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Sample records for multimodality imaging probes

  1. Recent developments in multimodality fluorescence imaging probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodality optical imaging probes have emerged as powerful tools that improve detection sensitivity and accuracy, important in disease diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we focus on recent developments of optical fluorescence imaging (OFI probe integration with other imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, and photoacoustic imaging (PAI. The imaging technologies are briefly described in order to introduce the strengths and limitations of each techniques and the need for further multimodality optical imaging probe development. The emphasis of this account is placed on how design strategies are currently implemented to afford physicochemically and biologically compatible multimodality optical fluorescence imaging probes. We also present studies that overcame intrinsic disadvantages of each imaging technique by multimodality approach with improved detection sensitivity and accuracy. KEY WORDS: Optical imaging, Fluorescence, Multimodality, Near-infrared fluorescence, Nanoprobe, Computed tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Positron emission tomography, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Photoacoustic imaging

  2. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Bishnu P.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research

  3. Tissue imaging using full field optical coherence microscopy with short multimode fiber probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Manabu; Eto, Kai; Goto, Tetsuhiro; Kurotani, Reiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Nishidate, Izumi

    2018-03-01

    In achieving minimally invasive accessibility to deeply located regions the size of the imaging probes is important. We demonstrated full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCM) using an ultrathin forward-imaging short multimode fiber (SMMF) probe of 50 μm core diameter, 125 μm diameter, and 7.4 mm length for optical communications. The axial resolution was measured to be 2.14 μm and the lateral resolution was also evaluated to be below 4.38 μm using a test pattern (TP). The spatial mode and polarization characteristics of SMMF were evaluated. Inserting SMMF to in vivo rat brain, 3D images were measured and 2D information of nerve fibers was obtained. The feasibility of an SMMF as an ultrathin forward-imaging probe in FF-OCM has been demonstrated.

  4. Mn-doped near-infrared quantum dots as multimodal targeted probes for pancreatic cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ken-Tye

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a novel approach to producing manganese (Mn)-doped quantum dots (Mnd-QDs) emitting in the near-infrared (NIR). Surface functionalization of Mnd-QDs with lysine makes them stably disperse in aqueous media and able to conjugate with targeting molecules. The nanoparticles were structurally and compositionally characterized and maintained a high photoluminescence quantum yield and displayed paramagnetism in water. The receptor-mediated delivery of bioconjugated Mnd-QDs into pancreatic cancer cells was demonstrated using the confocal microscopy technique. Cytotoxicity of Mnd-QDs on live cells has been evaluated. The NIR-emitting characteristic of the QDs has been exploited to acquire whole animal body imaging with high contrast signals. In addition, histological and blood analysis of mice have revealed that no long-term toxic effects arise from MnD-QDs. These studies suggest multimodal Mnd-QDs have the potentials as probes for early pancreatic cancer imaging and detection.

  5. A multifunctional probe for ICP-MS determination and multimodal imaging of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Yin, Xiao; Wang, Han; Li, Xiaoting; Hu, Bin

    2017-10-15

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) based bioassay and multimodal imaging have attracted increasing attention in the current development of cancer research and theranostics. Herein, a sensitive, simple, timesaving, and reliable immunoassay for cancer cells counting and dual-modal imaging was proposed by using ICP-MS detection and down-conversion fluorescence (FL)/upconversion luminescence (UCL) with the aid of a multifunctional probe for the first time. The probe consisted of a recognition unit of goat anti-mouse IgG to label the anti-EpCAM antibody attached cells, a fluorescent dye (Cy3) moiety for FL imaging as well as upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) tag for both ICP-MS quantification and UCL imaging of cancer cells. Under the optimized conditions, an excellent linearity and sensitivity were achieved owing to the signal amplification effect of nanoparticles and low spectral interference. Accordingly, a limit of detection (3σ) of 1×10 2 HepG2 cells and a relative standard deviation of 7.1% for seven replicate determinations of 1×10 3 HepG2 cells were obtained. This work proposed a method to employ UCNPs with highly integrated functionalities enabling us not only to count but also to see the cancer cells, opening a promising avenue for biological research and clinical theranostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multimodality imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sopena, Ramón; Bartumeus, Paula; Sopena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In multimodality imaging, the need to combine morphofunctional information can be approached by either acquiring images at different times (asynchronous), and fused them through digital image manipulation techniques or simultaneously acquiring images (synchronous) and merging them automatically. The asynchronous post-processing solution presents various constraints, mainly conditioned by the different positioning of the patient in the two scans acquired at different times in separated machines. The best solution to achieve consistency in time and space is obtained by the synchronous image acquisition. There are many multimodal technologies in molecular imaging. In this review we will focus on those multimodality image techniques more commonly used in the field of diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, PET-CT) and new developments (as PET-MR). The technological innovations and development of new tracers and smart probes are the main key points that will condition multimodality image and diagnostic imaging professionals' future. Although SPECT-CT and PET-CT are standard in most clinical scenarios, MR imaging has some advantages, providing excellent soft-tissue contrast and multidimensional functional, structural and morphological information. The next frontier is to develop efficient detectors and electronics systems capable of detecting two modality signals at the same time. Not only PET-MR but also MR-US or optic-PET will be introduced in clinical scenarios. Even more, MR diffusion-weighted, pharmacokinetic imaging, spectroscopy or functional BOLD imaging will merge with PET tracers to further increase molecular imaging as a relevant medical discipline. Multimodality imaging techniques will play a leading role in relevant clinical applications. The development of new diagnostic imaging research areas, mainly in the field of oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry, will impact the way medicine is performed today. Both clinical and experimental multimodality studies, in

  7. Transferring Biomarker into Molecular Probe: Melanin Nanoparticle as a Naturally Active Platform for Multimodality Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Quli; Cheng, Kai; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ruiping; Yang, Min; Lu, Xiaomei; Xing, Lei; Huang, Wei; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Developing multifunctional and easily prepared nanoplatforms with integrated different modalities is highly challenging for molecular imaging. Here, we report the successful transfer of an important molecular target, melanin, into a novel multimodality imaging nanoplatform. Melanin is abundantly expressed in melanotic melanomas and thus has been actively studied as a target for melanoma imaging. In our work, the multifunctional biopolymer nanoplatform based on ultrasmall (

  8. Multimodality Imaging Probe for Positron Emission Tomography and Fluorescence Imaging Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh K. Pandey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to develop multimodality imaging agents for use in cell tracking studies by positron emission tomography (PET and optical imaging (OI. For this purpose, bovine serum albumin (BSA was complexed with biotin (histologic studies, 5(6- carboxyfluorescein, succinimidyl ester (FAM SE (OI studies, and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA for chelating gallium 68 (PET studies. For synthesis of BSA-biotin-FAM-DTPA, BSA was coupled to (+-biotin N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (biotin-NHSI. BSA- biotin was treated with DTPA-anhydride and biotin-BSA-DTPA was reacted with FAM. The biotin-BSA-DTPA-FAM was reacted with gallium chloride 3 to 5 mCi eluted from the generator using 0.1 N HCl and was passed through basic resin (AG 11 A8 and 150 mCi (100 μL, pH 7–8 was incubated with 0.1 mg of FAM conjugate (100 μL at room temperature for 15 minutes to give 66Ga-BSA-biotin-DTPA-FAM. A shaved C57 black mouse was injected with FAM conjugate (50 μL at one flank and FAM-68Ga (50 μL, 30 mCi at the other. Immediately after injection, the mouse was placed in a fluorescence imaging system (Kodak In-Vivo F, Bruker Biospin Co., Woodbridge, CT and imaged (Λex: 465 nm, Λem: 535 nm, time: 8 seconds, Xenon Light Source, Kodak. The same mouse was then placed under an Inveon microPET scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions, Knoxville, TN injected (intravenously with 25 μCi of 18F and after a half-hour (to allow sufficient bone uptake was imaged for 30 minutes. Molecular weight determined using matrix-associated laser desorption ionization (MALDI for the BSA sample was 66,485 Da and for biotin-BSA was 67,116 Da, indicating two biotin moieties per BSA molecule; for biotin-BSA-DTPA was 81,584 Da, indicating an average of 30 DTPA moieties per BSA molecule; and for FAM conjugate was 82,383 Da, indicating an average of 1.7 fluorescent moieties per BSA molecule. Fluorescence imaging clearly showed localization of FAM conjugate and FAM-68Ga at respective flanks of the mouse

  9. Transferring biomarker into molecular probe: melanin nanoparticle as a naturally active platform for multimodality imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Quli; Cheng, Kai; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ruiping; Yang, Min; Lu, Xiaomei; Xing, Lei; Huang, Wei; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-10-29

    Developing multifunctional and easily prepared nanoplatforms with integrated different modalities is highly challenging for molecular imaging. Here, we report the successful transfer of an important molecular target, melanin, into a novel multimodality imaging nanoplatform. Melanin is abundantly expressed in melanotic melanomas and thus has been actively studied as a target for melanoma imaging. In our work, the multifunctional biopolymer nanoplatform based on ultrasmall (passive nanoplatforms require complicated and time-consuming processes for prebuilding reporting moieties or chemical modifications using active groups to integrate different contrast properties into one entity. In comparison, utilizing functional biomarker melanin can greatly simplify the building process. We further conjugated αvβ3 integrins, cyclic c(RGDfC) peptide, to MNPs to allow for U87MG tumor accumulation due to its targeting property combined with the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The multimodal properties of MNPs demonstrate the high potential of endogenous materials with multifunctions as nanoplatforms for molecular theranostics and clinical translation.

  10. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  11. Imaging of oxygenation in 3D tissue models with multi-modal phosphorescent probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Borisov, Sergei

    2015-03-01

    Cell-penetrating phosphorescence based probes allow real-time, high-resolution imaging of O2 concentration in respiring cells and 3D tissue models. We have developed a panel of such probes, small molecule and nanoparticle structures, which have different spectral characteristics, cell penetrating and tissue staining behavior. The probes are compatible with conventional live cell imaging platforms and can be used in different detection modalities, including ratiometric intensity and PLIM (Phosphorescence Lifetime IMaging) under one- or two-photon excitation. Analytical performance of these probes and utility of the O2 imaging method have been demonstrated with different types of samples: 2D cell cultures, multi-cellular spheroids from cancer cell lines and primary neurons, excised slices from mouse brain, colon and bladder tissue, and live animals. They are particularly useful for hypoxia research, ex-vivo studies of tissue physiology, cell metabolism, cancer, inflammation, and multiplexing with many conventional fluorophors and markers of cellular function.

  12. Multimodal fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopel, Martijn H W; Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod; Engelborghs, Yves; Visser, Anthonie J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal fluorescence imaging is a versatile method that has a wide application range from biological studies to materials science. Typical observables in multimodal fluorescence imaging are intensity, lifetime, excitation, and emission spectra which are recorded at chosen locations at the sample.

  13. Molecular MR Imaging Probes

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOOD, UMAR; JOSEPHSON, LEE

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been successfully applied to many of the applications of molecular imaging. This review discusses by example some of the advances in areas such as multimodality MR-optical agents, receptor imaging, apoptosis imaging, angiogenesis imaging, noninvasive cell tracking, and imaging of MR marker genes.

  14. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, T.J.P.; Mortensen, K.H.; Gopalan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis

  15. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, T.J.P., E-mail: timothyjpbray@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); Mortensen, K.H., E-mail: mortensen@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); University Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Box 318, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Gopalan, D., E-mail: deepa.gopalan@btopenworld.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis.

  16. Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2009-07-01

    An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

  17. Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelen, Manfred; Erbel, Raimund; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Barkhausen, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

  18. Drusen Characterization with Multimodal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaide, Richard F.; Curcio, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multimodal imaging findings and histological demonstration of soft drusen, cuticular drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits provided information used to develop a model explaining their imaging characteristics. Purpose To characterize the known appearance of cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits (reticular pseudodrusen), and soft drusen as revealed by multimodal fundus imaging; to create an explanatory model that accounts for these observations. Methods Reported color, fluorescein angiographic, autofluorescence, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of patients with cuticular drusen, soft drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits were reviewed, as were actual images from affected eyes. Representative histological sections were examined. The geometry, location, and imaging characteristics of these lesions were evaluated. A hypothesis based on the Beer-Lambert Law of light absorption was generated to fit these observations. Results Cuticular drusen appear as numerous uniform round yellow-white punctate accumulations under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Soft drusen are larger yellow-white dome-shaped mounds of deposit under the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits are polymorphous light-grey interconnected accumulations above the RPE. Based on the model, both cuticular and soft drusen appear yellow due to the removal of shorter wavelength light by a double pass through the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits, which are located on the RPE, are not subjected to short wavelength attenuation and therefore are more prominent when viewed with blue light. The location and morphology of extracellular material in relationship to the RPE, and associated changes to RPE morphology and pigmentation, appeared to be primary determinants of druse appearance in different imaging modalities. Conclusion Although cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits, and soft drusen are composed of common components, they are distinguishable

  19. Multimodality imaging of osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgazzar, A.H. [Cincinnati Univ. Medical Center, OH (United States); Abdel-Dayem, H.M. [Dept. Radiology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States)]|[Dept. of Radiology, St. Vinvent`s Hospital and Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Clark, J.D. [Cincinnati Univ. Medical Center, OH (United States); Maxon, H.R. [Cincinnati Univ. Medical Center, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01

    After a brief introduction outlining some basic principles regarding the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, pathophysiologic aspects are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality and their applications in different forms of osteomyelitis are discussed. The use of different imaging modalities in the diagnosis of special forms of osteomyelitis, including chronic, diabetic foot, and vertebral osteomyelitis, and osteomyelitis associated with orthopedic appliances and sickle cell disease is reviewed. Taking into account the site of suspected osteomyelitis and the presence or absence of underlying pathologic changes and their nature, an algorithm summarizing the use of various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis is presented. (orig.). With 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Multispectral analysis of multimodal images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvinnsland, Yngve; Brekke, Njaal (Dept. of Surgical Sciences, Univ. of Bergen, Bergen (Norway)); Taxt, Torfinn M.; Gruener, Renate (Dept. of Biomedicine, Univ. of Bergen, Bergen (Norway))

    2009-02-15

    An increasing number of multimodal images represent a valuable increase in available image information, but at the same time it complicates the extraction of diagnostic information across the images. Multispectral analysis (MSA) has the potential to simplify this problem substantially as unlimited number of images can be combined, and tissue properties across the images can be extracted automatically. Materials and methods. We have developed a software solution for MSA containing two algorithms for unsupervised classification, an EM-algorithm finding multinormal class descriptions and the k-means clustering algorithm, and two for supervised classification, a Bayesian classifier using multinormal class descriptions and a kNN-algorithm. The software has an efficient user interface for the creation and manipulation of class descriptions, and it has proper tools for displaying the results. Results. The software has been tested on different sets of images. One application is to segment cross-sectional images of brain tissue (T1- and T2-weighted MR images) into its main normal tissues and brain tumors. Another interesting set of images are the perfusion maps and diffusion maps, derived images from raw MR images. The software returns segmentation that seem to be sensible. Discussion. The MSA software appears to be a valuable tool for image analysis with multimodal images at hand. It readily gives a segmentation of image volumes that visually seems to be sensible. However, to really learn how to use MSA, it will be necessary to gain more insight into what tissues the different segments contain, and the upcoming work will therefore be focused on examining the tissues through for example histological sections.

  1. Multimodality image analysis work station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratib, O.; Huang, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design and implement a PACS (picture archiving and communication system) workstation for quantitative analysis of multimodality images. The Macintosh II personal computer was selected for its friendly user interface, its popularity among the academic and medical community, and its low cost. The Macintosh operates as a stand alone workstation where images are imported from a central PACS server through a standard Ethernet network and saved on a local magnetic or optical disk. A video digitizer board allows for direct acquisition of images from sonograms or from digitized cine angiograms. The authors have focused their project on the exploration of new means of communicating quantitative data and information through the use of an interactive and symbolic user interface. The software developed includes a variety of image analysis, algorithms for digitized angiograms, sonograms, scintigraphic images, MR images, and CT scans

  2. Tinnitus Multimodal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    those next steps, we can start to unravel how alterations in connectivity affect perceptual, attentional, and emotional aspects of tinnitus among...Coleman Memorial and Hearing Research, Inc, endowment funds. REFERENCES Ashburner, J. (2007). A fast diffeomorphic image registration algorithm. Neuroimage...Jiao, Y., et al. (2015). Tinnitus and hyperacusis involve hyperactivity and enhanced connectivity in auditory- limbic- arousal -cerebellar network

  3. A Conjugate of Pentamethine Cyanine and 18F as a Positron Emission Tomography/Near-Infrared Fluorescence Probe for Multimodality Tumor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Fei An

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The novel synthesis of a dual-modality, pentamethine cyanine (Cy5 fluorescent, 18F positron emission tomography (PET imaging probe is reported. The probe shows a large extinction coefficient and large quantum yield in the biologically transparent, near-infrared window (650–900 nm for in vivo fluorescent imaging. This fluorophore bears the isotope, 18F, giving a 18F-PET/near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF, bi-modal imaging probe, that combines the long-term stability of NIRF and the unlimited penetration depth of PET imaging. The bi-modal probe is labeled with 18F in a quick, one-step reaction, which is important in working with the rapid decay of 18F. The bi-modal probe bears a free carboxyl group, highlighting a PET/NIRF synthon that can be conjugated onto many advanced biomolecules for biomarker-specific in vivo dual-modal PET/NIR tumor imaging, confocal histology, and utility in multi-fluorophore, fluorescence-guided surgery. Its potential in vivo biocompatibility is explored in a quick proof-of-principal in vivo study. The dye is delivered to A549 xenograft flank-tumors to generate PET and NIRF signals at the tumor site. The tumor distribution is confirmed in ex vivo gamma counting and imaging. Pentamethine cyanine (Cy5 has the ability to preferentially accumulate in tumor xenografts. We substitute the PET/NIRF probe for Cy5, and explore this phenomenon.

  4. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for enhanced magnetic resonance and multimodal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikma, Elise Ann Schultz

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for noninvasive tomographic imaging of biological systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. Superparamagnetic (SPM) nanoparticles have emerged as highly effective MR contrast agents due to their biocompatibility, ease of surface modification and magnetic properties. Conventional nanoparticle contrast agents suffer from difficult synthetic reproducibility, polydisperse sizes and weak magnetism. Numerous synthetic techniques and nanoparticle formulations have been developed to overcome these barriers. However, there are still major limitations in the development of new nanoparticle-based probes for MR and multimodal imaging including low signal amplification and absence of biochemical reporters. To address these issues, a set of multimodal (T2/optical) and dual contrast (T1/T2) nanoparticle probes has been developed. Their unique magnetic properties and imaging capabilities were thoroughly explored. An enzyme-activatable contrast agent is currently being developed as an innovative means for early in vivo detection of cancer at the cellular level. Multimodal probes function by combining the strengths of multiple imaging techniques into a single agent. Co-registration of data obtained by multiple imaging modalities validates the data, enhancing its quality and reliability. A series of T2/optical probes were successfully synthesized by attachment of a fluorescent dye to the surface of different types of nanoparticles. The multimodal nanoparticles generated sufficient MR and fluorescence signal to image transplanted islets in vivo. Dual contrast T1/T2 imaging probes were designed to overcome disadvantages inherent in the individual T1 and T2 components. A class of T1/T2 agents was developed consisting of a gadolinium (III) complex (DTPA chelate or DO3A macrocycle) conjugated to a biocompatible silica-coated metal oxide nanoparticle through a disulfide linker. The disulfide linker has the ability to be reduced

  5. Registration of deformed multimodality medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshfeghi, M.; Naidich, D.

    1989-01-01

    The registration and combination of images from different modalities have several potential applications, such as functional and anatomic studies, 3D radiation treatment planning, surgical planning, and retrospective studies. Image registration algorithms should correct for any local deformations caused by respiration, heart beat, imaging device distortions, and so forth. This paper reports on an elastic matching technique for registering deformed multimodality images. Correspondences between contours in the two images are used to stretch the deformed image toward its goal image. This process is repeated a number of times, with decreasing image stiffness. As the iterations continue, the stretched image better approximates its goal image

  6. PET-MRI and multimodal cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taisong; Zhao Jinhua; Song Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Multimodality imaging, specifically PET-CT, brought a new perspective into the fields of clinical imaging. Clinical cases have shown that PET-CT has great value in clinical diagnosis and experimental research. But PET-CT still bears some limitations. A major drawback is that CT provides only limited soft tissue contrast and exposes the patient to a significant radiation dose. MRI overcome these limitations, it has excellent soft tissue contrast, high temporal and spatial resolution and no radiation damage. Additionally, since MRI provides also functional information, PET-MRI will show a new direction of multimodality imaging in the future. (authors)

  7. Multimodality imaging of the postoperative shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Multimodality imaging of the postoperative shoulder includes radiography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography, computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, and ultrasound. Target-oriented evaluation of the postoperative shoulder necessitates familiarity with surgical techniques, their typical complications and sources of failure, knowledge of normal and abnormal postoperative findings, awareness of the advantages and weaknesses with the different radiologic techniques, and clinical information on current symptoms and function. This article reviews the most commonly used surgical procedures for treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability, lesions of the labral-bicipital complex, subacromial impingement, and rotator cuff lesions and highlights the significance of imaging findings with a view to detection of recurrent lesions and postoperative complications in a multimodality approach. (orig.)

  8. Multimodal interaction in image and video applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sappa, Angel D

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Pattern Recognition (PR) and Computer Vision (CV) technologies have mainly focused on full automation, even though full automation often proves elusive or unnatural in many applications, where the technology is expected to assist rather than replace the human agents. However, not all the problems can be automatically solved being the human interaction the only way to tackle those applications. Recently, multimodal human interaction has become an important field of increasing interest in the research community. Advanced man-machine interfaces with high cognitive capabilities are a hot research topic that aims at solving challenging problems in image and video applications. Actually, the idea of computer interactive systems was already proposed on the early stages of computer science. Nowadays, the ubiquity of image sensors together with the ever-increasing computing performance has open new and challenging opportunities for research in multimodal human interaction. This book aims to show how existi...

  9. Novel magnetic heating probe for multimodal cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-05-01

    Multifunctional materials consisting of polymers and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are highly sought after in the field of biomedical engineering. These materials offer new opportunities for the development of novel cancer treatment modalities that can increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. In this paper, a novel probe for multimodal cancer treatment is proposed and analyzed. The probe is essentially a cannula with two main parts: a distal heat generating tip made of a magnetic nanocomposite and a proximal insulated shaft. A description of the concept and functional operations of the probe is presented. In an effort to assess its feasibility, the authors evaluated the ability of probe tip (made of PMMA-Fe3O4 nanocomposite) to generate heat in biological tissue using alternating magnetic field (AMF) parameters (field strength and frequency) that are acceptable for human use. Heat generation by MNPs was determined using the linear response theory. The effects of Fe3O4 volume fraction on heat generation as well as treatment time on the thermal dose were studied. The finite element method model was tested for its validity using an analytical model. Lesions were revealed to have an ellipsoidal shape and their sizes were affected by treatment time. However, their shapes remained unchanged. The comparison with the analytical model showed reasonably a good agreement to within 2%. Furthermore, the authors' numerical predictions also showed reasonable agreement with the experimental results previously reported in the literature. The authors' predictions demonstrate the feasibility of their novel probe to achieve reasonable lesion sizes, during hyperthermic or ablative heating using AMF parameters (field strength and frequency) that are acceptable for human use.

  10. Semiautomated Multimodal Breast Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Curtis

    2012-01-01

    However, due to the highly deformable nature of breast tissues, comparison of 3D and 2D modalities is a challenge. To enable this comparison, a registration technique was developed to map features from 2D mammograms to locations in the 3D image space. This technique was developed and tested using magnetic resonance (MR images as a reference 3D modality, as MR breast imaging is an established technique in clinical practice. The algorithm was validated using a numerical phantom then successfully tested on twenty-four image pairs. Dice's coefficient was used to measure the external goodness of fit, resulting in an excellent overall average of 0.94. Internal agreement was evaluated by examining internal features in consultation with a radiologist, and subjective assessment concludes that reasonable alignment was achieved.

  11. Psychophysiology-Informed (Multimodal) Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Nikolaj; Oranje, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEGEEG ) and magnetic resonance imaging are two popular methodologies for brain research. While EEGEEG has a high temporal resolution, yet a low spatial resolution, MRIMRI has the complete opposite, a high spatial resolution, yet a low temporal resolution. Obviously...

  12. Improving treatment planning accuracy through multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailer, Scott L.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Soltys, Mitchel; Cullip, Tim J.; Chen, Jun

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: In clinical practice, physicians are constantly comparing multiple images taken at various times during the patient's treatment course. One goal of such a comparison is to accurately define the gross tumor volume (GTV). The introduction of three-dimensional treatment planning has greatly enhanced the ability to define the GTV, but there are times when the GTV is not visible on the treatment-planning computed tomography (CT) scan. We have modified our treatment-planning software to allow for interactive display of multiple, registered images that enhance the physician's ability to accurately determine the GTV. Methods and Materials: Images are registered using interactive tools developed at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC). Automated methods are also available. Images registered with the treatment-planning CT scan are digitized from film. After a physician has approved the registration, the registered images are made available to the treatment-planning software. Structures and volumes of interest are contoured on all images. In the beam's eye view, wire loop representations of these structures can be visualized from all image types simultaneously. Each registered image can be seamlessly viewed during the treatment-planning process, and all contours from all image types can be seen on any registered image. A beam may, therefore, be designed based on any contour. Results: Nineteen patients have been planned and treated using multimodality imaging from November 1993 through August 1994. All registered images were digitized from film, and many were from outside institutions. Brain has been the most common site (12), but the techniques of registration and image display have also been used for the thorax (4), abdomen (2), and extremity (1). The registered image has been an magnetic resonance (MR) scan in 15 cases and a diagnostic CT scan in 5 cases. In one case, sequential MRs, one before treatment and another after 30 Gy, were used to plan

  13. Multimodal location estimation of videos and images

    CERN Document Server

    Friedland, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the field of multimodal location estimation, i.e. using acoustic, visual, and/or textual cues to estimate the shown location of a video recording. The authors' sample research results in this field in a unified way integrating research work on this topic that focuses on different modalities, viewpoints, and applications. The book describes fundamental methods of acoustic, visual, textual, social graph, and metadata processing as well as multimodal integration methods used for location estimation. In addition, the text covers benchmark metrics and explores the limits of the technology based on a human baseline. ·         Discusses localization of multimedia data; ·         Examines fundamental methods of establishing location metadata for images and videos (other than GPS tagging); ·         Covers Data-Driven as well as Semantic Location Estimation.

