01
The role of the optical phonons in superconductivity is investigated in the case of compounds with different atomic masses Msub(k). It is shown that the electron mass enhancement factor lambda is independent of Msub(k) if the force constant matrix is mass independent. However, when using lambda to calculate Tsub(c), it must be decomposed into its acoustical and optical contributions, which depend separately on Msub(k). Interference scattering from a light and a heavy mass is studied and its contributions to lambda within the free electron approximation. Numerical results are presented for a rocksalt structure crystal with nearest and next nearest neighbour coupling. These results indicate that the optical phonon contributions to lambda may substantially increase Tsub(c). (orig.) [de
Thermodynamics of phonon-modulated tunneling centers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junker, W.; Wagner, M.
1989-01-01
In recent years tunneling centers have frequently been used to explain the unusual thermodynamic properties of disordered materials; in these approaches, however, the effect of the tunneling-phonon interaction is neglected. The present study considers the archetype model of phono-assisted tunneling, which is well known from other areas of tunneling physics (quantum diffusion, etc.). It is shown that the full thermodynamic information can be rigorously extracted from a single Green function. An extended factorization procedure beyond Hartree-Fock is introduced, which is checked by sum rules as well as by exact Goldberger-Adams expansions. The phonon-modulated internal energy and specific heat are calculated for different power-law coupling setups
Phonons as building blocks in nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvestre-Brac, B.
1980-01-01
The structure of a nuclear system in terms of eigenmodes (phonons) of subsystems is investigated in three different approaches. In the frame of nuclear field theory the three identical particle system is analysed and the elimination of spurious states due to the violation of the Pauli principle is emphasized. In terms of weak coupling, a new approach of the shell model is proposed which is shown to be rapidly convergent with the number of basis vectors. Applications of three particle systems in the lead region are made. Lastly, a microscopic multiphonon theorie of collective K=0 states in deformed nuclei based on a Tamm Dancoff phonon is developed. The role of the Pauli principle as well as comparisons with boson expansion methods are deeply analysed [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsumoto, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
1989-03-05
Laying stress on the technological problems and effect on the environment of microwave energy transmission, recent scientific and engineering problems and related subjects are described. Because no fuel is required for the solar power generation, the power generation system can not be considered as an expensive one when the unit cost of energy is taken into consideration. Some of the important technological problems in the microwave energy transmission are accurate microwave beam control technology to receiving stations and improvement in the efficiency of transmission system. Microwave energy beam has effects on living bodies, communication, and plasma atmosphere of the earth. Microwave energy transmission using a space flyer unit is scheduled. Its objective is the development of microwave wireless transmission technology and the study of the correlation between high power microwave and ionosphere plasma. Experiments on such a small scale application as a microwave driven space ship to bring results seem also important. 12 refs., 13 figs.
Electron-phonon interaction and scattering in Si and Ge: Implications for phonon engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tandon, Nandan; Albrecht, J. D.; Ram-Mohan, L. R.
2015-01-01
We report ab-initio results for electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling and display the existence of a large variation in the coupling parameter as a function of electron and phonon dispersion. This variation is observed for all phonon modes in Si and Ge, and we show this for representative cases where the initial electron states are at the band gap edges. Using these e-ph matrix elements, which include all possible phonon modes and electron bands within a relevant energy range, we evaluate the imaginary part of the electron self-energy in order to obtain the associated scattering rates. The temperature dependence is seen through calculations of the scattering rates at 0 K and 300 K. The results provide a basis for understanding the impacts of phonon scattering vs. orientation and geometry in the design of devices, and in analysis of transport phenomena. This provides an additional tool for engineering the transfer of energy from carriers to the lattice
Understanding photon sideband statistics and correlation for determining phonon coherence
Ding, Ding; Yin, Xiaobo; Li, Baowen
2018-01-01
Generating and detecting coherent high-frequency heat-carrying phonons have been topics of great interest in recent years. Although there have been successful attempts in generating and observing coherent phonons, rigorous techniques to characterize and detect phonon coherence in a crystalline material have been lagging compared to what has been achieved for photons. One main challenge is a lack of detailed understanding of how detection signals for phonons can be related to coherence. The quantum theory of photoelectric detection has greatly advanced the ability to characterize photon coherence in the past century, and a similar theory for phonon detection is necessary. Here, we reexamine the optical sideband fluorescence technique that has been used to detect high-frequency phonons in materials with optically active defects. We propose a quantum theory of phonon detection using the sideband technique and found that there are distinct differences in sideband counting statistics between thermal and coherent phonons. We further propose a second-order correlation function unique to sideband signals that allows for a rigorous distinction between thermal and coherent phonons. Our theory is relevant to a correlation measurement with nontrivial response functions at the quantum level and can potentially bridge the gap of experimentally determining phonon coherence to be on par with that of photons.
Soft phonon anomalies in relaxor ferroelectrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirane, Gen; Gehring, Peter M.
2001-01-01
A review is given of the phonon anomalies, which have been termed waterfalls', that were recently discovered through a series of neutron inelastic scattering measurements on the lead-oxide relaxor systems PZN-xPT, PMN, and PZN. We discuss a simple coupled-mode model that has been used successfully to describe the basic features of the waterfall, and which relates this unusual feature to the presence of polar micro-regions. (author)
Soft phonon anomalies in relaxor ferroelectrics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shirane, Gen [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Gehring, Peter M. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)
2001-03-01
A review is given of the phonon anomalies, which have been termed waterfalls', that were recently discovered through a series of neutron inelastic scattering measurements on the lead-oxide relaxor systems PZN-xPT, PMN, and PZN. We discuss a simple coupled-mode model that has been used successfully to describe the basic features of the waterfall, and which relates this unusual feature to the presence of polar micro-regions. (author)
Phonon dispersion relations for caesium thiocyanate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irving, M.A.; Smith, T.F.; Elcombe, M.M.
1984-01-01
Room temperature phonon dispersion relations for frequencies below 2 THz have been measured, along the three orthorhombic axes and selected diagonal directions by neutron inelastic scattering, for caesium thiocyanate. These curves, which represent 13 acoustic modes and 11 optic modes of vibration, do not agree with the dispersion behaviour calculated from the rigid-ion model developed by Ti and Ra to describe their Raman scattering observations
Quantum mode phonon forces between chainmolecules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Jakob
2001-01-01
bimolecular interaction is a truly many-body force that is temperature dependent and can be of the order of 1 eV. These phonon forces depend on molecular shape, composition, and density. They may therefore also be important for large molecular conformational changes, including the unfolding of chain molecules....... For the later case, a significant change in zero-point energy is found. This may be the underlying cause for cold denaturation of proteins. (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....
Comments on exciton-phonon coupling. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, J.W.; Silbey, R.
1979-01-01
Two variational calculations of the energy and correlation functions for a simple exciton-phonon coupled system are presented and contrasted to the adiabatic solution and the exact solution. The simpler variational solution leads to two minima and abrupt changes in the properties of the system; an asymmetric variational wavefunction, motivated by the form of perturbation theory for this problem, leads to smooth behavior in agreement with the exact result. (Auth.)
Phonon studies of intercalated conductive polymers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prassides, K; Bell, C J [School of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dianoux, A J [Inst. Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France); Chunguey, Wu; Kanatzidis, M G [Dept. of Chemistry, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)
1992-06-01
The phonon density-of-states of FeOCl, the conductive form of polyaniline and the intercalation compound (polyaniline)[sub 0.20]FeOCl(I) have been measured by the neutron time-of-flight technique. The results are discussed in the light of the conducting and structural properties of the materials. Compound I is oxidised by standing in air and the neutron measurements reveal substantial changes in the inorganic host skeleton. (orig.).
Nuclear wobbling-phonon excitations with alignments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamamoto, I.
2003-01-01
Wobbling-phonon excitations, which are recently observed in 71 163 Lu 92 , are studied. The presence of alignments in nuclei makes it easier for wobbling excitations to appear at lower angular momenta of the yrast spectra. A family of rotational bands with wobbling excitations, which have nearly the same nuclear intrinsic structure, have been pinned down by observing specific electromagnetic decay properties between them. The triaxiality parameter γ = +20 deg. is obtained for the nuclear shape from measured E2 transition probabilities
Young, Leo
2013-01-01
Advances in Microwaves, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the effect of surface roughness on the propagation of the TEM mode, as well as the voltage breakdown of microwave antennas. The text also describes the theory and design considerations of single slotted-waveguide linear arrays and the techniques and theories that led to the achievement of wide bandwidths and ultralow noise temperatures for communication applications. The book will prove invaluable to microwave engineers.
Novel information theory techniques for phonon spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hague, J P
2007-01-01
The maximum entropy method (MEM) and spectral reverse Monte Carlo (SRMC) techniques are applied to the determination of the phonon density of states (PDOS) from heat-capacity data. The approach presented here takes advantage of the standard integral transform relating the PDOS with the specific heat at constant volume. MEM and SRMC are highly successful numerical approaches for inverting integral transforms. The formalism and algorithms necessary to carry out the inversion of specific heat curves are introduced, and where possible, I have concentrated on algorithms and experimental details for practical usage. Simulated data are used to demonstrate the accuracy of the approach. The main strength of the techniques presented here is that the resulting spectra are always physical: Computed PDOS is always positive and properly applied information theory techniques only show statistically significant detail. The treatment set out here provides a simple, cost-effective and reliable method to determine phonon properties of new materials. In particular, the new technique is expected to be very useful for establishing where interesting phonon modes and properties can be found, before spending time at large scale facilities
Phonons: Theory and experiments II. Volume 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruesch, P.
1986-01-01
The present second volume titled as ''Phonons: Theory and Experiments II'', contains, a thorough study of experimental techniques and the interpretation of experimental results. This three-volume set tries to bridge the gap between theory and experiment, and is addressed to those working in both camps in the vast field of dynamical properties of solids. Topics presented in the second volume include; infrared-, Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy, interaction of X-rays with phonons, and inelastic neutron scattering. In addition an account is given of some other techniques, including ultrasonic methods, inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, point contact spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of surface phonons, thin films and adsorbates. Both experimental aspects and theoretical concepts necessary for the interpretation of experimental data are discussed. An attempt is made to present the descriptive as well as the analytical aspects of the topics. Simple models are often used to illustrate the basic concepts and more than 100 figures are included to illustrate both theoretical and experimental results. Many chapters contain a number of problems with hints and results giving additional information
Optimization of phononic filters via genetic algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussein, M I [University of Colorado, Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0429 (United States); El-Beltagy, M A [Cairo University, Faculty of Computers and Information, 5 Dr. Ahmed Zewail Street, 12613 Giza (Egypt)
2007-12-15
A phononic crystal is commonly characterized by its dispersive frequency spectrum. With appropriate spatial distribution of the constituent material phases, spectral stop bands could be generated. Moreover, it is possible to control the number, the width, and the location of these bands within a frequency range of interest. This study aims at exploring the relationship between unit cell configuration and frequency spectrum characteristics. Focusing on 1D layered phononic crystals, and longitudinal wave propagation in the direction normal to the layering, the unit cell features of interest are the number of layers and the material phase and relative thickness of each layer. An evolutionary search for binary- and ternary-phase cell designs exhibiting a series of stop bands at predetermined frequencies is conducted. A specially formulated representation and set of genetic operators that break the symmetries in the problem are developed for this purpose. An array of optimal designs for a range of ratios in Young's modulus and density are obtained and the corresponding objective values (the degrees to which the resulting bands match the predetermined targets) are examined as a function of these ratios. It is shown that a rather complex filtering objective could be met with a high degree of success. Structures composed of the designed phononic crystals are excellent candidates for use in a wide range of applications including sound and vibration filtering.
Optimization of phononic filters via genetic algorithms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M I; El-Beltagy, M A
2007-01-01
A phononic crystal is commonly characterized by its dispersive frequency spectrum. With appropriate spatial distribution of the constituent material phases, spectral stop bands could be generated. Moreover, it is possible to control the number, the width, and the location of these bands within a frequency range of interest. This study aims at exploring the relationship between unit cell configuration and frequency spectrum characteristics. Focusing on 1D layered phononic crystals, and longitudinal wave propagation in the direction normal to the layering, the unit cell features of interest are the number of layers and the material phase and relative thickness of each layer. An evolutionary search for binary- and ternary-phase cell designs exhibiting a series of stop bands at predetermined frequencies is conducted. A specially formulated representation and set of genetic operators that break the symmetries in the problem are developed for this purpose. An array of optimal designs for a range of ratios in Young's modulus and density are obtained and the corresponding objective values (the degrees to which the resulting bands match the predetermined targets) are examined as a function of these ratios. It is shown that a rather complex filtering objective could be met with a high degree of success. Structures composed of the designed phononic crystals are excellent candidates for use in a wide range of applications including sound and vibration filtering
Microwaves are a common appliance in many households. In the United States microwave heating is the third most popular domestic heating method food foods. Microwave heating is also a commercial food processing technology that has been applied for cooking, drying, and tempering foods. It's use in ...
Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline
Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kandemir, B S; Keskin, M [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)
2008-08-13
In this paper, exact analytical expressions for the entire phonon spectra in single-walled carbon nanotubes with zigzag geometry are presented by using a new approach, originally developed by Kandemir and Altanhan. This approach is based on the concept of construction of a classical lattice Hamiltonian of single-walled carbon nanotubes, wherein the nearest and next nearest neighbor and bond bending interactions are all included, then its quantization and finally diagonalization of the resulting second quantized Hamiltonian. Furthermore, within this context, explicit analytical expressions for the relevant electron-phonon interaction coefficients are also investigated for single-walled carbon nanotubes having this geometry, by the phonon modulation of the hopping interaction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kandemir, B S; Keskin, M
2008-01-01
In this paper, exact analytical expressions for the entire phonon spectra in single-walled carbon nanotubes with zigzag geometry are presented by using a new approach, originally developed by Kandemir and Altanhan. This approach is based on the concept of construction of a classical lattice Hamiltonian of single-walled carbon nanotubes, wherein the nearest and next nearest neighbor and bond bending interactions are all included, then its quantization and finally diagonalization of the resulting second quantized Hamiltonian. Furthermore, within this context, explicit analytical expressions for the relevant electron-phonon interaction coefficients are also investigated for single-walled carbon nanotubes having this geometry, by the phonon modulation of the hopping interaction
Electron-Mediated Phonon-Phonon Coupling Drives the Vibrational Relaxation of CO on Cu(100)
Novko, D.; Alducin, M.; Juaristi, J. I.
2018-04-01
We bring forth a consistent theory for the electron-mediated vibrational intermode coupling that clarifies the microscopic mechanism behind the vibrational relaxation of adsorbates on metal surfaces. Our analysis points out the inability of state-of-the-art nonadiabatic theories to quantitatively reproduce the experimental linewidth of the CO internal stretch mode on Cu(100) and it emphasizes the crucial role of the electron-mediated phonon-phonon coupling in this regard. The results demonstrate a strong electron-mediated coupling between the internal stretch and low-energy CO modes, but also a significant role of surface motion. Our nonadiabatic theory is also able to explain the temperature dependence of the internal stretch phonon linewidth, thus far considered a sign of the direct anharmonic coupling.
The influence of microwave irradiation on thermal properties of main rock-forming minerals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Gao-ming; Li, Yuan-hui; Hassani, Ferri; Zhang, Xiwei
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Different rock-forming minerals present very different microwave absorption capacity to microwave energy. • The test results can be used to estimate the heating behaviors of rocks to microwave irradiation. • SEM-EDX technique was used to determine the elemental distribution and mineralogical composition. • Ferrum may influence the interacting mechanisms between rock-forming minerals and microwaves. - Abstract: The sample will burst into fragment when the thermal stress induced by thermal expansion greater than the ultimate strength of the rock after microwave irradiation. Microwave-assisted rock fragmentation has been illustrated to be potentially beneficial for mineral processing, mining and geotechnical engineering. In order to have a comprehensive understanding on the influence of microwave on thermo-mechanical properties of rocks, it is necessary to investigate the interaction effect between microwaves and the main rock-forming minerals. In this work, eleven rock-forming minerals were tested in a multimode cavity at 2.45G Hz with a power of 2 kW, subsequently, the Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) was used to determine the elemental distribution and mineralogical composition of the tested samples. It was observed that different rock-forming minerals present very different susceptibility induced by microwave treatment. Enstatite presents the strongest microwave absorption capacity by a large margin and most of the rock-forming minerals are weak microwave absorbers. It is significant that the results can be used to predict the heating behaviors of rocks subjected to microwave energy. Furthermore, the SEM-EDX elemental analysis demonstrates that the microwave absorption capacity of rock-forming minerals could link to the contribution of the ferrum, which may influence the interacting mechanisms between microwaves and the rock-forming minerals.
Pump pulse duration dependence of coherent phonon amplitudes in antimony
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misochko, O. V., E-mail: misochko@issp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)
2016-08-15
Coherent optical phonons of A{sub 1k} and E{sub k} symmetry in antimony have been studied using the femtosecond pump–probe technique. By varying the pump-pulse duration and keeping the probe duration constant, it was shown that the amplitude of coherent phonons of both symmetries exponentially decreases with increasing pulse width. It was found that the amplitude decay rate for the fully symmetric phonons with larger frequency is greater than that of the doubly degenerate phonons, whereas the frequency and lifetime for coherent phonons of both symmetries do not depend on the pump-pulse duration. Based on this data, the possibility of separation between dynamic and kinematic contributions to the generation mechanism of coherent phonons is discussed.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics
1985-01-01
Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...
Phonon response of some heavy Fermion systems in dynamic limit
Sahoo, Jitendra; Shadangi, Namita; Nayak, Pratibindhya
2017-05-01
The phonon excitation spectrum of some Heavy Fermion (HF) systems in the presence of electron-phonon interaction is studied in the dynamic limit (ω≠0). The renormalized excitation phonon frequencies (ω˜ = ω/ω0) are evaluated through Periodic Anderson Model (PAM) in the presence of electron-phonon interaction using Zubarev-type double time temperature-dependent Green function. The calculated renormalized phonon energy is analyzed through the plots of (ω˜ = ω/ω0) against temperature for different system parameters like effective coupling strength ‘g’ and the position of f-level ‘d’. The observed behavior is analyzed and found to agree with the general features of HF systems found in experiments. Further, it is observed that in finite but small q-values the propagating phonons harden and change to localized peaks.
Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia
2014-01-01
We derive the frequency shifts and the broadening of $\\Gamma$ point longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) phonon modes, due to electron-phonon interaction, in graphene under uniaxial strain as a function of the electron density and the disorder amount. We show that, in the absence of a shear strain component, such interaction gives rise to a lifting of the degeneracy of the LO and TO modes which contributes to the splitting of the G Raman band. The anisotropy of the electronic...
Proceedings of microwave processing of materials 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beatty, R.L.
1992-01-01
This book contains proceedings of the third MRS Symposium on Microwave Processing of Materials. Topics covered include: Microwave Processing Overviews, Numerical Modeling Techniques, Microwave Processing System Design, Microwave/Plasma Processing, Microwave/Materials Interactions, Microwave Processing of Ceramics, Microwave Processing of Polymers, Microwave Processing of Hazardous Wastes, Microwave NDE Techniques and Dielectric Properties and Measurements
Microwave heating denitration device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Hajime; Morisue, Tetsuo.
1984-01-01
Purpose: To suppress energy consumption due to a reflection of microwaves. Constitution: Microwaves are irradiated to the nitrate solution containing nuclear fuel materials, to cause denitrating reaction under heating and obtain oxides of the nuclear fuel materials. A microwave heating and evaporation can for reserving the nitrate solution is disposed slantwise relative to the horizontal plane and a microwave heating device is connected to the evaporation can, and inert gases for agitation are supplied to the solution within the can. Since the evaporation can is slanted, wasteful energy consumption due to the reflection of the microwaves can be suppressed. (Moriyama, K.)
Acoustic phonon dispersion of CoSi2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, L.; Rumyantsev, A.Yu.; Ivanov, A.S.
1985-01-01
The acoustical phonon dispersion curves of CoSi 2 are measured at room temperature along the main symmetry directions by means of coherent one-phonon scattering of thermal neutrons. The dispersion curves are compared with those of Ge, Si, and the fluorite structure types as CaF 2 and UO 2 . From the slope of the phonon dispersion curves at the GAMMA-point the elastic constants have been obtained
Computational modeling of geometry dependent phonon transport in silicon nanostructures
Cheney, Drew A.
Recent experiments have demonstrated that thermal properties of semiconductor nanostructures depend on nanostructure boundary geometry. Phonons are quantized mechanical vibrations that are the dominant carrier of heat in semiconductor materials and their aggregate behavior determine a nanostructure's thermal performance. Phonon-geometry scattering processes as well as waveguiding effects which result from coherent phonon interference are responsible for the shape dependence of thermal transport in these systems. Nanoscale phonon-geometry interactions provide a mechanism by which nanostructure geometry may be used to create materials with targeted thermal properties. However, the ability to manipulate material thermal properties via controlling nanostructure geometry is contingent upon first obtaining increased theoretical understanding of fundamental geometry induced phonon scattering processes and having robust analytical and computational models capable of exploring the nanostructure design space, simulating the phonon scattering events, and linking the behavior of individual phonon modes to overall thermal behavior. The overall goal of this research is to predict and analyze the effect of nanostructure geometry on thermal transport. To this end, a harmonic lattice-dynamics based atomistic computational modeling tool was created to calculate phonon spectra and modal phonon transmission coefficients in geometrically irregular nanostructures. The computational tool is used to evaluate the accuracy and regimes of applicability of alternative computational techniques based upon continuum elastic wave theory. The model is also used to investigate phonon transmission and thermal conductance in diameter modulated silicon nanowires. Motivated by the complexity of the transmission results, a simplified model based upon long wavelength beam theory was derived and helps explain geometry induced phonon scattering of low frequency nanowire phonon modes.
Phonon-assisted tunneling and its dependence on pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, P.N.; Singh, A.P.; Thakur, B.N.
1999-01-01
First the mechanism of phonon-assisted tunneling has been investigated. The indirect tunnel current density has been computed after taking the amplitude of the time dependent perturbation as the energy of the lattice vibration. Later the pressure dependence of the phonon-assisted tunnel current has been computed using Payne's expression for the dependence of phonon frequency on pressure. Very good qualitative agreements are obtained between predicted and observed characteristics. (author)
Interface phonon effect on optical spectra of quantum nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslov, Alexander Yu.; Proshina, Olga V.; Rusina, Anastasia N.
2009-01-01
This paper deals with theory of large radius polaron effect in quantum wells, wires and dots. The interaction of charge particles and excitons with both bulk and interface optical phonons is taken into consideration. The analytical expression for polaron binding energy is obtained for different types of nanostructures. It is shown that the contribution of interface phonons to the polaron binding energy may exceed the bulk phonon part. The manifestation of polaron effects in optical spectra of quantum nanostructures is discussed.
Investigation on maximum transition temperature of phonon mediated superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fusui, L; Yi, S; Yinlong, S [Physics Department, Beijing University (CN)
1989-05-01
Three model effective phonon spectra are proposed to get plots of {ital T}{sub {ital c}}-{omega} adn {lambda}-{omega}. It can be concluded that there is no maximum limit of {ital T}{sub {ital c}} in phonon mediated superconductivity for reasonable values of {lambda}. The importance of high frequency LO phonon is also emphasized. Some discussions on high {ital T}{sub {ital c}} are given.
Lifetime of the phonons in the PLT ceramic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barba-Ortega, J., E-mail: jjbarba@unal.edu.co; Joya, M. R., E-mail: mrinconj@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, carrera 30 # 45-03, Bogotá 1149 (Colombia); Londoño, F. A., E-mail: flondono@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 67 #53-108 Of.6-105, Medellin (Colombia)
2014-11-05
The lifetimes at higher temperatures on lanthanum-modified lead titanate (PLT) are mainly due to the anharmonic decay of optical phonons into low-energy phonons. The temperature-independent contributions from inherent crystal defects and from boundary scattering become comparable to the phonon scattering contribution at lower temperatures. The thermal interaction is large at higher temperatures which decreases the phonon mean free path, and so the decay lifetime decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. This leads to the increased line width at higher temperatures. We made an estimate of the lifetimes for different concentrations and temperatures in PLT.
Two-phonon bound states in imperfect crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behera, S.N.; Samsur, Sk.
