Sample records for multimode microscopy spectral

  1. Multimodal label-free microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different multimodal applications based on a large extent of label-free imaging modalities, ranging from linear to nonlinear optics, while also including spectroscopic measurements. We put specific emphasis on multimodal measurements going across the usual boundaries between imaging modalities, whereas most multimodal platforms combine techniques based on similar light interactions or similar hardware implementations. In this review, we limit the scope to focus on applications for biology such as live cells or tissues, since by their nature of being alive or fragile, we are often not free to take liberties with the image acquisition times and are forced to gather the maximum amount of information possible at one time. For such samples, imaging by a given label-free method usually presents a challenge in obtaining sufficient optical signal or is limited in terms of the types of observable targets. Multimodal imaging is then particularly attractive for these samples in order to maximize the amount of measured information. While multimodal imaging is always useful in the sense of acquiring additional information from additional modes, at times it is possible to attain information that could not be discovered using any single mode alone, which is the essence of the progress that is possible using a multimodal approach.

  2. High-frequency multimodal atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P. Nievergelt


    Full Text Available Multifrequency atomic force microscopy imaging has been recently demonstrated as a powerful technique for quickly obtaining information about the mechanical properties of a sample. Combining this development with recent gains in imaging speed through small cantilevers holds the promise of a convenient, high-speed method for obtaining nanoscale topography as well as mechanical properties. Nevertheless, instrument bandwidth limitations on cantilever excitation and readout have restricted the ability of multifrequency techniques to fully benefit from small cantilevers. We present an approach for cantilever excitation and deflection readout with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, enabling multifrequency techniques extended beyond 2 MHz for obtaining materials contrast in liquid and air, as well as soft imaging of delicate biological samples.

  3. A multimodal spectral approach to characterize rhythm in natural speech. (United States)

    Alexandrou, Anna Maria; Saarinen, Timo; Kujala, Jan; Salmelin, Riitta


    Human utterances demonstrate temporal patterning, also referred to as rhythm. While simple oromotor behaviors (e.g., chewing) feature a salient periodical structure, conversational speech displays a time-varying quasi-rhythmic pattern. Quantification of periodicity in speech is challenging. Unimodal spectral approaches have highlighted rhythmic aspects of speech. However, speech is a complex multimodal phenomenon that arises from the interplay of articulatory, respiratory, and vocal systems. The present study addressed the question of whether a multimodal spectral approach, in the form of coherence analysis between electromyographic (EMG) and acoustic signals, would allow one to characterize rhythm in natural speech more efficiently than a unimodal analysis. The main experimental task consisted of speech production at three speaking rates; a simple oromotor task served as control. The EMG-acoustic coherence emerged as a sensitive means of tracking speech rhythm, whereas spectral analysis of either EMG or acoustic amplitude envelope alone was less informative. Coherence metrics seem to distinguish and highlight rhythmic structure in natural speech.

  4. Assessment of fibrotic liver disease with multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy (United States)

    Lu, Fake; Zheng, Wei; Tai, Dean C. S.; Lin, Jian; Yu, Hanry; Huang, Zhiwei


    Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagens, which may result in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension. In this study, we apply a multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy platform developed to investigate the fibrotic liver diseases in rat models established by performing bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery. The three nonlinear microscopy imaging modalities are implemented on the same sectioned tissues of diseased model sequentially: i.e., second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging quantifies the contents of the collagens, the two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) imaging reveals the morphology of hepatic cells, while coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging maps the distributions of fats or lipids quantitatively across the tissue. Our imaging results show that during the development of liver fibrosis (collagens) in BDL model, fatty liver disease also occurs. The aggregated concentrations of collagen and fat constituents in liver fibrosis model show a certain correlationship between each other.

  5. Design and installation of a multimode microscopy system (United States)

    Helm, Johannes P.; Haug, Finn-Mogens S.; Storm, Johan F.; Ottersen, Ole-Petter


    We describe design and installation of a multi-mode microscopy core facility in an environment of varied research activity in life-sciences. The experimentators can select any combination of a) microscopes (upright, upright fixed-stage, inverted), b) microscopy modes (widefield, DIC, IRDIC, widefield epifluorescence, transmission LSM, reflection and fluorescence CLSM, MPLSM), c) imaging techniques (direct observation, video observation, photography, quantitative camera-recording, flying spot scanning), d) auxiliary systems (equipment for live specimen imaging, electrophysiology, time-coordinated laser-scanning and electrophysiology, patch-clamp). The equipment is installed on one large vibration-isolating optical table (3m X 1.5m X 0.3m). Electronics, auxiliary equipment, and a fiber-coupled, remotely controlled Ar+-Kr+ laser are mounted in a rack system fixed to the ceiling. The design of the shelves allows the head of the CSLM to be moved to any of the microscopes without increasing critical cable lengths. At the same time easy access to all the units is preserved. The beam of a Titanium-Sapphire laser, controlled by means of an EOM and a prism GVD, is coupled directly to the microscopes. Three mirrors mounted on a single precision translation table are integrated into the beam steering system so that the beam can easily be redirected to any of the microscopes. All the available instruments can be operated by the educated and trained user. The system is popular among researchers in neuroanatomy, embryology, cell biology, molecular biology - including the study of protein interactions, e.g. by means of FRET, and electrophysiology. Its colocalization with an EM facility promises to provide considerable synergy effects.

  6. Spectral space-time coding for optical communications through a multimode fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Berghmans, F.; Thienpont, H.; Danckaert, J.; Desmet, L.


    We propose a method for coding the mode structure of a multimode optical fiber by spectral coding mixed with space-time modulation. With this system we can improve the data carrying capacity of a multimode fiber for optical communications and optical interconnects, and encode and decode the

  7. In situ 3D characterization of historical coatings and wood using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy. (United States)

    Latour, Gaël; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Didier, Marie; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire


    We demonstrate multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of historical artifacts by combining Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (2PEF) microscopies. We first identify the nonlinear optical response of materials commonly encountered in coatings of cultural heritage artifacts by analyzing one- and multi-layered model samples. We observe 2PEF signals from cochineal lake and sandarac and show that pigments and varnish films can be discriminated by exploiting their different emission spectral ranges as in luminescence linear spectroscopy. We then demonstrate SHG imaging of a filler, plaster, composed of bassanite particles which exhibit a non centrosymmetric crystal structure. We also show that SHG/2PEF imaging enables the visualization of wood microstructure through typically 60 µm-thick coatings by revealing crystalline cellulose (SHG signal) and lignin (2PEF signal) in the wood cell walls. Finally, in situ multimodal nonlinear imaging is demonstrated in a historical violin. SHG/2PEF imaging thus appears as a promising non-destructive and contactless tool for in situ 3D investigation of historical coatings and more generally for wood characterization and coating analysis at micrometer scale.

  8. Proximal design for a multimodality endoscope with multiphoton microscopy, optical coherence microscopy and visual modalities (United States)

    Kiekens, Kelli C.; Talarico, Olivia; Barton, Jennifer K.


    A multimodality endoscope system has been designed for early detection of ovarian cancer. Multiple illumination and detection systems must be integrated in a compact, stable, transportable configuration to meet the requirements of a clinical setting. The proximal configuration presented here supports visible light navigation with a large field of view and low resolution, high resolution multiphoton microscopy (MPM), and high resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM). All modalities are integrated into a single optical system in the endoscope. The system requires two light sources: a green laser for visible light navigation and a compact fiber based femtosecond laser for MPM and OCM. Using an inline wavelength division multiplexer, the two sources are combined into a single mode fiber. To accomplish OCM, a fiber coupler is used to separate the femtosecond laser into a reference arm and signal arm. The reflected reference arm and the signal from the sample are interfered and wavelength separated by a reflection grating and detected using a linear array. The MPM signal is collimated and goes through a series of filters to separate the 2nd and 3rd harmonics as well as twophoton excitation florescence (2PEF) and 3PEF. Each signal is independently detected on a photo multiplier tube and amplified. The visible light is collected by multiple high numerical aperture fibers at the endoscope tip which are bundled into one SMA adapter at the proximal end and connected to a photodetector. This integrated system design is compact, efficient and meets both optical and mechanical requirements for clinical applications.

  9. Photolithographic Polymerization of Diacetylene-Containing Phospholipid Bilayers Studied by Multimode Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morigaki, Kenichi; Schönherr, Holger; Frank, Curtis W.; Knoll, Wolfgang


    Photopolymerization of the diacetylene-containing phospholipid 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (1) in substrate-supported planar lipid bilayers (SPBs) has been studied by using multimode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Monolayers and bilayers of 1 have been transferred onto

  10. Multimodal nonlinear microscopy: A powerful label-free method for supporting standard diagnostics on biological tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cicchi


    Full Text Available The large use of nonlinear laser scanning microscopy in the past decade paved the way for potential clinical application of this imaging technique. Modern nonlinear microscopy techniques offer promising label-free solutions to improve diagnostic performances on tissues. In particular, the combination of multiple nonlinear imaging techniques in the same microscope allows integrating morphological with functional information in a morpho-functional scheme. Such approach provides a high-resolution label-free alternative to both histological and immunohistochemical examination of tissues and is becoming increasingly popular among the clinical community. Nevertheless, several technical improvements, including automatic scanning and image analysis, are required before the technique represents a standard diagnostic method. In this review paper, we highlight the capabilities of multimodal nonlinear microscopy for tissue imaging, by providing various examples on colon, arterial and skin tissues. The comparison between images acquired using multimodal nonlinear microscopy and histology shows a good agreement between the two methods. The results demonstrate that multimodal nonlinear microscopy is a powerful label-free alternative to standard histopathological methods and has the potential to find a stable place in the clinical setting in the near future.

  11. Multimodal analysis of diamond crystals and layers using RISE microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Váňa, R.; Dluhoš, J.; Varga, Marián; Schmid, Ch.; Kromka, Alexander


    Roč. 23, Aug (2017), s. 2280-2281 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15003 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond * RISE microscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  12. Multimodal microscopy of immune cells and melanoma for longitudinal studies (United States)

    Entenberg, David; Aranda, Iana; Li, Yongbiao; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo; Schaer, David; Li, Yanyun


    Intravital microscopy of cancer is a well established tool that provides direct visualization of the tumor cycle. It traditionally involves one of several strategies: invasive subcutaneous (SC) implantation of tumors followed by surgical opening of skin flaps for imaging, techniques utilizing skin fold chambers and implanted optical windows or intradermal injections under 200μm from the skin surface. All of these techniques allow the use of fluorescent proteins as markers for biologically significant constituents. However, observation methods utilizing skin-flaps, skin-fold chambers and optical windows are invasive and tend to alter the immune environment of the tissue and/or limit the duration of studies that can be performed. If implanted correctly, intradermally injected tumors can be minimally invasive, will not require biopsies or surgical intervention to observe and are accessible for direct transdermal imaging with a number of in vivo modalities. We present our work in the development of a small animal intravital microscopy workstation that allows the acquisition of different contrast imaging modalities: reflectance confocal, wide field epifluorescence, multiphoton and second harmonic generation (SHG). The images are acquired pair-wise simultaneously and sequentially in time. The aim of our instrumentation is to gather all information generated by the single probing beam via the reflected or back-scattered signal, SHG signal and various fluorescence signals. Additionally, we also present our development of a microscopic tissue navigation technique to mark, label and track sites of interest. This technique enables us to revisit sites periodically and record, with different imaging contrasts, their biological changes over time.

  13. Image recovery from defocused 2D fluorescent images in multimodal digital holographic microscopy. (United States)

    Quan, Xiangyu; Matoba, Osamu; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro


    A technique of three-dimensional (3D) intensity retrieval from defocused, two-dimensional (2D) fluorescent images in the multimodal digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is proposed. In the multimodal DHM, 3D phase and 2D fluorescence distributions are obtained simultaneously by an integrated system of an off-axis DHM and a conventional epifluorescence microscopy, respectively. This gives us more information of the target; however, defocused fluorescent images are observed due to the short depth of field. In this Letter, we propose a method to recover the defocused images based on the phase compensation and backpropagation from the defocused plane to the focused plane using the distance information that is obtained from a 3D phase distribution. By applying Zernike polynomial phase correction, we brought back the fluorescence intensity to the focused imaging planes. The experimental demonstration using fluorescent beads is presented, and the expected applications are suggested.

  14. In situ 3D characterization of historical coatings and wood using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy


    Latour , Gaël; Echard , Jean-Philippe; Didier , Marie; Schanne-Klein , Marie-Claire


    International audience; We demonstrate multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of historical artifacts by combining Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (2PEF) microscopies. We first identify the nonlinear optical response of materials commonly encountered in coatings of cultural heritage artifacts by analyzing one- and multi-layered model samples. We observe 2PEF signals from cochineal lake and sandarac and show that pigments and varnish films can be discriminate...

  15. Imaging arterial cells, atherosclerosis, and restenosis by multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy (United States)

    Wang, Han-Wei; Simianu, Vlad; Locker, Matthew J.; Sturek, Michael; Cheng, Ji-Xin


    By integrating sum-frequency generation (SFG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) on a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope platform, multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging of arteries and atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated. CARS signals arising from CH II-rich membranes allowed visualization of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in a carotid artery. Additionally, CARS microscopy allowed vibrational imaging of elastin and collagen fibrils which are rich in CH II bonds in their cross-linking residues. The extracellular matrix organization was further confirmed by TPEF signals arising from elastin's autofluorescence and SFG signals arising from collagen fibrils' non-centrosymmetric structure. The system is capable of identifying different atherosclerotic lesion stages with sub-cellular resolution. The stages of atherosclerosis, such as macrophage infiltration, lipid-laden foam cell accumulation, extracellular lipid distribution, fibrous tissue deposition, plaque establishment, and formation of other complicated lesions could be viewed by our multimodal CARS microscope. Collagen percentages in the region adjacent to coronary artery stents were resolved. High correlation between NLO and histology imaging evidenced the validity of the NLO imaging. The capability of imaging significant components of an arterial wall and distinctive stages of atherosclerosis in a label-free manner suggests the potential application of multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy to monitor the onset and progression of arterial diseases.

  16. Multimodal microscopy and the stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence of melanin (United States)

    Lai, Zhenhua

    The author's work is divided into three aspects: multimodal microscopy, stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin, and customized-profile lenses (CPL) for on-axis laser scanners, which will be introduced respectively. A multimodal microscope provides the ability to image samples with multiple modalities on the same stage, which incorporates the benefits of all modalities. The multimodal microscopes developed in this dissertation are the Keck 3D fusion multimodal microscope 2.0 (3DFM 2.0), upgraded from the old 3DFM with improved performance and flexibility, and the multimodal microscope for targeting small particles (the "Target" system). The control systems developed for both microscopes are low-cost and easy-to-build, with all components off-the-shelf. The control system have not only significantly decreased the complexity and size of the microscope, but also increased the pixel resolution and flexibility. The SMPAF of melanin, activated by a continuous-wave (CW) mode near-infrared (NIR) laser, has potential applications for a low-cost and reliable method of detecting melanin. The photophysics of melanin SMPAF has been studied by theoretical analysis of the excitation process and investigation of the spectra, activation threshold, and photon number absorption of melanin SMPAF. SMPAF images of melanin in mouse hair and skin, mouse melanoma, and human black and white hairs are compared with images taken by conventional multi-photon fluorescence microscopy (MPFM) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM). SMPAF images significantly increase specificity and demonstrate the potential to increase sensitivity for melanin detection compared to MPFM images and CRM images. Employing melanin SMPAF imaging to detect melanin inside human skin in vivo has been demonstrated, which proves the effectiveness of melanin detection using SMPAF for medical purposes. Selective melanin ablation with micrometer resolution has been presented using the Target system

  17. Label-free imaging of acanthamoeba using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsubasa; Cha, Yu-Rok; Kaji, Yuichi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Kano, Hideaki


    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a disease in which amoebae named Acanthamoeba invade the cornea of an eye. To diagnose this disease before it becomes serious, it is important to detect the cyst state of Acanthamoeba in the early stage of infection. In the present study, we explored spectroscopic signitures of the cyst state of Acanthamoeba using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy with the channels of multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG), and third harmonic generation (THG). A sharp band at around 1603 cm-1 in the CARS (Im[χ(3)]) spectrum was found at the cyst state of Acanthamoeba, which possibly originates from ergosterol and/or 7-dehydrostigmasterol. It can be used as a maker band of Acanthamoeba for medical treatment. Keyword: Acanthamoeba keratitis, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, CARS, second harmonic generation, SHG, microspectroscopy, multiphoton microscopy

  18. Multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie


    In this paper, I address an ongoing discussion in Danish E-learning research about how to take advantage of the fact that digital media facilitate other communication forms than text, so-called ‘multimodal' communication, which should not be confused with the term ‘multimedia'. While multimedia...... on their teaching and learning situations. The choices they make involve e-learning resources like videos, social platforms and mobile devices, not just as digital artefacts we interact with, but the entire practice of using digital media. In a life-long learning perspective, multimodality is potentially very...

  19. Spectral embedding-based registration (SERg) for multimodal fusion of prostate histology and MRI (United States)

    Hwuang, Eileen; Rusu, Mirabela; Karthigeyan, Sudha; Agner, Shannon C.; Sparks, Rachel; Shih, Natalie; Tomaszewski, John E.; Rosen, Mark; Feldman, Michael; Madabhushi, Anant


    Multi-modal image registration is needed to align medical images collected from different protocols or imaging sources, thereby allowing the mapping of complementary information between images. One challenge of multimodal image registration is that typical similarity measures rely on statistical correlations between image intensities to determine anatomical alignment. The use of alternate image representations could allow for mapping of intensities into a space or representation such that the multimodal images appear more similar, thus facilitating their co-registration. In this work, we present a spectral embedding based registration (SERg) method that uses non-linearly embedded representations obtained from independent components of statistical texture maps of the original images to facilitate multimodal image registration. Our methodology comprises the following main steps: 1) image-derived textural representation of the original images, 2) dimensionality reduction using independent component analysis (ICA), 3) spectral embedding to generate the alternate representations, and 4) image registration. The rationale behind our approach is that SERg yields embedded representations that can allow for very different looking images to appear more similar, thereby facilitating improved co-registration. Statistical texture features are derived from the image intensities and then reduced to a smaller set by using independent component analysis to remove redundant information. Spectral embedding generates a new representation by eigendecomposition from which only the most important eigenvectors are selected. This helps to accentuate areas of salience based on modality-invariant structural information and therefore better identifies corresponding regions in both the template and target images. The spirit behind SERg is that image registration driven by these areas of salience and correspondence should improve alignment accuracy. In this work, SERg is implemented using Demons

  20. Coherent noise reduction in digital holographic microscopy by averaging multiple holograms recorded with a multimode laser. (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Yang, Lizhi; Xiao, Wen


    In digital holographic microscopy (DHM), it is undesirable to observe coherent noise in the reconstructed images. The sources of the noise are mainly the parasitic interference fringes caused by multiple reflections and the speckle pattern caused by the optical scattering on the object surface. Here we propose a noise reduction approach in DHM by averaging multiple holograms recorded with a multimode laser. Based on the periodicity of the temporal coherence of a multimode semiconductor laser, we acquire a series of holograms by changing the optical path length difference between the reference beam and object beam. Because of the use of low coherence light, we can remove the parasitic interference fringes caused by multiple reflections in the holograms. In addition, the coherent noise patterns change in this process due to the different optical paths. Therefore, the coherent noise can be reduced by averaging the multiple reconstructions with uncorrelated noise patterns. Several experiments have been carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for coherent noise reduction in DHM. It is shown a remarkable improvement both in amplitude imaging quality and phase measurement accuracy.

  1. Probing plasma membrane microdomains in cowpea protoplasts using lipidated GFP-fusion proteins and multimode FRET microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, J.E.M.; van Munster, E.B.; Vischer, N.O.; Gadella, T.


    Multimode fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy was applied to study the plasma membrane organization using different lipidated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins co-expressed in cowpea protoplasts. Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was fused to the hyper variable region

  2. Label-free evaluation of hepatic microvesicular steatosis with multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuc T Le

    Full Text Available Hepatic microvesicular steatosis is a hallmark of drug-induced hepatotoxicity and early-stage fatty liver disease. Current histopathology techniques are inadequate for the clinical evaluation of hepatic microvesicular steatosis. In this paper, we explore the use of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS microscopy for the detection and characterization of hepatic microvesicular steatosis. We show that CARS microscopy is more sensitive than Oil Red O histology for the detection of microvesicular steatosis. Computer-assisted analysis of liver lipid level based on CARS signal intensity is consistent with triglyceride measurement using a standard biochemical assay. Most importantly, in a single measurement procedure on unprocessed and unstained liver tissues, multimodal CARS imaging provides a wealth of critical information including the detection of microvesicular steatosis and quantitation of liver lipid content, number and size of lipid droplets, and lipid unsaturation and packing order of lipid droplets. Such information can only be assessed by multiple different methods on processed and stained liver tissues or tissue extracts using current standard analytical techniques. Multimodal CARS microscopy also permits label-free identification of lipid-rich non-parenchymal cells. In addition, label-free and non-perturbative CARS imaging allow rapid screening of mitochondrial toxins-induced microvesicular steatosis in primary hepatocyte cultures. With its sensitivity and versatility, multimodal CARS microscopy should be a powerful tool for the clinical evaluation of hepatic microvesicular steatosis.

  3. Multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    In this paper, I address an ongoing discussion in Danish E-learning research about how to take advantage of the fact that digital media facilitate other communication forms than text, so-called ‘multimodal’ communication, which should not be confused with the term ‘multimedia’. While multimedia...... and learning situations. The choices they make involve E-learning resources like videos, social platforms and mobile devices, not just as digital artefacts we interact with, but the entire practice of using digital media. In a life-long learning perspective, multimodality is potentially very useful...

  4. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source (United States)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.


    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  5. Hybrid Rayleigh, Raman and TPE fluorescence spectral confocal microscopy of living cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pully, V.V.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis


    A hybrid fluorescence–Raman confocal microscopy platform is presented, which integrates low-wavenumber-resolution Raman imaging, Rayleigh scatter imaging and two-photon fluorescence (TPE) spectral imaging, fast ‘amplitude-only’ TPE-fluorescence imaging and high-spectral-resolution Raman imaging.

  6. Investigation of an angiogenesis-promoting topical treatment for diabetic wounds using multimodal microscopy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Li, Joanne; Bower, Andrew J.; Arp, Zane A.; Olson, Eric; Holland, Claire; Chaney, Eric J.; Marjanovic, Marina; Boppart, Stephen A.


    Impaired skin wound healing is a significant co-morbid condition of diabetes that is caused by poor microcirculation among other factors. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that mediate the effects of decreased levels of oxygen in biological environments. Inducing mild hypoxia in the tissue could promote angiogenesis, a critical step in the wound healing process in diabetic wounds. To investigate the relationship between hypoxia and diabetic wound healing, a topical treatment consisting of a HIF-activating prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor was administered to the wounded skin of diabetic (db/db) mice. Studies were conducted in accordance with the GSK Policy on the Care, Welfare and Treatment of Laboratory Animals and were reviewed at GSK or by the ethical review process at the institution where the work was performed. The wounded area was tracked in vivo for 28 days utilizing a custom-built multimodal microscopy system. An increase in vascular density around the wounds of treated animals was observed using phase-variance optical coherence tomography (PV-OCT), in comparison to normal controls. In addition, second harmonic generation (SHG) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) were utilized to examine the collagen regeneration and cellular metabolic activity, respectively, in the wounded skin. The utilization of these light based methods can follow metabolic and morphologic changes in the wound healing process in ways not possible with current evaluation processes. Insights demonstrated in these studies could lead to new endpoints for evaluation of the efficacy of drugs and lead to more direct ways of detecting patient response to treatment.

  7. Multi-modality photoacoustic tomography, ultrasound, and light sheet microscopy for volumetric tumor margin detection (United States)

    Sangha, Gurneet S.; Hu, Bihe; Bolus, Daniel; Wang, Mei; Skidmore, Shelby J.; Sholl, Andrew B.; Brown, J. Quincy; Goergen, Craig J.


    Current methods for breast tumor margin detection are invasive, time consuming, and typically result in a reoperative rate of over 25%. This marks a clear clinical need to develop improved tools to intraoperatively differentiate negative versus positive tumor margins. Here, we utilize photoacoustic tomography (PAT), ultrasound (US), and inverted Selective Plane Illumination Microscopy (iSPIM) to assess breast tumor margins in eight human breast biopsies. Our PAT/US system consists of a tunable Nd:YAG laser (NT 300, EKSPLA) coupled with a 40MHz central frequency US probe (Vevo2100, FUJIFILM Visual Sonics). This system allows for the delivery of 10Hz, 5ns pulses with fluence of 40mJ/cm2 to the tissue with PAT and US axial resolutions of 125μm and 40μm, respectively. For this study, we used a linear stepper motor to acquire volumetric PAT/US images of the breast biopsies using 1100nm light to identify bloodrich "tumor" regions and 1210nm light to identify lipid-rich "healthy" regions. iSPIM (Applied Scientific Instrumentation) is an advanced microscopy technique with lateral resolution of 1.5μm and axial resolution of 7μm. We used 488nm laser excitation and acridine orange as a general comprehensive histology stain. Our results show that PAT/US can be used to identify lipid-rich regions, dense areas of arterioles and arteries, and other internal structures such as ducts. iSPIM images correlate well with histopathology slides and can verify nuclear features, cell type and density, stromal features, and microcalcifications. Together, this multimodality approach has the potential to improve tumor margin detection with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Multimodal ophthalmic imaging using handheld spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (SECTR) (United States)

    Leeburg, Kelsey C.; El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Malone, Joseph D.; Terrones, Benjamin D.; Tao, Yuankai K.


    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) provides high-speed, noninvasive en face imaging of the retinal fundus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the current "gold-standard" for ophthalmic diagnostic imaging and enables depth-resolved visualization of ophthalmic structures and image-based surrogate biomarkers of disease. We present a compact optical and mechanical design for handheld spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (SECTR) for multimodality en face spectrally encoded reflectometry (SER) and cross-sectional OCT imaging. We custom-designed a double-pass telecentric scan lens, which halves the size of 4-f optical relays and allowed us to reduce the footprint of our SECTR scan-head by a factor of >2.7x (volume) over our previous design. The double-pass scan lens was optimized for diffraction-limited performance over a +/-10° scan field. SECTR optics and optomechanics were combined in a compact rapid-prototyped enclosure with dimensions 87 x 141.8 x 137 mm (w x h x d). SECTR was implemented using a custom-built 400 kHz 1050 nm swept-source. OCT and SER were simultaneously digitized on dual input channels of a 4 GS/s digitizer at 1.4 GS/s per channel. In vivo human en face SER and cross-sectional OCT images were acquired at 350 fps. OCT volumes of 1000 B-scans were acquired in 2.86 s. We believe clinical translation of our compact handheld design will benefit point-of-care ophthalmic diagnostics in patients who are unable to be imaged on conventional slit-lamp based systems, such as infants and the bedridden. When combined with multi-volumetric registration methods, handheld SECTR will have advantages in motion-artifact free imaging over existing handheld technologies.

  9. Microscale reconstruction of biogeochemical substrates using multimode X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy (United States)

    Miller, M.; Miller, E.; Liu, J.; Lund, R. M.; McKinley, J. P.


    X-ray computed tomography (CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EMP), and computational image analysis are mature technologies used in many disciplines. Cross-discipline combination of these imaging and image-analysis technologies is the focus of this research, which uses laboratory and light-source resources in an iterative approach. The objective is to produce images across length scales, taking advantage of instrumentation that is optimized for each scale, and to unify them into a single compositional reconstruction. Initially, CT images will be collected using both x-ray absorption and differential phase contrast modes. The imaged sample will then be physically sectioned and the exposed surfaces imaged and characterized via SEM/EMP. The voxel slice corresponding to the physical sample surface will be isolated computationally, and the volumetric data will be combined with two-dimensional SEM images along CT image planes. This registration step will take advantage of the similarity between the X-ray absorption (CT) and backscattered electron (SEM) coefficients (both proportional to average atomic number in the interrogated volume) as well as the images' mutual information. Elemental and solid-phase distributions on the exposed surfaces, co-registered with SEM images, will be mapped using EMP. The solid-phase distribution will be propagated into three-dimensional space using computational methods relying on the estimation of compositional distributions derived from the CT data. If necessary, solid-phase and pore-space boundaries will be resolved using X-ray differential phase contrast tomography, x-ray fluorescence tomography, and absorption-edge microtomography at a light-source facility. Computational methods will be developed to register and model images collected over varying scales and data types. Image resolution, physically and dynamically, is qualitatively different for the electron microscopy and CT methodologies. Routine

  10. Multimodal ophthalmic imaging using spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (United States)

    El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Malone, Joseph D.; Li, Jianwei D.; Bozic, Ivan; Arquitola, Amber M.; Joos, Karen M.; Patel, Shriji N.; Tao, Yuankai K.


    Ophthalmic surgery involves manipulation of delicate, layered tissue structures on milli- to micrometer scales. Traditional surgical microscopes provide an inherently two-dimensional view of the surgical field with limited depth perception which precludes accurate depth-resolved visualization of these tissue layers, and limits the development of novel surgical techniques. We demonstrate multimodal swept-source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (SS-SESLO-OCT) to address current limitations of image-guided ophthalmic microsurgery. SS-SESLO-OCT provides inherently co-registered en face and cross-sectional field-of-views (FOVs) at a line rate of 400 kHz and >2 GPix/s throughput. We show in vivo imaging of the anterior segment and retinal fundus of a healthy volunteer, and preliminary results of multi-volumetric mosaicking for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with 90° FOV. Additionally, a scan-head was rapid-prototyped with a modular architecture which enabled integration of SS-SESLO-OCT with traditional surgical microscope and slit-lamp imaging optics. Ex vivo surgical maneuvers were simulated in cadaveric porcine eyes. The system throughput enabled volumetric acquisition at 10 volumes-per-second (vps) and allowed visualization of surgical dynamics in corneal sweeps, compressions, and dissections, and retinal sweeps, compressions, and elevations. SESLO en face images enabled simple real-time co-registration with the surgical microscope FOV, and OCT cross-sections provided depth-resolved visualization of instrument-tissue interactions. Finally, we demonstrate novel augmented-reality integration with the surgical view using segmentation overlays to aid surgical guidance. SS-SESLO-OCT may benefit clinical diagnostics by enabling aiming, registration, and mosaicking; and intraoperative imaging by allowing for real-time surgical feedback, instrument tracking, and overlays of computationally extracted biomarkers of disease.

  11. Quantitative stain-free and continuous multimodal monitoring of wound healing in vitro with digital holographic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Bettenworth

    Full Text Available Impaired epithelial wound healing has significant pathophysiological implications in several conditions including gastrointestinal ulcers, anastomotic leakage and venous or diabetic skin ulcers. Promising drug candidates for accelerating wound closure are commonly evaluated in in vitro wound assays. However, staining procedures and discontinuous monitoring are major drawbacks hampering accurate assessment of wound assays. We therefore investigated digital holographic microscopy (DHM to appropriately monitor wound healing in vitro and secondly, to provide multimodal quantitative information on morphological and functional cell alterations as well as on motility changes upon cytokine stimulation. Wound closure as reflected by proliferation and migration of Caco-2 cells in wound healing assays was studied and assessed in time-lapse series for 40 h in the presence of stimulating epidermal growth factor (EGF and inhibiting mitomycin c. Therefore, digital holograms were recorded continuously every thirty minutes. Morphological changes including cell thickness, dry mass and tissue density were analyzed by data from quantitative digital holographic phase microscopy. Stimulation of Caco-2 cells with EGF or mitomycin c resulted in significant morphological changes during wound healing compared to control cells. In conclusion, DHM allows accurate, stain-free and continuous multimodal quantitative monitoring of wound healing in vitro and could be a promising new technique for assessment of wound healing.

  12. Applications of cost-effective spectral imaging microscopy in cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, P R; Vojnovic, B; Atkin, G; Daley, F M; Everett, S A; Wilson, G D; Gilbey, J D


    The application of a cost-effective spectral imager to spatially segmenting absorptive and fluorescent chemical probes on the basis of their spectral characteristics has been demonstrated. The imager comprises a computer-controlled spectrally selective element that allows random access to a bandwidth of 15 nm between 400 and 700 nm. Further, the use of linear un-mixing of the spectral response of a sample at a single pixel has been facilitated using non-negative least squares fitting. Examples are given showing the separation of dye distributions, such as immunohistochemical markers for tumour hypoxia, from multiply stained thin tissue sections, imaged by trans-illumination microscopy. A quantitative study is also presented that shows a correlation between staining intensity and normal versus tumour tissue, and the advantage of reducing the amount of data captured for a particular study is also demonstrated. An example of the application to fluorescence microscopy is also given, showing the separation of green fluorescent protein, Cy3 and Cy5 at a single pixel. The system has been validated against samples of known optical density and of known overlapping combinations of coloured filters. These results confirm the ability of this technique to separate spectral responses that cannot be resolved with conventional colour imaging

  13. Group velocity measurement using spectral interference in near-field scanning optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, John D.; Chaipiboonwong, Tipsuda; Brocklesby, William S.; Charlton, Martin D. B.; Netti, Caterina; Zoorob, Majd E.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.


    Near-field scanning optical microscopy provides a tool for studying the behavior of optical fields inside waveguides. In this experiment the authors measure directly the variation of group velocity between different modes of a planar slab waveguide as the modes propagate along the guide. The measurement is made using the spectral interference between pulses propagating inside the waveguide with different group velocities, collected using a near-field scanning optical microscope at different points down the guide and spectrally resolved. The results are compared to models of group velocities in simple guides

  14. Systems and methods for selective detection and imaging in coherent Raman microscopy by spectral excitation shaping (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Freudiger, Christian; Min, Wei


    A microscopy imaging system is disclosed that includes a light source system, a spectral shaper, a modulator system, an optics system, an optical detector and a processor. The light source system is for providing a first train of pulses and a second train of pulses. The spectral shaper is for spectrally modifying an optical property of at least some frequency components of the broadband range of frequency components such that the broadband range of frequency components is shaped producing a shaped first train of pulses to specifically probe a spectral feature of interest from a sample, and to reduce information from features that are not of interest from the sample. The modulator system is for modulating a property of at least one of the shaped first train of pulses and the second train of pulses at a modulation frequency. The optical detector is for detecting an integrated intensity of substantially all optical frequency components of a train of pulses of interest transmitted or reflected through the common focal volume. The processor is for detecting a modulation at the modulation frequency of the integrated intensity of substantially all of the optical frequency components of the train of pulses of interest due to the non-linear interaction of the shaped first train of pulses with the second train of pulses as modulated in the common focal volume, and for providing an output signal for a pixel of an image for the microscopy imaging system.

  15. An approach to estimate spatial distribution of analyte within cells using spectrally-resolved fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Sharma, Dharmendar Kumar; Irfanullah, Mir; Basu, Santanu Kumar; Madhu, Sheri; De, Suman; Jadhav, Sameer; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli; Chowdhury, Arindam


    While fluorescence microscopy has become an essential tool amongst chemists and biologists for the detection of various analyte within cellular environments, non-uniform spatial distribution of sensors within cells often restricts extraction of reliable information on relative abundance of analytes in different subcellular regions. As an alternative to existing sensing methodologies such as ratiometric or FRET imaging, where relative proportion of analyte with respect to the sensor can be obtained within cells, we propose a methodology using spectrally-resolved fluorescence microscopy, via which both the relative abundance of sensor as well as their relative proportion with respect to the analyte can be simultaneously extracted for local subcellular regions. This method is exemplified using a BODIPY sensor, capable of detecting mercury ions within cellular environments, characterized by spectral blue-shift and concurrent enhancement of emission intensity. Spectral emission envelopes collected from sub-microscopic regions allowed us to compare the shift in transition energies as well as integrated emission intensities within various intracellular regions. Construction of a 2D scatter plot using spectral shifts and emission intensities, which depend on the relative amount of analyte with respect to sensor and the approximate local amounts of the probe, respectively, enabled qualitative extraction of relative abundance of analyte in various local regions within a single cell as well as amongst different cells. Although the comparisons remain semi-quantitative, this approach involving analysis of multiple spectral parameters opens up an alternative way to extract spatial distribution of analyte in heterogeneous systems. The proposed method would be especially relevant for fluorescent probes that undergo relatively nominal shift in transition energies compared to their emission bandwidths, which often restricts their usage for quantitative ratiometric imaging in

  16. Tissue imaging using full field optical coherence microscopy with short multimode fiber probe (United States)

    Sato, Manabu; Eto, Kai; Goto, Tetsuhiro; Kurotani, Reiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Nishidate, Izumi


    In achieving minimally invasive accessibility to deeply located regions the size of the imaging probes is important. We demonstrated full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCM) using an ultrathin forward-imaging short multimode fiber (SMMF) probe of 50 μm core diameter, 125 μm diameter, and 7.4 mm length for optical communications. The axial resolution was measured to be 2.14 μm and the lateral resolution was also evaluated to be below 4.38 μm using a test pattern (TP). The spatial mode and polarization characteristics of SMMF were evaluated. Inserting SMMF to in vivo rat brain, 3D images were measured and 2D information of nerve fibers was obtained. The feasibility of an SMMF as an ultrathin forward-imaging probe in FF-OCM has been demonstrated.

  17. A Concept of Multi-Mode High Spectral Resolution Lidar Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yoshitaka


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design of a High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL using a laser that oscillates in a multi-longitudinal mode. Rayleigh and Mie scattering components are separated using a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI with the same free spectral range (FSR as the transmitted laser. The transmitted laser light is measured as a reference signal with the same MZI. By scanning the MZI periodically with a scanning range equal to the mode spacing, we can identify the maximum Mie and the maximum Rayleigh signals using the reference signal. The cross talk due to the spectral width of each laser mode can also be estimated.

  18. Probing chemistry within the membrane structure of wood with soft X-ray spectral microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cody, George D.


    Scanning Transmission Soft X-ray spectral microscopy on Carbon's 1s absorption edge reveals the distribution of structural biopolymers within cell membrane regions of modern cedar and oak. Cellulose is extremely susceptible to beam damage. Spectroscopic studies of beam damage reveals that the chemical changes resulting from secondary electron impact may be highly selective and is consistent with hydroxyl eliminations and structural rearrangement of pyranose rings in alpha-cellulose to hydroxyl substituted γ pyrones. A study of acetylated cellulose demonstrates significantly different chemistry; principally massive decarboxylation. Defocusing the beam to a 2 μm spot size allows for the acquisition of 'pristine' cellulose spectra. Spectral deconvolution is used to assess the distribution of lignin and cellulose in the different regions of the cell membrane. Using the intensity of the hydroxylated aromatic carbons 1s-π * transition, the ratio of coniferyl and syringyl based lignin within the middle lamellae and secondary cell wall of oak, an angiosperm can be determined

  19. Passive microrheology of soft materials with atomic force microscopy: A wavelet-based spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Torres, C.; Streppa, L. [CNRS, UMR5672, Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, Université de Lyon, 69007 Lyon (France); Arneodo, A.; Argoul, F. [CNRS, UMR5672, Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, Université de Lyon, 69007 Lyon (France); CNRS, UMR5798, Laboratoire Ondes et Matière d' Aquitaine, Université de Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Argoul, P. [Université Paris-Est, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, SDOA, MAST, IFSTTAR, 14-20 Bd Newton, Cité Descartes, 77420 Champs sur Marne (France)


    Compared to active microrheology where a known force or modulation is periodically imposed to a soft material, passive microrheology relies on the spectral analysis of the spontaneous motion of tracers inherent or external to the material. Passive microrheology studies of soft or living materials with atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever tips are rather rare because, in the spectral densities, the rheological response of the materials is hardly distinguishable from other sources of random or periodic perturbations. To circumvent this difficulty, we propose here a wavelet-based decomposition of AFM cantilever tip fluctuations and we show that when applying this multi-scale method to soft polymer layers and to living myoblasts, the structural damping exponents of these soft materials can be retrieved.

  20. Spectrally Resolved and Functional Super-resolution Microscopy via Ultrahigh-Throughput Single-Molecule Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Moon, Seonah; Kenny, Samuel J; Xu, Ke


    As an elegant integration of the spatial and temporal dimensions of single-molecule fluorescence, single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) overcomes the diffraction-limited resolution barrier of optical microscopy by localizing single molecules that stochastically switch between fluorescent and dark states over time. While this type of super-resolution microscopy (SRM) technique readily achieves remarkable spatial resolutions of ∼10 nm, it typically provides no spectral information. Meanwhile, current scanning-based single-location approaches for mapping the positions and spectra of single molecules are limited by low throughput and are difficult to apply to densely labeled (bio)samples. In this Account, we summarize the rationale, design, and results of our recent efforts toward the integration of the spectral dimension of single-molecule fluorescence with SMLM to achieve spectrally resolved SMLM (SR-SMLM) and functional SRM ( f-SRM). By developing a wide-field scheme for spectral measurement and implementing single-molecule fluorescence on-off switching typical of SMLM, we first showed that in densely labeled (bio)samples it is possible to record the fluorescence spectra and positions of millions of single molecules synchronously within minutes, giving rise to ultrahigh-throughput single-molecule spectroscopy and SR-SMLM. This allowed us to first show statistically that for many dyes, single molecules of the same species exhibit near identical emission in fixed cells. This narrow distribution of emission wavelengths, which contrasts markedly with previous results at solid surfaces, allowed us to unambiguously identify single molecules of spectrally similar dyes. Crosstalk-free, multiplexed SRM was thus achieved for four dyes that were merely 10 nm apart in emission spectrum, with the three-dimensional SRM images of all four dyes being automatically aligned within one image channel. The ability to incorporate single-molecule fluorescence measurement with

  1. Combining total internal reflection sum frequency spectroscopy spectral imaging and confocal fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Allgeyer, Edward S; Sterling, Sarah M; Gunewardene, Mudalige S; Hess, Samuel T; Neivandt, David J; Mason, Michael D


    Understanding surface and interfacial lateral organization in material and biological systems is critical in nearly every field of science. The continued development of tools and techniques viable for elucidation of interfacial and surface information is therefore necessary to address new questions and further current investigations. Sum frequency spectroscopy (SFS) is a label-free, nonlinear optical technique with inherent surface specificity that can yield critical organizational information on interfacial species. Unfortunately, SFS provides no spatial information on a surface; small scale heterogeneities that may exist are averaged over the large areas typically probed. Over the past decade, this has begun to be addressed with the advent of SFS microscopy. Here we detail the construction and function of a total internal reflection (TIR) SFS spectral and confocal fluorescence imaging microscope directly amenable to surface investigations. This instrument combines, for the first time, sample scanning TIR-SFS imaging with confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  2. Hybrid of two-photon microscopy and optical multimodality imaging for multi-scale imaging of small animals (United States)

    Li, Tianmeng; Hui, Hui; Ma, He; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie


    Non-invasive imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical multimodality imaging methods, are commonly used for diagnosing and supervising the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These in vivo imaging methods can provide morphology changes information of IBD in macro-scale. However, it is difficult to investigate the intestinal wall in molecular and cellular level. State-of-art light-sheet and two-photon microscopy have the ability to acquire the changes for IBD in micro-scale. The aim of this work is to evaluate the size of the enterocoel and the thickness of colon wall using both MRI for in vivo imaging, and light-sheet and two-photon microscope for in vitro imaging. C57BL/6 mice were received 3.5% Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water for 5 days to build IBD model. Mice were imaged with MRI on days 0, 6 to observe colitis progression. After MRI imaging, the mice were sacrificed to take colons for tissue clearing. Then, light-sheet and two-photon microscopies are used for in vitro imaging of the cleared samples. The experimental group showed symptoms of bloody stools, sluggishness and weight loss. It showed that the colon wall was thicker while the enterocoel was narrower compare to control group. The more details are observed using light-sheet and two-photon microscope. It is demonstrated that hybrid of MRI in macro-scale and light-sheet and two-photon microscopy in micro-scale imaging is feasible for colon inflammation diagnosing and supervising.