  14. Multimodality Imaging of Heart Valve Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajani, Ronak; Khattar, Rajdeep; Chiribiri, Amedeo; Victor, Kelly; Chambers, John

    2014-01-01

    Unidentified heart valve disease is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. It has therefore become important to accurately identify, assess and monitor patients with this condition in order that appropriate and timely intervention can occur. Although echocardiography has emerged as the predominant imaging modality for this purpose, recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography indicate that they may have an important contribution to make. The current review describes the assessment of regurgitant and stenotic heart valves by multimodality imaging (echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance) and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses

  15. Multimodality Imaging of Heart Valve Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajani, Ronak, E-mail: Dr.R.Rajani@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Khattar, Rajdeep [Department of Cardiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Chiribiri, Amedeo [Divisions of Imaging Sciences, The Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Victor, Kelly; Chambers, John [Department of Cardiology, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Unidentified heart valve disease is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. It has therefore become important to accurately identify, assess and monitor patients with this condition in order that appropriate and timely intervention can occur. Although echocardiography has emerged as the predominant imaging modality for this purpose, recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography indicate that they may have an important contribution to make. The current review describes the assessment of regurgitant and stenotic heart valves by multimodality imaging (echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance) and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  16. Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Santos Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In recent years, connectivity studies using neuroimaging data have increased the understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, data analysis is time consuming as rigorous procedures must be assured, from structuring data and pre-processing to modality specific data procedures. Until now, no single toolbox was able to perform such investigations on truly multimodal image data from beginning to end, including the combination of different connectivity analyses. Thus, we have developed the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA toolbox with the goal of diminishing time waste in data processing and to allow an innovative and comprehensive approach to brain connectivity.Materials and Methods. The MIBCA toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity toolbox that offers pre-processing, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses of multimodal image data such as diffusion-weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET. It was developed in MATLAB environment and pipelines well-known neuroimaging softwares such as Freesurfer, SPM, FSL, and Diffusion Toolkit. It further implements routines for the construction of structural, functional and effective or combined connectivity matrices, as well as, routines for the extraction and calculation of imaging and graph-theory metrics, the latter using also functions from the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Finally, the toolbox performs group statistical analysis and enables data visualization in the form of matrices, 3D brain graphs and connectograms. In this paper the MIBCA toolbox is presented by illustrating its capabilities using multimodal image data from a group of 35 healthy subjects (19–73 years old with volumetric T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state fMRI data, and 10 subjets with 18F-Altanserin PET data also.Results. It was observed both a high inter

  17. Multimodal nanoparticle imaging agents: design and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Benjamin P.; Cawthorne, Christopher; Archibald, Stephen J.

    2017-10-01

    Molecular imaging, where the location of molecules or nanoscale constructs can be tracked in the body to report on disease or biochemical processes, is rapidly expanding to include combined modality or multimodal imaging. No single imaging technique can offer the optimum combination of properties (e.g. resolution, sensitivity, cost, availability). The rapid technological advances in hardware to scan patients, and software to process and fuse images, are pushing the boundaries of novel medical imaging approaches, and hand-in-hand with this is the requirement for advanced and specific multimodal imaging agents. These agents can be detected using a selection from radioisotope, magnetic resonance and optical imaging, among others. Nanoparticles offer great scope in this area as they lend themselves, via facile modification procedures, to act as multifunctional constructs. They have relevance as therapeutics and drug delivery agents that can be tracked by molecular imaging techniques with the particular development of applications in optically guided surgery and as radiosensitizers. There has been a huge amount of research work to produce nanoconstructs for imaging, and the parameters for successful clinical translation and validation of therapeutic applications are now becoming much better understood. It is an exciting time of progress for these agents as their potential is closer to being realized with translation into the clinic. The coming 5-10 years will be critical, as we will see if the predicted improvement in clinical outcomes becomes a reality. Some of the latest advances in combination modality agents are selected and the progression pathway to clinical trials analysed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging'.

  18. Multimodality imaging of cardiothoracic lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Brett W., E-mail: bcarter2@mdanderson.org [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Thoracic Imaging, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Unit 1478, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Wu, Carol C. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, FND-202, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Khorashadi, Leila [Department of Radiology, Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Godoy, Myrna C.B.; Groot, Patricia M. de [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Thoracic Imaging, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Unit 1478, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Abbott, Gerald F. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, FND-202, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Lichtenberger III, John P. [Department of Radiology, David Grant Medical Center, Travis AFB, CA 94535 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Lymphoma is the most common hematologic malignancy and represents approximately 5.3% of all cancers. The World Health Organization published a revised classification scheme in 2008 that groups lymphomas by cell type and molecular, cytogenetic, and phenotypic characteristics. Most lymphomas affect the thorax at some stage during the course of the disease. Affected structures within the chest may include the lungs, mediastinum, pleura, and chest wall, and lymphomas may originate from these sites as primary malignancies or secondarily involve these structures after arising from other intrathoracic or extrathoracic sources. Pulmonary lymphomas are classified into one of four types: primary pulmonary lymphoma, secondary pulmonary lymphoma, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma, and post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders. Although pulmonary lymphomas may produce a myriad of diverse findings within the lungs, specific individual features or combinations of features can be used, in combination with secondary manifestations of the disease such as involvement of the mediastinum, pleura, and chest wall, to narrow the differential diagnosis. While findings of thoracic lymphoma may be evident on chest radiography, computed tomography has traditionally been the imaging modality used to evaluate the disease and effectively demonstrates the extent of intrathoracic involvement and the presence and extent of extrathoracic spread. However, additional modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT have emerged in recent years and are complementary to CT in the evaluation of patients with lymphoma. Thoracic MRI is useful in assessing vascular, cardiac, and chest wall involvement, and PET/CT is more accurate in the overall staging of lymphoma than CT and can be used to evaluate treatment response.

  19. In vivo mapping of vascular inflammation using multimodal imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Jarrett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Plaque vulnerability to rupture has emerged as a critical correlate to risk of adverse coronary events but there is as yet no clinical method to assess plaque stability in vivo. In the search to identify biomarkers of vulnerable plaques an association has been found between macrophages and plaque stability--the density and pattern of macrophage localization in lesions is indicative of probability to rupture. In very unstable plaques, macrophages are found in high densities and concentrated in the plaque shoulders. Therefore, the ability to map macrophages in plaques could allow noninvasive assessment of plaque stability. We use a multimodality imaging approach to noninvasively map the distribution of macrophages in vivo. The use of multiple modalities allows us to combine the complementary strengths of each modality to better visualize features of interest. Our combined use of Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI allows high sensitivity PET screening to identify putative lesions in a whole body view, and high resolution MRI for detailed mapping of biomarker expression in the lesions.Macromolecular and nanoparticle contrast agents targeted to macrophages were developed and tested in three different mouse and rat models of atherosclerosis in which inflamed vascular plaques form spontaneously and/or are induced by injury. For multimodal detection, the probes were designed to contain gadolinium (T1 MRI or iron oxide (T2 MRI, and Cu-64 (PET. PET imaging was utilized to identify regions of macrophage accumulation; these regions were further probed by MRI to visualize macrophage distribution at high resolution. In both PET and MR images the probes enhanced contrast at sites of vascular inflammation, but not in normal vessel walls. MRI was able to identify discrete sites of inflammation that were blurred together at the low resolution of PET. Macrophage content in the lesions was confirmed by histology.The multimodal

  20. Gamma-ray imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work

  1. [Multimodal medical image registration using cubic spline interpolation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuanlie; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Lifei; Ye, Guangchun; Mao, Zongyuan

    2007-12-01

    Based on the characteristic of the PET-CT multimodal image series, a novel image registration and fusion method is proposed, in which the cubic spline interpolation method is applied to realize the interpolation of PET-CT image series, then registration is carried out by using mutual information algorithm and finally the improved principal component analysis method is used for the fusion of PET-CT multimodal images to enhance the visual effect of PET image, thus satisfied registration and fusion results are obtained. The cubic spline interpolation method is used for reconstruction to restore the missed information between image slices, which can compensate for the shortage of previous registration methods, improve the accuracy of the registration, and make the fused multimodal images more similar to the real image. Finally, the cubic spline interpolation method has been successfully applied in developing 3D-CRT (3D Conformal Radiation Therapy) system.

  2. {beta} - amyloid imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Imaging distribution of {beta} - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the {beta} -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral {beta} - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging {beta} - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for {beta} - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for {beta} - amyloid imaging agent.

  3. β - amyloid imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae Min

    2007-01-01

    Imaging distribution of β - amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease is very important for early and accurate diagnosis. Early trial of the β -amyloid plaques includes using radiolabeled peptides which can be only applied for peripheral β - amyloid plaques due to limited penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Congo red or Chrysamine G derivatives were labeled with Tc-99m for imaging β - amyloid plaques of Alzheimer patient's brain without success due to problem with BBB penetration. Thioflavin T derivatives gave breakthrough for β - amyloid imaging in vivo, and a benzothiazole derivative [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 brought a great success. Many other benzothiazole, benzoxazole, benzofuran, imidazopyridine, and styrylbenzene derivatives have been labeled with F-18 and I-123 to improve the imaging quality. However, [C-11]6-OH-BTA-1 still remains as the best. However, short half-life of C-11 is a limitation of wide distribution of this agent. So, it is still required to develop an Tc-99m, F-18 or I-123 labeled agent for β - amyloid imaging agent

  4. Stereoscopic Integrated Imaging Goggles for Multimodal Intraoperative Image Guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Mela

    Full Text Available We have developed novel stereoscopic wearable multimodal intraoperative imaging and display systems entitled Integrated Imaging Goggles for guiding surgeries. The prototype systems offer real time stereoscopic fluorescence imaging and color reflectance imaging capacity, along with in vivo handheld microscopy and ultrasound imaging. With the Integrated Imaging Goggle, both wide-field fluorescence imaging and in vivo microscopy are provided. The real time ultrasound images can also be presented in the goggle display. Furthermore, real time goggle-to-goggle stereoscopic video sharing is demonstrated, which can greatly facilitate telemedicine. In this paper, the prototype systems are described, characterized and tested in surgeries in biological tissues ex vivo. We have found that the system can detect fluorescent targets with as low as 60 nM indocyanine green and can resolve structures down to 0.25 mm with large FOV stereoscopic imaging. The system has successfully guided simulated cancer surgeries in chicken. The Integrated Imaging Goggle is novel in 4 aspects: it is (a the first wearable stereoscopic wide-field intraoperative fluorescence imaging and display system, (b the first wearable system offering both large FOV and microscopic imaging simultaneously,

  5. FWFusion: Fuzzy Whale Fusion model for MRI multimodal image ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hanmant Venketrao Patil

    2018-03-14

    Mar 14, 2018 ... consider multi-modality medical images other than PET and MRI images. ... cipal component averaging based on DWT for fusing CT-. MRI and MRI ..... sub-band LH of the fused image, the distance measure is given based on the ...... sustainable integrated dynamic ship routing and scheduling optimization.

  6. An integrated multimodality image-guided robot system for small-animal imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Wen-Lin; Hsin Wu, Tung; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Chen, Chia-Lin; Lee, Jason J.S.; Huang, Yung-Hui

    2011-01-01

    We design and construct an image-guided robot system for use in small-animal imaging research. This device allows the use of co-registered small-animal PET-MRI images to guide the movements of robotic controllers, which will accurately place a needle probe at any predetermined location inside, for example, a mouse tumor, for biological readouts without sacrificing the animal. This system is composed of three major components: an automated robot device, a CCD monitoring mechanism, and a multimodality registration implementation. Specifically, the CCD monitoring mechanism was used for correction and validation of the robot device. To demonstrate the value of the proposed system, we performed a tumor hypoxia study that involved FMISO small-animal PET imaging and the delivering of a pO 2 probe into the mouse tumor using the image-guided robot system. During our evaluation, the needle positioning error was found to be within 0.153±0.042 mm of desired placement; the phantom simulation errors were within 0.693±0.128 mm. In small-animal studies, the pO 2 probe measurements in the corresponding hypoxia areas showed good correlation with significant, low tissue oxygen tensions (less than 6 mmHg). We have confirmed the feasibility of the system and successfully applied it to small-animal investigations. The system could be easily adapted to extend to other biomedical investigations in the future.

  7. Multimodal quantitative phase and fluorescence imaging of cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xinye; Zuo, Chao; Yan, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Fluorescence microscopy, utilizing fluorescence labeling, has the capability to observe intercellular changes which transmitted and reflected light microscopy techniques cannot resolve. However, the parts without fluorescence labeling are not imaged. Hence, the processes simultaneously happen in these parts cannot be revealed. Meanwhile, fluorescence imaging is 2D imaging where information in the depth is missing. Therefore the information in labeling parts is also not complete. On the other hand, quantitative phase imaging is capable to image cells in 3D in real time through phase calculation. However, its resolution is limited by the optical diffraction and cannot observe intercellular changes below 200 nanometers. In this work, fluorescence imaging and quantitative phase imaging are combined to build a multimodal imaging system. Such system has the capability to simultaneously observe the detailed intercellular phenomenon and 3D cell morphology. In this study the proposed multimodal imaging system is used to observe the cell behavior in the cell apoptosis. The aim is to highlight the limitations of fluorescence microscopy and to point out the advantages of multimodal quantitative phase and fluorescence imaging. The proposed multimodal quantitative phase imaging could be further applied in cell related biomedical research, such as tumor.

  8. Nanodiamond Landmarks for Subcellular Multimodal Optical and Electron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Mark A.; Lake, Michael P.; Kohan, Sirus A.; Leung, Belinda; Bouchard, Louis-S.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing need for biolabels that can be used in both optical and electron microscopies, are non-cytotoxic, and do not photobleach. Such biolabels could enable targeted nanoscale imaging of sub-cellular structures, and help to establish correlations between conjugation-delivered biomolecules and function. Here we demonstrate a sub-cellular multi-modal imaging methodology that enables localization of inert particulate probes, consisting of nanodiamonds having fluorescent nitrogen-vacancy centers. These are functionalized to target specific structures, and are observable by both optical and electron microscopies. Nanodiamonds targeted to the nuclear pore complex are rapidly localized in electron-microscopy diffraction mode to enable “zooming-in” to regions of interest for detailed structural investigations. Optical microscopies reveal nanodiamonds for in-vitro tracking or uptake-confirmation. The approach is general, works down to the single nanodiamond level, and can leverage the unique capabilities of nanodiamonds, such as biocompatibility, sensitive magnetometry, and gene and drug delivery. PMID:24036840

  9. Acoustic multimode interference and self-imaging phenomena realized in multimodal phononic crystal waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Qiushun; Yu, Tianbao; Liu, Jiangtao; Wang, Tongbiao; Liao, Qinghua; Liu, Nianhua

    2015-01-01

    We report an acoustic multimode interference effect and self-imaging phenomena in an acoustic multimode waveguide system which consists of M parallel phononic crystal waveguides (M-PnCWs). Results show that the self-imaging principle remains applicable for acoustic waveguides just as it does for optical multimode waveguides. To achieve the dispersions and replicas of the input acoustic waves produced along the propagation direction, we performed the finite element method on M-PnCWs, which support M guided modes within the target frequency range. The simulation results show that single images (including direct and mirrored images) and N-fold images (N is an integer) are identified along the propagation direction with asymmetric and symmetric incidence discussed separately. The simulated positions of the replicas agree well with the calculated values that are theoretically decided by self-imaging conditions based on the guided mode propagation analysis. Moreover, the potential applications based on this self-imaging effect for acoustic wavelength de-multiplexing and beam splitting in the acoustic field are also presented. (paper)

  10. Gamma-Ray Imaging Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Walter James

    1988-12-01

    External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work. The central concept lies in the representation of the aperture shell by a sequence of binary digits. This, coupled with the mode of operation which is data encoding within an axial slice of space, leads to the fundamental imaging equation in which the coding operation is conveniently described by a circulant matrix operator. The coding/decoding process is a classic coded-aperture problem, and various estimators to achieve decoding are discussed. Some estimators require a priori information about the object (or object class) being imaged; the only unbiased estimator that does not impose this requirement is the simple inverse-matrix operator. The effects of noise on the estimate (or reconstruction) is discussed for general noise models and various codes/decoding operators. The choice of an optimal aperture for detector count times of clinical relevance is examined using a statistical class-separability formalism.

  11. Quantitative multimodality imaging in cancer research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Abramson, Richard G; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-11-01

    Advances in hardware and software have enabled the realization of clinically feasible, quantitative multimodality imaging of tissue pathophysiology. Earlier efforts relating to multimodality imaging of cancer have focused on the integration of anatomical and functional characteristics, such as PET-CT and single-photon emission CT (SPECT-CT), whereas more-recent advances and applications have involved the integration of multiple quantitative, functional measurements (for example, multiple PET tracers, varied MRI contrast mechanisms, and PET-MRI), thereby providing a more-comprehensive characterization of the tumour phenotype. The enormous amount of complementary quantitative data generated by such studies is beginning to offer unique insights into opportunities to optimize care for individual patients. Although important technical optimization and improved biological interpretation of multimodality imaging findings are needed, this approach can already be applied informatively in clinical trials of cancer therapeutics using existing tools. These concepts are discussed herein.

  12. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara S.

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm.

  13. Discrimination of skin diseases using the multimodal imaging approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, N.; Heuke, S.; Akimov, D.; Latka, I.; Kluschke, F.; Röwert-Huber, H.-J.; Lademann, J.; Dietzek, B.; Popp, J.

    2012-06-01

    Optical microspectroscopic tools reveal great potential for dermatologic diagnostics in the clinical day-to-day routine. To enhance the diagnostic value of individual nonlinear optical imaging modalities such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG) or two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), the approach of multimodal imaging has recently been developed. Here, we present an application of nonlinear optical multimodal imaging with Raman-scattering microscopy to study sizable human-tissue cross-sections. The samples investigated contain both healthy tissue and various skin tumors. This contribution details the rich information content, which can be obtained from the multimodal approach: While CARS microscopy, which - in contrast to spontaneous Raman-scattering microscopy - is not hampered by single-photon excited fluorescence, is used to monitor the lipid and protein distribution in the samples, SHG imaging selectively highlights the distribution of collagen structures within the tissue. This is due to the fact, that SHG is only generated in structures which lack inversion geometry. Finally, TPF reveals the distribution of autofluorophores in tissue. The combination of these techniques, i.e. multimodal imaging, allows for recording chemical images of large area samples and is - as this contribution will highlight - of high clinically diagnostic value.

  14. Multimodal imaging of lung cancer and its microenvironment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Niederst, Matthew J.; Mulvey, Hillary; Adams, David C.; Hu, Haichuan; Chico Calero, Isabel; Szabari, Margit V.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Bouma, Brett E.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Despite significant advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer, nearly all patients develop drug resistance within 6-12 months and prognosis remains poor. Developing drug resistance is a progressive process that involves tumor cells and their microenvironment. We hypothesize that microenvironment factors alter tumor growth and response to targeted therapy. We conducted in vitro studies in human EGFR-mutant lung carcinoma cells, and demonstrated that factors secreted from lung fibroblasts results in increased tumor cell survival during targeted therapy with EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib. We also demonstrated that increased environment stiffness results in increased tumor survival during gefitinib therapy. In order to test our hypothesis in vivo, we developed a multimodal optical imaging protocol for preclinical intravital imaging in mouse models to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time. We have successfully conducted multimodal imaging of dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) window mice implanted with GFP-labeled human EGFR mutant lung carcinoma cells and visualized changes in tumor development and microenvironment facets over time. Multimodal imaging included structural OCT to assess tumor viability and necrosis, polarization-sensitive OCT to measure tissue birefringence for collagen/fibroblast detection, and Doppler OCT to assess tumor vasculature. Confocal imaging was also performed for high-resolution visualization of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells labeled with GFP, and was coregistered with OCT. Our results demonstrated that stromal support and vascular growth are essential to tumor progression. Multimodal imaging is a useful tool to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time.

  15. Multimodality image registration with software: state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slomka, Piotr J. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, AIM Program/Department of Imaging, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of California, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Baum, Richard P. [Center for PET, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Multimodality image integration of functional and anatomical data can be performed by means of dedicated hybrid imaging systems or by software image co-registration techniques. Hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) systems have found wide acceptance in oncological imaging, while software registration techniques have a significant role in patient-specific, cost-effective, and radiation dose-effective application of integrated imaging. Software techniques allow accurate (2-3 mm) rigid image registration of brain PET with CT and MRI. Nonlinear techniques are used in whole-body image registration, and recent developments allow for significantly accelerated computing times. Nonlinear software registration of PET with CT or MRI is required for multimodality radiation planning. Difficulties remain in the validation of nonlinear registration of soft tissue organs. The utilization of software-based multimodality image integration in a clinical environment is sometimes hindered by the lack of appropriate picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) infrastructure needed to efficiently and automatically integrate all available images into one common database. In cardiology applications, multimodality PET/single photon emission computed tomography and coronary CT angiography imaging is typically not required unless the results of one of the tests are equivocal. Software image registration is likely to be used in a complementary fashion with hybrid PET/CT or PET/magnetic resonance imaging systems. Software registration of stand-alone scans ''paved the way'' for the clinical application of hybrid scanners, demonstrating practical benefits of image integration before the hybrid dual-modality devices were available. (orig.)

  16. Multimodality image registration with software: state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slomka, Piotr J.; Baum, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Multimodality image integration of functional and anatomical data can be performed by means of dedicated hybrid imaging systems or by software image co-registration techniques. Hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) systems have found wide acceptance in oncological imaging, while software registration techniques have a significant role in patient-specific, cost-effective, and radiation dose-effective application of integrated imaging. Software techniques allow accurate (2-3 mm) rigid image registration of brain PET with CT and MRI. Nonlinear techniques are used in whole-body image registration, and recent developments allow for significantly accelerated computing times. Nonlinear software registration of PET with CT or MRI is required for multimodality radiation planning. Difficulties remain in the validation of nonlinear registration of soft tissue organs. The utilization of software-based multimodality image integration in a clinical environment is sometimes hindered by the lack of appropriate picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) infrastructure needed to efficiently and automatically integrate all available images into one common database. In cardiology applications, multimodality PET/single photon emission computed tomography and coronary CT angiography imaging is typically not required unless the results of one of the tests are equivocal. Software image registration is likely to be used in a complementary fashion with hybrid PET/CT or PET/magnetic resonance imaging systems. Software registration of stand-alone scans ''paved the way'' for the clinical application of hybrid scanners, demonstrating practical benefits of image integration before the hybrid dual-modality devices were available. (orig.)

  17. Multimodal imaging of bone metastases: From preclinical to clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Ellmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the skeletal system are commonly observed in cancer patients, highly affecting the patients' quality of life. Imaging plays a major role in detection, follow-up, and molecular characterisation of metastatic disease. Thus, imaging techniques have been optimised and combined in a multimodal and multiparametric manner for assessment of complementary aspects in osseous metastases. This review summarises both application of the most relevant imaging techniques for bone metastasis in preclinical models and the clinical setting.

  18. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. UPAR targeted molecular imaging of cancers with small molecule-based probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Chen, Seng; Zhang, Wanshu; Tu, Yufeng; Sun, Yao

    2017-10-15

    Molecular imaging can allow the non-invasive characterization and measurement of biological and biochemical processes at the molecular and cellular levels in living subjects. The imaging of specific molecular targets that are associated with cancers could allow for the earlier diagnosis and better treatment of diseases. Small molecule-based probes play prominent roles in biomedical research and have high clinical translation ability. Here, with an emphasis on small molecule-based probes, we review some recent developments in biomarkers, imaging techniques and multimodal imaging in molecular imaging and highlight the successful applications for molecular imaging of cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multimodal imaging in health, disease, and man-made disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papineni, Rao V.L.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in the fields of molecular and functional imaging are rapidly emerging as potential advance research tools in health, Disease and drug discovery. Notable are the approaches utilizing multi-modal imaging strategies in preclinical studies that are becoming extremely useful in assessing the efficacy of the novel target molecules. This talk will focus on our efforts in bringing the multimodality to preclinical research with Optical, X-ray, and noninvasive nuclear imaging. The concepts and methods in molecular imaging to support drug targeting and drug discovery will be discussed along with a focus on its utilization in radiation induced changes in the bone physiology. Also, will discuss how such approaches can be employed in future as a biodosimetry for radiation disasters or in radiation threat. (author)

  1. Visual tracking for multi-modality computer-assisted image guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basafa, Ehsan; Foroughi, Pezhman; Hossbach, Martin; Bhanushali, Jasmine; Stolka, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    With optical cameras, many interventional navigation tasks previously relying on EM, optical, or mechanical guidance can be performed robustly, quickly, and conveniently. We developed a family of novel guidance systems based on wide-spectrum cameras and vision algorithms for real-time tracking of interventional instruments and multi-modality markers. These navigation systems support the localization of anatomical targets, support placement of imaging probe and instruments, and provide fusion imaging. The unique architecture - low-cost, miniature, in-hand stereo vision cameras fitted directly to imaging probes - allows for an intuitive workflow that fits a wide variety of specialties such as anesthesiology, interventional radiology, interventional oncology, emergency medicine, urology, and others, many of which see increasing pressure to utilize medical imaging and especially ultrasound, but have yet to develop the requisite skills for reliable success. We developed a modular system, consisting of hardware (the Optical Head containing the mini cameras) and software (components for visual instrument tracking with or without specialized visual features, fully automated marker segmentation from a variety of 3D imaging modalities, visual observation of meshes of widely separated markers, instant automatic registration, and target tracking and guidance on real-time multi-modality fusion views). From these components, we implemented a family of distinct clinical and pre-clinical systems (for combinations of ultrasound, CT, CBCT, and MRI), most of which have international regulatory clearance for clinical use. We present technical and clinical results on phantoms, ex- and in-vivo animals, and patients.