1980-01-01
The question of the occurrence of two-phonon bound states in imperfect crystals is investigated. It is shown that the anharmonicity mediated two-phonon bound state which is present in perfect crystals gets modified due to the presence of impurities. Moreover, the possibility of the occurrence of a purely impurity mediated two-phonon bound state is demonstrated. The bound state frequencies are calculated using the simple Einstein oscillator model for the host phonons. The two-phonon density of states for the imperfect crystal thus obtained has peaks at the combination and difference frequencies of two host phonons besides the peaks at the bound state frequencies. For a perfect crystal the theory predicts a single peak at the two-phonon bound state frequency in conformity with experimental observations and other theoretical calculations. Experimental data on the two-phonon infrared absorption and Raman scattering from mixed crystals of Gasub(1-c)Alsub(c)P and Gesub(1-c)Sisub(c) are analysed to provide evidence in support of impurity-mediated two-phonon bound states. The relevance of the zero frequency (difference spectrum) peak to the central peak, observed in structural phase transitions, is conjectured. (author)
Hot-phonon generation in THz quantum cascade lasers
Spagnolo, V.; Vitiello, M. S.; Scamarcio, G.; Williams, B. S.; Kumar, S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.
2007-12-01
Observation of non-equilibrium optical phonons population associated with electron transport in THz quantum cascade lasers is reported. The phonon occupation number was measured by using a combination of micro-probe photoluminescence and Stokes/Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. Energy balance analysis allows us to estimate the phonon relaxation rate, that superlinearly increases with the electrical power in the range 1.5 W - 1.95 W, above laser threshold. This observation suggests the occurrence of stimulated emission of optical phonons.
Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester
Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen
2009-01-01
The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal
Multimodal Discourse Analysis of the Movie "Argo"
Bo, Xu
2018-01-01
Based on multimodal discourse theory, this paper makes a multimodal discourse analysis of some shots in the movie "Argo" from the perspective of context of culture, context of situation and meaning of image. Results show that this movie constructs multimodal discourse through particular context, language and image, and successfully…
Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.
Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J
2015-02-05
Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.
Parity-Time Synthetic Phononic Media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Johan; Willatzen, Morten; Velasco, V. R.
2016-01-01
media, have been devised in many optical systems with the ground breaking potential to create nonreciprocal structures and one-way cloaks of invisibility. Here we demonstrate a feasible approach for the case of sound where the most important ingredients within synthetic materials, loss and gain......, are achieved through electrically biased piezoelectric semiconductors. We study first how wave attenuation and amplification can be tuned, and when combined, can give rise to a phononic PT synthetic media with unidirectional suppressed reflectance, a feature directly applicable to evading sonar detection....
Phonon scattering in graphene over substrate steps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sevinçli, H.; Brandbyge, M.
2014-01-01
We calculate the effect on phonon transport of substrate-induced bends in graphene. We consider bending induced by an abrupt kink in the substrate, and provide results for different step-heights and substrate interaction strengths. We find that individual substrate steps reduce thermal conductance in the range between 5% and 47%. We also consider the transmission across linear kinks formed by adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the bends and find that individual kinks suppress thermal conduction substantially, especially at high temperatures. Our analysis show that substrate irregularities can be detrimental for thermal conduction even for small step heights.
Semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals
Zhang, Xiujuan
2014-01-01
A semi-Dirac cone refers to a peculiar type of dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. It was originally discovered in electron systems, in which the associated quasi-particles are massless along one direction, like those in graphene, but effective-mass-like along the other. It was reported that a semi-Dirac point is associated with the topological phase transition between a semi-metallic phase and a band insulator. Very recently, the classical analogy of a semi-Dirac cone has been reported in an electromagnetic system. Here, we demonstrate that, by accidental degeneracy, two-dimensional phononic crystals consisting of square arrays of elliptical cylinders embedded in water are also able to produce the particular dispersion relation of a semi-Dirac cone in the center of the Brillouin zone. A perturbation method is used to evaluate the linear slope and to affirm that the dispersion relation is a semi-Dirac type. If the scatterers are made of rubber, in which the acoustic wave velocity is lower than that in water, the semi-Dirac dispersion can be characterized by an effective medium theory. The effective medium parameters link the semi-Dirac point to a topological transition in the iso-frequency surface of the phononic crystal, in which an open hyperbola is changed into a closed ellipse. This topological transition results in drastic change in wave manipulation. On the other hand, the theory also reveals that the phononic crystal is a double-zero-index material along the x-direction and photonic-band-edge material along the perpendicular direction (y-direction). If the scatterers are made of steel, in which the acoustic wave velocity is higher than that in water, the effective medium description fails, even though the semi-Dirac dispersion relation looks similar to that in the previous case. Therefore different wave transport behavior is expected. The semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals described in
Large scale phononic metamaterials for seismic isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.
2015-01-01
In this work, we numerically examine structures that could be characterized as large scale phononic metamaterials. These novel structures could have band gaps in the frequency spectrum of seismic waves when their dimensions are chosen appropriately, thus raising the belief that they could be serious candidates for seismic isolation structures. Different and easy to fabricate structures were examined made from construction materials such as concrete and steel. The well-known finite difference time domain method is used in our calculations in order to calculate the band structures of the proposed metamaterials
Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator.
O'Connell, A D; Hofheinz, M; Ansmann, M; Bialczak, Radoslaw C; Lenander, M; Lucero, Erik; Neeley, M; Sank, D; Wang, H; Weides, M; Wenner, J; Martinis, John M; Cleland, A N
2010-04-01
Quantum mechanics provides a highly accurate description of a wide variety of physical systems. However, a demonstration that quantum mechanics applies equally to macroscopic mechanical systems has been a long-standing challenge, hindered by the difficulty of cooling a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state. The temperatures required are typically far below those attainable with standard cryogenic methods, so significant effort has been devoted to developing alternative cooling techniques. Once in the ground state, quantum-limited measurements must then be demonstrated. Here, using conventional cryogenic refrigeration, we show that we can cool a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state by using a microwave-frequency mechanical oscillator-a 'quantum drum'-coupled to a quantum bit, which is used to measure the quantum state of the resonator. We further show that we can controllably create single quantum excitations (phonons) in the resonator, thus taking the first steps to complete quantum control of a mechanical system.
Multimodal Aspects of Corporate Social Responsibility Communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carmen Daniela Maier
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This article addresses how the multimodal persuasive strategies of corporate social responsibility communication can highlight a company’s commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection while advertising simultaneously its products. Drawing on an interdisciplinary methodological framework related to CSR communication, multimodal discourse analysis and gender theory, the article proposes a multimodal analysis model through which it is possible to map and explain the multimodal persuasive strategies employed by Coca-Cola company in their community-related films. By examining the semiotic modes’ interconnectivity and functional differentiation, this analytical endeavour expands the existing research work as the usual textual focus is extended to a multimodal one.
The Multimodal Possibilities of Online Instructions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kampf, Constance
2006-01-01
The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it. Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi-modal analy......The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it. Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi...
Electron-phonon coupling in the rare-earth metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Mertig, I.
1990-01-01
-phonon parameters were calculated within the Gaspari-Gyorffy formulation. For the heavier rare earths Gd–Tm spin polarization was included both in the band-structure calculations and in the treatment of the electron-phonon coupling to take into account the spin splitting of the conduction electrons induced by the 4...
Quasiparticle-phonon coupling in inelastic proton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weissbach, B.
1980-01-01
Multistep-processes in inelastic proton scattering from 89 Y are analyzed by using CCBA and DWBA on a quasiparticle phonon nuclear structure model. Indirect excitations caused by quasiparticle phonon coupling effects are found to be very important for the transition strengths and the shape of angular distributions. Core excitations are dominant for the higher order steps of the reaction. (author)
Multiple interruption of optically generated acoustic phonons in ruby
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dijkhuis, J.I.
1979-01-01
This thesis clarifies the rate-determining processes which tend to equilibrate the bottlenecked 29 cm -1 phonons with the temperature bath in stationary experiments. In addition, the direct relaxation between the Zeeman components of E is measured, revealing at high pumping, both continuous and time-resolved, a strong phonon bottleneck. (Auth.)
Remarkable reduction of thermal conductivity in phosphorene phononic crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang
2016-01-01
Phosphorene has received much attention due to its interesting physical and chemical properties, and its potential applications such as thermoelectricity. In thermoelectric applications, low thermal conductivity is essential for achieving a high figure of merit. In this work, we propose to reduce the thermal conductivity of phosphorene by adopting the phononic crystal structure, phosphorene nanomesh. With equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the thermal conductivity is remarkably reduced in the phononic crystal. Our analysis shows that the reduction is due to the depressed phonon group velocities induced by Brillouin zone folding, and the reduced phonon lifetimes in the phononic crystal. Interestingly, it is found that the anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity could be tuned by the ‘non-square’ pores in the phononic crystal, as the phonon group velocities in the direction with larger projection of pores is more severely suppressed, leading to greater reduction of thermal conductivity in this direction. Our work provides deep insight into thermal transport in phononic crystals and proposes a new strategy to reduce the thermal conductivity of monolayer phosphorene. (paper)
Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions
Peng, Pai; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou; Wu, Ying
2014-01-01
waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic
Phonon and thermal properties of achiral single wall carbon ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A detailed theoretical study of the phonon and thermal properties of achiral single wall carbon nanotubes has been carried out using force constant model considering up to third nearest-neighbor interactions. We have calculated the phonon dispersions, density of states, radial breathing modes (RBM) and the specific heats ...
Phonon thermal transport through tilt grain boundaries in strontium titanate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Zexi; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Shengfeng; Xiong, Liming; Chen, Youping [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Deng, Bowen; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)
2014-08-21
In this work, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to study phonon scattering at two tilt grain boundaries (GBs) in SrTiO{sub 3}. Mode-wise energy transmission coefficients are obtained based on phonon wave-packet dynamics simulations. The Kapitza conductance is then quantified using a lattice dynamics approach. The obtained results of the Kapitza conductance of both GBs compare well with those obtained by the direct method, except for the temperature dependence. Contrary to common belief, the results of this work show that the optical modes in SrTiO{sub 3} contribute significantly to phonon thermal transport, accounting for over 50% of the Kapitza conductance. To understand the effect of the GB structural disorder on phonon transport, we compare the local phonon density of states of the atoms in the GB region with that in the single crystalline grain region. Our results show that the excess vibrational modes introduced by the structural disorder do not have a significant effect on phonon scattering at the GBs, but the absence of certain modes in the GB region appears to be responsible for phonon reflections at GBs. This work has also demonstrated phonon mode conversion and simultaneous generation of new modes. Some of the new modes have the same frequency as the initial wave packet, while some have the same wave vector but lower frequencies.
One-phonon scattering of ultra cold neutrons in copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holas, A.
1977-01-01
Experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN) showed that their lifetime in a closed vessel is much smaller than expected. In order to explain this phenomenon, many different mechanisms leading to heating of UCN were proposed, among other things one-phonon coherent inelastic scattering (with phonon absorption). This paper shows quantitatively the contribution of this process to the total heating of UCN
Interplay between electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roesch, O.; Gunnarsson, O.; Han, J.E.; Crespi, V.H.
2005-01-01
We discuss the interplay between electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions for alkali-doped fullerides and high temperature superconductors. Due to the similarity of the electron and phonon energy scales, retardation effects are small for fullerides. This raises questions about the origin of superconductivity, since retardation effects are believed to be crucial for reducing effects of the Coulomb repulsion in conventional superconductors. We demonstrate that by treating the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions on an equal footing, superconductivity can be understood in terms of a local pairing. The Jahn-Teller character of the important phonons in fullerides plays a crucial role for this result. To describe effects of phonons in cuprates, we derive a t-J model with phonons from the three-band model. Using exact diagonalization for small clusters, we find that the anomalous softening of the half-breathing phonon as well as its doping dependence can be explained. By comparing the solution of the t-J model with the Hartree-Fock approximation for the three-band model, we address results obtained in the local-density approximation for cuprates. We find that genuine many-body results, due to the interplay between the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, play an important role for the the results in the t-J model. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Effect of thermal phonons on the superconducting transition temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leavens, C.R.; Talbot, E.
1983-01-01
There is no consensus in the literature on whether or not thermal phonons depress the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/. In this paper it is shown by accurate numerical solution of the real-frequency Eliashberg equations for the pairing self-energy phi and renormalization function Z that thermal phonons in the kernel for phi raise T/sub c/ but those in Z lower it by a larger amount so that the net effect is to depress T/sub c/. (A previous calculation which ignored the effect of thermal phonons in phi overestimated the suppression of T/sub c/ by at least a factor of 3.) It is shown how to switch off the thermal phonons in the imaginary-frequency Eliashberg equations, exactly for Z and approximately for phi. The real-frequency and approximate imaginary-frequency results for the depression of T/sub c/ by thermal phonons are in very satisfactory agreement. Thermal phonons are found to depress the transition temperature of Nb 3 Sn by only 2%. It is estimated that the suppression of T/sub c/ by thermal phonons saturates at about 50% in the limit of very strong electron-phonon coupling
Phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, A.R.
1989-01-01
Some of the experimental and theoretical evidence implicating phonons and charge-transfer excitations in HTS superconductors is reviewed. It is suggested that superconductivity may be driven by a synergistic interplay of (anharmonic) phonons and electronic degrees of freedom (e.g., charge fluctuations, excitons). 47 refs., 5 figs
Modelling exciton–phonon interactions in optically driven quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nazir, Ahsan; McCutcheon, Dara
2016-01-01
We provide a self-contained review of master equation approaches to modelling phonon effects in optically driven self-assembled quantum dots. Coupling of the (quasi) two-level excitonic system to phonons leads to dissipation and dephasing, the rates of which depend on the excitation conditions...
Specularity of longitudinal acoustic phonons at rough surfaces
Gelda, Dhruv; Ghossoub, Marc G.; Valavala, Krishna; Ma, Jun; Rajagopal, Manjunath C.; Sinha, Sanjiv
2018-01-01
The specularity of phonons at crystal surfaces is of direct importance to thermal transport in nanostructures and to dissipation in nanomechanical resonators. Wave scattering theory provides a framework for estimating wavelength-dependent specularity, but experimental validation remains elusive. Widely available thermal conductivity data presents poor validation since the involvement of the infinitude of phonon wavelengths in thermal transport presents an underconstrained test for specularity theory. Here, we report phonon specularity by measuring the lifetimes of individual coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon modes excited in ultrathin (36-205 nm) suspended silicon membranes at room temperature over the frequency range ˜20 -118 GHz. Phonon surface scattering dominates intrinsic Akhiezer damping at frequencies ≳60 GHz, enabling measurements of phonon boundary scattering time over wavelengths ˜72 -140 nm . We obtain detailed statistics of the surface roughness at the top and bottom surfaces of membranes using HRTEM imaging. We find that the specularity of the excited modes are in good agreement with solutions of wave scattering only when the TEM statistics are corrected for projection errors. The often-cited Ziman formula for phonon specularity also appears in good agreement with the data, contradicting previous results. This work helps to advance the fundamental understanding of phonon scattering at the surfaces of nanostructures.
Phonon-assisted decoherence and tunneling in quantum dot molecules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grodecka-Grad, Anna; Foerstner, Jens
2011-01-01
processes with relevant acoustic phonons. We show that the relaxation is dominated by phonon-assisted electron tunneling between constituent quantum dots and occurs on a picosecond time scale. The dependence of the time evolution of the quantum dot occupation probabilities on the energy mismatch between...
Phonon localization transition in relaxor ferroelectric PZN-5%PT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manley, Michael E.; Christianson, Andrew D.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Sahul, Raffi
2017-01-01
Relaxor ferroelectric behavior occurs in many disordered ferroelectric materials but is not well understood at the atomic level. Recent experiments and theoretical arguments indicate that Anderson localization of phonons instigates relaxor behavior by driving the formation of polar nanoregions (PNRs). Here, we use inelastic neutron scattering to observe phonon localization in relaxor ferroelectric PZN-5%PT (0.95[Pb(Zn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 ]–0.05PbTiO 3 ) and detect additional features of the localization process. In the lead, up to phonon localization on cooling, the local resonant modes that drive phonon localization increase in number. The increase in resonant scattering centers is attributed to a known increase in the number of locally off centered Pb atoms on cooling. The transition to phonon localization occurs when these random scattering centers increase to a concentration where the Ioffe-Regel criterion is satisfied for localizing the phonon. Finally, we also model the effects of damped mode coupling on the observed phonons and phonon localization structure.
Phonon thermal transport through tilt grain boundaries in strontium titanate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, Zexi; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Shengfeng; Xiong, Liming; Chen, Youping; Deng, Bowen; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr
2014-01-01
In this work, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to study phonon scattering at two tilt grain boundaries (GBs) in SrTiO 3 . Mode-wise energy transmission coefficients are obtained based on phonon wave-packet dynamics simulations. The Kapitza conductance is then quantified using a lattice dynamics approach. The obtained results of the Kapitza conductance of both GBs compare well with those obtained by the direct method, except for the temperature dependence. Contrary to common belief, the results of this work show that the optical modes in SrTiO 3 contribute significantly to phonon thermal transport, accounting for over 50% of the Kapitza conductance. To understand the effect of the GB structural disorder on phonon transport, we compare the local phonon density of states of the atoms in the GB region with that in the single crystalline grain region. Our results show that the excess vibrational modes introduced by the structural disorder do not have a significant effect on phonon scattering at the GBs, but the absence of certain modes in the GB region appears to be responsible for phonon reflections at GBs. This work has also demonstrated phonon mode conversion and simultaneous generation of new modes. Some of the new modes have the same frequency as the initial wave packet, while some have the same wave vector but lower frequencies
Strong Carrier-Phonon Coupling in Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals
Iaru, Claudiu M; Geuchies, Jaco J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370526090; Koenraad, Paul M; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829137; Silov, Andrei Yu
2017-01-01
We highlight the importance of carrier-phonon coupling in inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. The low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of CsPbBr3 has been investigated under a nonresonant and a nonstandard, quasi-resonant excitation scheme, and phonon replicas of the main PL
Plasma relativistic microwave electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.
2001-01-01
One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru
Phonon bottleneck identification in disordered nanoporous materials
Romano, Giuseppe; Grossman, Jeffrey C.
2017-09-01
Nanoporous materials are a promising platform for thermoelectrics in that they offer high thermal conductivity tunability while preserving good electrical properties, a crucial requirement for high-efficiency thermal energy conversion. Understanding the impact of the pore arrangement on thermal transport is pivotal to engineering realistic materials, where pore disorder is unavoidable. Although there has been considerable progress in modeling thermal size effects in nanostructures, it has remained a challenge to screen such materials over a large phase space due to the slow simulation time required for accurate results. We use density functional theory in connection with the Boltzmann transport equation to perform calculations of thermal conductivity in disordered porous materials. By leveraging graph theory and regressive analysis, we identify the set of pores representing the phonon bottleneck and obtain a descriptor for thermal transport, based on the sum of the pore-pore distances between such pores. This approach provide a simple tool to estimate phonon suppression in realistic porous materials for thermoelectric applications and enhance our understanding of heat transport in disordered materials.
Observation of a phononic quadrupole topological insulator
Serra-Garcia, Marc; Peri, Valerio; Süsstrunk, Roman; Bilal, Osama R.; Larsen, Tom; Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Huber, Sebastian D.
2018-03-01
The modern theory of charge polarization in solids is based on a generalization of Berry’s phase. The possibility of the quantization of this phase arising from parallel transport in momentum space is essential to our understanding of systems with topological band structures. Although based on the concept of charge polarization, this same theory can also be used to characterize the Bloch bands of neutral bosonic systems such as photonic or phononic crystals. The theory of this quantized polarization has recently been extended from the dipole moment to higher multipole moments. In particular, a two-dimensional quantized quadrupole insulator is predicted to have gapped yet topological one-dimensional edge modes, which stabilize zero-dimensional in-gap corner states. However, such a state of matter has not previously been observed experimentally. Here we report measurements of a phononic quadrupole topological insulator. We experimentally characterize the bulk, edge and corner physics of a mechanical metamaterial (a material with tailored mechanical properties) and find the predicted gapped edge and in-gap corner states. We corroborate our findings by comparing the mechanical properties of a topologically non-trivial system to samples in other phases that are predicted by the quadrupole theory. These topological corner states are an important stepping stone to the experimental realization of topologically protected wave guides in higher dimensions, and thereby open up a new path for the design of metamaterials.
A Learning Algorithm for Multimodal Grammar Inference.
D'Ulizia, A; Ferri, F; Grifoni, P
2011-12-01
The high costs of development and maintenance of multimodal grammars in integrating and understanding input in multimodal interfaces lead to the investigation of novel algorithmic solutions in automating grammar generation and in updating processes. Many algorithms for context-free grammar inference have been developed in the natural language processing literature. An extension of these algorithms toward the inference of multimodal grammars is necessary for multimodal input processing. In this paper, we propose a novel grammar inference mechanism that allows us to learn a multimodal grammar from its positive samples of multimodal sentences. The algorithm first generates the multimodal grammar that is able to parse the positive samples of sentences and, afterward, makes use of two learning operators and the minimum description length metrics in improving the grammar description and in avoiding the over-generalization problem. The experimental results highlight the acceptable performances of the algorithm proposed in this paper since it has a very high probability of parsing valid sentences.
Microwave Resonators and Filters
2015-12-22
1 Microwave Resonators and Filters Daniel E. Oates MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood St. Lexington, MA 02478 USA Email: oates@ll.mit.edu...explained in other chapters, the surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies can be as much as three orders of magnitude lower than the...resonators and filters in the first edition of this handbook (Z.-Y. Shen 2003) discussed the then state of the art of microwave frequency applications
Sorrentino, Roberto
2010-01-01
An essential text for both students and professionals, combining detailed theory with clear practical guidance This outstanding book explores a large spectrum of topics within microwave and radio frequency (RF) engineering, encompassing electromagnetic theory, microwave circuits and components. It provides thorough descriptions of the most common microwave test instruments and advises on semiconductor device modelling. With examples taken from the authors' own experience, this book also covers:network and signal theory;electronic technology with guided electromagnetic pr
Multimodal network design and assessment
Brands, Ties; Alkim, T.P.; van Eck, Gijs; van Arem, Bart; Arentze, T.
2010-01-01
A framework is proposed for the design of an optimal multimodal transport network for the Randstad area. This research framework consists of a multi-objective optimization heuristic and a fast network assessment module, which results in a set of Pareto optimal solutions. Subsequently, a proper
Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions
Peng, Pai
2014-05-01
We show that a two-dimensional elastic phononic crystal comprising rigid cylinders in a solid matrix possesses a large complete band gap below a cut-off frequency. A mechanical model reveals that the band gap is induced by negative effective mass density, which is affirmed by an effective medium theory based on field averaging. We demonstrate, by two examples, that such elastic phononic crystals can be utilized to design small devices to control low-frequency elastic waves. One example is a waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic crystal loaded with solid inclusions. The effective mass density and reciprocal of the modulus of the single-layer elastic phononic crystal are simultaneously near zero. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.
Phonon squeezed states: quantum noise reduction in solids
Hu, Xuedong; Nori, Franco
1999-03-01
This article discusses quantum fluctuation properties of a crystal lattice, and in particular, phonon squeezed states. Squeezed states of phonons allow a reduction in the quantum fluctuations of the atomic displacements to below the zero-point quantum noise level of coherent phonon states. Here we discuss our studies of both continuous-wave and impulsive second-order Raman scattering mechanisms. The later approach was used to experimentally suppress (by one part in a million) fluctuations in phonons. We calculate the expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators, as well as the effects of the phonon squeezed states on macroscopically measurable quantities, such as changes in the dielectric constant. These results are compared with recent experiments. Further information, including preprints and animations, are available in http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/∼nori/squeezed.html.
Controllable photon and phonon localization in optomechanical Lieb lattices.
Wan, Liang-Liang; Lü, Xin-You; Gao, Jin-Hua; Wu, Ying
2017-07-24
The Lieb lattice featuring flat band is not only important in strongly-correlated many-body physics, but also can be utilized to inspire new quantum devices. Here we propose an optomechanical Lieb lattice, where the flat-band physics of photon-phonon polaritons is demonstrated. The tunability of the band structure of the optomechanical arrays allows one to obtain an approximate photon or phonon flat band as well as the transition between them. This ultimately leads to the result that the controllable photon or phonon localization could be realized by the path interference effects. This study offers an alternative approach to explore the exotic photon and phonon many-body effects, which has potential applications in the future hybrid-photon-phonon quantum network and engineering new type solid-state quantum devices.