  3. Multimode simulations of a wide field of view double-Fourier far-infrared spatio-spectral interferometer (United States)

    Bracken, Colm P.; Lightfoot, John; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Donohoe, Anthony; Savini, Giorgio; Juanola-Parramon, Roser; The Fisica Consortium, On Behalf Of


    In the absence of 50-m class space-based observatories, subarcsecond astronomy spanning the full far-infrared wavelength range will require space-based long-baseline interferometry. The long baselines of up to tens of meters are necessary to achieve subarcsecond resolution demanded by science goals. Also, practical observing times command a field of view toward an arcminute (1‧) or so, not achievable with a single on-axis coherent detector. This paper is concerned with an application of an end-to-end instrument simulator PyFIInS, developed as part of the FISICA project under funding from the European Commission's seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7). Predicted results of wide field of view spatio-spectral interferometry through simulations of a long-baseline, double-Fourier, far-infrared interferometer concept are presented and analyzed. It is shown how such an interferometer, illuminated by a multimode detector can recover a large field of view at subarcsecond angular resolution, resulting in similar image quality as that achieved by illuminating the system with an array of coherent detectors. Through careful analysis, the importance of accounting for the correct number of higher-order optical modes is demonstrated, as well as accounting for both orthogonal polarizations. Given that it is very difficult to manufacture waveguide and feed structures at sub-mm wavelengths, the larger multimode design is recommended over the array of smaller single mode detectors. A brief note is provided in the conclusion of this paper addressing a more elegant solution to modeling far-infrared interferometers, which holds promise for improving the computational efficiency of the simulations presented here.

  4. High-speed vibrational imaging and spectral analysis of lipid bodies by compound Raman microscopy. (United States)

    Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Le, Thuc T; Chen, Hongtao; Cheng, Ji-Xin


    Cells store excess energy in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. At present, it is unclear how different types of fatty acids contribute to the formation of lipid droplets. We describe a compound Raman microscope capable of both high-speed chemical imaging and quantitative spectral analysis on the same platform. We used a picosecond laser source to perform coherent Raman scattering imaging of a biological sample and confocal Raman spectral analysis at points of interest. The potential of the compound Raman microscope was evaluated on lipid bodies of cultured cells and live animals. Our data indicate that the in vivo fat contains much more unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) than the fat formed via de novo synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, in vivo analysis of subcutaneous adipocytes and glands revealed a dramatic difference not only in the unsaturation level but also in the thermodynamic state of FAs inside their lipid bodies. Additionally, the compound Raman microscope allows tracking of the cellular uptake of a specific fatty acid and its abundance in nascent cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The high-speed vibrational imaging and spectral analysis capability renders compound Raman microscopy an indispensible analytical tool for the study of lipid-droplet biology.

  5. Isometric multimodal photoacoustic microscopy based on optically transparent micro-ring ultrasonic detection. (United States)

    Dong, Biqin; Li, Hao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Kevin; Chen, Siyu; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F


    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is an attractive imaging tool complementary to established optical microscopic modalities by providing additional molecular specificities through imaging optical absorption contrast. While the development of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (ORPAM) offers high lateral resolution, the acoustically-determined axial resolution is limited due to the constraint in ultrasonic detection bandwidth. ORPAM with isometric spatial resolution along both axial and lateral direction is yet to be developed. Although recently developed sophisticated optical illumination and reconstruction methods offer improved axial resolution in ORPAM, the image acquisition procedures are rather complicated, limiting their capabilities for high-speed imaging and being easily integrated with established optical microscopic modalities. Here we report an isometric ORPAM based on an optically transparent micro-ring resonator ultrasonic detector and a commercial inverted microscope platform. Owing to the superior spatial resolution and the ease of integrating our ORPAM with established microscopic modalities, single cell imaging with extrinsic fluorescence staining, intrinsic autofluorescence, and optical absorption can be achieved simultaneously. This technique holds promise to greatly improve the accessibility of PAM to the broader biomedical researchers.

  6. Characterization of human arterial tissue affected by atherosclerosis using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy (United States)

    Baria, Enrico; Cicchi, Riccardo; Rotellini, Matteo; Nesi, Gabriella; Massi, Daniela; Pavone, Francesco S.


    Atherosclerosis is a widespread cardiovascular disease caused by the deposition of lipids (such as cholesterol and triglycerides) on the inner arterial wall. The rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, resulting in a thrombus, is one of the leading causes of death in the Western World. Preventive assessment of plaque vulnerability is therefore extremely important and can be performed by studying collagen organization and lipid composition in atherosclerotic arterial tissues. Routinely used diagnostic methods, such as histopathological examination, are limited to morphological analysis of the examined tissues, whereas an exhaustive characterization requires immune-histochemical examination and a morpho-functional approach. Instead, a label-free and non-invasive alternative is provided by nonlinear microscopy. In this study, we combined SHG and FLIM microscopy in order to characterize collagen organization and lipids in human carotid ex vivo tissues affected by atherosclerosis. SHG and TPF images, acquired from different regions within atherosclerotic plaques, were processed through image pattern analysis methods (FFT, GLCM). The resulting information on collagen and cholesterol distribution and anisotropy, combined with collagen and lipids fluorescence lifetime measured from FLIM images, allowed characterization of carotid samples and discrimination of different tissue regions. The presented method can be applied for automated classification of atherosclerotic lesions and plaque vulnerability. Moreover, it lays the foundation for a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to be used in clinical setting.

  7. An estimation of the spatial coherency radius of a multimode laser beam by the spectral contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, I I


    The angular dependency of the spectral contrast behind a diffuser illuminated by an He/Ne laser beam at .63 micrometers on the number of transverse modes is investigated. It is demonstrated that over a wide range of scattering angles, the contrast is determined primarily by the number of transverse modes, i.e. by the radius of the spatial field correlation, and is only slightly dependent on the dimensions and shape of the beam as well as the intensity distribution in the beam. These results may be useful in developing a rapid indication method of the radius of the spatial correlation of laser beams.

  8. Enhanced simulator software for image validation and interpretation for multimodal localization super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Erdélyi, Miklós; Sinkó, József; Gajdos, Tamás.; Novák, Tibor


    Optical super-resolution techniques such as single molecule localization have become one of the most dynamically developed areas in optical microscopy. These techniques routinely provide images of fixed cells or tissues with sub-diffraction spatial resolution, and can even be applied for live cell imaging under appropriate circumstances. Localization techniques are based on the precise fitting of the point spread functions (PSF) to the measured images of stochastically excited, identical fluorescent molecules. These techniques require controlling the rate between the on, off and the bleached states, keeping the number of active fluorescent molecules at an optimum value, so their diffraction limited images can be detected separately both spatially and temporally. Because of the numerous (and sometimes unknown) parameters, the imaging system can only be handled stochastically. For example, the rotation of the dye molecules obscures the polarization dependent PSF shape, and only an averaged distribution - typically estimated by a Gaussian function - is observed. TestSTORM software was developed to generate image stacks for traditional localization microscopes, where localization meant the precise determination of the spatial position of the molecules. However, additional optical properties (polarization, spectra, etc.) of the emitted photons can be used for further monitoring the chemical and physical properties (viscosity, pH, etc.) of the local environment. The image stack generating program was upgraded by several new features, such as: multicolour, polarization dependent PSF, built-in 3D visualization, structured background. These features make the program an ideal tool for optimizing the imaging and sample preparation conditions.

  9. Multimodal imaging of vocal fold scarring in a rabbit model by multiphoton microscopy (United States)

    Kazarine, Alexei; Bouhabel, Sarah; Douillette, Annie H.; Kost, Karen; Li-Jessen, Nicole Y. K.; Mongeau, Luc; Wiseman, Paul W.


    Vocal fold scarring as a result of injury or disease can lead to voice disorders which can significantly affect the quality of life. During the scarring process, the normally elastic tissue of the vocal fold lamina propria is replaced by a much stiffer collagen-based fibrotic tissue, which impacts the fold's ability to vibrate. Surgical removal of this tissue is often ineffective and can result in further scarring. Injectable biomaterials, a form of tissue engineering, have been proposed as a potential solution to reduce existing scars or prevent scarring altogether. In order to properly evaluate the effectiveness of these new materials, multiphoton microscopy emerges as an effective tool due to its intrinsic multiple label free contrast mechanisms that highlight extracellular matrix elements. In this study, we evaluate the spatial distribution of collagen and elastin fibers in a rabbit model using second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG) and two photon autofluorescence (TPAF) applied to unlabeled tissue sections. In comparison to traditional methods that rely on histological staining or immunohistochemistry, SHG, THG and TPAF provide a more reliable detection of these native proteins. The evaluation of collagen levels allows us to follow the extent of scarring, while the presence of elastin fibers is thought to be indicative of the level of healing of the injured fold. Using these imaging modalities, we characterize the outcome of injectable biomaterial treatments in order to direct future treatments for tissue engineering.

  10. Tunable optical setup with high flexibility for spectrally resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, G; Akimov, D; Bartelt, H; Dietzek, B; Popp, J; Schlücker, S


    A simplified setup for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is introduced, which allows for recording CARS images with 30 cm -1 excitation bandwidth for probing Raman bands between 500 and 900 cm -1 with minimal requirements for alignment. The experimental arrangement is based on electronic switching between CARS images recorded at different Raman resonances by combining a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as broadband light source and an acousto-optical programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF) as tunable wavelength filter. Such spatial light modulator enables selection of a narrow-band spectrum to yield high vibrational contrast and hence chemical contrast in the resultant CARS images. Furthermore, an experimental approach to reconstruct spectral information from CARS image contrast is introduced

  11. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) for rapid assessment of breast excision specimens (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Brachtel, Elena F.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Huck, Amelia E.; Rice-Stitt, Travis L.; Vangel, Mark G.; Smith, Barbara L.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Kang, DongKyun


    Unacceptably large percentage (20-40%) of breast cancer lumpectomy patients are required to undergo multiple surgeries when positive margins are found upon post-operative histologic assessment. If the margin status can be determined during surgery, surgeon can resect additional tissues to achieve tumor-free margin, which will reduce the need for additional surgeries. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology that has a potential to image the entire surgical margin within a short procedural time. Previously, SECM was shown to rapidly image a large area (10 mm by 10 mm) of human esophageal tissue within a short procedural time (15 seconds). When used in lumpectomy, SECM will be able to image the entire margin surface of ~30 cm2 in around 7.5 minutes. SECM images will then be used to determine margin status intra-operatively. In this paper, we present results from a study of testing accuracy of SECM for diagnosing malignant breast tissues. We have imaged freshly-excised breast specimens (N=46) with SECM. SECM images clearly visualized histomorphologic features associated with normal/benign and malignant breast tissues in a similar manner to histologic images. Diagnostic accuracy was tested by comparing SECM diagnoses made by three junior pathologists with corresponding histologic diagnoses made by a senior pathologist. SECM sensitivity and specificity were high, 0.91 and 0.93, respectively. Intra-observer agreement and inter-observer agreement were also high, 0.87 and 0.84, respectively. Results from this study showed that SECM has a potential to accurately determine margin status during breast cancer lumpectomy.

  12. In vivo evaluation of adipose- and muscle-derived stem cells as a treatment for nonhealing diabetic wounds using multimodal microscopy (United States)

    Li, Joanne; Pincu, Yair; Marjanovic, Marina; Bower, Andrew J.; Chaney, Eric J.; Jensen, Tor; Boppart, Marni D.; Boppart, Stephen A.


    Impaired skin wound healing is a significant comorbid condition of diabetes, which often results in nonhealing diabetic ulcers due to poor peripheral microcirculation, among other factors. The effectiveness of the regeneration of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) was assessed using an integrated multimodal microscopy system equipped with two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging. These imaging modalities, integrated in a single platform for spatial and temporal coregistration, allowed us to monitor in vivo changes in the collagen network and cell dynamics in a skin wound. Fluorescently labeled ADSCs and MDSCs were applied topically to the wound bed of wild-type and diabetic (db/db) mice following punch biopsy. Longitudinal imaging demonstrated that ADSCs and MDSCs provided remarkable capacity for improved diabetic wound healing, and integrated microscopy revealed a more organized collagen remodeling in the wound bed of treated mice. The results from this study verify the regenerative capacity of stem cells toward healing and, with multimodal microscopy, provide insight regarding their impact on the skin microenvironment. The optical method outlined in this study, which has the potential for in vivo human use, may optimize the care and treatment of diabetic nonhealing wounds.

  13. 3D imaging of intrinsic crystalline defects in zinc oxide by spectrally resolved two-photon fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Al-Tabich, A.; Inami, W.; Kawata, Y.; Jablonski, R.; Worasawat, S.; Mimura, H.


    We present a method for three-dimensional intrinsic defect imaging in zinc oxide (ZnO) by spectrally resolved two-photon fluorescence microscopy, based on the previously presented method of observing a photoluminescence distribution in wide-gap semiconductor crystals [Noor et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 161106 (2008)]. A tightly focused light beam radiated by a titanium-sapphire laser is used to obtain a two-photon excitation of selected area of the ZnO sample. Photoluminescence intensity of a specific spectral range is then selected by optical band pass filters and measured by a photomultiplier tube. Reconstruction of the specimen image is done by scanning the volume of interest by a piezoelectric positioning stage and measuring the spectrally resolved photoluminescence intensity at each point. The method has been proved to be effective at locating intrinsic defects of the ZnO crystalline structure in the volume of the crystal. The method was compared with other defect imaging and 3D imaging techniques like scanning tunneling microscopy and confocal microscopy. In both cases, our method shows superior penetration abilities and, as the only method, allows location of the defects of the chosen type in 3D. In this paper, we present the results of oxygen vacancies and zinc antisites imaging in ZnO nanorods.

  14. Multimodal sensing and imaging technology by integrated scanning electron, force, and nearfield microwave microscopy and its application to submicrometer studies


    Hänßler, Olaf C.


    The work covers a multimodal microscope technology for the analysis, manipulation and transfer of materials and objects in the submicrometer range. An atomic force microscope (AFM) allows imaging of the surface topography and a Scanning Microwave Microscope (SMM) detects electromagnetic properties, both operating in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The described technology demonstrator allows to observe the region-of-interest live with the SEM, while at the same time a characterization w...


    Background: There is a need for a standardized, impartial calibration, and validation protocol on confocal spectral imaging (CSI) microscope systems. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to have testing tools to provide a reproducible way to evaluate instrument performance. ...

  16. High-speed Vibrational Imaging and Spectral Analysis of Lipid Bodies by Compound Raman Microscopy


    Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Le, Thuc T.; Chen, Hongtao; Cheng, Ji-Xin


    Cells store excess energy in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. At present, it is unclear how different types of fatty acids contribute to the formation of lipid-droplets. We describe a compound Raman microscope capable of both high-speed chemical imaging and quantitative spectral analysis on the same platform. We use a picosecond laser source to perform coherent Raman scattering imaging of a biological sample and confocal Raman spectral analysis at points of interest. The potential of t...

  17. Microscopy (United States)

    Patricia A. Moss; Les Groom


    Microscopy is the study and interpretation of images produced by a microscope. "Interpretation" is the keyword, because the microscope enables one to see structures that are too small or too close together to be resolved by the unaided eye. (The human eye cannot separate two points or lines that are closer together than 0.1 mm.) it is important to...

  18. A simple approach to spectrally resolved fluorescence and bright field microscopy over select regions of interest. (United States)

    Dahlberg, Peter D; Boughter, Christopher T; Faruk, Nabil F; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A; Shaiber, Alon; Sherani, Aiman; Zhang, Jiacheng; Jureller, Justin E; Hammond, Adam T


    A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated on three different samples. First, the instrument is used to resolve three differently labeled fluorescent beads in vitro. Second, the instrument is used to recover time dependent bleaching dynamics that have distinct spectral changes in the cyanobacteria, Synechococcus leopoliensis UTEX 625. Lastly, the technique is used to acquire the absorption spectra of CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskites and measure differences between nanocrystal films and micron scale crystals.

  19. A simple approach to spectrally resolved fluorescence and bright field microscopy over select regions of interest (United States)

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Boughter, Christopher T.; Faruk, Nabil F.; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A.; Shaiber, Alon; Sherani, Aiman; Zhang, Jiacheng; Jureller, Justin E.; Hammond, Adam T.


    A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated on three different samples. First, the instrument is used to resolve three differently labeled fluorescent beads in vitro. Second, the instrument is used to recover time dependent bleaching dynamics that have distinct spectral changes in the cyanobacteria, Synechococcus leopoliensis UTEX 625. Lastly, the technique is used to acquire the absorption spectra of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites and measure differences between nanocrystal films and micron scale crystals.

  20. A simple approach to spectrally resolved fluorescence and bright field microscopy over select regions of interest


    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Boughter, Christopher T.; Faruk, Nabil F.; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A.; Shaiber, Alon; Sherani, Aiman; Zhang, Jiacheng; Jureller, Justin E.; Hammond, Adam T.


    A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. Th...

  1. Multimodal imaging of heterogeneous polymers at the nanoscale by AFM and scanning near-field ellipsometric microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumurcu, Aysegul; Duvigneau, Joost; Lindsay, I.D.; Schön, Peter Manfred; Vancso, Gyula J.


    Scanning near field ellipsometric microscopy (SNEM) was used to simultaneously obtain optical images and tapping mode topography images of the microphase separated morphology of PS-b-P2VP block copolymer thin films. Optical images revealed a spatial resolution well below the diffraction limit. The

  2. Reliability Study of Mechatronic Power Components Using Spectral Photon Emission Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Moultif


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present one of the most important failure analysis tools that permits the localizing and the identification of the failure mechanisms. It is a new spectral photon emission system, enabling to localize the failure, and quickly get the photon emission spectra that characterize the failure with high resolution. A diffraction grating is used as a spectrometer in the system. Application results on mechatronic power devices such as HEMT AlGaN/GAN and SiC MOSFETs are reported.

  3. Multimodal nanoparticles as alignment and correlation markers in fluorescence/soft X-ray cryo-microscopy/tomography of nucleoplasmic reticulum and apoptosis in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Christoph; Werner, Stephan; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Malhas, Ashraf N.; Klupp, Barbara G.; Guttmann, Peter; Rehbein, Stefan; Henzler, Katja; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.


    Correlative fluorescence and soft X-ray cryo-microscopy/tomography on flat sample holders is perfectly suited to study the uncompromised physiological status of adherent cells at its best possible preservation by imaging after fast cryo-immobilization. To understand the mechanism by which herpesviruses induce nucleoplasmic reticulum, i.e. invaginations of the nuclear envelope, during their egress from the host cell nucleus, morphologically similar structures found in laminopathies and after chemical induction were investigated as a potentially more easily accessible model system. For example, anti-retroviral protease inhibitors like Saquinavir also induce invaginations of the nuclear membranes. With the help of newly designed multimodal nanoparticles as alignment and correlation markers, and by optimizing fluorescence cryo-microscopy data acquisition, an elaborate three-dimensional network of nucleoplasmic reticulum was demonstrated in nuclei of Saquinavir-treated rabbit kidney cells expressing a fluorescently labeled inner nuclear membrane protein. In part of the protease inhibitor-treated samples, nuclei exhibited dramatic ultrastructural changes indicative of programmed cell death/apoptosis. This unexpected observation highlights another unique feature of soft X-ray microscopy, i.e. high absorption contrast information not relying on labeled cellular components, at a 3D resolution of approximately 40 nm (half-pitch) and through a sample thickness of several micrometers. These properties make it a valuable part of the cell biology imaging toolbox to visualize the cellular ultrastructure in its completeness. - Highlights: • Nucleoplasmic reticulum was demonstrated in nuclei of Saquinavir-treated cells. • New polyelectrolyte-Qdot ® 605 coated gold beads were employed as fiducials. • Saquinavir can induce a strong apoptotic phenotype in the nucleus. • CryoXT is an auspicious imaging technique in apoptosis research

  4. Investigations of a Cretaceous limestone with spectral induced polarization and scanning electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Sara; Sparrembom, Charlotte; Fiandaca, Gianluca


    limestone was carried out in the Kristianstad basin, Sweden. The time domain IP data was processed with a recently developed method in order to suppress noise from the challenging urban setting in the survey area. The processing also enabled extraction of early decay times resulting in broader spectra...... in early time ranges for bedrock characterization. The inverted sections showed variations within the limestone that could be caused by variations in texture and composition. Samples from a deep drilling in the Kristianstad basin were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X......Characterization of varying bedrock properties is a common need in various contexts, ranging from large infrastructure pre-investigations to environmental protection. A direct current resistivity and time domain induced polarization (IP) survey aiming to characterize properties of a Cretaceous...

  5. Evans blue dye-enhanced imaging of the brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ram Lee

    Full Text Available We performed dye-enhanced imaging of mouse brain microvessels using spectral focusing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (SF-CARS microscopy. The resonant signals from C-H stretching in forward CARS usually show high background intensity in tissues, which makes CARS imaging of microvessels difficult. In this study, epi-detection of back-scattered SF-CARS signals showed a negligible background, but the overall intensity of resonant CARS signals was too low to observe the network of brain microvessels. Therefore, Evans blue (EB dye was used as contrasting agent to enhance the back-scattered SF-CARS signals. Breakdown of brain microvessels by inducing hemorrhage in a mouse was clearly visualized using backward SF-CARS signals, following intravenous injection of EB. The improved visualization of brain microvessels with EB enhanced the sensitivity of SF-CARS, detecting not only the blood vessels themselves but their integrity as well in the brain vasculature.

  6. Subgroup characteristics of marine methane-oxidizing ANME-2 archaea and their syntrophic partners revealed by integrated multimodal analytical microscopy. (United States)

    McGlynn, Shawn E; Chadwick, Grayson L; O'Neill, Ariel; Mackey, Mason; Thor, Andrea; Deerinck, Thomas J; Ellisman, Mark H; Orphan, Victoria J


    Phylogenetically diverse environmental ANME archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria cooperatively catalyze the anaerobic oxidation of methane oxidation (AOM) in multi-celled consortia within methane seep environments. To better understand these cells and their symbiotic associations, we applied a suite of electron microscopy approaches including correlative f luorescence i n s itu h ybridization - e lectron m icroscopy (FISH-EM), t ransmission e lectron m icroscopy (TEM), and s erial b lock face scanning e lectron m icroscopy 3D reconstructions (SBEM). FISH-EM of methane seep derived consortia revealed phylogenetic variability in terms of cell morphology, ultrastructure, and storage granules. Representatives of the ANME-2b clade, but not other ANME-2 groups, contained polyphosphate-like granules, while some bacteria associated with ANME-2a/2c contained two distinct phases of iron mineral chains resembling magnetosomes. 3D segmentation of two ANME-2 consortia types revealed cellular volumes of ANME and their symbiotic partners which were larger than previous estimates based on light microscopy. Phosphorous granule containing ANME (tentatively ANME-2b) were larger than both ANME with no granules and partner bacteria. This cell type was observed with up to 4 granules per cell and the volume of the cell was larger in proportion to the number of granules inside it, but the percent of the cell occupied by these granules did not vary with granule number. These results illuminate distinctions between ANME-2 archaeal lineages and partnering bacterial populations that are apparently unified in their capability of performing anaerobic methane oxidation. Importance Methane oxidation in anaerobic environments can be accomplished by a number of archaeal groups, some of which live in syntrophic relationships with bacteria in structured consortia. Little is known as to the distinguishing characteristics of these groups. Here we applied imaging approaches to better understand the

  7. Multimodal reconstruction of microvascular-flow distributions using combined two-photon microscopy and Doppler optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Gagnon, Louis; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Fréderic; Mandeville, Emiri T; Fang, Qianqian; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Boas, David A


    Computing microvascular cerebral blood flow ([Formula: see text]) in real cortical angiograms is challenging. Here, we investigated whether the use of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) flow measurements in individual vessel segments can help in reconstructing [Formula: see text] across the entire vasculature of a truncated cortical angiogram. A [Formula: see text] computational framework integrating DOCT measurements is presented. Simulations performed on a synthetic angiogram showed that the addition of DOCT measurements, especially close to large inflowing or outflowing vessels, reduces the impact of pressure boundary conditions and estimated vessel resistances resulting in a more accurate reconstruction of [Formula: see text]. Our technique was then applied to reconstruct microvascular flow distributions in the mouse cortex down to [Formula: see text] by combining two-photon laser scanning microscopy angiography with DOCT.

  8. Multimodal Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Investigations of a Photovoltaic WSe2/MoS2 Type-II Interface. (United States)

    Almadori, Yann; Bendiab, Nedjma; Grévin, Benjamin


    Atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) have become a new platform for the development of next-generation optoelectronic and light-harvesting devices. Here, we report a Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) investigation carried out on a type-II photovoltaic heterojunction based on WSe 2 monolayer flakes and a bilayer MoS 2 film stacked in vertical configuration on a Si/SiO 2 substrate. Band offset characterized by a significant interfacial dipole is pointed out at the WSe 2 /MoS 2 vertical junction. The photocarrier generation process and phototransport are studied by applying a differential technique allowing to map directly two-dimensional images of the surface photovoltage (SPV) over the vertical heterojunctions (vHJ) and in its immediate vicinity. Differential SPV reveals the impact of chemical defects on the photocarrier generation and that negative charges diffuse in the MoS 2 a few hundreds of nanometers away from the vHJ. The analysis of the SPV data confirms unambiguously that light absorption results in the generation of free charge carriers that do not remain coulomb-bound at the type-II interface. A truly quantitative determination of the electron-hole (e-h) quasi-Fermi levels splitting (i.e., the open-circuit voltage) is achieved by measuring the differential vacuum-level shift over the WSe 2 flakes and the MoS 2 layer. The dependence of the energy-level splitting as a function of the optical power reveals that Shockley-Read-Hall processes significantly contribute to the interlayer recombination dynamics. Finally, a newly developed time-resolved mode of the KPFM is applied to map the SPV decay time constants. The time-resolved SPV images reveal the dynamics of delayed recombination processes originating from photocarriers trapping at the SiO 2 /TMDC interfaces.

  9. An Analysis of the Nonlinear Spectral Mixing of Didymium and Soda-Lime Glass Beads Using Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI) Microscopy (United States)


    2001). Learning with Kernels: Support Vector Machines , Regularization, Optimization, and Beyond. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 644 p. [26] Banerjee...A., Burlina, P., and Broadwater, J., (2007). A Machine Learning Approach for finding hyperspectral endmembers. Proceedings of the IEEE International... lime glass beads using hyperspectral imagery (HSI) microscopy Ronald G. Resmini1*, Robert S. Rand2, David W. Allen3, and Christopher J. Deloye1

  10. Improved phase sensitivity in spectral domain phase microscopy using line-field illumination and self phase-referencing (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Choi, Wonshik; Oh, Seungeun; Lue, Niyom; Park, Yongkeun; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Feld, Michael S.


    We report a quantitative phase microscope based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography and line-field illumination. The line illumination allows self phase-referencing method to reject common-mode phase noise. The quantitative phase microscope also features a separate reference arm, permitting the use of high numerical aperture (NA > 1) microscope objectives for high resolution phase measurement at multiple points along the line of illumination. We demonstrate that the path-length sensitivity of the instrument can be as good as 41 pm/Hz, which makes it suitable for nanometer scale study of cell motility. We present the detection of natural motions of cell surface and two-dimensional surface profiling of a HeLa cell. PMID:19550464

  11. Simple and fast spectral domain algorithm for quantitative phase imaging of living cells with digital holographic microscopy (United States)

    Min, Junwei; Yao, Baoli; Ketelhut, Steffi; Kemper, Björn


    The modular combination of optical microscopes with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has been proven to be a powerful tool for quantitative live cell imaging. The introduction of condenser and different microscope objectives (MO) simplifies the usage of the technique and makes it easier to measure different kinds of specimens with different magnifications. However, the high flexibility of illumination and imaging also causes variable phase aberrations that need to be eliminated for high resolution quantitative phase imaging. The existent phase aberrations compensation methods either require add additional elements into the reference arm or need specimen free reference areas or separate reference holograms to build up suitable digital phase masks. These inherent requirements make them unpractical for usage with highly variable illumination and imaging systems and prevent on-line monitoring of living cells. In this paper, we present a simple numerical method for phase aberration compensation based on the analysis of holograms in spatial frequency domain with capabilities for on-line quantitative phase imaging. From a single shot off-axis hologram, the whole phase aberration can be eliminated automatically without numerical fitting or pre-knowledge of the setup. The capabilities and robustness for quantitative phase imaging of living cancer cells are demonstrated.

  12. Multimodality and Ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Verhaegh, W.; Aarts, E.; Korst, J.


    In this chapter we discuss multimodal interface technology. We present eexamples of multimodal interfaces and show problems and opportunities. Fusion of modalities is discussed and some roadmap discussions on research in multimodality are summarized. This chapter also discusses future developments

  13. Chloroplast to chromoplast transition in tomato fruit: spectral confocal microscopy analyses of carotenoids and chlorophylls in isolated plastids and time-lapse recording on intact live tissue. (United States)

    Egea, Isabel; Bian, Wanping; Barsan, Cristina; Jauneau, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Latché, Alain; Li, Zhengguo; Chervin, Christian


    There are several studies suggesting that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplasts arise from chloroplasts, but there is still no report showing the fluorescence of both chlorophylls and carotenoids in an intermediate plastid, and no video showing this transition phase. Pigment fluorescence within individual plastids, isolated from tomato fruit using sucrose gradients, was observed at different ripening stages, and an in situ real-time recording of pigment fluorescence was performed on live tomato fruit slices. At the mature green and red stages, homogenous fractions of chloroplasts and chromoplasts were obtained, respectively. At the breaker stage, spectral confocal microscopy showed that intermediate plastids contained both chlorophylls and carotenoids. Furthermore, an in situ real-time recording (a) showed that the chloroplast to chromoplast transition was synchronous for all plastids of a single cell; and (b) confirmed that all chromoplasts derived from pre-existing chloroplasts. These results give details of the early steps of tomato chromoplast biogenesis from chloroplasts, with the formation of intermediate plastids containing both carotenoids and chlorophylls. They provide information at the sub-cellular level on the synchronism of plastid transition and pigment changes.

  14. Spectral force analysis using atomic force microscopy reveals the importance of surface heterogeneity in bacterial and colloid adhesion to engineered surfaces. (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Winslow, Charles J; Logan, Bruce E


    Coatings developed to reduce biofouling of engineered surfaces do not always perform as expected based on their native properties. One reason is that a relatively small number of highly adhesive sites, or the heterogeneity of the coated surface, may control the overall response of the system to initial bacterial deposition. It is shown here using an approach we call spectral force analysis (SFA), based on force volume imaging of the surface with atomic force microscopy, that the behavior of surfaces and coatings can be better understood relative to bacterial adhesion. The application of vapor deposited TiO(2) metal oxide increased bacterial and colloid adhesion, but coating the surface with silica oxide reduced adhesion in a manner consistent with SFA based on analysis of the "stickiest" sites. Application of a TiO(2)-based paint to a surface produced a relatively non-fouling surface. Addition of a hydrophilic layer coating to this surface should have decreased fouling. However, it was observed that this coating actually increased fouling. Using SFA it was shown that the reason for the increased adhesion of bacteria and particles to the hydrophilic layer was that the surface produced by this coating was highly heterogeneous, resulting in a small number of sites that created a stickier surface. These results show that while it is important to manufacture surfaces with coatings that are relatively non-adhesive to bacteria, it is also essential that these coatings have a highly uniform surface chemistry.

  15. Comparative study of thylakoid membranes in terminal heterocysts and vegetative cells from two cyanobacteria, Rivularia M-261 and Anabaena variabilis, by fluorescence and absorption spectral microscopy. (United States)

    Nozue, Shuho; Katayama, Mitsunori; Terazima, Masahide; Kumazaki, Shigeichi


    Heterocyst is a nitrogen-fixing cell differentiated from a cell for oxygen-evolving photosynthesis (vegetative cell) in some filamentous cyanobacteria when fixed nitrogen (e.g., ammonia and nitrate) is limited. Heterocysts appear at multiple separated positions in a single filament with an interval of 10-20 cells in some genera (including Anabaena variabilis). In other genera, a single heterocyst appears only at the basal terminal in a filament (including Rivularia M-261). Such morphological diversity may necessitate different properties of heterocysts. However, possible differences in heterocysts have largely remained unexplored due to the minority of heterocysts among major vegetative cells. Here, we have applied spectroscopic microscopy to Rivularia and A. variabilis to analyze their thylakoid membranes in individual cells. Absorption and fluorescence spectral imaging enabled us to estimate concentrations and interconnections of key photosynthetic components like photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII) and subunits of light-harvesting phycobilisome including phycocyanin (PC). The concentration of PC in heterocysts of Rivularia is far higher than that of A. variabilis. Fluorescence quantum yield of PC in Rivularia heterocysts was found to be virtually the same as those in its vegetative cells, while fluorescence quantum yield of PC in A. variabilis heterocysts was enhanced in comparison with its vegetative cells. PSI concentration in the thylakoid membranes of heterocysts seems to remain nearly the same as those of the vegetative cells in both the species. The average stoichiometric ratio between PSI monomer and PC hexamer in Rivularia heterocysts is estimated to be about 1:1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diffusion Maps for Multimodal Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Piella


    Full Text Available Multimodal image registration is a difficult task, due to the significant intensity variations between the images. A common approach is to use sophisticated similarity measures, such as mutual information, that are robust to those intensity variations. However, these similarity measures are computationally expensive and, moreover, often fail to capture the geometry and the associated dynamics linked with the images. Another approach is the transformation of the images into a common space where modalities can be directly compared. Within this approach, we propose to register multimodal images by using diffusion maps to describe the geometric and spectral properties of the data. Through diffusion maps, the multimodal data is transformed into a new set of canonical coordinates that reflect its geometry uniformly across modalities, so that meaningful correspondences can be established between them. Images in this new representation can then be registered using a simple Euclidean distance as a similarity measure. Registration accuracy was evaluated on both real and simulated brain images with known ground-truth for both rigid and non-rigid registration. Results showed that the proposed approach achieved higher accuracy than the conventional approach using mutual information.

  17. Multimodal fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopel, Martijn H W; Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod; Engelborghs, Yves; Visser, Anthonie J.W.G.


    Multimodal fluorescence imaging is a versatile method that has a wide application range from biological studies to materials science. Typical observables in multimodal fluorescence imaging are intensity, lifetime, excitation, and emission spectra which are recorded at chosen locations at the sample.

  18. Multimodality in organization studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leeuwen, Theo


    This afterword reviews the chapters in this volume and reflects on the synergies between organization and management studies and multimodality studies that emerge from the volume. These include the combination of strong sociological theorizing and detailed multimodal analysis, a focus on material...

  19. Hyper-Spectral Communications, Networking and ATM as Foundation for Safe and Efficient Future Flight: Transcending Aviation Operational Limitations with Diverse and Secure Multi-Band, Multi-Mode, and mmWave Wireless Links: Project Overview, Aviation Communications and New Signaling (United States)

    Matolak, David W.


    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) has recently solicited proposals and awarded funds for research and development to achieve and exceed the goals envisioned in the ARMD Strategic Implementation Plan (SIP). The Hyper-Spectral Communications and Networking for Air Traffic Management (ATM) (HSCNA) project is the only University Leadership Initiative (ULI) program to address communications and networking (and to a degree, navigation and surveillance). This paper will provide an overview of the HSCNA project, and specifically describe two of the project's technical challenges: comprehensive aviation communications and networking assessment, and proposed multi-band and multimode communications and networking. The primary goals will be described, as will be research and development aimed to achieve and exceed these goals. Some example initial results are also provided.

  20. Drusen Characterization with Multimodal Imaging (United States)

    Spaide, Richard F.; Curcio, Christine A.


    Summary Multimodal imaging findings and histological demonstration of soft drusen, cuticular drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits provided information used to develop a model explaining their imaging characteristics. Purpose To characterize the known appearance of cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits (reticular pseudodrusen), and soft drusen as revealed by multimodal fundus imaging; to create an explanatory model that accounts for these observations. Methods Reported color, fluorescein angiographic, autofluorescence, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of patients with cuticular drusen, soft drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits were reviewed, as were actual images from affected eyes. Representative histological sections were examined. The geometry, location, and imaging characteristics of these lesions were evaluated. A hypothesis based on the Beer-Lambert Law of light absorption was generated to fit these observations. Results Cuticular drusen appear as numerous uniform round yellow-white punctate accumulations under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Soft drusen are larger yellow-white dome-shaped mounds of deposit under the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits are polymorphous light-grey interconnected accumulations above the RPE. Based on the model, both cuticular and soft drusen appear yellow due to the removal of shorter wavelength light by a double pass through the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits, which are located on the RPE, are not subjected to short wavelength attenuation and therefore are more prominent when viewed with blue light. The location and morphology of extracellular material in relationship to the RPE, and associated changes to RPE morphology and pigmentation, appeared to be primary determinants of druse appearance in different imaging modalities. Conclusion Although cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits, and soft drusen are composed of common components, they are distinguishable

  1. Multimodal freight investment criteria. (United States)


    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  2. Learning multimodal dictionaries. (United States)

    Monaci, Gianluca; Jost, Philippe; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Mailhé, Boris; Lesage, Sylvain; Gribonval, Rémi


    Real-world phenomena involve complex interactions between multiple signal modalities. As a consequence, humans are used to integrate at each instant perceptions from all their senses in order to enrich their understanding of the surrounding world. This paradigm can be also extremely useful in many signal processing and computer vision problems involving mutually related signals. The simultaneous processing of multimodal data can, in fact, reveal information that is otherwise hidden when considering the signals independently. However, in natural multimodal signals, the statistical dependencies between modalities are in general not obvious. Learning fundamental multimodal patterns could offer deep insight into the structure of such signals. In this paper, we present a novel model of multimodal signals based on their sparse decomposition over a dictionary of multimodal structures. An algorithm for iteratively learning multimodal generating functions that can be shifted at all positions in the signal is proposed, as well. The learning is defined in such a way that it can be accomplished by iteratively solving a generalized eigenvector problem, which makes the algorithm fast, flexible, and free of user-defined parameters. The proposed algorithm is applied to audiovisual sequences and it is able to discover underlying structures in the data. The detection of such audio-video patterns in audiovisual clips allows to effectively localize the sound source on the video in presence of substantial acoustic and visual distractors, outperforming state-of-the-art audiovisual localization algorithms.

  3. Multimodality Registration without a Dedicated Multimodality Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Beattie


    Full Text Available Multimodality scanners that allow the acquisition of both functional and structural image sets on a single system have recently become available for animal research use. Although the resultant registered functional/structural image sets can greatly enhance the interpretability of the functional data, the cost of multimodality systems can be prohibitive, and they are often limited to two modalities, which generally do not include magnetic resonance imaging. Using a thin plastic wrap to immobilize and fix a mouse or other small animal atop a removable bed, we are able to calculate registrations between all combinations of four different small animal imaging scanners (positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and computed tomography [CT] at our disposal, effectively equivalent to a quadruple-modality scanner. A comparison of serially acquired CT images, with intervening acquisitions on other scanners, demonstrates the ability of the proposed procedures to maintain the rigidity of an anesthetized mouse during transport between scanners. Movement of the bony structures of the mouse was estimated to be 0.62 mm. Soft tissue movement was predominantly the result of the filling (or emptying of the urinary bladder and thus largely constrained to this region. Phantom studies estimate the registration errors for all registration types to be less than 0.5 mm. Functional images using tracers targeted to known structures verify the accuracy of the functional to structural registrations. The procedures are easy to perform and produce robust and accurate results that rival those of dedicated multimodality scanners, but with more flexible registration combinations and while avoiding the expense and redundancy of multimodality systems.

  4. Multiphoton microscopy: an efficient tool for in-situ study of cultural heritage artifacts (United States)

    Latour, Gaël.; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Didier, Marie; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire


    We present multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of historical artifacts by combining Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (2PEF) and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopies. Three-dimensional (3D) non-contact laser-scanning imaging with micrometer resolution is performed without any preparation of the objects under study. 2PEF signals are emitted by a wide range of fluorophores such as pigments and binder, which can be discriminated thanks to their different emission spectral bands by using suitable spectral filters in the detection channel. SHG signals are specific for dense non-centrosymmetric organizations such as the crystalline cellulose within the wood cell walls. We also show that plaster particles exhibit SHG signals. These particles are bassanite crystals with a non-centrosymmetric crystalline structure, while the other types of calcium sulphates exhibit a centrosymmetric crystalline structure with no SHG signal. In our study, we first characterize model single-layered samples: wood, gelatin-based films containing plaster or cochineal lake and sandarac film containing cochineal lake. We then study multilayered coating systems on wood and show that multimodal nonlinear microscopy successfully reveals the 3D distribution of all components within the stratified sample. We also show that the fine structure of the wood can be assessed, even through a thick multilayered varnish coating. Finally, in situ multimodal nonlinear imaging is demonstrated in a historical violin. SHG/2PEF imaging thus appears as an efficient non-destructive and contactless 3D imaging technique for in situ investigation of historical coatings and more generally for wood characterization and coating analysis at micrometer scale.