  2. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  3. Focusing and imaging with increased numerical apertures through multimode fibers with micro-fabricated optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, S; Rajamanickam, V P; Ferrara, L; Di Fabrizio, E; Liberale, C; Di Leonardo, R

    2013-12-01

    The use of individual multimode optical fibers in endoscopy applications has the potential to provide highly miniaturized and noninvasive probes for microscopy and optical micromanipulation. A few different strategies have been proposed recently, but they all suffer from intrinsically low resolution related to the low numerical aperture of multimode fibers. Here, we show that two-photon polymerization allows for direct fabrication of micro-optics components on the fiber end, resulting in an increase of the numerical aperture to a value that is close to 1. Coupling light into the fiber through a spatial light modulator, we were able to optically scan a submicrometer spot (300 nm FWHM) over an extended region, facing the opposite fiber end. Fluorescence imaging with improved resolution is also demonstrated.

  4. Focusing and imaging with increased numerical apertures through multimode fibers with micro-fabricated optics

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi, Silvio; Rajamanickam, V.; Ferrara, Lorenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Liberale, Carlo; Di Leonardo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The use of individual multimode optical fibers in endoscopy applications has the potential to provide highly miniaturized and noninvasive probes for microscopy and optical micromanipulation. A few different strategies have been proposed recently, but they all suffer from intrinsically low resolution related to the low numerical aperture of multimode fibers. Here, we show that two-photon polymerization allows for direct fabrication of micro-optics components on the fiber end, resulting in an increase of the numerical aperture to a value that is close to 1. Coupling light into the fiber through a spatial light modulator, we were able to optically scan a submicrometer spot (300 nm FWHM) over an extended region, facing the opposite fiber end. Fluorescence imaging with improved resolution is also demonstrated. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  5. Multimodal fiber-probe spectroscopy as a clinical tool for diagnosing and classifying biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchi, Riccardo; Anand, Suresh; Fantechi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Gacci, Mauro; Conti, Valerio; Nesi, Gabriella; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Carini, Marco; Guerrini, Renzo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2017-07-01

    An optical fiber probe for multimodal spectroscopy was designed, developed and used for tissue diagnostics. The probe, based on a fiber bundle with optical fibers of various size and properties, allows performing spectroscopic measurements with different techniques, including fluorescence, Raman, and diffuse reflectance, using the same probe. Two visible laser diodes were used for fluorescence spectroscopy, a laser diode emitting in the NIR was used for Raman spectroscopy, and a fiber-coupled halogen lamp for diffuse reflectance. The developed probe was successfully employed for diagnostic purposes on various tissues, including brain and bladder. In particular, the device allowed discriminating healthy tissue from both tumor and dysplastic tissue as well as to perform tumor grading. The diagnostic capabilities of the method, determined using a cross-validation method with a leave-one-out approach, demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for all the examined samples, as well as a good agreement with histopathological examination performed on the same samples. The obtained results demonstrated that the multimodal approach is crucial for improving diagnostic capabilities with respect to what can be obtained from individual techniques. The experimental setup presented here can improve diagnostic capabilities on a broad range of tissues and has the potential of being used clinically for guiding surgical resection in the near future.

  6. Ethernet image communication performance in a multimodal PACS network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, S.L.; Valentino, D.J.; Chan, K.K.; Huang, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have evaluated the performance of an Ethernet network in a multimodal picture archiving and communications system (PACS) environment. The study included measurements between Sun workstations and PC- AT computers running communication software at the TCP level. First they initiated image transfers between two workstations, a server and a client. Next, they successively added clients to transfer images to the server and they measured degradation in network performance. Finally, they initiated image transfers between pairs of workstations and again measured performance degradation. The results of the authors' experiments indicate that Ethernet is suitable for image communication only in limited network situations. They discuss how to maximize network performance given these constraints

  7. Multimodal Image Alignment via Linear Mapping between Feature Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanyun; Zheng, Yuanjie; Hou, Sujuan; Chang, Yuchou; Gee, James

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel landmark matching based method for aligning multimodal images, which is accomplished uniquely by resolving a linear mapping between different feature modalities. This linear mapping results in a new measurement on similarity of images captured from different modalities. In addition, our method simultaneously solves this linear mapping and the landmark correspondences by minimizing a convex quadratic function. Our method can estimate complex image relationship between different modalities and nonlinear nonrigid spatial transformations even in the presence of heavy noise, as shown in our experiments carried out by using a variety of image modalities.

  8. Multimodal in vivo MRI and NIRF imaging of bladder tumor using peptide conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Jaehong; Dhawan, Deepika; Knapp, Deborah W.; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Choi, Kuiwon; Leary, James F.

    2012-03-01

    Exact detection and complete removal of cancer is a key point to minimize cancer recurrence. However, it is currently very difficult to detect small tumors inside human body and continuously monitor tumors using a non-invasive imaging modality. Presently, positron emission tomography (PET) can provide the most sensitive cancer images in the human body. However, PET imaging has very limited imaging time because they typically use isotopes with short halflives. PET imaging cannot also visualize anatomical information. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide highresolution images inside the body but it has a low sensitivity, so MRI contrast agents are necessary to enhance the contrast of tumor. Near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging has a good sensitivity to visualize tumor using optical probes, but it has a very limited tissue penetration depth. Therefore, we developed multi-modality nanoparticles for MRI based diagnosis and NIRF imaging based surgery of cancer. We utilized glycol chitosan of 350 nm as a vehicle for MRI contrast agents and NIRF probes. The glycol chitosan nanoparticles were conjugated with NIRF dye, Cy5.5 and bladder cancer targeting peptides to increase the internalization of cancer. For MR contrast effects, iron oxide based 22 nm nanocubes were physically loaded into the glycol chitosan nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized and evaluated in bladder tumor bearing mice. Our study suggests the potential of our nanoparticles by both MRI and NIRF imaging for tumor diagnosis and real-time NIRF image-guided tumor surgery.

  9. Multimodality imaging of Candida tropicalis myositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Daniel M. [Children' s Memorial Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, 2300 Children' s Plaza, Box 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Morgan, Elaine R. [Children' s Memorial Hospital, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Fungal myositis is a rare entity that has been described in immunocompromised patients. We present a boy with biopsy proven fungal myositis who was examined with multiple imaging modalities. MR imaging proved to be very effective for diagnostic purposes, while US imaging was able to provide guidance for biopsy. (orig.)

  10. Multimodality imaging of Candida tropicalis myositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Daniel M.; Morgan, Elaine R.

    2008-01-01

    Fungal myositis is a rare entity that has been described in immunocompromised patients. We present a boy with biopsy proven fungal myositis who was examined with multiple imaging modalities. MR imaging proved to be very effective for diagnostic purposes, while US imaging was able to provide guidance for biopsy. (orig.)

  11. Time displacement pictures with multi-mode probes from circumferential welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustenberg, H.; Jaffrey, D.; Ludwig, B.; Bertus, N.; Erhard, A.

    1985-01-01

    If a creeping wave probe is applied to butt welds typical echo patterns from weld defects can be received. It seems possible that echoes from the geometric shape of the root or the crown and defect echoes can be separated by simple means. This has been the reason for the development of a special presentation of the echo patterns received by this multi-mode creeping wave probe. The so called time displacement pictures show the AD-converted A-scans in a gray scale along a line corresponding to the time axis of the propagation. Perpendicular to this time axis results obtained from displacement of the probe parallel to the weld are presented. This kind of picture immediately provides the whole A-scan information. This paper presents some first results on simulated welds with artificial defects and on circumferential welds with typical geometric imperfections

  12. Multimodal optical coherence tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging with interleaved excitation sources for simultaneous endogenous and exogenous fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sebina; Serafino, Michael J; Rico-Jimenez, Jesus; Park, Jesung; Chen, Xi; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Walton, Brian L; Jo, Javier A; Applegate, Brian E

    2016-09-01

    Multimodal imaging probes a variety of tissue properties in a single image acquisition by merging complimentary imaging technologies. Exploiting synergies amongst the data, algorithms can be developed that lead to better tissue characterization than could be accomplished by the constituent imaging modalities taken alone. The combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) provides access to detailed tissue morphology and local biochemistry. The optical system described here merges 1310 nm swept-source OCT with time-domain FLIM having excitation at 355 and 532 nm. The pulses from 355 and 532 nm lasers have been interleaved to enable simultaneous acquisition of endogenous and exogenous fluorescence signals, respectively. The multimodal imaging system was validated using tissue phantoms. Nonspecific tagging with Alexa Flour 532 in a Watanbe rabbit aorta and active tagging of the LOX-1 receptor in human coronary artery, demonstrate the capacity of the system for simultaneous acquisition of OCT, endogenous FLIM, and exogenous FLIM in tissues.

  13. A device for multimodal imaging of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigulis, Janis; Garancis, Valerijs; Rubins, Uldis; Zaharans, Eriks; Zaharans, Janis; Elste, Liene

    2013-03-01

    A compact prototype device for diagnostic imaging of skin has been developed and tested. Polarized LED light at several spectral regions is used for illumination, and round skin spot of diameter 30mm is imaged by a CMOS sensor via crossoriented polarizing filter. Four consecutive imaging series are performed: (1) RGB image at white LED illumination for revealing subcutaneous structures; (2) four spectral images at narrowband LED illumination (450nm, 540nm, 660nm, 940nm) for mapping of the main skin chromophores; (3) video-imaging under green LED illumination for mapping of skin blood perfusion; (4) autofluorescence video-imaging under UV (365nm) LED irradiation for mapping of the skin fluorophores. Design details of the device as well as preliminary results of clinical tests are presented.

  14. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  15. Multi-Modality Registration And Fusion Of Medical Image Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassak, P.; Vencko, D.; Cerovsky, I.

    2008-01-01

    Digitalisation of health care providing facilities allows US to maximize the usage of digital data from one patient obtained by various modalities. Complex view on to the problem can be achieved from the site of morphology as well as functionality. Multi-modal registration and fusion of medical image data is one of the examples that provides improved insight and allows more precise approach and treatment. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Multimodal Imaging Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    relationship prostate cancer growth, androgen receptor (AR) levels, hypoxia, and translocator protein (TSPO) levels. As described in the statement of work... bladder uptake) that enable robust detection of small prostate cancers . In contrast, high background and variable uptake of FDHT and FMISO confounded the...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0245 TITLE: Evaluation of Multimodal Imaging Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher Chad

  17. Advanced Contrast Agents for Multimodal Biomedical Imaging Based on Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Daniel; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2018-01-01

    Clinical imaging modalities have reached a prominent role in medical diagnosis and patient management in the last decades. Different image methodologies as Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Tomography, X-Rays, or Magnetic Resonance Imaging are in continuous evolution to satisfy the increasing demands of current medical diagnosis. Progress in these methodologies has been favored by the parallel development of increasingly more powerful contrast agents. These are molecules that enhance the intrinsic contrast of the images in the tissues where they accumulate, revealing noninvasively the presence of characteristic molecular targets or differential physiopathological microenvironments. The contrast agent field is currently moving to improve the performance of these molecules by incorporating the advantages that modern nanotechnology offers. These include, mainly, the possibilities to combine imaging and therapeutic capabilities over the same theranostic platform or improve the targeting efficiency in vivo by molecular engineering of the nanostructures. In this review, we provide an introduction to multimodal imaging methods in biomedicine, the sub-nanometric imaging agents previously used and the development of advanced multimodal and theranostic imaging agents based in nanotechnology. We conclude providing some illustrative examples from our own laboratories, including recent progress in theranostic formulations of magnetoliposomes containing ω-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids to treat inflammatory diseases, or the use of stealth liposomes engineered with a pH-sensitive nanovalve to release their cargo specifically in the acidic extracellular pH microenvironment of tumors.

  18. Multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I address an ongoing discussion in Danish E-learning research about how to take advantage of the fact that digital media facilitate other communication forms than text, so-called ‘multimodal' communication, which should not be confused with the term ‘multimedia'. While multimedia...... on their teaching and learning situations. The choices they make involve e-learning resources like videos, social platforms and mobile devices, not just as digital artefacts we interact with, but the entire practice of using digital media. In a life-long learning perspective, multimodality is potentially very...

  19. A Multimodal Search Engine for Medical Imaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Eduardo; Godinho, Tiago; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The use of digital medical imaging systems in healthcare institutions has increased significantly, and the large amounts of data in these systems have led to the conception of powerful support tools: recent studies on content-based image retrieval (CBIR) and multimodal information retrieval in the field hold great potential in decision support, as well as for addressing multiple challenges in healthcare systems, such as computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). However, the subject is still under heavy research, and very few solutions have become part of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) in hospitals and clinics. This paper proposes an extensible platform for multimodal medical image retrieval, integrated in an open-source PACS software with profile-based CBIR capabilities. In this article, we detail a technical approach to the problem by describing its main architecture and each sub-component, as well as the available web interfaces and the multimodal query techniques applied. Finally, we assess our implementation of the engine with computational performance benchmarks.

  20. Feature-based Alignment of Volumetric Multi-modal Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Zöllei, Lilla; Wells, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for aligning image volumes acquired from different imaging modalities (e.g. MR, CT) based on 3D scale-invariant image features. A novel method for encoding invariant feature geometry and appearance is developed, based on the assumption of locally linear intensity relationships, providing a solution to poor repeatability of feature detection in different image modalities. The encoding method is incorporated into a probabilistic feature-based model for multi-modal image alignment. The model parameters are estimated via a group-wise alignment algorithm, that iteratively alternates between estimating a feature-based model from feature data, then realigning feature data to the model, converging to a stable alignment solution with few pre-processing or pre-alignment requirements. The resulting model can be used to align multi-modal image data with the benefits of invariant feature correspondence: globally optimal solutions, high efficiency and low memory usage. The method is tested on the difficult RIRE data set of CT, T1, T2, PD and MP-RAGE brain images of subjects exhibiting significant inter-subject variability due to pathology. PMID:24683955

  1. Multimodality imaging features of hereditary multiple exostoses

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, H K; Fitzgerald, L; Campbell, N; Lyburn, I D; Munk, P L; Buckley, O; Torreggiani, W C

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or diaphyseal aclasis is an inherited disorder characterised by the formation of multiple osteochondromas, which are cartilage-capped osseous outgrowths, and the development of associated osseous deformities. Individuals with HME may be asymptomatic or develop clinical symptoms, which prompt imaging studies. Different modalities ranging from plain radiographs to cross-sectional and nuclear medicine imaging studies can be helpful in the diagnosis and detecti...

  2. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  3. Integrated ultrasound and gamma imaging probe for medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Polito, C.; Orlandi, C.; Fabbri, A.; Vincentis, G. De

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, integrated multi-modality systems have been developed, aimed at improving the accuracy of medical diagnosis correlating information from different imaging techniques. In this contest, a novel dual modality probe is proposed, based on an ultrasound detector integrated with a small field of view single photon emission gamma camera. The probe, dedicated to visualize small organs or tissues located at short depths, performs dual modality images and permits to correlate morphological and functional information. The small field of view gamma camera consists of a continuous NaI:Tl scintillation crystal coupled with two multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. Both detectors were characterized in terms of position linearity and spatial resolution performances in order to guarantee the spatial correspondence between the ultrasound and the gamma images. Finally, dual-modality images of custom phantoms are obtained highlighting the good co-registration between ultrasound and gamma images, in terms of geometry and image processing, as a consequence of calibration procedures

  4. Multimodality cardiac imaging in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Kristian H; Gopalan, Deepa; Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2016-06-01

    Congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases contribute significantly to the threefold elevated risk of premature death in Turner syndrome. A multitude of cardiovascular anomalies and disorders, many of which deleteriously impact morbidity and mortality, is frequently left undetected and untreated because of poor adherence to screening programmes and complex clinical presentations. Imaging is essential for timely and effective primary and secondary disease prophylaxis that may alleviate the severe impact of cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome. This review illustrates how cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome manifests in a complex manner that ranges in severity from incidental findings to potentially fatal anomalies. Recommendations regarding the use of imaging for screening and surveillance of cardiovascular disease in Turner syndrome are made, emphasising the key role of non-invasive and invasive cardiovascular imaging to the management of all patients with Turner syndrome.

  5. The research progress of dual-modality probes for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Feng; Chen Yue

    2010-01-01

    Various imaging modalities have been exploited to investigate the anatomic or functional dissemination of tissues in the body. However, no single imaging modality allows overall structural, functional, and molecular information as each imaging modality has its own unique strengths and weaknesses. The combination of two imaging modalities that investigates the strengths of different methods might offer the prospect of improved diagnostic abilities. As more and more dual-modality imaging system have become clinically adopted, significant progress has been made toward the creation of dual-modality imaging probes, which can be used as novel tools for future multimodality systems. These all-in-one probes take full advantage of two different imaging modalities and could provide comprehensive information for clinical diagnostics. This review discusses the advantages and challenges in developing dual-modality imaging probes. (authors)

  6. Multimodality postoperative imaging of liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, Giulia A.; Pedrosa, Ivan; Kruskal, Jonathan B.; Raptopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the only effective and definitive treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. The shortage of cadaveric livers has lead to the increasing use of split-liver transplantation and living-donor liver transplantation, but the expansion of the donor pool has increased the risk for postoperative vascular and biliary complications. Early recognition of the imaging appearances of the various postoperative complications of liver transplantation is crucial for both graft and patient survival. This review describes the imaging findings of normal and abnormal transplanted liver parenchyma and of vascular and biliary post-transplantation complications. (orig.)

  7. OSIRIX: open source multimodality image navigation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Antoine; Pysher, Lance; Spadola, Luca; Ratib, Osman

    2005-04-01

    The goal of our project is to develop a completely new software platform that will allow users to efficiently and conveniently navigate through large sets of multidimensional data without the need of high-end expensive hardware or software. We also elected to develop our system on new open source software libraries allowing other institutions and developers to contribute to this project. OsiriX is a free and open-source imaging software designed manipulate and visualize large sets of medical images: http://homepage.mac.com/rossetantoine/osirix/

  8. A Novel Technique for Prealignment in Multimodality Medical Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image pair is often aligned initially based on a rigid or affine transformation before a deformable registration method is applied in medical image registration. Inappropriate initial registration may compromise the registration speed or impede the convergence of the optimization algorithm. In this work, a novel technique was proposed for prealignment in both monomodality and multimodality image registration based on statistical correlation of gradient information. A simple and robust algorithm was proposed to determine the rotational differences between two images based on orientation histogram matching accumulated from local orientation of each pixel without any feature extraction. Experimental results showed that it was effective to acquire the orientation angle between two unregistered images with advantages over the existed method based on edge-map in multimodalities. Applying the orientation detection into the registration of CT/MR, T1/T2 MRI, and monomadality images with respect to rigid and nonrigid deformation improved the chances of finding the global optimization of the registration and reduced the search space of optimization.

  9. Multimodality Imaging Assessment of Prosthetic Heart Valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchá, D.; Symersky, Petr; Tanis, W; Mali, Willem P Th M; Leiner, Tim; van Herwerden, LA; Budde, Ricardo P J

    Echocardiography and fluoroscopy are the main techniques for prosthetic heart valve (PHV) evaluation, but because of specific limitations they may not identify the morphological substrate or the extent of PHV pathology. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have

  10. Multimodal Imaging of Photoreceptor Structure in Choroideremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lynn W; Johnson, Ryan D; Williams, Vesper; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Dubra, Alfredo; Weinberg, David V; Stepien, Kimberly E; Fishman, Gerald A; Carroll, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Choroideremia is a progressive X-linked recessive dystrophy, characterized by degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choroid, choriocapillaris, and photoreceptors. We examined photoreceptor structure in a series of subjects with choroideremia with particular attention to areas bordering atrophic lesions. Twelve males with clinically-diagnosed choroideremia and confirmed hemizygous mutations in the CHM gene were examined. High-resolution images of the retina were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and both confocal and non-confocal split-detector adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) techniques. Eleven CHM gene mutations (3 novel) were identified; three subjects had the same mutation and one subject had two mutations. SD-OCT findings included interdigitation zone (IZ) attenuation or loss in 10/12 subjects, often in areas with intact ellipsoid zones; RPE thinning in all subjects; interlaminar bridges in the imaged areas of 10/12 subjects; and outer retinal tubulations (ORTs) in 10/12 subjects. Only split-detector AOSLO could reliably resolve cones near lesion borders, and such cones were abnormally heterogeneous in morphology, diameter and density. On split-detector imaging, the cone mosaic terminated sharply at lesion borders in 5/5 cases examined. Split-detector imaging detected remnant cone inner segments within ORTs, which were generally contiguous with a central patch of preserved retina. Early IZ dropout and RPE thinning on SD-OCT are consistent with previously published results. Evidence of remnant cone inner segments within ORTs and the continuity of the ORTs with preserved retina suggests that these may represent an intermediate state of retinal degeneration prior to complete atrophy. Taken together, these results supports a model of choroideremia in which the RPE degenerates before photoreceptors.

  11. Multimodality molecular imaging - from target description to clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Rahbar, K.; Riemann, B.

    2009-01-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations. (orig.)

  12. High numerical aperture imaging by using multimode fibers with micro-fabricated optics

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi, Silvio; Rajamanickam, V.; Ferrara, Lorenzo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Di Leonardo, Roberto; Liberale, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Controlling light propagation into multimode optical fibers through spatial light modulators provides highly miniaturized endoscopes and optical micromanipulation probes. We increase the numerical aperture up to nearly 1 by micro-optics fabricated on the fiber-end.

  13. Multimodal imaging in cerebral gliomas and its neuropathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gempt, Jens, E-mail: jens.gempt@lrz.tum.de [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Soehngen, Eric [Abteilung für Neuroradiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Abteilung für Neuropathologie des Instituts für Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Förster, Stefan [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Ryang, Yu-Mi [Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); Schlegel, Jürgen [Abteilung für Neuropathologie des Instituts für Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 München (Germany); and others

    2014-05-15

    Introduction: Concerning the preoperative clinical diagnostic work-up of glioma patients, tumor heterogeneity challenges the oncological therapy. The current study assesses the performance of a multimodal imaging approach to differentiate between areas in malignant gliomas and to investigate the extent to which such a combinatorial imaging approach might predict the underlying histology. Methods: Prior to surgical resection, patients harboring intracranial gliomas underwent MRIs (MR-S, PWI) and {sup 18}F-FET-PETs. Intratumoral and peritumoral biopsy targets were defined, by MRI only, by FET-PET only, and by MRI and FET-PET combined, and biopsied prior to surgical resection and which then received separate histopathological examinations. Results: In total, 38 tissue samples were acquired (seven glioblastomas, one anaplastic astrocytoma, one anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, one diffuse astrocytoma, and one oligoastrocytoma) and underwent histopathological analysis. The highest mean values of Mib1 and CD31 were found in the target point “T’ defined by MRI and FET-PET combined. A significant correlation between NAA/Cr and PET tracer uptake (−0.845, p < 0.05) as well as Cho/Cr ratio and cell density (0.742, p < 0.05) and NAA/Cr ratio and MIB-1 (−0761, p < 0.05) was disclosed for this target point, though not for target points defined by MRI and FET-PET alone. Conclusion: Multimodal-imaging-guided stereotactic biopsy correlated more with histological malignancy indices, such as cell density and MIB-1 labeling, than targets that were based solely on the highest amino acid uptake or contrast enhancement on MRI. The results of our study indicate that a combined PET-MR multimodal imaging approach bears potential benefits in detecting glioma heterogeneity.

  14. Echocardiography in the Era of Multimodality Cardiovascular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Benoy Nalin

    2013-01-01

    Echocardiography remains the most frequently performed cardiac imaging investigation and is an invaluable tool for detailed and accurate evaluation of cardiac structure and function. Echocardiography, nuclear cardiology, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and cardiovascular-computed tomography comprise the subspeciality of cardiovascular imaging, and these techniques are often used together for a multimodality, comprehensive assessment of a number of cardiac diseases. This paper provides the general cardiologist and physician with an overview of state-of-the-art modern echocardiography, summarising established indications as well as highlighting advances in stress echocardiography, three-dimensional echocardiography, deformation imaging, and contrast echocardiography. Strengths and limitations of echocardiography are discussed as well as the growing role of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in the guidance of structural heart interventions in the cardiac catheter laboratory. PMID:23878804

  15. Multimodal image registration based on binary gradient angle descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongsheng; Shi, Yonghong; Yao, Demin; Fan, Yifeng; Wang, Manning; Song, Zhijian

    2017-12-01

    Multimodal image registration plays an important role in image-guided interventions/therapy and atlas building, and it is still a challenging task due to the complex intensity variations in different modalities. The paper addresses the problem and proposes a simple, compact, fast and generally applicable modality-independent binary gradient angle descriptor (BGA) based on the rationale of gradient orientation alignment. The BGA can be easily calculated at each voxel by coding the quadrant in which a local gradient vector falls, and it has an extremely low computational complexity, requiring only three convolutions, two multiplication operations and two comparison operations. Meanwhile, the binarized encoding of the gradient orientation makes the BGA more resistant to image degradations compared with conventional gradient orientation methods. The BGA can extract similar feature descriptors for different modalities and enable the use of simple similarity measures, which makes it applicable within a wide range of optimization frameworks. The results for pairwise multimodal and monomodal registrations between various images (T1, T2, PD, T1c, Flair) consistently show that the BGA significantly outperforms localized mutual information. The experimental results also confirm that the BGA can be a reliable alternative to the sum of absolute difference in monomodal image registration. The BGA can also achieve an accuracy of [Formula: see text], similar to that of the SSC, for the deformable registration of inhale and exhale CT scans. Specifically, for the highly challenging deformable registration of preoperative MRI and 3D intraoperative ultrasound images, the BGA achieves a similar registration accuracy of [Formula: see text] compared with state-of-the-art approaches, with a computation time of 18.3 s per case. The BGA improves the registration performance in terms of both accuracy and time efficiency. With further acceleration, the framework has the potential for

  16. Multimodal advanced imaging of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanenbaum, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: DWI is a powerful addition to the arsenal of MR imaging techniques for the detection of bone marrow tumor dissemination, improving sensitivity to involvement in a variety of tumor types. DWI increases confidence in monitoring treatment response and assisting in the differentiation of treatment related changes from tumor. DWI has also become an important component of whole-body MR oncology protocols. Distinguishing between benign and malignant etiologies of vertebral fracture with MRI is problematic, particularly if only one vertebra is affected. the value of DWI in discriminating between osteoporotic and metastatic vertebral fractures is controversial and by consensus insufficiently reliable. DWI is useful for differentiation of degenerative and infectious endplate abnormalities. Symptomatic degenerative vertebral endplate signal changes (Modic type 1) can be difficult to differentiate from acute spondylodiscitis using conventional MRI techniques. Several studies have shown that DWI adds value in differentiating degenerative and infectious endplate abnormalities. Recently a characteristic DWI finding of well-marginated, linear, typically paired regions of high signal at the interface of normal with abnormal marrow, referred to as a ‘claw’ sign, is been shown to be highly suggestive of degeneration and its absence in cases with Modic type I changes suggestive of diskitis/osteomyelitis. the value of excluding the possibility of infection can be seen in reduction in unnecessary, often invasive ancillary testing and reduced levels of patient concern. DWI may also yield insight into intervertebral disc degeneration. It has recently been shown in the lumbar spine that disc degeneration can influence ADC values with negative correlation between ADC and the degree of disc degeneration

  17. An atlas-based multimodal registration method for 2D images with discrepancy structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenchao; Chen, Houjin; Peng, Yahui; Li, Yanfeng; Li, Jupeng

    2018-06-04

    An atlas-based multimodal registration method for 2-dimension images with discrepancy structures was proposed in this paper. Atlas was utilized for complementing the discrepancy structure information in multimodal medical images. The scheme includes three steps: floating image to atlas registration, atlas to reference image registration, and field-based deformation. To evaluate the performance, a frame model, a brain model, and clinical images were employed in registration experiments. We measured the registration performance by the squared sum of intensity differences. Results indicate that this method is robust and performs better than the direct registration for multimodal images with discrepancy structures. We conclude that the proposed method is suitable for multimodal images with discrepancy structures. Graphical Abstract An Atlas-based multimodal registration method schematic diagram.