Electron-phonon interaction on an Al(001) surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sklyadneva, I Yu; Chulkov, E V; Echenique, P M
2008-01-01
We report an ab initio study of the electron-phonon (e-ph) interaction and its contribution to the lifetime broadening of excited hole (electron) surface states on Al(001). The calculations based on density-functional theory were carried out using a linear response approach in the plane-wave pseudopotential representation. The obtained results show that both the electron-phonon coupling and the linewidth experience a weak variation with the energy and momentum position of a hole (electron) surface state in the energy band. An analysis of different contributions to the e-ph coupling reveals that bulk phonon modes turn out to be more involved in the scattering processes of excited electrons and holes than surface phonon modes. It is also shown that the role of the e-ph coupling in the broadening of the Rayleigh surface phonon mode is insignificant compared to anharmonic effects
Thermal rectification based on phonon hydrodynamics and thermomass theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Yuan
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The thermal diode is the fundamental device for phononics. There are various mechanisms for thermal rectification, e.g. different temperature dependent thermal conductivity of two ends, asymmetric interfacial resistance, and nonlocal behavior of phonon transport in asymmetric structures. The phonon hydrodynamics and thermomass theory treat the heat conduction in a fluidic viewpoint. The phonon gas flowing through the media is characterized by the balance equation of momentum, like the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid mechanics. Generalized heat conduction law thereby contains the spatial acceleration (convection term and the viscous (Laplacian term. The viscous term predicts the size dependent thermal conductivity. Rectification appears due to the MFP supersession of phonons. The convection term also predicts rectification because of the inertia effect, like a gas passing through a nozzle or diffuser.
Magnon and phonon thermometry with inelastic light scattering
Olsson, Kevin S.; An, Kyongmo; Li, Xiaoqin
2018-04-01
Spin caloritronics investigates the interplay between the transport of spin and heat. In the spin Seebeck effect, a thermal gradient across a magnetic material generates a spin current. A temperature difference between the energy carriers of the spin and lattice subsystems, namely the magnons and phonons, is necessary for such thermal nonequilibrium generation of spin current. Inelastic light scattering is a powerful method that can resolve the individual temperatures of magnons and phonons. In this review, we discuss the thermometry capabilities of inelastic light scattering for measuring optical and acoustic phonons, as well as magnons. A scattering spectrum offers three temperature sensitive parameters: frequency shift, linewidth, and integrated intensity. We discuss the temperatures measured via each of these parameters for both phonon and magnons. Finally, we discuss inelastic light scattering experiments that have examined the magnon and phonon temperatures in thermal nonequilibrium which are particularly relevant to spin caloritronic phenomena.
Advanced microwave processing concepts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)
1995-05-01
The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.
Young, Leo
2013-01-01
Advances in Microwaves, Volume 3 covers the advances and applications of microwave signal transmission and Gunn devices. This volume contains six chapters and begins with descriptions of ground-station antennas for space communications. The succeeding chapters deal with beam waveguides, which offer interesting possibilities for transmitting microwave energy, as well as with parallel or tubular beams from antenna apertures. A chapter discusses the electron transfer mechanism and the velocity-field characteristics, with a particular emphasis on the microwave properties of Gunn oscillators. The l
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bybokas, J.
1989-01-01
As superconductors move from the laboratory to the marketplace, it becomes more important for researchers and manufacturers to understand the markets for this technology. The large market for microwave systems represents a major opportunity for high-T c superconductors. Conductor losses are a primary design limitation in conventional microwave systems. The low losses of superconductors at microwave frequencies will allow component designers and system designers to improve their products in many ways. The most important market segments for microwave systems are outlined in this discussion
Search for the 3-phonon state of 40Ca
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fallot, M.
2002-09-01
We study collective vibrational states of the nucleus: giant resonances and multiphonon states. It has been shown that multiphonon states, which are built with several superimposed giant resonances, can be excited in inelastic heavy ion scattering near the grazing angle. No three photon states have been observed until now. An experiment has been performed at GANIL, aiming at the observation of the 3-phonon state built with the giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) in 40 Ca, with the reaction 40 Ca + 40 Ca at 50 A.Me.V. The ejectile was identified in the SPEG spectrometer. Light charged particles were detected in 240 CsI scintillators of the INDRA 4π array. The analysis confirms the previous results about the GQR and the 2-phonon state in 40 Ca. For the first time, we have measured an important direct decay branch of the GQR by alpha particles. Applying the so-called 'missing energy method' to events containing three protons measured in coincidence with the ejectile, we observe a direct decay branch revealing the presence of a 3-phonon state in the excitation energy region expected for the triple GQR. Dynamical processes are also studied in the inelastic channel, emphasizing a recently discovered mechanism named towing-mode. We observe for the first time the towing-mode of alpha particles. The energies of multiphonon states in 40 Ca and 208 Pb have been computed microscopically including some anharmonicities via boson mapping methods. The basis of the calculation has been extended to the 3-phonon states. Our results show large anharmonicities (several MeV), due to the coupling of 3-phonon states to 2-phonon states. The extension of the basis to 4-phonon states has been performed for the first time. The inclusion of the 4 phonon states in the calculation did not affect the previous observations concerning the 2-phonon states. Preliminary results on the anharmonicities of the 3-phonon states are presented. (author)
Renormalisation of Nonequilibrium Phonons Under Strong Perturbative Influences.
Mehta, Sushrut Madhukar
Effects of strong perturbative influences, namely the presence of a narrow distribution of acoustic phonons, and the presence of an electron plasma, on the dynamics of nonequilibrium, near zone center, longitudinal optical phonons in GaP have been investigated in two separate experiments. The study of the effects of the interaction between the LO phonons and a heavily populated, narrow distribution of acoustic phonons lead to the observation of a new optically driven nonequilibrium phonon state. Time Resolved Coherent Antistokes Raman Scattering (TR-CARS), with picosecond resolution, was used to investigate the new mode. In order to achieve high occupation numbers in the acoustic branch, the picosecond laser pulses used were amplified up to 1.0 GW/cm^2 peak power per laser beam. An important characteristic property of the new state which differentiates it from the well known LO phonon state is the fact that rather than having the single decay rate observed under thermal equilibrium, the new state has two decay rates. Moreover, these two decay rates depend strongly on the distribution of the acoustic phonon occupation number. The coupling of the LO phonons with an electron plasma, on the other hand, was investigated by measurements of the shape of the Raman scattered line associated with the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. The plasma was generated by thermal excitation of carriers in doped samples. It was possible to study a large variety of plasma excitations by controlling the concentration of the dopant and the ambient temperature. A complete, self consistant model based on standard dielectric response theory is presented, and applied to the measurements of the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. It is possible to recover, via this model, the effective coupled mode damping rate, the plasma damping rate, and the plasma frequency as functions of ambient temperature, or the carrier concentration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voronov, V.V.; Dang, N.D.
1984-01-01
the system of equations, enabling to calculate the energy and the structure of excited states, described by the wave function, containing one- and two-phon components was obtained in the framework of quasiparticlephonon model. The requirements of Pauli principle for two-phonon components and phonon correlation in the ground nucleus state are taken into account
Phonons in a one-dimensional Yukawa chain: Dusty plasma experiment and model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Bin; Goree, J.
2005-01-01
Phonons in a one-dimensional chain of charged microspheres suspended in a plasma were studied in an experiment. The phonons correspond to random particle motion in the chain; no external manipulation was applied to excite the phonons. Two modes were observed, longitudinal and transverse. The velocity fluctuations in the experiment are analyzed using current autocorrelation functions and a phonon spectrum. The phonon energy was found to be unequally partitioned among phonon modes in the dusty plasma experiment. The experimental phonon spectrum was characterized by a dispersion relation that was found to differ from the dispersion relation for externally excited phonons. This difference is attributed to the presence of frictional damping due to gas, which affects the propagation of externally excited phonons differently from phonons that correspond to random particle motion. A model is developed and fit to the experiment to explain the features of the autocorrelation function, phonon spectrum, and the dispersion relation
He, Ping; Li, Zhijian
2001-03-01
In this work we present the new relaxation time expressions considering the detailed information of the phonon dispersion. For the three-phonon processes, it is found that only limited types of three-phonon processes are allowed to occur and the attenuation of phonon that conduct heat varies roughly with the fifth power of frequency. By using these expressions, the data of thermal conductivity of bulk silicon is well fitted. And further, the data for thin films of single crystal silicon which cannot be well fitted by the widely used model that proposed by Holland is also well fitted using the new expressions for three-phonon processes and parameters got at the previous step.
Iskandar, A.; Abou-Khalil, A.; Kazan, M.; Kassem, W.; Volz, S.
2015-03-01
This paper provides theoretical understanding of the interplay between the scattering of phonons by the boundaries and point-defects in SiGe thin films. It also provides a tool for the design of SiGe-based high-efficiency thermoelectric devices. The contributions of the alloy composition, grain size, and film thickness to the phonon scattering rate are described by a model for the thermal conductivity based on the single-mode relaxation time approximation. The exact Boltzmann equation including spatial dependence of phonon distribution function is solved to yield an expression for the rate at which phonons scatter by the thin film boundaries in the presence of the other phonon scattering mechanisms. The rates at which phonons scatter via normal and resistive three-phonon processes are calculated by using perturbation theories with taking into account dispersion of confined acoustic phonons in a two dimensional structure. The vibrational parameters of the model are deduced from the dispersion of confined acoustic phonons as functions of temperature and crystallographic direction. The accuracy of the model is demonstrated with reference to recent experimental investigations regarding the thermal conductivity of single-crystal and polycrystalline SiGe films. The paper describes the strength of each of the phonon scattering mechanisms in the full temperature range. Furthermore, it predicts the alloy composition and film thickness that lead to minimum thermal conductivity in a single-crystal SiGe film, and the alloy composition and grain size that lead to minimum thermal conductivity in a polycrystalline SiGe film.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szczesniak, R. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa (Poland); Durajski, A.P.; Duda, A.M. [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology (Poland)
2017-04-15
The properties of the superconducting and the anomalous normal state were described by using the Eliashberg method. The pairing mechanism was reproduced with the help of the Hamiltonian, which models the electron-phonon and the electron-electron-phonon interaction (EEPh). The set of the Eliashberg equations, which determines the order parameter function (φ), the wave function renormalization factor (Z), and the energy shift function (χ), was derived. It was proven that for the sufficiently large values of the EEPh potential, the doping dependence of the order parameter (φ/Z) has the analogous course to that observed experimentally in cuprates. The energy gap in the electron density of states is induced by Z and χ - the contribution from φ is negligible. The electron density of states possesses the characteristic asymmetric form and the pseudogap is observed above the critical temperature. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Assili, M.; Haddad, S.
2014-09-01
We derive the frequency shifts and the broadening of Γ-point longitudinal optical (LO) and transverse optical (TO) phonon modes, due to electron-phonon interaction, in graphene under uniaxial strain as a function of the electron density and the disorder amount. We show that, in the absence of a shear strain component, such interaction gives rise to a lifting of the degeneracy of the LO and TO modes which contributes to the splitting of the G Raman band. The anisotropy of the electronic spectrum, induced by the strain, results in a polarization dependence of the LO and TO modes. This dependence is in agreement with the experimental results showing a periodic modulation of the Raman intensity of the split G peak. Moreover, the anomalous behavior of the frequency shift reported in undeformed graphene is found to be robust under strain.
Multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber sensor for alcohol sensing application
Rofi'ah, Iftihatur; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo
2016-11-01
Alcohol is volatile and flammable liquid which is soluble substances both on polar and non polar substances that has been used in some industrial sectors. Alcohol detection method now widely used one of them is the optical fiber sensor. In this paper used fiber optic sensor based on Multimode-Single-mode-Multimode (MSM) to detect alcohol solution at a concentration range of 0-3%. The working principle of sensor utilizes the modal interference between the core modes and the cladding modes, thus make the sensor sensitive to environmental changes. The result showed that characteristic of the sensor not affect the length of the single-mode fiber (SMF). We obtain that the sensor with a length of 5 mm of single-mode can sensing the alcohol with a sensitivity of 0.107 dB/v%.
Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals
Li, Yan
2014-07-07
A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.
Surface phonons and elastic surface waves
Büscher, H.; Klein-Heßling, W.; Ludwig, W.
Theoretical investigations on the dynamics of the (001), (110) and (111) surfaces of some cubic metals (Ag, Cu, Ni) will be reviewed. Both, lattice dynamical and continuum theoretical results are obtained via a Green's function formalism. The main attitude of this paper is the comparison of our results with experiments and with results obtained via slab-calculations. The calculation of elastic surface waves has been performed using a modified surface-green-function-matching method. We have used two different approaches of calculation the bulk Green's function (a) using the spectral representation and (b) a method, what works on residues. The investigations are carried out using shortrange phenomenological potentials. The atomic force constants in the first surface layers are modified to describe surface phonon anomalies, observed by experiments. In the case of Ag (100) and Ag(110) we conclude that the detection of odd symmetry shear modes by Erskine et al. [1 a, b] was not very accurate.
Light scattering by surface phonons in crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albuquerque, E.L. de
1981-01-01
A theory of inelastic light scattering by surface acoustic phonons in homogeneous crystals is presented. The Green functions are determined by the use of a classical linear response method and used to evaluate the Brillouin cross section. The acoustic modes are found from solutions to the acoustical-wave equation and boundary conditions appropriated. Two light-scattering mechanisms, namely the surface corrugation and bulk elasto-optic effect are analyzed by deriving optical fields which satisfy both the acousto-optically driven wave equation and the electromagnetic boundary conditions. No restrictions are imposed concerning the angle of incidence of the light. Some representative computed Brillouin lineshapes are also presented and their features discussed. (Author) [pt
Cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, A; Fytas, G; Pennec, Y; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Yanagishita, T; Masuda, H; Knoll, W
2012-01-01
We report on the engineering of the phonon dispersion diagram in monodomain anodic porous alumina (APA) films through the porosity and physical state of the material residing in the nanopores. Lattice symmetry and inclusion materials are theoretically identified to be the main factors which control the hypersonic acoustic wave propagation. This involves the interaction between the longitudinal and the transverse modes in the effective medium and a flat band characteristic of the material residing in the cavities. Air and filled nanopores, therefore, display markedly different dispersion relations and the inclusion materials lead to a locally resonant structural behavior uniquely determining their properties under confinement. APA films emerge as a new platform to investigate the rich acoustic phenomena of structured composite matter. (paper)
Light scattering by surface phonons in crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albuquerque, D.L.
1980-01-01
Theory of inelastic light scattering by surface acoustic phonons homogeneous crystals is presented. The Green functions are determined by the use of a classical linear response method and used to evaluate the Brillouin cross section. The acoustic modes are found from solutions to the acoustical-wave equation and boundary conditions appropriated. Two light-scattering mechanisms, amely the surface corrugation and bulk elasto-optic effect are analyzed by deriving optical fields which satisfy both the acousto-optically driven wave equation and the electromagnetic boundary conditions. No restrictions are imposed concerning the angle of incidence of the light. Some representative computed Brillouin ineshapes are also presented and their features discussed. (author) [pt
Self-consistent phonons in disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, M.P.
1990-01-01
The time is now ripe for the development of a microscopic theory of the disordered systems in the context of phonons. The adiabatic approximation has helped to separate the electronic motion from that of the ions. In the microscopic dielectric formulation we have been able to obtain the interatomic forces for ordered systems by incorporating the effect of the electronic motion. The nature of the electronic states in disordered systems is now better understood with realistic coherent potential approximation calculations. Therefore, it will not be too ambitious to construct an average dielectric function for a disordered system. Then we can obtain a properly screened pair potential in terms of this dielectric function. In view of the availability of super fast computers, the development of the microscopic theories are expected to get a new direction. (author). 36 refs
Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals
Li, Yan; Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun
2014-01-01
A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.
Acoustic phonon emission by two dimensional plasmons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishonov, T.M.
1990-06-01
Acoustic wave emission of the two dimensional plasmons in a semiconductor or superconductor microstructure is investigated by using the phenomenological deformation potential within the jellium model. The plasmons are excited by the external electromagnetic (e.m.) field. The power conversion coefficient of e.m. energy into acoustic wave energy is also estimated. It is shown, the coherent transformation has a sharp resonance at the plasmon frequency of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The incoherent transformation of the e.m. energy is generated by ohmic dissipation of 2DEG. The method proposed for coherent phonon beam generation can be very effective for high mobility 2DEG and for thin superconducting layers if the plasmon frequency ω is smaller than the superconducting gap 2Δ. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig
Surface phonons and elastic surface waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buescher, H.; Klein-Hessling, W.; Ludwig, W.
1993-01-01
Theoretical investigations on the dynamics of the (001), (110) and (111) surfaces of some cubic metals (Ag, Cu, Ni) will be reviewed. Both, lattice dynamical and continuum theoretical results are obtained via a Green's function formalism. The main attitude of this paper is the comparison of our results with experiments and with results obtained via slab-calculations. The calculation of elastic surface waves has been performed using a modified surface-green-function-matching method. We have used two different approaches of calculation the bulk Green's function (a) using the spectral representation and (b) a method, what works on residues. The investigations are carried out using shortrange phenomenological potentials. The atomic force constants in the first surface layers are modified to describe surface phonon anomalies, observed by experiments. In the case of Ag(100) and Ag(110) we conclude that the detection of odd symmetry shear modes by Erskine et al. was not very accurate. (orig.)
Microwave Enhanced Reactive Distillation
Altman, E.
2011-01-01
The application of electromagnetic irradiation in form of microwaves (MW) has gathered the attention of the scientific community in recent years. MW used as an alternative energy source for chemical syntheses (microwave chemistry) can provide clear advantages over conventional heating methods in
Integrated microwave photonics
Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Sales, S.; Capmany, J.
2013-01-01
Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A
Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny
2010-01-01
This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....
MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS
The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...
Phonon structures of GaN-based random semiconductor alloys
Zhou, Mei; Chen, Xiaobin; Li, Gang; Zheng, Fawei; Zhang, Ping
2017-12-01
Accurate modeling of thermal properties is strikingly important for developing next-generation electronics with high performance. Many thermal properties are closely related to phonon dispersions, such as sound velocity. However, random substituted semiconductor alloys AxB1-x usually lack translational symmetry, and simulation with periodic boundary conditions often requires large supercells, which makes phonon dispersion highly folded and hardly comparable with experimental results. Here, we adopt a large supercell with randomly distributed A and B atoms to investigate substitution effect on the phonon dispersions of semiconductor alloys systematically by using phonon unfolding method [F. Zheng, P. Zhang, Comput. Mater. Sci. 125, 218 (2016)]. The results reveal the extent to which phonon band characteristics in (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) are preserved or lost at different compositions and q points. Generally, most characteristics of phonon dispersions can be preserved with indium substitution of gallium in GaN, while substitution of nitrogen with phosphorus strongly perturbs the phonon dispersion of GaN, showing a rapid disintegration of the Bloch characteristics of optical modes and introducing localized impurity modes. In addition, the sound velocities of both (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) display a nearly linear behavior as a function of substitution compositions. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2017-80481-0.
Diamond family of colloidal supercrystals as phononic metamaterials
Aryana, Kiumars; Zanjani, Mehdi B.
2018-05-01
Colloidal crystals provide a versatile platform for designing phononic metamaterials with exciting applications for sound and heat management. New advances in the synthesis and self-assembly of anisotropic building blocks such as colloidal clusters have expanded the library of available micro- and nano-scale ordered multicomponent structures. Diamond-like supercrystals formed by such clusters and spherical particles are notable examples that include a rich family of crystal symmetries such as diamond, double diamond, zinc-blende, and MgCu2. This work investigates the design of phononic supercrystals by predicting and analyzing phonon transport properties. In addition to size variation and structural diversity, these supercrystals encapsulate different sub-lattice types within one structure. Computational models are used to calculate the effect of various parameters on the phononic spectrum of diamond-like supercrystals. The results show that structures with relatively small or large filling factors (f > 0.65 or f f > 0.45). The double diamond and zinc-blende structures render the largest bandgap size compared to the other supercrystals studied in this paper. Additionally, this article discusses the effect of incorporating various configurations of sub-lattices by selecting different material compositions for the building blocks. The results suggest that, for the same structure, there exist multiple phononic variants with drastically different band structures. This study provides a valuable insight for evaluating novel colloidal supercrystals for phononic applications and guides the future experimental work for the synthesis of colloidal structures with desired phononic behavior.
Observation of magnon-phonon interaction at short wavelengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolling, G.; Cowley, R.A.
1966-01-01
Measurements have been made of the magnon and phonon dispersion relations in uranium dioxide at 9 o K. These measurements provide evidence of a strong interaction between the magnon and phonon excitations and enable a value to be deduced for the coupling constant. The interaction of long-wavelength magnons in ferromagnetic materials has been studied previously with ultrasonic techniques; however, inelastic scattering of slow neutrons enables both the magnon and phonon dispersion relations to be determined for short wavelengths. In those magnetic materials which have been studied by earlier workers, the magnons and phonons either interacted with one another very weakly or else their frequencies were very different. The results could then be understood without introducing any magnon-phonon interaction. In this note we report measurements of both the magnon and the phonon spectra of antiferromagnetic uranium dioxide, which lead to a magnon-phonon coupling constant of 9.6 ± 1.6 o K. Since the Neel temperature is 30.8 o K, this coupling constant is of a similar magnitude to the direct magnetic interactions. (author)
Mean free path dependent phonon contributions to interfacial thermal conductance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tao, Yi; Liu, Chenhan; Chen, Weiyu; Cai, Shuang; Chen, Chen; Wei, Zhiyong; Bi, Kedong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Yunfei, E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn
2017-06-15
Interfacial thermal conductance as an accumulation function of the phonon mean free path is rigorously derived from the thermal conductivity accumulation function. Based on our theoretical model, the interfacial thermal conductance accumulation function between Si/Ge is calculated. The results show that the range of mean free paths (MFPs) for phonons contributing to the interfacial thermal conductance is far narrower than that for phonons contributing to the thermal conductivity. The interfacial thermal conductance is mainly contributed by phonons with shorter MFPs, and the size effects can be observed only for an interface constructed by nanostructures with film thicknesses smaller than the MFPs of those phonons mainly contributing to the interfacial thermal conductance. This is why most experimental measurements cannot detect size effects on interfacial thermal conductance. A molecular dynamics simulation is employed to verify our proposed model. - Highlights: • A model to account for the interfacial thermal conductance as an accumulation function of phonon mean free path is proposed; • The model predicts that the range of mean free paths (MFPs) for phonons contributing to the interfacial thermal conductance is far narrower than that contributing to the thermal conductivity; • This model can be conveniently implemented to estimate the size effects on the interfacial thermal conductance for the interfaces formed by a nanostructure contacting a substrate.
Phonon-induced enhancements of the energy gap and critical current in superconducting aluminum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seligson, D.
1983-05-01
8 to 10 GHz phonons were generated by piezoelectric transduction of a microwave and by means of a quartz delay line, were allowed to enter the aluminum only after the microwaves had long since disappeared. The maximum enhancements detected were [deltaT/T/sub c/] = -0.07, for i/sub c/ and [deltaT/T/sub c/] = -0.03 for Δ. The power- and temperature-dependence (0.82 less than or equal to T/T/sub c/ less than or equal to 0.994) of the enhancements were compared with the prediction of a theory given by Eliashberg. The gap-enhancement was in good agreement with the theory only for low input lower. The critical current measurements are predicted to be in rough agreement with the Δ measurements but this was not observed. The magnitude of the critical current enhancements was typically more than twice the observed gap enhancements. The measured critical current enhancement was relatively independent of temperature whereas the gap enhancement decreased rapidly as the temperature was lowered
Gasulla, I; Capmany, J
2006-10-02
We present a closed-form expression for the evaluation of the transfer function of a multimode fiber (MMF) link based on the electric field propagation model. After validating the result we investigate the potential for broadband transmission in regions far from baseband. We find that MMFs offer the potential for broadband ROF transmission in the microwave and millimetre wave regions in short and middle reach distances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Jae Sik [Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-15
Phonon dynamics in nanostructure is critically important to thermoelectric and optoelectronic devices because it determines the transport and other crucial properties. However, accurately evaluating the phonon lifetimes is extremely difficult. This study reports on the development of a new semi-empirical method to estimate the full-spectrum phonon lifetimes in thin silicon films at room temperature based on the experimental data on the phonon mean-free-path spectrum in bulk silicon and a phenomenological consideration of phonon transport in thin films. The bulk of this work describes the theory and the validation; then, we discuss the trend of the phonon lifetimes in thin silicon films when their thicknesses decrease.
Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Multimodal Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Humair S. Quadri
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Despite its declining incidence, gastric cancer (GC remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. A multimodal approach to GC is critical to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Pretherapy fine resolution contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and staging laparoscopy play an important role in patients with newly diagnosed ostensibly operable GC to avoid unnecessary non-therapeutic laparotomies. Currently, margin negative gastrectomy and adequate lymphadenectomy performed at high volume hospitals remain the backbone of GC treatment. Importantly, adequate GC surgery should be integrated in the setting of a multimodal treatment approach. Treatment for advanced GC continues to expand with the emergence of additional lines of systemic and targeted therapies.