  5. Multimodal Resources in Transnational Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    The paper discusses an empirical analysis which highlights the multimodal nature of identity construction. A documentary on transnational adoption provides real life incidents as research material. The incidents involve (or from them emerge) various kinds of multimodal resources and participants...

  6. Multimodal sequence learning. (United States)

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat


    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning (United States)

    Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc


    We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674

  8. Critical Analysis of Multimodal Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo


    This is an encyclopaedia article which defines the fields of critical discourse analysis and multimodality studies, argues that within critical discourse analysis more attention should be paid to multimodality, and within multimodality to critical analysis, and ends reviewing a few examples of re...

  9. Multimodality imaging techniques. (United States)

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sopena, Ramón; Bartumeus, Paula; Sopena, Pablo


    In multimodality imaging, the need to combine morphofunctional information can be approached by either acquiring images at different times (asynchronous), and fused them through digital image manipulation techniques or simultaneously acquiring images (synchronous) and merging them automatically. The asynchronous post-processing solution presents various constraints, mainly conditioned by the different positioning of the patient in the two scans acquired at different times in separated machines. The best solution to achieve consistency in time and space is obtained by the synchronous image acquisition. There are many multimodal technologies in molecular imaging. In this review we will focus on those multimodality image techniques more commonly used in the field of diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, PET-CT) and new developments (as PET-MR). The technological innovations and development of new tracers and smart probes are the main key points that will condition multimodality image and diagnostic imaging professionals' future. Although SPECT-CT and PET-CT are standard in most clinical scenarios, MR imaging has some advantages, providing excellent soft-tissue contrast and multidimensional functional, structural and morphological information. The next frontier is to develop efficient detectors and electronics systems capable of detecting two modality signals at the same time. Not only PET-MR but also MR-US or optic-PET will be introduced in clinical scenarios. Even more, MR diffusion-weighted, pharmacokinetic imaging, spectroscopy or functional BOLD imaging will merge with PET tracers to further increase molecular imaging as a relevant medical discipline. Multimodality imaging techniques will play a leading role in relevant clinical applications. The development of new diagnostic imaging research areas, mainly in the field of oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry, will impact the way medicine is performed today. Both clinical and experimental multimodality studies, in

  10. Histochemical study of trans-polyisoprene accumulation by spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy and a specific dye showing fluorescence solvatochromism in the rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver. (United States)

    Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Tatsushi; Harada, Yoko; Bamba, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Akio


    A microscopic technique combining spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy with a lipophilic fluorescent dye, Nile red, which can emit trans-polyisoprene specific fluorescence, was developed, and unmixed images of synthesized trans-polyisoprene in situ in Eucommia ulmoides were successfully obtained. The images showed that trans-polyisoprene was initially synthesized as granules in non-articulated laticifers that changed shape to fibers during laticifer maturation. Non-articulated laticifers are developed from single laticiferous cells, which are differentiated from surrounding parenchyma cells in the cambium. Therefore, these observations suggested that trans-polyisoprene biosynthesis first started in laticifer cells as granules and then the granules accumulated and fused in the inner space of the laticifers over time. Finally, laticifers were filled with the synthesized trans-polyisoprene, which formed a fibrous structure fitting the laticifers shape. Both trans- and cis-polyisoprene are among the most important polymers naturally produced by plants, and this microscopic technique combined with histological study should provide useful information in the fields of plant histology, bioindustry and phytochemistry.

  11. Multimodal Processes Rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Banaszak, Zbigniew A.; Nielsen, Peter


    Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe-cuted in the......Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe...

  12. Fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J; Smith, Ian; Parker, Ian; Bootman, Martin D


    Fluorescence microscopy is a major tool with which to monitor cell physiology. Although the concepts of fluorescence and its optical separation using filters remain similar, microscope design varies with the aim of increasing image contrast and spatial resolution. The basics of wide-field microscopy are outlined to emphasize the selection, advantages, and correct use of laser scanning confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, scanning disk confocal microscopy, total internal reflection, and super-resolution microscopy. In addition, the principles of how these microscopes form images are reviewed to appreciate their capabilities, limitations, and constraints for operation. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Multimode optical fiber (United States)

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre


    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  14. Multimodal training between agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias


    In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...

  15. Multimodal news framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, T.E.


    Visuals in news media play a vital role in framing citizens’ political preferences. Yet, compared to the written word, visual images are undervalued in political communication research. Using framing theory, this thesis redresses the balance by studying the combined, or multimodal, effects of visual

  16. Multimodal Strategies of Theorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Colombero, Sylvain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper examines the role of multimodal strategies in processes of theorization. Empirically, we investigate the theorization process of a highly disruptive innovation in the history of architecture: reinforced concrete. Relying on archival data from a dominant French architectural journal from...... with well-known rhetorical strategies and develop a process model of theorization....

  17. Multimodal quantitative phase and fluorescence imaging of cell apoptosis (United States)

    Fu, Xinye; Zuo, Chao; Yan, Hao


    Fluorescence microscopy, utilizing fluorescence labeling, has the capability to observe intercellular changes which transmitted and reflected light microscopy techniques cannot resolve. However, the parts without fluorescence labeling are not imaged. Hence, the processes simultaneously happen in these parts cannot be revealed. Meanwhile, fluorescence imaging is 2D imaging where information in the depth is missing. Therefore the information in labeling parts is also not complete. On the other hand, quantitative phase imaging is capable to image cells in 3D in real time through phase calculation. However, its resolution is limited by the optical diffraction and cannot observe intercellular changes below 200 nanometers. In this work, fluorescence imaging and quantitative phase imaging are combined to build a multimodal imaging system. Such system has the capability to simultaneously observe the detailed intercellular phenomenon and 3D cell morphology. In this study the proposed multimodal imaging system is used to observe the cell behavior in the cell apoptosis. The aim is to highlight the limitations of fluorescence microscopy and to point out the advantages of multimodal quantitative phase and fluorescence imaging. The proposed multimodal quantitative phase imaging could be further applied in cell related biomedical research, such as tumor.

  18. Discrimination of skin diseases using the multimodal imaging approach (United States)

    Vogler, N.; Heuke, S.; Akimov, D.; Latka, I.; Kluschke, F.; Röwert-Huber, H.-J.; Lademann, J.; Dietzek, B.; Popp, J.


    Optical microspectroscopic tools reveal great potential for dermatologic diagnostics in the clinical day-to-day routine. To enhance the diagnostic value of individual nonlinear optical imaging modalities such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG) or two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), the approach of multimodal imaging has recently been developed. Here, we present an application of nonlinear optical multimodal imaging with Raman-scattering microscopy to study sizable human-tissue cross-sections. The samples investigated contain both healthy tissue and various skin tumors. This contribution details the rich information content, which can be obtained from the multimodal approach: While CARS microscopy, which - in contrast to spontaneous Raman-scattering microscopy - is not hampered by single-photon excited fluorescence, is used to monitor the lipid and protein distribution in the samples, SHG imaging selectively highlights the distribution of collagen structures within the tissue. This is due to the fact, that SHG is only generated in structures which lack inversion geometry. Finally, TPF reveals the distribution of autofluorophores in tissue. The combination of these techniques, i.e. multimodal imaging, allows for recording chemical images of large area samples and is - as this contribution will highlight - of high clinically diagnostic value.

  19. Gestures and multimodal input


    Keates, Simeon; Robinson, Peter


    For users with motion impairments, the standard keyboard and mouse arrangement for computer access often presents problems. Other approaches have to be adopted to overcome this. In this paper, we will describe the development of a prototype multimodal input system based on two gestural input channels. Results from extensive user trials of this system are presented. These trials showed that the physical and cognitive loads on the user can quickly become excessive and detrimental to the interac...

  20. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions. (United States)

    Cohn, Neil


    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality. Copyright © 2015.

  1. Experiments in Multimodal Information Presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, Charlotte; Bosma, W.E.; Krahmer, Emiel; Maes, Alfons; Theune, Mariet; van den Bosch, Antal; Bouma, Gosse

    In this chapter we describe three experiments investigating multimodal information presentation in the context of a medical QA system. In Experiment 1, we wanted to know how non-experts design (multimodal) answers to medical questions, distinguishing between what questions and how questions. In

  2. Simplified Multimodal Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Shete


    Full Text Available Multibiometric systems are expected to be more reliable than unimodal biometric systems for personal identification due to the presence of multiple, fairly independent pieces of evidence e.g. Unique Identification Project "Aadhaar" of Government of India. In this paper, we present a novel wavelet based technique to perform fusion at the feature level and score level by considering two biometric modalities, face and fingerprint. The results indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in multimodal matching performance. The proposed technique is simple because of no preprocessing of raw biometric traits as well as no feature and score normalization.

  3. Multimodality, politics and ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machin, David; Van Leeuwen, T.


    This journal's editorial statement is clear that political discourse should be studied not only as regards parliamentary type politics. In this introduction we argue precisely for the need to pay increasing attention to the way that political ideologies are infused into culture more widely...... of power, requires meanings and identities which can hold them in place. We explain the processes by which critical multimodal discourse analysis can best draw out this ideology as it is realized through different semiotics resources. © John Benjamins Publishing Company....

  4. New developments in multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography (United States)

    König, Karsten


    80 years ago, the PhD student Maria Goeppert predicted in her thesis in Goettingen, Germany, two-photon effects. It took 30 years to prove her theory, and another three decades to realize the first two-photon microscope. With the beginning of this millennium, first clinical multiphoton tomographs started operation in research institutions, hospitals, and in the cosmetic industry. The multiphoton tomograph MPTflexTM with its miniaturized flexible scan head became the Prism-Award 2010 winner in the category Life Sciences. Multiphoton tomographs with its superior submicron spatial resolution can be upgraded to 5D imaging tools by adding spectral time-correlated single photon counting units. Furthermore, multimodal hybrid tomographs provide chemical fingerprinting and fast wide-field imaging. The world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph in spring 2010. In particular, nonfluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen have been imaged in patients with dermatological disorders. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution imaging tools such as ultrasound, optoacoustic, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer (malignant melanoma), optimization of treatment strategies (wound healing, dermatitis), and cosmetic research including long-term biosafety tests of ZnO sunscreen nanoparticles and the measurement of the stimulated biosynthesis of collagen by anti-ageing products.

  5. Multimodal Speaker Diarization. (United States)

    Noulas, A; Englebienne, G; Krose, B J A


    We present a novel probabilistic framework that fuses information coming from the audio and video modality to perform speaker diarization. The proposed framework is a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) that is an extension of a factorial Hidden Markov Model (fHMM) and models the people appearing in an audiovisual recording as multimodal entities that generate observations in the audio stream, the video stream, and the joint audiovisual space. The framework is very robust to different contexts, makes no assumptions about the location of the recording equipment, and does not require labeled training data as it acquires the model parameters using the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. We apply the proposed model to two meeting videos and a news broadcast video, all of which come from publicly available data sets. The results acquired in speaker diarization are in favor of the proposed multimodal framework, which outperforms the single modality analysis results and improves over the state-of-the-art audio-based speaker diarization.

  6. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy (United States)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan


    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  7. Multimodal responsive action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    ; Raymond 2003; Schegloff and Lerner 2009), including those with multimodal actions (e.g. Olsher 2004; Fasulo & Monzoni 2009). Some responsive actions can also be completed with bodily behavior alone, such as: when an agreement display is achieved by using only nonvocal actions (Jarmon 1996), when...... the recipient’s gaze shift becomes a significant part of the speaker’s turn construction (Goodwin 1980), and when head nods show the recipient’s affiliation with the speaker’s stance (Stivers 2008). Still, much room remains for extending our current understanding of responding actions that necessarily involve...... a hairstylist and a client negotiate the quality of the service that has been provided. Here, the first action is usually the stylist’s question and/or explanation of the new cut that invites the client’s assessment/(dis)agreement, accompanied with embodied actions that project an imminent self...

  8. Energy dissipation in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pukhova


    Full Text Available The instantaneous displacement, velocity and acceleration of a cantilever tip impacting onto a graphite surface are reconstructed. The total dissipated energy and the dissipated energy per cycle of each excited flexural mode during the tip interaction is retrieved. The tip dynamics evolution is studied by wavelet analysis techniques that have general relevance for multi-mode atomic force microscopy, in a regime where few cantilever oscillation cycles characterize the tip–sample interaction.

  9. Spectral stratigraphy (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.


    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  10. Hybrid confocal Raman fluorescence microscopy on single cells using semiconductor quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, H.J.; Otto, Cornelis


    We have overcome the traditional incompatibility of Raman microscopy with fluorescence microscopy by exploiting the optical properties of semiconductor fluorescent quantum dots (QDs). Here we present a hybrid Raman fluorescence spectral imaging approach for single-cell microscopy applications. We

  11. Investigation of multimodal forward scatter phenotyping from bacterial colonies (United States)

    Kim, Huisung

    A rapid, label-free, and elastic light scattering (ELS) based bacterial colony phenotyping technology, bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology (BARDOT) provides a successful classification of several bacterial genus and species. For a thorough understanding of the phenomena and overcoming the limitations of the previous design, five additional modalities from a bacterial colony: 3D morphology, spatial optical density (OD) distribution, spectral forward scattering pattern, spectral OD, and surface backward reflection pattern are proposed to enhance the classification/identification ratio, and the feasibilities of each modality are verified. For the verification, three different instruments: integrated colony morphology analyzer (ICMA), multi-spectral BARDOT (MS-BARDOT) , and multi-modal BARDOT (MM-BARDOT) are proposed and developed. The ICMA can measure 3D morphology and spatial OD distribution of the colony simultaneously. A commercialized confocal displacement meter is used to measure the profiles of the bacterial colonies, together with a custom built optical density measurement unit to interrogate the biophysics behind the collective behavior of a bacterial colony. The system delivers essential information related to the quantitative growth dynamics (height, diameter, aspect ratio, optical density) of the bacterial colony, as well as, a relationship in between the morphological characteristics of the bacterial colony and its forward scattering pattern. Two different genera: Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 are selected for the analysis of the spatially resolved growth dynamics, while, Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis ATCC 6633, B. cereus ATCC 14579, B. thuringiensis DUP6044, B. polymyxa B719W, and B. megaterium DSP 81319, are interrogated since some of the Bacillus spp. provides strikingly different characteristics of ELS patterns, and the origin of the speckle patterns are successfully correlated with

  12. Multiscale climate emulator of multimodal wave spectra: MUSCLE-spectra (United States)

    Rueda, Ana; Hegermiller, Christie A.; Antolinez, Jose A. A.; Camus, Paula; Vitousek, Sean; Ruggiero, Peter; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Tomás, Antonio; Mendez, Fernando J.


    Characterization of multimodal directional wave spectra is important for many offshore and coastal applications, such as marine forecasting, coastal hazard assessment, and design of offshore wave energy farms and coastal structures. However, the multivariate and multiscale nature of wave climate variability makes this complex problem tractable using computationally expensive numerical models. So far, the skill of statistical-downscaling model-based parametric (unimodal) wave conditions is limited in large ocean basins such as the Pacific. The recent availability of long-term directional spectral data from buoys and wave hindcast models allows for development of stochastic models that include multimodal sea-state parameters. This work introduces a statistical downscaling framework based on weather types to predict multimodal wave spectra (e.g., significant wave height, mean wave period, and mean wave direction from different storm systems, including sea and swells) from large-scale atmospheric pressure fields. For each weather type, variables of interest are modeled using the categorical distribution for the sea-state type, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution for wave height and wave period, a multivariate Gaussian copula for the interdependence between variables, and a Markov chain model for the chronology of daily weather types. We apply the model to the southern California coast, where local seas and swells from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres contribute to the multimodal wave spectrum. This work allows attribution of particular extreme multimodal wave events to specific atmospheric conditions, expanding knowledge of time-dependent, climate-driven offshore and coastal sea-state conditions that have a significant influence on local nearshore processes, coastal morphology, and flood hazards.

  13. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester (United States)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen


    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  14. Multimodal Discourse Analysis of the Movie "Argo" (United States)

    Bo, Xu


    Based on multimodal discourse theory, this paper makes a multimodal discourse analysis of some shots in the movie "Argo" from the perspective of context of culture, context of situation and meaning of image. Results show that this movie constructs multimodal discourse through particular context, language and image, and successfully…

  15. A multimodal image sensor system for identifying water stress in grapevines (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Qin; Li, Minzan; Shao, Yongni; Zhou, Jianfeng; Sun, Hong


    Water stress is one of the most common limitations of fruit growth. Water is the most limiting resource for crop growth. In grapevines, as well as in other fruit crops, fruit quality benefits from a certain level of water deficit which facilitates to balance vegetative and reproductive growth and the flow of carbohydrates to reproductive structures. A multi-modal sensor system was designed to measure the reflectance signature of grape plant surfaces and identify different water stress levels in this paper. The multi-modal sensor system was equipped with one 3CCD camera (three channels in R, G, and IR). The multi-modal sensor can capture and analyze grape canopy from its reflectance features, and identify the different water stress levels. This research aims at solving the aforementioned problems. The core technology of this multi-modal sensor system could further be used as a decision support system that combines multi-modal sensory data to improve plant stress detection and identify the causes of stress. The images were taken by multi-modal sensor which could output images in spectral bands of near-infrared, green and red channel. Based on the analysis of the acquired images, color features based on color space and reflectance features based on image process method were calculated. The results showed that these parameters had the potential as water stress indicators. More experiments and analysis are needed to validate the conclusion.

  16. Multimodal nonlinear imaging of arabidopsis thaliana root cell (United States)

    Jang, Bumjoon; Lee, Sung-Ho; Woo, Sooah; Park, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Myeong Min; Park, Seung-Han


    Nonlinear optical microscopy has enabled the possibility to explore inside the living organisms. It utilizes ultrashort laser pulse with long wavelength (greater than 800nm). Ultrashort pulse produces high peak power to induce nonlinear optical phenomenon such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and harmonic generations in the medium while maintaining relatively low average energy pre area. In plant developmental biology, confocal microscopy is widely used in plant cell imaging after the development of biological fluorescence labels in mid-1990s. However, fluorescence labeling itself affects the sample and the sample deviates from intact condition especially when labelling the entire cell. In this work, we report the dynamic images of Arabidopsis thaliana root cells. This demonstrates the multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy is an effective tool for long-term plant cell imaging.

  17. Multimodal Aspects of Corporate Social Responsibility Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Daniela Maier


    Full Text Available This article addresses how the multimodal persuasive strategies of corporate social responsibility communication can highlight a company’s commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection while advertising simultaneously its products. Drawing on an interdisciplinary methodological framework related to CSR communication, multimodal discourse analysis and gender theory, the article proposes a multimodal analysis model through which it is possible to map and explain the multimodal persuasive strategies employed by Coca-Cola company in their community-related films. By examining the semiotic modes’ interconnectivity and functional differentiation, this analytical endeavour expands the existing research work as the usual textual focus is extended to a multimodal one.

  18. The Multimodal Possibilities of Online Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance


    The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi-modal analy......The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi...

  19. A Learning Algorithm for Multimodal Grammar Inference. (United States)

    D'Ulizia, A; Ferri, F; Grifoni, P


    The high costs of development and maintenance of multimodal grammars in integrating and understanding input in multimodal interfaces lead to the investigation of novel algorithmic solutions in automating grammar generation and in updating processes. Many algorithms for context-free grammar inference have been developed in the natural language processing literature. An extension of these algorithms toward the inference of multimodal grammars is necessary for multimodal input processing. In this paper, we propose a novel grammar inference mechanism that allows us to learn a multimodal grammar from its positive samples of multimodal sentences. The algorithm first generates the multimodal grammar that is able to parse the positive samples of sentences and, afterward, makes use of two learning operators and the minimum description length metrics in improving the grammar description and in avoiding the over-generalization problem. The experimental results highlight the acceptable performances of the algorithm proposed in this paper since it has a very high probability of parsing valid sentences.

  20. Multimodal network design and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Ties; Alkim, T.P.; van Eck, Gijs; van Arem, Bart; Arentze, T.


    A framework is proposed for the design of an optimal multimodal transport network for the Randstad area. This research framework consists of a multi-objective optimization heuristic and a fast network assessment module, which results in a set of Pareto optimal solutions. Subsequently, a proper

  1. Development of fiber lasers and devices for coherent Raman scattering microscopy (United States)

    Lamb, Erin Stranford

    As ultrafast laser technology has found expanding application in machining, spectroscopy, microscopy, surgery, and numerous other areas, the desire for inexpensive and robust laser sources has grown. Until recently, nonlinear effects in fiber systems due to the tight confinement of the light in the core have limited their performance. However, with advances in managing nonlinearity through pulse propagation physics and the use of large core fibers, the performance of fiber lasers can compete with that of their solid-state counterparts. As specific applications, such as coherent Raman scattering microscopy, emerge that stand to benefit from fiber technology, new performance challenges in areas such as laser noise are anticipated. This thesis studies nonlinear pulse propagation in fiber lasers and fiber parametric devices. Applications of dissipative solitons and self-similar pulse propagation to low-repetition rate oscillators that have the potential to simplify short-pulse amplification schemes will be examined. The rest of this thesis focuses on topics relevant to fiber laser development for coherent Raman scattering microscopy sources. Coherent pulse division and recombination inside the laser cavity will be introduced as an energy-scaling mechanism and demonstrated for a fiber soliton laser. The relative intensity noise properties of mode-locked fiber lasers, with a particular emphasis on normal dispersion lasers, will be explored in simulation and experiment. A fiber optical parametric oscillator will be studied in detail for low noise frequency conversion of picosecond pulses, and its utility for coherent Raman imaging will be demonstrated. Spectral compression of femtosecond pulses is used to generate picosecond pulses to pump this device, and this technique provides a route to future noise reduction in the system. Furthermore, this device forms a multimodal source capable of providing the picosecond pulses for coherent Raman scattering microscopy and the

  2. Multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber sensor for alcohol sensing application (United States)

    Rofi'ah, Iftihatur; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo


    Alcohol is volatile and flammable liquid which is soluble substances both on polar and non polar substances that has been used in some industrial sectors. Alcohol detection method now widely used one of them is the optical fiber sensor. In this paper used fiber optic sensor based on Multimode-Single-mode-Multimode (MSM) to detect alcohol solution at a concentration range of 0-3%. The working principle of sensor utilizes the modal interference between the core modes and the cladding modes, thus make the sensor sensitive to environmental changes. The result showed that characteristic of the sensor not affect the length of the single-mode fiber (SMF). We obtain that the sensor with a length of 5 mm of single-mode can sensing the alcohol with a sensitivity of 0.107 dB/v%.

  3. Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Multimodal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humair S. Quadri


    Full Text Available Despite its declining incidence, gastric cancer (GC remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. A multimodal approach to GC is critical to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Pretherapy fine resolution contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and staging laparoscopy play an important role in patients with newly diagnosed ostensibly operable GC to avoid unnecessary non-therapeutic laparotomies. Currently, margin negative gastrectomy and adequate lymphadenectomy performed at high volume hospitals remain the backbone of GC treatment. Importantly, adequate GC surgery should be integrated in the setting of a multimodal treatment approach. Treatment for advanced GC continues to expand with the emergence of additional lines of systemic and targeted therapies.

  4. Robustness of multimodal processes itineraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Banaszak, Z.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa


    itineraries for assumed (O-D) trip. Since itinerary planning problem, constitutes a common routing and scheduling decision faced by travelers, hence the main question regards of itinerary replanning and particularly a method aimed at prototyping of mode sequences and paths selections. The declarative model......This paper concerns multimodal transport systems (MTS) represented by a supernetworks in which several unimodal networks are connected by transfer links and focuses on the scheduling problems encountered in these systems. Assuming unimodal networks are modeled as cyclic lines, i.e. the routes...... of multimodal processes driven itinerary planning problem is our main contribution. Illustrative examples providing alternative itineraries in some cases of MTS malfunction are presented....

  5. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska


    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  6. Coherent multimoded dielectric wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J.


    There has recently been a study of the potential uses of multimode dielectric structures for wakefield acceleration [1]. This technique is based on adjusting the wakefield modes of the structure to constructively interfere at certain delays with respect to the drive bunch, thus providing an accelerating gradient enhancement over single mode devices. In this report we examine and attempt to clarify the issues raised by this work in the light of the present state of the art in wakefield acceleration

  7. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania


    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining...... synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features....

  8. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, T.J.P.; Mortensen, K.H.; Gopalan, D.


    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis

  9. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, T.J.P., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); Mortensen, K.H., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); University Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Box 318, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Gopalan, D., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis.

  10. Multimodal Estimation of Distribution Algorithms. (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Chen, Wei-Neng; Li, Yun; Chen, C L Philip; Xu, Xiang-Min; Zhang, Jun


    Taking the advantage of estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs) in preserving high diversity, this paper proposes a multimodal EDA. Integrated with clustering strategies for crowding and speciation, two versions of this algorithm are developed, which operate at the niche level. Then these two algorithms are equipped with three distinctive techniques: 1) a dynamic cluster sizing strategy; 2) an alternative utilization of Gaussian and Cauchy distributions to generate offspring; and 3) an adaptive local search. The dynamic cluster sizing affords a potential balance between exploration and exploitation and reduces the sensitivity to the cluster size in the niching methods. Taking advantages of Gaussian and Cauchy distributions, we generate the offspring at the niche level through alternatively using these two distributions. Such utilization can also potentially offer a balance between exploration and exploitation. Further, solution accuracy is enhanced through a new local search scheme probabilistically conducted around seeds of niches with probabilities determined self-adaptively according to fitness values of these seeds. Extensive experiments conducted on 20 benchmark multimodal problems confirm that both algorithms can achieve competitive performance compared with several state-of-the-art multimodal algorithms, which is supported by nonparametric tests. Especially, the proposed algorithms are very promising for complex problems with many local optima.

  11. Multimodal Diversity of Postmodernist Fiction Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. I. Tykha


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of structural and functional manifestations of multimodal diversity in postmodernist fiction texts. Multimodality is defined as the coexistence of more than one semiotic mode within a certain context. Multimodal texts feature a diversity of semiotic modes in the communication and development of their narrative. Such experimental texts subvert conventional patterns by introducing various semiotic resources – verbal or non-verbal.

  12. Fluorescent magnetic hybrid nanoprobe for multimodal bioimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koktysh, Dmitry [Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Station B 351822, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Bright, Vanessa; Pham, Wellington, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, 1161 21st Avenue South AA, 1105 MCN, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)


    A fluorescent magnetic hybrid imaging nanoprobe (HINP) was fabricated by the conjugation of superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and visible light emitting ({approx}600 nm) fluorescent CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs). The assembly strategy used the covalent linking of the oxidized dextran shell of magnetic particles to the glutathione ligands of QDs. The synthesized HINP formed stable water-soluble colloidal dispersions. The structure and properties of the particles were characterized by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering analysis, optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, and fluorescent imaging. The luminescence imaging region of the nanoprobe was extended to the near-infrared (NIR) ({approx}800 nm) by conjugation of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles with synthesized CdHgTe/CdS QDs. Cadmium, mercury based QDs in HINP can be easily replaced by novel water-soluble glutathione stabilized AgInS{sub 2}/ZnS QDs to present a new class of cadmium-free multimodal imaging agents. The observed NIR photoluminescence of fluorescent magnetic nanocomposites supports their use for bioimaging. The developed HINP provides dual-imaging channels for simultaneous optical and magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Multimodal exemplification: The expansion of meaning in electronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Functional Multimodal Discourse Analysis (SF-MDA) and argues for improving their exemplifica-tion multimodally. Multimodal devices, if well coordinated, can help optimize e-dictionary exam-ples in informativity, diversity, dynamicity and ...

  14. Heavy-ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Yang, T.C.H.; Richards, T.; Tobias, C.A.


    This chapter briefly describes the techniques of optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, soft x-ray microscopy and compares these latter techniques with heavy-ion microscopy. The resolution obtained with these various types of microscopy are compared and the influence of the etching procedure on total resolution is discussed. Several micrographs of mammalian cells are included

  15. Multimodal Dispersion of Nanoparticles: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Size Distribution with 9 Size Measurement Methods. (United States)

    Varenne, Fanny; Makky, Ali; Gaucher-Delmas, Mireille; Violleau, Frédéric; Vauthier, Christine


    Evaluation of particle size distribution (PSD) of multimodal dispersion of nanoparticles is a difficult task due to inherent limitations of size measurement methods. The present work reports the evaluation of PSD of a dispersion of poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles decorated with dextran known as multimodal and developed as nanomedecine. The nine methods used were classified as batch particle i.e. Static Light Scattering (SLS) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), single particle i.e. Electron Microscopy (EM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing (TRPS) and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) and separative particle i.e. Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation coupled with DLS (AsFlFFF) size measurement methods. The multimodal dispersion was identified using AFM, TRPS and NTA and results were consistent with those provided with the method based on a separation step prior to on-line size measurements. None of the light scattering batch methods could reveal the complexity of the PSD of the dispersion. Difference between PSD obtained from all size measurement methods tested suggested that study of the PSD of multimodal dispersion required to analyze samples by at least one of the single size particle measurement method or a method that uses a separation step prior PSD measurement.

  16. Multimodal Pedagogies for Teacher Education in TESOL (United States)

    Yi, Youngjoo; Angay-Crowder, Tuba


    As a growing number of English language learners (ELLs) engage in digital and multimodal literacy practices in their daily lives, teachers are starting to incorporate multimodal approaches into their instruction. However, anecdotal and empirical evidence shows that teachers often feel unprepared for integrating such practices into their curricula…

  17. Modeling multimodal human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Starcevic, D.


    Incorporating the well-known Unified Modeling Language into a generic modeling framework makes research on multimodal human-computer interaction accessible to a wide range off software engineers. Multimodal interaction is part of everyday human discourse: We speak, move, gesture, and shift our gaze

  18. Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter. (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T


    The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.

  19. Filter. Remix. Make.: Cultivating Adaptability through Multimodality (United States)

    Dusenberry, Lisa; Hutter, Liz; Robinson, Joy


    This article establishes traits of adaptable communicators in the 21st century, explains why adaptability should be a goal of technical communication educators, and shows how multimodal pedagogy supports adaptability. Three examples of scalable, multimodal assignments (infographics, research interviews, and software demonstrations) that evidence…

  20. (Re-)Examination of Multimodal Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, N.E.; Werkhoven, P.J.; Hürst, W.O.


    The majority of augmented reality (AR) research has been concerned with visual perception, however the move towards multimodality is imminent. At the same time, there is no clear vision of what multimodal AR is. The purpose of this position paper is to consider possible ways of examining AR other

  1. Multimodal pain management after arthroscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sten

    Multimodal Pain Management after Arthroscopic Surgery By Sten Rasmussen, M.D. The thesis is based on four randomized controlled trials. The main hypothesis was that multimodal pain treatment provides faster recovery after arthroscopic surgery. NSAID was tested against placebo after knee arthroscopy...

  2. Multifuel multimodal network design; Projeto de redes multicombustiveis multimodal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Carolina; Dias, Gustavo; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia de Producao


    The objective of the Multi commodity Multimodal Network Project is the development of modeling tools and methodologies for the optimal sizing of production networks and multimodal distribution of multiple fuel and its incomes, considering investments and transportation costs. Given the inherently non-linear combinatory nature of the problem, the resolution of real instances by the complete model, in an exact way, becomes computationally intractable. Thus, the strategy for resolution should contain a combination of exacts and heuristics methods, that must be applied to subdivisions of the original problem. This paper deals with one of these subdivisions, tackling the problem of modeling a network of pipelines in order to drain the production of ethanol away from the producing plants. The objective consists in defining the best network topology, minimizing investment and operational costs, and attending the total demand. In order to do that, the network was considered a tree, where the nodes are the center of producing regions and the edges are the pipelines, trough where the ethanol produced by plants must be drained away. The main objective also includes the decision over the optimal diameter of each pipeline and the optimal size of the bombs, in order to minimize the pumping costs. (author)

  3. Metawidgets in the multimodal interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattner, M.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Glinert, E.P.; Jorge, J.A.; Ormsby, G.R. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)


    We analyze two intertwined and fundamental issues concerning computer-to-human communication in the multimodal interfaces: the interplay between sound and graphics, and the role of object persistence. Our observations lead us to introduce metawidgets as abstract entities capable of manifesting themselves to users as image, as sound, or as various combinations and/or sequences of the two media. We show examples of metawidgets in action, and discuss mechanisms for choosing among alternative media for metawidget instantiation. Finally, we describe a couple of experimental microworlds we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Multimodal approach to postoperative recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide updated information on recent developments within individual components of multimodal interventions to improve postoperative outcome (fast-track methodology). RECENT FINDINGS: The value of the fast-track methodology to improve recovery and decrease hospital stay...... and morbidity has been firmly consolidated, especially in colorectal procedures. An increasing amount of data from other procedures supports the value of the fast-track concept across procedures. Fast-track programs should be based on the analysis of procedure-specific factors that may influence outcome...

  5. Ketamina en analgesia multimodal postcesarea


    Monzón Rubio, Eva María


    Mediante la analgesia multimodal influimos en las diferentes vías del dolor a la vez que minimizamos los potenciales efectos adversos de los diferentes fármacos administrados. En el caso del dolor postcesárea esto adquiere un importante matiz debido a la necesidad de disminuir el uso de opioides que pasan a la leche materna en caso de lactancia natural. El uso de dosis subanestésicas de Ketamina ha demostrado en diferentes estudios la disminución de requerimientos de opioides en las primer...

  6. Epi-detecting label-free multimodal imaging platform using a compact diode-pumped femtosecond solid-state laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreana, Marco; Le, Tuan; Hansen, Anders Kragh


    We have developed an epi-detected multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy platform based on a compact and cost-effective laser source featuring simultaneous acquisition of signals arising from hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), two-photon fluorescence, and second harmonic...

  7. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance....

  8. Investigating the Strain, Temperature and Humidity Sensitivity of a Multimode Graded-Index Perfluorinated Polymer Optical Fiber with Bragg Grating. (United States)

    Zheng, Yulong; Bremer, Kort; Roth, Bernhard


    In this work we investigate the strain, temperature and humidity sensitivity of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) inscribed in a near infrared low-loss multimode perfluorinated polymer optical fiber based on cyclic transparent optical polymer (CYTOP). For this purpose, FBGs were inscribed into the multimode CYTOP fiber with a core diameter of 50 µm by using a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser and the phase mask method. The evolution of the reflection spectrum of the FBG detected with a multimode interrogation technique revealed a single reflection peak with a full width at half maximum (FHWM) bandwidth of about 9 nm. Furthermore, the spectral envelope of the single FBG reflection peak can be optimized depending on the KrF excimer laser irradiation time. A linear shift of the Bragg wavelength due to applied strain, temperature and humidity was measured. Furthermore, depending on irradiation time of the KrF excimer laser, both the failure strain and strain sensitivity of the multimode fiber with FBG can be controlled. The inherent low light attenuation in the near infrared wavelength range (telecommunication window) of the multimode CYTOP fiber and the single FBG reflection peak when applying the multimode interrogation set-up will allow for new applications in the area of telecommunication and optical sensing.

  9. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  10. Nanodiamond Landmarks for Subcellular Multimodal Optical and Electron Imaging (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Mark A.; Lake, Michael P.; Kohan, Sirus A.; Leung, Belinda; Bouchard, Louis-S.


    There is a growing need for biolabels that can be used in both optical and electron microscopies, are non-cytotoxic, and do not photobleach. Such biolabels could enable targeted nanoscale imaging of sub-cellular structures, and help to establish correlations between conjugation-delivered biomolecules and function. Here we demonstrate a sub-cellular multi-modal imaging methodology that enables localization of inert particulate probes, consisting of nanodiamonds having fluorescent nitrogen-vacancy centers. These are functionalized to target specific structures, and are observable by both optical and electron microscopies. Nanodiamonds targeted to the nuclear pore complex are rapidly localized in electron-microscopy diffraction mode to enable “zooming-in” to regions of interest for detailed structural investigations. Optical microscopies reveal nanodiamonds for in-vitro tracking or uptake-confirmation. The approach is general, works down to the single nanodiamond level, and can leverage the unique capabilities of nanodiamonds, such as biocompatibility, sensitive magnetometry, and gene and drug delivery. PMID:24036840

  11. Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope (United States)

    Wang, Han-Wei; Le, Thuc T.; Cheng, Ji-Xin


    A multimodal nonlinear optical imaging system that integrates coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), sum-frequency generation (SFG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) on the same platform was developed and applied to visualize single cells and extracellular matrix in fresh carotid arteries. CARS signals arising from CH 2-rich membranes allowed visualization of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of the arterial wall. Additionally, CARS microscopy allowed vibrational imaging of elastin and collagen fibrils which are also rich in CH 2 bonds. The extracellular matrix organization was further confirmed by TPEF signals arising from elastin's autofluorescence and SFG signals arising from collagen fibrils' non-centrosymmetric structure. Label-free imaging of significant components of arterial tissues suggests the potential application of multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy to monitor onset and progression of arterial diseases.

  12. Multimodality localization of epileptic foci (United States)

    Desco, Manuel; Pascau, Javier; Pozo, M. A.; Santos, Andres; Reig, Santiago; Gispert, Juan D.; Garcia-Barreno, Pedro


    This paper presents a multimodality approach for the localization of epileptic foci using PET, MRI and EEG combined without the need of external markers. Mutual Information algorithm is used for MRI-PET registration. Dipole coordinates (provided by BESA software) are projected onto the MRI using a specifically developed algorithm. The four anatomical references used for electrode positioning (nasion, inion and two preauricular points) are located on the MRI using a triplanar viewer combined with a surface-rendering tool. Geometric transformation using deformation of the ideal sphere used for dipole calculations is then applied to match the patient's brain size and shape. Eight treatment-refractory epileptic patients have been studied. The combination of the anatomical information from the MRI, hipoperfusion areas in PET and dipole position and orientation helped the physician in the diagnosis of epileptic focus location. Neurosurgery was not indicated for patients where PET and dipole results were inconsistent; in two cases it was clinically indicated despite the mismatch, showing a negative follow up. The multimodality approach presented does not require external markers for dipole projection onto the MRI, this being the main difference with previous methods. The proposed method may play an important role in the indication of surgery for treatment- refractory epileptic patients.

  13. Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine


    An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

  14. Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelen, Manfred; Erbel, Raimund; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Barkhausen, Joerg


    An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

  15. A multimodal 3D framework for fire characteristics estimation (United States)

    Toulouse, T.; Rossi, L.; Akhloufi, M. A.; Pieri, A.; Maldague, X.


    In the last decade we have witnessed an increasing interest in using computer vision and image processing in forest fire research. Image processing techniques have been successfully used in different fire analysis areas such as early detection, monitoring, modeling and fire front characteristics estimation. While the majority of the work deals with the use of 2D visible spectrum images, recent work has introduced the use of 3D vision in this field. This work proposes a new multimodal vision framework permitting the extraction of the three-dimensional geometrical characteristics of fires captured by multiple 3D vision systems. The 3D system is a multispectral stereo system operating in both the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. The framework supports the use of multiple stereo pairs positioned so as to capture complementary views of the fire front during its propagation. Multimodal registration is conducted using the captured views in order to build a complete 3D model of the fire front. The registration process is achieved using multisensory fusion based on visual data (2D and NIR images), GPS positions and IMU inertial data. Experiments were conducted outdoors in order to show the performance of the proposed framework. The obtained results are promising and show the potential of using the proposed framework in operational scenarios for wildland fire research and as a decision management system in fighting.

  16. All-fiber multimode interference micro-displacement sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio-Lopez, J E; LiKamWa, P; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; May-Arrioja, D A


    We report an all-fiber micro-displacement sensor based on multimode interference (MMI) effects. The micro-displacement sensor consists of a segment of No-Core multimode fiber (MMF) with one end spliced to a segment of single mode fiber (SMF) which acts as the input. The other end of the MMF and another SMF are inserted into a capillary ferrule filled with index matching liquid. Since the refractive index of the liquid is higher than that of the ferrule, a liquid MMF with a diameter of 125 µm is formed between the fibers inside the ferrule. When the fibers are separated this effectively increases the length of the MMF. Since the peak wavelength response of MMI devices is very sensitive to changes in the MMF's length, this can be used to detect micro-displacements. By measuring spectral changes we have obtained a sensing range of 3 mm with a sensitivity of 25 nm mm −1 and a resolution of 20 µm. The sensor can also be used to monitor small displacements by using a single wavelength to interrogate the transmission of the MMI device close to the resonance peak. Under this latter regime we were able to obtain a sensitivity of 7000 mV mm −1 and a sensing range of 100 µm, with a resolution up to 1 µm. The simplicity and versatility of the sensor make it very suitable for many diverse applications. (paper)

  17. Practical multimodal care for cancer cachexia. (United States)

    Maddocks, Matthew; Hopkinson, Jane; Conibear, John; Reeves, Annie; Shaw, Clare; Fearon, Ken C H


    Cancer cachexia is common and reduces function, treatment tolerability and quality of life. Given its multifaceted pathophysiology a multimodal approach to cachexia management is advocated for, but can be difficult to realise in practice. We use a case-based approach to highlight practical approaches to the multimodal management of cachexia for patients across the cancer trajectory. Four cases with lung cancer spanning surgical resection, radical chemoradiotherapy, palliative chemotherapy and no anticancer treatment are presented. We propose multimodal care approaches that incorporate nutritional support, exercise, and anti-inflammatory agents, on a background of personalized oncology care and family-centred education. Collectively, the cases reveal that multimodal care is part of everyone's remit, often focuses on supported self-management, and demands buy-in from the patient and their family. Once operationalized, multimodal care approaches can be tested pragmatically, including alongside emerging pharmacological cachexia treatments. We demonstrate that multimodal care for cancer cachexia can be achieved using simple treatments and without a dedicated team of specialists. The sharing of advice between health professionals can help build collective confidence and expertise, moving towards a position in which every team member feels they can contribute towards multimodal care.

  18. Correlated Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, Klaas A.; Schnell, Ulrike; Kuipers, Jeroen; Kalicharan, Ruby; Giepmans, Ben N. G.; MullerReichert, T; Verkade, P


    Understanding where, when, and how biomolecules (inter)act is crucial to uncover fundamental mechanisms in cell biology. Recent developments in fluorescence light microscopy (FLM) allow protein imaging in living cells and at the near molecular level. However, fluorescence microscopy only reveals

  19. Mediating multimodal environmental knowledge across animation techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela


    :// The multimodal discourse analysis is meant to reveal how selection and representation of environmental knowledge about social actors, social actions, resources, time and space are influenced by animation techniques. Furthermore, in the context of this multimodal discourse analysis, their influence upon......The growing awareness of and concern about present environmental problems generate a proliferation of new forms of environmental discourses that are mediated in various ways. This chapter explores issues related to the ways in which environmental knowledge is multimodally communicated...