  18. Multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    In this paper, I address an ongoing discussion in Danish E-learning research about how to take advantage of the fact that digital media facilitate other communication forms than text, so-called ‘multimodal’ communication, which should not be confused with the term ‘multimedia’. While multimedia...... and learning situations. The choices they make involve E-learning resources like videos, social platforms and mobile devices, not just as digital artefacts we interact with, but the entire practice of using digital media. In a life-long learning perspective, multimodality is potentially very useful...

  19. Design and Applications of a Multimodality Image Data Warehouse Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen T.C.; Hoo, Kent Soo; Knowlton, Robert C.; Laxer, Kenneth D.; Cao, Xinhau; Hawkins, Randall A.; Dillon, William P.; Arenson, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive data warehouse framework is needed, which encompasses imaging and non-imaging information in supporting disease management and research. The authors propose such a framework, describe general design principles and system architecture, and illustrate a multimodality neuroimaging data warehouse system implemented for clinical epilepsy research. The data warehouse system is built on top of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment and applies an iterative object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) approach and recognized data interface and design standards. The implementation is based on a Java CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) and Web-based architecture that separates the graphical user interface presentation, data warehouse business services, data staging area, and backend source systems into distinct software layers. To illustrate the practicality of the data warehouse system, the authors describe two distinct biomedical applications—namely, clinical diagnostic workup of multimodality neuroimaging cases and research data analysis and decision threshold on seizure foci lateralization. The image data warehouse framework can be modified and generalized for new application domains. PMID:11971885

  20. Multi-modality molecular imaging: pre-clinical laboratory configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanjun; Wellen, Jeremy W.; Sarkar, Susanta K.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of in vivo molecular imaging applications has rapidly increased. Here we report on the construction of a multi-modality imaging facility in a pharmaceutical setting that is expected to further advance existing capabilities for in vivo imaging of drug distribution and the interaction with their target. The imaging instrumentation in our facility includes a microPET scanner, a four wavelength time-domain optical imaging scanner, a 9.4T/30cm MRI scanner and a SPECT/X-ray CT scanner. An electronics shop and a computer room dedicated to image analysis are additional features of the facility. The layout of the facility was designed with a central animal preparation room surrounded by separate laboratory rooms for each of the major imaging modalities to accommodate the work-flow of simultaneous in vivo imaging experiments. This report will focus on the design of and anticipated applications for our microPET and optical imaging laboratory spaces. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to maximize the daily throughput of animal scans through development of efficient experimental work-flows and the use of multiple animals in a single scanning session.

  1. Multimodal nonlinear imaging of arabidopsis thaliana root cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bumjoon; Lee, Sung-Ho; Woo, Sooah; Park, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Myeong Min; Park, Seung-Han

    2017-07-01

    Nonlinear optical microscopy has enabled the possibility to explore inside the living organisms. It utilizes ultrashort laser pulse with long wavelength (greater than 800nm). Ultrashort pulse produces high peak power to induce nonlinear optical phenomenon such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and harmonic generations in the medium while maintaining relatively low average energy pre area. In plant developmental biology, confocal microscopy is widely used in plant cell imaging after the development of biological fluorescence labels in mid-1990s. However, fluorescence labeling itself affects the sample and the sample deviates from intact condition especially when labelling the entire cell. In this work, we report the dynamic images of Arabidopsis thaliana root cells. This demonstrates the multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy is an effective tool for long-term plant cell imaging.

  2. Enhanced EDX images by fusion of multimodal SEM images using pansharpening techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, G; Angulo, J; Moreaud, M; Sorbier, L

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential interest of image fusion in the context of multimodal scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. In particular, we aim at merging the backscattered electron images that usually have a high spatial resolution but do not provide enough discriminative information to physically classify the nature of the sample, with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) images that have discriminative information but a lower spatial resolution. The produced images are named enhanced EDX. To achieve this goal, we have compared the results obtained with classical pansharpening techniques for image fusion with an original approach tailored for multimodal SEM fusion of information. Quantitative assessment is obtained by means of two SEM images and a simulated dataset produced by a software based on PENELOPE. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  4. Nuclear medicine and multimodality imaging of pediatric neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Wolfgang Peter; Pfluger, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Coppenrath, Eva [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and is metastatic or high risk for relapse in nearly 50% of cases. Therefore, exact staging with radiological and nuclear medicine imaging methods is crucial for defining the adequate therapeutic choice. Tumor cells express the norepinephrine transporter, which makes metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), an analogue of norepinephrine, an ideal tumor specific agent for imaging. MIBG imaging has several disadvantages, such as limited spatial resolution, limited sensitivity in small lesions and the need for two or even more acquisition sessions. Most of these limitations can be overcome with positron emission tomography (PET) using [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose [FDG]. Furthermore, new tracers, such as fluorodopa or somatostatin receptor agonists, have been tested for imaging neuroblastoma recently. However, MIBG scintigraphy and PET alone are not sufficient for operative or biopsy planning. In this regard, a combination with morphological imaging is indispensable. This article will discuss strategies for primary and follow-up diagnosis in neuroblastoma using different nuclear medicine and radiological imaging methods as well as multimodality imaging. (orig.)

  5. Water-stable NaLuF4-based upconversion nanophosphors with long-term validity for multimodal lymphatic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Xingjun; Chen, Min; Sun, Yun; Li, Fuyou

    2012-09-01

    Multimodal imaging is rapidly becoming an important tool for biomedical applications because it can compensate for the deficiencies of individual imaging modalities. Herein, multifunctional NaLuF(4)-based upconversion nanoparticles (Lu-UCNPs) were synthesized though a facile one-step microemulsion method under ambient condition. The doping of lanthanide ions (Gd(3+), Yb(3+) and Er(3+)/Tm(3+)) endows the Lu-UCNPs with high T(1)-enhancement, bright upconversion luminescence (UCL) emissions, and excellent X-ray absorption coefficient. Moreover, the as-prepared Lu-UCNPs are stable in water for more than six months, due to the protection of sodium glutamate and diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA) coordinating ligands on the surface. Lu-UCNPs have been successfully applied to the trimodal CT/MR/UCL lymphatic imaging on the modal of small animals. It is worth noting that Lu-UCNPs could be used for imaging even after preserving for over six months. In vitro transmission electron microscope (TEM), methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and histological analysis demonstrated that Lu-UCNPs exhibited low toxicity on living systems. Therefore, Lu-UCNPs could be multimodal agents for CT/MR/UCL imaging, and the concept can be served as a platform technology for the next-generation of probes for multimodal imaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. AMIDE: A Free Software Tool for Multimodality Medical Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Markus Loening

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Amide's a Medical Image Data Examiner (AMIDE has been developed as a user-friendly, open-source software tool for displaying and analyzing multimodality volumetric medical images. Central to the package's abilities to simultaneously display multiple data sets (e.g., PET, CT, MRI and regions of interest is the on-demand data reslicing implemented within the program. Data sets can be freely shifted, rotated, viewed, and analyzed with the program automatically handling interpolation as needed from the original data. Validation has been performed by comparing the output of AMIDE with that of several existing software packages. AMIDE runs on UNIX, Macintosh OS X, and Microsoft Windows platforms, and it is freely available with source code under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

  7. Multimodal Imaging Nanoparticles Derived from Hyaluronic Acid for Integrated Preoperative and Intraoperative Cancer Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Payne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection remains the most promising treatment strategy for many types of cancer. Residual malignant tissue after surgery, a consequence in part due to positive margins, contributes to high mortality and disease recurrence. In this study, multimodal contrast agents for integrated preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and intraoperative fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS are developed. Self-assembled multimodal imaging nanoparticles (SAMINs were developed as a mixed micelle formulation using amphiphilic HA polymers functionalized with either GdDTPA for T1 contrast-enhanced MRI or Cy7.5, a near infrared fluorophore. To evaluate the relationship between MR and fluorescence signal from SAMINs, we employed simulated surgical phantoms that are routinely used to evaluate the depth at which near infrared (NIR imaging agents can be detected by FIGS. Finally, imaging agent efficacy was evaluated in a human breast tumor xenograft model in nude mice, which demonstrated contrast in both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Image processing for HTS SQUID probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Koetitz, R.; Itozaki, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawabe, U.

    2005-01-01

    An HTS SQUID probe microscope has been developed using a high-permeability needle to enable high spatial resolution measurement of samples in air even at room temperature. Image processing techniques have also been developed to improve the magnetic field images obtained from the microscope. Artifacts in the data occur due to electromagnetic interference from electric power lines, line drift and flux trapping. The electromagnetic interference could successfully be removed by eliminating the noise peaks from the power spectrum of fast Fourier transforms of line scans of the image. The drift between lines was removed by interpolating the mean field value of each scan line. Artifacts in line scans occurring due to flux trapping or unexpected noise were removed by the detection of a sharp drift and interpolation using the line data of neighboring lines. Highly detailed magnetic field images were obtained from the HTS SQUID probe microscope by the application of these image processing techniques

  9. Gadolinium oxysulfide nanoprobes with both persistent luminescent and magnetic properties for multimodal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    ROSTICHER , C.; Viana , Bruno; Fortin , M.-A.; Lagueux , J.; Faucher , L.; Chanéac , Corinne

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Persistent luminescence and magnetic properties of Gd2O2S: Eu 3+ , Ti 4+ , Mg 2+ nanoparticles have been studied to attest the relevance of such nanoparticles as nanoprobes for multimodal imaging. The development of new imaging tools is required to improve the quality of medical images and then to diagnose some disorders as quickly as possible in order to ensure more effective treatment. Multimodal imaging agents here developed combine the high resolution abilities of ...

  10. Multimodal Imaging of Human Brain Activity: Rational, Biophysical Aspects and Modes of Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinowska, Katarzyna; Müller-Putz, Gernot; Kaiser, Vera; Astolfi, Laura; Vanderperren, Katrien; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lemieux, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Until relatively recently the vast majority of imaging and electrophysiological studies of human brain activity have relied on single-modality measurements usually correlated with readily observable or experimentally modified behavioural or brain state patterns. Multi-modal imaging is the concept of bringing together observations or measurements from different instruments. We discuss the aims of multi-modal imaging and the ways in which it can be accomplished using representative applications. Given the importance of haemodynamic and electrophysiological signals in current multi-modal imaging applications, we also review some of the basic physiology relevant to understanding their relationship. PMID:19547657

  11. MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF ANGIOID STREAKS ASSOCIATED WITH TURNER SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Bing Q; Tsui, Edmund; Hussnain, Syed Amal; Barbazetto, Irene A; Smith, R Theodore

    2018-02-13

    To report multimodal imaging in a novel case of angioid streaks in a patient with Turner syndrome with 10-year follow-up. Case report of a patient with Turner syndrome and angioid streaks followed at Bellevue Hospital Eye Clinic from 2007 to 2017. Fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography angiography were obtained. Angioid streaks with choroidal neovascularization were noted in this patient with Turner syndrome without other systemic conditions previously correlated with angioid streaks. We report a case of angioid streaks with choroidal neovascularization in a patient with Turner syndrome. We demonstrate that angioid streaks, previously associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Paget disease of bone, and hemoglobinopathies, may also be associated with Turner syndrome, and may continue to develop choroidal neovascularization, suggesting the need for careful ophthalmic examination in these patients.

  12. Image recovery from defocused 2D fluorescent images in multimodal digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiangyu; Matoba, Osamu; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro

    2017-05-01

    A technique of three-dimensional (3D) intensity retrieval from defocused, two-dimensional (2D) fluorescent images in the multimodal digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is proposed. In the multimodal DHM, 3D phase and 2D fluorescence distributions are obtained simultaneously by an integrated system of an off-axis DHM and a conventional epifluorescence microscopy, respectively. This gives us more information of the target; however, defocused fluorescent images are observed due to the short depth of field. In this Letter, we propose a method to recover the defocused images based on the phase compensation and backpropagation from the defocused plane to the focused plane using the distance information that is obtained from a 3D phase distribution. By applying Zernike polynomial phase correction, we brought back the fluorescence intensity to the focused imaging planes. The experimental demonstration using fluorescent beads is presented, and the expected applications are suggested.

  13. Optical Probes for Neurobiological Sensing and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric H; Chin, Gregory; Rong, Guoxin; Poskanzer, Kira E; Clark, Heather A

    2018-04-13

    Fluorescent nanosensors and molecular probes are next-generation tools for imaging chemical signaling inside and between cells. Electrophysiology has long been considered the gold standard in elucidating neural dynamics with high temporal resolution and precision, particularly on the single-cell level. However, electrode-based techniques face challenges in illuminating the specific chemicals involved in neural cell activation with adequate spatial information. Measuring chemical dynamics is of fundamental importance to better understand synergistic interactions between neurons as well as interactions between neurons and non-neuronal cells. Over the past decade, significant technological advances in optical probes and imaging methods have enabled entirely new possibilities for studying neural cells and circuits at the chemical level. These optical imaging modalities have shown promise for combining chemical, temporal, and spatial information. This potential makes them ideal candidates to unravel the complex neural interactions at multiple scales in the brain, which could be complemented by traditional electrophysiological methods to obtain a full spatiotemporal picture of neurochemical dynamics. Despite the potential, only a handful of probe candidates have been utilized to provide detailed chemical information in the brain. To date, most live imaging and chemical mapping studies rely on fluorescent molecular indicators to report intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) dynamics, which correlates with neuronal activity. Methodological advances for monitoring a full array of chemicals in the brain with improved spatial, temporal, and chemical resolution will thus enable mapping of neurochemical circuits with finer precision. On the basis of numerous studies in this exciting field, we review the current efforts to develop and apply a palette of optical probes and nanosensors for chemical sensing in the brain. There is a strong impetus to further develop technologies capable of

  14. Tumor image signatures and habitats: a processing pipeline of multimodality metabolic and physiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Daekeun; Kim, Michelle M; Aryal, Madhava P; Parmar, Hemant; Piert, Morand; Lawrence, Theodore S; Cao, Yue

    2018-01-01

    To create tumor "habitats" from the "signatures" discovered from multimodality metabolic and physiological images, we developed a framework of a processing pipeline. The processing pipeline consists of six major steps: (1) creating superpixels as a spatial unit in a tumor volume; (2) forming a data matrix [Formula: see text] containing all multimodality image parameters at superpixels; (3) forming and clustering a covariance or correlation matrix [Formula: see text] of the image parameters to discover major image "signatures;" (4) clustering the superpixels and organizing the parameter order of the [Formula: see text] matrix according to the one found in step 3; (5) creating "habitats" in the image space from the superpixels associated with the "signatures;" and (6) pooling and clustering a matrix consisting of correlation coefficients of each pair of image parameters from all patients to discover subgroup patterns of the tumors. The pipeline was applied to a dataset of multimodality images in glioblastoma (GBM) first, which consisted of 10 image parameters. Three major image "signatures" were identified. The three major "habitats" plus their overlaps were created. To test generalizability of the processing pipeline, a second image dataset from GBM, acquired on the scanners different from the first one, was processed. Also, to demonstrate the clinical association of image-defined "signatures" and "habitats," the patterns of recurrence of the patients were analyzed together with image parameters acquired prechemoradiation therapy. An association of the recurrence patterns with image-defined "signatures" and "habitats" was revealed. These image-defined "signatures" and "habitats" can be used to guide stereotactic tissue biopsy for genetic and mutation status analysis and to analyze for prediction of treatment outcomes, e.g., patterns of failure.

  15. Modality prediction of biomedical literature images using multimodal feature representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelka, Obioma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling approaches performed to automatically predict the modality of images found in biomedical literature. Various state-of-the-art visual features such as Bag-of-Keypoints computed with dense SIFT descriptors, texture features and Joint Composite Descriptors were used for visual image representation. Text representation was obtained by vector quantisation on a Bag-of-Words dictionary generated using attribute importance derived from a χ-test. Computing the principal components separately on each feature, dimension reduction as well as computational load reduction was achieved. Various multiple feature fusions were adopted to supplement visual image information with corresponding text information. The improvement obtained when using multimodal features vs. visual or text features was detected, analysed and evaluated. Random Forest models with 100 to 500 deep trees grown by resampling, a multi class linear kernel SVM with C=0.05 and a late fusion of the two classifiers were used for modality prediction. A Random Forest classifier achieved a higher accuracy and computed Bag-of-Keypoints with dense SIFT descriptors proved to be a better approach than with Lowe SIFT.

  16. Classification of ADHD children through multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai eDai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common diseases in school-age children. To date, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly subjective and studies of objective diagnostic method are of great importance. Although many efforts have been made recently to investigate the use of structural and functional brain images for the diagnosis purpose, few of them are related to ADHD. In this paper, we introduce an automatic classification framework based on brain imaging features of ADHD patients, and present in detail the feature extraction, feature selection and classifier training methods. The effects of using different features are compared against each other. In addition, we integrate multimodal image features using multi-kernel learning (MKL. The performance of our framework has been validated in the ADHD-200 Global Competition, which is a world-wide classification contest on the ADHD-200 datasets. In this competition, our classification framework using features of resting-state functional connectivity was ranked the 6th out of 21 participants under the competition scoring policy, and performed the best in terms of sensitivity and J-statistic.

  17. Multimodal imaging Gd-nanoparticles functionalized with Pittsburgh compound B or a nanobody for amyloid plaques targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansieri, Jonathan; Plissonneau, Marie; Stransky-Heilkron, Nathalie; Dumoulin, Mireille; Heinrich-Balard, Laurence; Rivory, Pascaline; Morfin, Jean-François; Toth, Eva; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Allémann, Eric; Tillement, Olivier; Forge, Vincent; Lux, François; Marquette, Christel

    2017-07-01

    Gadolinium-based nanoparticles were functionalized with either the Pittsburgh compound B or a nanobody (B10AP) in order to create multimodal tools for an early diagnosis of amyloidoses. The ability of the functionalized nanoparticles to target amyloid fibrils made of β-amyloid peptide, amylin or Val30Met-mutated transthyretin formed in vitro or from pathological tissues was investigated by a range of spectroscopic and biophysics techniques including fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticles functionalized by both probes efficiently interacted with the three types of amyloid fibrils, with K D values in 10 micromolar and 10 nanomolar range for, respectively, Pittsburgh compound B and B10AP nanoparticles. Moreover, they allowed the detection of amyloid deposits on pathological tissues. Such functionalized nanoparticles could represent promising flexible and multimodal imaging tools for the early diagnostic of amyloid diseases, in other words, Alzheimer's disease, Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

  18. Development of a multi-scale and multi-modality imaging system to characterize tumours and their microenvironment in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffiac, Valérie; Ser-Leroux, Karine; Dugon, Emilie; Leguerney, Ingrid; Polrot, Mélanie; Robin, Sandra; Salomé-Desnoulez, Sophie; Ginefri, Jean-Christophe; Sebrié, Catherine; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne

    2015-03-01

    In vivo high-resolution imaging of tumor development is possible through dorsal skinfold chamber implantable on mice model. However, current intravital imaging systems are weakly tolerated along time by mice and do not allow multimodality imaging. Our project aims to develop a new chamber for: 1- long-term micro/macroscopic visualization of tumor (vascular and cellular compartments) and tissue microenvironment; and 2- multimodality imaging (photonic, MRI and sonography). Our new experimental device was patented in March 2014 and was primarily assessed on 75 mouse engrafted with 4T1-Luc tumor cell line, and validated in confocal and multiphoton imaging after staining the mice vasculature using Dextran 155KDa-TRITC or Dextran 2000kDa-FITC. Simultaneously, a universal stage was designed for optimal removal of respiratory and cardiac artifacts during microscopy assays. Experimental results from optical, ultrasound (Bmode and pulse subtraction mode) and MRI imaging (anatomic sequences) showed that our patented design, unlike commercial devices, improves longitudinal monitoring over several weeks (35 days on average against 12 for the commercial chamber) and allows for a better characterization of the early and late tissue alterations due to tumour development. We also demonstrated the compatibility for multimodality imaging and the increase of mice survival was by a factor of 2.9, with our new skinfold chamber. Current developments include: 1- defining new procedures for multi-labelling of cells and tissue (screening of fluorescent molecules and imaging protocols); 2- developing ultrasound and MRI imaging procedures with specific probes; 3- correlating optical/ultrasound/MRI data for a complete mapping of tumour development and microenvironment.

  19. 4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segars, W. P.; Sturgeon, G.; Mendonca, S.; Grimes, Jason; Tsui, B. M. W. [Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Hock Plaza, Suite 302, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: The authors develop the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. Methods: Highly detailed whole-body anatomies for the adult male and female were defined in the XCAT using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) and subdivision surfaces based on segmentation of the Visible Male and Female anatomical datasets from the National Library of Medicine as well as patient datasets. Using the flexibility of these surfaces, the Visible Human anatomies were transformed to match body measurements and organ volumes for a 50th percentile (height and weight) male and female. The desired body measurements for the models were obtained using the PEOPLESIZE program that contains anthropometric dimensions categorized from 1st to the 99th percentile for US adults. The desired organ volumes were determined from ICRP Publication 89 [ICRP, ''Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values,'' ICRP Publication 89 (International Commission on Radiological Protection, New York, NY, 2002)]. The male and female anatomies serve as standard templates upon which anatomical variations may be modeled in the XCAT through user-defined parameters. Parametrized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions were also incorporated into the XCAT based on high-resolution cardiac- and respiratory-gated multislice CT data. To demonstrate the usefulness of the phantom, the authors show example simulation studies in PET, SPECT, and CT using publicly available simulation packages. Results: As demonstrated in the pilot studies, the 4D XCAT (which includes thousands of anatomical structures) can produce realistic imaging data when combined with accurate models of the imaging process. With the flexibility of the NURBS surface primitives, any number of different anatomies, cardiac or respiratory motions or patterns, and spatial resolutions can be simulated to perform imaging research. Conclusions: With the

  20. 4D XCAT phantom for multimodality imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segars, W. P.; Sturgeon, G.; Mendonca, S.; Grimes, Jason; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors develop the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. Methods: Highly detailed whole-body anatomies for the adult male and female were defined in the XCAT using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) and subdivision surfaces based on segmentation of the Visible Male and Female anatomical datasets from the National Library of Medicine as well as patient datasets. Using the flexibility of these surfaces, the Visible Human anatomies were transformed to match body measurements and organ volumes for a 50th percentile (height and weight) male and female. The desired body measurements for the models were obtained using the PEOPLESIZE program that contains anthropometric dimensions categorized from 1st to the 99th percentile for US adults. The desired organ volumes were determined from ICRP Publication 89 [ICRP, ''Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values,'' ICRP Publication 89 (International Commission on Radiological Protection, New York, NY, 2002)]. The male and female anatomies serve as standard templates upon which anatomical variations may be modeled in the XCAT through user-defined parameters. Parametrized models for the cardiac and respiratory motions were also incorporated into the XCAT based on high-resolution cardiac- and respiratory-gated multislice CT data. To demonstrate the usefulness of the phantom, the authors show example simulation studies in PET, SPECT, and CT using publicly available simulation packages. Results: As demonstrated in the pilot studies, the 4D XCAT (which includes thousands of anatomical structures) can produce realistic imaging data when combined with accurate models of the imaging process. With the flexibility of the NURBS surface primitives, any number of different anatomies, cardiac or respiratory motions or patterns, and spatial resolutions can be simulated to perform imaging research. Conclusions: With the ability to produce

  1. Mitral Valve Prolapse: Multimodality Imaging and Genetic Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwani, Purvi; Avierinos, Jean-Francois; Levine, Robert A; Delling, Francesca N

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common heritable valvulopathy affecting approximately 2.4% of the population. It is the most important cause of primary mitral regurgitation (MR) requiring surgery. MVP is characterized by fibromyxomatous changes and displacement of one or both mitral leaflets into the left atrium. Echocardiography represents the primary diagnostic modality for assessment of MVP. Accurate quantitation of ventricular volumes and function for surgical planning in asymptomatic severe MR can be provided with both echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. In addition, assessment of myocardial fibrosis using late gadolinium enhancement and T1 mapping allows better understanding of the impact of MVP on the myocardium. Imaging in MVP is important not only for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, but is also essential for detailed phenotyping in genetic studies. Genotype-phenotype studies in MVP pedigrees have allowed the identification of milder, non-diagnostic MVP morphologies by echocardiography. Such morphologies represent early expression of MVP in gene carriers. This review focuses on multimodality imaging and the phenotypic spectrum of MVP. Moreover, the review details the recent genetic discoveries that have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of MVP, with clues to mechanisms and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multimodality medical image database for temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Mohammad-Reza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Fotouhi, Farshad A.; Elisevich, Kost

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the development of a human brain multi-modality database for surgical candidacy determination in temporal lobe epilepsy. The focus of the paper is on content-based image management, navigation and retrieval. Several medical image-processing methods including our newly developed segmentation method are utilized for information extraction/correlation and indexing. The input data includes T1-, T2-Weighted and FLAIR MRI and ictal/interictal SPECT modalities with associated clinical data and EEG data analysis. The database can answer queries regarding issues such as the correlation between the attribute X of the entity Y and the outcome of a temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. The entity Y can be a brain anatomical structure such as the hippocampus. The attribute X can be either a functionality feature of the anatomical structure Y, calculated with SPECT modalities, such as signal average, or a volumetric/morphological feature of the entity Y such as volume or average curvature. The outcome of the surgery can be any surgery assessment such as non-verbal Wechsler memory quotient. A determination is made regarding surgical candidacy by analysis of both textual and image data. The current database system suggests a surgical determination for the cases with relatively small hippocampus and high signal intensity average on FLAIR images within the hippocampus. This indication matches the neurosurgeons expectations/observations. Moreover, as the database gets more populated with patient profiles and individual surgical outcomes, using data mining methods one may discover partially invisible correlations between the contents of different modalities of data and the outcome of the surgery.