Robustness of multimodal processes itineraries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bocewicz, G.; Banaszak, Z.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa
2013-01-01
itineraries for assumed (O-D) trip. Since itinerary planning problem, constitutes a common routing and scheduling decision faced by travelers, hence the main question regards of itinerary replanning and particularly a method aimed at prototyping of mode sequences and paths selections. The declarative model......This paper concerns multimodal transport systems (MTS) represented by a supernetworks in which several unimodal networks are connected by transfer links and focuses on the scheduling problems encountered in these systems. Assuming unimodal networks are modeled as cyclic lines, i.e. the routes...... of multimodal processes driven itinerary planning problem is our main contribution. Illustrative examples providing alternative itineraries in some cases of MTS malfunction are presented....
Analog model for quantum gravity effects: phonons in random fluids.
Krein, G; Menezes, G; Svaiter, N F
2010-09-24
We describe an analog model for quantum gravity effects in condensed matter physics. The situation discussed is that of phonons propagating in a fluid with a random velocity wave equation. We consider that there are random fluctuations in the reciprocal of the bulk modulus of the system and study free phonons in the presence of Gaussian colored noise with zero mean. We show that, in this model, after performing the random averages over the noise function a free conventional scalar quantum field theory describing free phonons becomes a self-interacting model.
Confined and interface phonons in combined cylindrical nanoheterosystem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.M.Makhanets
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The spectra of all types of phonons existing in a complicated combined nanoheterosystem consisting of three cylindrical quantum dots embedded into the cylindrical quantum wire placed into vacuum are studied within the dielectric continuum model. It is shown that there are confined optical (LO and interface phonons of two types: top surface optical (TSO and side surface optical (SSO modes of vibration in such a nanosystem. The dependences of phonon energies on the quasiwave numbers and geometrical parameters of quantum dots are investigated and analysed.
Band structures in fractal grading porous phononic crystals
Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu; Wang, Bin
2018-05-01
In this paper, a new grading porous structure is introduced based on a Sierpinski triangle routine, and wave propagation in this fractal grading porous phononic crystal is investigated. The influences of fractal hierarchy and porosity on the band structures in fractal graidng porous phononic crystals are clarified. Vibration modes of unit cell at absolute band gap edges are given to manifest formation mechanism of absolute band gaps. The results show that absolute band gaps are easy to form in fractal structures comparatively to the normal ones with the same porosity. Structures with higher fractal hierarchies benefit multiple wider absolute band gaps. This work provides useful guidance in design of fractal porous phononic crystals.
The anharmonic phonon decay rate in group-III nitrides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, G P
2009-01-01
Measured lifetimes of hot phonons in group-III nitrides have been explained theoretically by considering three-phonon anharmonic interaction processes. The basic ingredients of the theory include full phonon dispersion relations obtained from the application of an adiabatic bond charge model and crystal anharmonic potential within the isotropic elastic continuum model. The role of various decay routes, such as Klemens, Ridley, Vallee-Bogani and Barman-Srivastava channels, in determining the lifetimes of the Raman active zone-centre longitudinal optical (LO) modes in BN (zincblende structure) and A 1 (LO) modes in AlN, GaN and InN (wurtzite structure) has been quantified.
Flexural-Phonon Scattering Induced by Electrostatic Gating in Graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gunst, Tue; Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-01-01
Graphene has an extremely high carrier mobility partly due to its planar mirror symmetry inhibiting scattering by the highly occupied acoustic flexural phonons. Electrostatic gating of a graphene device can break the planar mirror symmetry, yielding a coupling mechanism to the flexural phonons......-limiting factor, and show how the carrier density and temperature scaling of the mobility depends on the electrostatic environment. Our findings may explain the high deformation potential for in-plane acoustic phonons extracted from experiments and, furthermore, suggest a direct relation between device symmetry...
Broadband sound blocking in phononic crystals with rotationally symmetric inclusions.
Lee, Joong Seok; Yoo, Sungmin; Ahn, Young Kwan; Kim, Yoon Young
2015-09-01
This paper investigates the feasibility of broadband sound blocking with rotationally symmetric extensible inclusions introduced in phononic crystals. By varying the size of four equally shaped inclusions gradually, the phononic crystal experiences remarkable changes in its band-stop properties, such as shifting/widening of multiple Bragg bandgaps and evolution to resonance gaps. Necessary extensions of the inclusions to block sound effectively can be determined for given incident frequencies by evaluating power transmission characteristics. By arraying finite dissimilar unit cells, the resulting phononic crystal exhibits broadband sound blocking from combinational effects of multiple Bragg scattering and local resonances even with small-numbered cells.
Resonant Magnon-Phonon Polaritons in a Ferrimagnet
2000-09-29
UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11604 TITLE: Resonant Magnon -Phonon Polaritons in a Ferrimagnet...part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP011588 thru ADP011680 UNCLASSIFIED 75 Resonant Magnon -Phonon Polaritons in a Ferrimagnet I. E...susceptibilities X"aa and X’m << X’m appear, where 77 xem - DPx igEo0 i_ Xxy - hy- C1 (0)2 _ 00t2) 4= -7• 4 3. Phonon and magnon polaritons We solve the
Non-equilibrium phonon generation and detection in microstructure devices
Hertzberg, J. B.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate a method to excite locally a controllable, non-thermal distribution of acoustic phonon modes ranging from 0 to ∼200 GHz in a silicon microstructure, by decay of excited quasiparticle states in an attached superconducting tunnel junction (STJ). The phonons transiting the structure ballistically are detected by a second STJ, allowing comparison of direct with indirect transport pathways. This method may be applied to study how different phonon modes contribute to the thermal conductivity of nanostructures. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Electron-phonon interaction in Chevrel-phase compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rainer, D.; Pobell, F.
1981-03-01
Experiments on the electron-phonon interaction in Chevrel-phase compounds (CPC) and a theoretical discussion of their results are presented. The authors particularly discuss measurements of the isotope effect of the transition temperature in Mo 6 Se 8 and SnMo 6 S 8 and tunneling spectroscopy experiments on Cu 1 . 8 Mo 6 S 8 and PbMo 6 S 8 . These investigations have been performed to get information about the strength of the electron-phonon interaction in CPC, and about the question whether there are phonon modes which couple particularly strongly to the electrons in these compounds. (orig./GSCH)
Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magdalena Swierczewska
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.
Coherent multimoded dielectric wakefield accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Power, J.
1998-01-01
There has recently been a study of the potential uses of multimode dielectric structures for wakefield acceleration [1]. This technique is based on adjusting the wakefield modes of the structure to constructively interfere at certain delays with respect to the drive bunch, thus providing an accelerating gradient enhancement over single mode devices. In this report we examine and attempt to clarify the issues raised by this work in the light of the present state of the art in wakefield acceleration
Evaluation of multimodal ground cues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania
2012-01-01
This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining...... synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features....
Phonon self-energy corrections to non-zero wavevector phonon modes in single-layer graphene
Araujo, Paulo; Mafra, Daniela; Sato, Kentaro; Saito, Richiiro; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred
2012-02-01
Phonon self-energy corrections have mostly been studied theoretically and experimentally for phonon modes with zone-center (q = 0) wave-vectors. Here, gate-modulated Raman scattering is used to study phonons of a single layer of graphene (1LG) in the frequency range from 2350 to 2750 cm-1, which shows the G* and the G'-band features originating from a double-resonant Raman process with q 0. The observed phonon renormalization effects are different from what is observed for the zone-center q = 0 case. To explain our experimental findings, we explored the phonon self-energy for the phonons with non-zero wave-vectors (q 0) in 1LG in which the frequencies and decay widths are expected to behave oppositely to the behavior observed in the corresponding zone-center q = 0 processes. Within this framework, we resolve the identification of the phonon modes contributing to the G* Raman feature at 2450 cm-1 to include the iTO+LA combination modes with q 0 and the 2iTO overtone modes with q = 0, showing both to be associated with wave-vectors near the high symmetry point K in the Brillouin zone.
Phonon Self-Energy Corrections to Nonzero Wave-Vector Phonon Modes in Single-Layer Graphene
Araujo, P. T.; Mafra, D. L.; Sato, K.; Saito, R.; Kong, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.
2012-07-01
Phonon self-energy corrections have mostly been studied theoretically and experimentally for phonon modes with zone-center (q=0) wave vectors. Here, gate-modulated Raman scattering is used to study phonons of a single layer of graphene originating from a double-resonant Raman process with q≠0. The observed phonon renormalization effects are different from what is observed for the zone-center q=0 case. To explain our experimental findings, we explored the phonon self-energy for the phonons with nonzero wave vectors (q≠0) in single-layer graphene in which the frequencies and decay widths are expected to behave oppositely to the behavior observed in the corresponding zone-center q=0 processes. Within this framework, we resolve the identification of the phonon modes contributing to the G⋆ Raman feature at 2450cm-1 to include the iTO+LA combination modes with q≠0 and also the 2iTO overtone modes with q=0, showing both to be associated with wave vectors near the high symmetry point K in the Brillouin zone.
Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bray, T.J.P.; Mortensen, K.H.; Gopalan, D.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis
Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bray, T.J.P., E-mail: timothyjpbray@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); Mortensen, K.H., E-mail: mortensen@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); University Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Box 318, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Gopalan, D., E-mail: deepa.gopalan@btopenworld.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom)
2014-12-15
Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis.
Diffusion Maps for Multimodal Registration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gemma Piella
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Multimodal image registration is a difficult task, due to the significant intensity variations between the images. A common approach is to use sophisticated similarity measures, such as mutual information, that are robust to those intensity variations. However, these similarity measures are computationally expensive and, moreover, often fail to capture the geometry and the associated dynamics linked with the images. Another approach is the transformation of the images into a common space where modalities can be directly compared. Within this approach, we propose to register multimodal images by using diffusion maps to describe the geometric and spectral properties of the data. Through diffusion maps, the multimodal data is transformed into a new set of canonical coordinates that reflect its geometry uniformly across modalities, so that meaningful correspondences can be established between them. Images in this new representation can then be registered using a simple Euclidean distance as a similarity measure. Registration accuracy was evaluated on both real and simulated brain images with known ground-truth for both rigid and non-rigid registration. Results showed that the proposed approach achieved higher accuracy than the conventional approach using mutual information.
Multimodal Estimation of Distribution Algorithms.
Yang, Qiang; Chen, Wei-Neng; Li, Yun; Chen, C L Philip; Xu, Xiang-Min; Zhang, Jun
2016-02-15
Taking the advantage of estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs) in preserving high diversity, this paper proposes a multimodal EDA. Integrated with clustering strategies for crowding and speciation, two versions of this algorithm are developed, which operate at the niche level. Then these two algorithms are equipped with three distinctive techniques: 1) a dynamic cluster sizing strategy; 2) an alternative utilization of Gaussian and Cauchy distributions to generate offspring; and 3) an adaptive local search. The dynamic cluster sizing affords a potential balance between exploration and exploitation and reduces the sensitivity to the cluster size in the niching methods. Taking advantages of Gaussian and Cauchy distributions, we generate the offspring at the niche level through alternatively using these two distributions. Such utilization can also potentially offer a balance between exploration and exploitation. Further, solution accuracy is enhanced through a new local search scheme probabilistically conducted around seeds of niches with probabilities determined self-adaptively according to fitness values of these seeds. Extensive experiments conducted on 20 benchmark multimodal problems confirm that both algorithms can achieve competitive performance compared with several state-of-the-art multimodal algorithms, which is supported by nonparametric tests. Especially, the proposed algorithms are very promising for complex problems with many local optima.
Multimodal Diversity of Postmodernist Fiction Text
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
U. I. Tykha
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of structural and functional manifestations of multimodal diversity in postmodernist fiction texts. Multimodality is defined as the coexistence of more than one semiotic mode within a certain context. Multimodal texts feature a diversity of semiotic modes in the communication and development of their narrative. Such experimental texts subvert conventional patterns by introducing various semiotic resources – verbal or non-verbal.
Multimodal exemplification: The expansion of meaning in electronic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Functional Multimodal Discourse Analysis (SF-MDA) and argues for improving their exemplifica-tion multimodally. Multimodal devices, if well coordinated, can help optimize e-dictionary exam-ples in informativity, diversity, dynamicity and ...
Quasiparticle--phonon model of the nucleus. V. Odd spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vdovin, A.I.; Voronov, V.V.; Solov'ev, V.G.; Stoyanov, C.
1985-01-01
The formalism of the quasiparticle--phonon model of the nucleus for odd spherical nuclei is presented. The exact commutation relations of the quasiparticle and phonon operators together with the anharmonic corrections for the phonon excitations are taken into account in the derivation of equations for the energies and structure coefficients of the wave functions of excited states, which include quasiparticle--phonon and quasiparticle--two-phonon components. The influence of various physical effects and of the dimension of the phonon basis on the fragmentation of the single-quasiparticle and quasiparticle-phonon states is investigated
Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2016-07-27
At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.
Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.
2016-01-01
At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.
Non Invasive Microwave Sensor for the Detection of Lactic Acid in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goh, J H; Mason, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Field, M; Shackcloth, M; Browning, P
2011-01-01
This research involves the use of a low power microwave sensor for analysis of lactic acid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), an indicator of neurological impairment during aortic aneurysm surgery which could provide the basis for improved treatment regimes and better quality of care with more efficient use of resources. This paper presents initial work using standard lactate curves in water followed by lactate in s ynthetic CSF . A multi-modal spectral signature has been defined for lactate, forming the basis for subsequent development of microwave sensor platform that is able to detect concentrations of lactic acid in CSF of volumes less than 1ml.
Designing broad phononic band gaps for in-plane modes
Li, Yang Fan; Meng, Fei; Li, Shuo; Jia, Baohua; Zhou, Shiwei; Huang, Xiaodong
2018-03-01
Phononic crystals are known as artificial materials that can manipulate the propagation of elastic waves, and one essential feature of phononic crystals is the existence of forbidden frequency range of traveling waves called band gaps. In this paper, we have proposed an easy way to design phononic crystals with large in-plane band gaps. We demonstrated that the gap between two arbitrarily appointed bands of in-plane mode can be formed by employing a certain number of solid or hollow circular rods embedded in a matrix material. Topology optimization has been applied to find the best material distributions within the primitive unit cell with maximal band gap width. Our results reveal that the centroids of optimized rods coincide with the point positions generated by Lloyd's algorithm, which deepens our understandings on the formation mechanism of phononic in-plane band gaps.
Tunable topological phases in photonic and phononic crystals
Chen, Zeguo
2018-01-01
Topological photonics/phononics, inspired by the discovery of topological insulators, is a prosperous field of research, in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are robust against impurities or defect without backscattering
Detection of dark matter particles with low temperature phonon sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadoulet, B.
1988-03-01
Taking as an example the development effort in Berkeley, the author discusses for nonspecialists (Astronomers and Particle Physicists) the promises of phonon sensing at low temperature for the detection of dark matter particles and the difficulties faced. 31 refs
Phonon assisted thermophoretic motion of gold nanoparticles inside carbon nanotubes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schoen, Philipp A.E.; Walther, Jens Honore; Poulikakos, Dimos
2007-01-01
The authors investigate the thermally driven mass transport of gold nanoparticles confined inside carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. The observed thermophoretic motion of the gold nanoparticles correlates with the phonon dispersion exhibited by a standard carbon nanotube and...
Anharmonic, dimensionality and size effects in phonon transport
Thomas, Iorwerth O.; Srivastava, G. P.
2017-12-01
We have developed and employed a numerically efficient semi- ab initio theory, based on density-functional and relaxation-time schemes, to examine anharmonic, dimensionality and size effects in phonon transport in three- and two-dimensional solids of different crystal symmetries. Our method uses third- and fourth-order terms in crystal Hamiltonian expressed in terms of a temperature-dependent Grüneisen’s constant. All input to numerical calculations are generated from phonon calculations based on the density-functional perturbation theory. It is found that four-phonon processes make important and measurable contribution to lattice thermal resistivity above the Debye temperature. From our numerical results for bulk Si, bulk Ge, bulk MoS2 and monolayer MoS2 we find that the sample length dependence of phonon conductivity is significantly stronger in low-dimensional solids.
Non-equilibrium phonon generation and detection in microstructure devices
Hertzberg, J. B.; Otelaja, O. O.; Yoshida, N. J.; Robinson, R. D.
2011-01-01
We demonstrate a method to excite locally a controllable, non-thermal distribution of acoustic phonon modes ranging from 0 to ∼200 GHz in a silicon microstructure, by decay of excited quasiparticle states in an attached superconducting tunnel
Phonon thermal conductance of disordered graphene strips with armchair edges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Lipeng; Xiong Shijie
2009-01-01
Based on the model of lattice dynamics together with the transfer matrix technique, we investigate the thermal conductances of phonons in quasi-one-dimensional disordered graphene strips with armchair edges using Landauer formalism for thermal transport. It is found that the contributions to thermal conductance from the phonon transport near von Hove singularities is significantly suppressed by the presence of disorder, on the contrary to the effect of disorder on phonon modes in other frequency regions. Besides the magnitude, for different widths of the strips, the thermal conductance also shows different temperature dependence. At low temperatures, the thermal conductance displays quantized features of both pure and disordered graphene strips implying that the transmission of phonon modes at low frequencies are almost unaffected by the disorder
The Electron-Phonon Interaction as Studied by Photoelectron Spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, D.W.
2004-01-01
With recent advances in energy and angle resolution, the effects of electron-phonon interactions are manifest in many valence-band photoelectron spectra (PES) for states near the Fermi level in metals
Fluid phonons, protoinflationary dynamics and large-scale gravitational fluctuations
Giovannini, Massimo
2013-01-01
We explore what can be said on the effective temperature and sound speed of a statistical ensemble of fluid phonons present at the onset of a conventional inflationary phase. The phonons are the actual normal modes of the gravitating and irrotational fluid that dominates the protoinflationary dynamics. The bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio result in a class of novel constraints involving the slow roll parameter, the sound speed of the phonons and the temperature of the plasma prior to the onset of inflation. If the current size of the Hubble radius coincides with the inflationary event horizon redshifted down to the present epoch, the sound speed of the phonons can be assessed from independent measurements of the tensor to scalar ratio and of the tensor spectral index.
Electrical modulation and switching of transverse acoustic phonons
Jeong, H.; Jho, Y. D.; Rhim, S. H.; Yee, K. J.; Yoon, S. Y.; Shim, J. P.; Lee, D. S.; Ju, J. W.; Baek, J. H.; Stanton, C. J.
2016-07-01
We report on the electrical manipulation of coherent acoustic phonon waves in GaN-based nanoscale piezoelectric heterostructures which are strained both from the pseudomorphic growth at the interfaces as well as through external electric fields. In such structures, transverse symmetry within the c plane hinders both the generation and detection of the transverse acoustic (TA) modes, and usually only longitudinal acoustic phonons are generated by ultrafast displacive screening of potential gradients. We show that even for c -GaN, the combined application of lateral and vertical electric fields can not only switch on the normally forbidden TA mode, but they can also modulate the amplitudes and frequencies of both modes. By comparing the transient differential reflectivity spectra in structures with and without an asymmetric potential distribution, the role of the electrical controllability of phonons was demonstrated as changes to the propagation velocities, the optical birefringence, the electrically polarized TA waves, and the geometrically varying optical sensitivities of phonons.
Quantum decoherence of phonons in Bose-Einstein condensates
Howl, Richard; Sabín, Carlos; Hackermüller, Lucia; Fuentes, Ivette
2018-01-01
We apply modern techniques from quantum optics and quantum information science to Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in order to study, for the first time, the quantum decoherence of phonons of isolated BECs. In the last few years, major advances in the manipulation and control of phonons have highlighted their potential as carriers of quantum information in quantum technologies, particularly in quantum processing and quantum communication. Although most of these studies have focused on trapped ion and crystalline systems, another promising system that has remained relatively unexplored is BECs. The potential benefits in using this system have been emphasized recently with proposals of relativistic quantum devices that exploit quantum states of phonons in BECs to achieve, in principle, superior performance over standard non-relativistic devices. Quantum decoherence is often the limiting factor in the practical realization of quantum technologies, but here we show that quantum decoherence of phonons is not expected to heavily constrain the performance of these proposed relativistic quantum devices.
Young, Leo
1967-01-01
Advances in Microwaves, Volume 2 focuses on the developments in microwave solid-state devices and circuits. This volume contains six chapters that also describe the design and applications of diplexers and multiplexers. The first chapter deals with the parameters of the tunnel diode, oscillators, amplifiers and frequency converter, followed by a simple physical description and the basic operating principles of the solid state devices currently capable of generating coherent microwave power, including transistors, harmonic generators, and tunnel, avalanche transit time, and diodes. The next ch
Young, Leo
2013-01-01
Advances in Microwaves, Volume 4 covers some innovations in the devices and applications of microwaves. This volume contains three chapters and begins with a discussion of the application of microwave phasers and time delay elements as beam steering elements in array radars. The next chapter provides first an overview of the technical aspects and different types of millimeter waveguides, followed by a survey of their application to railroads. The last chapter examines the general mode of conversion properties of nonuniform waveguides, such as waveguide tapers, using converted Maxwell's equatio
On-chip photonic-phononic emitter-receiver apparatus
Cox, Jonathan Albert; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Rakich, Peter Thomas; Wang, Zheng; Shin, Heedeuk; Siddiqui, Aleem; Starbuck, Andrew Lea
2017-07-04
A radio-frequency photonic devices employs photon-phonon coupling for information transfer. The device includes a membrane in which a two-dimensionally periodic phononic crystal (PnC) structure is patterned. The device also includes at least a first optical waveguide embedded in the membrane. At least a first line-defect region interrupts the PnC structure. The first optical waveguide is embedded within the line-defect region.
Polariton-acoustic-phonon interaction in a semiconductor microcavity
Cassabois, G.; Triques, A. L. C.; Bogani, F.; Delalande, C.; Roussignol, Ph.; Piermarocchi, C.
2000-01-01
The broadening of polariton lines by acoustic phonons is investigated in a semiconductor microcavity by means of interferometric correlation measurements with subpicosecond resolution. A decrease of the polariton-acoustic phonon coupling is clearly observed for the lower polariton branch as one approaches the resonance between exciton and photon states. This behavior cannot be explained in terms of a semiclassical linear dispersion theory but requires a full quantum description of the microcavity in the strong-coupling regime.
Topological phononic insulator with robust pseudospin-dependent transport
Xia, Bai-Zhan; Liu, Ting-Ting; Huang, Guo-Liang; Dai, Hong-Qing; Jiao, Jun-Rui; Zang, Xian-Guo; Yu, De-Jie; Zheng, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Jian
2017-09-01
Topological phononic states, which facilitate unique acoustic transport around defects and disorders, have significantly revolutionized our scientific cognition of acoustic systems. Here, by introducing a zone folding mechanism, we realize the topological phase transition in a double Dirac cone of the rotatable triangular phononic crystal with C3 v symmetry. We then investigate the distinct topological edge states on two types of interfaces of our phononic insulators. The first one is a zigzag interface which simultaneously possesses a symmetric mode and an antisymmetric mode. Hybridization of the two modes leads to a robust pseudospin-dependent one-way propagation. The second one is a linear interface with a symmetric mode or an antisymmetric mode. The type of mode is dependent on the topological phase transition of the phononic insulators. Based on the rotatability of triangular phononic crystals, we consider several complicated contours defined by the topological zigzag interfaces. Along these contours, the acoustic waves can unimpededly transmit without backscattering. Our research develops a route for the exploration of the topological phenomena in experiments and provides an excellent framework for freely steering the acoustic backscattering-immune propagation within topological phononic structures.
Phonon Dispersion and the Competition between Pairing and Charge Order
Costa, N. C.; Blommel, T.; Chiu, W.-T.; Batrouni, G.; Scalettar, R. T.
2018-05-01
The Holstein model describes the interaction between fermions and a collection of local (dispersionless) phonon modes. In the dilute limit, the phonon degrees of freedom dress the fermions, giving rise to polaron and bipolaron formation. At higher densities, the phonons mediate collective superconducting (SC) and charge-density wave (CDW) phases. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations have considered both these limits but have not yet focused on the physics of more general phonon spectra. Here we report QMC studies of the role of phonon dispersion on SC and CDW order in such models. We quantify the effect of finite phonon bandwidth and curvature on the critical temperature Tcdw for CDW order and also uncover several novel features of diagonal long-range order in the phase diagram, including a competition between charge patterns at momenta q =(π ,π ) and q =(0 ,π ) which lends insight into the relationship between Fermi surface nesting and the wave vector at which charge order occurs. We also demonstrate SC order at half filling in situations where a nonzero bandwidth sufficiently suppresses Tcdw.