  20. Monitoring intracellular oxidative events using dynamic spectral unmixing microscopy (United States)

    There is increasing interest in using live-cell imaging to monitor not just individual intracellular endpoints, but to investigate the interplay between multiple molecular events as they unfold in real time within the cell. A major impediment to simultaneous acquisition of multip...

  1. Generalized spectral method for near-field optical microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, B.-Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M. [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Castro Neto, A. H. [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Centre for Advanced 2D Materials and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)


    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the “probe”) and a material surface (the “sample”) is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe as well as on the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several types of axisymmetric probes: spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped. For spheroids, an efficient numerical method is developed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. Application of the method to highly resonant materials, such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene), reveals a rich structure of multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves, i.e., the probe-sample distance dependence. These features also strongly depend on the probe shape and optical constants of the model. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide, the dependence is weak, so that the spheroidal model is reliable. The calculations are done within the quasistatic approximation with radiative damping included perturbatively.

  2. Multimodal integration in statistical learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Aaron; Christiansen, Morten Hyllekvist; Weiss, Dan


    , we investigated the ability of adults to integrate audio and visual input during statistical learning. We presented learners with a speech stream synchronized with a video of a speaker’s face. In the critical condition, the visual (e.g., /gi/) and auditory (e.g., /mi/) signals were occasionally...... facilitated participants’ ability to segment the speech stream. Our results therefore demonstrate that participants can integrate audio and visual input to perceive the McGurk illusion during statistical learning. We interpret our findings as support for modality-interactive accounts of statistical learning.......Recent advances in the field of statistical learning have established that learners are able to track regularities of multimodal stimuli, yet it is unknown whether the statistical computations are performed on integrated representations or on separate, unimodal representations. In the present study...

  3. Multimodality image analysis work station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratib, O.; Huang, H.K.


    The goal of this project is to design and implement a PACS (picture archiving and communication system) workstation for quantitative analysis of multimodality images. The Macintosh II personal computer was selected for its friendly user interface, its popularity among the academic and medical community, and its low cost. The Macintosh operates as a stand alone workstation where images are imported from a central PACS server through a standard Ethernet network and saved on a local magnetic or optical disk. A video digitizer board allows for direct acquisition of images from sonograms or from digitized cine angiograms. The authors have focused their project on the exploration of new means of communicating quantitative data and information through the use of an interactive and symbolic user interface. The software developed includes a variety of image analysis, algorithms for digitized angiograms, sonograms, scintigraphic images, MR images, and CT scans

  4. Multimodal signalling in estrildid finches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, A. C. R.; Funghi, C.; Soma, M.


    Sexual traits (e.g. visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multimodal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g. to increase the efficiency of communication) or that different signals trade off with each other...... (e.g. due to limited resources). Alternatively, multiple signals may evolve independently for different functions, or to communicate different information (multiple message hypothesis). We evaluated these hypotheses with a comparative study in the family Estrildidae, one of the largest songbird...... compromise, but generally courtship dance also evolved independently from other signals. Instead of correlated evolution, we found that song, dance and colour are each related to different socio-ecological traits. Song complexity evolved together with ecological generalism, song performance with investment...

  5. Multispectral analysis of multimodal images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvinnsland, Yngve; Brekke, Njaal (Dept. of Surgical Sciences, Univ. of Bergen, Bergen (Norway)); Taxt, Torfinn M.; Gruener, Renate (Dept. of Biomedicine, Univ. of Bergen, Bergen (Norway))


    An increasing number of multimodal images represent a valuable increase in available image information, but at the same time it complicates the extraction of diagnostic information across the images. Multispectral analysis (MSA) has the potential to simplify this problem substantially as unlimited number of images can be combined, and tissue properties across the images can be extracted automatically. Materials and methods. We have developed a software solution for MSA containing two algorithms for unsupervised classification, an EM-algorithm finding multinormal class descriptions and the k-means clustering algorithm, and two for supervised classification, a Bayesian classifier using multinormal class descriptions and a kNN-algorithm. The software has an efficient user interface for the creation and manipulation of class descriptions, and it has proper tools for displaying the results. Results. The software has been tested on different sets of images. One application is to segment cross-sectional images of brain tissue (T1- and T2-weighted MR images) into its main normal tissues and brain tumors. Another interesting set of images are the perfusion maps and diffusion maps, derived images from raw MR images. The software returns segmentation that seem to be sensible. Discussion. The MSA software appears to be a valuable tool for image analysis with multimodal images at hand. It readily gives a segmentation of image volumes that visually seems to be sensible. However, to really learn how to use MSA, it will be necessary to gain more insight into what tissues the different segments contain, and the upcoming work will therefore be focused on examining the tissues through for example histological sections.

  6. Microsphere imaging with confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Hyung Su; An, Kyung Won; Lee, Jai Hyung


    We have acquired images of polystyrene and fused-silica microsphere by using conventional optical microscopy, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy, and performed comparative analysis of these images. Different from conventional optical microscopy, confocal and two-photon microscopy had good optical sectioning capability. In addition, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy had better lateral resolution than conventional optical microscopy. These results are attributed to confocality and nonlinearity of confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy, respectively.

  7. Driver Education for New Multimodal Facilities (United States)


    Local and state transportation agencies are redesigning roads to accommodate multimodal travel, including the addition of new configurations, infrastructures, and rules that may be unfamiliar to current drivers and other road users. Education and out...

  8. Responsive Multimodal Transportation Management Strategies And IVHS (United States)



  9. Influence of Blood Contamination During Multimode Adhesive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 30, 2018 ... (μTBS) of multimode adhesives to dentin when using the self‑etch approach. Materials and Methods: ... adhesion, the collagen fibers collapse during the. Introduction ..... The failure mode was determined using an optical.

  10. Quantifying Quality Aspects of Multimodal Interactive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Christine


    This book systematically addresses the quantification of quality aspects of multimodal interactive systems. The conceptual structure is based on a schematic view on human-computer interaction where the user interacts with the system and perceives it via input and output interfaces. Thus, aspects of multimodal interaction are analyzed first, followed by a discussion of the evaluation of output and input and concluding with a view on the evaluation of a complete system.

  11. A correlative optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach to locating nanoparticles in brain tumors. (United States)

    Kempen, Paul J; Kircher, Moritz F; de la Zerda, Adam; Zavaleta, Cristina L; Jokerst, Jesse V; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert


    The growing use of nanoparticles in biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, demands the capability to exactly locate them within complex biological systems. In this work a correlative optical and scanning electron microscopy technique was developed to locate and observe multi-modal gold core nanoparticle accumulation in brain tumor models. Entire brain sections from mice containing orthotopic brain tumors injected intravenously with nanoparticles were imaged using both optical microscopy to identify the brain tumor, and scanning electron microscopy to identify the individual nanoparticles. Gold-based nanoparticles were readily identified in the scanning electron microscope using backscattered electron imaging as bright spots against a darker background. This information was then correlated to determine the exact location of the nanoparticles within the brain tissue. The nanoparticles were located only in areas that contained tumor cells, and not in the surrounding healthy brain tissue. This correlative technique provides a powerful method to relate the macro- and micro-scale features visible in light microscopy with the nanoscale features resolvable in scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electron microscopy for Engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, I P


    This paper reviews the application of (mainly) Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in an engineering context. The first two sections are TEM and chemical in nature; the final three sections are more general and include aspects of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  13. Full optical model of micro-endoscope with optical coherence microscopy, multiphoton microscopy and visible capabilities (United States)

    Vega, David; Kiekens, Kelli C.; Syson, Nikolas C.; Romano, Gabriella; Baker, Tressa; Barton, Jennifer K.


    While Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM), Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM), and narrowband imaging are powerful imaging techniques that can be used to detect cancer, each imaging technique has limitations when used by itself. Combining them into an endoscope to work in synergy can help achieve high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis at the point of care. Such complex endoscopes have an elevated risk of failure, and performing proper modelling ensures functionality and minimizes risk. We present full 2D and 3D models of a multimodality optical micro-endoscope to provide real-time detection of carcinomas, called a salpingoscope. The models evaluate the endoscope illumination and light collection capabilities of various modalities. The design features two optical paths with different numerical apertures (NA) through a single lens system with a scanning optical fiber. The dual path is achieved using dichroic coatings embedded in a triplet. A high NA optical path is designed to perform OCM and MPM while a low NA optical path is designed for the visible spectrum to navigate the endoscope to areas of interest and narrowband imaging. Different tests such as the reflectance profile of homogeneous epithelial tissue were performed to adjust the models properly. Light collection models for the different modalities were created and tested for efficiency. While it is challenging to evaluate the efficiency of multimodality endoscopes, the models ensure that the system is design for the expected light collection levels to provide detectable signal to work for the intended imaging.

  14. Electron microscopy of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venables, J.A.


    Electron beam techniques used to study clean surfaces and surface processes on a microscopic scale are reviewed. Recent experimental examples and possible future developments are discussed. Special emphasis is given to (i) transmission diffraction and microscopy techniques, including atomic imaging; (ii) Auger microscopy on bulk and thin film samples; (iii) secondary electron microscopy, especially low energy secondaries for work-function imaging and photoelectron imaging; and (iv) reflection electron microscopy and diffraction. (orig.)

  15. Dictionary of Microscopy (United States)

    Heath, Julian


    The past decade has seen huge advances in the application of microscopy in all areas of science. This welcome development in microscopy has been paralleled by an expansion of the vocabulary of technical terms used in microscopy: terms have been coined for new instruments and techniques and, as microscopes reach even higher resolution, the use of terms that relate to the optical and physical principles underpinning microscopy is now commonplace. The Dictionary of Microscopy was compiled to meet this challenge and provides concise definitions of over 2,500 terms used in the fields of light microscopy, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, x-ray microscopy and related techniques. Written by Dr Julian P. Heath, Editor of Microscopy and Analysis, the dictionary is intended to provide easy navigation through the microscopy terminology and to be a first point of reference for definitions of new and established terms. The Dictionary of Microscopy is an essential, accessible resource for: students who are new to the field and are learning about microscopes equipment purchasers who want an explanation of the terms used in manufacturers' literature scientists who are considering using a new microscopical technique experienced microscopists as an aide mémoire or quick source of reference librarians, the press and marketing personnel who require definitions for technical reports.

  16. Spectral gamuts and spectral gamut mapping (United States)

    Rosen, Mitchell R.; Derhak, Maxim W.


    All imaging devices have two gamuts: the stimulus gamut and the response gamut. The response gamut of a print engine is typically described in CIE colorimetry units, a system derived to quantify human color response. More fundamental than colorimetric gamuts are spectral gamuts, based on radiance, reflectance or transmittance units. Spectral gamuts depend on the physics of light or on how materials interact with light and do not involve the human's photoreceptor integration or brain processing. Methods for visualizing a spectral gamut raise challenges as do considerations of how to utilize such a data-set for producing superior color reproductions. Recent work has described a transformation of spectra reduced to 6-dimensions called LabPQR. LabPQR was designed as a hybrid space with three explicit colorimetric axes and three additional spectral reconstruction axes. In this paper spectral gamuts are discussed making use of LabPQR. Also, spectral gamut mapping is considered in light of the colorimetric-spectral duality of the LabPQR space.

  17. A portable microscopy system for fluorescence, polarized, and brightfield imaging (United States)

    Gordon, Paul; Wattinger, Rolla; Lewis, Cody; Venancio, Vinicius Paula; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U.; Coté, Gerard


    The use of mobile phones to conduct diagnostic microscopy at the point-of-care presents intriguing possibilities for the advancement of high-quality medical care in remote settings. However, it is challenging to create a single device that can adapt to the ever-varying camera technologies in phones or that can image with the customization that multiple modalities require for applications such as malaria diagnosis. A portable multi-modal microscope system is presented that utilizes a Raspberry Pi to collect and transmit data wirelessly to a myriad of electronic devices for image analysis. The microscopy system is capable of providing to the user correlated brightfield, polarized, and fluorescent images of samples fixed on traditional microscopy slides. The multimodal diagnostic capabilities of the microscope were assessed by measuring parasitemia of Plasmodium falciparum-infected thin blood smears. The device is capable of detecting fluorescently-labeled DNA using FITC excitation (490 nm) and emission (525 nm), the birefringent P. falciparum byproduct hemozoin, and detecting brightfield absorption with a resolution of 0.78 micrometers (element 9-3 of a 1951 Air Force Target). This microscopy system is a novel portable imaging tool that may be a viable candidate for field implementation if challenges of system durability, cost considerations, and full automation can be overcome.

  18. Multimode optical dermoscopy (SkinSpect) analysis for skin with melanocytic nevus (United States)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Saager, Rolf; Kelly, Kristen M.; Maly, Tyler; Chave, Robert; Booth, Nicholas; Durkin, Anthony J.; Farkas, Daniel L.


    We have developed a multimode dermoscope (SkinSpect™) capable of illuminating human skin samples in-vivo with spectrally-programmable linearly-polarized light at 33 wavelengths between 468nm and 857 nm. Diffusely reflected photons are separated into collinear and cross-polarized image paths and images captured for each illumination wavelength. In vivo human skin nevi (N = 20) were evaluated with the multimode dermoscope and melanin and hemoglobin concentrations were compared with Spatially Modulated Quantitative Spectroscopy (SMoQS) measurements. Both systems show low correlation between their melanin and hemoglobin concentrations, demonstrating the ability of the SkinSpect™ to separate these molecular signatures and thus act as a biologically plausible device capable of early onset melanoma detection.

  19. Recent developments in multimodality fluorescence imaging probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Zhao


    Full Text Available Multimodality optical imaging probes have emerged as powerful tools that improve detection sensitivity and accuracy, important in disease diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we focus on recent developments of optical fluorescence imaging (OFI probe integration with other imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, and photoacoustic imaging (PAI. The imaging technologies are briefly described in order to introduce the strengths and limitations of each techniques and the need for further multimodality optical imaging probe development. The emphasis of this account is placed on how design strategies are currently implemented to afford physicochemically and biologically compatible multimodality optical fluorescence imaging probes. We also present studies that overcame intrinsic disadvantages of each imaging technique by multimodality approach with improved detection sensitivity and accuracy. KEY WORDS: Optical imaging, Fluorescence, Multimodality, Near-infrared fluorescence, Nanoprobe, Computed tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Positron emission tomography, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Photoacoustic imaging

  20. Multimodality, creativity and children's meaning-making: Drawings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multimodality, creativity and children's meaning-making: Drawings, writings, imaginings. ... Framed by social semiotic theories of communication, multimodal ... to create imaginary worlds and express meanings according to their interests.

  1. Multimodal Behavior Therapy: Case Study of a High School Student. (United States)

    Seligman, Linda


    A case study of a high school student concerned with weight problems illustrates multimodal behavior therapy and its use in a high school setting. Multimodal therapy allows the school counselor to maximize referral sources while emphasizing growth and actualization. (JAC)

  2. Polarization Characterization of a Multi-Moded Feed Structure (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarization Characterization of a Multi-Moded Feed Structure projects characterize the polarization response of a multi-moded feed horn as an innovative...

  3. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Meglinski, I V


    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  4. Focusing and imaging with increased numerical apertures through multimode fibers with micro-fabricated optics. (United States)

    Bianchi, S; Rajamanickam, V P; Ferrara, L; Di Fabrizio, E; Liberale, C; Di Leonardo, R


    The use of individual multimode optical fibers in endoscopy applications has the potential to provide highly miniaturized and noninvasive probes for microscopy and optical micromanipulation. A few different strategies have been proposed recently, but they all suffer from intrinsically low resolution related to the low numerical aperture of multimode fibers. Here, we show that two-photon polymerization allows for direct fabrication of micro-optics components on the fiber end, resulting in an increase of the numerical aperture to a value that is close to 1. Coupling light into the fiber through a spatial light modulator, we were able to optically scan a submicrometer spot (300 nm FWHM) over an extended region, facing the opposite fiber end. Fluorescence imaging with improved resolution is also demonstrated.

  5. Enhanced EDX images by fusion of multimodal SEM images using pansharpening techniques. (United States)

    Franchi, G; Angulo, J; Moreaud, M; Sorbier, L


    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential interest of image fusion in the context of multimodal scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. In particular, we aim at merging the backscattered electron images that usually have a high spatial resolution but do not provide enough discriminative information to physically classify the nature of the sample, with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) images that have discriminative information but a lower spatial resolution. The produced images are named enhanced EDX. To achieve this goal, we have compared the results obtained with classical pansharpening techniques for image fusion with an original approach tailored for multimodal SEM fusion of information. Quantitative assessment is obtained by means of two SEM images and a simulated dataset produced by a software based on PENELOPE. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Focusing and imaging with increased numerical apertures through multimode fibers with micro-fabricated optics

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi, Silvio; Rajamanickam, V.; Ferrara, Lorenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Liberale, Carlo; Di Leonardo, Roberto


    The use of individual multimode optical fibers in endoscopy applications has the potential to provide highly miniaturized and noninvasive probes for microscopy and optical micromanipulation. A few different strategies have been proposed recently, but they all suffer from intrinsically low resolution related to the low numerical aperture of multimode fibers. Here, we show that two-photon polymerization allows for direct fabrication of micro-optics components on the fiber end, resulting in an increase of the numerical aperture to a value that is close to 1. Coupling light into the fiber through a spatial light modulator, we were able to optically scan a submicrometer spot (300 nm FWHM) over an extended region, facing the opposite fiber end. Fluorescence imaging with improved resolution is also demonstrated. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  7. New microscopy for nanoimaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kinjo, Y; Watanabe, M


    Two types of new microscopy, namely, X-ray contact microscopy (XRCM) in combination with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray projection microscopy (XRPM) using synchrotron radiation and zone plate optics were used to image the fine structures of human chromosomes. In the XRCM plus AFM system, location of X-ray images on a photoresist has become far easier than that with our previous method using transmission electron microscopy coupled with the replica method. In addition, the images obtained suggested that the conformation of chromatin fiber differs from the current textbook model regarding the architecture of a eukaryotic chromosome. X-ray images with high contrast of the specimens could be obtained with XRPM. The resolution of each microscopy was about 30 and 200-300 nm for XRCM plus AFM and XRPM, respectively. (author)

  8. Microscopy and Image Analysis. (United States)

    McNamara, George; Difilippantonio, Michael; Ried, Thomas; Bieber, Frederick R


    This unit provides an overview of light microscopy, including objectives, light sources, filters, film, and color photography for fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We believe there are excellent opportunities for cytogeneticists, pathologists, and other biomedical readers, to take advantage of specimen optical clearing techniques and expansion microscopy-we briefly point to these new opportunities. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. CARS microscopy for imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanyan Grigory; Voskanyan Karine


    Optical microscopy grows in its importance with the development of modern nanotechnology, biotechnology, methods of diagnostics and treatment of most dangerous diseases for mankind. There are several important goals of optical microscopy for biomedical studies among which the next three may be distinguished: fast imaging with high lateral spatial resolution, 3-D sectioning capability and high contrast for chemical selectivity. To meet these specific requirements, various types of both linear and nonlinear optical microscopy were elaborated. (authors)

  10. Fluorescence (Multiwave) Confocal Microscopy. (United States)

    Welzel, J; Kästle, Raphaela; Sattler, Elke C


    In addition to reflectance confocal microscopy, multiwave confocal microscopes with different laser wavelengths in combination with exogenous fluorophores allow fluorescence mode confocal microscopy in vivo and ex vivo. Fluorescence mode confocal microscopy improves the contrast between the epithelium and the surrounding soft tissue and allows the depiction of certain structures, like epithelial tumors, nerves, and glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multimodale trafiknet i GIS (Multimodal Traffic Network in GIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Brems, Camilla Riff


    The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example.......The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example....

  12. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  13. Coherent light microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Pietro; Zalevsky, Zeev


    This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe applications of holography, interferometry and speckle to metrology but do not focus on their use for microscopy. The coherent light microscopy reference provided here does not focus on the experimental mechanics of such techniques but instead is meant to provide a users manual to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of developing techniques. Th

  14. Bridging fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N. G.

    Development of new fluorescent probes and fluorescence microscopes has led to new ways to study cell biology. With the emergence of specialized microscopy units at most universities and research centers, the use of these techniques is well within reach for a broad research community. A major

  15. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization (United States)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)


    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  16. Multimodality Data Integration in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Muzik


    Full Text Available An important goal of software development in the medical field is the design of methods which are able to integrate information obtained from various imaging and nonimaging modalities into a cohesive framework in order to understand the results of qualitatively different measurements in a larger context. Moreover, it is essential to assess the various features of the data quantitatively so that relationships in anatomical and functional domains between complementing modalities can be expressed mathematically. This paper presents a clinically feasible software environment for the quantitative assessment of the relationship among biochemical functions as assessed by PET imaging and electrophysiological parameters derived from intracranial EEG. Based on the developed software tools, quantitative results obtained from individual modalities can be merged into a data structure allowing a consistent framework for advanced data mining techniques and 3D visualization. Moreover, an effort was made to derive quantitative variables (such as the spatial proximity index, SPI characterizing the relationship between complementing modalities on a more generic level as a prerequisite for efficient data mining strategies. We describe the implementation of this software environment in twelve children (mean age 5.2±4.3 years with medically intractable partial epilepsy who underwent both high-resolution structural MR and functional PET imaging. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and might ultimately have an impact on treatment. Moreover, our software environment holds promise to be useful in many other neurological disorders, where integration of multimodality data is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  17. Video genre classification using multimodal features (United States)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Bae, Tae Meon; Choo, Jin Ho; Ro, Yong Man


    We propose a video genre classification method using multimodal features. The proposed method is applied for the preprocessing of automatic video summarization or the retrieval and classification of broadcasting video contents. Through a statistical analysis of low-level and middle-level audio-visual features in video, the proposed method can achieve good performance in classifying several broadcasting genres such as cartoon, drama, music video, news, and sports. In this paper, we adopt MPEG-7 audio-visual descriptors as multimodal features of video contents and evaluate the performance of the classification by feeding the features into a decision tree-based classifier which is trained by CART. The experimental results show that the proposed method can recognize several broadcasting video genres with a high accuracy and the classification performance with multimodal features is superior to the one with unimodal features in the genre classification.

  18. Reference Resolution in Multi-modal Interaction: Position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernando, T.; Nijholt, Antinus


    In this position paper we present our research on multimodal interaction in and with virtual environments. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the necessity to spend more research on reference resolution in multimodal contexts. In multi-modal interaction the human conversational partner can

  19. Reference resolution in multi-modal interaction: Preliminary observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González González, G.R.; Nijholt, Antinus


    In this paper we present our research on multimodal interaction in and with virtual environments. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the necessity to spend more research on reference resolution in multimodal contexts. In multi-modal interaction the human conversational partner can apply

  20. Training of Perceptual Motor Skills in Multimodal Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopher Daniel


    Full Text Available Multimodal, immersive, virtual reality (VR techniques open new perspectives for perceptualmotor skill trainers. They also introduce new risks and dangers. This paper describes the benefits and pitfalls of multimodal training and the cognitive building blocks of a multimodal, VR training simulators.

  1. Biodistribution of arctigenin-loaded nanoparticles designed for multimodal imaging. (United States)

    Cui, Qingxin; Hou, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yanan; Li, Xu; Liu, Yang; Ma, Xiaoyao; Wang, Zengyong; Wang, Weiya; Tao, Jin; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Min; Chen, Dongyan; Feng, Xizeng; Bai, Gang


    Tracking targets of natural products is one of the most challenging issues in fields ranging from pharmacognosy to biomedicine. It is widely recognized that the biocompatible nanoparticle (NP) could function as a "key" that opens the target "lock". We report a functionalized poly-lysine NP technique that can monitor the target protein of arctigenin (ATG) in vivo non-invasively. The NPs were synthesized, and their morphologies and surface chemical properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), laser particle size analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, we studied the localization of ATG at the level of the cell and the whole animal (zebrafish and mice). We demonstrated that fluorescent NPs could be ideal carriers in the development of a feasible method for target identification. The distributions of the target proteins were found to be consistent with the pharmacological action of ATG at the cellular and whole-organism levels. The results indicated that functionalized poly-lysine NPs could be valuable in the multimodal imaging of arctigenin.

  2. Stereoscopic Integrated Imaging Goggles for Multimodal Intraoperative Image Guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Mela

    Full Text Available We have developed novel stereoscopic wearable multimodal intraoperative imaging and display systems entitled Integrated Imaging Goggles for guiding surgeries. The prototype systems offer real time stereoscopic fluorescence imaging and color reflectance imaging capacity, along with in vivo handheld microscopy and ultrasound imaging. With the Integrated Imaging Goggle, both wide-field fluorescence imaging and in vivo microscopy are provided. The real time ultrasound images can also be presented in the goggle display. Furthermore, real time goggle-to-goggle stereoscopic video sharing is demonstrated, which can greatly facilitate telemedicine. In this paper, the prototype systems are described, characterized and tested in surgeries in biological tissues ex vivo. We have found that the system can detect fluorescent targets with as low as 60 nM indocyanine green and can resolve structures down to 0.25 mm with large FOV stereoscopic imaging. The system has successfully guided simulated cancer surgeries in chicken. The Integrated Imaging Goggle is novel in 4 aspects: it is (a the first wearable stereoscopic wide-field intraoperative fluorescence imaging and display system, (b the first wearable system offering both large FOV and microscopic imaging simultaneously,

  3. Dual light-emitting diode-based multichannel microscopy for whole-slide multiplane, multispectral and phase imaging. (United States)

    Liao, Jun; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Zibang; Bian, Zichao; Guo, Kaikai; Nambiar, Aparna; Jiang, Yutong; Jiang, Shaowei; Zhong, Jingang; Choma, Michael; Zheng, Guoan


    We report the development of a multichannel microscopy for whole-slide multiplane, multispectral and phase imaging. We use trinocular heads to split the beam path into 6 independent channels and employ a camera array for parallel data acquisition, achieving a maximum data throughput of approximately 1 gigapixel per second. To perform single-frame rapid autofocusing, we place 2 near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at the back focal plane of the condenser lens to illuminate the sample from 2 different incident angles. A hot mirror is used to direct the near-infrared light to an autofocusing camera. For multiplane whole-slide imaging (WSI), we acquire 6 different focal planes of a thick specimen simultaneously. For multispectral WSI, we relay the 6 independent image planes to the same focal position and simultaneously acquire information at 6 spectral bands. For whole-slide phase imaging, we acquire images at 3 focal positions simultaneously and use the transport-of-intensity equation to recover the phase information. We also provide an open-source design to further increase the number of channels from 6 to 15. The reported platform provides a simple solution for multiplexed fluorescence imaging and multimodal WSI. Acquiring an instant focal stack without z-scanning may also enable fast 3-dimensional dynamic tracking of various biological samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. PET-MRI and multimodal cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taisong; Zhao Jinhua; Song Jianhua


    Multimodality imaging, specifically PET-CT, brought a new perspective into the fields of clinical imaging. Clinical cases have shown that PET-CT has great value in clinical diagnosis and experimental research. But PET-CT still bears some limitations. A major drawback is that CT provides only limited soft tissue contrast and exposes the patient to a significant radiation dose. MRI overcome these limitations, it has excellent soft tissue contrast, high temporal and spatial resolution and no radiation damage. Additionally, since MRI provides also functional information, PET-MRI will show a new direction of multimodality imaging in the future. (authors)

  5. Strategy development management of Multimodal Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterova Natalia S.


    Full Text Available The article gives a brief overview of works on the development of transport infrastructure for multimodal transportation and integration of Russian transport system into the international transport corridors. The technology for control of the strategy, that changes shape and capacity of Multi-modal Transport Network (MTN, is considered as part of the methodology for designing and development of MTN. This technology allows to carry out strategic and operational management of the strategy implementation based on the use of the balanced scorecard.

  6. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang


    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  7. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  8. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy (United States)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  9. Introduction to spectral theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, B M


    This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.

  10. Connecting multimodality in human communication. (United States)

    Regenbogen, Christina; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo


    DCM analysis instead showed a pronounced top-down control. Remarkably, all connections from the dmPFC to the three other regions were modulated by the experimental conditions. This observation is in line with the presumed role of the dmPFC in the allocation of attention. In contrary, all incoming connections to the AG were modulated, indicating its key role in integrating multimodal information and supporting comprehension. Notably, the input from the FFG to the AG was enhanced when facial expressions conveyed emotional information. These findings serve as preliminary results in understanding network dynamics in human emotional communication and empathy.

  11. Effect of input spectrum on the spectral switch characteristics in a white-light Michelson interferometer. (United States)

    Brundavanam, Maruthi M; Viswanathan, Nirmal K; Rao, D Narayana


    We report here a detailed experimental study to demonstrate the effect of source spectral characteristics such as spectral bandwidth (Deltalambda), peak wavelength (lambda(0)), and shape of the spectrum on the spectral shifts and spectral switches measured due to temporal correlation in a white-light Michelson interferometer operated in the spectral domain. Behavior of the spectral switch characteristics such as the switch position, switch amplitude, and switch symmetry are discussed in detail as a function of optical path difference between the interfering beams. The experimental results are compared with numerical calculations carried out using interference law in the spectral domain with modified source spectral characteristics. On the basis of our results we feel that our study is of critical importance in the selection of source spectral characteristics to further improve the longitudinal resolution or the measurement sensitivity in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and microscopy.

  12. A multimodal instrument for real-time in situ study of ultrasound and cavitation mediated drug delivery


    Bian, S; Seth, A; Daly, D; Carlisle, R; Stride, E


    The development of a multimodal instrument capable of real-time in situ measurements of cavitation activity and effect in tissue mimicking phantoms during ultrasound and cavitation mediated drug delivery experiments is described here. The instrument features an acoustic arm that can expose phantoms to high-intensity focused-ultrasound while measuring cavitation activity and an optical arm that monitors cavitation effect using confocal microscopy. This combination of modalities allows real-tim...

  13. Reading Multimodal Texts for Learning – a Model for Cultivating Multimodal Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Danielsson


    Full Text Available The re-conceptualisation of texts over the last 20 years, as well as the development of a multimodal understanding of communication and representation of knowledge, has profound consequences for the reading and understanding of multimodal texts, not least in educational contexts. However, if teachers and students are given tools to “unwrap” multimodal texts, they can develop a deeper understanding of texts, information structures, and the textual organisation of knowledge. This article presents a model for working with multimodal texts in education with the intention to highlight mutual multimodal text analysis in relation to the subject content. Examples are taken from a Singaporean science textbook as well as a Chilean science textbook, in order to demonstrate that the framework is versatile and applicable across different cultural contexts. The model takes into account the following aspects of texts: the general structure, how different semiotic resources operate, the ways in which different resources are combined (including coherence, the use of figurative language, and explicit/implicit values. Since learning operates on different dimensions – such as social and affective dimensions besides the cognitive ones – our inclusion of figurative language and values as components for textual analysis is a contribution to multimodal text analysis for learning.

  14. Influence of Blood Contamination During Multimode Adhesive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The present study evaluated the effects of blood contamination performed at different steps of bonding on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of multimode adhesives to dentin when using the self-etch approach. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five molars were randomly assigned to three adhesive groups ...

  15. Multimodal representations in collaborative history learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prangsma, M.E.


    This dissertation focuses on the question: How does making and connecting different types of multimodal representations affect the collaborative learning process and the acquisition of a chronological frame of reference in 12 to 14-year olds in pre vocational education? A chronological frame of

  16. A Multimodal Interaction Framework for Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidakis, Nikolaos; Kalafatis, Konstantinos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios


    Humans interact with each other by utilizing the five basic senses as input modalities, whereas sounds, gestures, facial expressions etc. are utilized as output modalities. Multimodal interaction is also used between humans and their surrounding environment, although enhanced with further senses ...... framework enabling deployment of a vast variety of modalities, tailored appropriately for use in blended learning environment....

  17. Multimodal Student Interaction Online: An Ecological Perspective (United States)

    Berglund, Therese Ornberg


    This article describes the influence of tool and task design on student interaction in language learning at a distance. Interaction in a multimodal desktop video conferencing environment, FlashMeeting, is analyzed from an ecological perspective with two main foci: participation rates and conversational feedback strategies. The quantitative…

  18. Multimodal Dialogue Management - State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.

    This report is about the state of the art in dialogue management. We first introduce an overview of a multimodal dialogue system and its components. Second, four main approaches to dialogue management are described (finite-state and frame-based, information-state based and probabilistic, plan-based,

  19. Multimode waveguide speckle patterns for compressive sensing. (United States)

    Valley, George C; Sefler, George A; Justin Shaw, T


    Compressive sensing (CS) of sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using microwave photonics may achieve better performances with smaller size, weight, and power than electronic CS or conventional Nyquist rate sampling. The critical element in a CS system is the device that produces the CS measurement matrix (MM). We show that passive speckle patterns in multimode waveguides potentially provide excellent MMs for CS. We measure and calculate the MM for a multimode fiber and perform simulations using this MM in a CS system. We show that the speckle MM exhibits the sharp phase transition and coherence properties needed for CS and that these properties are similar to those of a sub-Gaussian MM with the same mean and standard deviation. We calculate the MM for a multimode planar waveguide and find dimensions of the planar guide that give a speckle MM with a performance similar to that of the multimode fiber. The CS simulations show that all measured and calculated speckle MMs exhibit a robust performance with equal amplitude signals that are sparse in time, in frequency, and in wavelets (Haar wavelet transform). The planar waveguide results indicate a path to a microwave photonic integrated circuit for measuring sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using CS.

  20. Single versus multimodality training basic laparoscopic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.M.; Havermans, S.Y.; Buzink, S.N.; Botden, S.M.B.I.; Jakimowicz, J.J.; Schoot, B.C.


    Introduction - Even though literature provides compelling evidence of the value of simulators for training of basic laparoscopic skills, the best way to incorporate them into a surgical curriculum is unclear. This study compares the training outcome of single modality training with multimodality

  1. New two-port multimode interference reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, E.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.; Leijtens, X.J.M.


    Multi-mode interference reflectors (MIRs) are versatile components. Two new MIR designs with a fixed 50/50 reflection to transmission ratio are introduced. Measurements on these new devices and on devices similar to those in [1] are presented and compared to the design values. Measured losses are

  2. Scenemash: multimodal route summarization for city exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J. van den; Rudinac, S.; Worring, M.


    The potential of mining tourist information from social multimedia data gives rise to new applications offering much richer impressions of the city. In this paper we propose Scenemash, a system that generates multimodal summaries of multiple alternative routes between locations in a city. To get

  3. Naming Block Structures: A Multimodal Approach (United States)

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna


    This study describes symbolic representation in block play in a culturally diverse suburban preschool classroom. Block play is "multimodal" and can allow children to experiment with materials to represent the world in many forms of literacy. Combined qualitative and quantitative data from seventy-seven block structures were collected and analyzed.…

  4. Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development (United States)

    Loveless, Douglas J., Ed.; Griffith, Bryant, Ed.; Bérci, Margaret E., Ed.; Ortlieb, Evan, Ed.; Sullivan, Pamela, Ed.


    While incorporating digital technologies into the classroom has offered new ways of teaching and learning into educational processes, it is essential to take a look at how the digital shift impacts teachers, school administration, and curriculum development. "Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development" presents…

  5. Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.


    Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One important structural parameter for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), which tends to become larger as glaucoma progresses. While approaches exist for segmenting the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs, and more recently, within spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, no approaches have been reported for the simultaneous segmentation of these structures within both modalities combined. In this work, a multimodal pixel-classification approach for the segmentation of the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs and SD-OCT volumes is presented. In particular, after segmentation of other important structures (such as the retinal layers and retinal blood vessels) and fundus-to-SD-OCT image registration, features are extracted from both modalities and a k-nearest-neighbor classification approach is used to classify each pixel as cup, rim, or background. The approach is evaluated on 70 multimodal image pairs from 35 subjects in a leave-10%-out fashion (by subject). A significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained using the multimodal approach over that obtained from the corresponding unimodal approach (97.8% versus 95.2%; p < 0:05; paired t-test).

  6. Transfer function of radio over fiber multimode fiber optic links considering third-order dispersion. (United States)

    Capmany, J; Gasulla, Ivana


    Although a considerable number of multimode fiber (MMF) links operate in a wavelength region around 850 nm where chromatic dispersion of a given modal group mu is described adequately by the second derivative beta(mu) (2) of the propagation constant beta(mu)(omega), there is also an increasing interest in MMF links transmitting in the second spectral window (@1300nm) where this second derivative vanishes being thus necessary to consider the third derivative beta(mu) (3) in the evaluation of the transfer function of the multimode fiber link. We present in this paper, for the first time to our knowledge, an analytical model for the transfer function of a multimode fiber (MMF) optic link taken into account the impact of third-order dispersion. The model extends the operation of a previously reported one for second-order dispersion. Our results show that the performance of broadband radio over fiber transmission through middle-reach distances can be improved by working at the minimum-dispersion wavelength as long as low-linewidth lasers are employed.

  7. Confocal Raman microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dieing, Thomas; Hollricher, Olaf


    This second edition provides a cutting-edge overview of physical, technical and scientific aspects related to the widely used analytical method of confocal Raman microscopy. The book includes expanded background information and adds insights into how confocal Raman microscopy, especially 3D Raman imaging, can be integrated with other methods to produce a variety of correlative microscopy combinations. The benefits are then demonstrated and supported by numerous examples from the fields of materials science, 2D materials, the life sciences, pharmaceutical research and development, as well as the geosciences.

  8. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif


    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  9. Facilitating Multiple Intelligences Through Multimodal Learning Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha PERVEEN


    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner’s 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as multiple intelligences by online education systems and then suggests a framework of the advanced form of learning analytics i.e., multimodal learning analytics for tracing and facilitating multiple intelligences while they are engaged in online ubiquitous learning. As multimodal learning analytics is still an evolving area, it poses many challenges for technologists, educationists as well as organizational managers. Learning analytics make machines meet humans, therefore, the educationists with an expertise in learning theories can help technologists devise latest technological methods for multimodal learning analytics and organizational managers can implement them for the improvement of online education. Therefore, a careful instructional design based on a deep understanding of students’ learning abilities, is required to develop teaching plans and technological possibilities for monitoring students’ learning paths. This is how learning analytics can help design an adaptive instructional design based on a quick analysis of the data gathered. Based on that analysis, the academicians can critically reflect upon the quick or delayed implementation of the existing instructional design based on students’ cognitive abilities or even about the single or double loop learning design. The researcher concludes that the online education is multimodal in nature, has the capacity to endorse multiliteracies and, therefore, multiple intelligences can be tracked and facilitated through multimodal learning analytics in an online mode. However, online teachers’ training both in technological implementations and

  10. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid


    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential. PMID:27649932

  11. International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Oral, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet; InterM; INTERM2013


    The International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress (INTERM2013) was organized on October 10-13, 2013. The aim of the congress was to bring together scientists from various branches to discuss the latest advances in the field of microscopy. The contents of the congress have been broadened to a more "interdisciplinary" scope, so as to allow all scientists working on related subjects to participate and present their work. These proceedings include 39 peer-reviewed technical papers, submitted by leading academic and research institutions from over 12 countries and representing some of the most cutting-edge research available. The 39 papers are grouped into the following sections: - Applications of Microscopy in the Physical Sciences - Applications of Microscopy in the Biological Sciences

  12. Multimodal chemo-magnetic control of self-propelling microbots (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Dey, Krishna Kanti; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Mandal, Tapas Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar


    the force-field required to arrest the chemotactic migration. The influence of the coupled internal and external fields could halt, steer or reverse the direction the motor inside a microchannel, rotate the motor around a target, and deliver the motor to a cluster of cells. This study showcases a multimodal chemical-magnetic field regulated migration of micro-machines for sensing, transport, and delivery inside a fluidic environment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) hysteresis loop of freshly prepared FeNP coated micromotor and movies of micromotor motion. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05294j

  13. Mate choice in the eye and ear of the beholder? Female multimodal sensory configuration influences her preferences. (United States)

    Ronald, Kelly L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Lucas, Jeffrey R


    A common assumption in sexual selection studies is that receivers decode signal information similarly. However, receivers may vary in how they rank signallers if signal perception varies with an individual's sensory configuration. Furthermore, receivers may vary in their weighting of different elements of multimodal signals based on their sensory configuration. This could lead to complex levels of selection on signalling traits. We tested whether multimodal sensory configuration could affect preferences for multimodal signals. We used brown-headed cowbird ( Molothrus ater ) females to examine how auditory sensitivity and auditory filters, which influence auditory spectral and temporal resolution, affect song preferences, and how visual spatial resolution and visual temporal resolution, which influence resolution of a moving visual signal, affect visual display preferences. Our results show that multimodal sensory configuration significantly affects preferences for male displays: females with better auditory temporal resolution preferred songs that were shorter, with lower Wiener entropy, and higher frequency; and females with better visual temporal resolution preferred males with less intense visual displays. Our findings provide new insights into mate-choice decisions and receiver signal processing. Furthermore, our results challenge a long-standing assumption in animal communication which can affect how we address honest signalling, assortative mating and sensory drive. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Solar Retinopathy: A Multimodal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruè


    Full Text Available Purpose. Solar retinopathy is a rare clinical disturbance, for which spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT findings are not always consistent. We report on two cases of solar retinopathy and discuss its differential diagnosis. Methods. This is an observational case study. Results. A 12-year-old female was referred to ophthalmology for bilateral scotoma. Visual acuity was 20/50 in both eyes. Fundus examination was unremarkable, except for slight yellowish material in the central macula, bilaterally. SD-OCT revealed juxtafoveal microcystic cavities in the outer retina, interruption of the external limiting membrane and the inner and outer segment junctions, with disorganized material in the vitelliform space. Fundus autofluorescence showed hypoautofluorescence surrounded by a relatively hyperautofluorescent ring, bilaterally. Similar clinical and morphological findings were detected in a 27-year-old male. Conclusions. Solar retinopathy has a subtle presentation and patients often deny sun-gazing. SD-OCT and fundus autofluorescence are noninvasive and useful tools for its diagnosis.

  15. Estimation of spectral kurtosis (United States)



    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  16. Lobster eye as a collector for water window microscopy (United States)

    Pina, L.; Maršíková, V.; Inneman, A.; Nawaz, M. F.; Jančárek, A.; Havlíková, R.