  3. Multimodal imaging evaluation in staging of rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Shin, Sang Soo; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Rectal cancer is a common cancer and a major cause of mortality in Western countries. Accurate staging is essential for determining the optimal treatment strategies and planning appropriate surgical procedures to control rectal cancer. Endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) is suitable for assessing the extent of tumor invasion, particularly in early-stage or superficial rectal cancer cases. In advanced cases with distant metastases, computed tomography (CT) is the primary approach used to evaluate the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess preoperative staging and the circumferential resection margin involvement, which assists in evaluating a patient’s risk of recurrence and their optimal therapeutic strategy. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT may be useful in detecting occult synchronous tumors or metastases at the time of initial presentation. Restaging after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) remains a challenge with all modalities because it is difficult to reliably differentiate between the tumor mass and other radiation-induced changes in the images. EUS does not appear to have a useful role in post-therapeutic response assessments. Although CT is most commonly used to evaluate treatment responses, its utility for identifying and following-up metastatic lesions is limited. Preoperative high-resolution MRI in combination with diffusion-weighted imaging, and/or PET-CT could provide valuable prognostic information for rectal cancer patients with locally advanced disease receiving preoperative CRT. Based on these results, we conclude that a combination of multimodal imaging methods should be used to precisely assess the restaging of rectal cancer following CRT. PMID:24764662

  4. Aspergillus infection monitored by multimodal imaging in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhacek, Tomas; Petrik, Milos; Luptakova, Dominika; Benada, Oldrich; Palyzova, Andrea; Lemr, Karel; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Although myriads of experimental approaches have been published in the field of fungal infection diagnostics, interestingly, in 21st century there is no satisfactory early noninvasive tool for Aspergillus diagnostics with good sensitivity and specificity. In this work, we for the first time described the fungal burden in rat lungs by multimodal imaging approach. The Aspergillus infection was monitored by positron emission tomography and light microscopy employing modified Grocott's methenamine silver staining and eosin counterstaining. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry imaging has revealed a dramatic iron increase in fungi-affected areas, which can be presumably attributed to microbial siderophores. Quantitative elemental data were inferred from matrix-matched standards prepared from rat lungs. The iron, silver, and gold MS images collected with variable laser foci revealed that particularly silver or gold can be used as excellent elements useful for sensitively tracking the Aspergillus infection. The limit of detection was determined for both (107) Ag and (197) Au as 0.03 μg/g (5 μm laser focus). The selective incorporation of (107) Ag and (197) Au into fungal cell bodies and low background noise from both elements were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray scattering utilizing the submicron lateral resolving power of scanning electron microscopy. The low limits of detection and quantitation of both gold and silver make ICP-MS imaging monitoring a viable alternative to standard optical evaluation used in current clinical settings. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Biodistribution of arctigenin-loaded nanoparticles designed for multimodal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qingxin; Hou, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yanan; Li, Xu; Liu, Yang; Ma, Xiaoyao; Wang, Zengyong; Wang, Weiya; Tao, Jin; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Min; Chen, Dongyan; Feng, Xizeng; Bai, Gang

    2017-04-07

    Tracking targets of natural products is one of the most challenging issues in fields ranging from pharmacognosy to biomedicine. It is widely recognized that the biocompatible nanoparticle (NP) could function as a "key" that opens the target "lock". We report a functionalized poly-lysine NP technique that can monitor the target protein of arctigenin (ATG) in vivo non-invasively. The NPs were synthesized, and their morphologies and surface chemical properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), laser particle size analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, we studied the localization of ATG at the level of the cell and the whole animal (zebrafish and mice). We demonstrated that fluorescent NPs could be ideal carriers in the development of a feasible method for target identification. The distributions of the target proteins were found to be consistent with the pharmacological action of ATG at the cellular and whole-organism levels. The results indicated that functionalized poly-lysine NPs could be valuable in the multimodal imaging of arctigenin.

  6. Fiber bundle probes for interconnecting miniaturized medical imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Hofmann, Jens; Marx, Sebastian; Herter, Jonas; Nguyen, Dennis; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning

    2017-02-01

    Miniaturization of medical imaging devices will significantly improve the workflow of physicians in hospitals. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies offer a high level of miniaturization. However, they need fiber optic interconnection solutions for their functional integration. As part of European funded project (InSPECT) we investigate fiber bundle probes (FBPs) to be used as multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) interconnections for PIC modules. The FBP consists of a set of four or seven SM fibers hexagonally distributed and assembled into a holder that defines a multicore connection. Such a connection can be used to connect MM fibers, while each SM fiber is attached to the PIC module. The manufacturing of these probes is explored by using well-established fiber fusion, epoxy adhesive, innovative adhesive and polishing techniques in order to achieve reliable, low-cost and reproducible samples. An innovative hydrofluoric acid-free fiber etching technology has been recently investigated. The preliminary results show that the reduction of the fiber diameter shows a linear behavior as a function of etching time. Different etch rate values from 0.55 μm/min to 2.3 μm/min were found. Several FBPs with three different type of fibers have been optically interrogated at wavelengths of 630nm and 1550nm. Optical losses are found of approx. 35dB at 1550nm for FBPs composed by 80μm fibers. Although FBPs present moderate optical losses, they might be integrated using different optical fibers, covering a broad spectral range required for imaging applications. Finally, we show the use of FBPs as promising MM-to-SM interconnects for real-world interfacing to PIC's.

  7. TU-C-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT I: Multi-Modality 4D Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, J; Mageras, G; Pan, T

    2014-01-01

    Motion management is one of the critical technical challenges for radiation therapy. 4D imaging has been rapidly adopted as essential tool to assess organ motion associated with respiratory breathing. A variety of 4D imaging techniques have been developed and are currently under development based on different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, PET, and CBCT. Each modality provides specific and complementary information about organ and tumor respiratory motion. Effective use of each different technique or combined use of different techniques can introduce a comprehensive management of tumor motion. Specifically, these techniques have afforded tremendous opportunities to better define and delineate tumor volumes, more accurately perform patient positioning, and effectively apply highly conformal therapy techniques such as IMRT and SBRT. Successful implementation requires good understanding of not only each technique, including unique features, limitations, artifacts, imaging acquisition and process, but also how to systematically apply the information obtained from different imaging modalities using proper tools such as deformable image registration. Furthermore, it is important to understand the differences in the effects of breathing variation between different imaging modalities. A comprehensive motion management strategy using multi-modality 4D imaging has shown promise in improving patient care, but at the same time faces significant challenges. This session will focuses on the current status and advances in imaging respiration-induced organ motion with different imaging modalities: 4D-CT, 4D-MRI, 4D-PET, and 4D-CBCT/DTS. Learning Objectives: Understand the need and role of multimodality 4D imaging in radiation therapy. Understand the underlying physics behind each 4D imaging technique. Recognize the advantages and limitations of each 4D imaging technique

  8. A multimodal image sensor system for identifying water stress in grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Qin; Li, Minzan; Shao, Yongni; Zhou, Jianfeng; Sun, Hong

    2012-11-01

    Water stress is one of the most common limitations of fruit growth. Water is the most limiting resource for crop growth. In grapevines, as well as in other fruit crops, fruit quality benefits from a certain level of water deficit which facilitates to balance vegetative and reproductive growth and the flow of carbohydrates to reproductive structures. A multi-modal sensor system was designed to measure the reflectance signature of grape plant surfaces and identify different water stress levels in this paper. The multi-modal sensor system was equipped with one 3CCD camera (three channels in R, G, and IR). The multi-modal sensor can capture and analyze grape canopy from its reflectance features, and identify the different water stress levels. This research aims at solving the aforementioned problems. The core technology of this multi-modal sensor system could further be used as a decision support system that combines multi-modal sensory data to improve plant stress detection and identify the causes of stress. The images were taken by multi-modal sensor which could output images in spectral bands of near-infrared, green and red channel. Based on the analysis of the acquired images, color features based on color space and reflectance features based on image process method were calculated. The results showed that these parameters had the potential as water stress indicators. More experiments and analysis are needed to validate the conclusion.

  9. NaGdF4:Nd3+/Yb3+ Nanoparticles as Multimodal Imaging Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Francisco; Rightsell, Chris; Kumar, Ga; Giuliani, Jason; Monton, Car; Sardar, Dhiraj

    Medical imaging is a fundamental tool used for the diagnosis of numerous ailments. Each imaging modality has unique advantages; however, they possess intrinsic limitations. Some of which include low spatial resolution, sensitivity, penetration depth, and radiation damage. To circumvent this problem, the combination of imaging modalities, or multimodal imaging, has been proposed, such as Near Infrared Fluorescence imaging (NIRF) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Combining individual advantages, specificity and selectivity of NIRF with the deep penetration and high spatial resolution of MRI, it is possible to circumvent their shortcomings for a more robust imaging technique. In addition, both imaging modalities are very safe and minimally invasive. Fluorescent nanoparticles, such as NaGdF4:Nd3 +/Yb3 +, are excellent candidates for NIRF/MRI multimodal imaging. The dopants, Nd and Yb, absorb and emit within the biological window; where near infrared light is less attenuated by soft tissue. This results in less tissue damage and deeper tissue penetration making it a viable candidate in biological imaging. In addition, the inclusion of Gd results in paramagnetic properties, allowing their use as contrast agents in multimodal imaging. The work presented will include crystallographic results, as well as full optical and magnetic characterization to determine the nanoparticle's viability in multimodal imaging.

  10. Intravascular atherosclerotic imaging with combined fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber combiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shanshan; Saidi, Arya; Jing, Joe; Liu, Gangjun; Li, Jiawen; Zhang, Jun; Sun, Changsen; Narula, Jagat; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-07-01

    We developed a multimodality fluorescence and optical coherence tomography probe based on a double-clad fiber (DCF) combiner. The probe is composed of a DCF combiner, grin lens, and micromotor in the distal end. An integrated swept-source optical coherence tomography and fluorescence intensity imaging system was developed based on the combined probe for the early diagnoses of atherosclerosis. This system is capable of real-time data acquisition and processing as well as image display. For fluorescence imaging, the inflammation of atherosclerosis and necrotic core formed with the annexin V-conjugated Cy5.5 were imaged. Ex vivo imaging of New Zealand white rabbit arteries demonstrated the capability of the combined system.

  11. Compositional-prior-guided image reconstruction algorithm for multi-modality imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qianqian; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The development of effective multi-modality imaging methods typically requires an efficient information fusion model, particularly when combining structural images with a complementary imaging modality that provides functional information. We propose a composition-based image segmentation method for X-ray digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and a structural-prior-guided image reconstruction for a combined DBT and diffuse optical tomography (DOT) breast imaging system. Using the 3D DBT images from 31 clinically measured healthy breasts, we create an empirical relationship between the X-ray intensities for adipose and fibroglandular tissue. We use this relationship to then segment another 58 healthy breast DBT images from 29 subjects into compositional maps of different tissue types. For each breast, we build a weighted-graph in the compositional space and construct a regularization matrix to incorporate the structural priors into a finite-element-based DOT image reconstruction. Use of the compositional priors enables us to fuse tissue anatomy into optical images with less restriction than when using a binary segmentation. This allows us to recover the image contrast captured by DOT but not by DBT. We show that it is possible to fine-tune the strength of the structural priors by changing a single regularization parameter. By estimating the optical properties for adipose and fibroglandular tissue using the proposed algorithm, we found the results are comparable or superior to those estimated with expert-segmentations, but does not involve the time-consuming manual selection of regions-of-interest. PMID:21258460

  12. WE-H-206-02: Recent Advances in Multi-Modality Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsui, B. [Johns Hopkins University (United States)

    2016-06-15

    imaging instrumentation and techniques that are being developed. Sang Hyun Cho; X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging, such as x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT), offers unique capabilities for accurate identification and quantification of metals within the imaging objects. As a result, it has emerged as a promising quantitative imaging modality in recent years, especially in conjunction with metal-based imaging probes. This talk will familiarize the audience with the basic principles of XRF/XFCT imaging. It will also cover the latest development of benchtop XFCT technology. Additionally, the use of metallic nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles, in conjunction with benchtop XFCT, will be discussed within the context of preclinical multimodal multiplexed molecular imaging. Learning Objectives: To learn the basic principles of XRF/XFCT imaging To learn the latest advances in benchtop XFCT development for preclinical imaging Funding support received from NIH and DOD; Funding support received from GE Healthcare; Funding support received from Siemens AX; Patent royalties received from GE Healthcare; L. Wang, Funding Support: NIH; COI: Microphotoacoustics; S. Cho, Yes: ;NIH/NCI grant R01CA155446 DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1-0198.

  13. WE-H-206-02: Recent Advances in Multi-Modality Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, B.

    2016-01-01

    imaging instrumentation and techniques that are being developed. Sang Hyun Cho; X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging, such as x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT), offers unique capabilities for accurate identification and quantification of metals within the imaging objects. As a result, it has emerged as a promising quantitative imaging modality in recent years, especially in conjunction with metal-based imaging probes. This talk will familiarize the audience with the basic principles of XRF/XFCT imaging. It will also cover the latest development of benchtop XFCT technology. Additionally, the use of metallic nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles, in conjunction with benchtop XFCT, will be discussed within the context of preclinical multimodal multiplexed molecular imaging. Learning Objectives: To learn the basic principles of XRF/XFCT imaging To learn the latest advances in benchtop XFCT development for preclinical imaging Funding support received from NIH and DOD; Funding support received from GE Healthcare; Funding support received from Siemens AX; Patent royalties received from GE Healthcare; L. Wang, Funding Support: NIH; COI: Microphotoacoustics; S. Cho, Yes: ;NIH/NCI grant R01CA155446 DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1-0198

  14. Multi-modal brain imaging software for guiding invasive treatment of epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenblok, P.P.W.; Marien, S.; Meesters, S.P.L.; Florack, L.M.J.; Hofman, P.; Schijns, O.E.M.G.; Colon, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The surgical treatment of patients with complex epilepsies is changing more and more from open, invasive surgery towards minimally invasive, image guided treatment. Multi-modal brain imaging procedures are developed to delineate preoperatively the region of the brain which is responsible

  15. Metal complex-based templates and nanostructures for magnetic resonance/optical multimodal imaging agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galindo Millan, Jealemy

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, new approaches directed towards simple and functional imaging agents (IAs) for magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence multimodal imaging are proposed. In Chapter 3, hybrid silver nanostructures (hAgNSs), grown using a polyamino carboxylic acid scaffold, namely

  16. Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Multimodal Imaging and Therapy of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Kyu Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION have emerged as an MRI contrast agent for tumor imaging due to their efficacy and safety. Their utility has been proven in clinical applications with a series of marketed SPION-based contrast agents. Extensive research has been performed to study various strategies that could improve SPION by tailoring the surface chemistry and by applying additional therapeutic functionality. Research into the dual-modal contrast uses of SPION has developed because these applications can save time and effort by reducing the number of imaging sessions. In addition to multimodal strategies, efforts have been made to develop multifunctional nanoparticles that carry both diagnostic and therapeutic cargos specifically for cancer. This review provides an overview of recent advances in multimodality imaging agents and focuses on iron oxide based nanoparticles and their theranostic applications for cancer. Furthermore, we discuss the physiochemical properties and compare different synthesis methods of SPION for the development of multimodal contrast agents.

  17. Image fusion between whole body FDG PET images and whole body MRI images using a full-automatic mutual information-based multimodality image registration software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Yoshitaka; Nakano, Yoshitada; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Isobe, Tomoko; Kazama, Toshiki; Ito, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    We attempted image fusion between whole body PET and whole body MRI of thirty patients using a full-automatic mutual information (MI) -based multimodality image registration software and evaluated accuracy of this method and impact of the coregistrated imaging on diagnostic accuracy. For 25 of 30 fused images in body area, translating gaps were within 6 mm in all axes and rotating gaps were within 2 degrees around all axes. In head and neck area, considerably much gaps caused by difference of head inclination at imaging occurred in 16 patients, however these gaps were able to decrease by fused separately. In 6 patients, diagnostic accuracy using PET/MRI fused images was superior compared by PET image alone. This work shows that whole body FDG PET images and whole body MRI images can be automatically fused using MI-based multimodality image registration software accurately and this technique can add useful information when evaluating FDG PET images. (author)

  18. Deep Multimodal Distance Metric Learning Using Click Constraints for Image Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Yang, Xiaokang; Gao, Fei; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-12-01

    How do we retrieve images accurately? Also, how do we rank a group of images precisely and efficiently for specific queries? These problems are critical for researchers and engineers to generate a novel image searching engine. First, it is important to obtain an appropriate description that effectively represent the images. In this paper, multimodal features are considered for describing images. The images unique properties are reflected by visual features, which are correlated to each other. However, semantic gaps always exist between images visual features and semantics. Therefore, we utilize click feature to reduce the semantic gap. The second key issue is learning an appropriate distance metric to combine these multimodal features. This paper develops a novel deep multimodal distance metric learning (Deep-MDML) method. A structured ranking model is adopted to utilize both visual and click features in distance metric learning (DML). Specifically, images and their related ranking results are first collected to form the training set. Multimodal features, including click and visual features, are collected with these images. Next, a group of autoencoders is applied to obtain initially a distance metric in different visual spaces, and an MDML method is used to assign optimal weights for different modalities. Next, we conduct alternating optimization to train the ranking model, which is used for the ranking of new queries with click features. Compared with existing image ranking methods, the proposed method adopts a new ranking model to use multimodal features, including click features and visual features in DML. We operated experiments to analyze the proposed Deep-MDML in two benchmark data sets, and the results validate the effects of the method.

  19. A Plasmonic Gold Nanostar Theranostic Probe for In Vivo Tumor Imaging and Photothermal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Ashton, Jeffrey R.; Moding, Everett J.; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Register, Janna K.; Fales, Andrew M.; Choi, Jaeyeon; Whitley, Melodi J.; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Qi, Yi; Ma, Yan; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Kirsch, David G.; Badea, Cristian T.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine has attracted increasing attention in recent years, because it offers great promise to provide personalized diagnostics and therapy with improved treatment efficacy and specificity. In this study, we developed a gold nanostar (GNS) probe for multi-modality theranostics including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection, x-ray computed tomography (CT), two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging, and photothermal therapy (PTT). We performed radiolabeling, as well as CT and optical imaging, to investigate the GNS probe's biodistribution and intratumoral uptake at both macroscopic and microscopic scales. We also characterized the performance of the GNS nanoprobe for in vitro photothermal heating and in vivo photothermal ablation of primary sarcomas in mice. The results showed that 30-nm GNS have higher tumor uptake, as well as deeper penetration into tumor interstitial space compared to 60-nm GNS. In addition, we found that a higher injection dose of GNS can increase the percentage of tumor uptake. We also demonstrated the GNS probe's superior photothermal conversion efficiency with a highly concentrated heating effect due to a tip-enhanced plasmonic effect. In vivo photothermal therapy with a near-infrared (NIR) laser under the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) led to ablation of aggressive tumors containing GNS, but had no effect in the absence of GNS. This multifunctional GNS probe has the potential to be used for in vivo biosensing, preoperative CT imaging, intraoperative detection with optical methods (SERS and TPL), as well as image-guided photothermal therapy. PMID:26155311

  20. Application of Multimodality Imaging Fusion Technology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Tumors under the Precision Medicine Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun-Yi; Chen, Xian-Xia; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2016-12-20

    The arrival of precision medicine plan brings new opportunities and challenges for patients undergoing precision diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of medical imaging, information on different modality imaging can be integrated and comprehensively analyzed by imaging fusion system. This review aimed to update the application of multimodality imaging fusion technology in the precise diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors under the precision medicine plan. We introduced several multimodality imaging fusion technologies and their application to the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors in clinical practice. The data cited in this review were obtained mainly from the PubMed database from 1996 to 2016, using the keywords of "precision medicine", "fusion imaging", "multimodality", and "tumor diagnosis and treatment". Original articles, clinical practice, reviews, and other relevant literatures published in English were reviewed. Papers focusing on precision medicine, fusion imaging, multimodality, and tumor diagnosis and treatment were selected. Duplicated papers were excluded. Multimodality imaging fusion technology plays an important role in tumor diagnosis and treatment under the precision medicine plan, such as accurate location, qualitative diagnosis, tumor staging, treatment plan design, and real-time intraoperative monitoring. Multimodality imaging fusion systems could provide more imaging information of tumors from different dimensions and angles, thereby offing strong technical support for the implementation of precision oncology. Under the precision medicine plan, personalized treatment of tumors is a distinct possibility. We believe that multimodality imaging fusion technology will find an increasingly wide application in clinical practice.

  1. Imaging of Homeostatic, Neoplastic, and Injured Tissues by HA-Based Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiseh, Mandana; Breadner, Daniel; Ma, Jenny; Akentieva, Natalia; Savani, Rashmin C; Harrison, Rene; Mikilus, David; Collis, Lisa; Gustafson, Stefan; Lee, Ting-Yim; Koropatnick, James; Luyt, Leonard G.; Bissell, Mina J.; Turley, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in hyaluronan (HA) synthesis, cellular uptake, and metabolism occurs during the remodeling of tissue microenvironments following injury and during disease processes such as cancer. We hypothesized that multimodality HA-based probes selectively target and detectably accumulate at sites of high HA metabolism, thus providing a flexible imaging strategy for monitoring disease and repair processes. Kinetic analyses confirmed favorable available serum levels of the probe following intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Nuclear (technetium-HA, 99mTc-HA, and iodine-HA, 125I-HA), optical (fluorescent Texas Red-HA, TR-HA), and magnetic resonance (gadolinium-HA, Gd-HA) probes imaged liver (99mTc-HA), breast cancer cells/xenografts (TR-HA, Gd-HA), and vascular injury (125I-HA, TR-HA). Targeting of HA probes to these sites appeared to result from selective HA receptor-dependent localization. Our results suggest that HA-based probes, which do not require polysaccharide backbone modification to achieve favorable half-life and distribution, can detect elevated HA metabolism in homeostatic, injured, and diseased tissues. PMID:22066590

  2. Development of Radar Control system for Multi-mode Active Phased Array Radar for atmospheric probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Thriveni, A.

    2016-07-01

    Modern multi-mode active phased array radars require highly efficient radar control system for hassle free real time radar operation. The requirement comes due to the distributed architecture of the active phased array radar, where each antenna element in the array is connected to a dedicated Transmit-Receive (TR) module. Controlling the TR modules, which are generally few hundreds in number, and functioning them in synchronisation, is a huge task during real time radar operation and should be handled with utmost care. Indian MST Radar, located at NARL, Gadanki, which is established during early 90's, as an outcome of the middle atmospheric program, is a remote sensing instrument for probing the atmosphere. This radar has a semi-active array, consisting of 1024 antenna elements, with limited beam steering, possible only along the principle planes. To overcome the limitations and difficulties, the radar is being augmented into fully active phased array, to accomplish beam agility and multi-mode operations. Each antenna element is excited with a dedicated 1 kW TR module, located in the field and enables to position the radar beam within 20° conical volume. A multi-channel receiver makes the radar to operate in various modes like Doppler Beam Swinging (DBS), Spaced Antenna (SA), Frequency Domain Interferometry (FDI) etc. Present work describes the real-time radar control (RC) system for the above described active phased array radar. The radar control system consists of a Spartan 6 FPGA based Timing and Control Signal Generator (TCSG), and a computer containing the software for controlling all the subsystems of the radar during real-time radar operation and also for calibrating the radar. The main function of the TCSG is to generate the control and timing waveforms required for various subsystems of the radar. Important components of the RC system software are (i) TR module configuring software which does programming, controlling and health parameter monitoring of the

  3. Multimodal imaging of spike propagation: a technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, N; Grant, P E; Suzuki, N; Madsen, J R; Bergin, A M; Hämäläinen, M S; Stufflebeam, S M

    2012-06-01

    We report an 11-year-old boy with intractable epilepsy, who had cortical dysplasia in the right superior frontal gyrus. Spatiotemporal source analysis of MEG and EEG spikes demonstrated a similar time course of spike propagation from the superior to inferior frontal gyri, as observed on intracranial EEG. The tractography reconstructed from DTI showed a fiber connection between these areas. Our multimodal approach demonstrates spike propagation and a white matter tract guiding the propagation.