Phononic crystals with one-dimensional defect as sensor materials
Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed
2017-09-01
Recently, sensor technology has attracted great attention in many fields due to its importance in many engineering applications. In the present work, we introduce a study using the innovative properties of phononic crystals in enhancing a new type of sensors based on the intensity of transmitted frequencies inside the phononic band gaps. Based on the transfer matrix method and Bloch theory, the expressions of the reflection coefficient and dispersion relation are presented. Firstly, the influences of filling fraction ratio and the angle of incidence on the band gap width are discussed. Secondly, the localization of waves inside band gaps is discussed by enhancing the properties of the defected phononic crystal. Compared to the periodic structure, localization modes involved within the band structure of phononic crystals with one and two defect layers are presented and compared. Trapped localized modes can be detected easily and provide more information about defected structures. Such method could increase the knowledge of manufacturing defects by measuring the intensity of propagated waves in the resonant cavities and waveguides. Moreover, several factors enhance the role of the defect layer on the transmission properties of defected phononic crystals are presented. The acoustic band gap can be used to detect or sense the type of liquids filling the defect layer. The liquids make specific resonant modes through the phononic band gaps that related to the properties of each liquid. The frequency where the maximum resonant modes occur is correlated to material properties and allows to determine several parameters such as the type of an unknown material.
Phononic crystals of spherical particles: A tight binding approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mattarelli, M., E-mail: maurizio.mattarelli@fisica.unipg.it [NiPS Laboratory, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Perugia, Via Pascoli, 06100 Perugia (Italy); Secchi, M. [CMM - Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy); Montagna, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento (Italy)
2013-11-07
The vibrational dynamics of a fcc phononic crystal of spheres is studied and compared with that of a single free sphere, modelled either by a continuous homogeneous medium or by a finite cluster of atoms. For weak interaction among the spheres, the vibrational dynamics of the phononic crystal is described by shallow bands, with low degree of dispersion, corresponding to the acoustic spheroidal and torsional modes of the single sphere. The phonon displacements are therefore related to the vibrations of a sphere, as the electron wave functions in a crystal are related to the atomic wave functions in a tight binding model. Important dispersion is found for the two lowest phonon bands, which correspond to zero frequency free translation and rotation of a free sphere. Brillouin scattering spectra are calculated at some values of the exchanged wavevectors of the light, and compared with those of a single sphere. With weak interaction between particles, given the high acoustic impedance mismatch in dry systems, the density of phonon states consist of sharp bands separated by large gaps, which can be well accounted for by a single particle model. Based on the width of the frequency gaps, tunable with the particle size, and on the small number of dispersive acoustic phonons, such systems may provide excellent materials for application as sound or heat filters.
Won, Rachel
2011-12-01
The combination of microwave photonics and optics has advanced many applications in defence, wireless communications, imaging and network infrastructure. Rachel Won talks to Jianping Yao from the University of Ottawa in Canada about the importance of this growing field.
Cosmic microwave background radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, R.W.
1979-01-01
The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored
Integrated Microwave Photonics
Marpaung, David; Roeloffzen, Chris; Heideman, René; Leinse, Arne; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Capmany Francoy, José
2013-01-01
Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A particular aspect that recently gains significant interests is the use of photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology in the MWP field for enhanced functionalities and robustness as well as the r...
Microwave system engineering principles
Raff, Samuel J
1977-01-01
Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo
Multimodal Pedagogies for Teacher Education in TESOL
Yi, Youngjoo; Angay-Crowder, Tuba
2016-01-01
As a growing number of English language learners (ELLs) engage in digital and multimodal literacy practices in their daily lives, teachers are starting to incorporate multimodal approaches into their instruction. However, anecdotal and empirical evidence shows that teachers often feel unprepared for integrating such practices into their curricula…
Modeling multimodal human-computer interaction
Obrenovic, Z.; Starcevic, D.
2004-01-01
Incorporating the well-known Unified Modeling Language into a generic modeling framework makes research on multimodal human-computer interaction accessible to a wide range off software engineers. Multimodal interaction is part of everyday human discourse: We speak, move, gesture, and shift our gaze
Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.
Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T
1976-09-01
The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.
Filter. Remix. Make.: Cultivating Adaptability through Multimodality
Dusenberry, Lisa; Hutter, Liz; Robinson, Joy
2015-01-01
This article establishes traits of adaptable communicators in the 21st century, explains why adaptability should be a goal of technical communication educators, and shows how multimodal pedagogy supports adaptability. Three examples of scalable, multimodal assignments (infographics, research interviews, and software demonstrations) that evidence…
(Re-)Examination of Multimodal Augmented Reality
Rosa, N.E.; Werkhoven, P.J.; Hürst, W.O.
2016-01-01
The majority of augmented reality (AR) research has been concerned with visual perception, however the move towards multimodality is imminent. At the same time, there is no clear vision of what multimodal AR is. The purpose of this position paper is to consider possible ways of examining AR other
Multimodal pain management after arthroscopic surgery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Sten
Multimodal Pain Management after Arthroscopic Surgery By Sten Rasmussen, M.D. The thesis is based on four randomized controlled trials. The main hypothesis was that multimodal pain treatment provides faster recovery after arthroscopic surgery. NSAID was tested against placebo after knee arthroscopy...
A microwave powered sensor assembly for microwave ovens
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2016-01-01
The present invention relates to a microwave powered sensor assembly for micro- wave ovens. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a microwave antenna for generating an RF antenna signal in response to microwave radiation at a predetermined excitation frequency. A dc power supply circuit...... of the microwave powered sensor assembly is operatively coupled to the RF antenna signal for extracting energy from the RF antenna signal and produce a power supply voltage. A sensor is connected to the power supply voltage and configured to measure a physical or chemical property of a food item under heating...... in a microwave oven chamber....
Drusen Characterization with Multimodal Imaging
Spaide, Richard F.; Curcio, Christine A.
2010-01-01
Summary Multimodal imaging findings and histological demonstration of soft drusen, cuticular drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits provided information used to develop a model explaining their imaging characteristics. Purpose To characterize the known appearance of cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits (reticular pseudodrusen), and soft drusen as revealed by multimodal fundus imaging; to create an explanatory model that accounts for these observations. Methods Reported color, fluorescein angiographic, autofluorescence, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of patients with cuticular drusen, soft drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits were reviewed, as were actual images from affected eyes. Representative histological sections were examined. The geometry, location, and imaging characteristics of these lesions were evaluated. A hypothesis based on the Beer-Lambert Law of light absorption was generated to fit these observations. Results Cuticular drusen appear as numerous uniform round yellow-white punctate accumulations under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Soft drusen are larger yellow-white dome-shaped mounds of deposit under the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits are polymorphous light-grey interconnected accumulations above the RPE. Based on the model, both cuticular and soft drusen appear yellow due to the removal of shorter wavelength light by a double pass through the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits, which are located on the RPE, are not subjected to short wavelength attenuation and therefore are more prominent when viewed with blue light. The location and morphology of extracellular material in relationship to the RPE, and associated changes to RPE morphology and pigmentation, appeared to be primary determinants of druse appearance in different imaging modalities. Conclusion Although cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits, and soft drusen are composed of common components, they are distinguishable
Multifuel multimodal network design; Projeto de redes multicombustiveis multimodal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lage, Carolina; Dias, Gustavo; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia de Producao
2008-07-01
The objective of the Multi commodity Multimodal Network Project is the development of modeling tools and methodologies for the optimal sizing of production networks and multimodal distribution of multiple fuel and its incomes, considering investments and transportation costs. Given the inherently non-linear combinatory nature of the problem, the resolution of real instances by the complete model, in an exact way, becomes computationally intractable. Thus, the strategy for resolution should contain a combination of exacts and heuristics methods, that must be applied to subdivisions of the original problem. This paper deals with one of these subdivisions, tackling the problem of modeling a network of pipelines in order to drain the production of ethanol away from the producing plants. The objective consists in defining the best network topology, minimizing investment and operational costs, and attending the total demand. In order to do that, the network was considered a tree, where the nodes are the center of producing regions and the edges are the pipelines, trough where the ethanol produced by plants must be drained away. The main objective also includes the decision over the optimal diameter of each pipeline and the optimal size of the bombs, in order to minimize the pumping costs. (author)
Metawidgets in the multimodal interface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blattner, M.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Glinert, E.P.; Jorge, J.A.; Ormsby, G.R. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)
1991-01-01
We analyze two intertwined and fundamental issues concerning computer-to-human communication in the multimodal interfaces: the interplay between sound and graphics, and the role of object persistence. Our observations lead us to introduce metawidgets as abstract entities capable of manifesting themselves to users as image, as sound, or as various combinations and/or sequences of the two media. We show examples of metawidgets in action, and discuss mechanisms for choosing among alternative media for metawidget instantiation. Finally, we describe a couple of experimental microworlds we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 17 refs., 7 figs.
Multimodal approach to postoperative recovery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kehlet, Henrik
2009-01-01
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide updated information on recent developments within individual components of multimodal interventions to improve postoperative outcome (fast-track methodology). RECENT FINDINGS: The value of the fast-track methodology to improve recovery and decrease hospital stay...... and morbidity has been firmly consolidated, especially in colorectal procedures. An increasing amount of data from other procedures supports the value of the fast-track concept across procedures. Fast-track programs should be based on the analysis of procedure-specific factors that may influence outcome...
Ketamina en analgesia multimodal postcesarea
Monzón Rubio, Eva María
2011-01-01
Mediante la analgesia multimodal influimos en las diferentes vías del dolor a la vez que minimizamos los potenciales efectos adversos de los diferentes fármacos administrados. En el caso del dolor postcesárea esto adquiere un importante matiz debido a la necesidad de disminuir el uso de opioides que pasan a la leche materna en caso de lactancia natural. El uso de dosis subanestésicas de Ketamina ha demostrado en diferentes estudios la disminución de requerimientos de opioides en las primer...
Lee, Y.; Bescond, M.; Logoteta, D.; Cavassilas, N.; Lannoo, M.; Luisier, M.
2018-05-01
We propose an efficient method to quantum mechanically treat anharmonic interactions in the atomistic nonequilibrium Green's function simulation of phonon transport. We demonstrate that the so-called lowest-order approximation, implemented through a rescaling technique and analytically continued by means of the Padé approximants, can be used to accurately model third-order anharmonic effects. Although the paper focuses on a specific self-energy, the method is applicable to a very wide class of physical interactions. We apply this approach to the simulation of anharmonic phonon transport in realistic Si and Ge nanowires with uniform or discontinuous cross sections. The effect of increasing the temperature above 300 K is also investigated. In all the considered cases, we are able to obtain a good agreement with the routinely adopted self-consistent Born approximation, at a remarkably lower computational cost. In the more complicated case of high temperatures (≫300 K), we find that the first-order Richardson extrapolation applied to the sequence of the Padé approximants N -1 /N results in a significant acceleration of the convergence.
Polarization dependent behavior of CdS around the first and second LO-phonon modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frausto-Reyes, C.; Molina-Contreras, J.R.; Lopez-Alvarez, Y.F.; Medel-Ruiz, C.I.; Perez Ladron de Guevara, H.; Ortiz-Morales, M.
2010-01-01
The present work report studies on resonant Raman experimental line shape for CdS around the first and second LO-phonon modes. The application of our method to the study of LO-phonon modes of CdS suggests that the scattered intensity is dominated by the surface and dependent on polarization. Results showed that the Raman spectra for CdS, roughly fall into three groups: a broad line-wing with apparent maxima around 194 cm -1 in the range of 140 and 240 cm -1 which can be ascribed to overtone scattering from acoustic phonons; a band near the 1LO phonon mode which can be attributed to a combination of one-phonon scattering and peak acoustic phonon and finally, a band near the 2LO phonon mode which can be attributed to a combination of two-phonon scattering and peak acoustic phonon.
Multimodality localization of epileptic foci
Desco, Manuel; Pascau, Javier; Pozo, M. A.; Santos, Andres; Reig, Santiago; Gispert, Juan D.; Garcia-Barreno, Pedro
2001-05-01
This paper presents a multimodality approach for the localization of epileptic foci using PET, MRI and EEG combined without the need of external markers. Mutual Information algorithm is used for MRI-PET registration. Dipole coordinates (provided by BESA software) are projected onto the MRI using a specifically developed algorithm. The four anatomical references used for electrode positioning (nasion, inion and two preauricular points) are located on the MRI using a triplanar viewer combined with a surface-rendering tool. Geometric transformation using deformation of the ideal sphere used for dipole calculations is then applied to match the patient's brain size and shape. Eight treatment-refractory epileptic patients have been studied. The combination of the anatomical information from the MRI, hipoperfusion areas in PET and dipole position and orientation helped the physician in the diagnosis of epileptic focus location. Neurosurgery was not indicated for patients where PET and dipole results were inconsistent; in two cases it was clinically indicated despite the mismatch, showing a negative follow up. The multimodality approach presented does not require external markers for dipole projection onto the MRI, this being the main difference with previous methods. The proposed method may play an important role in the indication of surgery for treatment- refractory epileptic patients.
Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine
2009-07-01
An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)
Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thelen, Manfred; Erbel, Raimund; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Barkhausen, Joerg
2009-01-01
An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)
Temperature dependent magnon-phonon coupling in bcc Fe from theory and experiment.
Körmann, F; Grabowski, B; Dutta, B; Hickel, T; Mauger, L; Fultz, B; Neugebauer, J
2014-10-17
An ab initio based framework for quantitatively assessing the phonon contribution due to magnon-phonon interactions and lattice expansion is developed. The theoretical results for bcc Fe are in very good agreement with high-quality phonon frequency measurements. For some phonon branches, the magnon-phonon interaction is an order of magnitude larger than the phonon shift due to lattice expansion, demonstrating the strong impact of magnetic short-range order even significantly above the Curie temperature. The framework closes the previous simulation gap between the ferro- and paramagnetic limits.
Design of a microwave calorimeter for the microwave tokamak experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinak, M.
1988-01-01
The initial design of a microwave calorimeter for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment is presented. The design is optimized to measure the refraction and absorption of millimeter rf microwaves as they traverse the toroidal plasma of the Alcator C tokamak. Techniques utilized can be adapted for use in measuring high intensity pulsed output from a microwave device in an environment of ultra high vacuum, intense fields of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and intense magnetic fields. 16 refs
Phonon spectra, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of WS2 nanotubes.
Evarestov, Robert A; Bandura, Andrei V; Porsev, Vitaly V; Kovalenko, Alexey V
2017-11-15
Hybrid density functional theory calculations are performed for the first time on the phonon dispersion and thermodynamic properties of WS 2 -based single-wall nanotubes. Symmetry analysis is presented for phonon modes in nanotubes using the standard (crystallographic) factorization for line groups. Symmetry and the number of infra-red and Raman active modes in achiral WS 2 nanotubes are given for armchair and zigzag chiralities. It is demonstrated that a number of infrared and Raman active modes is independent on the nanotube diameter. The zone-folding approach is applied to find out an impact of curvature on electron and phonon band structure of nanotubes rolled up from the monolayer. Phonon frequencies obtained both for layers and nanotubes are used to compute the thermal contributions to their thermodynamic functions. The temperature dependences of energy, entropy, and heat capacity of nanotubes are estimated with respect to those of the monolayer. The role of phonons in the stability estimation of nanotubes is discussed based on Helmholtz free energy calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Quantum Phonon Optics: Squeezing Quantum Noise in the Atomic Displacements.
Hu, X.; Nori, F.
1996-03-01
We have investigated(X. Hu and F. Nori, Physical Review B, in press; preprints.) coherent and squeezed quantum states of phonons. Squeezed states are interesting because they allow the possibility of modulating the quantum fluctuations of atomic displacements below the zero-point quantum noise level of phonon vacuum states. We have studiedfootnotemark[1] the possibility of squeezing quantum noise in the atomic displacement using a polariton-based approach and also a method based on the three-phonon anharmonic interaction. Our focus here is on the first approach. We have diagonalized the polariton Hamiltonian and calculated the corresponding expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators (the later is the phonon analog of the electric field operator for photons). Our results shows that squeezing of quantum fluctuations in the atomic displacements can be achieved with appropriate initial states of both photon and phonon fields. The degree of squeezing is directly related to the crystal susceptibility, which is indicative of the interaction strength between the incident light and the crystal.
Designing Phononic Crystals with Wide and Robust Band Gaps
Jia, Zian; Chen, Yanyu; Yang, Haoxiang; Wang, Lifeng
2018-04-01
Phononic crystals (PnCs) engineered to manipulate and control the propagation of mechanical waves have enabled the design of a range of novel devices, such as waveguides, frequency modulators, and acoustic cloaks, for which wide and robust phononic band gaps are highly preferable. While numerous PnCs have been designed in recent decades, to the best of our knowledge, PnCs that possess simultaneous wide and robust band gaps (to randomness and deformations) have not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that by combining the band-gap formation mechanisms of Bragg scattering and local resonances (the latter one is dominating), PnCs with wide and robust phononic band gaps can be established. The robustness of the phononic band gaps are then discussed from two aspects: robustness to geometric randomness (manufacture defects) and robustness to deformations (mechanical stimuli). Analytical formulations further predict the optimal design parameters, and an uncertainty analysis quantifies the randomness effect of each designing parameter. Moreover, we show that the deformation robustness originates from a local resonance-dominant mechanism together with the suppression of structural instability. Importantly, the proposed PnCs require only a small number of layers of elements (three unit cells) to obtain broad, robust, and strong attenuation bands, which offer great potential in designing flexible and deformable phononic devices.
Toward single electron resolution phonon mediated ionization detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirabolfathi, Nader, E-mail: mirabolfathi@physics.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University (United States); Harris, H. Rusty; Mahapatra, Rupak; Sundqvist, Kyle; Jastram, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University (United States); Serfass, Bruno; Faiez, Dana; Sadoulet, Bernard [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley (United States)
2017-05-21
Experiments seeking to detect rare event interactions such as dark matter or coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering are striving for large mass detectors with very low detection threshold. Using Neganov-Luke phonon amplification effect, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is reaching unprecedented RMS resolutions of ∼14 eV{sub ee}. CDMSlite is currently the most sensitive experiment to WIMPs of mass ∼5 GeV/c{sup 2} but is limited in achieving higher phonon gains due to an early onset of leakage current into Ge crystals. The contact interface geometry is particularly weak for blocking hole injection from the metal, and thus a new design is demonstrated that allows high voltage bias via vacuum separated electrode. With an increased bias voltage and a×2 Luke phonon gain, world best RMS resolution of sigma ∼7 eV{sub ee} for 0.25 kg (d=75 mm, h=1 cm) Ge detectors was achieved. Since the leakage current is a function of the field and the phonon gain is a function of the applied voltage, appropriately robust interface blocking material combined with thicker substrate (25 mm) will reach a resolution of ∼2.8 eV{sub ee}. In order to achieve better resolution of ∼ eV, we are investigating a layer of insulator between the phonon readout surface and the semiconductor crystals.
Reduction of thermal conductivity in phononic nanomesh structures
Yu, Jen-Kan
2010-07-25
Controlling the thermal conductivity of a material independently of its electrical conductivity continues to be a goal for researchers working on thermoelectric materials for use in energy applications1,2 and in the cooling of integrated circuits3. In principle, the thermal conductivity κ and the electrical conductivity σ may be independently optimized in semiconducting nanostructures because different length scales are associated with phonons (which carry heat) and electric charges (which carry current). Phonons are scattered at surfaces and interfaces, so κ generally decreases as the surface-to-volume ratio increases. In contrast, σ is less sensitive to a decrease in nanostructure size, although at sufficiently small sizes it will degrade through the scattering of charge carriers at interfaces. Here, we demonstrate an approach to independently controlling κ based on altering the phonon band structure of a semiconductor thin film through the formation of a phononic nanomesh film. These films are patterned with periodic spacings that are comparable to, or shorter than, the phonon mean free path. The nanomesh structure exhibits a substantially lower thermal conductivity than an equivalently prepared array of silicon nanowires, even though this array has a significantly higher surface-to-volume ratio. Bulk-like electrical conductivity is preserved. We suggest that this development is a step towards a coherent mechanism for lowering thermal conductivity. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Designing Phononic Crystals with Wide and Robust Band Gaps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yanyu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jia, Zian [State University of New York at Stony Brook; Yang, Haoxiang [State University of New York at Stony Brook; Wang, Lifeng [State University of New York at Stony Brook
2018-04-16
Phononic crystals (PnCs) engineered to manipulate and control the propagation of mechanical waves have enabled the design of a range of novel devices, such as waveguides, frequency modulators, and acoustic cloaks, for which wide and robust phononic band gaps are highly preferable. While numerous PnCs have been designed in recent decades, to the best of our knowledge, PnCs that possess simultaneous wide and robust band gaps (to randomness and deformations) have not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that by combining the band-gap formation mechanisms of Bragg scattering and local resonances (the latter one is dominating), PnCs with wide and robust phononic band gaps can be established. The robustness of the phononic band gaps are then discussed from two aspects: robustness to geometric randomness (manufacture defects) and robustness to deformations (mechanical stimuli). Analytical formulations further predict the optimal design parameters, and an uncertainty analysis quantifies the randomness effect of each designing parameter. Moreover, we show that the deformation robustness originates from a local resonance-dominant mechanism together with the suppression of structural instability. Importantly, the proposed PnCs require only a small number of layers of elements (three unit cells) to obtain broad, robust, and strong attenuation bands, which offer great potential in designing flexible and deformable phononic devices.
Spin waves in terbium. II. Magnon-phonon interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, J.; Houmann, J.G.
1975-01-01
The selection rules for the linear couplings between magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of a simple basal-plane hcp ferromagnet are determined by general symmetry considerations. The acoustic-optical magnon-phonon interactions observed in the heavy-rare-earth metals have been explained by Liu as originating from the mixing of the spin states of the conduction electrons due to the spin-orbit coupling. We find that this coupling mechanism introduces interactions which violate the selection rules for a simple ferromagnet. The interactions between the magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of Tb have been studied experimentally by means of inelastic neutron scatttering. The magnons are coupled to both the acoustic- and optical-transverse phonons. By studying the behavior of the acoustic-optical coupling, we conclude that it is a spin-mixed-induced coupling as proposed by Liu. The coupled magnon--transverse-phonon system for the c direction of Tb is analyzed in detail, and the strengths of the couplings are deduced as a function of wave vector by combining the experimental studies with the theory
Reduction of thermal conductivity in phononic nanomesh structures.
Yu, Jen-Kan; Mitrovic, Slobodan; Tham, Douglas; Varghese, Joseph; Heath, James R
2010-10-01
Controlling the thermal conductivity of a material independently of its electrical conductivity continues to be a goal for researchers working on thermoelectric materials for use in energy applications and in the cooling of integrated circuits. In principle, the thermal conductivity κ and the electrical conductivity σ may be independently optimized in semiconducting nanostructures because different length scales are associated with phonons (which carry heat) and electric charges (which carry current). Phonons are scattered at surfaces and interfaces, so κ generally decreases as the surface-to-volume ratio increases. In contrast, σ is less sensitive to a decrease in nanostructure size, although at sufficiently small sizes it will degrade through the scattering of charge carriers at interfaces. Here, we demonstrate an approach to independently controlling κ based on altering the phonon band structure of a semiconductor thin film through the formation of a phononic nanomesh film. These films are patterned with periodic spacings that are comparable to, or shorter than, the phonon mean free path. The nanomesh structure exhibits a substantially lower thermal conductivity than an equivalently prepared array of silicon nanowires, even though this array has a significantly higher surface-to-volume ratio. Bulk-like electrical conductivity is preserved. We suggest that this development is a step towards a coherent mechanism for lowering thermal conductivity.
Interaction between confined phonons and photons in periodic silicon resonators
Iskandar, A.; Gwiazda, A.; Younes, J.; Kazan, M.; Bruyant, A.; Tabbal, M.; Lerondel, G.
2018-03-01
In this paper, we demonstrate that phonons and photons of different momenta can be confined and interact with each other within the same nanostructure. The interaction between confined phonons and confined photons in silicon resonator arrays is observed by means of Raman scattering. The Raman spectra from large arrays of dielectric silicon resonators exhibited Raman enhancement accompanied with a downshift and broadening. The analysis of the Raman intensity and line shape using finite-difference time-domain simulations and a spatial correlation model demonstrated an interaction between photons confined in the resonators and phonons confined in highly defective regions prompted by the structuring process. It was shown that the Raman enhancement is due to collective lattice resonance inducing field confinement in the resonators, while the spectra downshift and broadening are signatures of the relaxation of the phonon wave vector due to phonon confinement in defective regions located in the surface layer of the Si resonators. We found that as the resonators increase in height and their shape becomes cylindrical, the amplitude of their coherent oscillation increases and hence their ability to confine the incoming electric field increases.