    Imaging in EUV, SXR and XR spectral bands of radiation is of increasing interest. Material science, biology and hot plasma are examples of relevant fast developing areas. Applications include spectroscopy, astrophysics, Soft X-ray Ray metrology, Water Window microscopy, radiography and tomography. Especially Water Window imaging has still not fully recognized potential in biology and medicine microscopy applications. Theoretical study and design of Lobster Eye (LE) optics as a collector for water window (WW) microscopy and comparison with a similar size ellipsoidal mirror condensor are presented.

  17. Single-wavelength functional photoacoustic microscopy in biological tissue. (United States)

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V


    Recently, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope, based on saturation intensity, to measure picosecond relaxation times using a nanosecond laser. Here, using the different relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, the oxygen saturation was quantified in vivo with single-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy. All previous functional photoacoustic microscopy measurements required imaging with multiple-laser-wavelength measurements to quantify oxygen saturation. Eliminating the need for multiwavelength measurements removes the influence of spectral properties on oxygenation calculations and improves the portability and cost-effectiveness of functional or molecular photoacoustic microscopy.

  18. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.


    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  19. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan


    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  20. A noninvasive multimodal technique to monitor brain tumor vascularization (United States)

    Saxena, Vishal; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E.


    Determination of tumor oxygenation at the microvascular level will provide important insight into tumor growth, angiogenesis, necrosis and therapeutic response and will facilitate to develop protocols for studying tumor behavior. The non-ionizing near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has the potential to differentiate lesion and hemoglobin dynamics; however, it has a limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has achieved high spatial resolution with excellent tissue discrimination but is more susceptible to limited ability to monitor the hemoglobin dynamics. In the present work, the vascular status and the pathophysiological changes that occur during tumor vascularization are studied in an orthotopic brain tumor model. A noninvasive multimodal approach based on the NIRS technique, namely steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MRI, is applied for monitoring the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor region. The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor vasculature are extracted at 15 discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 675-780 nm. We found a direct correlation between tumor size, intratumoral microvessel density and tumor oxygenation. The relative decrease in tumor oxygenation with growth indicates that though blood vessels infiltrate and proliferate the tumor region, a hypoxic trend is clearly present.

  1. A noninvasive multimodal technique to monitor brain tumor vascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Vishal; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Laug, Walter E


    Determination of tumor oxygenation at the microvascular level will provide important insight into tumor growth, angiogenesis, necrosis and therapeutic response and will facilitate to develop protocols for studying tumor behavior. The non-ionizing near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique has the potential to differentiate lesion and hemoglobin dynamics; however, it has a limited spatial resolution. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has achieved high spatial resolution with excellent tissue discrimination but is more susceptible to limited ability to monitor the hemoglobin dynamics. In the present work, the vascular status and the pathophysiological changes that occur during tumor vascularization are studied in an orthotopic brain tumor model. A noninvasive multimodal approach based on the NIRS technique, namely steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MRI, is applied for monitoring the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor region. The concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and water within tumor vasculature are extracted at 15 discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 675-780 nm. We found a direct correlation between tumor size, intratumoral microvessel density and tumor oxygenation. The relative decrease in tumor oxygenation with growth indicates that though blood vessels infiltrate and proliferate the tumor region, a hypoxic trend is clearly present

  2. Multimodal optical analysis discriminates freshly extracted human sample of gliomas, metastases and meningiomas from their appropriate controls (United States)

    Zanello, Marc; Poulon, Fanny; Pallud, Johan; Varlet, Pascale; Hamzeh, H.; Abi Lahoud, Georges; Andreiuolo, Felipe; Ibrahim, Ali; Pages, Mélanie; Chretien, Fabrice; di Rocco, Federico; Dezamis, Edouard; Nataf, François; Turak, Baris; Devaux, Bertrand; Abi Haidar, Darine


    Delineating tumor margins as accurately as possible is of primordial importance in surgical oncology: extent of resection is associated with survival but respect of healthy surrounding tissue is necessary for preserved quality of life. The real-time analysis of the endogeneous fluorescence signal of brain tissues is a promising tool for defining margins of brain tumors. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of multimodal optical analysis to discriminate fresh samples of gliomas, metastases and meningiomas from their appropriate controls. Tumor samples were studied on an optical fibered endoscope using spectral and fluorescence lifetime analysis and then on a multimodal set-up for acquiring spectral, one and two-photon fluorescence images, second harmonic generation signals and two-photon fluorescence lifetime datasets. The obtained data allowed us to differentiate healthy samples from tumor samples. These results confirmed the possible clinical relevance of this real-time multimodal optical analysis. This technique can be easily applied to neurosurgical procedures for a better delineation of surgical margins.

  3. Hyperspectral microscopy to identify foodborne bacteria with optimum lighting source (United States)

    Hyperspectral microscopy is an emerging technology for rapid detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Since scattering spectral signatures from hyperspectral microscopic images (HMI) vary with lighting sources, it is important to select optimal lights. The objective of this study is to compare t...


    The confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of the emitted signal. The accuracy of these measurements demands t...

  5. Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh


    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  6. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.; Hale, Nicholas


    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon

  7. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter


    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  8. Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation. (United States)

    Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise


    In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess.

  9. Multimodal location estimation of videos and images

    CERN Document Server

    Friedland, Gerald


    This book presents an overview of the field of multimodal location estimation, i.e. using acoustic, visual, and/or textual cues to estimate the shown location of a video recording. The authors' sample research results in this field in a unified way integrating research work on this topic that focuses on different modalities, viewpoints, and applications. The book describes fundamental methods of acoustic, visual, textual, social graph, and metadata processing as well as multimodal integration methods used for location estimation. In addition, the text covers benchmark metrics and explores the limits of the technology based on a human baseline. ·         Discusses localization of multimedia data; ·         Examines fundamental methods of establishing location metadata for images and videos (other than GPS tagging); ·         Covers Data-Driven as well as Semantic Location Estimation.

  10. Multimodality imaging of the postoperative shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany)


    Multimodality imaging of the postoperative shoulder includes radiography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography, computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, and ultrasound. Target-oriented evaluation of the postoperative shoulder necessitates familiarity with surgical techniques, their typical complications and sources of failure, knowledge of normal and abnormal postoperative findings, awareness of the advantages and weaknesses with the different radiologic techniques, and clinical information on current symptoms and function. This article reviews the most commonly used surgical procedures for treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability, lesions of the labral-bicipital complex, subacromial impingement, and rotator cuff lesions and highlights the significance of imaging findings with a view to detection of recurrent lesions and postoperative complications in a multimodality approach. (orig.)

  11. Multimodal interaction in image and video applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sappa, Angel D


    Traditional Pattern Recognition (PR) and Computer Vision (CV) technologies have mainly focused on full automation, even though full automation often proves elusive or unnatural in many applications, where the technology is expected to assist rather than replace the human agents. However, not all the problems can be automatically solved being the human interaction the only way to tackle those applications. Recently, multimodal human interaction has become an important field of increasing interest in the research community. Advanced man-machine interfaces with high cognitive capabilities are a hot research topic that aims at solving challenging problems in image and video applications. Actually, the idea of computer interactive systems was already proposed on the early stages of computer science. Nowadays, the ubiquity of image sensors together with the ever-increasing computing performance has open new and challenging opportunities for research in multimodal human interaction. This book aims to show how existi...

  12. Semiconductor laser using multimode interference principle (United States)

    Gong, Zisu; Yin, Rui; Ji, Wei; Wu, Chonghao


    Multimode interference (MMI) structure is introduced in semiconductor laser used in optical communication system to realize higher power and better temperature tolerance. Using beam propagation method (BPM), Multimode interference laser diode (MMI-LD) is designed and fabricated in InGaAsP/InP based material. As a comparison, conventional semiconductor laser using straight single-mode waveguide is also fabricated in the same wafer. With a low injection current (about 230 mA), the output power of the implemented MMI-LD is up to 2.296 mW which is about four times higher than the output power of the conventional semiconductor laser. The implemented MMI-LD exhibits stable output operating at the wavelength of 1.52 μm and better temperature tolerance when the temperature varies from 283.15 K to 293.15 K.

  13. Multimodality therapy of local regional esophageal cancer. (United States)

    Kelsen, David P


    Recent trials regarding the use of multimodality therapy for patients with cancers of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction have not conclusively shown benefit. Regimens containing cisplatin and fluorouracil administered preoperatively appear to be tolerable and do not increase operative morbidity or mortality when compared with surgery alone. Yet clinical trials have not clearly shown that such regimens improve outcome as measured by survival. Likewise, trials of postoperative chemoradiation have not reported a significant improvement in median or overall survival. The reasons for the lack of clinical benefit from multimodality therapy are not completely understood, but improvements in systemic therapy will probably be necessary before disease-free or overall survival improves substantially. Some new single agents such as the taxanes (docetaxel or paclitaxel) and the camptothecan analog irinotecan have shown modest activity for palliative therapy.

  14. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Vobornik


    Full Text Available An average human eye can see details down to 0,07 mm in size. The ability to see smaller details of the matter is correlated with the development of the science and the comprehension of the nature. Today’s science needs eyes for the nano-world. Examples are easily found in biology and medical sciences. There is a great need to determine shape, size, chemical composition, molecular structure and dynamic properties of nano-structures. To do this, microscopes with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution are required. Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM is a new step in the evolution of microscopy. The conventional, lens-based microscopes have their resolution limited by diffraction. SNOM is not subject to this limitation and can offer up to 70 times better resolution.

  15. Scanning near-field optical microscopy. (United States)

    Vobornik, Dusan; Vobornik, Slavenka


    An average human eye can see details down to 0,07 mm in size. The ability to see smaller details of the matter is correlated with the development of the science and the comprehension of the nature. Today's science needs eyes for the nano-world. Examples are easily found in biology and medical sciences. There is a great need to determine shape, size, chemical composition, molecular structure and dynamic properties of nano-structures. To do this, microscopes with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution are required. Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) is a new step in the evolution of microscopy. The conventional, lens-based microscopes have their resolution limited by diffraction. SNOM is not subject to this limitation and can offer up to 70 times better resolution.

  16. Diffractive elements performance in chromatic confocal microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, J; Duque, D; Alean, A; Toledo, M; Meneses, J; Gharbi, T


    The Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry and biomedicine because of its depth discrimination capability. Subsequent to this technique has been developed in recent years Chromatic Confocal Microscopy. This method retains the same principle of confocal and offers the added advantage of removing the axial movement of the moving system. This advantage is usually accomplished with an optical element that generates a longitudinal chromatic aberration and a coding system that relates the axial position of each point of the sample with the wavelength that is focused on each. The present paper shows the performance of compact chromatic confocal microscope when some different diffractive elements are used for generation of longitudinal chromatic aberration. Diffractive elements, according to the process and manufacturing parameters, may have different diffraction efficiency and focus a specific wavelength in a specific focal position. The performance assessment is carried out with various light sources which exhibit an incoherent behaviour and a broad spectral width.

  17. Spectral behavior of a low-cost all-fiber component based on untapered multifiber unions


    Rodriguez Horche, Paloma; López-Amo Sainz, Manuel; Muriel Fernández, Miguel Ángel; Martín Pereda, José Antonio


    Untapered multifiber unions are reported to show a spectral behavior similar to the tapered ones. Their oscillatory behavior does not depend on the biconical regions. This suggests a novel way to make low-cost all-fiber devices with applications as passive components such as optical filters and wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers. Two types of multimode fibers have been studied and information about the index profile influence has been obtained. Polarization insensitivity and temperature s...

  18. Confocal Raman Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dieing, Thomas; Toporski, Jan


    Confocal Raman Microscopy is a relatively new technique that allows chemical imaging without specific sample preparation. By integrating a sensitive Raman spectrometer within a state-of-the-art microscope, Raman microscopy with a spatial resolution down to 200nm laterally and 500nm vertically can be achieved using visible light excitation. Recent developments in detector and computer technology as well as optimized instrument design have reduced integration times of Raman spectra by orders of magnitude, so that complete images consisting of tens of thousands of Raman spectra can be acquired in seconds or minutes rather than hours, which used to be standard just one decade ago. The purpose of this book is to provide the reader a comprehensive overview of the rapidly developing field of Confocal Raman Microscopy and its applications.

  19. Pattern recognition of neurotransmitters using multimode sensing. (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Moldoveanu, Iuliana; van Staden, Jacobus Frederick


    Pattern recognition is essential in chemical analysis of biological fluids. Reliable and sensitive methods for neurotransmitters analysis are needed. Therefore, we developed for pattern recognition of neurotransmitters: dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine a method based on multimode sensing. Multimode sensing was performed using microsensors based on diamond paste modified with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrine, hemin and protoporphyrin IX in stochastic and differential pulse voltammetry modes. Optimized working conditions: phosphate buffer solution of pH 3.01 and KCl 0.1mol/L (as electrolyte support), were determined using cyclic voltammetry and used in all measurements. The lowest limits of quantification were: 10(-10)mol/L for dopamine and epinephrine, and 10(-11)mol/L for norepinephrine. The multimode microsensors were selective over ascorbic and uric acids and the method facilitated reliable assay of neurotransmitters in urine samples, and therefore, the pattern recognition showed high reliability (RSDneurotransmitters on biological fluids at a lower determination level than chromatographic methods. The sampling of the biological fluids referees only to the buffering (1:1, v/v) with a phosphate buffer pH 3.01, while for chromatographic methods the sampling is laborious. Accordingly with the statistic evaluation of the results at 99.00% confidence level, both modes can be used for pattern recognition and quantification of neurotransmitters with high reliability. The best multimode microsensor was the one based on diamond paste modified with protoporphyrin IX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The multimodal treatment of eating disorders




    The treatment of eating disorders is based on a multimodal model, recognizing that these disorders do not have a single cause or a predictable course. The treatment strategy is determined by the severity of illness and the specific eating disorder diagnosis. For the treatment of anorexia nervosa, the key elements are medical management, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and family therapy, while pharmacotherapy is at best an adjunct to other therapies. In bulimia nervosa...

  1. A Multimodal Robot Game for Seniors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Krogsager, Anders; Fredslund, Jakob


    This paper describes the initial findings of a multimodal game which has been implemented on a humanoid robot platform and tested with seniors suffering from dementia. Physical and cognitive activities can improve the overall wellbeing of seniors, but it is often difficult to motivate seniors...... feedback and includes animated gestures and sounds. The game has been tested in a nursing home with four seniors suffering from moderate to severe dementia....

  2. Speech Perception as a Multimodal Phenomenon


    Rosenblum, Lawrence D.


    Speech perception is inherently multimodal. Visual speech (lip-reading) information is used by all perceivers and readily integrates with auditory speech. Imaging research suggests that the brain treats auditory and visual speech similarly. These findings have led some researchers to consider that speech perception works by extracting amodal information that takes the same form across modalities. From this perspective, speech integration is a property of the input information itself. Amodal s...

  3. Learning new skills in Multimodal Enactive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardy Benoît G.


    Full Text Available A European consortium of researchers in movement and cognitive sciences, robotics, and interaction design developed multimodal technologies to accelerate and transfer the (relearning of complex skills from virtual to real environments. The decomposition of skill into functional elements — the subskills — and the enactment of informational variables used as accelerators are here described. One illustration of accelerator using virtual reality in team rowing is described.

  4. Frequency tripling with multimode-lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, H.; Roehr, H.; Wrobel, W.G.


    The presence of different modes with random phases in a laser beam leads to fluctuations in nonlinear optical interactions. This paper describes the influence of the linewidth of a dye laser on the generation of intensive Lyman-alpha radiation by frequency tripling. Using this Lyman-alpha source for resonance scattering on strongly doppler-broadened lines in fusion plasmas the detection limit of neutral hydrogen is nearly two orders higher with the multimode than the singlemode dye laser. (orig.) [de

  5. Digital Storytelling and Multimodal Literacy in Education


    Gregori-Signes, Carmen


    This article argues in favour of using digital storytelling to encourage a critical socio-educational focus in education and include multimodal explicit teaching in the curriculum.The analysis of fifty digital stories indicates that the students developed a certain awareness of the issue chosen for their story (e.g. violence, racism, war) since the final product transmits a critical perspective on the topic itself. Further work, however, needs to be invested in the development of the digital ...

  6. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  7. Electron microscopy and forensic practice (United States)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana


    Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

  8. Multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Kanji; Iida, Atsushi; Fujita, Takashi; Kobayashi, Taizo; Shinmoto, Syuichi; Hirose, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Akio; Yoshida, Masanori


    In order to improve in prognosis and quality of life (QOL), the multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancers were performed. Bypass surgery was carried out for unresectable pancreatic cancer with intraoperative irradiation (IOR). After surgery, patients were treated with the combination of CDDP (25 mg) and MMC (4 mg) administration, intravenously continuous injection of 5-FU (250 mg for 24 hours), external radiation by the high voltage X-ray (1.5 Gy per irradiation, 4 times a week, and during hyperthermia 3 Gy per irradiation) and hyperthermia using the Thermotron RF-8 warmer. Six out of 13 patients received hyperthermia at over 40degC, were obtained PR, and their survival periods were 22, 21, 19, 18, 11 and 8 months and they could return to work. For all patients with pain, the symptom was abolished or reduced. The survival periods in cases of the multimodal treatment were longer than those of only bypass-surgery or of the resective cases with the curability C. The multimodal treatment combined with radiation, hyperthermia and surgery is more useful for the removal of pain and the improvement of QOL, and also expected the improvement of the prognosis than pancreatectomy. And hyperthermia has an important role on the effect of this treatment. (K.H.)

  9. Multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Kanji; Iida, Atsushi; Fujita, Takashi; Kobayashi, Taizo; Shinmoto, Syuichi; Hirose, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Akio; Yoshida, Masanori [Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan)


    In order to improve in prognosis and quality of life (QOL), the multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancers were performed. Bypass surgery was carried out for unresectable pancreatic cancer with intraoperative irradiation (IOR). After surgery, patients were treated with the combination of CDDP (25 mg) and MMC (4 mg) administration, intravenously continuous injection of 5-FU (250 mg for 24 hours), external radiation by the high voltage X-ray (1.5 Gy per irradiation, 4 times a week, and during hyperthermia 3 Gy per irradiation) and hyperthermia using the Thermotron RF-8 warmer. Six out of 13 patients received hyperthermia at over 40degC, were obtained PR, and their survival periods were 22, 21, 19, 18, 11 and 8 months and they could return to work. For all patients with pain, the symptom was abolished or reduced. The survival periods in cases of the multimodal treatment were longer than those of only bypass-surgery or of the resective cases with the curability C. The multimodal treatment combined with radiation, hyperthermia and surgery is more useful for the removal of pain and the improvement of QOL, and also expected the improvement of the prognosis than pancreatectomy. And hyperthermia has an important role on the effect of this treatment. (K.H.)

  10. Optimal Face-Iris Multimodal Fusion Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi


    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.

  11. Confocal scanning microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo

    This report is based on a metrological investigation on confocal microscopy technique carried out by Uffe Rolf Arlø Theilade and Paolo Bariani. The purpose of the experimental activity was twofold a metrological instrument characterization and application to assessment of rough PP injection moulded...... replicated topography. Confocal microscopy is seen to be a promising technique in metrology of microstructures. Some limitations with respect to surface metrology were found during the experiments. The experiments were carried out using a Zeiss LSM 5 Pascal microscope owned by the Danish Polymer Centre...

  12. Leakage radiation interference microscopy. (United States)

    Descrovi, Emiliano; Barakat, Elsie; Angelini, Angelo; Munzert, Peter; De Leo, Natascia; Boarino, Luca; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Herzig, Hans Peter


    We present a proof of principle for a new imaging technique combining leakage radiation microscopy with high-resolution interference microscopy. By using oil immersion optics it is demonstrated that amplitude and phase can be retrieved from optical fields, which are evanescent in air. This technique is illustratively applied for mapping a surface mode propagating onto a planar dielectric multilayer on a thin glass substrate. The surface mode propagation constant estimated after Fourier transformation of the measured complex field is well matched with an independent measurement based on back focal plane imaging.

  13. Aspergillus infection monitored by multimodal imaging in a rat model. (United States)

    Pluhacek, Tomas; Petrik, Milos; Luptakova, Dominika; Benada, Oldrich; Palyzova, Andrea; Lemr, Karel; Havlicek, Vladimir


    Although myriads of experimental approaches have been published in the field of fungal infection diagnostics, interestingly, in 21st century there is no satisfactory early noninvasive tool for Aspergillus diagnostics with good sensitivity and specificity. In this work, we for the first time described the fungal burden in rat lungs by multimodal imaging approach. The Aspergillus infection was monitored by positron emission tomography and light microscopy employing modified Grocott's methenamine silver staining and eosin counterstaining. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging has revealed a dramatic iron increase in fungi-affected areas, which can be presumably attributed to microbial siderophores. Quantitative elemental data were inferred from matrix-matched standards prepared from rat lungs. The iron, silver, and gold MS images collected with variable laser foci revealed that particularly silver or gold can be used as excellent elements useful for sensitively tracking the Aspergillus infection. The limit of detection was determined for both (107) Ag and (197) Au as 0.03 μg/g (5 μm laser focus). The selective incorporation of (107) Ag and (197) Au into fungal cell bodies and low background noise from both elements were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray scattering utilizing the submicron lateral resolving power of scanning electron microscopy. The low limits of detection and quantitation of both gold and silver make ICP-MS imaging monitoring a viable alternative to standard optical evaluation used in current clinical settings. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. New directions in scanning-tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, T.L.; Warmack, R.J.; Reddick, R.C.


    The tunneling of electrons in scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) has permitted imaging of the electronic distribution about individual atoms on surfaces. The need for use of conducting surfaces in STM limits its applicability, and new forms of scanning microscopy have emerged as a result of interest in poorly conducting samples. Atomic force microscopy has demonstrated that the force between a surface and a probe tip can be used to image selected materials. Now being developed are magnetic probe STM's and photon tunneling microscopes in which the probe is a sharpened optical fiber. Also of great interest presently is the measurement of differential conductance of surfaces using electron STM's. This method supplies spectral information and contrast enhancement in images. At present there remains much theoretical work to be carried out in order to better characterize related data on inelastic electron tunneling, and valuable insight may be gained from data being gathered on the local work function of materials. As matters stand today, the key problems lie in determining tip and contamination effects, preparation of samples, and understanding conductivity mechanisms in very thin materials on conducting substrates. Resolution of these problems and introduction of new forms of scanning microscopy may permit novel and important applications in biology as well as surface science

  15. Near-infrared multispectral photoacoustic microscopy using a graded-index fiber amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Buma


    Full Text Available We demonstrate optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM of lipid-rich tissue using a multi-wavelength pulsed laser based on nonlinear fiber optics. 1047 nm laser pulses are converted to 1098, 1153, 1215, and 1270 nm pulses via stimulated Raman scattering in a graded-index multimode fiber. Multispectral PAM of a lipid phantom is demonstrated with our low-cost and simple technique.

  16. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms (United States)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    Multimodality is the theory of communication as it applies to social and educational semiotics (making meaning through the use of multiple signs and symbols). The term multimodality describes a communication methodology that includes multiple textual, aural, and visual applications (modes) that are woven together to create what is referred to as an artifact. Multimodal teaching methodology attempts to create a deeper meaning to course content by activating the higher cognitive areas of the student's brain, creating a more sustained retention of the information (Murray, 2009). The introduction of multimodality educational methodologies as a means to more optimally engage students has been documented within educational literature. However, studies analyzing the distribution and penetration into basic sciences, more specifically anatomy and physiology, have not been forthcoming. This study used a quantitative survey design to determine the degree to which instructors integrated multimodality teaching practices into their course curricula. The instrument used for the study was designed by the researcher based on evidence found in the literature and sent to members of three associations/societies for anatomy and physiology instructors: the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society; the iTeach Anatomy & Physiology Collaborate; and the American Physiology Society. Respondents totaled 182 instructor members of two- and four-year, private and public higher learning colleges collected from the three organizations collectively with over 13,500 members in over 925 higher learning institutions nationwide. The study concluded that the expansion of multimodal methodologies into anatomy and physiology classrooms is at the beginning of the process and that there is ample opportunity for expansion. Instructors continue to use lecture as their primary means of interaction with students. Email is still the major form of out-of-class communication for full-time instructors. Instructors with

  17. Broadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy employing photonic-crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Paulsen, Henrik Nørgaard; Birkedal, Victoria


    We demonstrate spectral multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy and microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber (PCF). The Stokes pulse is generated by spectral conversion of the laser pulse in a PCF. The pump pulse is eit...

  18. Nanoparticle discrimination based on wavelength and lifetime-multiplexed cathodoluminescence microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garming, Mathijs W H; Weppelman, I Gerward C; de Boer, Pascal; Martínez, Felipe Perona; Schirhagl, Romana; Hoogenboom, Jacob P; Moerland, Robert J


    Nanomaterials can be identified in high-resolution electron microscopy images using spectrally-selective cathodoluminescence. Capabilities for multiplex detection can however be limited, e.g., due to spectral overlap or availability of filters. Also, the available photon flux may be limited due to

  19. In-situ Multimodal Imaging and Spectroscopy of Mg Electrodeposition at Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces (United States)

    Wu, Yimin A.; Yin, Zuwei; Farmand, Maryam; Yu, Young-Sang; Shapiro, David A.; Liao, Hong-Gang; Liang, Wen-I.; Chu, Ying-Hao; Zheng, Haimei


    We report the study of Mg cathodic electrochemical deposition on Ti and Au electrode using a multimodal approach by examining the sample area in-situ using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Magnesium Aluminum Chloride Complex was synthesized and utilized as electrolyte, where non-reversible features during in situ charging-discharging cycles were observed. During charging, a uniform Mg film was deposited on the electrode, which is consistent with the intrinsic non-dendritic nature of Mg deposition in Mg ion batteries. The Mg thin film was not dissolvable during the following discharge process. We found that such Mg thin film is hexacoordinated Mg compounds by in-situ STXM and XAS. This study provides insights on the non-reversibility issue and failure mechanism of Mg ion batteries. Also, our method provides a novel generic method to understand the in situ battery chemistry without any further sample processing, which can preserve the original nature of battery materials or electrodeposited materials. This multimodal in situ imaging and spectroscopy provides many opportunities to attack complex problems that span orders of magnitude in length and time scale, which can be applied to a broad range of the energy storage systems.

  20. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  1. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.


    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.

  2. Advanced Microscopy of Microbial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Regenberg, Birgitte; Sternberg, Claus


    microscopy, super-resolution optical microscopy (STED, SIM, PALM) as well as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using examples of bistability in microbial populations as well as biofilm development and differentiation in bacterial and yeast consortia, we demonstrate the importance of microscopy...

  3. Multimodal label-free ex vivo imaging using a dual-wavelength microscope with axial chromatic aberration compensation. (United States)

    Filippi, Andrea; Dal Sasso, Eleonora; Iop, Laura; Armani, Andrea; Gintoli, Michele; Sandri, Marco; Gerosa, Gino; Romanato, Filippo; Borile, Giulia


    Label-free microscopy is a very powerful technique that can be applied to study samples with no need for exogenous fluorescent probes, keeping the main benefits of multiphoton microscopy, such as longer penetration depths and intrinsic optical sectioning while enabling serial multitechniques examinations on the same specimen. Among the many label-free microscopy methods, harmonic generation (HG) is one of the most intriguing methods due to its generally low photo-toxicity and relative ease of implementation. Today, HG and common two-photon microscopy (TPM) are well-established techniques, and are routinely used in several research fields. However, they require a significant amount of fine-tuning to be fully exploited, making them quite difficult to perform in parallel. Here, we present our designed multimodal microscope, capable of performing simultaneously TPM and HG without any kind of compromise thanks to two, separate, individually optimized laser sources with axial chromatic aberration compensation. We also apply our setup to the examination of a plethora of ex vivo samples to prove its capabilities and the significant advantages of a multimodal approach. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  4. Automatic registration of multi-modal microscopy images for integrative analysis of prostate tissue sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippolis, Giuseppe; Edsjö, Anders; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Overgaard, Niels Chr


    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths. For diagnosis, predicting the outcome of the disease, and for assessing potential new biomarkers, pathologists and researchers routinely analyze histological samples. Morphological and molecular information may be integrated by aligning microscopic histological images in a multiplex fashion. This process is usually time-consuming and results in intra- and inter-user variability. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using modern image analysis methods for automated alignment of microscopic images from differently stained adjacent paraffin sections from prostatic tissue specimens. Tissue samples, obtained from biopsy or radical prostatectomy, were sectioned and stained with either hematoxylin & eosin (H&E), immunohistochemistry for p63 and AMACR or Time Resolved Fluorescence (TRF) for androgen receptor (AR). Image pairs were aligned allowing for translation, rotation and scaling. The registration was performed automatically by first detecting landmarks in both images, using the scale invariant image transform (SIFT), followed by the well-known RANSAC protocol for finding point correspondences and finally aligned by Procrustes fit. The Registration results were evaluated using both visual and quantitative criteria as defined in the text. Three experiments were carried out. First, images of consecutive tissue sections stained with H&E and p63/AMACR were successfully aligned in 85 of 88 cases (96.6%). The failures occurred in 3 out of 13 cores with highly aggressive cancer (Gleason score ≥ 8). Second, TRF and H&E image pairs were aligned correctly in 103 out of 106 cases (97%). The third experiment considered the alignment of image pairs with the same staining (H&E) coming from a stack of 4 sections. The success rate for alignment dropped from 93.8% in adjacent sections to 22% for sections furthest away. The proposed method is both reliable and fast and therefore well suited for automatic segmentation and analysis of specific areas of interest, combining morphological information with protein expression data from three consecutive tissue sections. Finally, the performance of the algorithm seems to be largely unaffected by the Gleason grade of the prostate tissue samples examined, at least up to Gleason score 7

  5. Real-time multimodal sensing in nano/bio environment (United States)

    Song, Bo

    As a sensing device in nano-scale, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool for exploring nano world. Nevertheless two fundamental problems tackle the development and application of SPM based imaging and measurement: slow imaging/measurement speed and inaccuracy of motion or position control. Usually, SPM imaging/properties measuring speed is too slow to capture a dynamic observation on sample surface. In addition, Both SPM imaging and properties measurement always experience positioning inaccuracy problems caused by hysteresis and creep of the piezo scanner. This dissertation will try to solve these issues and proposed a SPM based real-time multimodal sensing system which can be used in nano/bio environment. First, a compressive sensing based video rate fast SPM imaging system is shown as an efficient method to dynamically capture the sample surface change with the imaging speed 1.5 frame/s with the scan size of 500 nm * 500 nm. Besides topography imaging, a new additional modal of SPM: vibration mode, will be introduced, and it is developed by us to investigate the subsurface mechanical properties of the elastic sample such as cells and bacteria. A followed up study of enzymatic hydrolysis will demonstrate the ability of in situ observation of single molecule event using video rate SPM. After that we will introduce another modal of this SPM sensing system: accurate electrical properties measurement. In this electrical properties measurement mode, a compressive feedbacks based non-vector space control approach is proposed in order to improve the accuracy of SPM based nanomanipulations. Instead of sensors, the local images are used as both the input and feedback of a non-vector space closed-loop controller. A followed up study will also be introduced to shown the important role of non-vector space control in the study of conductivity distribution of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. At the end of this dissertation, some future work will be also proposed to

  6. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.


    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  7. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R


    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  8. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  9. Polarized Light Microscopy (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.


    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  10. Multimodal imaging Gd-nanoparticles functionalized with Pittsburgh compound B or a nanobody for amyloid plaques targeting. (United States)

    Pansieri, Jonathan; Plissonneau, Marie; Stransky-Heilkron, Nathalie; Dumoulin, Mireille; Heinrich-Balard, Laurence; Rivory, Pascaline; Morfin, Jean-François; Toth, Eva; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Allémann, Eric; Tillement, Olivier; Forge, Vincent; Lux, François; Marquette, Christel


    Gadolinium-based nanoparticles were functionalized with either the Pittsburgh compound B or a nanobody (B10AP) in order to create multimodal tools for an early diagnosis of amyloidoses. The ability of the functionalized nanoparticles to target amyloid fibrils made of β-amyloid peptide, amylin or Val30Met-mutated transthyretin formed in vitro or from pathological tissues was investigated by a range of spectroscopic and biophysics techniques including fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticles functionalized by both probes efficiently interacted with the three types of amyloid fibrils, with K D values in 10 micromolar and 10 nanomolar range for, respectively, Pittsburgh compound B and B10AP nanoparticles. Moreover, they allowed the detection of amyloid deposits on pathological tissues. Such functionalized nanoparticles could represent promising flexible and multimodal imaging tools for the early diagnostic of amyloid diseases, in other words, Alzheimer's disease, Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

  11. Multimodal optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging with interleaved excitation sources for simultaneous endogenous and exogenous fluorescence. (United States)

    Shrestha, Sebina; Serafino, Michael J; Rico-Jimenez, Jesus; Park, Jesung; Chen, Xi; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Walton, Brian L; Jo, Javier A; Applegate, Brian E


    Multimodal imaging probes a variety of tissue properties in a single image acquisition by merging complimentary imaging technologies. Exploiting synergies amongst the data, algorithms can be developed that lead to better tissue characterization than could be accomplished by the constituent imaging modalities taken alone. The combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) provides access to detailed tissue morphology and local biochemistry. The optical system described here merges 1310 nm swept-source OCT with time-domain FLIM having excitation at 355 and 532 nm. The pulses from 355 and 532 nm lasers have been interleaved to enable simultaneous acquisition of endogenous and exogenous fluorescence signals, respectively. The multimodal imaging system was validated using tissue phantoms. Nonspecific tagging with Alexa Flour 532 in a Watanbe rabbit aorta and active tagging of the LOX-1 receptor in human coronary artery, demonstrate the capacity of the system for simultaneous acquisition of OCT, endogenous FLIM, and exogenous FLIM in tissues.

  12. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.


    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  13. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo


    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  14. Multimodal follow-up questions to multimodal answers in a QA system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.


    We are developing a dialogue manager (DM) for a multimodal interactive Question Answering (QA) system. Our QA system presents answers using text and pictures, and the user may pose follow-up questions using text or speech, while indicating screen elements with the mouse. We developed a corpus of

  15. Electron microscopy in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loretto, M.H.


    The aim of this paper is to review briefly the contribution which (TEM) transmission electron microscopy (including high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM)) has made to metallurgy. Since it is straightforward with modern electron microscopes to extract the crystallographic information which provides the basis for any interpretation, the major problem in most metallurgical work lies in assessing how the structure (which TEM has characterised) has arisen and which properties of the specimen can be understood in terms of this structure. Radiation damage, quenching, phase transformations, grain boundaries and plastic deformation have been the main fields in which TEM has contributed significantly. After briefly summarising the role of TEM in each field, examples of recent work will be used to indicate current TEM activity in physical metallurgy. (author)

  16. Second harmonic generation microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Risbo, Jens


    Myofibers and collagen show non-linear optical properties enabling imaging using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The technique is evaluated for use as a tool for real-time studies of thermally induced changes in thin samples of unfixed and unstained pork. The forward and the backward...... scattered SHG light reveal complementary features of the structures of myofibers and collagen fibers. Upon heating the myofibers show no structural changes before reaching a temperature of 53 °C. At this temperature the SHG signal becomes extinct. The extinction of the SHG at 53 °C coincides with a low......-temperature endotherm peak observable in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. DSC analysis of epimysium, the connective tissue layer that enfold skeletal muscles, produces one large endotherm starting at 57 °C and peaking at 59.5 °C. SHG microscopy of collagen fibers reveals a variability of thermal...

  17. Electron microscopy and diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoennes, J.; Olsen, A.


    This report is a description of research activities and plans at the electron microscopy laboratorium, Physics Department, University of Oslo. Since the first electron microscope was installed in 1968, the research has covered inorganic structures, physical metallurgy, as well as theory of electron scattering and the development of methods in this field. The current plans involve efforts in the development of crystallographic and spectroscopic methods

  18. Advanced Multimodal Solutions for Information Presentation (United States)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Godfroy-Cooper, Martine


    High-workload, fast-paced, and degraded sensory environments are the likeliest candidates to benefit from multimodal information presentation. For example, during EVA (Extra-Vehicular Activity) and telerobotic operations, the sensory restrictions associated with a space environment provide a major challenge to maintaining the situation awareness (SA) required for safe operations. Multimodal displays hold promise to enhance situation awareness and task performance by utilizing different sensory modalities and maximizing their effectiveness based on appropriate interaction between modalities. During EVA, the visual and auditory channels are likely to be the most utilized with tasks such as monitoring the visual environment, attending visual and auditory displays, and maintaining multichannel auditory communications. Previous studies have shown that compared to unimodal displays (spatial auditory or 2D visual), bimodal presentation of information can improve operator performance during simulated extravehicular activity on planetary surfaces for tasks as diverse as orientation, localization or docking, particularly when the visual environment is degraded or workload is increased. Tactile displays offer a third sensory channel that may both offload information processing effort and provide a means to capture attention when urgently required. For example, recent studies suggest that including tactile cues may result in increased orientation and alerting accuracy, improved task response time and decreased workload, as well as provide self-orientation cues in microgravity on the ISS (International Space Station). An important overall issue is that context-dependent factors like task complexity, sensory degradation, peripersonal vs. extrapersonal space operations, workload, experience level, and operator fatigue tend to vary greatly in complex real-world environments and it will be difficult to design a multimodal interface that performs well under all conditions. As a

  19. Deep Learning Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair


    We demonstrate that a deep neural network can significantly improve optical microscopy, enhancing its spatial resolution over a large field-of-view and depth-of-field. After its training, the only input to this network is an image acquired using a regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with remarkably better resolution, matching the performance of higher numerical aperture lenses, also significantly surpassing their limited field-of-view and depth-of-field. These results are transformative for various fields that use microscopy tools, including e.g., life sciences, where optical microscopy is considered as one of the most widely used and deployed techniques. Beyond such applications, our presented approach is broadly applicable to other imaging modalities, also spanning different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be used to design computational imagers that get better and better as they continue to image specimen and establish new transformations among different modes of imaging.

  20. The semiotics of typography in literary texts. A multimodal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina


    to multimodal discourse proposed, for instance, by Kress & Van Leeuwen (2001) and Baldry & Thibault (2006), and, more specifically, the multimodal approach to typography suggested by Van Leeuwen (2005b; 2006), in order to sketch out a methodological framework applicable to the description and analysis...... of the semiotic potential of typography in literary texts....

  1. Validation of a multimodal travel simulator with travel information provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.; Molin, E.J.E.; Arentze, T.A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Wee, van G.P.


    This paper presents a computer based travel simulator for collecting data concerning the use of next-generation ATIS and their effects on traveler decision making in a multimodal travel environment. The tool distinguishes itself by presenting a completely abstract multimodal transport network, where

  2. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Tmall's Double Eleven Advertisement (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Luo, Mengxi


    From the 1990s, the multimodal turn in discourse studies makes multimodal discourse analysis a popular topic in linguistics and communication studies. An important approach to applying Systemic Functional Linguistics to non-verbal modes is Visual Grammar initially proposed by Kress and van Leeuwen (1996). Considering that commercial advertisement…

  3. Deterministic multimode photonic device for quantum-information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Mølmer, Klaus


    We propose the implementation of a light source that can deterministically generate a rich variety of multimode quantum states. The desired states are encoded in the collective population of different ground hyperfine states of an atomic ensemble and converted to multimode photonic states by exci...

  4. Interactivity in Educational Apps for Young Children: A Multimodal Analysis (United States)

    Blitz-Raith, Alexandra H.; Liu, Jianxin


    Interactivity is an important indicator of an educational app's reception. Since most educational apps are multimodal, it justifies a methodological initiative to understand meaningful involvement of multimodality in enacting and even amplifying interactivity in an educational app. Yet research so far has largely concentrated on algorithm…

  5. Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott


    Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

  6. Multimodal versus Unimodal Instruction in a Complex Learning Context. (United States)

    Gellevij, Mark; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton; Pieters, Jules


    Compared multimodal instruction with text and pictures with unimodal text-only instruction as 44 college students used a visual or textual manual to learn a complex software application. Results initially support dual coding theory and indicate that multimodal instruction led to better performance than unimodal instruction. (SLD)

  7. Multimodal warnings to enhance risk communication and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, E.C.; Erp, J.B.F. van


    Multimodal warnings incorporate audio and/or skin-based (tactile) cues to supplement or replace visual cues in environments where the user’s visual perception is busy, impaired, or nonexistent. This paper describes characteristics of audio, tactile, and multimodal warning displays and their role in

  8. Adaptive multimodal interaction in mobile augmented reality: A conceptual framework (United States)

    Abidin, Rimaniza Zainal; Arshad, Haslina; Shukri, Saidatul A'isyah Ahmad


    Recently, Augmented Reality (AR) is an emerging technology in many mobile applications. Mobile AR was defined as a medium for displaying information merged with the real world environment mapped with augmented reality surrounding in a single view. There are four main types of mobile augmented reality interfaces and one of them are multimodal interfaces. Multimodal interface processes two or more combined user input modes (such as speech, pen, touch, manual gesture, gaze, and head and body movements) in a coordinated manner with multimedia system output. In multimodal interface, many frameworks have been proposed to guide the designer to develop a multimodal applications including in augmented reality environment but there has been little work reviewing the framework of adaptive multimodal interface in mobile augmented reality. The main goal of this study is to propose a conceptual framework to illustrate the adaptive multimodal interface in mobile augmented reality. We reviewed several frameworks that have been proposed in the field of multimodal interfaces, adaptive interface and augmented reality. We analyzed the components in the previous frameworks and measure which can be applied in mobile devices. Our framework can be used as a guide for designers and developer to develop a mobile AR application with an adaptive multimodal interfaces.

  9. Player/Avatar Body Relations in Multimodal Augmented Reality Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, N.E.


    Augmented reality research is finally moving towards multimodal experiences: more and more applications do not only include visuals, but also audio and even haptics. The purpose of multimodality in these applications can be to increase realism or to increase the amount or quality of communicated

  10. Multimodal network design for sustainable household plastic recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Groot, J.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.