  4. Development of a hardware-based registration system for the multimodal medical images by USB cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Michiaki; Minato, Kotaro; Watabe, Hiroshi; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iida, Hidehiro

    2009-01-01

    There are several medical imaging scanners and each modality has different aspect for visualizing inside of human body. By combining these images, diagnostic accuracy could be improved, and therefore, several attempts for multimodal image registration have been implemented. One popular approach is to use hybrid image scanners such as positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT. However, these hybrid scanners are expensive and not fully available. We developed multimodal image registration system with universal serial bus (USB) cameras, which is inexpensive and applicable to any combinations of existed conventional imaging scanners. The multiple USB cameras will determine the three dimensional positions of a patient while scanning. Using information of these positions and rigid body transformation, the acquired image is registered to the common coordinate which is shared with another scanner. For each scanner, reference marker is attached on gantry of the scanner. For observing the reference marker's position by the USB cameras, the location of the USB cameras can be arbitrary. In order to validate the system, we scanned a cardiac phantom with different positions by PET and MRI scanners. Using this system, images from PET and MRI were visually aligned, and good correlations between PET and MRI images were obtained after the registration. The results suggest this system can be inexpensively used for multimodal image registrations. (author)

  5. Multi-Modality Medical Image Fusion Based on Wavelet Analysis and Quality Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-modality medical image fusion has more and more important applications in medical image analysisand understanding. In this paper, we develop and apply a multi-resolution method based on wavelet pyramid to fusemedical images from different modalities such as PET-MRI and CT-MRI. In particular, we evaluate the different fusionresults when applying different selection rules and obtain optimum combination of fusion parameters.

  6. Multifocus confocal Raman microspectroscopy for fast multimode vibrational imaging of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Masanari; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o

    2010-12-15

    We have developed a multifocus confocal Raman microspectroscopic system for the fast multimode vibrational imaging of living cells. It consists of an inverted microscope equipped with a microlens array, a pinhole array, a fiber bundle, and a multichannel Raman spectrometer. Forty-eight Raman spectra from 48 foci under the microscope are simultaneously obtained by using multifocus excitation and image-compression techniques. The multifocus confocal configuration suppresses the background generated from the cover glass and the cell culturing medium so that high-contrast images are obtainable with a short accumulation time. The system enables us to obtain multimode (10 different vibrational modes) vibrational images of living cells in tens of seconds with only 1 mW laser power at one focal point. This image acquisition time is more than 10 times faster than that in conventional single-focus Raman microspectroscopy.

  7. Spatiotemporal Analysis of RGB-D-T Facial Images for Multimodal Pain Level Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Oliu Simon, Marc

    2015-01-01

    facial images for pain detection and pain intensity level recognition. For this purpose, we extract energies released by facial pixels using a spatiotemporal filter. Experiments on a group of 12 elderly people applying the multimodal approach show that the proposed method successfully detects pain...

  8. Mannan-based conjugates as a multimodal imaging platform for lymph nodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rabyk, Mariia; Galisová, A.; Jirátová, M.; Patsula, Vitalii; Srbová, Linda; Loukotová, Lenka; Parnica, Jozef; Jirák, D.; Štěpánek, Petr; Hrubý, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 17 (2018), s. 2584-2596 ISSN 2050-750X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25781A Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polysaccharide modification * mannan * multimodal imaging Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Pharmacology and pharmacy Impact factor: 4.543, year: 2016

  9. Extended feature-fusion guidelines to improve image-based multi-modal biometrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, Dane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The feature-level, unlike the match score-level, lacks multi-modal fusion guidelines. This work demonstrates a practical approach for improved image-based biometric feature-fusion. The approach extracts and combines the face, fingerprint...

  10. [Development of a Fluorescence Probe for Live Cell Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Aya

    2017-01-01

    Probes that detect specific biological materials are indispensable tools for deepening our understanding of various cellular phenomena. In live cell imaging, the probe must emit fluorescence only when a specific substance is detected. In this paper, we introduce a new probe we developed for live cell imaging. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity is higher in tumor cells than in normal cells and is involved in the development of resistance to various anticancer drugs. We previously reported the development of a general strategy for the synthesis of probes for detection of GST enzymes, including fluorogenic, bioluminogenic, and 19 F-NMR probes. Arylsulfonyl groups were used as caging groups during probe design. The fluorogenic probes were successfully used to quantitate very low levels of GST activity in cell extracts and were also successfully applied to the imaging of microsomal MGST1 activity in living cells. The bioluminogenic and 19 F-NMR probes were able to detect GST activity in Escherichia coli cells. Oligonucleotide-templated reactions are powerful tools for nucleic acid sensing. This strategy exploits the target strand as a template for two functionalized probes and provides a simple molecular mechanism for multiple turnover reactions. We developed a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction-triggered fluorescent probe. The probe completed its reaction within 30 s of initiation and amplified the fluorescence signal from 0.5 pM target oligonucleotide by 1500 fold under isothermal conditions. Additionally, we applied the oligonucleotide-templated reaction for molecular releasing and peptide detection.

  11. RNA aptamer probes as optical imaging agents for the detection of amyloid plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian T Farrar

    Full Text Available Optical imaging using multiphoton microscopy and whole body near infrared imaging has become a routine part of biomedical research. However, optical imaging methods rely on the availability of either small molecule reporters or genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, which are challenging and time consuming to develop. While directly labeled antibodies can also be used as imaging agents, antibodies are species specific, can typically not be tagged with multiple fluorescent reporters without interfering with target binding, and are bioactive, almost always eliciting a biological response and thereby influencing the process that is being studied. We examined the possibility of developing highly specific and sensitive optical imaging agents using aptamer technology. We developed a fluorescently tagged anti-Aβ RNA aptamer, β55, which binds amyloid plaques in both ex vivo human Alzheimer's disease brain tissue and in vivo APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Diffuse β55 positive halos, attributed to oligomeric Aβ, were observed surrounding the methoxy-XO4 positive plaque cores. Dot blots of synthetic Aβ aggregates provide further evidence that β55 binds both fibrillar and non-fibrillar Aβ. The high binding affinity, the ease of probe development, and the ability to incorporate multiple and multimodal imaging reporters suggest that RNA aptamers may have complementary and perhaps advantageous properties compared to conventional optical imaging probes and reporters.

  12. Multimodal Task-Driven Dictionary Learning for Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-18

    recognition, multi-view face recognition, multi-view action recognition, and multimodal biometric recognition. It is also shown that, compared to the...improvement in several multi-task learning applications such as target classification, biometric recognitions, and multiview face recognition [12], [14], [17...relevant samples from other modalities for a given unimodal query. However, α1 α2 …αS D1 … Index finger Thumb finger … Iris x1 x2 xS D2 DS … … … J o in

  13. Accuracy and reproducibility of tumor positioning during prolonged and multi-modality animal imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mutian; Huang Minming; Le, Carl; Zanzonico, Pat B; Ling, C Clifton; Koutcher, Jason A; Humm, John L; Claus, Filip; Kolbert, Katherine S; Martin, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    Dedicated small-animal imaging devices, e.g. positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, are being increasingly used for translational molecular imaging studies. The objective of this work was to determine the positional accuracy and precision with which tumors in situ can be reliably and reproducibly imaged on dedicated small-animal imaging equipment. We designed, fabricated and tested a custom rodent cradle with a stereotactic template to facilitate registration among image sets. To quantify tumor motion during our small-animal imaging protocols, 'gold standard' multi-modality point markers were inserted into tumor masses on the hind limbs of rats. Three types of imaging examination were then performed with the animals continuously anesthetized and immobilized: (i) consecutive microPET and MR images of tumor xenografts in which the animals remained in the same scanner for 2 h duration, (ii) multi-modality imaging studies in which the animals were transported between distant imaging devices and (iii) serial microPET scans in which the animals were repositioned in the same scanner for subsequent images. Our results showed that the animal tumor moved by less than 0.2-0.3 mm over a continuous 2 h microPET or MR imaging session. The process of transporting the animal between instruments introduced additional errors of ∼0.2 mm. In serial animal imaging studies, the positioning reproducibility within ∼0.8 mm could be obtained.

  14. Log-Gabor Energy Based Multimodal Medical Image Fusion in NSCT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal medical image fusion is a powerful tool in clinical applications such as noninvasive diagnosis, image-guided radiotherapy, and treatment planning. In this paper, a novel nonsubsampled Contourlet transform (NSCT based method for multimodal medical image fusion is presented, which is approximately shift invariant and can effectively suppress the pseudo-Gibbs phenomena. The source medical images are initially transformed by NSCT followed by fusing low- and high-frequency components. The phase congruency that can provide a contrast and brightness-invariant representation is applied to fuse low-frequency coefficients, whereas the Log-Gabor energy that can efficiently determine the frequency coefficients from the clear and detail parts is employed to fuse the high-frequency coefficients. The proposed fusion method has been compared with the discrete wavelet transform (DWT, the fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT, and the dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT based image fusion methods and other NSCT-based methods. Visually and quantitatively experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion method can obtain more effective and accurate fusion results of multimodal medical images than other algorithms. Further, the applicability of the proposed method has been testified by carrying out a clinical example on a woman affected with recurrent tumor images.

  15. Multi-Modal Curriculum Learning for Semi-Supervised Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Tao, Dacheng; Maybank, Stephen J; Liu, Wei; Kang, Guoliang; Yang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Semi-supervised image classification aims to classify a large quantity of unlabeled images by typically harnessing scarce labeled images. Existing semi-supervised methods often suffer from inadequate classification accuracy when encountering difficult yet critical images, such as outliers, because they treat all unlabeled images equally and conduct classifications in an imperfectly ordered sequence. In this paper, we employ the curriculum learning methodology by investigating the difficulty of classifying every unlabeled image. The reliability and the discriminability of these unlabeled images are particularly investigated for evaluating their difficulty. As a result, an optimized image sequence is generated during the iterative propagations, and the unlabeled images are logically classified from simple to difficult. Furthermore, since images are usually characterized by multiple visual feature descriptors, we associate each kind of features with a teacher, and design a multi-modal curriculum learning (MMCL) strategy to integrate the information from different feature modalities. In each propagation, each teacher analyzes the difficulties of the currently unlabeled images from its own modality viewpoint. A consensus is subsequently reached among all the teachers, determining the currently simplest images (i.e., a curriculum), which are to be reliably classified by the multi-modal learner. This well-organized propagation process leveraging multiple teachers and one learner enables our MMCL to outperform five state-of-the-art methods on eight popular image data sets.

  16. The pivotal role of multimodality reporter sensors in drug discovery: from cell based assays to real time molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Pritha

    2011-04-01

    Development and marketing of new drugs require stringent validation that are expensive and time consuming. Non-invasive multimodality molecular imaging using reporter genes holds great potential to expedite these processes at reduced cost. New generations of smarter molecular imaging strategies such as Split reporter, Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, Multimodality fusion reporter technologies will further assist to streamline and shorten the drug discovery and developmental process. This review illustrates the importance and potential of molecular imaging using multimodality reporter genes in drug development at preclinical phases.

  17. Versatile robotic probe calibration for position tracking in ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bø, Lars Eirik; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Lindseth, Frank; Hernes, Toril A N

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of ultrasound-guided procedures, there are a number of methods for ultrasound probe calibration. While these methods are usually developed for a specific probe, they are in principle easily adapted to other probes. In practice, however, the adaptation often proves tedious and this is impractical in a research setting, where new probes are tested regularly. Therefore, we developed a method which can be applied to a large variety of probes without adaptation. The method used a robot arm to move a plastic sphere submerged in water through the ultrasound image plane, providing a slow and precise movement. The sphere was then segmented from the recorded ultrasound images using a MATLAB programme and the calibration matrix was computed based on this segmentation in combination with tracking information. The method was tested on three very different probes demonstrating both great versatility and high accuracy. (paper)

  18. Versatile robotic probe calibration for position tracking in ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirik Bø, Lars; Fagertun Hofstad, Erlend; Lindseth, Frank; Hernes, Toril A. N.

    2015-05-01

    Within the field of ultrasound-guided procedures, there are a number of methods for ultrasound probe calibration. While these methods are usually developed for a specific probe, they are in principle easily adapted to other probes. In practice, however, the adaptation often proves tedious and this is impractical in a research setting, where new probes are tested regularly. Therefore, we developed a method which can be applied to a large variety of probes without adaptation. The method used a robot arm to move a plastic sphere submerged in water through the ultrasound image plane, providing a slow and precise movement. The sphere was then segmented from the recorded ultrasound images using a MATLAB programme and the calibration matrix was computed based on this segmentation in combination with tracking information. The method was tested on three very different probes demonstrating both great versatility and high accuracy.

  19. Designing Tripodal and Triangular Gadolinium Oxide Nanoplates and Self-Assembled Nanofibrils as Potential Multimodal Bioimaging Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, T; Gordon, TR; Prantner, AM; Yun, H; Murray, CB

    2013-03-01

    Here, we report the shape-controlled synthesis of tripodal and triangular gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoplates. In the presence of lithium ions, the shape of the nanocrystals is readily controlled by tailoring reaction parameters such as temperature and time. We observe that the morphology transforms from an initial tripodal shape to a triangular shape with increasing reaction time or elevated temperatures. Highly uniform Gd2O3 nanoplates are self-assembled into nanofibril-like liquid-crystalline superlattices with long-range orientational and positional order. In addition, shape-directed self-assemblies are investigated by tailoring the aspect ratio of the arms of the Gd2O3 nanoplates. Due to a strong paramagnetic response, Gd2O3 nanocrystals are excellent candidates for MRI contrast agents and also can be doped with rare-earth ions to form nanophosphors, pointing to their potential in multimodal imaging. In this work, we investigate the MR relaxometry at high magnetic fields (9,4 and 14.1 T) and the optical properties including near-IR to visible upconversion luminescence and X-ray excited optical luminescence of doped Gd2O3 nanoplates. The complex shape of Gd2O3 nanoplates, coupled with their magnetic properties and their ability to phosphoresce under NIR or X-ray excitation which penetrate deep into tissue, makes these nanoplates a promising platform for multimodal imaging in biomedical applications.

  20. Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-Wei; Le, Thuc T.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-04-01

    A multimodal nonlinear optical imaging system that integrates coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), sum-frequency generation (SFG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) on the same platform was developed and applied to visualize single cells and extracellular matrix in fresh carotid arteries. CARS signals arising from CH 2-rich membranes allowed visualization of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of the arterial wall. Additionally, CARS microscopy allowed vibrational imaging of elastin and collagen fibrils which are also rich in CH 2 bonds. The extracellular matrix organization was further confirmed by TPEF signals arising from elastin's autofluorescence and SFG signals arising from collagen fibrils' non-centrosymmetric structure. Label-free imaging of significant components of arterial tissues suggests the potential application of multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy to monitor onset and progression of arterial diseases.

  1. Imaging optical probe for pressurized steam-water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, M.R.; Pulfrey, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    An air-cooled imaging optical probe, with an outside diameter of 25.4 mm, has been developed to provide high resolution viewing of flow regimes in a steam-water environment at 343 0 C and 15.2 MPa. The design study considered a 3-m length probe. A 0.3-m length probe prototype was fabricated and tested. The optical probe consists of a 3.5-mm diameter optics train surrounded by two coaxial coolant flow channels and two coaxial insulating dead air spaces. With air flowing through the probe at 5.7 g/s, thermal analysis shows that no part of the optics train will exceed 93 0 C when a 3-m length probe is immersed in a 343 0 C environment. Computer stress analysis plus actual tests show that the probe can operate successfully with conservative safety factors. The imaging optical probe was tested five times in the design environment at the semiscale facility at the INEL. Two-phase flow regimes in the high temperature, high pressure, steam-water blowdown and reflood experiments were recorded on video tape for the first time with the imaging optical probe

  2. An embedded system for image segmentation and multimodal registration in noninvasive skin cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Silvana; Soto, Javier E; Inostroza, Fabian; Godoy, Sebastian E; Figueroa, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    We present a heterogeneous architecture for image registration and multimodal segmentation on an embedded system for noninvasive skin cancer screening. The architecture combines Otsu thresholding and the random walker algorithm to perform image segmentation, and features a hardware implementation of the Harris corner detection algorithm to perform region-of-interest detection and image registration. Running on a Xilinx XC7Z020 reconfigurable system-on-a-chip, our prototype computes the initial segmentation of a 400×400-pixel region of interest in the visible spectrum in 12.1 seconds, and registers infrared images against this region at 540 frames per second, while consuming 1.9W.

  3. Recommendations on nuclear and multimodality imaging in IE and CIED infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, Paola Anna; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Vilacosta, Isidre; Gaemperli, Oliver; Rouzet, Francois; Hacker, Marcus; Signore, Alberto; Slart, Riemer H J A; Habib, Gilbert

    2018-05-24

    In the latest update of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis (IE), imaging is positioned at the centre of the diagnostic work-up so that an early and accurate diagnosis can be reached. Besides echocardiography, contrast-enhanced CT (ce-CT), radiolabelled leucocyte (white blood cell, WBC) SPECT/CT and [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT are included as diagnostic tools in the diagnostic flow chart for IE. Following the clinical guidelines that provided a straightforward message on the role of multimodality imaging, we believe that it is highly relevant to produce specific recommendations on nuclear multimodality imaging in IE and cardiac implantable electronic device infections. In these procedural recommendations we therefore describe in detail the technical and practical aspects of WBC SPECT/CT and [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT, including ce-CT acquisition protocols. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of each procedure, specific pitfalls when interpreting images, and the most important results from the literature, and also provide recommendations on the appropriate use of multimodality imaging.

  4. Imaging arterial cells, atherosclerosis, and restenosis by multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-Wei; Simianu, Vlad; Locker, Matthew J.; Sturek, Michael; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-02-01

    By integrating sum-frequency generation (SFG), and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) on a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope platform, multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging of arteries and atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated. CARS signals arising from CH II-rich membranes allowed visualization of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in a carotid artery. Additionally, CARS microscopy allowed vibrational imaging of elastin and collagen fibrils which are rich in CH II bonds in their cross-linking residues. The extracellular matrix organization was further confirmed by TPEF signals arising from elastin's autofluorescence and SFG signals arising from collagen fibrils' non-centrosymmetric structure. The system is capable of identifying different atherosclerotic lesion stages with sub-cellular resolution. The stages of atherosclerosis, such as macrophage infiltration, lipid-laden foam cell accumulation, extracellular lipid distribution, fibrous tissue deposition, plaque establishment, and formation of other complicated lesions could be viewed by our multimodal CARS microscope. Collagen percentages in the region adjacent to coronary artery stents were resolved. High correlation between NLO and histology imaging evidenced the validity of the NLO imaging. The capability of imaging significant components of an arterial wall and distinctive stages of atherosclerosis in a label-free manner suggests the potential application of multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy to monitor the onset and progression of arterial diseases.

  5. Amyloid-β positron emission tomography imaging probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepe, Vladimir; Moghbel, Mateen C; Långström, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    , a number of factors appear to preclude these probes from clinical utilization. As the available "amyloid specific" positron emission tomography imaging probes have failed to demonstrate diagnostic value and have shown limited utility for monitoring therapeutic interventions in humans, a debate...

  6. PCANet-Based Structural Representation for Nonrigid Multimodal Medical Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonrigid multimodal image registration remains a challenging task in medical image processing and analysis. The structural representation (SR-based registration methods have attracted much attention recently. However, the existing SR methods cannot provide satisfactory registration accuracy due to the utilization of hand-designed features for structural representation. To address this problem, the structural representation method based on the improved version of the simple deep learning network named PCANet is proposed for medical image registration. In the proposed method, PCANet is firstly trained on numerous medical images to learn convolution kernels for this network. Then, a pair of input medical images to be registered is processed by the learned PCANet. The features extracted by various layers in the PCANet are fused to produce multilevel features. The structural representation images are constructed for two input images based on nonlinear transformation of these multilevel features. The Euclidean distance between structural representation images is calculated and used as the similarity metrics. The objective function defined by the similarity metrics is optimized by L-BFGS method to obtain parameters of the free-form deformation (FFD model. Extensive experiments on simulated and real multimodal image datasets show that compared with the state-of-the-art registration methods, such as modality-independent neighborhood descriptor (MIND, normalized mutual information (NMI, Weber local descriptor (WLD, and the sum of squared differences on entropy images (ESSD, the proposed method provides better registration performance in terms of target registration error (TRE and subjective human vision.

  7. Multimodal imaging of choroidal nodules in neurofibromatosis type-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal nodules in neurofibromatosis type-1 are common and are best imaged with near-infrared reflectance (NIR imaging. The authors describe swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SSOCTA of choroidal nodules. These nodules are seen as hyperflow areas on SSOCTA and correlate well to bright patches on NIR imaging. The utility of multicolor scanning laser imaging in detecting these abnormalities is also described.

  8. Neuronal pathology in deep grey matter structures: a multimodal imaging analysis combining PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosque-Freeman, L.; Leroy, C.; Galanaud, D.; Sureau, F.; Assouad, R.; Tourbah, A.; Papeix, C.; Comtat, C.; Trebossen, R.; Lubetzki, C.; Delforge, J.; Bottlaender, M.; Stankoff, B. [Serv. Hosp. Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France)

    2009-07-01

    Objective: To assess neuronal damage in deep gray matter structures by positron emission tomography (PET) using [{sup 11}C]-flumazenil (FMZ), a specific central benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, and [{sup 18}F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which reflects neuronal metabolism. To compare results obtained by PET and those with multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Background: It is now accepted that neuronal injury plays a crucial role in the occurrence and progression of neurological disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, available MRI techniques do not specifically assess neuronal damage, but early abnormalities, such as iron deposition or atrophy, have been described in deep gray matter structures. Whether those MRI modifications correspond to neuronal damage remains to be further investigated. Materials and methods: Nine healthy volunteers were compared to 10 progressive and 9 relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients. Each subject performed two PET examinations with [{sup 11}C]-FMZ and [{sup 18}F]-FDG, on a high resolution research tomograph dedicated to brain imaging (Siemens Medical Solution, spatial resolution of 2.5 mm). Deep gray matter regions were manually segmented on T1-weighted MR images with the mutual information algorithm (www.brainvisa.info), and co-registered with PET images. A multimodal MRI including T1 pre and post gadolinium, T2-proton density sequences, magnetization transfer, diffusion tensor, and protonic spectroscopy was also performed for each subject. Results: On PET with [{sup 11}C]-FMZ, there was a pronounced decrease in receptor density for RR patients in all deep gray matter structures investigated, whereas the density was unchanged or even increased in the same regions for progressive patients. Whether the different patterns between RR and progressive patients reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms is currently investigated by comparing PET and multimodal MRI results. Conclusion: Combination of PET and multimodal MR imaging

  9. Multimodal Registration and Fusion for 3D Thermal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay A. Akhloufi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D vision is an area of computer vision that has attracted a lot of research interest and has been widely studied. In recent years we witness an increasing interest from the industrial community. This interest is driven by the recent advances in 3D technologies, which enable high precision measurements at an affordable cost. With 3D vision techniques we can conduct advanced manufactured parts inspections and metrology analysis. However, we are not able to detect subsurface defects. This kind of detection is achieved by other techniques, like infrared thermography. In this work, we present a new registration framework for 3D and thermal infrared multimodal fusion. The resulting fused data can be used for advanced 3D inspection in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E applications. The fusion permits the simultaneous visible surface and subsurface inspections to be conducted in the same process. Experimental tests were conducted with different materials. The obtained results are promising and show how these new techniques can be used efficiently in a combined NDT&E-Metrology analysis of manufactured parts, in areas such as aerospace and automotive.

  10. Intratumoral Administration of Holmium-166 Acetylacetonate Microspheres : Antitumor Efficacy and Feasibility of Multimodality Imaging in Renal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, Wouter; Kroeze, Stephanie G. C.; Elschot, Mattijs; Seevinck, Peter R.; Beekman, Freek J.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Luijten, Peter R.; Hennink, Wim E.; Schip, Alfred D. van Het; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; Nijsen, J. Frank W.; Jans, Judith J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The increasing incidence of small renal tumors in an aging population with comorbidities has stimulated the development of minimally invasive treatments. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and demonstrate feasibility of multimodality imaging of intratumoral administration of

  11. Modeling decision-making in single- and multi-modal medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canosa, R. L.; Baum, K. G.

    2009-02-01

    This research introduces a mode-specific model of visual saliency that can be used to highlight likely lesion locations and potential errors (false positives and false negatives) in single-mode PET and MRI images and multi-modal fused PET/MRI images. Fused-modality digital images are a relatively recent technological improvement in medical imaging; therefore, a novel component of this research is to characterize the perceptual response to these fused images. Three different fusion techniques were compared to single-mode displays in terms of observer error rates using synthetic human brain images generated from an anthropomorphic phantom. An eye-tracking experiment was performed with naÃve (non-radiologist) observers who viewed the single- and multi-modal images. The eye-tracking data allowed the errors to be classified into four categories: false positives, search errors (false negatives never fixated), recognition errors (false negatives fixated less than 350 milliseconds), and decision errors (false negatives fixated greater than 350 milliseconds). A saliency model consisting of a set of differentially weighted low-level feature maps is derived from the known error and ground truth locations extracted from a subset of the test images for each modality. The saliency model shows that lesion and error locations attract visual attention according to low-level image features such as color, luminance, and texture.

  12. Multimodality imaging: transfer and fusion of SPECT and MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knesaurek, K.