Phonon dispersion evolution in uniaxially strained aluminum crystal
Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Misra, Anil; Aryal, Sitaram; Ouyang, Lizhi
2018-04-01
The influence of loading upon the phonon dispersion of crystalline materials could be highly nonlinear with certain particular trends that depend upon the loading path. In this paper, we have calculated the influence of [100] uniaxial strain on the phonon dispersion and group velocities in fcc aluminum using second moments of position obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at 300 K. In contrast to nonlinear monotonic variation of both longitudinal and transverse phonon frequencies along the Δ , Λ and Σ lines of the first Brillouin zone under tension, transverse phonon branches along the Λ line show inflection at specific wavevectors when the compressive strain exceeds 5%. Further, the longitudinal group velocities along the high-symmetry Δ line vary non-monotonically with strain, reaching a minimum at 5% compressive strain. Throughout the strain range studied, the equilibrium positions of atoms displace in an affine manner preserving certain static structural symmetry. We attribute the anomalies in the phonon dispersion to the non-affine evolution of second moments of atomic position, and the associated plateauing of force constants under the applied strain path.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flach, B.
2000-01-01
This thesis has two topics: One is the investigation of an adsorbate induced phonon anomaly on W(110) and Mo{sub 1-x}Re{sub x}(110) (x = 5, 15, 25%) with inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The other one is the study of the growth, morphology and dynamics of ultra-thin lithium films deposited on W(110). In 1992 a giant phonon anomaly was found by J. Luedecke on the hydrogen saturated W(110) and Mo(110) surfaces. The anomaly consists of a deep and sharp indentation in the phonon dispersion curves in which the phonon energy nearly drops to zero ({omega}{sub 1}). In addition, a small and broad dip in the surface Rayleigh mode is observed ({omega}{sub 2}). The anomaly appears in the anti {gamma}-H- as well as in the anti {gamma}-S-direction of the surface Brillouin zone (SBZ). Since its first discovery, numerous other experimental and theoretical studies have followed. In the present work the effects is reinvestigated and experimental parameters, such as the crystal temperature and the incident energy, were changed in order to study their influence on the anomalous phonon behavior. In the case of H/Mo(110) the substrate was changed as well by alloying with small amounts of rhenium. In the present experiments a strong crystal temperature dependence of the {omega}{sub 2}-branch was found which leads to lower energies at the 'dip' for smaller temperatures, while the {omega}{sub 1}-anomaly remains unchanged. Such behavior agrees well with the picture that the {omega}{sub 2}-branch is due to a Kohn anomaly. (orig.)
Practical multimodal care for cancer cachexia.
Maddocks, Matthew; Hopkinson, Jane; Conibear, John; Reeves, Annie; Shaw, Clare; Fearon, Ken C H
2016-12-01
Cancer cachexia is common and reduces function, treatment tolerability and quality of life. Given its multifaceted pathophysiology a multimodal approach to cachexia management is advocated for, but can be difficult to realise in practice. We use a case-based approach to highlight practical approaches to the multimodal management of cachexia for patients across the cancer trajectory. Four cases with lung cancer spanning surgical resection, radical chemoradiotherapy, palliative chemotherapy and no anticancer treatment are presented. We propose multimodal care approaches that incorporate nutritional support, exercise, and anti-inflammatory agents, on a background of personalized oncology care and family-centred education. Collectively, the cases reveal that multimodal care is part of everyone's remit, often focuses on supported self-management, and demands buy-in from the patient and their family. Once operationalized, multimodal care approaches can be tested pragmatically, including alongside emerging pharmacological cachexia treatments. We demonstrate that multimodal care for cancer cachexia can be achieved using simple treatments and without a dedicated team of specialists. The sharing of advice between health professionals can help build collective confidence and expertise, moving towards a position in which every team member feels they can contribute towards multimodal care.
MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS
Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...
Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals
Khan, Ahmad Shahid
2014-01-01
Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...
Theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena
Jin, Yongmei M.; Wang, Yu U.; Ren, Yang
2015-12-01
Pre-martensitic phenomena, also called martensite precursor effects, have been known for decades while yet remain outstanding issues. This paper addresses pre-martensitic phenomena from new theoretical and experimental perspectives. A statistical mechanics-based Grüneisen-type phonon theory is developed. On the basis of deformation-dependent incompletely softened low-energy phonons, the theory predicts a lattice instability and pre-martensitic transition into elastic-phonon domains via 'phonon spinodal decomposition.' The phase transition lifts phonon degeneracy in cubic crystal and has a nature of phonon pseudo-Jahn-Teller lattice instability. The theory and notion of phonon domains consistently explain the ubiquitous pre-martensitic anomalies as natural consequences of incomplete phonon softening. The phonon domains are characterised by broken dynamic symmetry of lattice vibrations and deform through internal phonon relaxation in response to stress (a particular case of Le Chatelier's principle), leading to previously unexplored new domain phenomenon. Experimental evidence of phonon domains is obtained by in situ three-dimensional phonon diffuse scattering and Bragg reflection using high-energy synchrotron X-ray single-crystal diffraction, which observes exotic domain phenomenon fundamentally different from usual ferroelastic domain switching phenomenon. In light of the theory and experimental evidence of phonon domains and their roles in pre-martensitic phenomena, currently existing alternative opinions on martensitic precursor phenomena are revisited.
Thermal transport in phononic crystals: The role of zone folding effect
Dechaumphai, Edward; Chen, Renkun
2012-04-01
Recent experiments [Yu et al., Nature Nanotech 5, 718 (2010); Tang et al., Nano Lett. 10, 4279 (2010); Hopkins etal., Nano Lett. 11, 107(2011)] on silicon based nanoscale phononic crystals demonstrated substantially reduced thermal conductivity compared to bulk Si, which cannot be explained by incoherent phonon boundary scattering within the Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE). In this paper, partial coherent treatment of phonons, where phonons are regarded as either wave or particles depending on their frequencies, was considered. Phonons with mean free path smaller than the characteristic size of phononic crystals are treated as particles and the transport in this regime is modeled by BTE with phonon boundary scattering taken into account. On the other hand, phonons with mean free path longer than the characteristic size are treated as waves. In this regime, phonon dispersion relations are computed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method and are found to be modified due to the zone folding effect. The new phonon spectra are then used to compute phonon group velocity and density of states for thermal conductivity modeling. Our partial coherent model agrees well with the recent experimental results on in-plane thermal conductivity of phononic crystals. Our study highlights the importance of zone folding effect on thermal transport in phononic crystals.
Parameter prediction for microwave garnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramer, R.
1996-01-01
Full text: Linearity of the microwave parameters (resonance linewidth ΔH and effective linewidth ΔH eff ) is demonstrated and their use in the Computer-aided design (CAD)/Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) of new microwave garnets is proposed. Such an approach would combine a numerical database of microwave data and several computational programs. The model is an applied formulation of the analysis of a wide range of microwave garnets
Mediating multimodal environmental knowledge across animation techniques
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maier, Carmen Daniela
2011-01-01
://www.sustainlane.com/. The multimodal discourse analysis is meant to reveal how selection and representation of environmental knowledge about social actors, social actions, resources, time and space are influenced by animation techniques. Furthermore, in the context of this multimodal discourse analysis, their influence upon......The growing awareness of and concern about present environmental problems generate a proliferation of new forms of environmental discourses that are mediated in various ways. This chapter explores issues related to the ways in which environmental knowledge is multimodally communicated...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1988-01-01
The Microwave Tokamak Experiment, now under construction at the Laboratory, will use microwave heating from a free-electron laser. The intense microwave pulses will be injected into the tokamak to realize several goals, including a demonstration of the effects of localized heat deposition within magnetically confined plasma, a better understanding of energy confinement in tokamaks, and use of the new free-electron laser technology for plasma heating. The experiment, soon to be operational, provides an opportunity to study dense plasmas heated by powers unprecedented in the electron-cyclotron frequency range required by the especially high magnetic fields used with the MTX and needed for reactors. 1 references, 5 figures, 3 tables
Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran
2018-01-01
This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...
Benford, James; Schamiloglu, Edl
2016-01-01
Following in the footsteps of its popular predecessors, High Power Microwaves, Third Edition continues to provide a wide-angle, integrated view of the field of high power microwaves (HPMs). This third edition includes significant updates in every chapter as well as a new chapter on beamless systems that covers nonlinear transmission lines. Written by an experimentalist, a theorist, and an applied theorist, respectively, the book offers complementary perspectives on different source types. The authors address: * How HPM relates historically and technically to the conventional microwave field * The possible applications for HPM and the key criteria that HPM devices have to meet in order to be applied * How high power sources work, including their performance capabilities and limitations * The broad fundamental issues to be addressed in the future for a wide variety of source types The book is accessible to several audiences. Researchers currently in the field can widen their understanding of HPM. Present or pot...
Integrated phononic crystal resonators based on adiabatically-terminated phononic crystal waveguides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Razi Dehghannasiri
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this letter, we demonstrate a new design for integrated phononic crystal (PnC resonators based on confining acoustic waves in a heterogeneous waveguide-based PnC structure. In this architecture, a PnC waveguide that supports a single mode at the desired resonance frequencies is terminated by two waveguide sections with no propagating mode at those frequencies (i.e., have mode gap. The proposed PnC resonators are designed through combining the spatial-domain and the spatial-frequency domain (i.e., the k-domain analysis to achieve a smooth mode envelope. This design approach can benefit both membrane-based and surface-acoustic-wave-based architectures by confining the mode spreading in k-domain that leads to improved electromechanical excitation/detection coupling and reduced loss through propagating bulk modes.
Active tuning of surface phonon polariton resonances via carrier photoinjection
Dunkelberger, Adam D.; Ellis, Chase T.; Ratchford, Daniel C.; Giles, Alexander J.; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Spann, Bryan T.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Tischler, Joseph G.; Long, James P.; Glembocki, Orest J.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.; Caldwell, Joshua D.
2018-01-01
Surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) are attractive alternatives to infrared plasmonics for subdiffractional confinement of infrared light. Localized SPhP resonances in semiconductor nanoresonators are narrow, but that linewidth and the limited extent of the Reststrahlen band limit spectral coverage. To address this limitation, we report active tuning of SPhP resonances in InP and 4H-SiC by photoinjecting free carriers into nanoresonators, taking advantage of the coupling between the carrier plasma and optic phonons to blueshift SPhP resonances. We demonstrate state-of-the-art tuning figures of merit upon continuous-wave excitation (in InP) or pulsed excitation (in 4H-SiC). Lifetime effects cause the tuning to saturate in InP, and carrier redistribution leads to rapid (electronic and phononic excitations.
Anharmonic phonons and the isotope effect in superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crespi, V.H.; Cohen, M.L.; Penn, D.R.
1991-01-01
Anharmonic interionic potentials are examined in an Einstein model to study the unusual isotope-effect exponents for the high-T c oxides. The mass dependences of the electron-phonon coupling constant λ and the average phonon frequency √ left-angle ω 2 right-angle are computed from weighted sums over the oscillator levels. The isotope-effect exponent is depressed below 1/2 by either a double-well potential or a potential with positive quadratic and quartic parts. Numerical solutions of Schroedinger's equation for double-well potentials produce λ's in the range 1.5--4 for a material with a vanishing isotope-effect parameter α. However, low phonon frequencies limit T c to roughly 15 K. A negative quartic perturbation to a harmonic well can increase α above 1/2. In the extreme-strong-coupling limit, α is 1/2, regardless of anharmonicity
Anharmonic phonons and magnons in BiFeO3
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL; Ma, Jie [ORNL; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL; Gout, Delphine J [ORNL; Brown, Craig [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Wang, Kefeng [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing; Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill
2012-01-01
The phonon density of states (DOS) and magnetic excitation spectrum of polycrystalline BiFeO3 were measured for temperatures 200 < T < 750K , using inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Our results indicate that the magnetic spectrum of BiFeO3 closely resembles that of similar Fe perovskites, such as LaFeO3, despite the cycloid modulation in BiFeO3. We do not find any evidence for a spin gap. A strong T-dependence of the phonon DOS was found, with a marked broadening of the whole spectrum, providing evidence of strong anharmonicity. This anharmonicity is corroborated by large amplitude motions of Bi and O ions observed with neutron diffraction. These results highlight the importance of spin-phonon coupling in this material.
Superfluidity of nuclei and the nucleon--phonon interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadmenskii, S.G.; Luk'yanovich, P.A.
1989-01-01
The Lehmann expansion for the exact one-particle Green function in a system with superfluidity is obtained. Expressions for the correlation function and mass operator are derived with allowance for a retarded nucleon--phonon interaction. Within the scope of the formalism developed, equations for the superfluidity of nuclei allowing for quasiparticle fragmentation effects are derived. It is concluded that the retarded nucleon--phonon interaction in the particle--particle channel causes a decrease of the fragmentation of the one-particle force in the vicinity of the Fermi surface. It is shown that inclusion of a nonretarded vacuum interaction of two nucleons and of a retarded interaction due to the exchange between two nucleons of low-lying highly collectivized quadrupole phonons is sufficient to provide the necessary scale of attraction in the description of pair correlations of nucleons in nuclei with developed superfluidity
Electromagnetic excitation of phonons at C(001) surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez-Sanchez, F L; Perez-Rodriguez, F
2009-01-01
The photon-phonon coupling at C(001)-(2 x 1) surfaces and its manifestation in far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra (FIR-RAS) are theoretically investigated. We solve the coupled system of equations for the electromagnetic field and lattice vibrations, described within the adiabatic bond charge model (ABCM), with the method of expansion into bulk phonon and photon modes. The calculated FIR-RAS exhibit resonances associated with zone-center surface phonons in good agreement with available HREELS experiments and predictions of vibrational modes for diamond (001)-(2 x 1) surfaces from ABCM and ab initio calculations. Interestingly, the reflectance anisotropy spectra for a C(001)-(2 x 1) surface turn out to be qualitatively different from the spectra for a Si(001)-(2 x 1) surface, reported previously.
Electromagnetic excitation of phonons at C(001) surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Sanchez, F L [Escuela de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma ' Benito Juarez' de Oaxaca, Avenida Universidad S/N, Ex-Hacienda de Cinco Senores, Ciudad Universitaria, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oaxaca, 68120 (Mexico); Perez-Rodriguez, F, E-mail: fperez@sirio.ifuap.buap.m [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Post. J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico)
2009-09-02
The photon-phonon coupling at C(001)-(2 x 1) surfaces and its manifestation in far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra (FIR-RAS) are theoretically investigated. We solve the coupled system of equations for the electromagnetic field and lattice vibrations, described within the adiabatic bond charge model (ABCM), with the method of expansion into bulk phonon and photon modes. The calculated FIR-RAS exhibit resonances associated with zone-center surface phonons in good agreement with available HREELS experiments and predictions of vibrational modes for diamond (001)-(2 x 1) surfaces from ABCM and ab initio calculations. Interestingly, the reflectance anisotropy spectra for a C(001)-(2 x 1) surface turn out to be qualitatively different from the spectra for a Si(001)-(2 x 1) surface, reported previously.
Interaction Between Electrons, Magnons and Phonons in Nickel. RCN Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frikkee, E.
1971-02-01
By means of inelastic neutron scattering, a localized electron excitation was observed in Ni and (4% Fe). The excitation interacts with magnons and phonons, and is assumed to correspond with transitions between the nearly-degenerate electronstates Δ 6 ↑ and Δ 7 ↑ near X, which are situated just below the Fermi level.Selection rules for electron-phonon and electronmagnon scattering are determined by means of group theory. It is found that in particular the transverse (Δ 5 ) phonons in the [100] direction are perturbed. The observed neutron-electron scattering turns out to be an indirect process, which is only possible due to the interaction between the (Δ 6 , Δ 7 ) electrons and the lattice. The basic mechanism for the observed effects is the electron spin-orbit coupling, which establishes the interaction between the electron spin system and the lattice. (author)
Photon control of phonons in mixed crystal quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ingale, Alka
2003-12-15
Coherent phonon oscillations in solids can be excited impulsively by a single femtosecond laser pulse whose duration is shorter than a phonon period. In the impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) experiment, scattering of probe is monitored as a function of time with respect to pump to generate time domain spectra of coherent phonons. In this paper, we present one such study of CdSe{sub 0.68}Te{sub 0.32} (d{approx}80 A) quantum dots in glass matrix, i.e semiconductor-doped glass (SDG) RG780 from Schott, USA and the experiment was performed at Prof. Merlin's laboratory at the University of Michigan, USA. Here, we present first report of selectively driving only CdSe-like modes in these mixed crystal quantum dots using photon control with two pump beams.
Research Update: Phonon engineering of nanocrystalline silicon thermoelectrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junichiro Shiomi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Nanocrystalline silicon thermoelectrics can be a solution to improve the cost-effectiveness of thermoelectric technology from both material and integration viewpoints. While their figure-of-merit is still developing, recent advances in theoretical/numerical calculations, property measurements, and structural synthesis/fabrication have opened up possibilities to develop the materials based on fundamental physics of phonon transport. Here, this is demonstrated by reviewing a series of works on nanocrystalline silicon materials using calculations of multiscale phonon transport, measurements of interfacial heat conduction, and synthesis from nanoparticles. Integration of these approaches allows us to engineer phonon transport to improve the thermoelectric performance by introducing local silicon-oxide structures.
Enhancement of phononic band gaps in ternary/binary structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed
2012-01-01
Based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) and Bloch theory, the interaction of elastic waves (normal incidence) with 1D phononic crystal had been studied. The transfer matrix method was obtained for both longitudinal and transverse waves by applying the continuity conditions between the consecutive unit cells. Dispersion relations are calculated and plotted for both binary and ternary structures. Also we have investigated the corresponding effects on the band gaps values for the two types of phononic crystals. Furthermore, it can be observed that the complete band gaps are located in the common frequency stop-band regions. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of different thickness ratios inside each unit cell on the band gap values, as well as unit cells thickness on the central band gap frequency. These phononic band gap materials can be used as a filter for elastic waves at different frequencies values.
Temperature Dependent Variations of Phonon Interactions in Nanocrystalline Cerium Oxide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sugandha Dogra Pandey
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The temperature dependent anharmonic behavior of the phonon modes of nanocrystalline CeO2 was investigated in the temperature range of 80–440 K. The anharmonic constants have been derived from the shift in phonon modes fitted to account for the anharmonic contributions as well as the thermal expansion contribution using the high pressure parameters derived from our own high pressure experimental data reported previously. The total anharmonicity has also been estimated from the true anharmonicity as well as quasiharmonic component. In the line-width variation analysis, the cubic anharmonic term was found to dominate the quartic term. Finally, the phonon lifetime also reflected the trend so observed.
Microwave-assisted Chemical Transformations
In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in developing sustainable chemistries utilizing green chemistry principles. Since the first published report in 1986 by Gedye and Giguere on microwave assisted synthesis in household microwave ovens, the use of microwaves as...
Microwave Assisted Drug Delivery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke
2014-01-01
In this work, the microwave radiation is adopted for remote activation of pharmaceutical drug capsules inside the human body in order to release drugs at a pre-determined time and location. An array of controllable transmitting sources is used to produce a constructive interference at a certain...... focus point inside the body, where the drugs are then released from the specially designed capsules. An experimental setup for microwave activation has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. A design of sensitive receiving structures for integration with a drug...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leung, K.N.; Walther, S.; Owren, H.W.
1985-05-01
A small microwave ion source has been fabricated from a quartz tube with one end enclosed by a two grid accelerator. The source is also enclosed by a cavity operated at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. Microwave power as high as 500 W can be coupled to the source plasma. The source has been operated with and without multicusp fields for different gases. In the case of hydrogen, ion current density of 200 mA/cm -2 with atomic ion species concentration as high as 80% has been extracted from the source
EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements
Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof
2007-04-01
Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of
Linkhart, Douglas K
2014-01-01
Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.
Phonon density of states and anharmonicity of UO2
Pang, Judy W. L.; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr; Larson, Bennett C.; Buyers, William J. L.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Phillpot, Simon R.
2014-03-01
Phonon density of states (PDOS) measurements have been performed on polycrystalline UO2 at 295 and 1200 K using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering to investigate the impact of anharmonicity on the vibrational spectra and to benchmark ab initio PDOS simulations performed on this strongly correlated Mott insulator. Time-of-flight PDOS measurements include anharmonic linewidth broadening, inherently, and the factor of ˜7 enhancement of the oxygen spectrum relative to the uranium component by the increased neutron sensitivity to the oxygen-dominated optical phonon modes. The first-principles simulations of quasiharmonic PDOS spectra were neutron weighted and anharmonicity was introduced in an approximate way by convolution with wave-vector-weighted averages over our previously measured phonon linewidths for UO2, which are provided in numerical form. Comparisons between the PDOS measurements and the simulations show reasonable agreement overall, but they also reveal important areas of disagreement for both high and low temperatures. The discrepancies stem largely from a ˜10 meV compression in the overall bandwidth (energy range) of the oxygen-dominated optical phonons in the simulations. A similar linewidth-convoluted comparison performed with the PDOS spectrum of Dolling et al. obtained by shell-model fitting to their historical phonon dispersion measurements shows excellent agreement with the time-of-flight PDOS measurements reported here. In contrast, we show by comparisons of spectra in linewidth-convoluted form that recent first-principles simulations for UO2 fail to account for the PDOS spectrum determined from the measurements of Dolling et al. These results demonstrate PDOS measurements to be stringent tests for ab inito simulations of phonon physics in UO2 and they indicate further the need for advances in theory to address the lattice dynamics of UO2.
Multimodal integration in statistical learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mitchell, Aaron; Christiansen, Morten Hyllekvist; Weiss, Dan
2014-01-01
, we investigated the ability of adults to integrate audio and visual input during statistical learning. We presented learners with a speech stream synchronized with a video of a speaker’s face. In the critical condition, the visual (e.g., /gi/) and auditory (e.g., /mi/) signals were occasionally...... facilitated participants’ ability to segment the speech stream. Our results therefore demonstrate that participants can integrate audio and visual input to perceive the McGurk illusion during statistical learning. We interpret our findings as support for modality-interactive accounts of statistical learning.......Recent advances in the field of statistical learning have established that learners are able to track regularities of multimodal stimuli, yet it is unknown whether the statistical computations are performed on integrated representations or on separate, unimodal representations. In the present study...
Multimodality image analysis work station
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratib, O.; Huang, H.K.
1989-01-01
The goal of this project is to design and implement a PACS (picture archiving and communication system) workstation for quantitative analysis of multimodality images. The Macintosh II personal computer was selected for its friendly user interface, its popularity among the academic and medical community, and its low cost. The Macintosh operates as a stand alone workstation where images are imported from a central PACS server through a standard Ethernet network and saved on a local magnetic or optical disk. A video digitizer board allows for direct acquisition of images from sonograms or from digitized cine angiograms. The authors have focused their project on the exploration of new means of communicating quantitative data and information through the use of an interactive and symbolic user interface. The software developed includes a variety of image analysis, algorithms for digitized angiograms, sonograms, scintigraphic images, MR images, and CT scans
Multimodal signalling in estrildid finches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gomes, A. C. R.; Funghi, C.; Soma, M.
2017-01-01
Sexual traits (e.g. visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multimodal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g. to increase the efficiency of communication) or that different signals trade off with each other...... (e.g. due to limited resources). Alternatively, multiple signals may evolve independently for different functions, or to communicate different information (multiple message hypothesis). We evaluated these hypotheses with a comparative study in the family Estrildidae, one of the largest songbird...... compromise, but generally courtship dance also evolved independently from other signals. Instead of correlated evolution, we found that song, dance and colour are each related to different socio-ecological traits. Song complexity evolved together with ecological generalism, song performance with investment...