    Purpose – This research studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. This research aims to quantify the impact of multimodality on the network, to provide decision

  11. A Multimodal Database for Affect Recognition and Implicit Tagging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleymani, Mohammad; Lichtenauer, Jeroen; Pun, Thierry; Pantic, Maja

    MAHNOB-HCI is a multimodal database recorded in response to affective stimuli with the goal of emotion recognition and implicit tagging research. A multimodal setup was arranged for synchronized recording of face videos, audio signals, eye gaze data, and peripheral/central nervous system

  12. The Big Five: Addressing Recurrent Multimodal Learning Data Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Mitri, Daniele; Schneider, Jan; Specht, Marcus; Drachsler, Hendrik


    The analysis of multimodal data in learning is a growing field of research, which has led to the development of different analytics solutions. However, there is no standardised approach to handle multimodal data. In this paper, we describe and outline a solution for five recurrent challenges in

  13. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage (United States)

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue


    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  14. Multimodal Scaffolding in the Secondary English Classroom Curriculum (United States)

    Boche, Benjamin; Henning, Megan


    This article examines the topic of multimodal scaffolding in the secondary English classroom curriculum through the viewpoint of one teacher's experiences. With technology becoming more commonplace and readily available in the English classroom, we must pinpoint specific and tangible ways to help teachers use and teach multimodalities in their…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Mukutsa


    Full Text Available Purpose - to assess the effect of multimodal analgesia in the early rehabilitation of patients after hip replacement. Materials and methods. A prospective single-centre randomized research, which included 32 patients. Patients of the 1st group received paracetamol, ketorolac and tramadol, the 2nd group of patients - ketorolac intravenously and the 3rd group of patients - etoricoxib and gabapentin. Patients of the 2nd and the 3rd groups underwent epidural analgesia with ropivacaine. Multimodal analgesia was carried out for 48 hours after the surgery. Assessment of pain intensity was performed by the VAS (visual analogue scale, a neuropathic pain component - on the DN4 questionnaire . Time was recorded during the first and second verticalization of patients, using the distance walkers and by fixing the distance covered with in 2 minutes. Results. The intensity of pain for more than 50 mm on VAS at movement at least once every 48 hours after the surgery was occurred among 9% of the 1st group, 22% of patients from the 2nd group and 8% of patients of the 3rd group. Number of patients with neuropathic pain component decreased from 25% to 3% (p ≤ 0.05. The first verticalization was performed 10 ± 8 hours after the surgery, the second - 21 ± 8 hours later. Two-minute walk distance was 5 ± 3 and 8 ± 4 m, respectively. It is noted more frequent adverse events in patients of the 1st group was noted compared to patients of the 2nd and the 3rd groups during first (91%, 33% and 25%, p ≤ 0.05 and the second verticalization (70%, 25% and 17%, p ≤ 0.05. Multimodal analgesia allows to proceed with the successful activation of patients after hip replacement with in the first day after the surgery. The 3rd group patients are noted with a tendency for the optimal combination of efficient and safe of analgetic therapy.

  16. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states (United States)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.


    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  17. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.


    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  18. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)


    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  19. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery. (United States)

    Nanay, Bence


    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  20. Multimodal Landscaping in Higher Education Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa


    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Multimodal Landscaping (ML) as a conceptual framework, and to illustrate how this approach can be applied within the field of higher education research. It is argued that ML is a suitable tool, especially, in studies investigating university...... internationalization, and in studies focusing on the agent level of higher education organizations. ML is argued to add to the diversity of methods within a social constructivist methodology. The author illustrates how ML is connected and/or different from kindred approaches. Pathways are proposed as to how...

  1. Multimodality Imaging of Heart Valve Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajani, Ronak; Khattar, Rajdeep; Chiribiri, Amedeo; Victor, Kelly; Chambers, John


    Unidentified heart valve disease is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. It has therefore become important to accurately identify, assess and monitor patients with this condition in order that appropriate and timely intervention can occur. Although echocardiography has emerged as the predominant imaging modality for this purpose, recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography indicate that they may have an important contribution to make. The current review describes the assessment of regurgitant and stenotic heart valves by multimodality imaging (echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance) and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses

  2. Multimodality Imaging of Heart Valve Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajani, Ronak, E-mail: [Department of Cardiology, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Khattar, Rajdeep [Department of Cardiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Chiribiri, Amedeo [Divisions of Imaging Sciences, The Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Victor, Kelly; Chambers, John [Department of Cardiology, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London (United Kingdom)


    Unidentified heart valve disease is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. It has therefore become important to accurately identify, assess and monitor patients with this condition in order that appropriate and timely intervention can occur. Although echocardiography has emerged as the predominant imaging modality for this purpose, recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography indicate that they may have an important contribution to make. The current review describes the assessment of regurgitant and stenotic heart valves by multimodality imaging (echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance) and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  3. Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Santos Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Aim. In recent years, connectivity studies using neuroimaging data have increased the understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, data analysis is time consuming as rigorous procedures must be assured, from structuring data and pre-processing to modality specific data procedures. Until now, no single toolbox was able to perform such investigations on truly multimodal image data from beginning to end, including the combination of different connectivity analyses. Thus, we have developed the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA toolbox with the goal of diminishing time waste in data processing and to allow an innovative and comprehensive approach to brain connectivity.Materials and Methods. The MIBCA toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity toolbox that offers pre-processing, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses of multimodal image data such as diffusion-weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET. It was developed in MATLAB environment and pipelines well-known neuroimaging softwares such as Freesurfer, SPM, FSL, and Diffusion Toolkit. It further implements routines for the construction of structural, functional and effective or combined connectivity matrices, as well as, routines for the extraction and calculation of imaging and graph-theory metrics, the latter using also functions from the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Finally, the toolbox performs group statistical analysis and enables data visualization in the form of matrices, 3D brain graphs and connectograms. In this paper the MIBCA toolbox is presented by illustrating its capabilities using multimodal image data from a group of 35 healthy subjects (19–73 years old with volumetric T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state fMRI data, and 10 subjets with 18F-Altanserin PET data also.Results. It was observed both a high inter

  4. Registration of deformed multimodality medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshfeghi, M.; Naidich, D.


    The registration and combination of images from different modalities have several potential applications, such as functional and anatomic studies, 3D radiation treatment planning, surgical planning, and retrospective studies. Image registration algorithms should correct for any local deformations caused by respiration, heart beat, imaging device distortions, and so forth. This paper reports on an elastic matching technique for registering deformed multimodality images. Correspondences between contours in the two images are used to stretch the deformed image toward its goal image. This process is repeated a number of times, with decreasing image stiffness. As the iterations continue, the stretched image better approximates its goal image

  5. Multimodal neuromonitoring in pediatric cardiac anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. C. Mittnacht


    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in overall outcome, neurological injury remains a feared complication following pediatric congenital heart surgery (CHS. Only if adverse events are detected early enough, can effective actions be initiated preventing potentially serious injury. The multifactorial etiology of neurological injury in CHS patients makes it unlikely that one single monitoring modality will be effective in capturing all possible threats. Improving current and developing new technologies and combining them according to the concept of multimodal monitoring may allow for early detection and possible intervention with the goal to further improve neurological outcome in children undergoing CHS.

  6. Development of Multimodal Human Interface Technology (United States)

    Hirose, Michitaka

    About 20 years have passed since the word “Virtual Reality” became popular. During these two decades, novel human interface technology so called “multimodal interface technology” has been formed. In this paper, firstly, recent progress in realtime CG, BCI and five senses IT is quickly reviewed. Since the life cycle of the information technology is said to be 20 years or so, novel directions and paradigms of VR technology can be found in conjunction with the technologies forementioned. At the end of the paper, these futuristic directions such as ultra-realistic media are briefly introduced.

  7. Multimodal approach to the international transit transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bazaras


    Full Text Available In the article not only the problems of multi-modal and inter-modal conveyances in Lithuania and the concept of transit and the transit system stimulating factors are analysed, but also the modelling of transit transport and the flows of the loads are given. The main part of the article comes to the analysis of resent situation of Lithuania. In this part the place of transport sector in the market of transit services is analysed and the transit profit for Lithuanian economy is evaluated. The conclusions and proposals are given at the end of the article.

  8. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel


    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  9. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.


    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  10. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.


    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  11. Percorsi linguistici e semiotici: Critical Multimodal Analysis of Digital Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    edited by Ilaria Moschini


    Full Text Available The language section of LEA - edited by Ilaria Moschini - is dedicated to the Critical Multimodal Analysis of Digital Discourse, an approach that encompasses the linguistic and semiotic detailed investigation of texts within a socio-cultural perspective. It features an interview with Professor Theo van Leeuwen by Ilaria Moschini and four essays: “Retwitting, reposting, repinning; reshaping identities online: Towards a social semiotic multimodal analysis of digital remediation” by Elisabetta Adami; “Multimodal aspects of corporate social responsibility communication” by Carmen Daniela Maier; “Pervasive Technologies and the Paradoxes of Multimodal Digital Communication” by Sandra Petroni and “Can the powerless speak? Linguistic and multimodal corporate media manipulation in digital environments: the case of Malala Yousafzai” by Maria Grazia Sindoni. 

  12. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres


    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  13. Metabolic Mapping of Breast Cancer with Multiphoton Spectral and Lifetime Imaging (United States)


    2002. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. Appl. Spec- trosc. 56 :155-166. 38. Becker, W., A. Bergmann, E. Haustein , Z...photon fluores- cence lifetime imaging microscopy of macrophage-mediated antigen processing. J. Microsc. 185 :339-353. 45. Lin, H.J., P. Herman , and

  14. Multimodal EEG Recordings, Psychometrics and Behavioural Analysis. (United States)

    Boeijinga, Peter H


    High spatial and temporal resolution measurements of neuronal activity are preferably combined. In an overview on how this approach can take shape, multimodal electroencephalography (EEG) is treated in 2 main parts: by experiments without a task and in the experimentally cued working brain. It concentrates first on the alpha rhythm properties and next on data-driven search for patterns such as the default mode network. The high-resolution volumic distributions of neuronal metabolic indices result in distributed cortical regions and possibly relate to numerous nuclei, observable in a non-invasive manner in the central nervous system of humans. The second part deals with paradigms in which nowadays assessment of target-related networks can align level-dependent blood oxygenation, electrical responses and behaviour, taking the temporal resolution advantages of event-related potentials. Evidence-based electrical propagation in serial tasks during performance is now to a large extent attributed to interconnected pathways, particularly chronometry-dependent ones, throughout a chain including a dorsal stream, next ventral cortical areas taking the flow of information towards inferior temporal domains. The influence of aging is documented, and results of the first multimodal studies in neuropharmacology are consistent. Finally a scope on implementation of advanced clinical applications and personalized marker strategies in neuropsychiatry is indicated. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; Basurto-Pensado, M A; LiKamWa, P; May-Arrioja, D A


    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 μV/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  16. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J [INAOE, Apartado Postal 51 y 216, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Basurto-Pensado, M A [CIICAp, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); LiKamWa, P [CREOL, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); May-Arrioja, D A, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [UAT Reynosa Rodhe, Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas (Mexico)


    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 {mu}V/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  17. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception. (United States)

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le


    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy.

  18. Multimodal 2D Brain Computer Interface. (United States)

    Almajidy, Rand K; Boudria, Yacine; Hofmann, Ulrich G; Besio, Walter; Mankodiya, Kunal


    In this work we used multimodal, non-invasive brain signal recording systems, namely Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), disc electrode electroencephalography (EEG) and tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) electroencephalography (tEEG). 7 healthy subjects participated in our experiments to control a 2-D Brain Computer Interface (BCI). Four motor imagery task were performed, imagery motion of the left hand, the right hand, both hands and both feet. The signal slope (SS) of the change in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration measured by NIRS was used for feature extraction while the power spectrum density (PSD) of both EEG and tEEG in the frequency band 8-30Hz was used for feature extraction. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was used to classify different combinations of the aforementioned features. The highest classification accuracy (85.2%) was achieved by using features from all the three brain signals recording modules. The improvement in classification accuracy was highly significant (p = 0.0033) when using the multimodal signals features as compared to pure EEG features.

  19. Photonic lantern with multimode fibers embedded (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Jiao; Yan, Qi; Huang, Zong-Jun; Tian, He; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Sun, Wei-Min


    A photonic lantern is studied which is formed by seven multimode fibers inserted into a pure silica capillary tube. The core of the tapered end has a uniform refractive index because the polymer claddings are removed before the fibers are inserted. Consequently, the light distribution is also uniform. Two theories describing a slowly varying waveguide and multimode coupling are used to analyze the photonic lantern. The transmission loss decreases as the length of the tapered part increases. For a device with a taper length of 3.4 cm, the loss is about 1.06 dB on average for light propagating through the taper from an inserted fiber to the tapered end and 0.99 dB in the reverse direction. For a device with a taper length of 0.7 cm, the two loss values are 2.63 dB and 2.53 dB, respectively. The results show that it is possible to achieve a uniform light distribution with the tapered end and a low-loss transmission in the device if parameters related to the lantern are reasonably defined.

  20. Photonic lantern with multimode fibers embedded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hai-Jiao; Yan Qi; Huang Zong-Jun; Tian He; Jiang Yu; Liu Yong-Jun; Zhang Jian-Zhong; Sun Wei-Min


    A photonic lantern is studied which is formed by seven multimode fibers inserted into a pure silica capillary tube. The core of the tapered end has a uniform refractive index because the polymer claddings are removed before the fibers are inserted. Consequently, the light distribution is also uniform. Two theories describing a slowly varying waveguide and multimode coupling are used to analyze the photonic lantern. The transmission loss decreases as the length of the tapered part increases. For a device with a taper length of 3.4 cm, the loss is about 1.06 dB on average for light propagating through the taper from an inserted fiber to the tapered end and 0.99 dB in the reverse direction. For a device with a taper length of 0.7 cm, the two loss values are 2.63 dB and 2.53 dB, respectively. The results show that it is possible to achieve a uniform light distribution with the tapered end and a low-loss transmission in the device if parameters related to the lantern are reasonably defined. (research papers)

  1. Multimodal brain monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure (United States)

    Paschoal Jr, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson


    Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting. PMID:27574545

  2. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa


    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity

  3. Multimodal Network Equilibrium with Stochastic Travel Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meng


    Full Text Available The private car, unlike public traffic modes (e.g., subway, trolley running along dedicated track-ways, is invariably subject to various uncertainties resulting in travel time variation. A multimodal network equilibrium model is formulated that explicitly considers stochastic link capacity variability in the road network. The travel time of combined-mode trips is accumulated based on the concept of the mean excess travel time (METT which is a summation of estimated buffer time and tardy time. The problem is characterized by an equivalent VI (variational inequality formulation where the mode choice is expressed in a hierarchical logit structure. Specifically, the supernetwork theory and expansion technique are used herein to represent the multimodal transportation network, which completely represents the combined-mode trips as constituting multiple modes within a trip. The method of successive weighted average is adopted for problem solutions. The model and solution method are further applied to study the trip distribution and METT variations caused by the different levels of the road conditions. Results of numerical examples show that travelers prefer to choose the combined travel mode as road capacity decreases. Travelers with different attitudes towards risk are shown to exhibit significant differences when making travel choice decisions.

  4. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail:; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)


    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  5. Electrochemical force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.


    A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.

  6. Multimode quantum model of a cw atom laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, J.J.; Haine, S.A.; Savage, C.M.


    Full text: Laser cooling allows dilute atomic gases to be cooled to within K of absolute zero. Ultracold gases were first achieved twenty years ago and have since found applications in areas such as spectroscopy, time standards, frequency standards, quantum information processing and atom optics. The atomic analogue of the lasing mode in optical lasers is Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC), in which a cooled sample of atoms condense into the lowest energy quantum state. This new state of matter was recently achieved in dilute Bose gases in 1995. Atoms coupled out of a BEC exhibit long-range spatial coherence, and provide the coldest atomic source currently available. These atomic sources are called 'atom lasers' because the BEC is analogous to the lasing mode of an optical laser. The high spectral flux from optical lasers is caused by a process called gain-narrowing, which requires continuous wave (cw) operation. Coupling a BEC quickly into an untrapped state forms a coherent atomic beam but it has a spread in momentum as large as the trapped BEC. Coupling the atoms out more slowly reduces the output linewidth at the expense of reducing the overall flux. These atom lasers are equivalent to Q-switched optical lasers. A cw atom laser with gain-narrowing would produce an increasingly monoenergetic output as the flux increased, dramatically improving the spectral flux. A cw atom laser is therefore a major goal of the atom optics community, but there are several theoretical and practical obstacles to understanding the complexities of such a system. The main obstacle to the production of a cw atom laser is the technical difficulties involved in continuously pumping the lasing mode. No complete theory exists which describes a cw atom laser. Complete cw atom laser models require a quantum field description due to their non-Markovian dynamics, significant spatial effects and the dependence of the output on the quantum statistics of the lasing mode. The extreme dimensionality

  7. Multimodal Broadband Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (MM-BB-V-SFG) Spectrometer and Microscope. (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Huang, Shixin; Kim, Seong H


    A broadband sum frequency generation (BB-SFG) spectrometer with multimodal (MM) capabilities was constructed, which could be routinely reconfigured for tabletop experiments in reflection, transmission, and total internal reflection (TIR) geometries, as well as microscopic imaging. The system was constructed using a Ti:sapphire amplifier (800 nm, pulse width = 85 fs, repetition rate = 2 kHz), an optical parameter amplification (OPA) system for production of broadband IR pulses tunable between 1000 and 4000 cm(-1), and two Fabry-Pérot etalons arranged in series for production of narrowband 800 nm pulses. The key feature allowing the MM operation was the nearly collinear alignment of the visible (fixed, 800 nm) and infrared (tunable, 1000-4000 cm(-1)) pulses which were spatially separated. Physical insights discussed in this paper include the comparison of spectral bandwidth produced with 40 and 85 fs pump beams, the improvement of spectral resolution using etalons, the SFG probe volume in bulk analysis, the normalization of SFG signals, the stitching of multiple spectral segments, and the operation in different modes for air/liquid and adsorbate/solid interfaces, bulk samples, as well as spectral imaging combined with principle component analysis (PCA). The SFG spectral features obtained with the MM-BB-SFG system were compared with those obtained with picosecond-scanning-SFG system and high-resolution BB-SFG system (HR-BB-SFG) for dimethyl sulfoxide, α-pinene, and various samples containing cellulose (purified commercial products, Cladophora cell wall, cotton and flax fibers, and onion epidermis cell wall).

  8. A multimodal wave spectrum-based approach for statistical downscaling of local wave climate (United States)

    Hegermiller, Christie; Antolinez, Jose A A; Rueda, Ana C.; Camus, Paula; Perez, Jorge; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Mendez, Fernando J.


    Characterization of wave climate by bulk wave parameters is insufficient for many coastal studies, including those focused on assessing coastal hazards and long-term wave climate influences on coastal evolution. This issue is particularly relevant for studies using statistical downscaling of atmospheric fields to local wave conditions, which are often multimodal in large ocean basins (e.g. the Pacific). Swell may be generated in vastly different wave generation regions, yielding complex wave spectra that are inadequately represented by a single set of bulk wave parameters. Furthermore, the relationship between atmospheric systems and local wave conditions is complicated by variations in arrival time of wave groups from different parts of the basin. Here, we address these two challenges by improving upon the spatiotemporal definition of the atmospheric predictor used in statistical downscaling of local wave climate. The improved methodology separates the local wave spectrum into “wave families,” defined by spectral peaks and discrete generation regions, and relates atmospheric conditions in distant regions of the ocean basin to local wave conditions by incorporating travel times computed from effective energy flux across the ocean basin. When applied to locations with multimodal wave spectra, including Southern California and Trujillo, Peru, the new methodology improves the ability of the statistical model to project significant wave height, peak period, and direction for each wave family, retaining more information from the full wave spectrum. This work is the base of statistical downscaling by weather types, which has recently been applied to coastal flooding and morphodynamic applications.

  9. TeraSCREEN: multi-frequency multi-mode Terahertz screening for border checks (United States)

    Alexander, Naomi E.; Alderman, Byron; Allona, Fernando; Frijlink, Peter; Gonzalo, Ramón; Hägelen, Manfred; Ibáñez, Asier; Krozer, Viktor; Langford, Marian L.; Limiti, Ernesto; Platt, Duncan; Schikora, Marek; Wang, Hui; Weber, Marc Andree


    The challenge for any security screening system is to identify potentially harmful objects such as weapons and explosives concealed under clothing. Classical border and security checkpoints are no longer capable of fulfilling the demands of today's ever growing security requirements, especially with respect to the high throughput generally required which entails a high detection rate of threat material and a low false alarm rate. TeraSCREEN proposes to develop an innovative concept of multi-frequency multi-mode Terahertz and millimeter-wave detection with new automatic detection and classification functionalities. The system developed will demonstrate, at a live control point, the safe automatic detection and classification of objects concealed under clothing, whilst respecting privacy and increasing current throughput rates. This innovative screening system will combine multi-frequency, multi-mode images taken by passive and active subsystems which will scan the subjects and obtain complementary spatial and spectral information, thus allowing for automatic threat recognition. The TeraSCREEN project, which will run from 2013 to 2016, has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme under the Security Call. This paper will describe the project objectives and approach.

  10. Multimodality imaging in macular telangiectasia 2: A clue to its pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihteh Wu


    Full Text Available Macular telangiectasia type 2 also known as idiopathic perifoveal telangiectasia and juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis type 2A is an acquired bilateral neurodegenerative macular disease that manifests itself during the fifth or sixth decades of life. It is characterized by minimal dilatation of the parafoveal capillaries with graying of the retinal area involved, a lack of lipid exudation, right-angled retinal venules, refractile deposits in the superficial retina, hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium, foveal atrophy, and subretinal neovascularization (SRNV. Our understanding of the disease has paralleled advances in multimodality imaging of the fundus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT images typically demonstrate the presence of intraretinal hyporeflective spaces that are usually not related to retinal thickening or fluorescein leakage. The typical fluorescein angiographic (FA finding is a deep intraretinal hyperfluorescent staining in the temporal parafoveal area. With time, the staining may involve the whole parafoveal area but does not extend to the center of the fovea. Long-term prognosis for central vision is poor, because of the development of SRNV or macular atrophy. Its pathogenesis remains unclear but multimodality imaging with FA, spectral domain OCT, adaptive optics, confocal blue reflectance and short wave fundus autofluorescence implicate Müller cells and macular pigment. Currently, there is no known treatment for this condition.

  11. Correlative Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy and Electron Microscopy (United States)

    Kim, Doory; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Sigal, Yaron M.; Babcock, Hazen P.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Zhuang, Xiaowei


    Correlative fluorescence light microscopy and electron microscopy allows the imaging of spatial distributions of specific biomolecules in the context of cellular ultrastructure. Recent development of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy allows the location of molecules to be determined with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. However, correlative super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) still remains challenging because the optimal specimen preparation and imaging conditions for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and EM are often not compatible. Here, we have developed several experiment protocols for correlative stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and EM methods, both for un-embedded samples by applying EM-specific sample preparations after STORM imaging and for embedded and sectioned samples by optimizing the fluorescence under EM fixation, staining and embedding conditions. We demonstrated these methods using a variety of cellular targets. PMID:25874453

  12. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  13. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.


    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  14. Noncommutativity from spectral flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas; Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)


    We investigate the transition from second- to first-order systems. Quantum mechanically, this transforms configuration space into phase space and hence introduces noncommutativity in the former. This transition may be described in terms of spectral flow. Gaps in the energy or mass spectrum may become large which effectively truncates the available state space. Using both operator and path integral languages we explicitly discuss examples in quantum mechanics (light-front) quantum field theory and string theory.

  15. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.


    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  16. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carrier nature of speech; modulation spectrum; spectral dynamics ... the relationships between phonetic values of sounds and their short-term spectral envelopes .... the number of free parameters that need to be estimated from training data.

  17. Towards an intelligent framework for multimodal affective data analysis. (United States)

    Poria, Soujanya; Cambria, Erik; Hussain, Amir; Huang, Guang-Bin


    An increasingly large amount of multimodal content is posted on social media websites such as YouTube and Facebook everyday. In order to cope with the growth of such so much multimodal data, there is an urgent need to develop an intelligent multi-modal analysis framework that can effectively extract information from multiple modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel multimodal information extraction agent, which infers and aggregates the semantic and affective information associated with user-generated multimodal data in contexts such as e-learning, e-health, automatic video content tagging and human-computer interaction. In particular, the developed intelligent agent adopts an ensemble feature extraction approach by exploiting the joint use of tri-modal (text, audio and video) features to enhance the multimodal information extraction process. In preliminary experiments using the eNTERFACE dataset, our proposed multi-modal system is shown to achieve an accuracy of 87.95%, outperforming the best state-of-the-art system by more than 10%, or in relative terms, a 56% reduction in error rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Multimodal Multifeature Authentication System Using KNN Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Rajagopal


    Full Text Available This research proposes a multimodal multifeature biometric system for human recognition using two traits, that is, palmprint and iris. The purpose of this research is to analyse integration of multimodal and multifeature biometric system using feature level fusion to achieve better performance. The main aim of the proposed system is to increase the recognition accuracy using feature level fusion. The features at the feature level fusion are raw biometric data which contains rich information when compared to decision and matching score level fusion. Hence information fused at the feature level is expected to obtain improved recognition accuracy. However, information fused at feature level has the problem of curse in dimensionality; here PCA (principal component analysis is used to diminish the dimensionality of the feature sets as they are high dimensional. The proposed multimodal results were compared with other multimodal and monomodal approaches. Out of these comparisons, the multimodal multifeature palmprint iris fusion offers significant improvements in the accuracy of the suggested multimodal biometric system. The proposed algorithm is tested using created virtual multimodal database using UPOL iris database and PolyU palmprint database.

  19. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong


    Soliton eigenstate is found corresponding to a dispersive phase profile under which the soliton phase changes induced by the dispersion and nonlinearity are instantaneously counterbalanced. Much like a waveguide coupler relying on a spatial refractive index profile that supports mode coupling...... between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...

  20. Advanced Microscopy of Microbial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Regenberg, Birgitte; Sternberg, Claus


    Growing awareness of heterogeneity in cells of microbial populations has emphasized the importance of advanced microscopy for visualization and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell variation. In this review, we highlight some of the recent advances in confocal...... microscopy, super-resolution optical microscopy (STED, SIM, PALM) as well as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using examples of bistability in microbial populations as well as biofilm development and differentiation in bacterial and yeast consortia, we demonstrate the importance of microscopy...

  1. Improving treatment planning accuracy through multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailer, Scott L.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Soltys, Mitchel; Cullip, Tim J.; Chen, Jun


    Purpose: In clinical practice, physicians are constantly comparing multiple images taken at various times during the patient's treatment course. One goal of such a comparison is to accurately define the gross tumor volume (GTV). The introduction of three-dimensional treatment planning has greatly enhanced the ability to define the GTV, but there are times when the GTV is not visible on the treatment-planning computed tomography (CT) scan. We have modified our treatment-planning software to allow for interactive display of multiple, registered images that enhance the physician's ability to accurately determine the GTV. Methods and Materials: Images are registered using interactive tools developed at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC). Automated methods are also available. Images registered with the treatment-planning CT scan are digitized from film. After a physician has approved the registration, the registered images are made available to the treatment-planning software. Structures and volumes of interest are contoured on all images. In the beam's eye view, wire loop representations of these structures can be visualized from all image types simultaneously. Each registered image can be seamlessly viewed during the treatment-planning process, and all contours from all image types can be seen on any registered image. A beam may, therefore, be designed based on any contour. Results: Nineteen patients have been planned and treated using multimodality imaging from November 1993 through August 1994. All registered images were digitized from film, and many were from outside institutions. Brain has been the most common site (12), but the techniques of registration and image display have also been used for the thorax (4), abdomen (2), and extremity (1). The registered image has been an magnetic resonance (MR) scan in 15 cases and a diagnostic CT scan in 5 cases. In one case, sequential MRs, one before treatment and another after 30 Gy, were used to plan

  2. Acoustic multimode interference and self-imaging phenomena realized in multimodal phononic crystal waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Qiushun; Yu, Tianbao; Liu, Jiangtao; Wang, Tongbiao; Liao, Qinghua; Liu, Nianhua


    We report an acoustic multimode interference effect and self-imaging phenomena in an acoustic multimode waveguide system which consists of M parallel phononic crystal waveguides (M-PnCWs). Results show that the self-imaging principle remains applicable for acoustic waveguides just as it does for optical multimode waveguides. To achieve the dispersions and replicas of the input acoustic waves produced along the propagation direction, we performed the finite element method on M-PnCWs, which support M guided modes within the target frequency range. The simulation results show that single images (including direct and mirrored images) and N-fold images (N is an integer) are identified along the propagation direction with asymmetric and symmetric incidence discussed separately. The simulated positions of the replicas agree well with the calculated values that are theoretically decided by self-imaging conditions based on the guided mode propagation analysis. Moreover, the potential applications based on this self-imaging effect for acoustic wavelength de-multiplexing and beam splitting in the acoustic field are also presented. (paper)

  3. PHROG: A Multimodal Feature for Place Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Bonardi


    Full Text Available Long-term place recognition in outdoor environments remains a challenge due to high appearance changes in the environment. The problem becomes even more difficult when the matching between two scenes has to be made with information coming from different visual sources, particularly with different spectral ranges. For instance, an infrared camera is helpful for night vision in combination with a visible camera. In this paper, we emphasize our work on testing usual feature point extractors under both constraints: repeatability across spectral ranges and long-term appearance. We develop a new feature extraction method dedicated to improve the repeatability across spectral ranges. We conduct an evaluation of feature robustness on long-term datasets coming from different imaging sources (optics, sensors size and spectral ranges with a Bag-of-Words approach. The tests we perform demonstrate that our method brings a significant improvement on the image retrieval issue in a visual place recognition context, particularly when there is a need to associate images from various spectral ranges such as infrared and visible: we have evaluated our approach using visible, Near InfraRed (NIR, Short Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR and Long Wavelength InfraRed (LWIR.

  4. In-fiber modal interferometer based on multimode and double cladding fiber segments for tunable fiber laser applications (United States)

    Prieto-Cortés, P.; Álvarez-Tamayo, R. I.; Durán-Sánchez, M.; Castillo-Guzmán, A.; Salceda-Delgado, G.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Barcelata-Pinzón, A.; Selvas-Aguilar, R.


    We report an in-fiber structure based on the use of a multimode fiber segment and a double cladding fiber segment, and its application as spectral filter in an erbium-doped fiber laser for selection and tuning of the laser line wavelength. The output transmission of the proposed device exhibit spectrum modulation of the input signal with free spectral range of 21 nm and maximum visibility enhanced to more than 20 dB. The output spectrum of the in-fiber filter is wavelength displaced by bending application which allows a wavelength tuning of the generated laser line in a range of 12 nm. The use of the proposed in-fiber structure is demonstrated as a reliable, simple, and low-cost wavelength filter for tunable fiber lasers design and optical instrumentation applications.

  5. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions (United States)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.


    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  6. Quantitative phase imaging with scanning holographic microscopy: an experimental assesment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tada Yoshitaka


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper demonstrates experimentally how quantitative phase information can be obtained in scanning holographic microscopy. Scanning holography can operate in both coherent and incoherent modes, simultaneously if desired, with different detector geometries. A spatially integrating detector provides an incoherent hologram of the object's intensity distribution (absorption and/or fluorescence, for example, while a point detector in a conjugate plane of the pupil provides a coherent hologram of the object's complex amplitude, from which a quantitative measure of its phase distribution can be extracted. The possibility of capturing simultaneously holograms of three-dimensional specimens, leading to three-dimensional reconstructions with absorption contrast, reflectance contrast, fluorescence contrast, as was previously demonstrated, and quantitative phase contrast, as shown here for the first time, opens up new avenues for multimodal imaging in biological studies.

  7. Raman-in-SEM, a multimodal and multiscale analytical tool: performance for materials and expertise. (United States)

    Wille, Guillaume; Bourrat, Xavier; Maubec, Nicolas; Lahfid, Abdeltif


    The availability of Raman spectroscopy in a powerful analytical scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows morphological, elemental, chemical, physical and electronic analysis without moving the sample between instruments. This paper documents the metrological performance of the SEMSCA commercial Raman interface operated in a low vacuum SEM. It provides multiscale and multimodal analyses as Raman/EDS, Raman/cathodoluminescence or Raman/STEM (STEM: scanning transmission electron microscopy) as well as Raman spectroscopy on nanomaterials. Since Raman spectroscopy in a SEM can be influenced by several SEM-related phenomena, this paper firstly presents a comparison of this new tool with a conventional micro-Raman spectrometer. Then, some possible artefacts are documented, which are due to the impact of electron beam-induced contamination or cathodoluminescence contribution to the Raman spectra, especially with geological samples. These effects are easily overcome by changing or adapting the Raman spectrometer and the SEM settings and methodology. The deletion of the adverse effect of cathodoluminescence is solved by using a SEM beam shutter during Raman acquisition. In contrast, this interface provides the ability to record the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum of a phase. In a second part, this study highlights the interest and efficiency of the coupling in characterizing micrometric phases at the same point. This multimodal approach is illustrated with various issues encountered in geosciences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating multimodal communication in virtual meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Mathiassen, Lars


    recordings of their oral exchanges and video recordings of their shared dynamic representation of the project’s status and plans, our analysis reveals how their interrelating of visual and verbal communication acts enabled effective communication and coordination. In conclusion, we offer theoretical......To manage distributed work, organizations increasingly rely on virtual meetings based on multimodal, synchronous communication technologies. However, despite technological advances, it is still challenging to coordinate knowledge through these meetings with spatial and cultural separation. Against...... propositions that explain how interrelating of verbal and visual acts based on shared dynamic representations enable communication repairs during virtual meetings. We argue the proposed framework provides researchers with a novel and practical approach to investigate the complex data involved in virtual...

  9. Testing Two Tools for Multimodal Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Liljedahl


    Full Text Available The latest smartphones with GPS, electronic compasses, directional audio, touch screens, and so forth, hold a potential for location-based services that are easier to use and that let users focus on their activities and the environment around them. Rather than interpreting maps, users can search for information by pointing in a direction and database queries can be created from GPS location and compass data. Users can also get guidance to locations through point and sweep gestures, spatial sound, and simple graphics. This paper describes two studies testing two applications with multimodal user interfaces for navigation and information retrieval. The applications allow users to search for information and get navigation support using combinations of point and sweep gestures, nonspeech audio, graphics, and text. Tests show that users appreciated both applications for their ease of use and for allowing users to interact directly with the surrounding environment.

  10. Automatic processing of multimodal tomography datasets. (United States)

    Parsons, Aaron D; Price, Stephen W T; Wadeson, Nicola; Basham, Mark; Beale, Andrew M; Ashton, Alun W; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Quinn, Paul D


    With the development of fourth-generation high-brightness synchrotrons on the horizon, the already large volume of data that will be collected on imaging and mapping beamlines is set to increase by orders of magnitude. As such, an easy and accessible way of dealing with such large datasets as quickly as possible is required in order to be able to address the core scientific problems during the experimental data collection. Savu is an accessible and flexible big data processing framework that is able to deal with both the variety and the volume of data of multimodal and multidimensional scientific datasets output such as those from chemical tomography experiments on the I18 microfocus scanning beamline at Diamond Light Source.

  11. Multimodal Feature Learning for Video Captioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Lee


    Full Text Available Video captioning refers to the task of generating a natural language sentence that explains the content of the input video clips. This study proposes a deep neural network model for effective video captioning. Apart from visual features, the proposed model learns additionally semantic features that describe the video content effectively. In our model, visual features of the input video are extracted using convolutional neural networks such as C3D and ResNet, while semantic features are obtained using recurrent neural networks such as LSTM. In addition, our model includes an attention-based caption generation network to generate the correct natural language captions based on the multimodal video feature sequences. Various experiments, conducted with the two large benchmark datasets, Microsoft Video Description (MSVD and Microsoft Research Video-to-Text (MSR-VTT, demonstrate the performance of the proposed model.

  12. Multimodal event streams for virtual reality (United States)

    von Spiczak, J.; Samset, E.; DiMaio, S.; Reitmayr, G.; Schmalstieg, D.; Burghart, C.; Kikinis, R.


    Applications in the fields of virtual and augmented reality as well as image-guided medical applications make use of a wide variety of hardware devices. Existing frameworks for interconnecting low-level devices and high-level application programs do not exploit the full potential for processing events coming from arbitrary sources and are not easily generalizable. In this paper, we will introduce a new multi-modal event processing methodology using dynamically-typed event attributes for event passing between multiple devices and systems. The existing OpenTracker framework was modified to incorporate a highly flexible and extensible event model, which can store data that is dynamically created and arbitrarily typed at runtime. The main factors impacting the library's throughput were determined and the performance was shown to be sufficient for most typical applications. Several sample applications were developed to take advantage of the new dynamic event model provided by the library, thereby demonstrating its flexibility and expressive power.

  13. Multimodal strategies to improve surgical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Wilmore, Douglas W


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of modifying perioperative care in noncardiac surgical patients on morbidity, mortality, and other outcome measures. BACKGROUND: New approaches in pain control, introduction of techniques that reduce the perioperative stress response, and the more frequent use...... anesthesia in elective operations, and pilot studies of fast track surgical procedures using the multimodality approach. RESULTS: The introduction of newer approaches to perioperative care has reduced both morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. In the future, most elective operations will become day...... surgical procedures or require only 1 to 2 days of postoperative hospitalization. Reorganization of the perioperative team (anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and physical therapists) will be essential to achieve successful fast track surgical programs. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding perioperative...

  14. User habits and multimodal route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Katona


    Full Text Available The results of route planning researches are monitored by logistic and automotive industries. The economic aspects of the cost saving are in the focus of the attention. An optimal route could cause time or fuel savings. An effective driving or an optimal route is a good basis to achieve an economical aim. Moreover the spread of new automotive solutions especially in case of electric cars the optimisation has particular significance regarding the limited battery storage. Additionally the autonomous car development could not be neglected. As a result the society could expect safer roads, better space usage and effective resource management. Nevertheless the requirements of users are extremely diverse, which is not negligible. Supporting these aims, in this paper the connection between the multimodal route planning and the user requirements are investigated. The examination is focused to a sensitivity analysis and a survey to evaluate the data and support the settings of a user habit effect to the final route.

  15. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix


    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and facilitate high-quality light field or glasses-free 3D image synthesis. In this paper, we introduce a new multi-mode compressive display architecture that supports switching between 3D and high dynamic range (HDR) modes as well as a new super-resolution mode. The proposed hardware consists of readily-available components and is driven by a novel splitting algorithm that computes the pixel states from a target high-resolution image. In effect, the display pixels present a compressed representation of the target image that is perceived as a single, high resolution image. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  16. Multimodal distribution of human cold pain thresholds. (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Lieb, Isabel; Zimmermann, Michael; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred


    It is assumed that different pain phenotypes are based on varying molecular pathomechanisms. Distinct ion channels seem to be associated with the perception of cold pain, in particular TRPM8 and TRPA1 have been highlighted previously. The present study analyzed the distribution of cold pain thresholds with focus at describing the multimodality based on the hypothesis that it reflects a contribution of distinct ion channels. Cold pain thresholds (CPT) were available from 329 healthy volunteers (aged 18 - 37 years; 159 men) enrolled in previous studies. The distribution of the pooled and log-transformed threshold data was described using a kernel density estimation (Pareto Density Estimation (PDE)) and subsequently, the log data was modeled as a mixture of Gaussian distributions using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize the fit. CPTs were clearly multi-modally distributed. Fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to the log-transformed threshold data revealed that the best fit is obtained when applying a three-model distribution pattern. The modes of the identified three Gaussian distributions, retransformed from the log domain to the mean stimulation temperatures at which the subjects had indicated pain thresholds, were obtained at 23.7 °C, 13.2 °C and 1.5 °C for Gaussian #1, #2 and #3, respectively. The localization of the first and second Gaussians was interpreted as reflecting the contribution of two different cold sensors. From the calculated localization of the modes of the first two Gaussians, the hypothesis of an involvement of TRPM8, sensing temperatures from 25 - 24 °C, and TRPA1, sensing cold from 17 °C can be derived. In that case, subjects belonging to either Gaussian would possess a dominance of the one or the other receptor at the skin area where the cold stimuli had been applied. The findings therefore support a suitability of complex analytical approaches to detect mechanistically determined patterns from pain phenotype data.

  17. Preterm EEG: a multimodal neurophysiological protocol. (United States)

    Stjerna, Susanna; Voipio, Juha; Metsäranta, Marjo; Kaila, Kai; Vanhatalo, Sampsa


    Since its introduction in early 1950s, electroencephalography (EEG) has been widely used in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for assessment and monitoring of brain function in preterm and term babies. Most common indications are the diagnosis of epileptic seizures, assessment of brain maturity, and recovery from hypoxic-ischemic events. EEG recording techniques and the understanding of neonatal EEG signals have dramatically improved, but these advances have been slow to penetrate through the clinical traditions. The aim of this presentation is to bring theory and practice of advanced EEG recording available for neonatal units. In the theoretical part, we will present animations to illustrate how a preterm brain gives rise to spontaneous and evoked EEG activities, both of which are unique to this developmental phase, as well as crucial for a proper brain maturation. Recent animal work has shown that the structural brain development is clearly reflected in early EEG activity. Most important structures in this regard are the growing long range connections and the transient cortical structure, subplate. Sensory stimuli in a preterm baby will generate responses that are seen at a single trial level, and they have underpinnings in the subplate-cortex interaction. This brings neonatal EEG readily into a multimodal study, where EEG is not only recording cortical function, but it also tests subplate function via different sensory modalities. Finally, introduction of clinically suitable dense array EEG caps, as well as amplifiers capable of recording low frequencies, have disclosed multitude of brain activities that have as yet been overlooked. In the practical part of this video, we show how a multimodal, dense array EEG study is performed in neonatal intensive care unit from a preterm baby in the incubator. The video demonstrates preparation of the baby and incubator, application of the EEG cap, and performance of the sensory stimulations.

  18. Multimodal nanoparticle imaging agents: design and applications (United States)

    Burke, Benjamin P.; Cawthorne, Christopher; Archibald, Stephen J.


    Molecular imaging, where the location of molecules or nanoscale constructs can be tracked in the body to report on disease or biochemical processes, is rapidly expanding to include combined modality or multimodal imaging. No single imaging technique can offer the optimum combination of properties (e.g. resolution, sensitivity, cost, availability). The rapid technological advances in hardware to scan patients, and software to process and fuse images, are pushing the boundaries of novel medical imaging approaches, and hand-in-hand with this is the requirement for advanced and specific multimodal imaging agents. These agents can be detected using a selection from radioisotope, magnetic resonance and optical imaging, among others. Nanoparticles offer great scope in this area as they lend themselves, via facile modification procedures, to act as multifunctional constructs. They have relevance as therapeutics and drug delivery agents that can be tracked by molecular imaging techniques with the particular development of applications in optically guided surgery and as radiosensitizers. There has been a huge amount of research work to produce nanoconstructs for imaging, and the parameters for successful clinical translation and validation of therapeutic applications are now becoming much better understood. It is an exciting time of progress for these agents as their potential is closer to being realized with translation into the clinic. The coming 5-10 years will be critical, as we will see if the predicted improvement in clinical outcomes becomes a reality. Some of the latest advances in combination modality agents are selected and the progression pathway to clinical trials analysed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging'.