    1994-01-01

    Image fusion is a technique which offers the best of both worlds. It unites the two basic types of medical images: functional body images(PET or SPECT scans), which provide physiological information, and structural images (CT or MRI), which provide an anatomic map of the body. Control-point based registration technique was developed and used. Tc-99m point sources were used as external markers in SPECT studies while, for MRI and CT imaging only anatomic landmarks were used as a control points. The MRI images were acquired on GE Signa 1.2 system and CT data on a GE 9800 scanner. SPECT studies were performed 1h after intravenous injection of the 740 MBq of the Tc-99m-HMPAO on the triple-headed TRIONIX gamma camera. B-spline and bilinear interpolation were used for the rotation, scaling and translation of the images. In the process of creation of a single composite image, in order to retain information from the individual images, MRI (or CT) image was scaled to one color range and a SPECT image to another. In some situations the MRI image was kept black-and-white while the SPECT image was pasted on top of it in 'opaque' mode. Most errors which propagate through the matching process are due to sample size, imperfection of the acquisition system, noise and interpolations used. Accuracy of the registration was investigated by SPECT-CT study performed on a phantom study. The results has shown that accuracy of the matching process is better, or at worse, equal to 2 mm. (author)

  13. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Multi-Modality Isointense Infant Brain Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Li, Rongjian; Deng, Houtao; Wang, Li; Lin, Weili; Ji, Shuiwang; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-01

    The segmentation of infant brain tissue images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an important role in studying early brain development in health and disease. In the isointense stage (approximately 6–8 months of age), WM and GM exhibit similar levels of intensity in both T1 and T2 MR images, making the tissue segmentation very challenging. Only a small number of existing methods have been designed for tissue segmentation in this isointense stage; however, they only used a single T1 or T2 images, or the combination of T1 and T2 images. In this paper, we propose to use deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for segmenting isointense stage brain tissues using multi-modality MR images. CNNs are a type of deep models in which trainable filters and local neighborhood pooling operations are applied alternatingly on the raw input images, resulting in a hierarchy of increasingly complex features. Specifically, we used multimodality information from T1, T2, and fractional anisotropy (FA) images as inputs and then generated the segmentation maps as outputs. The multiple intermediate layers applied convolution, pooling, normalization, and other operations to capture the highly nonlinear mappings between inputs and outputs. We compared the performance of our approach with that of the commonly used segmentation methods on a set of manually segmented isointense stage brain images. Results showed that our proposed model significantly outperformed prior methods on infant brain tissue segmentation. In addition, our results indicated that integration of multi-modality images led to significant performance improvement. PMID:25562829

  14. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Meglinski, I V

    2011-01-01

    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  15. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of melanin and lipofuscin in the retina with multimodal photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyang; Zhang, Hao F.; Zhou, Lixiang; Jiao, Shuliang

    2012-02-01

    We combined photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) with autofluorescence imaging for simultaneous in vivo imaging of dual molecular contrasts in the retina using a single light source. The dual molecular contrasts come from melanin and lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Melanin and lipofuscin are two types of pigments and are believed to play opposite roles (protective vs. exacerbate) in the RPE in the aging process. We successfully imaged the retina of pigmented and albino rats at different ages. The experimental results showed that multimodal PAOM system can be a potentially powerful tool in the study of age-related degenerative retinal diseases.

  16. Development of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles for multimodal image-guided therapy to the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Tomitaka, Asahi; Arami, Hamed; Raymond, Andrea; Yndart, Adriana; Kaushik, Ajeet; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Takemura, Yasushi; Cai, Yong; Toborek, Michal; Nair, Madhavan

    2017-01-01

    Magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles are one of the emerging multi-functional materials in the field of nanomedicine. Their potential for targeting and multi-modal imaging is highly attractive. In this study, magnetic core / gold shell (MNP@Au) magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate reduction of Au ion on magnetic nanoparticle seeds. Hydrodynamic size and optical property of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles synthesized with the variation of Au ion and reducing agent concentrati...

  17. A Pretargeted Approach for the Multimodal PET/NIRF Imaging of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumeau, Pierre; Carnazza, Kathryn E; Brand, Christian; Carlin, Sean D; Reiner, Thomas; Agnew, Brian J; Lewis, Jason S; Zeglis, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    The complementary nature of positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging makes the development of strategies for the multimodal PET/NIRF imaging of cancer a very enticing prospect. Indeed, in the context of colorectal cancer, a single multimodal PET/NIRF imaging agent could be used to stage the disease, identify candidates for surgical intervention, and facilitate the image-guided resection of the disease. While antibodies have proven to be highly effective vectors for the delivery of radioisotopes and fluorophores to malignant tissues, the use of radioimmunoconjugates labeled with long-lived nuclides such as 89 Zr poses two important clinical complications: high radiation doses to the patient and the need for significant lag time between imaging and surgery. In vivo pretargeting strategies that decouple the targeting vector from the radioactivity at the time of injection have the potential to circumvent these issues by facilitating the use of positron-emitting radioisotopes with far shorter half-lives. Here, we report the synthesis, characterization, and in vivo validation of a pretargeted strategy for the multimodal PET and NIRF imaging of colorectal carcinoma. This approach is based on the rapid and bioorthogonal ligation between a trans -cyclooctene- and fluorophore-bearing immunoconjugate of the huA33 antibody (huA33-Dye800-TCO) and a 64 Cu-labeled tetrazine radioligand ( 64 Cu-Tz-SarAr). In vivo imaging experiments in mice bearing A33 antigen-expressing SW1222 colorectal cancer xenografts clearly demonstrate that this approach enables the non-invasive visualization of tumors and the image-guided resection of malignant tissue, all at only a fraction of the radiation dose created by a directly labeled radioimmunoconjugate. Additional in vivo experiments in peritoneal and patient-derived xenograft models of colorectal carcinoma reinforce the efficacy of this methodology and underscore its potential as an innovative and useful

  18. Data processing for registered multimodal images and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Hinako; Kobayashi, Akio; Uemura, Kouji

    1998-01-01

    We have developed two kinds of data processing methods for co-registered PET and MR images. The 3D-brain surface, representing the cortical rim in the transaxial images, was projected on a 2D-plane by utilizing Mollweide projection, which is an area-conserving method of displaying the globe as a world map. A quantitative ROI analysis on the brain surface and 3D superimposed surface display were performed by means of the 2D projection image. A clustered brain image was created by referring to the clustered 3D correlation map of resting CBF, the acetazolamide response and the hyperventilatory response, where each pixel in the brain was labeled with the color representing its cluster number. With this method, the stage of hemodynamic deficiency was evaluated in a patient with the occlusion of internal carotid artery. The differences in the brain images obtained before and after revascularized surgery was also evaluated. (author)

  19. Evaluation of multimodality imaging using image fusion with ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging in an experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, P M; Zengel, P; Cyran, C C; Ingrisch, M; Nikolaou, K; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging by comparison to multimodality imaging using image fusion with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and conventional grey scale imaging with additional elasticity-ultrasound in an experimental small-animal-squamous-cell carcinoma-model for the assessment of tissue morphology. Human hypopharynx carcinoma cells were subcutaneously injected into the left flank of 12 female athymic nude rats. After 10 days (SD ± 2) of subcutaneous tumor growth, sonographic grey scale including elasticity imaging and MRI measurements were performed using a high-end ultrasound system and a 3T MR. For image fusion the contrast-enhanced MRI DICOM data set was uploaded in the ultrasonic device which has a magnetic field generator, a linear array transducer (6-15 MHz) and a dedicated software package (GE Logic E9), that can detect transducers by means of a positioning system. Conventional grey scale and elasticity imaging were integrated in the image fusion examination. After successful registration and image fusion the registered MR-images were simultaneously shown with the respective ultrasound sectional plane. Data evaluation was performed using the digitally stored video sequence data sets by two experienced radiologist using a modified Tsukuba Elasticity score. The colors "red and green" are assigned for an area of soft tissue, "blue" indicates hard tissue. In all cases a successful image fusion and plan registration with MRI and ultrasound imaging including grey scale and elasticity imaging was possible. The mean tumor volume based on caliper measurements in 3 dimensions was ~323 mm3. 4/12 rats were evaluated with Score I, 5/12 rates were evaluated with Score II, 3/12 rates were evaluated with Score III. There was a close correlation in the fused MRI with existing small necrosis in the tumor. None of the scored II or III lesions was visible by conventional grey scale. The comparison of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging enables a

  20. The Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation Benchmark (BRATS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menze, Bjoern H.; Jakab, Andras; Bauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    a hierarchical majority vote yielded segmentations that consistently ranked above all individual algorithms, indicating remaining opportunities for further methodological improvements. The BRATS image data and manual annotations continue to be publicly available through an online evaluation system as an ongoing...

  1. Multimodality imaging of placental masses: a pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Priyanka; Paroder, Viktoriya; Mar, Winnie; Horowtiz, Jeanne M; Poder, Liina

    2016-12-01

    Placental masses are uncommonly identified at the time of obstetric ultrasound evaluation. Understanding the pathologies presenting as placental masses is key for providing a differential diagnosis and guiding subsequent management, which may include additional imaging with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Potential benign entities include chorioangiomas and teratomas. Larger chorioangiomas can cause fetal cardiovascular issues from volume overload. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia has an association with fetal anomalies and detailed fetal evaluation should be performed when it is suspected. Identifying other cystic masses such as partial and complete moles is crucial to prevent erroneous pregnancy termination. This review addresses normal imaging appearance of the placenta on ultrasound and MR imaging and describes various trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic placental masses. Potential placental mass mimics including uterine contractions and thrombo-hematomas are also presented.

  2. Multimodality imaging of the Essure tubal occlusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.L.; Beitia, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Essure device is a permanent birth-control device, which is gaining popularity. The micro-inserts are composed of metallic elements that can be seen on radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the normal location and appearance of the Essure device will ensure appropriate patient care. The purpose of this review is to describe the Essure tubal occlusion device and illustrate its normal and abnormal appearance using various imaging methods.

  3. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging: concepts and in vivo applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, S.M. van; Robillard, M.S.; Langereis, S.; Grull, H.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of

  4. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging : Concepts and in vivo applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijnhoven, S.M.J.; Robillard, M.S.; Langereis, S.; Grüll, H.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of

  5. Novelty detection of foreign objects in food using multi-modal X-ray imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Emerson, Monica Jane; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a method for novelty detection of foreign objects in food products using grating-based multimodal X-ray imaging. With this imaging technique three modalities are available with pixel correspondence, enhancing organic materials such as wood chips, insects and soft...... plastics not detectable by conventional X-ray absorption radiography. We conduct experiments, where several food products are imaged with common foreign objects typically found in the food processing industry. To evaluate the benefit from using this multi-contrast X-ray technique over conventional X......-ray absorption imaging, a novelty detection scheme based on well known image- and statistical analysis techniques is proposed. The results show that the presented method gives superior recognition results and highlights the advantage of grating-based imaging....

  6. Calcium fluoride based multifunctional nanoparticles for multimodal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Straßer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs that can be used as contrast agents (CA in different imaging techniques, such as photoluminescence (PL microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, open new possibilities for medical imaging, e.g., in the fields of diagnostics or tissue characterization in regenerative medicine. The focus of this study is on the synthesis and characterization of CaF2:(Tb3+,Gd3+ NPs. Fabricated in a wet-chemical procedure, the spherical NPs with a diameter of 5–10 nm show a crystalline structure. Simultaneous doping of the NPs with different lanthanide ions, leading to paramagnetism and fluorescence, makes them suitable for MR and PL imaging. Owing to the Gd3+ ions on the surface, the NPs reduce the MR T1 relaxation time constant as a function of their concentration. Thus, the NPs can be used as a MRI CA with a mean relaxivity of about r = 0.471 mL·mg−1·s−1. Repeated MRI examinations of four different batches prove the reproducibility of the NP synthesis and determine the long-term stability of the CAs. No cytotoxicity of NP concentrations between 0.5 and 1 mg·mL−1 was observed after exposure to human dermal fibroblasts over 24 h. Overall this study shows, that the CaF2:(Tb3+,Gd3+ NPs are suitable for medical imaging.

  7. Multimodality imaging spectrum of complications of horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik U Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomaly with an incidence of 1 in 400–600 individuals. The most common type is fusion at the lower poles seen in greater than 90% of the cases, with the rest depicting fusion at the upper poles, resulting in an inverted horseshoe kidney. Embryologically, there are two theories hypothesizing the genesis of horseshoe kidney – mechanical fusion theory and teratogenic event theory. As an entity, horseshoe kidney is an association of two anatomic anomalies, namely, ectopia and malrotation. It is also associated with other anomalies including vascular, calyceal, and ureteral anomalies. Horseshoe kidney is prone to a number of complications due to its abnormal position as well as due to associated vascular and ureteral anomalies. Complications associated with horseshoe kidney include pelviureteric junction obstruction, renal stones, infection, tumors, and trauma. It can also be associated with abnormalities of cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Conventional imaging modalities (plain films, intravenous urogram as well as advanced cross-sectional imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in the evaluation of horseshoe kidney. This article briefly describes the embryology and anatomy of the horseshoe kidney, enumerates appropriate imaging modalities used for its evaluation, and reviews cross-sectional imaging features of associated complications.

  8. Multimodality imaging of the Essure tubal occlusion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, W L; Beitia, L

    2012-12-01

    The Essure device is a permanent birth-control device, which is gaining popularity. The micro-inserts are composed of metallic elements that can be seen on radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the normal location and appearance of the Essure device will ensure appropriate patient care. The purpose of this review is to describe the Essure tubal occlusion device and illustrate its normal and abnormal appearance using various imaging methods. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of registration strategies for multi-modality images of rat brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Christoph; Vieten, Andrea; Salber, Dagmar; Pietrzyk, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    In neuroscience, small-animal studies frequently involve dealing with series of images from multiple modalities such as histology and autoradiography. The consistent and bias-free restacking of multi-modality image series is obligatory as a starting point for subsequent non-rigid registration procedures and for quantitative comparisons with positron emission tomography (PET) and other in vivo data. Up to now, consistency between 2D slices without cross validation using an inherent 3D modality is frequently presumed to be close to the true morphology due to the smooth appearance of the contours of anatomical structures. However, in multi-modality stacks consistency is difficult to assess. In this work, consistency is defined in terms of smoothness of neighboring slices within a single modality and between different modalities. Registration bias denotes the distortion of the registered stack in comparison to the true 3D morphology and shape. Based on these metrics, different restacking strategies of multi-modality rat brain slices are experimentally evaluated. Experiments based on MRI-simulated and real dual-tracer autoradiograms reveal a clear bias of the restacked volume despite quantitatively high consistency and qualitatively smooth brain structures. However, different registration strategies yield different inter-consistency metrics. If no genuine 3D modality is available, the use of the so-called SOP (slice-order preferred) or MOSOP (modality-and-slice-order preferred) strategy is recommended.

  10. Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2013-03-01

    Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One important structural parameter for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), which tends to become larger as glaucoma progresses. While approaches exist for segmenting the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs, and more recently, within spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, no approaches have been reported for the simultaneous segmentation of these structures within both modalities combined. In this work, a multimodal pixel-classification approach for the segmentation of the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs and SD-OCT volumes is presented. In particular, after segmentation of other important structures (such as the retinal layers and retinal blood vessels) and fundus-to-SD-OCT image registration, features are extracted from both modalities and a k-nearest-neighbor classification approach is used to classify each pixel as cup, rim, or background. The approach is evaluated on 70 multimodal image pairs from 35 subjects in a leave-10%-out fashion (by subject). A significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained using the multimodal approach over that obtained from the corresponding unimodal approach (97.8% versus 95.2%; p < 0:05; paired t-test).

  11. Multimodal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for image guided treatment of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. D.; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Mujat, Mircea; Husain, Deeba

    2009-02-01

    Subretinal neovascular membranes (SRNM) are a deleterious complication of laser eye injury and retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroiditis, and myopic retinopathy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are approved treatment methods. PDT acts by selective dye accumulation, activation by laser light, and disruption and clotting of the new leaky vessels. However, PDT surgery is currently not image-guided, nor does it proceed in an efficient or automated manner. This may contribute to the high rate of re-treatment. We have developed a multimodal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) for automated diagnosis and image-guided treatment of SRNMs associated with AMD. The system combines line scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (LSLO), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), PDT laser delivery, and retinal tracking in a compact, efficient platform. This paper describes the system hardware and software design, performance characterization, and automated patient imaging and treatment session procedures and algorithms. Also, we present initial imaging and tracking measurements on normal subjects and automated lesion demarcation and sizing analysis of previously acquired angiograms. Future pre-clinical testing includes line scanning angiography and PDT treatment of AMD subjects. The automated acquisition procedure, enhanced and expedited data post-processing, and innovative image visualization and interpretation tools provided by the multimodal retinal imager may eventually aid in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of AMD and other retinal diseases.

  12. Folic acid-targeted magnetic Tb-doped CeF3 fluorescent nanoparticles as bimodal probes for cellular fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Ya; Liu, Yu-Ping; Bai, Ling-Yu; An, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Xuan, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Shuai; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2015-10-07

    Magnetic fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential applications for diagnostics, imaging and therapy. We developed a facile polyol method to synthesize multifunctional Fe3O4@CeF3:Tb@CeF3 NPs with small size (CA) to obtain carboxyl-functionalized NPs (Fe3O4@CeF3:Tb@CeF3-COOH). Folic acid (FA) as an affinity ligand was then covalently conjugated onto NPs to yield Fe3O4@CeF3:Tb@CeF3-FA NPs. They were then applied as multimodal imaging agents for simultaneous in vitro targeted fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of HeLa cells with overexpressed folate receptors (FR). The results indicated that these NPs had strong luminescence and enhanced T2-weighted MR contrast and would be promising candidates as multimodal probes for both fluorescence and MRI imaging.

  13. Small molecule probes for plant cell wall polysaccharide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eWallace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed of interlinked polymer networks consisting of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and lignin. The ordered deposition of these components is a dynamic process that critically affects the development and differentiation of plant cells. However, our understanding of cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as the diverse cell wall architectures that result from these processes, has been limited by a lack of suitable chemical probes that are compatible with live-cell imaging. In this review, we summarize the currently available molecular toolbox of probes for cell wall polysaccharide imaging in plants, with particular emphasis on recent advances in small molecule-based fluorescent probes. We also discuss the potential for further development of small molecule probes for the analysis of cell wall architecture and dynamics.

  14. Multimodality imaging findings of massive ovarian edema in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmoush, Hisham [Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Stanford, CA (United States); Anupindi, Sudha A.; Chauvin, Nancy A. [University of Pennsylvania, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pawel, Bruce R. [University of Pennsylvania, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Massive ovarian edema is a rare benign condition that predominantly affects childbearing women as well as preadolescent girls. It is thought to result from intermittent or partial torsion of the ovary compromising the venous and lymphatic drainage but with preserved arterial supply. The clinical features of massive ovarian edema are nonspecific and can simulate tumors, leading to unnecessary oophorectomy. To demonstrate imaging features that should alert radiologists to consider the diagnosis of massive ovarian edema preoperatively so that fertility-sparing surgery may be considered. We identified five girls diagnosed with massive ovarian edema at pathology. Presenting symptoms, sidedness, imaging appearance, preoperative diagnosis, and operative and histopathological findings were reviewed. Age range was 9.6-14.3 years (mean age: 12.5 years). Common imaging findings included ovarian enlargement with edema of the stroma, peripherally placed follicles, isointense signal on T1-W MRI and markedly hyperintense signal on T2-W MRI, preservation of color Doppler flow by US, and CT Hounsfield units below 40. The uterus was deviated to the affected side in all patients. Two of the five patients had small to moderate amounts of free pelvic fluid. Mean ovarian volume on imaging was 560 mL (range: 108-1,361 mL). While the clinical presentation of massive ovarian edema is nonspecific, an enlarged ovary with stromal edema, peripherally placed follicles and preservation of blood flow may be suggestive and wedge biopsy should be considered intraoperatively to avoid unnecessary removal of the ovary. (orig.)

  15. Multimodality imaging demonstrates trafficking of liposomes preferentially to ischemic myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, Michael J.; Albelda, M. Teresa; Frias, Juan C.; Anderson, Stasia A.; Luger, Dror; Westman, Peter C.; Escarcega, Ricardo O.; Hellinga, David G.; Waksman, Ron; Arai, Andrew E.; Epstein, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nanoparticles may serve as a promising means to deliver novel therapeutics to the myocardium following myocardial infarction. We sought to determine whether lipid-based liposomal nanoparticles can be shown through different imaging modalities to specifically target injured myocardium following intravenous injection in an ischemia–reperfusion murine myocardial infarction model. Methods: Mice underwent ischemia–reperfusion surgery and then either received tail-vein injection with gadolinium- and fluorescent-labeled liposomes or no injection (control). The hearts were harvested 24 h later and underwent T1 and T2-weighted ex vivo imaging using a 7 Tesla Bruker magnet. The hearts were then sectioned for immunohistochemistry and optical fluorescent imaging. Results: The mean size of the liposomes was 100 nm. T1-weighted signal intensity was significantly increased in the ischemic vs. the non-ischemic myocardium for mice that received liposomes compared with control. Optical imaging demonstrated significant fluorescence within the infarct area for the liposome group compared with control (163 ± 31% vs. 13 ± 14%, p = 0.001) and fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of liposomes within the ischemic myocardium. Conclusions: Liposomes traffic to the heart and preferentially home to regions of myocardial injury, enabling improved diagnosis of myocardial injury and could serve as a vehicle for drug delivery.

  16. Multimodality imaging findings of massive ovarian edema in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmoush, Hisham; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Chauvin, Nancy A.; Pawel, Bruce R.

    2017-01-01

    Massive ovarian edema is a rare benign condition that predominantly affects childbearing women as well as preadolescent girls. It is thought to result from intermittent or partial torsion of the ovary compromising the venous and lymphatic drainage but with preserved arterial supply. The clinical features of massive ovarian edema are nonspecific and can simulate tumors, leading to unnecessary oophorectomy. To demonstrate imaging features that should alert radiologists to consider the diagnosis of massive ovarian edema preoperatively so that fertility-sparing surgery may be considered. We identified five girls diagnosed with massive ovarian edema at pathology. Presenting symptoms, sidedness, imaging appearance, preoperative diagnosis, and operative and histopathological findings were reviewed. Age range was 9.6-14.3 years (mean age: 12.5 years). Common imaging findings included ovarian enlargement with edema of the stroma, peripherally placed follicles, isointense signal on T1-W MRI and markedly hyperintense signal on T2-W MRI, preservation of color Doppler flow by US, and CT Hounsfield units below 40. The uterus was deviated to the affected side in all patients. Two of the five patients had small to moderate amounts of free pelvic fluid. Mean ovarian volume on imaging was 560 mL (range: 108-1,361 mL). While the clinical presentation of massive ovarian edema is nonspecific, an enlarged ovary with stromal edema, peripherally placed follicles and preservation of blood flow may be suggestive and wedge biopsy should be considered intraoperatively to avoid unnecessary removal of the ovary. (orig.)

  17. Multimodality imaging demonstrates trafficking of liposomes preferentially to ischemic myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Michael J., E-mail: mjlipinski12@gmail.com [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States); Albelda, M. Teresa [GIBI2" 3" 0, Grupo de Investigación Biomédica en Imagen, IIS La Fe, Valencia (Spain); Frias, Juan C. [Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Valencia (Spain); Anderson, Stasia A. [Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Luger, Dror; Westman, Peter C.; Escarcega, Ricardo O.; Hellinga, David G.; Waksman, Ron [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States); Arai, Andrew E. [Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Epstein, Stephen E. [MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Introduction: Nanoparticles may serve as a promising means to deliver novel therapeutics to the myocardium following myocardial infarction. We sought to determine whether lipid-based liposomal nanoparticles can be shown through different imaging modalities to specifically target injured myocardium following intravenous injection in an ischemia–reperfusion murine myocardial infarction model. Methods: Mice underwent ischemia–reperfusion surgery and then either received tail-vein injection with gadolinium- and fluorescent-labeled liposomes or no injection (control). The hearts were harvested 24 h later and underwent T1 and T2-weighted ex vivo imaging using a 7 Tesla Bruker magnet. The hearts were then sectioned for immunohistochemistry and optical fluorescent imaging. Results: The mean size of the liposomes was 100 nm. T1-weighted signal intensity was significantly increased in the ischemic vs. the non-ischemic myocardium for mice that received liposomes compared with control. Optical imaging demonstrated significant fluorescence within the infarct area for the liposome group compared with control (163 ± 31% vs. 13 ± 14%, p = 0.001) and fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of liposomes within the ischemic myocardium. Conclusions: Liposomes traffic to the heart and preferentially home to regions of myocardial injury, enabling improved diagnosis of myocardial injury and could serve as a vehicle for drug delivery.

  18. Multi-modal image registration: matching MRI with histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alić, L.; Haeck, J.C.; Klein, S.; Bol, K.; Tiel, S.T. van; Wielopolski, P.A.; Bijster, M.; Niessen, W.J.; Bernsen, M.; Veenland, J.F.; Jong, M. de

    2010-01-01

    Spatial correspondence between histology and multi sequence MRI can provide information about the capabilities of non-invasive imaging to characterize cancerous tissue. However, shrinkage and deformation occurring during the excision of the tumor and the histological processing complicate the co

  19. Modern spinal instrumentation. Part 2: Multimodality imaging approach for assessment of complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouni, A.K.; Davis, W.; Mankad, K.; Rankine, J.; Davagnanam, I.

    2013-01-01

    Radiologists frequently encounter studies demonstrating spinal instrumentation, either as part of the patient's postoperative evaluation, or as incidental to a study performed for another purpose. It is important for the reporting radiologist to identify potential complications of commonly used spinal implants. Part 1 of this review examined both the surgical approaches used and the normal appearances of these spinal implants and bone grafting techniques. This second part of the review will focus on the multimodal imaging strategy adopted in the assessment of the instrumented spine and the demonstration of imaging findings of common postoperative complications.