Multispectral analysis of multimodal images
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kvinnsland, Yngve; Brekke, Njaal (Dept. of Surgical Sciences, Univ. of Bergen, Bergen (Norway)); Taxt, Torfinn M.; Gruener, Renate (Dept. of Biomedicine, Univ. of Bergen, Bergen (Norway))
2009-02-15
An increasing number of multimodal images represent a valuable increase in available image information, but at the same time it complicates the extraction of diagnostic information across the images. Multispectral analysis (MSA) has the potential to simplify this problem substantially as unlimited number of images can be combined, and tissue properties across the images can be extracted automatically. Materials and methods. We have developed a software solution for MSA containing two algorithms for unsupervised classification, an EM-algorithm finding multinormal class descriptions and the k-means clustering algorithm, and two for supervised classification, a Bayesian classifier using multinormal class descriptions and a kNN-algorithm. The software has an efficient user interface for the creation and manipulation of class descriptions, and it has proper tools for displaying the results. Results. The software has been tested on different sets of images. One application is to segment cross-sectional images of brain tissue (T1- and T2-weighted MR images) into its main normal tissues and brain tumors. Another interesting set of images are the perfusion maps and diffusion maps, derived images from raw MR images. The software returns segmentation that seem to be sensible. Discussion. The MSA software appears to be a valuable tool for image analysis with multimodal images at hand. It readily gives a segmentation of image volumes that visually seems to be sensible. However, to really learn how to use MSA, it will be necessary to gain more insight into what tissues the different segments contain, and the upcoming work will therefore be focused on examining the tissues through for example histological sections.
Surface phonon polaritons in semi-infinite semiconductor superlattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nkoma, J.S.
1986-07-01
Surface phonon polaritons in a semi-infinite semiconductor superlattice bounded by vacuum are studied. The modes associated with the polaritons are obtained and used to obtain the dispersion relation. Numerical results show that polariton bands exist between the TO and LO phonon frequencies, and are found to approach two surface mode frequencies in the limit of large tangential wave vector. Dependency of frequencies on the ratio of layer thicknesses is shown. Results are illustrated by a GaAs-GaP superlattice bounded by vacuum. (author)
Topology optimization of two-dimensional asymmetrical phononic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Hao-Wen [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Su, Xiao-Xing [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang, Yue-Sheng, E-mail: yswang@bjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhang, Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)
2014-01-17
The multiple elitist genetic algorithm with the adaptive fuzzy fitness granulation (AFFG) is used to design the phononic crystals with large relative bandgap width (BGW) for combined out-of-plane and in-plane wave modes. Without assumption on the symmetry of the unit-cell, we obtain an asymmetrical phononic crystal with the relative BGW which is quite larger than that of the optimized symmetrical structure. With the help of AFFG, the number of the fitness function evaluations is reduced by over 50% and the procedure converges 5 times faster than the conventional evolutionary algorithm to reach the same final fitness values.
Unraveling the acoustic electron-phonon interaction in graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.
2012-01-01
Using a first-principles approach we calculate the electron-phonon couplings in graphene for the transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons. Analytic forms of the coupling matrix elements valid in the long-wavelength limit are found to give an almost quantitative description of the first...... that the intrinsic effective acoustic deformation potential of graphene is Ξeff=6.8 eV and that the temperature dependence of the mobility μ~T-α in the Bloch-Gru¨neisen regime increases beyond an α=4 dependence even in the absence of screening when the true coupling matrix elements are considered. The α>4...
Berry Curvature in Magnon-Phonon Hybrid Systems.
Takahashi, Ryuji; Nagaosa, Naoto
2016-11-18
We study theoretically the Berry curvature of the magnon induced by the hybridization with the acoustic phonons via the spin-orbit and dipolar interactions. We first discuss the magnon-phonon hybridization via the dipolar interaction, and show that the dispersions have gapless points in momentum space, some of which form a loop. Next, when both spin-orbit and dipolar interactions are considered, we show anisotropic texture of the Berry curvature and its divergence with and without gap closing. Realistic evaluation of the consequent anomalous velocity is given for yttrium iron garnet.
Electronic Contributions to the Phonon Damping in Metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Rune
1968-07-15
An imaginary part of the dielectric matrix is derived based on a first order perturbation expansion of the valence electron states in a local potential model of the crystal. The results are used to estimate the electronic contributions to the phonon damping in aluminum and lead. The corrections which have been obtained are of the same order of magnitude at small phonon momenta as the damping earlier calculated for the free electrons. However, the discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental results still remain. The major contribution to damping seems to originate in anharmonic effects, even at 80 deg K.
Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stauber, T; Peres, N M R
2008-01-01
We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of 1%. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach, which does not include inter-band transitions and can thus not treat optical phonons due to their high energy of ℎω 0 ∼ 0.1-0.2 eV, remains valid
Band structures and localization properties of aperiodic layered phononic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan Zhizhong, E-mail: zzyan@bit.edu.cn [Department of Applied Mathematics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Chuanzeng [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Siegen, D-57078 Siegen (Germany)
2012-03-15
The band structures and localization properties of in-plane elastic waves with coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes oblique propagating in aperiodic phononic crystals based on Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequences are studied. Using transfer matrix method, the concept of the localization factor is introduced and the correctness is testified through the Rytov dispersion relation. For comparison, the perfect periodic structure and the quasi-periodic Fibonacci system are also considered. In addition, the influences of the random disorder, local resonance, translational and/or mirror symmetries on the band structures of the aperiodic phononic crystals are analyzed in this paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.
1980-01-01
The general assumptions of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model are given. This model describes the few-quasiparticle components of the wave functions at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. The method of strength functions which plays a key role in describing complex nuclei is also presented. A further development of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model is outlined. The fragmentation of one-quasiparticle and one-phonon states over nuclear levels is studied. The results on the fragmentation of deep hole states in spherical nuclei are presented, which describe well the experimental data. The neutron strength functions and their spin dependence are calculated. A good agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and widths of the giant resonances are calculated in spherical and deformed nuclei. The information on the many-quasiparticle components of excited state wave functions is shown to be very scarce. The necessity of studying the few-quasiparticle configurations is pointed out
Wang, Zi-Wu; Li, Shu-Shen
2012-07-01
We investigate the spin-flip relaxation in quantum dots using a non-radiation transition approach based on the descriptions for the electron-phonon deformation potential and Fröhlich interaction in the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. We give the comparisons of the electron relaxations with and without spin-flip assisted by one and two-phonon processes. Calculations are performed for the dependence of the relaxation time on the external magnetic field, the temperature and the energy separation between the Zeeman sublevels of the ground and first-excited state. We find that the electron relaxation time of the spin-flip process is more longer by three orders of magnitudes than that of no spin-flip process.
Driver Education for New Multimodal Facilities
2016-05-24
Local and state transportation agencies are redesigning roads to accommodate multimodal travel, including the addition of new configurations, infrastructures, and rules that may be unfamiliar to current drivers and other road users. Education and out...
Responsive Multimodal Transportation Management Strategies And IVHS
1995-02-01
THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE NEW AND INNOVATIVE WAYS TO INCORPORATE IVHS TECHNOLOGIES INTO MULTIMODAL TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES. MUCH OF THE IVHS RESEARCH DONE TO DATE HAS ADDRESSED THE MODES INDIVIDUALLY. THIS PROJECT FOCU...
Influence of Blood Contamination During Multimode Adhesive ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2018-01-30
Jan 30, 2018 ... (μTBS) of multimode adhesives to dentin when using the self‑etch approach. Materials and Methods: ... adhesion, the collagen fibers collapse during the. Introduction ..... The failure mode was determined using an optical.
Quantum non-demolition phonon counter with a hybrid optomechnical system
Song, Qiao; Zhang, KeYe; Dong, Ying; Zhang, WeiPing
2018-05-01
A phonon counting scheme based on the control of polaritons in an optomechanical system is proposed. This approach permits us to measure the number of phonons in a quantum non-demolition (QND) manner for arbitrary modes not limited by the frequency matching condition as in usual photon-phonon scattering detections. The performance on phonon number transfer and quantum state transfer of the counter are analyzed and simulated numerically by taking into account all relevant sources of noise.
2012-02-01
phonon interactions with electrons , electron -hole pairs, defects, super- lattices, and interfaces [1-4]. As pointed out by Hauser et. al. [3], and...phonon-phonon and electron - phonon scattering processes placed limits on the methods applicability. More recently, the advantages of using lower...texture effects. In particular, the elongated grains result in colonies that are largely cigar -shaped or cylindrical in their form, where elastic
Quantifying Quality Aspects of Multimodal Interactive Systems
Kühnel, Christine
2012-01-01
This book systematically addresses the quantification of quality aspects of multimodal interactive systems. The conceptual structure is based on a schematic view on human-computer interaction where the user interacts with the system and perceives it via input and output interfaces. Thus, aspects of multimodal interaction are analyzed first, followed by a discussion of the evaluation of output and input and concluding with a view on the evaluation of a complete system.
Microwave stability at transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, J.A.; Colestock, P.L.
1995-05-01
The question of microwave stability at transition is revisited using a Vlasov approach retaining higher order terms in the particle dynamics near the transition energy. A dispersion relation is derived which can be solved numerically for the complex frequency in terms of the longitudinal impedance and other beam parameters. Stability near transition is examined and compared with simulation results
Commercial microwave space power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed
Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.
2011-01-01
Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šeba, Petr; Rotter, I.; Mueller, M.; Persson, C.; Pichugin, Konstantin N.
2001-01-01
Roč. 9, - (2001), s. 484-487 ISSN 1386-9477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : microwave cavity * resonances Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.009, year: 2001
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ejiri, A.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.; Ito, Y.; Tokuzawa, T.
2000-01-01
Interferometry and reflectometry measure phase of the transparent or the reflected wave to derive the information on plasma density. Homodyne reflectometry for an interlock and transmissiometry for sheet plasma measurements could be another class of microwave diagnostics, which does not measure the phase. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wicks, G.G.
2001-01-01
A team associated with a Federal Laboratory, academia, and industry has been actively developing new microwave technology for treatment and remediation of a variety of potentially hazardous materials for almost a decade. This collaboration has resulted in unique equipment and processes with potential applicability to many fields, including disposition of electronic circuitry and components, medical wastes, radioactive materials and recycling of used tires
Rotations as coherent states of SU(6) quadrupole phonons in the SU(3) limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canto, L F [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Paar, V [Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Prirodoslovno Matematicki Fakultet; Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)
1981-06-18
Analytic expressions for the wavefunctions of the ground-state rotational band for even and odd nuclei are derived in terms of spherical quadrupole phonons truncated at N(max) phonons. For N(max) ..-->.. infinite the Bohr-Mottelson rotational states are generated as an asymptotic gaussian distribution of quadrupole phonons.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jiao, Yishuo; Adams, Bernhard W.; Dohn, Asmus Ougaard
2017-01-01
Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the conversion of longitudinal to transverse phonons in aqueous solution. Permanganate solutes serve as X-ray probe molecules that permit the measurement of the conversion of 13.5 GHz, longitudinal phonons to 27 GHz, transverse phonons...
Two-phonon states in nuclei - from surface vibrations to wobbling motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamamoto, Ikuko
2003-01-01
Being stimulated by the recent identification of the two-phonon wobbling excitation, first I make a brief survey of various two-phonon states in nuclear physics, in connection with experimental observations. Then, I discuss the wobbling-phonon excitation in the presence of particle alignments, which is nicely pinned down in the recent experiments of the nucleus 71 163 Lu 92 . (author)
Optical-phonon-induced frictional drag in coupled two-dimensional electron gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1998-01-01
The role of optical phonons in frictional drag between two adjacent but electrically isolated two-dimensional electron gases is investigated. Since the optical phonons in III-V materials have a considerably larger coupling to electrons than acoustic phonons (which are the dominant drag mechanism ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, P.
2012-01-01
of the physics and emphasize the important role played by the effective phonon density, describing the availability of phonons for scattering, in quantum dot decay dynamics. Based on the analytical expressions, we present the parameter regimes where phonon effects are expected to be important. Also, we include...
Phonon Measurements and Model Calculations for Naphtalene-d8
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.; Dietrich, O. W.
1977-01-01
Measurements of the phonon dispersion curves in naphthalene-d8, (deuteration >99%), taken at 77K are presented. The experiments were done on two crystals, using the triple-axis neutron spectrometers at the medium flux reactor, DR3 at Riso. Most of the external or lattice modes have been measured...
Decoherence in semiconductor cavity QED systems due to phonon couplings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper
2014-01-01
We investigate the effect of electron-phonon interactions on the coherence properties of single photons emitted from a semiconductor cavity QED (quantum electrodynamics) system, i.e., a quantum dot embedded in an optical cavity. The degree of indistinguishability, governing the quantum mechanical...
Phonons in face-centred cubic calcium and strontium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, S.P.; Rathore, R.P.S.
1984-01-01
The axially symmetric and unpaired forces are employed to analyse the phonon dispersion and elastic behaviour of face centred cubic calcium and strontium which have so far not been studied adequately. The model with three parameters predicts the results which agree marvellously with the recently measured data. (author)
Phonon-enhanced crystal growth and lattice healing
Buonassisi, Anthony; Bertoni, Mariana; Newman, Bonna
2013-05-28
A system for modifying dislocation distributions in semiconductor materials is provided. The system includes one or more vibrational sources for producing at least one excitation of vibrational mode having phonon frequencies so as to enhance dislocation motion through a crystal lattice.
The Electron-Phonon Interaction in Strongly Correlated Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castellani, C.; Grilli, M.
1995-01-01
We analyze the effect of strong electron-electron repulsion on the electron-phonon interaction from a Fermi-liquid point of view and show that the electron-electron interaction is responsible for vertex corrections, which generically lead to a strong suppression of the electron-phonon coupling in the v F q/ω >>1 region, while such effect is not present when v F q/ω F is the Fermi velocity and q and ω are the transferred momentum and frequency respectively. In particular the e-ph scattering is suppressed in transport properties which are dominated by low-energy-high-momentum processes. On the other hand, analyzing the stability criterion for the compressibility, which involves the effective interactions in the dynamical limit, we show that a sizable electron-phonon interaction can push the system towards a phase-separation instability. Finally a detailed analysis of these ideas is carried out using a slave-boson approach for the infinite-U three-band Hubbard model in the presence of a coupling between the local hole density and a dispersionless optical phonon. (author)
Phonons and solitons in the "thermal" sine-Gordon system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salerno, Mario; Jørgensen, E.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1984-01-01
Standard methods of stochastic processes are used to study the coupling of the sine-Gordon system with a heat reservoir. As a result we find thermal phonons with an average energy of kB T per mode. The translational mode (zero mode) is found to carry an average energy of 1 / 2kBT. This last value...
Enhanced Electron-Phonon Coupling at Metal Surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plummer, Ward E.
2010-08-04
The Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) decouples electronic from nuclear motion, providing a focal point for most quantum mechanics textbooks. However, a multitude of important chemical, physical and biological phenomena are driven by violations of this approximation. Vibronic interactions are a necessary ingredient in any process that makes or breaks a covalent bond, for example, conventional catalysis or enzymatically delivered biological reactions. Metastable phenomena associated with defects and dopants in semiconductors, oxides, and glasses entail violation of the BOA. Charge exchange in inorganic polymers, organic slats and biological systems involves charge- induced distortions of the local structure. A classic example is conventional superconductivity, which is driven by the electron-lattice interaction. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments are yielding new insight into the microscopic origin of electron-phonon coupling (EPC) in anisotropic two-dimensional systems. Our recent surface phonon measurement on the surface of a high-Tc material clearly indicates an important momentum dependent EPC in these materials. In the last few years we have shifted our research focus from solely looking at electron phonon coupling to examining the structure/functionality relationship at the surface of complex transition metal compounds. The investigation on electron phonon coupling has allowed us to move to systems where there is coupling between the lattice, the electrons and the spin.
Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa
2016-12-15
Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.
Long-Wavelength Phonon Scattering in Nonpolar Semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lawætz, Peter
1969-01-01
The long-wavelength acoustic- and optical-phonon scattering of carriers in nonpolar semiconductors is considered from a general point of view. The deformation-potential approximation is defined and it is shown that long-range electrostatic forces give a nontrivial correction to the scattering...... of the very-short-range nature of interactions in a covalent semiconductor....
Phonon anomalies in trilayer high-Tc cuprate superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubroka, Adam; Munzar, Dominik
2004-01-01
We present an extension of the model proposed recently to account for dramatic chAes below T c (anomalies) of some c-axis polarized infrared-active phonons in bilayer cuprate superconductors, that applies to trilayer high-T c compounds. We discuss several types of phonon anomalies that can occur in these systems and demonstrate that our model is capable of explaining the spectral chAes occurring upon entering the superconducting state in the trilayer compound Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 . The low-temperature spectra of this compound obtained by Zetterer and coworkers display an additional broad absorption band, similar to the one observed in underdoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 . In addition, three phonon modes are strongly anomalous. We attribute the absorption band to the transverse Josephson plasma resonance, similar to that of the bilayer compounds. The phonon anomalies are shown to result from a modification of the local fields induced by the formation of the resonance. The spectral chAes in Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 are compared with those occurring in Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 , reported recently by Boris and coworkers
Phonon dispersions in graphene sheet and single-walled carbon ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In the present research paper, phonons in graphene sheet have been calculated by con- structing a dynamical matrix using the force constants derived from the second-generation reactive empirical bond order potential by Brenner and co-workers. Our results are comparable to inelastic. X-ray scattering as well as ...
Optical phonons in PbTe/CdTe multilayer heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novikova, N. N.; Yakovlev, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Spectroscopy (Russian Federation); Kucherenko, I. V., E-mail: kucheren@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Karczewski, G. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Poland); Aleshchenko, Yu. A.; Muratov, A. V.; Zavaritskaya, T. N.; Melnik, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-05-15
The infrared reflection spectra of PbTe/CdTe multilayer nanostructures grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are measured in the frequency range of 20–5000 cm{sup −1} at room temperature. The thicknesses and high-frequency dielectric constants of the PbTe and CdTe layers and the frequencies of the transverse optical (TO) phonons in these structures are determined from dispersion analysis of the spectra. It is found that the samples under study are characterized by two TO phonon frequencies, equal to 28 and 47 cm{sup −1}. The first frequency is close to that of TO phonons in bulk PbTe, and the second is assigned to the optical mode in structurally distorted interface layers. The Raman-scattering spectra upon excitation with the radiation of an Ar{sup +} laser at 514.5 nm are measured at room and liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The weak line at 106 cm{sup −1} observed in these spectra is attributed to longitudinal optical phonons in the interface layers.
Phonon dispersion relations in monoatomic superlattices: a transfer matrix theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albuquerque, E.L. de; Fulco, P.
1986-01-01
We present a lattice dynamical theory for monoatomic superlattices consisting of alternating layers of two different materials. Using a transfer matrix method we obtain explicit the equation for dispersion of the phonon's bulk modes, including the well known result in the long wave-length limit which can be obtained by elasticity theory. An illustation is shown and its features discussed. (Author) [pt
Photon-phonon laser on crystalline silicon: a feasibility study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zadernovsky, A A
2015-01-01
We discuss a feasibility of photon-phonon laser action in bulk silicon with electron population inversion. It is well known, that only direct gap semiconductors are used as an active medium in optical lasers. In indirect gap semiconductors, such as crystalline silicon, the near-to-gap radiative electron transitions must be assisted by emission or absorption of phonons to conserve the momentum. The rate of such two-quantum transitions is much less than in direct gap semiconductors, where the similar radiative transitions are single-quantum. As a result, the quantum efficiency of luminescence in silicon is too small to get it as a laser material. Numerous proposals to overcome this problem are aimed at increasing the rate of radiative recombination. We suggest enhancing the quantum efficiency of luminescence in silicon by stimulating the photon part of the two-quantum transitions by light from an appropriate external laser source. This allows us to obtain initially an external-source-assisted lasing in silicon and then a true photon-phonon lasing without any external source of radiation. Performed analysis revealed a number of requirements to the silicon laser medium (temperature, purity and perfection of crystals) and to the intensity of stimulating radiation. We discuss different mechanisms that may hinder the implementation of photon-phonon lasing in silicon
Tunable topological phases in photonic and phononic crystals
Chen, Zeguo
2018-02-18
Topological photonics/phononics, inspired by the discovery of topological insulators, is a prosperous field of research, in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are robust against impurities or defect without backscattering. This dissertation discusses the implementation of multiple topological phases in specific designed photonic and phononic crystals. First, it reports a tunable quantum Hall phase in acoustic ring-waveguide system. A new three-band model focused on the topological transitions at the Γ point is studied, which gives the functionality that nontrivial topology can be tuned by changing the strengths of the couplings and/or the broken time-reversal symmetry. The resulted tunable topological edge states are also numerically verified. Second, based on our previous studied acoustic ring-waveguide system, we introduce anisotropy by tuning the couplings along different directions. We find that the bandgap topology is related to the frequency and directions. We report our proposal on a frequency filter designed from such an anisotropic topological phononic crystal. Third, motivated by the recent progress on quantum spin Hall phases, we propose a design of time-reversal symmetry broken quantum spin Hall insulators in photonics, in which a new quantum anomalous Hall phase emerges. It supports a chiral edge state with certain spin orientations, which is robust against the magnetic impurities. We also report the realization of the quantum anomalous Hall phase in phononics.
Hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride (Conference Presentation)
Dai, Siyuan; Ma, Qiong; Fei, Zhe; Liu, Mengkun; Goldflam, Michael D.; Andersen, Trond; Garnett, William; Regan, Will; Wagner, Martin; McLeod, Alexander S.; Rodin, Alexandr; Zhu, Shou-En; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, T.; Dominguez, Gerado; Thiemens, Mark; Castro Neto, Antonio H.; Janssen, Guido C. A. M.; Zettl, Alex; Keilmann, Fritz; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Fogler, Michael M.; Basov, Dmitri N.
2016-09-01
Uniaxial materials whose axial and tangential permittivities have opposite signs are referred to as indefinite or hyperbolic media. While hyperbolic responses are normally achieved with metamaterials, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) naturally possesses this property due to the anisotropic phonons in the mid-infrared. Using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy, we studied polaritonic phenomena in hBN. We performed infrared nano-imaging of highly confined and low-loss hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN. The polariton wavelength was shown to be governed by the hBN thickness according to a linear law persisting down to few atomic layers [1]. Additionally, we carried out the modification of hyperbolic response in meta-structures comprised of a mononlayer graphene deposited on hBN [2]. Electrostatic gating of the top graphene layer allows for the modification of wavelength and intensity of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in bulk hBN. The physics of the modification originates from the plasmon-phonon coupling in the hyperbolic medium. Furthermore, we demonstrated the "hyperlens" for subdiffractional focusing and imaging using a slab of hBN [3]. References [1] S. Dai et al., Science, 343, 1125 (2014). [2] S. Dai et al., Nature Nanotechnology, 10, 682 (2015). [3] S. Dai et al., Nature Communications, 6, 6963 (2015).
The Effect of Phonon Relaxation Process on Absorption Spectra ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this work we study the effect of phonon relaxation process on the absorption spectra using the Green's function technique. The Green's function technique which is widely used in many particle problems is used to solve the Kubo formula which describes the optical absorption process. Finally the configurational diagram is ...
Phonon excess heating in electronic relaxation theory in quantum dots
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Karel; Lin, Ch. Y.
2008-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 20 (2008), s. 3439-3460 ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 866 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : quantum dots * electron -phonon interaction * electron ic transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2008
Phonon, magnon and electron contributions to low temperature ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
method to estimate the specific heat contributions of phonons and magnons. .... Dstiff (or D) is the spin stiffness, which is a linear combination of the exchange .... relevant as it is a direct measurement of fundamental pro- perty of metallic ...
A CPA study of the phonon structure of disordered superlattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shijie Xiong; Gendi Pang; Chienhua Tsai.
1985-08-01
The phonon structure of superlattices or modulated alloys with substitutional disorder is studied in the Coherent Phase Approximation (CPA). We consider first the case with diagonal disorder only, by adopting a virtual crystal approximation for the force constants. Then we treat the more complicated case with inclusion of off-diagonal disorder. Numerical examples are also studied in both cases. (author)
Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S.
2016-01-01
Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.