  19. Progress in the Correlative Atomic Force Microscopy and Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Zhou


    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has evolved from the originally morphological imaging technique to a powerful and multifunctional technique for manipulating and detecting the interactions between molecules at nanometer resolution. However, AFM cannot provide the precise information of synchronized molecular groups and has many shortcomings in the aspects of determining the mechanism of the interactions and the elaborate structure due to the limitations of the technology, itself, such as non-specificity and low imaging speed. To overcome the technical limitations, it is necessary to combine AFM with other complementary techniques, such as fluorescence microscopy. The combination of several complementary techniques in one instrument has increasingly become a vital approach to investigate the details of the interactions among molecules and molecular dynamics. In this review, we reported the principles of AFM and optical microscopy, such as confocal microscopy and single-molecule localization microscopy, and focused on the development and use of correlative AFM and optical microscopy.

  20. easySTORM: a robust, lower-cost approach to localisation and TIRF microscopy. (United States)

    Kwakwa, Kwasi; Savell, Alexander; Davies, Timothy; Munro, Ian; Parrinello, Simona; Purbhoo, Marco A; Dunsby, Chris; Neil, Mark A A; French, Paul M W


    TIRF and STORM microscopy are super-resolving fluorescence imaging modalities for which current implementations on standard microscopes can present significant complexity and cost. We present a straightforward and low-cost approach to implement STORM and TIRF taking advantage of multimode optical fibres and multimode diode lasers to provide the required excitation light. Combined with open source software and relatively simple protocols to prepare samples for STORM, including the use of Vectashield for non-TIRF imaging, this approach enables TIRF and STORM imaging of cells labelled with appropriate dyes or expressing suitable fluorescent proteins to become widely accessible at low cost. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.


    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  2. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.


    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  3. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger


    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  4. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.


    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  5. Fiber-Optic Vibration Sensor Based on Multimode Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lujo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a fiberoptic vibration sensor based on the monitoring of the mode distribution in a multimode optical fiber. Detection of vibrations and their parameters is possible through observation of the output speckle pattern from the multimode optical fiber. A working experimental model has been built in which all used components are widely available and cheap: a CCD camera (a simple web-cam, a multimode laser in visible range as a light source, a length of multimode optical fiber, and a computer for signal processing. Measurements have shown good agreement with the actual frequency of vibrations, and promising results were achieved with the amplitude measurements although they require some adaptation of the experimental model. Proposed sensor is cheap and lightweight and therefore presents an interesting alternative for monitoring large smart structures.

  6. Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal Systems GPS (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Data were collected during the Multi-Modal Intelligent Transportation Signal Systems (MMITSS) study. MMITSS is a next-generation traffic signal system that seeks to...

  7. Multimodality and children's participation in classrooms: Instances of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multimodality and children's participation in classrooms: Instances of research. ... deficit models of children, drawing on their everyday experiences and their existing ... It outlines the theoretical framework supporting the pedagogical approach, ...

  8. Squeezing in multi-mode nonlinear optical state truncation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, R.S.; Wahiddin, M.R.B.; Umarov, B.A.


    In this Letter, we show that multi-mode qubit states produced via nonlinear optical state truncation driven by classical external pumpings exhibit squeezing condition. We restrict our discussions to the two- and three-mode cases

  9. Multi-Modal Traveler Information System - Gateway Functional Requirements (United States)


    The Multi-Modal Traveler Information System (MMTIS) project involves a large number of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) related tasks. It involves research of all ITS initiatives in the Gary-Chicago-Milwaukee (GCM) Corridor which are currently...

  10. Multimodal transport and TransLoad facilities in Arkansas. (United States)


    National Priorities consist of building a clean and ecient 21st century : transportation sector, and Multimodal Transportation is one of ve : Transportation System Eciency strategies at the US Department of Energy. Six : locomotives co...

  11. Reliability-Based Decision Fusion in Multimodal Biometric Verification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryszczuk Krzysztof


    Full Text Available We present a methodology of reliability estimation in the multimodal biometric verification scenario. Reliability estimation has shown to be an efficient and accurate way of predicting and correcting erroneous classification decisions in both unimodal (speech, face, online signature and multimodal (speech and face systems. While the initial research results indicate the high potential of the proposed methodology, the performance of the reliability estimation in a multimodal setting has not been sufficiently studied or evaluated. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantages of using the unimodal reliability information in order to perform an efficient biometric fusion of two modalities. We further show the presented method to be superior to state-of-the-art multimodal decision-level fusion schemes. The experimental evaluation presented in this paper is based on the popular benchmarking bimodal BANCA database.

  12. Photoacoustic-Based Multimodal Nanoprobes: from Constructing to Biological Applications. (United States)

    Gao, Duyang; Yuan, Zhen


    Multimodal nanoprobes have attracted intensive attentions since they can integrate various imaging modalities to obtain complementary merits of single modality. Meanwhile, recent interest in laser-induced photoacoustic imaging is rapidly growing due to its unique advantages in visualizing tissue structure and function with high spatial resolution and satisfactory imaging depth. In this review, we summarize multimodal nanoprobes involving photoacoustic imaging. In particular, we focus on the method to construct multimodal nanoprobes. We have divided the synthetic methods into two types. First, we call it "one for all" concept, which involves intrinsic properties of the element in a single particle. Second, "all in one" concept, which means integrating different functional blocks in one particle. Then, we simply introduce the applications of the multifunctional nanoprobes for in vivo imaging and imaging-guided tumor therapy. At last, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the present methods to construct the multimodal nanoprobes and share our viewpoints in this area.

  13. Multimodal OCT for complex assessment of tumors response to therapy (United States)

    Sirotkina, Marina A.; Kiseleva, Elena B.; Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Matveev, Lev A.; Zaitsev, Vladimir Yu.; Matveyev, Alexander L.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Sovetsky, Alexander A.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Zagaynova, Elena V.; Vitkin, Alex; Gladkova, Natalia D.


    Multimodal OCT is a promising tool for monitoring of individual tumor response to antitumor therapies. The changes of tumor cells, connective tissue, microcirculation and stiffness can be estimated simultaneously in real time with high resolution.

  14. Combined frequency modulated atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy detection for multi-tip scanning probe microscopy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawski, Ireneusz; Spiegelberg, Richard; Korte, Stefan; Voigtländer, Bert


    A method which allows scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip biasing independent of the sample bias during frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) operation is presented. The AFM sensor is supplied by an electronic circuit combining both a frequency shift signal and a tunneling current signal by means of an inductive coupling. This solution enables a control of the tip potential independent of the sample potential. Individual tip biasing is specifically important in order to implement multi-tip STM/AFM applications. An extensional quartz sensor (needle sensor) with a conductive tip is applied to record simultaneously topography and conductivity of the sample. The high resonance frequency of the needle sensor (1 MHz) allows scanning of a large area of the surface being investigated in a reasonably short time. A recipe for the amplitude calibration which is based only on the frequency shift signal and does not require the tip being in contact is presented. Additionally, we show spectral measurements of the mechanical vibration noise of the scanning system used in the investigations

  15. Combined frequency modulated atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy detection for multi-tip scanning probe microscopy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawski, Ireneusz [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-3) and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland); Spiegelberg, Richard; Korte, Stefan; Voigtländer, Bert [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-3) and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)


    A method which allows scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip biasing independent of the sample bias during frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) operation is presented. The AFM sensor is supplied by an electronic circuit combining both a frequency shift signal and a tunneling current signal by means of an inductive coupling. This solution enables a control of the tip potential independent of the sample potential. Individual tip biasing is specifically important in order to implement multi-tip STM/AFM applications. An extensional quartz sensor (needle sensor) with a conductive tip is applied to record simultaneously topography and conductivity of the sample. The high resonance frequency of the needle sensor (1 MHz) allows scanning of a large area of the surface being investigated in a reasonably short time. A recipe for the amplitude calibration which is based only on the frequency shift signal and does not require the tip being in contact is presented. Additionally, we show spectral measurements of the mechanical vibration noise of the scanning system used in the investigations.

  16. Using multimodal information for the segmentation of fluorescent micrographs with application to virology and microbiology. (United States)

    Held, Christian; Wenzel, Jens; Webel, Rike; Marschall, Manfred; Lang, Roland; Palmisano, Ralf; Wittenberg, Thomas


    In order to improve reproducibility and objectivity of fluorescence microscopy based experiments and to enable the evaluation of large datasets, flexible segmentation methods are required which are able to adapt to different stainings and cell types. This adaption is usually achieved by the manual adjustment of the segmentation methods parameters, which is time consuming and challenging for biologists with no knowledge on image processing. To avoid this, parameters of the presented methods automatically adapt to user generated ground truth to determine the best method and the optimal parameter setup. These settings can then be used for segmentation of the remaining images. As robust segmentation methods form the core of such a system, the currently used watershed transform based segmentation routine is replaced by a fast marching level set based segmentation routine which incorporates knowledge on the cell nuclei. Our evaluations reveal that incorporation of multimodal information improves segmentation quality for the presented fluorescent datasets.

  17. Mn-doped near-infrared quantum dots as multimodal targeted probes for pancreatic cancer imaging (United States)

    Yong, Ken-Tye


    This work presents a novel approach to producing manganese (Mn)-doped quantum dots (Mnd-QDs) emitting in the near-infrared (NIR). Surface functionalization of Mnd-QDs with lysine makes them stably disperse in aqueous media and able to conjugate with targeting molecules. The nanoparticles were structurally and compositionally characterized and maintained a high photoluminescence quantum yield and displayed paramagnetism in water. The receptor-mediated delivery of bioconjugated Mnd-QDs into pancreatic cancer cells was demonstrated using the confocal microscopy technique. Cytotoxicity of Mnd-QDs on live cells has been evaluated. The NIR-emitting characteristic of the QDs has been exploited to acquire whole animal body imaging with high contrast signals. In addition, histological and blood analysis of mice have revealed that no long-term toxic effects arise from MnD-QDs. These studies suggest multimodal Mnd-QDs have the potentials as probes for early pancreatic cancer imaging and detection.

  18. Multi-spectral confocal microendoscope for in-vivo imaging (United States)

    Rouse, Andrew Robert

    The concept of in-vivo multi-spectral confocal microscopy is introduced. A slit-scanning multi-spectral confocal microendoscope (MCME) was built to demonstrate the technique. The MCME employs a flexible fiber-optic catheter coupled to a custom built slit-scan confocal microscope fitted with a custom built imaging spectrometer. The catheter consists of a fiber-optic imaging bundle linked to a miniature objective and focus assembly. The design and performance of the miniature objective and focus assembly are discussed. The 3mm diameter catheter may be used on its own or routed though the instrument channel of a commercial endoscope. The confocal nature of the system provides optical sectioning with 3mum lateral resolution and 30mum axial resolution. The prism based multi-spectral detection assembly is typically configured to collect 30 spectral samples over the visible chromatic range. The spectral sampling rate varies from 4nm/pixel at 490nm to 8nm/pixel at 660nm and the minimum resolvable wavelength difference varies from 7nm to 18nm over the same spectral range. Each of these characteristics are primarily dictated by the dispersive power of the prism. The MCME is designed to examine cellular structures during optical biopsy and to exploit the diagnostic information contained within the spectral domain. The primary applications for the system include diagnosis of disease in the gastro-intestinal tract and female reproductive system. Recent data from the grayscale imaging mode are presented. Preliminary multi-spectral results from phantoms, cell cultures, and excised human tissue are presented to demonstrate the potential of in-vivo multi-spectral imaging.

  19. Agrupador de imágenes multimodal no supervisado


    Pérez Hernando, Jesús


    Trabajo Fin de Máster donde se implementa un método multimodal para la clasificación de imágenes sin etiquetar y sin intervención humana. Treball Fi de Màster on s'implementa un mètode multimodal per a la classificació d'imatges sense etiquetar i sense intervenció humana. Master thesis for the Computer Science Engineering program.

  20. Approaching Athenian Graffiti as a Multimodal Genre with GIS Application


    Stampoulidis, Georgios


    Graffiti as an ever-changing form of urban art and visual communication is naturally multimodal, focusing on text–image relations (Bateman 2014; Forceville 2008; Kress 2006), which owe their existence mainly to the sociocultural and historical knowledge of the represented world of our experience – Husserlian Lebenswelt [Lifeworld] (Sonesson 2008; 2015). These relations constitute an interesting challenge to multimodal interpretations, because both verbal and/or pictorial representations can i...

  1. Acting rehearsal in collaborative multimodal mixed reality environments


    Steptoe, William; Normand, Jean-Marie; Oyekoya, Oyewole; Pece, Fabrizio; Giannopoulos, Elias; Tecchia, Franco; Steed, Anthony; Weyrich, Tim; Kautz, Jan; Slater, Mel


    This paper presents the use of our multimodal mixed reality telecommunication system to support remote acting rehearsal. The rehearsals involved two actors, located in London and Barcelona, and a director in another location in London. This triadic audiovisual telecommunication was performed in a spatial and multimodal collaborative mixed reality environment based on the 'destination-visitor' paradigm, which we define and put into use. We detail our heterogeneous system architecture, which sp...

  2. Exploring Multimodal Registers in and Across Organizations and Institutional Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Jancsary, Dennis; Höllerer, Markus

    In this article, we develop methodology that enables a systematic analysis of the structuralaspects of multimodal discourse from larger amounts of data. While existing research in visualorganization studies has provided interesting insights into the content and meaning(s) of visualand multimodal ......Responsibility (CSR), a complex and multivocal management idea that touches a variety oftopics and incorporates multiple levels of audience engagement with regard to a substantialdiversity of audiences....

  3. Optical sensor in planar configuration based on multimode interference (United States)

    Blahut, Marek


    In the paper a numerical analysis of optical sensors based on multimode interference in planar one-dimensional step-index configuration is presented. The structure consists in single-mode input and output waveguides and multimode waveguide which guide only few modes. Material parameters discussed refer to a SU8 polymer waveguide on SiO2 substrate. The optical system described will be designed to the analysis of biological substances.

  4. Multi-modal RGB–Depth–Thermal Human Body Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmero, Cristina; Clapés, Albert; Bahnsen, Chris


    This work addresses the problem of human body segmentation from multi-modal visual cues as a first stage of automatic human behavior analysis. We propose a novel RGB-Depth-Thermal dataset along with a multi-modal seg- mentation baseline. The several modalities are registered us- ing a calibration...... to other state-of-the-art meth- ods, obtaining an overlap above 75% on the novel dataset when compared to the manually annotated ground-truth of human segmentations....

  5. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.


    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  6. Electron microscopy (nonbiological)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, J.M.


    The period 1982-1985, which is covered by this review, has seen major advances in the capabilities of the commercially available instruments. The new electron microscopes operating in the range of 300-400 keV have provided important improvements in the resolution available and in the possibilities for microanalysis of very small specimen areas. Correspondingly there has been a broadening in the range of possible applications of the techniques. Electron microscopy has become a much more powerful tool for studies of semiconductors and catalysts, for example, and offers promise of a major revolution in surface science. The major industrial laboratories, in particular, are investing in million-dollar instruments and in the highly skilled scientists needed to run them because the capabilities of the new instruments are seen to have immediate practical applications to current industrial research. Unfortunately all of the new instruments and most of the skilled users come from overseas. The American instrument industry, although showing some limited signs of life, is not yet in a position to compete in this lucrative market and the training of electron optics specialists in this country is far from meeting the demand. The increased sophistication required for both the operation of the instruments and the interpretation of the observation requires that the quality as well as the quantity of trainees must be improved. 62 references

  7. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  8. Superconductivity and electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, P.W.; Valdre, U.


    In this review article, two aspects of the role of superconductivity in electron microscopy are examined: (i) the development of superconducting devices (mainly lenses) and their incorporation in electron microscopes; (ii) the development of electron microscope techniques for studying fundamental and technological problems associated with superconductivity. The first part opens with a brief account of the relevant properties of conventional lenses, after which the various types of superconducting lenses are described and their properties compared. The relative merits and inconveniences of superconducting and conventional lenses are examined, particular attention being paid to the spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients at accelerating voltages above a megavolt. This part closes with a survey of the various microscope designs that have been built or proposed, incorporating superconducting components. In the second part, some methods that have been or might be used in the study of superconductivity in the electron microscope are described. A brief account of the types of application for which they are suitable is given. (author)

  9. Transmission acoustic microscopy investigation (United States)

    Maev, Roman; Kolosov, Oleg; Levin, Vadim; Lobkis, Oleg

    The nature of acoustic contrast, i.e. the connection of the amplitude and phase of the output signal of the acoustic microscope with the local values of the acoustic parameters of the sample (density, elasticity, viscosity) is a central problem of acoustic microscopy. A considerable number of studies have been devoted to the formation of the output signal of the reflection scanning acoustic microscope. For the transmission acoustic microscope (TAM) this problem has remained almost unstudied. Experimental investigation of the confocal system of the TAM was carried out on an independently manufactured laboratory mockup of the TAM with the working frequency of the 420 MHz. Acoustic lenses with the radius of curvature of about 500 microns and aperture angle of 45 deg were polished out in the end faces of two cylindrical sound conductors made from Al2O3 single crystals with an axis parallel to the axis C of the crystal (the length of the sound conductor is 20 mm; diameter, 6 mm). At the end faces of the sound conductor, opposite to the lenses, CdS transducers with a diameter of 2 mm were disposed. The electric channel of the TAM provided a possibility for registering the amplitude of the microscope output signal in the case of the dynamic range of the 50 dB.

  10. Innovative Strategies for Clinical Microscopy Instruction: Virtual Versus Light Microscopy. (United States)

    McDaniel, M Jane; Russell, Gregory B; Crandall, Sonia J


    The purpose of the study was to compare virtual microscopy with light microscopy to determine differences in learning outcomes and learner attitudes in teaching clinical microscopy to physician assistant (PA) students. A prospective, randomized, crossover design study was conducted with a convenience sample of 67 first-year PA students randomized to 2 groups. One group used light microscopes to find microscopic structures, whereas the other group used instructor-directed video streaming of microscopic elements. At the midpoint of the study, the groups switched instructional strategies. Learning outcomes were assessed via posttest after each section of the study, with comparison of final practical examination results to previous cohorts. Attitudes about the 2 educational strategies were assessed through a postcourse questionnaire with a Likert scale. Analysis of the first posttest demonstrated that students in the video-streamed group had significantly better learning outcomes than those in the light microscopy group (P = .004; Cohen's d = 0.74). Analysis of the posttest after crossover showed no differences between the 2 groups (P = .48). Between the 2 posttests, students first assigned to the light microscopy group scored a 6.6 mean point increase (±10.4 SD; p = .0011), whereas students first assigned to the virtual microscopy group scored a 1.3 mean point increase (±7.1 SD; p = .29). The light microscopy group improved more than the virtual microscopy group (P = .019). Analysis of practical examination data revealed higher scores for the study group compared with 5 previous cohorts of first-year students (P virtual microscopy to traditional light microscopy. Virtual microscopy is an effective educational strategy, and students prefer this method when learning to interpret images of clinical specimens.

  11. Multimodal processes scheduling in mesh-like network environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocewicz Grzegorz


    Full Text Available Multimodal processes planning and scheduling play a pivotal role in many different domains including city networks, multimodal transportation systems, computer and telecommunication networks and so on. Multimodal process can be seen as a process partially processed by locally executed cyclic processes. In that context the concept of a Mesh-like Multimodal Transportation Network (MMTN in which several isomorphic subnetworks interact each other via distinguished subsets of common shared intermodal transport interchange facilities (such as a railway station, bus station or bus/tram stop as to provide a variety of demand-responsive passenger transportation services is examined. Consider a mesh-like layout of a passengers transport network equipped with different lines including buses, trams, metro, trains etc. where passenger flows are treated as multimodal processes. The goal is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at multimodal transportation processes scheduling encompassing passenger flow itineraries. Then, the main objective is to provide conditions guaranteeing solvability of particular transport lines scheduling, i.e. guaranteeing the right match-up of local cyclic acting bus, tram, metro and train schedules to a given passengers flow itineraries.


    Wu, An-Lun; Wang, Jung-Pan; Tseng, Yun-Ju; Liu, Laura; Kang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Chao, An-Ning; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Chen, Tun-Lu; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Wu, Wei-Chi; Lai, Chi-Chun; Wang, Nan-Kai


    To investigate the clinical features in carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked ocular albinism, and choroideremia (CHM) using multimodal imaging and to assess their diagnostic value in these three mosaic retinopathies. We prospectively examined 14 carriers of 3 X-linked recessive disorders (X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked ocular albinism, and CHM). Details of abnormalities of retinal morphology were evaluated using fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. In six X-linked retinitis pigmentosa carriers, fundus appearance varied from unremarkable to the presence of tapetal-like reflex and pigmentary changes. On FAF imaging, all carriers exhibited a bright radial reflex against a dark background. By spectral domain optical coherence tomography, loss of the ellipsoid zone in the macula was observed in 3 carriers (50%). Regarding the retinal laminar architecture, 4 carriers (66.7%) showed thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a dentate appearance of the outer plexiform layer. All five X-linked ocular albinism carriers showed a characteristic mud-splatter patterned fundus, dark radial streaks against a bright background on FAF imaging, and a normal-appearing retinal structure by spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. Two of the 3 CHM carriers (66.7%) showed a diffuse moth-eaten appearance of the fundus, and all 3 showed irregular hyper-FAF and hypo-FAF spots throughout the affected area. In the CHM carriers, the structural changes observed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging were variable. Our findings in an Asian cohort suggest that FAF imaging is a practical diagnostic test for differentiating X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked ocular albinism, and CHM carriers. Wide-field FAF is an easy and helpful adjunct to testing for the correct diagnosis and identification of lyonization in carriers of these three mosaic retinopathies.

  13. NDE Acoustic Microscopy Research Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to develop advanced, more effective high-resolution micro-NDE materials characterization methods using scanning acoustic microscopy. The laboratory's...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy System (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM) system, developed by ARL, is the world's most sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis tool,...

  15. Quantitative spectral K-edge imaging in preclinical photon-counting x-ray computed tomography. (United States)

    de Vries, Anke; Roessl, Ewald; Kneepkens, Esther; Thran, Axel; Brendel, Bernhard; Martens, Gerhard; Proska, Roland; Nicolay, Klaas; Grüll, Holger


    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and the accuracy of spectral computed tomography (spectral CT) to determine the tissue concentrations and localization of high-attenuation, iodine-based contrast agents in mice. Iodine tissue concentrations determined with spectral CT are compared with concentrations measured with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). All animal procedures were performed according to the US National Institutes of Health principles of laboratory animal care and were approved by the ethical review committee of Maastricht, The Netherlands. Healthy Swiss mice (n = 4) were injected with an iodinated emulsion radiolabeled with indium as multimodal contrast agent for CT and SPECT. The CT and SPECT scans were acquired using a dedicated small-animal SPECT/CT system. Subsequently, scans were performed with a preclinical spectral CT scanner equipped with a photon-counting detector and 6 energy threshold levels. Quantitative data analysis of SPECT and spectral CT scans were obtained using 3-dimensional volumes-of-interest drawing methods. The ICP-MS on dissected organs was performed to determine iodine uptake per organ and was compared with the amounts determined from spectral CT and SPECT. Iodine concentrations obtained with image-processed spectral CT data correlated well with data obtained either with noninvasive SPECT imaging (slope = 0.96, r = 0.75) or with ICP-MS (slope = 0.99, r = 0.89) in tissue samples. This preclinical proof-of-concept study shows the in vivo quantification of iodine concentrations in tissues using spectral CT. Our multimodal imaging approach with spectral CT and SPECT using radiolabeled iodinated emulsions together with ICP-based quantification allows a direct comparison of all methods. Benchmarked against ICP-MS data, spectral CT in the present implementation shows a slight underestimation of organ iodine concentrations compared

  16. Fused oblique incidence reflectometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy (United States)

    Risi, Matthew D.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Gmitro, Arthur F.


    Confocal microendoscopy provides real-time high resolution cellular level images via a minimally invasive procedure, but relies on exogenous fluorophores, has a relatively limited penetration depth (100 μm) and field of view (700 μm), and produces a high rate of detailed information to the user. A new catheter based multi-modal system has been designed that combines confocal imaging and oblique incidence reflectometry (OIR), which is a non-invasive method capable of rapidly extracting tissue absorption, μa, and reduced scattering, μ's, spectra from tissue. The system builds on previous developments of a custom slit-scan multi-spectral confocal microendoscope and is designed to rapidly switch between diffuse spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging modes of operation. An experimental proof-of-principle catheter has been developed that consists of a fiber bundle for traditional confocal fluorescence imaging and a single OIR source fiber which is manually redirected at +/- 26 degrees. Diffusely scattered light from each orientation of the source fiber is collected via the fiber bundle, with a frame of data representing spectra collected at a range of distances from the OIR source point. Initial results with intralipid phantoms show good agreement to published data over the 550-650 nm spectral range. We successfully imaged and measured the optical properties of rodent cardiac muscle.

  17. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.


    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon resampling differentiated polynomials into a lower-degree subspace makes differentiation matrices, and operators built from them, rectangular without any row deletions. Then, boundary and interface conditions can be adjoined to yield a square system. The resulting method is both flexible and robust, and avoids ambiguities that arise when applying the classical row deletion method outside of two-point scalar boundary-value problems. The new method is the basis for ordinary differential equation solutions in Chebfun software, and is demonstrated for a variety of boundary-value, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems.

  18. Spectral evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.


    A recent striking event in Observational Cosmology is the discovery of a large population of galaxies at extreme cosmological distances (extended from spectral redshifts ≅ 1 to ≥ 3) corresponding to a lookback time of 80% of the Universe's age. However when galaxies are observed at such remote epochs, their appearances are affected by at least two simultaneous effects which are respectively a cosmological effect and the intrinsic evolution of their stellar populations which appear younger than in our nearby galaxies. The fundamental problem is first to disentangle the respective contributions of these two effects to apparent magnitudes and colors of distant galaxies. Other effects which are likely to modify the appearance of galaxies are amplification by gravitational lensing and interaction with environment will also be considered. (author)

  19. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.


    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  20. Histopathology in 3D: From three-dimensional reconstruction to multi-stain and multi-modal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Magee


    Full Text Available Light microscopy applied to the domain of histopathology has traditionally been a two-dimensional imaging modality. Several authors, including the authors of this work, have extended the use of digital microscopy to three dimensions by stacking digital images of serial sections using image-based registration. In this paper, we give an overview of our approach, and of extensions to the approach to register multi-modal data sets such as sets of interleaved histopathology sections with different stains, and sets of histopathology images to radiology volumes with very different appearance. Our approach involves transforming dissimilar images into a multi-channel representation derived from co-occurrence statistics between roughly aligned images.

  1. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.


    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  2. Spectral Theory of Chemical Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Boatz, J. A; Hinde, R. J; Sheehy, J. A


    .... Wave function antisymmetry in the aggregate atomic spectral-product basis is enforced by unitary transformation performed subsequent to formation of the Hamiltonian matrix, greatly simplifying its construction...

  3. [Review of digital ground object spectral library]. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu


    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  4. Multispectral detection of cutaneous lesions using spectroscopy and microscopy approaches (United States)

    Borisova, E.; Genova-Hristova, Ts.; Troyanova, P.; Pavlova, E.; Terziev, I.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O.; Lomova, M.; Genina, E.; Stanciu, G.; Tranca, D.; Avramov, L.


    Autofluorescence, diffuse-reflectance and transmission spectral, and microscopic measurements were made on different cutaneous neoplastic lesions, namely basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and dysplastic and benign lesions related. Spectroscopic measurements were made on ex vivo tissue samples, and confocal microscopy investigations were made on thin tissue slices. Fluorescence spectra obtained reveal statistically significant differences between the different benign, dysplastic and malignant lesions by the level of emission intensity, as well by spectral shape, which are fingerprints applicable for differentiation algorithms. In reflectance mode the most significant differences are related to the influence of skin pigments - melanin and hemoglobin. Transmission spectroscopy mode gave complementary optical properties information about the tissue samples investigated to that one of reflectance and absorption spectroscopy. Using autofluorescence detection of skin lesions we obtain very good diagnostic performance for distinguishing of nonmelanoma lesions. Using diffuse reflectance and transmission spectroscopy we obtain significant tool for pigmented pathologies differentiation, but it is a tool with moderate sensitivity for non-melanoma lesions detection. One could rapidly increase the diagnostic accuracy of the received combined "optical biopsy" method when several spectral detection techniques are applied in common algorithm for lesions' differentiation. Specific spectral features observed in each type of lesion investigated on micro and macro level would be presented and discussed. Correlation between the spectral data received and the microscopic features observed would be discussed in the report.

  5. Electronic Blending in Virtual Microscopy (United States)

    Maybury, Terrence S.; Farah, Camile S.


    Virtual microscopy (VM) is a relatively new technology that transforms the computer into a microscope. In essence, VM allows for the scanning and transfer of glass slides from light microscopy technology to the digital environment of the computer. This transition is also a function of the change from print knowledge to electronic knowledge, or as…

  6. A device for multimodal imaging of skin (United States)

    Spigulis, Janis; Garancis, Valerijs; Rubins, Uldis; Zaharans, Eriks; Zaharans, Janis; Elste, Liene


    A compact prototype device for diagnostic imaging of skin has been developed and tested. Polarized LED light at several spectral regions is used for illumination, and round skin spot of diameter 30mm is imaged by a CMOS sensor via crossoriented polarizing filter. Four consecutive imaging series are performed: (1) RGB image at white LED illumination for revealing subcutaneous structures; (2) four spectral images at narrowband LED illumination (450nm, 540nm, 660nm, 940nm) for mapping of the main skin chromophores; (3) video-imaging under green LED illumination for mapping of skin blood perfusion; (4) autofluorescence video-imaging under UV (365nm) LED irradiation for mapping of the skin fluorophores. Design details of the device as well as preliminary results of clinical tests are presented.

  7. Multimodal Sensing Interface for Haptic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Diaz


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the integration of a multimodal sensing system for exploring limits of vibrato tactile haptic feedback when interacting with 3D representation of real objects. In this study, the spatial locations of the objects are mapped to the work volume of the user using a Kinect sensor. The position of the user’s hand is obtained using the marker-based visual processing. The depth information is used to build a vibrotactile map on a haptic glove enhanced with vibration motors. The users can perceive the location and dimension of remote objects by moving their hand inside a scanning region. A marker detection camera provides the location and orientation of the user’s hand (glove to map the corresponding tactile message. A preliminary study was conducted to explore how different users can perceive such haptic experiences. Factors such as total number of objects detected, object separation resolution, and dimension-based and shape-based discrimination were evaluated. The preliminary results showed that the localization and counting of objects can be attained with a high degree of success. The users were able to classify groups of objects of different dimensions based on the perceived haptic feedback.

  8. Multimodal three-dimensional dynamic signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury E. Kozlov


    Full Text Available Reliable authentication in mobile applications is among the most important information security challenges. Today, we can hardly imagine a person who would not own a mobile device that connects to the Internet. Mobile devices are being used to store large amounts of confidential information, ranging from personal photos to electronic banking tools. In 2009, colleagues from Rice University together with their collaborators from Motorola, proposed an authentication through in-air gestures. This and subsequent work contributing to the development of the method are reviewed in our introduction. At the moment, there exists a version of the gesture-based authentication software available for Android mobile devices. This software has not become widespread yet. One of likely reasons for that is the insufficient reliability of the method, which involves similar to its earlier analogs the use of only one device. Here we discuss the authentication based on the multimodal three-dimensional dynamic signature (MTDS performed by two independent mobile devices. The MTDS-based authentication technique is an advanced version of in-air gesture authentication. We describe the operation of a prototype of MTDS-based authentication, including the main implemented algorithms, as well as some preliminary results of testing the software. We expect that our method can be used in any mobile application, provided a number of additional improvements discussed in the conclusion are made.

  9. Haptic-Multimodal Flight Control System Update (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Schutte, Paul C.; Williams, Ralph A.


    The rapidly advancing capabilities of autonomous aircraft suggest a future where many of the responsibilities of today s pilot transition to the vehicle, transforming the pilot s job into something akin to driving a car or simply being a passenger. Notionally, this transition will reduce the specialized skills, training, and attention required of the human user while improving safety and performance. However, our experience with highly automated aircraft highlights many challenges to this transition including: lack of automation resilience; adverse human-automation interaction under stress; and the difficulty of developing certification standards and methods of compliance for complex systems performing critical functions traditionally performed by the pilot (e.g., sense and avoid vs. see and avoid). Recognizing these opportunities and realities, researchers at NASA Langley are developing a haptic-multimodal flight control (HFC) system concept that can serve as a bridge between today s state of the art aircraft that are highly automated but have little autonomy and can only be operated safely by highly trained experts (i.e., pilots) to a future in which non-experts (e.g., drivers) can safely and reliably use autonomous aircraft to perform a variety of missions. This paper reviews the motivation and theoretical basis of the HFC system, describes its current state of development, and presents results from two pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies. These preliminary studies suggest the HFC reshapes human-automation interaction in a way well-suited to revolutionary ease-of-use.

  10. Multimodal interaction for human-robot teams (United States)

    Burke, Dustin; Schurr, Nathan; Ayers, Jeanine; Rousseau, Jeff; Fertitta, John; Carlin, Alan; Dumond, Danielle


    Unmanned ground vehicles have the potential for supporting small dismounted teams in mapping facilities, maintaining security in cleared buildings, and extending the team's reconnaissance and persistent surveillance capability. In order for such autonomous systems to integrate with the team, we must move beyond current interaction methods using heads-down teleoperation which require intensive human attention and affect the human operator's ability to maintain local situational awareness and ensure their own safety. This paper focuses on the design, development and demonstration of a multimodal interaction system that incorporates naturalistic human gestures, voice commands, and a tablet interface. By providing multiple, partially redundant interaction modes, our system degrades gracefully in complex environments and enables the human operator to robustly select the most suitable interaction method given the situational demands. For instance, the human can silently use arm and hand gestures for commanding a team of robots when it is important to maintain stealth. The tablet interface provides an overhead situational map allowing waypoint-based navigation for multiple ground robots in beyond-line-of-sight conditions. Using lightweight, wearable motion sensing hardware either worn comfortably beneath the operator's clothing or integrated within their uniform, our non-vision-based approach enables an accurate, continuous gesture recognition capability without line-of-sight constraints. To reduce the training necessary to operate the system, we designed the interactions around familiar arm and hand gestures.

  11. Multimodal treatment for resectable esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takiguchi, Shuji; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro


    Surgical resection has been traditionally the mainstay of treatment for localized esophageal cancers. However, survival after surgery alone for advanced esophageal cancer is not satisfactory. In Japan, the development of multimodal therapy for esophageal cancers has centered mainly on systemic chemotherapy plus surgery to control distant metastasis. Based on the results of the recent Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) 9907 study, preoperative chemotherapy (consisting of 5-fluorouracil (FU) and cisplatin) followed by surgery has emerged as the standard treatment. In Western countries, where chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery has been mainly explored for patients with resectable esophageal cancers, two large controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness of preoperative chemotherapy reported conflicting results. However, a recent meta-analysis reported significant survival benefits for preoperative chemotherapy in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. We need to find new effective preoperative chemotherapeutic regimens, including molecular target agents, with response rates higher than that of the conventional chemotherapy of 5-FU and cisplatin. However, we also must compare the survival benefits of preoperative chemotherapy with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. (author)

  12. Ionizing radiation detector using multimode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.J.; Poret, J.C.; Rosen, M.; Rifkind, J.M.


    An optical ionizing radiation detector, based on the attenuation of 850-nm light in 50/125-μm multimode fibers, is described. The detector is especially well suited for application on spacecraft because of its small design. The detection element consists of a section of coiled fibers that has been designed to strip higher-order optical modes. Cylindrical radiation shields with atomic numbers ranging from Z = 13 (aluminum too) Z = 82 (lead) were placed around the ionizing radiation detector so that the effectiveness of the detector could be measured. By exposing the shields and the detector to 1.25-MeV cobalt 60 radiation, the mass attenuation coefficients of the shields were measured. The detector is based on the phenomenon that radiation creates optical color centers in glass fibers. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy performed on the 50/125-μm fibers showed the presence of germanium oxide and phosphorus-based color centers. The intensity of these centers is directly related to the accumulated gamma radiation

  13. Multimodal approaches for emotion recognition: a survey (United States)

    Sebe, Nicu; Cohen, Ira; Gevers, Theo; Huang, Thomas S.


    Recent technological advances have enabled human users to interact with computers in ways previously unimaginable. Beyond the confines of the keyboard and mouse, new modalities for human-computer interaction such as voice, gesture, and force-feedback are emerging. Despite important advances, one necessary ingredient for natural interaction is still missing-emotions. Emotions play an important role in human-to-human communication and interaction, allowing people to express themselves beyond the verbal domain. The ability to understand human emotions is desirable for the computer in several applications. This paper explores new ways of human-computer interaction that enable the computer to be more aware of the user's emotional and attentional expressions. We present the basic research in the field and the recent advances into the emotion recognition from facial, voice, and physiological signals, where the different modalities are treated independently. We then describe the challenging problem of multimodal emotion recognition and we advocate the use of probabilistic graphical models when fusing the different modalities. We also discuss the difficult issues of obtaining reliable affective data, obtaining ground truth for emotion recognition, and the use of unlabeled data.

  14. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy (CARS): Instrumentation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaker, Nadia; Lenne, Pierre-Francois; Marguet, Didier; Colonna, Anne; Hadjur, Christophe; Rigneault, Herve


    Recent advances in laser physics have permitted the development of a new kind of microscopy based on stimulated Raman scattering. This new technique known as Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy allows vibrational imaging with high sensitivity, high spectral resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capabilities. We review recent advances in CARS microscopy, with applications to chemical and biological systems. We also present an application of CARS microscopy with high optical resolution and spectral selectivity, in resolving structures in surface ex vivo stratum corneum by looking at the CH 2 stretching vibrational band. A strong CARS signal is backscattered from an intense forward generated CARS signal in thick samples. This makes noninvasive imaging of deep structures possible, without labeling or chemical treatments

  15. Multimode-singlemode-multimode optical fiber sensor coated with novolac resin for detecting liquid phase alcohol (United States)

    Marfu'ah, Amalia, Niza Rosyda; Hatta, Agus Muhamad; Pratama, Detak Yan


    Alcohol sensor based on multimode-singlemode-multimode (MSM) optical fiber with novolac resin as the external medium is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. Novolac resin swells when it is exposed by the alcohol. This effect causes a change in the polymer density leading to the refractive index's variation. The transmission light of the sensor depends on the refractive index of external medium. Based on the results, alcohol sensor based on MSM optical fiber structure using novolac resin has a higher sensitivity compared to the sensor without using novolac resin in the mixture of alcohol and distilled water. Alcohol sensor based on MSM optical fiber structure using novolac resin in the mixture of alcohol and distilled water with a singlemode fiber length of 5 mm has a sensitivity of 0.028972 dBm per % V/V, and in the mixture of alcohol and sugar solution of 10% w/w has a sensitivity of 0.005005 dBm per % V/V.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  17. Microscopy techniques in flavivirus research. (United States)

    Chong, Mun Keat; Chua, Anthony Jin Shun; Tan, Terence Tze Tong; Tan, Suat Hoon; Ng, Mah Lee


    The Flavivirus genus is composed of many medically important viruses that cause high morbidity and mortality, which include Dengue and West Nile viruses. Various molecular and biochemical techniques have been developed in the endeavour to study flaviviruses. However, microscopy techniques still have irreplaceable roles in the identification of novel virus pathogens and characterization of morphological changes in virus-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy contributes greatly in understanding the fundamental viral protein localizations and virus-host protein interactions during infection. Electron microscopy remains the gold standard for visualizing ultra-structural features of virus particles and infected cells. New imaging techniques and combinatory applications are continuously being developed to push the limit of resolution and extract more quantitative data. Currently, correlative live cell imaging and high resolution three-dimensional imaging have already been achieved through the tandem use of optical and electron microscopy in analyzing biological specimens. Microscopy techniques are also used to measure protein binding affinities and determine the mobility pattern of proteins in cells. This chapter will consolidate on the applications of various well-established microscopy techniques in flavivirus research, and discuss how recently developed microscopy techniques can potentially help advance our understanding in these membrane viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The dynamics of multimodal integration: The averaging diffusion model. (United States)

    Turner, Brandon M; Gao, Juan; Koenig, Scott; Palfy, Dylan; L McClelland, James


    We combine extant theories of evidence accumulation and multi-modal integration to develop an integrated framework for modeling multimodal integration as a process that unfolds in real time. Many studies have formulated sensory processing as a dynamic process where noisy samples of evidence are accumulated until a decision is made. However, these studies are often limited to a single sensory modality. Studies of multimodal stimulus integration have focused on how best to combine different sources of information to elicit a judgment. These studies are often limited to a single time point, typically after the integration process has occurred. We address these limitations by combining the two approaches. Experimentally, we present data that allow us to study the time course of evidence accumulation within each of the visual and auditory domains as well as in a bimodal condition. Theoretically, we develop a new Averaging Diffusion Model in which the decision variable is the mean rather than the sum of evidence samples and use it as a base for comparing three alternative models of multimodal integration, allowing us to assess the optimality of this integration. The outcome reveals rich individual differences in multimodal integration: while some subjects' data are consistent with adaptive optimal integration, reweighting sources of evidence as their relative reliability changes during evidence integration, others exhibit patterns inconsistent with optimality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazri Nur Yusuf


    Full Text Available Studies on potentials of feedback over English language teaching seem not to have not been well-revealed, including studies on the use of feedback to improve English pre-service teachers’ competence. The present study investigates to what extent a multimodal feedback can influence pre-service teachers’ teaching, and which teaching aspects are influenced. Twenty five pre-service teachers taking Microteaching Course served as respondents supervised by a course advisor. The data were collected by teacher observation in a rating-scale form, self-appraisal, and interviews. The data were analyzed by using correlated sample t-test and the eight teaching components proposed by Brown (2001. The results showed that after multimodal feedback provision, pre-service teachers indicated an improvement significantly in seven out of eight teaching aspects. The provision of multimodal feedback could improve their teaching competence on preparation, instructional objective elicitation, mastery of instructional materials, use of media, and classroom management, including classroom language. But, the results do not indicate that they perform well on reflection and follow-up due to some reasons. In addition, the results evince that multimodal feedback provision could improve pre-service teachers’ pedagogical competence when the multimodal feedback is integrated with content, interpersonal relationship, and management.

  20. Operative and economic evaluation of a 'Laser Printer Multimodality' System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, G.; Moscatelli, G.; Maroldi, R.; Chiesa, A.


    The increasing application of digital techniques to diagnostic imaging is causing significant changes in several related activities, such as a reproduction of digital images on film. In the Department of Diagnostic Imaging of the University of Brescia, about 70% of the whole of images are produced by digital techniques; at present, most of these images are reproduced on film with a Multimodality System interfacing CT, MR, DSA, and DR units with a single laser printer. Our analysis evaluates the operative and economics aspects of image reproduction, by comparing the 'single cassette' multiformat Camera and the Laser Printer Multimodality SAystem. Our results point out the advantages obtained by reproducing images with a Laser Printer Multimodality System: outstanding quality, reproduction of multiple originals, and marked reduction in the time needed for both image archiving and film handling. The Laser Printer Multimodality System allows over 5 hours/day to be saved -that is to say the working day of an operator, who can be thus shifted to other functions. The important economic aspect of the reproduction of digital images on film proves the Laser Printer Multimodality System to have some advantage over Cameras

  1. Fluorescence confocal microscopy for pathologists. (United States)

    Ragazzi, Moira; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Castagnetti, Fabio; Foroni, Monica; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Gardini, Giorgio; Pellacani, Giovanni


    Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive method of optical imaging that may provide microscopic images of untreated tissue that correspond almost perfectly to hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Nowadays, following two confocal imaging systems are available: (1) reflectance confocal microscopy, based on the natural differences in refractive indices of subcellular structures within the tissues; (2) fluorescence confocal microscopy, based on the use of fluorochromes, such as acridine orange, to increase the contrast epithelium-stroma. In clinical practice to date, confocal microscopy has been used with the goal of obviating the need for excision biopsies, thereby reducing the need for pathological examination. The aim of our study was to test fluorescence confocal microscopy on different types of surgical specimens, specifically breast, lymph node, thyroid, and colon. The confocal images were correlated to the corresponding histological sections in order to provide a morphologic parallel and to highlight current limitations and possible applications of this technology for surgical pathology practice. As a result, neoplastic tissues were easily distinguishable from normal structures and reactive processes such as fibrosis; the use of fluorescence enhanced contrast and image quality in confocal microscopy without compromising final histologic evaluation. Finally, the fluorescence confocal microscopy images of the adipose tissue were as accurate as those of conventional histology and were devoid of the frozen-section-related artefacts that can compromise intraoperative evaluation. Despite some limitations mainly related to black/white images, which require training in imaging interpretation, this study confirms that fluorescence confocal microscopy may represent an alternative to frozen sections in the assessment of margin status in selected settings or when the conservation of the specimen is crucial. This is the first study to employ fluorescent confocal microscopy on


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As a member of the science-support part of the ITT-lead LISA development program, BNL is tasked with the acquisition of UV Raman spectral fingerprints and associated scattering cross-sections for those chemicals-of-interest to the program's sponsor. In support of this role, the present report contains the first installment of UV Raman spectral fingerprint data on the initial subset of chemicals. Because of the unique nature associated with the acquisition of spectral fingerprints for use in spectral pattern matching algorithms (i.e., CLS, PLS, ANN) great care has been undertaken to maximize the signal-to-noise and to minimize unnecessary spectral subtractions, in an effort to provide the highest quality spectral fingerprints. This report is divided into 4 sections. The first is an Experimental section that outlines how the Raman spectra are performed. This is then followed by a section on Sample Handling. Following this, the spectral fingerprints are presented in the Results section where the data reduction process is outlined. Finally, a Photographs section is included.

  3. Boundary segmentation for fluorescence microscopy using steerable filters (United States)

    Ho, David Joon; Salama, Paul; Dunn, Kenneth W.; Delp, Edward J.


    Fluorescence microscopy is used to image multiple subcellular structures in living cells which are not readily observed using conventional optical microscopy. Moreover, two-photon microscopy is widely used to image structures deeper in tissue. Recent advancement in fluorescence microscopy has enabled the generation of large data sets of images at different depths, times, and spectral channels. Thus, automatic object segmentation is necessary since manual segmentation would be inefficient and biased. However, automatic segmentation is still a challenging problem as regions of interest may not have well defined boundaries as well as non-uniform pixel intensities. This paper describes a method for segmenting tubular structures in fluorescence microscopy images of rat kidney and liver samples using adaptive histogram equalization, foreground/background segmentation, steerable filters to capture directional tendencies, and connected-component analysis. The results from several data sets demonstrate that our method can segment tubular boundaries successfully. Moreover, our method has better performance when compared to other popular image segmentation methods when using ground truth data obtained via manual segmentation.

  4. Spectral decomposition of single-tone-driven quantum phase modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capmany, Jose; Fernandez-Pousa, Carlos R


    Electro-optic phase modulators driven by a single radio-frequency tone Ω can be described at the quantum level as scattering devices where input single-mode radiation undergoes energy changes in multiples of ℎΩ. In this paper, we study the spectral representation of the unitary, multimode scattering operator describing these devices. The eigenvalue equation, phase modulation being a process preserving the photon number, is solved at each subspace with definite number of photons. In the one-photon subspace F 1 , the problem is equivalent to the computation of the continuous spectrum of the Susskind-Glogower cosine operator of the harmonic oscillator. Using this analogy, the spectral decomposition in F 1 is constructed and shown to be equivalent to the usual Fock-space representation. The result is then generalized to arbitrary N-photon subspaces, where eigenvectors are symmetrized combinations of N one-photon eigenvectors and the continuous spectrum spans the entire unit circle. Approximate normalizable one-photon eigenstates are constructed in terms of London phase states truncated to optical bands. Finally, we show that synchronous ultrashort pulse trains represent classical field configurations with the same structure as these approximate eigenstates, and that they can be considered as approximate eigenvectors of the classical formulation of phase modulation.

  5. Spectral decomposition of single-tone-driven quantum phase modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capmany, Jose [ITEAM Research Institute, Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Fernandez-Pousa, Carlos R, E-mail: [Signal Theory and Communications, Department of Physics and Computer Science, Univ. Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain)


    Electro-optic phase modulators driven by a single radio-frequency tone {Omega} can be described at the quantum level as scattering devices where input single-mode radiation undergoes energy changes in multiples of {h_bar}{Omega}. In this paper, we study the spectral representation of the unitary, multimode scattering operator describing these devices. The eigenvalue equation, phase modulation being a process preserving the photon number, is solved at each subspace with definite number of photons. In the one-photon subspace F{sub 1}, the problem is equivalent to the computation of the continuous spectrum of the Susskind-Glogower cosine operator of the harmonic oscillator. Using this analogy, the spectral decomposition in F{sub 1} is constructed and shown to be equivalent to the usual Fock-space representation. The result is then generalized to arbitrary N-photon subspaces, where eigenvectors are symmetrized combinations of N one-photon eigenvectors and the continuous spectrum spans the entire unit circle. Approximate normalizable one-photon eigenstates are constructed in terms of London phase states truncated to optical bands. Finally, we show that synchronous ultrashort pulse trains represent classical field configurations with the same structure as these approximate eigenstates, and that they can be considered as approximate eigenvectors of the classical formulation of phase modulation.

  6. Interferometric and nonlinear-optical spectral-imaging techniques for outer space and live cells (United States)

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi


    Multidimensional signals such as the spectral images allow us to have deeper insights into the natures of objects. In this paper the spectral imaging techniques that are based on optical interferometry and nonlinear optics are presented. The interferometric imaging technique is based on the unified theory of Van Cittert-Zernike and Wiener-Khintchine theorems and allows us to retrieve a spectral image of an object in the far zone from the 3D spatial coherence function. The retrieval principle is explained using a very simple object. The promising applications to space interferometers for astronomy that are currently in progress will also be briefly touched on. An interesting extension of interferometric spectral imaging is a 3D and spectral imaging technique that records 4D information of objects where the 3D and spectral information is retrieved from the cross-spectral density function of optical field. The 3D imaging is realized via the numerical inverse propagation of the cross-spectral density. A few techniques suggested recently are introduced. The nonlinear optical technique that utilizes stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for spectral imaging of biomedical targets is presented lastly. The strong signals of SRS permit us to get vibrational information of molecules in the live cell or tissue in real time. The vibrational information of unstained or unlabeled molecules is crucial especially for medical applications. The 3D information due to the optical nonlinearity is also the attractive feature of SRS spectral microscopy.

  7. [Multimodal pain therapy - implementation of process management - an attempt to consider management approaches]. (United States)

    Dunkel, Marion; Kramp, Melanie


    The combination of medical and economical proceedings allows new perspectives in the illustration of medical workflows. Considering structural and developmental aspects multimodal therapy programs show similarities with typical subjects of economic process systems. By pointing out the strategic appearance of the multimodal pain therapy concept multimodal approaches can be described to some extent by using management approaches. E. g., an economic process landscape can be used to represent procedures of a multimodal pain therapy program. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Understanding and treating vaginismus: a multimodal approach. (United States)

    Pacik, Peter T


    This clinical opinion was written to bring attention to the understanding and treatment of vaginismus, a condition that is often under diagnosed and therefore inadequately treated, yet affects millions of women worldwide. Despite its description more than a century ago, vaginismus is rarely taught in medical school, residency training, and medical meetings. The DSM 5 classification stresses that vaginismus is a penetration disorder in that any form of vaginal penetration such as tampons, finger, vaginal dilators, gynecological examinations, and intercourse is often painful or impossible. Compared with other sexual pain disorders such as vulvodynia and vestibulodynia, the treatment of vaginismus has the potential for a high rate of success. Stratifying the severity of vaginismus allows the clinician to choose among numerous treatment options and to better understand what the patient is experiencing. Vaginismus is both a physical and an emotional disorder. In the more severe cases of vaginismus women (and men) complain that attempted intercourse is like "hitting a wall" suggestive of spasm at the level of the introitus. The emotional fallout resulting from this needs to be addressed in any form of treatment applied. This article is based on lessons learned in the treatment of more than 250 patients and evaluation of more than 400 inquiries, and was written to make vaginismus more widely understood, to aid in the differential diagnosis of sexual pain, suggest a variety of effective treatments, and explain how Botox can be used as part of a multimodal treatment program to treat vaginismus. With greater awareness among clinicians it is hoped that medical schools, residency programs, and medical meetings will begin teaching the understanding and treatment of vaginismus.

  9. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.


    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  10. Object recognition through a multi-mode fiber (United States)

    Takagi, Ryosuke; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun


    We present a method of recognizing an object through a multi-mode fiber. A number of speckle patterns transmitted through a multi-mode fiber are provided to a classifier based on machine learning. We experimentally demonstrated binary classification of face and non-face targets based on the method. The measurement process of the experimental setup was random and nonlinear because a multi-mode fiber is a typical strongly scattering medium and any reference light was not used in our setup. Comparisons between three supervised learning methods, support vector machine, adaptive boosting, and neural network, are also provided. All of those learning methods achieved high accuracy rates at about 90% for the classification. The approach presented here can realize a compact and smart optical sensor. It is practically useful for medical applications, such as endoscopy. Also our study indicated a promising utilization of artificial intelligence, which has rapidly progressed, for reducing optical and computational costs in optical sensing systems.

  11. [Multimodal medical image registration using cubic spline interpolation method]. (United States)

    He, Yuanlie; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Lifei; Ye, Guangchun; Mao, Zongyuan


    Based on the characteristic of the PET-CT multimodal image series, a novel image registration and fusion method is proposed, in which the cubic spline interpolation method is applied to realize the interpolation of PET-CT image series, then registration is carried out by using mutual information algorithm and finally the improved principal component analysis method is used for the fusion of PET-CT multimodal images to enhance the visual effect of PET image, thus satisfied registration and fusion results are obtained. The cubic spline interpolation method is used for reconstruction to restore the missed information between image slices, which can compensate for the shortage of previous registration methods, improve the accuracy of the registration, and make the fused multimodal images more similar to the real image. Finally, the cubic spline interpolation method has been successfully applied in developing 3D-CRT (3D Conformal Radiation Therapy) system.

  12. Quantitative multimodality imaging in cancer research and therapy. (United States)

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Abramson, Richard G; Quarles, C Chad


    Advances in hardware and software have enabled the realization of clinically feasible, quantitative multimodality imaging of tissue pathophysiology. Earlier efforts relating to multimodality imaging of cancer have focused on the integration of anatomical and functional characteristics, such as PET-CT and single-photon emission CT (SPECT-CT), whereas more-recent advances and applications have involved the integration of multiple quantitative, functional measurements (for example, multiple PET tracers, varied MRI contrast mechanisms, and PET-MRI), thereby providing a more-comprehensive characterization of the tumour phenotype. The enormous amount of complementary quantitative data generated by such studies is beginning to offer unique insights into opportunities to optimize care for individual patients. Although important technical optimization and improved biological interpretation of multimodality imaging findings are needed, this approach can already be applied informatively in clinical trials of cancer therapeutics using existing tools. These concepts are discussed herein.

  13. Joint sparse representation for robust multimodal biometrics recognition. (United States)

    Shekhar, Sumit; Patel, Vishal M; Nasrabadi, Nasser M; Chellappa, Rama


    Traditional biometric recognition systems rely on a single biometric signature for authentication. While the advantage of using multiple sources of information for establishing the identity has been widely recognized, computational models for multimodal biometrics recognition have only recently received attention. We propose a multimodal sparse representation method, which represents the test data by a sparse linear combination of training data, while constraining the observations from different modalities of the test subject to share their sparse representations. Thus, we simultaneously take into account correlations as well as coupling information among biometric modalities. A multimodal quality measure is also proposed to weigh each modality as it gets fused. Furthermore, we also kernelize the algorithm to handle nonlinearity in data. The optimization problem is solved using an efficient alternative direction method. Various experiments show that the proposed method compares favorably with competing fusion-based methods.

  14. Content-based TV sports video retrieval using multimodal analysis (United States)

    Yu, Yiqing; Liu, Huayong; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Dongru


    In this paper, we propose content-based video retrieval, which is a kind of retrieval by its semantical contents. Because video data is composed of multimodal information streams such as video, auditory and textual streams, we describe a strategy of using multimodal analysis for automatic parsing sports video. The paper first defines the basic structure of sports video database system, and then introduces a new approach that integrates visual stream analysis, speech recognition, speech signal processing and text extraction to realize video retrieval. The experimental results for TV sports video of football games indicate that the multimodal analysis is effective for video retrieval by quickly browsing tree-like video clips or inputting keywords within predefined domain.

  15. Modelling multimodal expression of emotion in a virtual agent. (United States)

    Pelachaud, Catherine


    Over the past few years we have been developing an expressive embodied conversational agent system. In particular, we have developed a model of multimodal behaviours that includes dynamism and complex facial expressions. The first feature refers to the qualitative execution of behaviours. Our model is based on perceptual studies and encompasses several parameters that modulate multimodal behaviours. The second feature, the model of complex expressions, follows a componential approach where a new expression is obtained by combining facial areas of other expressions. Lately we have been working on adding temporal dynamism to expressions. So far they have been designed statically, typically at their apex. Only full-blown expressions could be modelled. To overcome this limitation, we have defined a representation scheme that describes the temporal evolution of the expression of an emotion. It is no longer represented by a static definition but by a temporally ordered sequence of multimodal signals.

  16. Multimodal approaches to use mobile, digital devices in learning practies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    , anthropology, psychology and sociology) and outlines the prospect of a trans-disciplinary learning mode. The learning mode reflects the current society where knowledge production is social collaborative process and is produced in formal as well as informal and non-formal contexts. My discussion’s theoretical......In this paper, I discuss the potential of multimodal approaches to enhance learning processes. I draw on a case based on Danish Master Courses in ICT and didactic designs where multimodal approaches are in the center of students’ practical design experience as well as in generation of theoretical...... knowledge. The design of the master courses takes its starting point in the assumption that theoretical knowledge generates from practical experiences. Thus, the organization of the students’ learning processes revolves around practical multimodal experiences followed by iterative reflexive sessions...

  17. Study on multimodal transport route under low carbon background (United States)

    Liu, Lele; Liu, Jie


    Low-carbon environmental protection is the focus of attention around the world, scientists are constantly researching on production of carbon emissions and living carbon emissions. However, there is little literature about multimodal transportation based on carbon emission at home and abroad. Firstly, this paper introduces the theory of multimodal transportation, the multimodal transport models that didn't consider carbon emissions and consider carbon emissions are analyzed. On this basis, a multi-objective programming 0-1 programming model with minimum total transportation cost and minimum total carbon emission is proposed. The idea of weight is applied to Ideal point method for solving problem, multi-objective programming is transformed into a single objective function. The optimal solution of carbon emission to transportation cost under different weights is determined by a single objective function with variable weights. Based on the model and algorithm, an example is given and the results are analyzed.

  18. Multimode model for projective photon-counting measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien; Grangier, Philippe; Wubs, Martijn; Soerensen, Anders S.


    We present a general model to account for the multimode nature of the quantum electromagnetic field in projective photon-counting measurements. We focus on photon-subtraction experiments, where non-Gaussian states are produced conditionally. These are useful states for continuous-variable quantum-information processing. We present a general method called mode reduction that reduces the multimode model to an effective two-mode problem. We apply this method to a multimode model describing broadband parametric down-conversion, thereby improving the analysis of existing experimental results. The main improvement is that spatial and frequency filters before the photon detector are taken into account explicitly. We find excellent agreement with previously published experimental results, using fewer free parameters than before, and discuss the implications of our analysis for the optimized production of states with negative Wigner functions.

  19. Multimodal designs for learning in contexts of diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Archer


    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify multimodal designs for learning in diverse and developing contexts, where access to resources remains vastly unequal. Using case studies from South African education, the paper explores ways of surfacing the range of students’ resources which are often not noticed or valued in formal educational settings. The studies showcased here demonstrate how ethnographic and textually-based approaches can be combined. Opening up the semiotic space of the classroom through multimodal designs for learning is important for finding innovative ways of addressing access, diversity, and past inequalities. This is of relevance not only to South Africa, but a range of global contexts. The paper argues that multimodal designs for learning can involve interrogating the relation between ‘tradition’ and ‘modernity’; harnessing students’ creative practices as resources for pedagogy; developing metalanguages for critical reflection; creating less regulated pedagogical spaces in order to enable useful teaching and learning practices.

  20. Assessing resolution in live cell structured illumination microscopy (United States)

    Pospíšil, Jakub; Fliegel, Karel; Klíma, Miloš


    Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) is a powerful super-resolution technique, which is able to enhance the resolution of optical microscope beyond the Abbe diffraction limit. In the last decade, numerous SIM methods that achieve the resolution of 100 nm in the lateral dimension have been developed. The SIM setups with new high-speed cameras and illumination pattern generators allow rapid acquisition of the live specimen. Therefore, SIM is widely used for investigation of the live structures in molecular and live cell biology. Quantitative evaluation of resolution enhancement in a real sample is essential to describe the efficiency of super-resolution microscopy technique. However, measuring the resolution of a live cell sample is a challenging task. Based on our experimental findings, the widely used Fourier ring correlation (FRC) method does not seem to be well suited for measuring the resolution of SIM live cell video sequences. Therefore, the resolution assessing methods based on Fourier spectrum analysis are often used. We introduce a measure based on circular average power spectral density (PSDca) estimated from a single SIM image (one video frame). PSDca describes the distribution of the power of a signal with respect to its spatial frequency. Spatial resolution corresponds to the cut-off frequency in Fourier space. In order to estimate the cut-off frequency from a noisy signal, we use a spectral subtraction method for noise suppression. In the future, this resolution assessment approach might prove useful also for single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) live cell imaging.

  1. Multimodal coaching and its application to workplace, life and health coaching


    Stephen Palmer


    This article highlights how the multimodal approach (Lazarus, 1989) has been adapted to the field of coachingand coaching psychology. It covers the basic theories underpinning the multimodal approach and illustratesthe link between the theory and practice. Key multimodal strategies are covered including modalityprofiles, structural profiles, tracking and bridging.

  2. Multimodal coaching and its application to workplace, life and health coaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Palmer


    Full Text Available This article highlights how the multimodal approach (Lazarus, 1989 has been adapted to the field of coachingand coaching psychology. It covers the basic theories underpinning the multimodal approach and illustratesthe link between the theory and practice. Key multimodal strategies are covered including modalityprofiles, structural profiles, tracking and bridging.

  3. New Technologies, New Possibilities for the Arts and Multimodality in English Language Arts (United States)

    Williams, Wendy R.


    This article discusses the arts, multimodality, and new technologies in English language arts. It then turns to the example of the illuminated text--a multimodal book report consisting of animated text, music, and images--to consider how art, multimodality, and technology can work together to support students' reading of literature and inspire…

  4. Development of a Framework for Multimodal Research: Creation of a Bibliographic Database

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coovert, Michael D; Gray, Ashley A; Elliott, Linda R; Redden, Elizabeth S


    .... The results of the overall effort, the multimodal framework and article tracking sheet, bibliographic database, and searchable multimodal database make substantial and valuable contributions to the accumulation and interpretation of multimodal research. References collected in this effort are listed in the appendix.

  5. The Work of Comics Collaborations: Considerations of Multimodal Composition for Writing Scholarship and Pedagogy (United States)

    Scanlon, Molly J.


    Though multimodality is increasingly incorporated into our pedagogies and scholarship, explorations of collaborative multimodal composition are lacking. Existing literature on collaborative writing focuses predominately on texts either composed in singular modes or by a single author, neglecting the ways in which multimodal texts are composed…

  6. Alternative modalities – A Review of Graphic Encounters: Comics and the Sponsorship of Multimodal Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Scott Humphrey


    Full Text Available Research exploring the multimodal characteristics of comics has recently flourished, and Dale Jacobs has been one of the early prolific authors on this topic. Jacobs expands these ideas further in 'Graphic Encounters: Comics and the Sponsorship of Multimodal Literacy', a monograph which engages with theories of multimodality, but shifts its focus primarily to literacy sponsorship.

  7. Multimodal medical information retrieval with unsupervised rank fusion. (United States)

    Mourão, André; Martins, Flávio; Magalhães, João


    Modern medical information retrieval systems are paramount to manage the insurmountable quantities of clinical data. These systems empower health care experts in the diagnosis of patients and play an important role in the clinical decision process. However, the ever-growing heterogeneous information generated in medical environments poses several challenges for retrieval systems. We propose a medical information retrieval system with support for multimodal medical case-based retrieval. The system supports medical information discovery by providing multimodal search, through a novel data fusion algorithm, and term suggestions from a medical thesaurus. Our search system compared favorably to other systems in 2013 ImageCLEFMedical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental Study on Bioluminescence Tomography with Multimodality Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Lv


    Full Text Available To verify the influence of a priori information on the nonuniqueness problem of bioluminescence tomography (BLT, the multimodality imaging fusion based BLT experiment is performed by multiview noncontact detection mode, which incorporates the anatomical information obtained by the microCT scanner and the background optical properties based on diffuse reflectance measurements. In the reconstruction procedure, the utilization of adaptive finite element methods (FEMs and a priori permissible source region refines the reconstructed results and improves numerical robustness and efficiency. The comparison between the absence and employment of a priori information shows that multimodality imaging fusion is essential to quantitative BLT reconstruction.

  9. Detection of elemental mercury by multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy. (United States)

    Lou, Xiutao; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wu, Shaohua


    We demonstrate a method for elemental mercury detection based on correlation spectroscopy employing UV laser radiation generated by sum-frequency mixing of two visible multimode diode lasers. Resonance matching of the multimode UV laser is achieved in a wide wavelength range and with good tolerance for various operating conditions. Large mode-hops provide an off-resonance baseline, eliminating interferences from other gas species with broadband absorption. A sensitivity of 1 μg/m3 is obtained for a 1-m path length and 30-s integration time. The performance of the system shows promise for mercury monitoring in industrial applications.

  10. Current and future multimodal learning analytics data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spikol, Daniel; Prieto, Luis P.; Rodriguez-Triana, M.J.


    Multimodal Learning Analytics (MMLA) captures, integrates and analyzes learning traces from different sources in order to obtain a more holistic understanding of the learning process, wherever it happens. MMLA leverages the increasingly widespread availability of diverse sensors, high......-frequency data collection technologies and sophisticated machine learning and artificial intelligence techniques. The aim of this workshop is twofold: first, to expose participants to, and develop, different multimodal datasets that reflect how MMLA can bring new insights and opportunities to investigate complex...... learning processes and environments; second, to collaboratively identify a set of grand challenges for further MMLA research, built upon the foundations of previous workshops on the topic....

  11. Design, Performance and Optimization for Multimodal Radar Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra S. Bhat


    Full Text Available This paper describes the underlying methodology behind an adaptive multimodal radar sensor that is capable of progressively optimizing its range resolution depending upon the target scattering features. It consists of a test-bed that enables the generation of linear frequency modulated waveforms of various bandwidths. This paper discusses a theoretical approach to optimizing the bandwidth used by the multimodal radar. It also discusses the various experimental results obtained from measurement. The resolution predicted from theory agrees quite well with that obtained from experiments for different target arrangements.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li


    Full Text Available With the increasing pervasiveness of basic facilitate of transportation and information, the need of multimodal route planning is becoming more essential in the fields of communication and transportation, urban planning, logistics management, etc. This article mainly described an OSM-oriented method of multimodal route planning. Firstly, it introduced how to extract the information we need from OSM data and build proper network model and storage model; then it analysed the accustomed cost standard adopted by most travellers; finally, we used shortest path algorithm to calculate the best route with multiple traffic means.

  13. Generalized uncertainty relations and characteristic invariants for the multimode states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Chiu, C.B.; Bhamathi, G.


    The close relationship between the zero-point energy, the uncertainty relation, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group theoretic perspective of the problem enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. A simple and efficient method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented. Implication of canonical commutation relations for correlations are not exhausted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, not even by the Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty inequality, but there are relations in the multimode case that are the generalization of the Schroedinger-Robertson relation

  14. Multimodal backside imaging of a microcontroller using confocal laser scanning and optical-beam-induced current imaging (United States)

    Finkeldey, Markus; Göring, Lena; Schellenberg, Falk; Brenner, Carsten; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin


    Microscopy imaging with a single technology is usually restricted to a single contrast mechanism. Multimodal imaging is a promising technique to improve the structural information that could be obtained about a device under test (DUT). Due to the different contrast mechanisms of laser scanning microscopy (LSM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and optical beam induced current microscopy (OBICM), a combination could improve the detection of structures in integrated circuits (ICs) and helps to reveal their layout. While OBIC imaging is sensitive to the changes between differently doped areas and to semiconductor-metal transitions, CLSM imaging is mostly sensitive to changes in absorption and reflection. In this work we present the implementation of OBIC imaging into a CLSM. We show first results using industry standard Atmel microcontrollers (MCUs) with a feature size of about 250nm as DUTs. Analyzing these types of microcontrollers helps to improve in the field of side-channel attacks to find hardware Trojans, possible spots for laser fault attacks and for reverse engineering. For the experimental results the DUT is placed on a custom circuit board that allows us to measure the current while imaging it in our in-house built stage scanning microscope using a near infrared (NIR) laser diode as light source. The DUT is thinned and polished, allowing backside imaging through the Si-substrate. We demonstrate the possibilities using this optical setup by evaluating OBIC, LSM and CLSM images above and below the threshold of the laser source.

  15. Spectrally resolved modal characteristics of leaky-wave-coupled quantum cascade phase-locked laser arrays (United States)

    Sigler, Chris; Gibson, Ricky; Boyle, Colin; Kirch, Jeremy D.; Lindberg, Donald; Earles, Thomas; Botez, Dan; Mawst, Luke J.; Bedford, Robert


    The modal characteristics of nonresonant five-element phase-locked arrays of 4.7-μm emitting quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have been studied using spectrally resolved near- and far-field measurements and correlated with results of device simulation. Devices are fabricated by a two-step metal-organic chemical vapor deposition process and operate predominantly in an in-phase array mode near threshold, although become multimode at higher drive levels. The wide spectral bandwidth of the QCL's core region is found to be a factor in promoting multispatial-mode operation at high drive levels above threshold. An optimized resonant-array design is identified to allow sole in-phase array-mode operation to high drive levels above threshold, and indicates that for phase-locked laser arrays full spatial coherence to high output powers does not require full temporal coherence.

  16. Multiplex CARS imaging with spectral notch shaped laser pulses delivered by optical fibers. (United States)

    Oh, Seung Ryeol; Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Soohyun


    We present an experimental demonstration of single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) using a spectrally shaped broadband laser that is delivered by an optical fiber to a sample at its distal end. The optical fiber consists of a fiber Bragg grating component to serve as a narrowband notch filter and a combined large-mode-area fiber to transmit such shaped ultrashort laser pulses without spectral distortion in a long distance. Experimentally, our implementation showed a capability to measure CARS spectra of various samples with molecular vibrations in the fingerprint region. Furthermore, CARS imaging of poly(methyl methacrylate) bead samples was carried out successfully under epi-CARS geometry in which backward-scattered CARS signals were collected into a multimode optical fiber. A compatibility of single-pulse CARS scheme with fiber optics, verified in this study, implies a potential for future realization of compact all-fiber CARS spectroscopic imaging systems.

  17. Cuticular Drusen: Clinical Phenotypes and Natural History Defined Using Multimodal Imaging. (United States)

    Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Cherepanoff, Svetlana; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Killingsworth, Murray; Chen, Fred K; Mendis, Randev; Mrejen, Sarah; Too, Lay Khoon; Gal-Or, Orly; Curcio, Christine A; Freund, K Bailey; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A


    To define the range and life cycles of cuticular drusen phenotypes using multimodal imaging and to review the histologic characteristics of cuticular drusen. Retrospective, observational cohort study and experimental laboratory study. Two hundred forty eyes of 120 clinic patients with a cuticular drusen phenotype and 4 human donor eyes with cuticular drusen (n = 2), soft drusen (n = 1), and hard drusen (n = 1). We performed a retrospective review of clinical and multimodal imaging data of patients with a cuticular drusen phenotype. Patients had undergone imaging with various combinations of color photography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, near-infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, high-resolution OCT, and ultrawide-field imaging. Human donor eyes underwent processing for high-resolution light and electron microscopy. Appearance of cuticular drusen in multimodal imaging and the topography of a cuticular drusen distribution; age-dependent variations in cuticular drusen phenotypes, including the occurrence of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) abnormalities, choroidal neovascularization, acquired vitelliform lesions (AVLs), and geographic atrophy (GA); and ultrastructural and staining characteristics of druse subtypes. The mean age of patients at the first visit was 57.9±13.4 years. Drusen and RPE changes were seen in the peripheral retina, anterior to the vortex veins, in 21.8% of eyes. Of eyes with more than 5 years of follow-up, cuticular drusen disappeared from view in 58.3% of eyes, drusen coalescence was seen in 70.8% of eyes, and new RPE pigmentary changes developed in 56.2% of eyes. Retinal pigment epithelium abnormalities, AVLs, neovascularization, and GA occurred at a frequency of 47.5%, 24.2%, 12.5%, and 25%, respectively, and were significantly more common in patients older than 60 years of age (all P < 0.015). Occurrence of GA and neovascularization were important determinants of final visual acuity in eyes with the

  18. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine


    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  19. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max


    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  20. Implications of Multimodal Learning Models for foreign language teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Farías


    Full Text Available This literature review article approaches the topic of information and communications technologies from the perspective of their impact on the language learning process, with particular emphasis on the most appropriate designs of multimodal texts as informed by models of multimodal learning. The first part contextualizes multimodality within the fields of discourse studies, the psychology of learning and CALL; the second, deals with multimodal conceptions of reading and writing by discussing hypertextuality and literacy. A final section outlines the possible implications of multimodal learning models for foreign language teaching and learning.

  1. Determination of line edge roughness in low-dose top-down scanning electron microscopy images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduin, T.; Kruit, P.; Hagen, C.W.


    We investigated the off-line metrology for line edge roughness (LER) determination by using the discrete power spectral density (PSD). The study specifically addresses low-dose scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images in order to reduce the acquisition time and the risk of resist shrinkage. The


    The confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of the emitted signal. The accuracy of these measurements demands t...

  3. Adiabatic theorem and spectral concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenciu, G.


    The spectral concentration of arbitrary order, for the Stark effect is proved to exist for a large class of Hamiltonians appearing in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. The results are consequences of an abstract theorem about the spectral concentration for self-ad oint operators. A general form of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, generalizing an earlier result of the author as well as some results of Lenard, is also proved [ru


    The confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of emitted signals. The accuracy of these measurements demands that...

  5. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy and image deconvolution. (United States)

    Swedlow, Jason R


    Quantitative imaging and image deconvolution have become standard techniques for the modern cell biologist because they can form the basis of an increasing number of assays for molecular function in a cellular context. There are two major types of deconvolution approaches--deblurring and restoration algorithms. Deblurring algorithms remove blur but treat a series of optical sections as individual two-dimensional entities and therefore sometimes mishandle blurred light. Restoration algorithms determine an object that, when convolved with the point-spread function of the microscope, could produce the image data. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed in this chapter. Image deconvolution in fluorescence microscopy has usually been applied to high-resolution imaging to improve contrast and thus detect small, dim objects that might otherwise be obscured. Their proper use demands some consideration of the imaging hardware, the acquisition process, fundamental aspects of photon detection, and image processing. This can prove daunting for some cell biologists, but the power of these techniques has been proven many times in the works cited in the chapter and elsewhere. Their usage is now well defined, so they can be incorporated into the capabilities of most laboratories. A major application of fluorescence microscopy is the quantitative measurement of the localization, dynamics, and interactions of cellular factors. The introduction of green fluorescent protein and its spectral variants has led to a significant increase in the use of fluorescence microscopy as a quantitative assay system. For quantitative imaging assays, it is critical to consider the nature of the image-acquisition system and to validate its response to known standards. Any image-processing algorithms used before quantitative analysis should preserve the relative signal levels in different parts of the image. A very common image-processing algorithm, image deconvolution, is used

  6. Raman Microscopy: A Noninvasive Method to Visualize the Localizations of Biomolecules in the Cornea. (United States)

    Kaji, Yuichi; Akiyama, Toshihiro; Segawa, Hiroki; Oshika, Tetsuro; Kano, Hideaki


    In vivo and in situ visualization of biomolecules without pretreatment will be important for diagnosis and treatment of ocular disorders in the future. Recently, multiphoton microscopy, based on the nonlinear interactions between molecules and photons, has been applied to reveal the localizations of various molecules in tissues. We aimed to use multimodal multiphoton microscopy to visualize the localizations of specific biomolecules in rat corneas. Multiphoton images of the corneas were obtained from nonlinear signals of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, third-order sum frequency generation, and second-harmonic generation. The localizations of the adhesion complex-containing basement membrane and Bowman layer were clearly visible in the third-order sum frequency generation images. The fine structure of type I collagen was observed in the corneal stroma in the second-harmonic generation images. The localizations of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) was obtained in the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images. Imaging technologies have progressed significantly and been applied in medical fields. Optical coherence tomography and confocal microscopy are widely used but do not provide information on the molecular structure of the cornea. By contrast, multiphoton microscopy provides information on the molecular structure of living tissues. Using this technique, we successfully visualized the localizations of various biomolecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in the cornea. We speculate that multiphoton microscopy will provide essential information on the physiological and pathological conditions of the cornea, as well as molecular localizations in tissues without pretreatment.

  7. Perspectives in Super-resolved Fluorescence Microscopy: What comes next? (United States)

    Cremer, Christoph; Birk, Udo


    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 has been awarded to three scientists involved in the development of STED and PALM super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (SRM) methods. They have proven that it is possible to overcome the hundred year old theoretical limit for the resolution potential of light microscopy (of about 200 nm for visible light), which for decades has precluded a direct glimpse of the molecular machinery of life. None of the present-day super-resolution techniques have invalidated the Abbe limit for light optical detection; however, they have found clever ways around it. In this report, we discuss some of the challenges still to be resolved before arising SRM approaches will be fit to bring about the revolution in Biology and Medicine envisaged. Some of the challenges discussed are the applicability to image live and/or large samples, the further enhancement of resolution, future developments of labels, and multi-spectral approaches.

  8. Perspectives in Super-resolved Fluorescence Microscopy: What comes next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eCremer


    Full Text Available The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014 has been awarded to three scientists involved in the development of STED and PALM super-resolution fluorescence microscopy (SRM methods. They have proven that it is possible to overcome the hundred year old theoretical limit for the resolution potential of light microscopy (of about 200 nm for visible light, which for decades has precluded a direct glimpse of the molecular machinery of life. None of the present-day super-resolution techniques have invalidated the Abbe limit for light optical detection; however, they have found clever ways around it. In this report, we discuss some of the challenges still to be resolved before arising SRM approaches will be fit to bring about the revolution in Biology and Medicine envisaged. Some of the challenges discussed are the applicability to image live and/or large samples, the further enhancement of resolution, future developments of labels, and multi-spectral approaches.

  9. Co-constructing referential space in multimodal narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stec, Kashmiri; Huiskes, Mike

    Meaning-making is a situated, multimodal process. Although most research has focused on conceptualization in individuals, recent work points to the way dynamic processes can affect both conceptualization and expression in multiple individuals (e.g. Özyürek 2002; Fusaroli and Tylén 2012; Narayan

  10. Burnout: A Multimodal Approach to Assessment and Resolution. (United States)

    Kesler, Kathryn D.


    Claims assessment and treatment of guidance counselor burnout is not simple. A variety of causes and symptoms leads to the need for multidimensional conceptualization and action plan. The multimodal behavior mode, BASIC I.D., with the adoption of a Setting modality, has been shown to be a comprehensive approach when applied to the understanding…

  11. Trends and determinants of multimodal travel in the USA. (United States)


    This report analyzes trends and determinants of multimodal individual traveldefined as the use of more than one mode of transportation during a given time periodin the U.S. The authors analyze U.S., South Atlantic Census Division, and Virginia ...

  12. Early recovery after abdominal rectopexy with multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Linda; Billesbølle, Per; Kehlet, Henrik


    status III to IV, were scheduled for abdominal rectopexy with a multimodal rehabilitation program including 48 hours thoracic epidural analgesia or patient-controlled anesthesia (3 patients), early oral nutrition and mobilization, and a planned two-day postoperative hospital stay. Follow-up was done...

  13. Utilizing Multi-Modal Literacies in Middle Grades Science (United States)

    Saurino, Dan; Ogletree, Tamra; Saurino, Penelope


    The nature of literacy is changing. Increased student use of computer-mediated, digital, and visual communication spans our understanding of adolescent multi-modal capabilities that reach beyond the traditional conventions of linear speech and written text in the science curriculum. Advancing technology opens doors to learning that involve…

  14. Interactivity in Educational Apps for Young children: A Multimodal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra H. Blitz-Raith


    Full Text Available Interactivity is an important indicator of an educational app's reception. Since most educational apps are multimodal, it justifies a methodological initiative to understand meaningful involvement of multimodality in enacting and even amplifying interactivity in an educational app. Yet research so far has largely concentrated on algorithm construct and user feedback rather than on multimodal interactions, especially from a social semiotics perspective. Drawing from social semiotics approaches, this article proposes a multimodal analytic framework to examine three layers of mode in engendering interaction; namely, multiplicity, function, and relationship. Using the analytic framework in an analysis of The Farm Adventure for Kids, a popular educational app for pre-school children, we found that still images are dominant proportionally and are central in the interactive process. We also found that tapping still images of animals on screen is the main action, with other screen actions deliberately excluded. Such findings suggest that aligning children’s cognitive and physical capabilities to the use of mode become the primary consideration in educational app design and that consistent attendance to this alignment in mobilizing modes significantly affect an educational app’s interactivity, and consequently its reception by young children

  15. Production and evaluation of (multimodal) answers to medical questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Krahmer, E.; Maes, A.; Theune, Mariet; Bosma, W.E.; Maes, A.; Ainsworth, S.

    This paper describes two experiments carried out to investigate the production and evaluation of multimodal answer presentations in the context of a medical question answering system. In a production experiment participants had to produce answers to different types of questions. The results show

  16. Multimodal versus Unimodal Instructions in a Complex Learning Context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, M.R.M.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Pieters, Julius Marie


    Multimodal instruction with text and pictures was compared with unimodal, text-only instruction. More specifically, 44 students used a visual or a textual manual to learn a complex software application. During 2 103–116-min training sessions, cognitive load, and time and ability to recover from

  17. The Management Of Homosexuality Using Multimodal Therapy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety, depression, marital distress and low self-esteem were identified as correlates of the client's condition. Multimodal therapy was instituted thereafter. The result after three months of treatment showed reduction in sexual attraction for men, increased attraction to females, reduced frequency of masturbation, lowered ...

  18. Transnational Children Orchestrating Competing Voices in Multimodal, Digital Autobiographies (United States)

    Pandya, Jessica Zacher; Pagdilao, Kathleah Consul; Kim, Enok Aeloch


    Background/Context: Prior research on multimodal, digital composition has highlighted the need for educators to bring such practices into classrooms, yet little research has been done to show what kinds of products children create and what those products can tell us as researchers about how children articulate their life experiences. We draw on…

  19. Connecting, Creating and Composing: A Shared Multimodal Journey (United States)

    Krause, Margaret B.


    Given the dynamic nature of our society, literacy conceptualizations are constantly being redefined. While print literacy continues to be the primary literacy within elementary classroom, the growing nature of technological capabilities, social networking, and multimodal affordances require educators to delve into explorations of how children can…

  20. Analyzing Multimode Wireless Sensor Networks Using the Network Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Jin


    Full Text Available The network calculus is a powerful tool to analyze the performance of wireless sensor networks. But the original network calculus can only model the single-mode wireless sensor network. In this paper, we combine the original network calculus with the multimode model to analyze the maximum delay bound of the flow of interest in the multimode wireless sensor network. There are two combined methods A-MM and N-MM. The method A-MM models the whole network as a multimode component, and the method N-MM models each node as a multimode component. We prove that the maximum delay bound computed by the method A-MM is tighter than or equal to that computed by the method N-MM. Experiments show that our proposed methods can significantly decrease the analytical delay bound comparing with the separate flow analysis method. For the large-scale wireless sensor network with 32 thousands of sensor nodes, our proposed methods can decrease about 70% of the analytical delay bound.