Optimal design of tunable phononic bandgap plates under equibiaxial stretch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, M S; Guest, James K
2016-01-01
Design and application of phononic crystal (PhCr) acoustic metamaterials has been a topic with tremendous growth of interest in the last decade due to their promising capabilities to manipulate acoustic and elastodynamic waves. Phononic controllability of waves through a particular PhCr is limited only to the spectrums located within its fixed bandgap frequency. Hence the ability to tune a PhCr is desired to add functionality over its variable bandgap frequency or for switchability. Deformation induced bandgap tunability of elastomeric PhCr solids and plates with prescribed topology have been studied by other researchers. Principally the internal stress state and distorted geometry of a deformed phononic crystal plate (PhP) changes its effective stiffness and leads to deformation induced tunability of resultant modal band structure. Thus the microstructural topology of a PhP can be altered so that specific tunability features are met through prescribed deformation. In the present study novel tunable PhPs of this kind with optimized bandgap efficiency-tunability of guided waves are computationally explored and evaluated. Low loss transmission of guided waves throughout thin walled structures makes them ideal for fabrication of low loss ultrasound devices and structural health monitoring purposes. Various tunability targets are defined to enhance or degrade complete bandgaps of plate waves through macroscopic tensile deformation. Elastomeric hyperelastic material is considered which enables recoverable micromechanical deformation under tuning finite stretch. Phononic tunability through stable deformation of phononic lattice is specifically required and so any topology showing buckling instability under assumed deformation is disregarded. Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (GA) NSGA-II is adopted for evolutionary multiobjective topology optimization of hypothesized tunable PhP with square symmetric unit-cell and relevant topologies are analyzed through finite
Non-markovian effects in semiconductor cavity QED: Role of phonon-mediated processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, Peter
We show theoretically that the non-Markovian nature of the carrier-phonon interaction influences the dynamical properties of a semiconductor cavity QED system considerably, leading to asymmetries with respect to detuning in carrier lifetimes. This pronounced phonon effect originates from the pola......We show theoretically that the non-Markovian nature of the carrier-phonon interaction influences the dynamical properties of a semiconductor cavity QED system considerably, leading to asymmetries with respect to detuning in carrier lifetimes. This pronounced phonon effect originates from...... the polaritonic quasi-particle nature of the carrier-photon system interacting with the phonon reservoir....
Influence of the Pauli principle on the two-phonon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djolos, R.V.; Molina, J.L.; Soloviev, V.G.
1979-01-01
It is shown that the commutation relations between quasiparticles forming phonons can correctly be taken into account within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The case of the even-even deformed nuclei is studied. Exact and approximate secular equations are obtained. The corrections arising due to the Pauli principle are shown to be large for the two-phonon components of the wave functions, when the phonons are identical. The influence of the Pauli principle on the energies of the two-phonon states and radiative strength functions requires further investigation [ru
Pseudospins and Topological Effects of Phonons in a Kekulé Lattice
Liu, Yizhou; Lian, Chao-Sheng; Li, Yang; Xu, Yong; Duan, Wenhui
2017-12-01
The search for exotic topological effects of phonons has attracted enormous interest for both fundamental science and practical applications. By studying phonons in a Kekulé lattice, we find a new type of pseudospin characterized by quantized Berry phases and pseudoangular momenta, which introduces various novel topological effects, including topologically protected pseudospin-polarized interface states and a phonon pseudospin Hall effect. We further demonstrate a pseudospin-contrasting optical selection rule and a pseudospin Zeeman effect, giving a complete generation-manipulation-detection paradigm of the phonon pseudospin. The pseudospin and topology-related physics revealed for phonons is general and applicable for electrons, photons, and other particles.
Matsubara, Akihiro; Takayama, Sadatsugu; Okajima, Shigeki; Sato, Motoyasu
2008-01-01
The structure of the emission spectrum in the near-UV range (240 nm-310 nm) changes drastically from the continuous spectrum to a discrete line spectrum with increasing sample temperature during the carbothermic reduction of magnetite in a 2.45 GHz microwave multimode furnace. The continuous spectrum can be assigned as a cathodoluminescence of magnetite. The dynamic evolution of the spectrum from continuous to discrete represents the progress of the reduction from magnetite to iron.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Dinh Dang; Voronov, V.V.
1983-01-01
A system of basic equations of the quasiparticle-phonon model is obtained for energies and a structure of excited states described by the wave functions containing one- and two-phonon components. The effects due to the Pauli principle for two-phonon components and the phonon ground state correlations of a spherical nucleus are taken here into account. The quantitative estimations of these effects are given by a simplified scheme. The relation between these equations with the results from other theoretical approaches is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hillenbrand, Rainer
2004-01-01
Diffraction limits the spatial resolution in classical microscopy or the dimensions of optical circuits to about half the illumination wavelength. Scanning near-field microscopy can overcome this limitation by exploiting the evanescent near fields existing close to any illuminated object. We use a scattering-type near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) that uses the illuminated metal tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to act as scattering near-field probe. The presented images are direct evidence that the s-SNOM enables optical imaging at a spatial resolution on a 10 nm scale, independent of the wavelength used (λ=633 nm and 10 μm). Operating the microscope at specific mid-infrared frequencies we found a tip-induced phonon-polariton resonance on flat polar crystals such as SiC and Si 3 N 4 . Being a spectral fingerprint of any polar material such phonon-enhanced near-field interaction has enormous applicability in nondestructive, material-specific infrared microscopy at nanoscale resolution. The potential of s-SNOM to study eigenfields of surface polaritons in nanostructures opens the door to the development of phonon photonics--a proposed infrared nanotechnology that uses localized or propagating surface phonon polaritons for probing, manipulating and guiding infrared light in nanoscale devices, analogous to plasmon photonics
Electron-phonon and spin-phonon coupling in NaV2O5 : Charge fluctuations effects
Sherman, E.Ya.; Fischer, M.; Lemmens, P; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Güntherodt, G.
1999-01-01
We show that the asymmetric crystal environment of the V site in the ladder compound NaV2O5 leads to a strong coupling of vanadium 3d electrons to phonons. This coupling causes fluctuations of the charge on the V ions, and favors a transition to a charge-ordered state at low temperatures. In the low
Temperature dependence of the dynamics of zone boundary phonons in ZnO:Li
Yadav, Harish Kumar; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay; Katiyar, R. S.
2008-12-01
Investigations of zone boundary phonons in ZnO:Li system (Li concentration: 10%) and their dynamics with temperature are reported. Additional modes at 127, 157, and 194 cm-1 are observed and assigned to zone boundary phonons at critical point M in the Brillouin zone [J. M. Calleja and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 16, 3753 (1977)] due to breakdown of crystal translational symmetry with Li incorporation in ZnO. Anharmonicity in peak frequency and linewidth of the zone boundary phonons in a temperature range from 100 to 1000 K is also analyzed taking into account the decay of zone boundary phonons into three- and four-phonon modes (cubic and quadratic anharmonicities). The anharmonic behavior of peak frequency is found to be feebly dependent on three-phonon decay process but thermal expansion of lattice together with four-phonon decay process appropriately defines the temperature dependence. Linewidths, however, follow the simple four-phonon decay mechanism. E2(low) mode, on the other hand, shows a linear temperature dependency and therefore follows a three-phonon decay channel. The calculated values of phonon lifetimes at 100 K for the 127, 157, 194 cm-1, and E2(low) modes are 8.23, 6.54, 5.32, and 11.39 ps. Decay of the zone boundary phonon modes compared to E2(low) mode reveals that dopant induced disorder has a strong temperature dependency.
Hahn, Steven; Arapan, Sergiu; Harmon, Bruce; Eriksson, Olle
2011-03-01
Conventional first principle methods for calculating lattice dynamics are unable to calculate high temperature thermophysical properties of materials containing modes that are entropically stabilized. In this presentation we use a relatively new approach called self-consistent ab initio lattice dynamics (SCAILD) to study the hcp to bcc transition (1530 K) in beryllium. The SCAILD method goes beyond the harmonic approximation to include phonon-phonon interactions and produces a temperature-dependent phonon dispersion. In the high temperature bcc structure, phonon-phonon interactions dynamically stabilize the N-point phonon. Fits to the calculated phonon dispersion were used to determine the temperature dependence of the elastic constants in the hcp and bcc phases. Work at the Ames Laboratory was supported by the Department of Energy-Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.
Microwave superheaters for fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, R.B.; Hoffman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.
1987-01-01
The microwave superheater uses the synchrotron radiation from a thermonuclear plasma to heat gas seeded with an alkali metal to temperatures far above the temperature of material walls. It can improve the efficiency of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle described elsewhere in these proceedings. For a proof-of-principle experiment using helium, calculations show that a gas superheat ΔT of 2000 0 K is possible when the wall temperature is maintained at 1000 0 K. The concept can be scaled to reactor grade systems. Because of the need for synchrotron radiation, the microwave superheater is best suited for use with plasmas burning an advanced fuel such as D- 3 He. 5 refs
Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.
1996-01-01
The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results
The Cosmic Microwave Background
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jones Aled
1998-01-01
Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.
Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Barg, Andreas; Simonsen, Anders; Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Schmid, Silvan; Schliesser, Albert; Polzik, Eugene S
2014-03-24
Dielectric membranes with exceptional mechanical and optical properties present one of the most promising platforms in quantum opto-mechanics. The performance of stressed silicon nitride nanomembranes as mechanical resonators notoriously depends on how their frame is clamped to the sample mount, which in practice usually necessitates delicate, and difficult-to-reproduce mounting solutions. Here, we demonstrate that a phononic bandgap shield integrated in the membrane's silicon frame eliminates this dependence, by suppressing dissipation through phonon tunneling. We dry-etch the membrane's frame so that it assumes the form of a cm-sized bridge featuring a 1-dimensional periodic pattern, whose phononic density of states is tailored to exhibit one, or several, full band gaps around the membrane's high-Q modes in the MHz-range. We quantify the effectiveness of this phononic bandgap shield by optical interferometry measuring both the suppressed transmission of vibrations, as well as the influence of frame clamping conditions on the membrane modes. We find suppressions up to 40 dB and, for three different realized phononic structures, consistently observe significant suppression of the dependence of the membrane's modes on sample clamping-if the mode's frequency lies in the bandgap. As a result, we achieve membrane mode quality factors of 5 × 10(6) with samples that are tightly bolted to the 8 K-cold finger of a cryostat. Q × f -products of 6 × 10(12) Hz at 300 K and 14 × 10(12) Hz at 8 K are observed, satisfying one of the main requirements for optical cooling of mechanical vibrations to their quantum ground-state.
Microwave solidification project overview
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sprenger, G.
1993-01-01
The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included.
Microwave solidification project overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sprenger, G.
1993-01-01
The Rocky Flats Plant Microwave Solidification Project has application potential to the Mixed Waste Treatment Project and the The Mixed Waste Integrated Program. The technical areas being addressed include (1) waste destruction and stabilization; (2) final waste form; and (3) front-end waste handling and feed preparation. This document covers need for such a program; technology description; significance; regulatory requirements; and accomplishments to date. A list of significant reports published under this project is included
Thermoactivation of viruses by microwaves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahnel, H.; von Brodorotti, H.S.
1981-01-01
Eight different viruses, suspended in drinking water, were examined for their ability to be inactivated by microwaves from a microwave oven. Up to a virus content of 10/sup 5/ TCID/sub 50//ml inactivation was successful within a few minutes of microwave treatment and occurred in parallel to the heat stability of the viruses. Evidence for direct effects of microwaves on viruses could not be detected. 7 of the viruses studied were inactivated rapidly when temperatures of 50 to 65/sup 0/C under microwave treatment were reached in the flowing water, while a bovine parvovirus was only inactivated by temperatures above 90/sup 0/C. The advantages of a thermal virus-decontamination of fluids and material by microwaves are discussed.
Recent developments in multimodality fluorescence imaging probes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhong Zhao
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Multimodality optical imaging probes have emerged as powerful tools that improve detection sensitivity and accuracy, important in disease diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we focus on recent developments of optical fluorescence imaging (OFI probe integration with other imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, and photoacoustic imaging (PAI. The imaging technologies are briefly described in order to introduce the strengths and limitations of each techniques and the need for further multimodality optical imaging probe development. The emphasis of this account is placed on how design strategies are currently implemented to afford physicochemically and biologically compatible multimodality optical fluorescence imaging probes. We also present studies that overcame intrinsic disadvantages of each imaging technique by multimodality approach with improved detection sensitivity and accuracy. KEY WORDS: Optical imaging, Fluorescence, Multimodality, Near-infrared fluorescence, Nanoprobe, Computed tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Positron emission tomography, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Photoacoustic imaging
Multimodality, creativity and children's meaning-making: Drawings ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Multimodality, creativity and children's meaning-making: Drawings, writings, imaginings. ... Framed by social semiotic theories of communication, multimodal ... to create imaginary worlds and express meanings according to their interests.
Multimodal Behavior Therapy: Case Study of a High School Student.
Seligman, Linda
1981-01-01
A case study of a high school student concerned with weight problems illustrates multimodal behavior therapy and its use in a high school setting. Multimodal therapy allows the school counselor to maximize referral sources while emphasizing growth and actualization. (JAC)
Polarization Characterization of a Multi-Moded Feed Structure
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarization Characterization of a Multi-Moded Feed Structure projects characterize the polarization response of a multi-moded feed horn as an innovative...
Introduction to Microwave Linear [Accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whittum, David H
1999-01-04
The elements of microwave linear accelerators are introduced starting with the principles of acceleration and accelerating structures. Considerations for microwave structure modeling and design are developed from an elementary point of view. Basic elements of microwave electronics are described for application to the accelerator circuit and instrumentation. Concepts of beam physics are explored together with examples of common beamline instruments. Charged particle optics and lattice diagnostics are introduced. Considerations for fixed-target and colliding-beam experimentation are summarized.
Multimodale trafiknet i GIS (Multimodal Traffic Network in GIS)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kronbak, Jacob; Brems, Camilla Riff
1996-01-01
The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example.......The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example....
Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization
Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.
Multimodality Data Integration in Epilepsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Otto Muzik
2007-01-01
Full Text Available An important goal of software development in the medical field is the design of methods which are able to integrate information obtained from various imaging and nonimaging modalities into a cohesive framework in order to understand the results of qualitatively different measurements in a larger context. Moreover, it is essential to assess the various features of the data quantitatively so that relationships in anatomical and functional domains between complementing modalities can be expressed mathematically. This paper presents a clinically feasible software environment for the quantitative assessment of the relationship among biochemical functions as assessed by PET imaging and electrophysiological parameters derived from intracranial EEG. Based on the developed software tools, quantitative results obtained from individual modalities can be merged into a data structure allowing a consistent framework for advanced data mining techniques and 3D visualization. Moreover, an effort was made to derive quantitative variables (such as the spatial proximity index, SPI characterizing the relationship between complementing modalities on a more generic level as a prerequisite for efficient data mining strategies. We describe the implementation of this software environment in twelve children (mean age 5.2±4.3 years with medically intractable partial epilepsy who underwent both high-resolution structural MR and functional PET imaging. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and might ultimately have an impact on treatment. Moreover, our software environment holds promise to be useful in many other neurological disorders, where integration of multimodality data is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittal, R.; Chaplot, S.L.; Parthasarathy, R.; Bull, M.J.; Harris, M.J.
2000-01-01
The coherent inelastic neutron scattering technique is used for the measurements of phonon dispersion relation in a geophysically important mineral zircon using PRISMA spectrometer as ISIS, UK. Lattice dynamical calculations of the phonon dispersion relation are carried out using a shell model. The one-phonon structure factors are calculated for selecting the Bragg points for the measurements and assignment of phonons to different branches. The calculations are in good agreement with the measured phonon dispersion relation. (author)
Video genre classification using multimodal features
Jin, Sung Ho; Bae, Tae Meon; Choo, Jin Ho; Ro, Yong Man
2003-12-01
We propose a video genre classification method using multimodal features. The proposed method is applied for the preprocessing of automatic video summarization or the retrieval and classification of broadcasting video contents. Through a statistical analysis of low-level and middle-level audio-visual features in video, the proposed method can achieve good performance in classifying several broadcasting genres such as cartoon, drama, music video, news, and sports. In this paper, we adopt MPEG-7 audio-visual descriptors as multimodal features of video contents and evaluate the performance of the classification by feeding the features into a decision tree-based classifier which is trained by CART. The experimental results show that the proposed method can recognize several broadcasting video genres with a high accuracy and the classification performance with multimodal features is superior to the one with unimodal features in the genre classification.
Zhang, Fan; Yang, Yi; Su, Ping; Guo, Zhenku
2009-01-01
Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) has been used as one of traditional Chinese medicines for several thousand years. Conventional methods for the extraction of rutin and quercetin from E. alatus, including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction and heat reflux extraction are characterised by long extraction times and consumption of large amounts of solvents. To develop a simple and rapid method for the extraction of rutin and quercetin from the stalks of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. MAE experiments were performed with a multimode microwave extraction system. The experimental variables that affect the MAE process, such as the concentration of ethanol solution, extractant volume, microwave power and extraction time were optimised. Yields were determined by HPLC. The results were compared with that obtained by classical Soxhlet and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). From the optimised conditions for MAE of rutin and quercetin it can be concluded that the solvent is 50% ethanol (v/v) solution, the extractant volume is 40 mL, microwave power is 170 W and irradiation time is 6 min. Compared with Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic extraction, microwave extraction is a rapid method with a higher yield and lower solvent consumption. The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants.
Reference Resolution in Multi-modal Interaction: Position paper
Fernando, T.; Nijholt, Antinus
2002-01-01
In this position paper we present our research on multimodal interaction in and with virtual environments. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the necessity to spend more research on reference resolution in multimodal contexts. In multi-modal interaction the human conversational partner can
Reference resolution in multi-modal interaction: Preliminary observations
González González, G.R.; Nijholt, Antinus
2002-01-01
In this paper we present our research on multimodal interaction in and with virtual environments. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the necessity to spend more research on reference resolution in multimodal contexts. In multi-modal interaction the human conversational partner can apply
Training of Perceptual Motor Skills in Multimodal Virtual Environments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gopher Daniel
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Multimodal, immersive, virtual reality (VR techniques open new perspectives for perceptualmotor skill trainers. They also introduce new risks and dangers. This paper describes the benefits and pitfalls of multimodal training and the cognitive building blocks of a multimodal, VR training simulators.
Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens
... Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Explore the interactive, virtual ... can do Where to learn more About Non-Ionizing Radiation Used in Microwave Ovens Microwave Oven. Microwave ovens ...
The European Microwave Week 2008 and its Microwave Conferences
Hoogeboom, P.; Van Vliet, F.
2009-01-01
Under the auspices of the European Microwave Association (EuMA) the 11th annual European Microwave Week was organized in the Amsterdam RAI Congress Centre, The Netherlands, 27-31 October 2008. This major event consisted this year of five conferences, an exhibition, and various side events. The 38th
Signature of electron-phonon interaction in high temperature superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinod Ashokan
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The theory of thermal conductivity of high temperature superconductors (HTS based on electron and phonon line width (life times formulation is developed with Quantum dynamical approach of Green's function. The frequency line width is observed as an extremely sensitive quantity in the transport phenomena of HTS as a collection of large number of scattering processes. The role of resonance scattering and electron-phonon interaction processes is found to be most prominent near critical temperature. The theory successfully explains the spectacular behaviour of high Tc superconductors in the vicinity of transition temperature. A successful agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained by analyzing the thermal conductivity data for the sample La1.8Sr0.2CuO4 in the temperature range 0 − 200K. The theory is equally and successfully applicable to all other high Tc superconductors.
Gap enhancement in phonon-irradiated superconducting tin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, N.D.; Rutledge, J.E.
1982-01-01
We have measured the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of tin-tin tunnel junctions driven out of equilibrium by a flux of near-thermal phonons from a heater. The reduced ambient temperature was T/T/sub c/ = 0.41. The nonequilibrium I-V curves are compared to equilibrium thermal I-V curves at an elevated temperature chosen to match the total number of quasiparticles. The nonequilibrium curves show a smaller current near zero bias and a larger gap than the thermal curves. This is the first experimental evidence of phonon-induced gap enhancement far below T/sub c/. The results are discussed in terms of the coupled kinetic equations of Chang and Scalapino
Microscopic theory of the phonon frequencies in BCC barium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oli, B.A.
1988-09-01
The phonon dispersion frequencies are calculated from first principles for bbc barium using a resonance pseudopotential model which incorporates the effect of s-d hybridization. It was also possible using this scheme to account for the anomalous feature of the Ba dispersion curve observed experimentally in the (ξ,0,0) direction where the frequencies of the transverse branch are higher than the frequencies of the longitudinal branch. The frequencies obtained were also used to calculate the phonon density of states by the linear-analytic tetrahedra method of zone integration. The results of these calculations are qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data, and provide further support to the interpretation of the anomalous behaviour in the (ξ,0,0) direction as arising from s-d hybridization. (author). 27 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs
Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu
2016-01-01
In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.
Phonon populations by nanosecond-pulsed Raman scattering in Si
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Compaan, A.; Lee, M.C.; Trott, G.J.
1985-01-01
Since the first time-resolved Raman studies of phonon populations under pulsed-laser-annealing conditions, a number of cw Raman studies have been performed which provide a much improved basis for interpreting the pulsed Raman data. Here we present new pulsed Raman results and interpret them with reference to temperature-dependent resonance effects, high-carrier-density effects, phonon anharmonicity, and laser-induced strain effects. The pulsed Raman data: Stokes to anti-Stokes ratios, shift and shape of the first-order peak, and second-order spectra: indicate the existence of a phase in which the Raman signal disappears followed by a rapidly cooling solid which begins within 300 K of the 1685 K normal melting temperature of Si. We identify a major difficulty in pulsed Raman studies in Si to be the decrease in Raman intensity at high temperatures
Collective spin wave and phonon excitations in ferromagnetic organic polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leong, Jit-Liang; Sun, Shih-Jye
2013-01-01
We proposed a model to investigate the properties of a conductive and ferromagnetic organic-polymer (OCP), which contains two collective excitations—spin wave and phonon—competing with each other; namely, the spin wave excitation accompanies the electron–phonon (e–ph) interactions in the conductive and ferromagnetic OCP. The ferromagnetism of the OCP is induced from the conductive carriers which couple with the phonon to become polarons. Due to the competition between both excitations, the Curie temperature (T C ) is sensitively suppressed by the e–ph interaction. In addition, an optimal T C with a small e–ph interaction exists in a specific density of conduction carrier, yet is contrary to the large e–ph interaction case. Furthermore, the dimerization, i.e. the atomic displacement induced from the e–ph interactions, increases with the strength of the e–ph interaction and decreases upon reaching the maximum dimerization. (paper)
Quantum Kinetic Theory and Applications Electrons, Photons, Phonons
Vasko, Fedir T
2006-01-01
This lecture-style monograph is addressed to several categories of readers. First, it will be useful for graduate students studying theory. Second, the topics covered should be interesting for postgraduate students of various specializations. Third, the researchers who want to understand the background of modern theoretical issues in more detail can find a number of useful results here. The phenomena covered involve kinetics of electron, phonon, and photon systems in solids. The dynamical properties and interactions of electrons, phonons, and photons are briefly described in Chapter 1. Further, in Chapters 2-8, the authors present the main theoretical methods: linear response theory, various kinetic equations for the quasiparticles under consideration, and diagram technique. The presentation of the key approaches is always accompanied by solutions of concrete problems to illustrate ways to apply the theory. The remaining chapters are devoted to various manifestations of quantum transport in solids. The choice...
Thermal Transport and Phonon Hydrodynamics in Strontium Titanate
Martelli, Valentina; Jiménez, Julio Larrea; Continentino, Mucio; Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa; Behnia, Kamran
2018-03-01
We present a study of thermal conductivity, κ , in undoped and doped strontium titanate in a wide temperature range (2-400 K) and detecting different regimes of heat flow. In undoped SrTiO3 , κ evolves faster than cubic with temperature below its peak and in a narrow temperature window. Such behavior, previously observed in a handful of solids, has been attributed to a Poiseuille flow of phonons, expected to arise when momentum-conserving scattering events outweigh momentum-degrading ones. The effect disappears in the presence of dopants. In SrTi1 -xNbx O3 , a significant reduction in lattice thermal conductivity starts below the temperature at which the average inter-dopant distance and the thermal wavelength of acoustic phonons become comparable. In the high-temperature regime, thermal diffusivity becomes proportional to the inverse of temperature, with a prefactor set by sound velocity and Planckian time (τp=(ℏ/kBT ) ).
Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying, E-mail: yliu5@bjtu.edu.cn; Liang, Tianshu
2016-10-01
In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.
Inverse Edelstein effect induced by magnon-phonon coupling
Xu, Mingran; Puebla, Jorge; Auvray, Florent; Rana, Bivas; Kondou, Kouta; Otani, Yoshichika
2018-05-01
We demonstrate a spin to charge current conversion via magnon-phonon coupling and an inverse Edelstein effect on the hybrid device Ni/Cu (Ag )/Bi 2O3 . The generation of spin current (Js≈108A/m2 ) due to magnon-phonon coupling reveals the viability of acoustic spin pumping as a mechanism for the development of spintronic devices. A full in-plane magnetic field angle dependence of the power absorption and a combination of longitudinal and transverse voltage detection reveals the symmetric and asymmetric components of the inverse Edelstein effect voltage induced by Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves. While the symmetric components are well studied, asymmetric components still need to be explored. We assign the asymmetric contributions to the interference between longitudinal and shear waves and an anisotropic charge distribution in our hybrid device.