  20. Multimodal Image-Based Virtual Reality Presurgical Simulation and Evaluation for Trigeminal Neuralgia and Hemifacial Spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shujing; Zhang, Jiashu; Zhao, Yining; Hou, Yuanzheng; Xu, Xinghua; Zhang, Zhizhong; Kikinis, Ron; Chen, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    To address the feasibility and predictive value of multimodal image-based virtual reality in detecting and assessing features of neurovascular confliction (NVC), particularly regarding the detection of offending vessels, degree of compression exerted on the nerve root, in patients who underwent microvascular decompression for nonlesional trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm (HFS). This prospective study includes 42 consecutive patients who underwent microvascular decompression for classic primary trigeminal neuralgia or HFS. All patients underwent preoperative 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with T2-weighted three-dimensional (3D) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions, 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography, and 3D T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced sequences in combination, whereas 2 patients underwent extra experimental preoperative 7.0-T MRI scans with the same imaging protocol. Multimodal MRIs were then coregistered with open-source software 3D Slicer, followed by 3D image reconstruction to generate virtual reality (VR) images for detection of possible NVC in the cerebellopontine angle. Evaluations were performed by 2 reviewers and compared with the intraoperative findings. For detection of NVC, multimodal image-based VR sensitivity was 97.6% (40/41) and specificity was 100% (1/1). Compared with the intraoperative findings, the κ coefficients for predicting the offending vessel and the degree of compression were >0.75 (P < 0.001). The 7.0-T scans have a clearer view of vessels in the cerebellopontine angle, which may have significant impact on detection of small-caliber offending vessels with relatively slow flow speed in cases of HFS. Multimodal image-based VR using 3D sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions in combination with 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography sequences proved to be reliable in detecting NVC

  1. MO-DE-202-04: Multimodality Image-Guided Surgery and Intervention: For the Rest of Us

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, R. [Children’s National Health System (United States)

    2016-06-15

    At least three major trends in surgical intervention have emerged over the last decade: a move toward more minimally invasive (or non-invasive) approach to the surgical target; the development of high-precision treatment delivery techniques; and the increasing role of multi-modality intraoperative imaging in support of such procedures. This symposium includes invited presentations on recent advances in each of these areas and the emerging role for medical physics research in the development and translation of high-precision interventional techniques. The four speakers are: Keyvan Farahani, “Image-guided focused ultrasound surgery and therapy” Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, “Advances in image registration and reconstruction for image-guided neurosurgery” Tina Kapur, “Image-guided surgery and interventions in the advanced multimodality image-guided operating (AMIGO) suite” Raj Shekhar, “Multimodality image-guided interventions: Multimodality for the rest of us” Learning Objectives: Understand the principles and applications of HIFU in surgical ablation. Learn about recent advances in 3D–2D and 3D deformable image registration in support of surgical safety and precision. Learn about recent advances in model-based 3D image reconstruction in application to intraoperative 3D imaging. Understand the multi-modality imaging technologies and clinical applications investigated in the AMIGO suite. Understand the emerging need and techniques to implement multi-modality image guidance in surgical applications such as neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology. Research supported by the NIH and Siemens Healthcare.; J. Siewerdsen; Grant Support - National Institutes of Health; Grant Support - Siemens Healthcare; Grant Support - Carestream Health; Advisory Board - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Elekta Oncology.; T. Kapur, P41EB015898; R. Shekhar, Funding: R42CA137886 and R41CA192504

  2. MO-DE-202-04: Multimodality Image-Guided Surgery and Intervention: For the Rest of Us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar, R.

    2016-01-01

    At least three major trends in surgical intervention have emerged over the last decade: a move toward more minimally invasive (or non-invasive) approach to the surgical target; the development of high-precision treatment delivery techniques; and the increasing role of multi-modality intraoperative imaging in support of such procedures. This symposium includes invited presentations on recent advances in each of these areas and the emerging role for medical physics research in the development and translation of high-precision interventional techniques. The four speakers are: Keyvan Farahani, “Image-guided focused ultrasound surgery and therapy” Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, “Advances in image registration and reconstruction for image-guided neurosurgery” Tina Kapur, “Image-guided surgery and interventions in the advanced multimodality image-guided operating (AMIGO) suite” Raj Shekhar, “Multimodality image-guided interventions: Multimodality for the rest of us” Learning Objectives: Understand the principles and applications of HIFU in surgical ablation. Learn about recent advances in 3D–2D and 3D deformable image registration in support of surgical safety and precision. Learn about recent advances in model-based 3D image reconstruction in application to intraoperative 3D imaging. Understand the multi-modality imaging technologies and clinical applications investigated in the AMIGO suite. Understand the emerging need and techniques to implement multi-modality image guidance in surgical applications such as neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology. Research supported by the NIH and Siemens Healthcare.; J. Siewerdsen; Grant Support - National Institutes of Health; Grant Support - Siemens Healthcare; Grant Support - Carestream Health; Advisory Board - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Elekta Oncology.; T. Kapur, P41EB015898; R. Shekhar, Funding: R42CA137886 and R41CA192504

  3. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: multimodality imaging and histopathologic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bo Bae; Shu, Kwang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Background Metaplastic carcinomas are ductal carcinomas that display metaplastic transformation of the glandular epithelium to non-glandular mesenchymal tissue. Metaplastic carcinoma has a poorer prognosis than most other breast cancers, so the differential diagnosis is important. Although many clinical and pathologic findings have been reported, to our knowledge, few imaging findings related to metaplastic carcinoma have been reported. Purpose To investigate whole-breast imaging findings, including mammography, sonography, MRI, and pathologic findings, including immunohistochemical studies of metaplastic carcinomas of the breast. Material and Methods We analyzed 33 cases of metaplastic carcinoma between January 2001 and January 2011. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI were recorded retrospectively using the American College of Radiology (ACR) breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Immunohistochemical studies of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, and C-erbB-2 were performed. Results The most common mammographic findings were oval shape (37%), circumscribed margin (59%), and high density (74%). The most common sonogfindings were irregular shape (59.4%), microlobulated margin (41%), complex echogenicity (81%), parallel orientation (97%), and posterior acoustic enhancement (50%). Axillary lymph node metastases were noted for 25% of the sonographic examinations. On MRI, the most common findings of margin and shape were irregularity (57% and 52.4%, respectively). High signal intensity was the most common finding on T2-weighted images (57%). Immunohistochemical profile was negative for ER (91%, 29/32) and PR (81%, 26/32). Conclusion Metaplastic carcinomas might display more benign features and less axillary lymph node metastasis than IDC. High signal intensity on T2 MRI images and hormone receptor negativity would be helpful in differentiating this tumor from other breast cancers

  4. Polymer encapsulated upconversion nanoparticle/iron oxide nanocomposites for multimodal imaging and magnetic targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Ma, Xinxing; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang

    2011-12-01

    Multimodal imaging and imaging-guided therapies have become a new trend in the current development of cancer theranostics. In this work, we encapsulate hydrophobic upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) together with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) by using an amphiphilic block copolymer, poly (styrene-block-allyl alcohol) (PS(16)-b-PAA(10)), via a microemulsion method, obtaining an UC-IO@Polymer multi-functional nanocomposite system. Fluorescent dye and anti-cancer drug molecules can be further loaded inside the UC-IO@Polymer nanocomposite for additional functionalities. Utilizing the Squaraine (SQ) dye loaded nanocomposite (UC-IO@Polymer-SQ), triple-modal upconversion luminescence (UCL)/down-conversion fluorescence (FL)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, and also applied for in vivo cancer cell tracking in mice. On the other hand, a chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin, is also loaded into the nanocomposite, forming an UC-IO@Polymer-DOX complex, which enables novel imaging-guided and magnetic targeted drug delivery. Our work provides a method to fabricate a nanocomposite system with highly integrated functionalities for multimodal biomedical imaging and cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detail-enhanced multimodality medical image fusion based on gradient minimization smoothing filter and shearing filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingbin; Mei, Wenbo; Du, Huiqian

    2018-02-13

    In this paper, a detail-enhanced multimodality medical image fusion algorithm is proposed by using proposed multi-scale joint decomposition framework (MJDF) and shearing filter (SF). The MJDF constructed with gradient minimization smoothing filter (GMSF) and Gaussian low-pass filter (GLF) is used to decompose source images into low-pass layers, edge layers, and detail layers at multiple scales. In order to highlight the detail information in the fused image, the edge layer and the detail layer in each scale are weighted combined into a detail-enhanced layer. As directional filter is effective in capturing salient information, so SF is applied to the detail-enhanced layer to extract geometrical features and obtain directional coefficients. Visual saliency map-based fusion rule is designed for fusing low-pass layers, and the sum of standard deviation is used as activity level measurement for directional coefficients fusion. The final fusion result is obtained by synthesizing the fused low-pass layers and directional coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed method with shift-invariance, directional selectivity, and detail-enhanced property is efficient in preserving and enhancing detail information of multimodality medical images. Graphical abstract The detailed implementation of the proposed medical image fusion algorithm.

  6. A Multimodal Imaging Approach for Longitudinal Evaluation of Bladder Tumor Development in an Orthotopic Murine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Scheepbouwer

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the fourth most common malignancy amongst men in Western industrialized countries with an initial response rate of 70% for the non-muscle invasive type, and improving therapy efficacy is highly needed. For this, an appropriate, reliable animal model is essential to gain insight into mechanisms of tumor growth for use in response monitoring of (new agents. Several animal models have been described in previous studies, but so far success has been hampered due to the absence of imaging methods to follow tumor growth non-invasively over time. Recent developments of multimodal imaging methods for use in animal research have substantially strengthened these options of in vivo visualization of tumor growth. In the present study, a multimodal imaging approach was addressed to investigate bladder tumor proliferation longitudinally. The complementary abilities of Bioluminescence, High Resolution Ultrasound and Photo-acoustic Imaging permit a better understanding of bladder tumor development. Hybrid imaging modalities allow the integration of individual strengths to enable sensitive and improved quantification and understanding of tumor biology, and ultimately, can aid in the discovery and development of new therapeutics.

  7. A hand-held beta imaging probe for FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipin; Stack, Brendan C; Thacker, Samta; Gaysinskiy, Valeriy; Bartel, Twyla; Lowe, Val; Cool, Steven; Entine, Gerald; Nagarkar, Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Advances in radiopharmaceuticals and clinical understanding have escalated the use of intraoperative gamma probes in surgery. However, most probes on the market are non-imaging gamma probes that suffer from the lack of ancillary information of the surveyed tissue area. We have developed a novel, hand-held digital Imaging Beta Probe™ (IBP™) to be used in surgery in conjunction with beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals such as (18)FDG, (131)I and (32)P for real-time imaging of a surveyed area with higher spatial resolution and sensitivity and greater convenience than existing instruments. We describe the design and validation of a hand-held beta probe intended to be used as a visual mapping device to locate and confirm excision of (18)FDG-avid primary tumors and metastases in an animal model. We have demonstrated a device which can generate beta images from (18)FDG avid lesions in an animal model. It is feasible to image beta irradiation in animal models of cancer given (18)FDG. This technology may be applied to clinical mapping of tumors and/or their metastases in the operating room. Visual image depiction of malignancy may aid the surgeon in localization and excision of lesions of interest.

  8. Multimodality Imaging Evaluation of an Uncommon Entity: Esophageal Heterotopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takman Mack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old male was referred to the Radiology Department with new onset of right upper quadrant and epigastric abdominal pain. He had no past medical or surgical history. Physical exam was unremarkable. The patient underwent computed tomography (CT, fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal (GI evaluation, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS, and positron emission tomography (PET evaluation, revealing the presence of a heterogeneous esophageal mass. In light of imaging findings and clinical workup, the patient was ultimately referred for thorascopic surgery. Surgical findings and histology confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal heterotopic pancreas.

  9. Improving supervised classification accuracy using non-rigid multimodal image registration: detecting prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelow, Jonathan; Viswanath, Satish; Monaco, James; Rosen, Mark; Tomaszewski, John; Feldman, Michael; Madabhushi, Anant

    2008-03-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for the detection of cancer in medical images require precise labeling of training data. For magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) of the prostate, training labels define the spatial extent of prostate cancer (CaP); the most common source for these labels is expert segmentations. When ancillary data such as whole mount histology (WMH) sections, which provide the gold standard for cancer ground truth, are available, the manual labeling of CaP can be improved by referencing WMH. However, manual segmentation is error prone, time consuming and not reproducible. Therefore, we present the use of multimodal image registration to automatically and accurately transcribe CaP from histology onto MRI following alignment of the two modalities, in order to improve the quality of training data and hence classifier performance. We quantitatively demonstrate the superiority of this registration-based methodology by comparing its results to the manual CaP annotation of expert radiologists. Five supervised CAD classifiers were trained using the labels for CaP extent on MRI obtained by the expert and 4 different registration techniques. Two of the registration methods were affi;ne schemes; one based on maximization of mutual information (MI) and the other method that we previously developed, Combined Feature Ensemble Mutual Information (COFEMI), which incorporates high-order statistical features for robust multimodal registration. Two non-rigid schemes were obtained by succeeding the two affine registration methods with an elastic deformation step using thin-plate splines (TPS). In the absence of definitive ground truth for CaP extent on MRI, classifier accuracy was evaluated against 7 ground truth surrogates obtained by different combinations of the expert and registration segmentations. For 26 multimodal MRI-WMH image pairs, all four registration methods produced a higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve compared to that

  10. Multimodal imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1-associated nerve sheath tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, J.; Adam, G.; Mautner, V.F.; Derlin, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurogenetic disorder. Individuals with NF1 may develop a variety of benign and malignant tumors of which peripheral nerve sheath tumors represent the most frequent entity. Plexiform neurofibromas may demonstrate a locally destructive growth pattern, may cause severe symptoms and may undergo malignant transformation into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the reference standard for detection of soft tissue tumors in NF1. It allows for identification of individuals with plexiform neurofibromas, for assessment of local tumor extent, and for evaluation of whole-body tumor burden on T2-weighted imaging. Multiparametric MRI may provide a comprehensive characterization of different tissue properties of peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and may identify parameters associated with malignant transformation. Due to the absence of any radiation exposure, whole-body MRI may be used for serial follow-up of individuals with plexiform neurofibromas. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission-tomography (FDG PET/CT) allows a highly sensitive and specific detection of MPNST, and should be used in case of potential malignant transformation of a peripheral nerve sheath tumor. PET/CT provides a sensitive whole-body tumor staging. The use of contrast-enhanced CT for diagnosis of peripheral nerve sheath tumors is limited to special indications. To obtain the most precise readings, optimized examination protocols and dedicated radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians familiar with the complex and variable morphologies of peripheral nerve sheath tumors are required.

  11. Multi-modal image registration: matching MRI with histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alic, Lejla; Haeck, Joost C.; Klein, Stefan; Bol, Karin; van Tiel, Sandra T.; Wielopolski, Piotr A.; Bijster, Magda; Niessen, Wiro J.; Bernsen, Monique; Veenland, Jifke F.; de Jong, Marion

    2010-03-01

    Spatial correspondence between histology and multi sequence MRI can provide information about the capabilities of non-invasive imaging to characterize cancerous tissue. However, shrinkage and deformation occurring during the excision of the tumor and the histological processing complicate the co registration of MR images with histological sections. This work proposes a methodology to establish a detailed 3D relation between histology sections and in vivo MRI tumor data. The key features of the methodology are a very dense histological sampling (up to 100 histology slices per tumor), mutual information based non-rigid B-spline registration, the utilization of the whole 3D data sets, and the exploitation of an intermediate ex vivo MRI. In this proof of concept paper, the methodology was applied to one tumor. We found that, after registration, the visual alignment of tumor borders and internal structures was fairly accurate. Utilizing the intermediate ex vivo MRI, it was possible to account for changes caused by the excision of the tumor: we observed a tumor expansion of 20%. Also the effects of fixation, dehydration and histological sectioning could be determined: 26% shrinkage of the tumor was found. The annotation of viable tissue, performed in histology and transformed to the in vivo MRI, matched clearly with high intensity regions in MRI. With this methodology, histological annotation can be directly related to the corresponding in vivo MRI. This is a vital step for the evaluation of the feasibility of multi-spectral MRI to depict histological groundtruth.

  12. Waveguide volume probe for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a probe for use within the field of nuclear magnetic resonance, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)). One embodiment relates to an RF probe for magnetic resonance imaging and/or spectroscopy comprising a conductive...... non-magnetic hollow waveguide having an internal volume and at least one open end, one or more capacitors and at least a first conductive non-magnetic wire, wherein said first conductive wire connects at least one of said one or more capacitors to opposite walls of one open end of the waveguide...

  13. Multimodal Ultrawide-Field Imaging Features in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Netan; Rao, Rajesh C

    2015-06-01

    A 45-year-old woman was referred for bilateral irregular fundus pigmentation. Dilated fundus examination revealed irregular hypopigmentation posterior to the equator in both eyes, confirmed by fundus autofluorescence. A thickened choroid was seen on enhanced-depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI SD-OCT). Systemic evaluation revealed sensorineural deafness, telecanthus, and a white forelock. Further investigation revealed a first-degree relative with Waardenburg syndrome. Waardenburg syndrome is characterized by a group of features including telecanthus, a broad nasal root, synophrys of the eyebrows, piedbaldism, heterochromia irides, and deafness. Choroidal hypopigmentation is a unique feature that can be visualized with ultrawide-field fundus autofluorescence. The choroid may also be thickened and its thickness measured with EDI SD-OCT. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Canal of Nuck hernia: a multimodality imaging review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Mitchell A. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Squires, James E. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Gastroenterology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tadros, Sameh; Squires, Judy H. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Canal of Nuck abnormalities are a rare but important cause of morbidity in girls, most often those younger than 5 years of age. The canal of Nuck, which is the female equivalent of the male processus vaginalis, is a protrusion of parietal peritoneum that extends through the inguinal canal and terminates in the labia majora. The canal typically obliterates early in life, but in some cases the canal can partially or completely fail to close, potentially resulting in a hydrocele or hernia of pelvic contents. Recognition of this entity is especially important in cases of ovarian hernia due to the risk of incarceration and torsion. We aim to increase awareness of this condition by reviewing the embryology, anatomy and diagnosis of canal of Nuck disorders with imaging findings on US, CT and MRI using several cases from a single institution. (orig.)

  15. Canal of Nuck hernia: a multimodality imaging review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Mitchell A.; Squires, James E.; Tadros, Sameh; Squires, Judy H.

    2017-01-01

    Canal of Nuck abnormalities are a rare but important cause of morbidity in girls, most often those younger than 5 years of age. The canal of Nuck, which is the female equivalent of the male processus vaginalis, is a protrusion of parietal peritoneum that extends through the inguinal canal and terminates in the labia majora. The canal typically obliterates early in life, but in some cases the canal can partially or completely fail to close, potentially resulting in a hydrocele or hernia of pelvic contents. Recognition of this entity is especially important in cases of ovarian hernia due to the risk of incarceration and torsion. We aim to increase awareness of this condition by reviewing the embryology, anatomy and diagnosis of canal of Nuck disorders with imaging findings on US, CT and MRI using several cases from a single institution. (orig.)

  16. Culture and magnetic resonance image of magnetospirillum magneticum AMB1 for the application as a vector for multimodal image reporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Seong Ho; Vu, Nguyen H.; Jung, Young Yeon; Min, Jung Joon

    2007-01-01

    Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 synthesize uniform, nano-sized magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, which are referred to as bacterial magnetic particles (BacMPs). BacMPs have potential for various technological applications and the molecular mechanism of their formation is of particular interest. In this study, we established the culture method for M. magneticum AMB-1 and analysed it's growth property and magnetic resonance image. Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 strain was obtained from ATCC and inoculated in Magnetospirillum growth medium (MSGM). M. magneticum was cultured at 26? with 60 rpm shaking and check the optical density (OD) in 600 nm every 6 hours. Cultured M. magneticum that reached to stataionary phase was collected by centrifugation and suspend in PBS. MR image was taken by 1.5T MRI machine. The growth of M. magneticum was reached up to 0.2 OD600 at 80 hours after inoculation. The bacterial suspension was made the concentration 2 X 10-11 CFU/ml and successfully taken MR image using by 1.5T MRI machine. M. magneticum AMB strain was successfully cultured in our laboratory condition and was shown intensive MR image. Now we can use this bacteria as a multimodal image vector if the M. magneticum is transformed with an bioluminescent or fluorescent reporter gene. Further study about the development of M. magneticum strain as a multimodal image is needed

  17. Free-radical probes for functional in vivo EPR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S.; Krishna, M. C.

    2007-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) is one of the recent functional imaging modalities that can provide valuable in vivo physiological information on its own merit and aids as a complimentary imaging technique to MRI and PET of tissues especially with respect to in vivo pO II (oxygen partial pressure), redox status and pharmacology. EPR imaging mainly deals with the measurement of distribution and in vivo dynamics and redox changes using special nontoxic paramagnetic spin probes that can be infused into the object of investigation. These spin probes should be characterized by simple EPR spectra, preferably with narrow EPR lines. The line width should be reversibly sensitive to the concentration of in vivo pO II with a linear dependence. Several non-toxic paramagnetic probes, some particulate and insoluble and others water-soluble and infusible (by intravenous or intramuscular injection) have been developed which can be effectively used to quantitatively assess tissue redox status, and tumor hypoxia. Quantitative assessment of the redox status of tissue in vivo is important in investigating oxidative stress, and that of tissue pO II is very important in radiation oncology. Other areas in which EPR imaging and oxymetry may help are in the investigation of tumorangiogenesis, wound healing, oxygenation of tumor tissue by the ingestion of oxygen-rich gases, etc. The correct choice of the spin probe will depend on the modality of measurement (whether by CW or time-domain EPR imaging) and the particular physiology interrogated. Examples of the available spin probes and some EPR imaging applications employing them are presented.

  18. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) (1,2). These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) (2). A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) (3). Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles (1). Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust, versatile, and multi

  19. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason S. Lewis

    2012-04-09

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) [1,2]. These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) [2]. A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) [3]. Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles [1]. Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust

  20. Multimodal Imaging of Brain Connectivity Using the MIBCA Toolbox: Preliminary Application to Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, André Santos; Lacerda, Luís Miguel; Silva, Nuno André da; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    The Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity analysis toolbox that offers both pre-processing, connectivity, and graph theory analysis of multimodal images such as anatomical, diffusion, and functional MRI, and PET. In this work, the MIBCA functionalities were used to study Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in a multimodal MR/PET approach. Materials and Methods: Data from 12 healthy controls, and 36 patients with EMCI, LMCI and AD (12 patients for each group) were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (adni.loni.usc.edu), including T1-weighted (T1-w), Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data, and 18F-AV-45 (florbetapir) dynamic PET data from 40-60 min post injection (4x5 min). Both MR and PET data were automatically pre-processed for all subjects using MIBCA. T1-w data was parcellated into cortical and subcortical regions-of-interest (ROIs), and the corresponding thicknesses and volumes were calculated. DTI data was used to compute structural connectivity matrices based on fibers connecting pairs of ROIs. Lastly, dynamic PET images were summed, and the relative Standard Uptake Values calculated for each ROI. Results: An overall higher uptake of 18F-AV-45, consistent with an increased deposition of beta-amyloid, was observed for the AD group. Additionally, patients showed significant cortical atrophy (thickness and volume) especially in the entorhinal cortex and temporal areas, and a significant increase in Mean Diffusivity (MD) in the hippocampus, amygdala and temporal areas. Furthermore, patients showed a reduction of fiber connectivity with the progression of the disease, especially for intra-hemispherical connections. Conclusion: This work shows the potential of the MIBCA toolbox for the study of AD, as findings were shown to be in agreement with the literature. Here, only structural changes and beta-amyloid accumulation were considered. Yet, MIBCA is further able to

  1. Multimodality Cardiac Imaging in a Patient with Kawasaki Disease and Giant Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjini Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease is a well-known cause of acquired cardiac disease in the pediatric and adult population, most prevalent in Japan but also seen commonly in the United States. In the era of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG treatment, the morbidity associated with this disease has decreased, but it remains a serious illness. Here we present the case of an adolescent, initially diagnosed with Kawasaki disease as an infant, that progressed to giant aneurysm formation and calcification of the coronary arteries. We review his case and the literature, focusing on the integral role of multimodality imaging in managing Kawasaki disease.

  2. Characterizing the inflammatory tissue response to acute myocardial infarction by clinical multimodality noninvasive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenweber, Tim; Roentgen, Philipp; Schäfer, Andreas; Schatka, Imke; Zwadlo, Caroline; Brunkhorst, Thomas; Berding, Georg; Bauersachs, Johann; Bengel, Frank M

    2014-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers a systemic inflammatory response which determines subsequent healing. Experimentally, cardiac positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been used successfully to obtain mechanistic insights. We explored the translational potential in patients early after MI. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance were performed in 15 patients sources of inflammatory cells. Positron emission tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance multimodality characterization of the acutely infarcted, inflamed myocardium may provide multiparametric end points for clinical studies aiming at support of infarct healing. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani P

    2016-09-01

    , and NIR features of mCNV are described in this study. Combination of SD-OCT and FA is recommendable for diagnosis. Keywords: myopic neovascularization, pathologic myopia, fluorescein angiography, SD-OCT, imaging, CNV

  4. Interactive, multi-modality image registrations for combined MRI/MRSI-planned HDR prostate brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Reed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study presents the steps and criteria involved in the series of image registrations used clinically during the planning and dose delivery of focal high dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy of the prostate. Material and methods: Three imaging modalities – Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI, and Computed Tomography (CT – were used at different steps during the process. MRSI is used for identification of dominant intraprosatic lesions (DIL. A series of rigid and nonrigid transformations were applied to the data to correct for endorectal-coil-induced deformations and for alignment with the planning CT. Mutual information was calculated as a morphing metric. An inverse planning optimization algorithm was applied to boost dose to the DIL while providing protection to the urethra, penile bulb, rectum, and bladder. Six prostate cancer patients were treated using this protocol. Results: The morphing algorithm successfully modeled the probe-induced prostatic distortion. Mutual information calculated between the morphed images and images acquired without the endorectal probe showed a significant (p = 0.0071 increase to that calculated between the unmorphed images and images acquired without the endorectal probe. Both mutual information and visual inspection serve as effective diagnostics of image morphing. The entire procedure adds less than thirty minutes to the treatment planning. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the utility of image transformations and registrations to HDR brachytherapy of prostate cancer.

  5. Facile Fabrication of Animal-Specific Positioning Molds For Multi-modality Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Oh, Ji Eun; Woo, Seung Tae

    2008-01-01

    Recently multi-modal imaging system has become widely adopted in molecular imaging. We tried to fabricate animal-specific positioning molds for PET/MR fusion imaging using easily available molding clay and rapid foam. The animal-specific positioning molds provide immobilization and reproducible positioning of small animal. Herein, we have compared fiber-based molding clay with rapid foam in fabricating the molds of experimental animal. The round bottomed-acrylic frame, which fitted into microPET gantry, was prepared at first. The experimental mice was anesthetized and placed on the mold for positioning. Rapid foam and fiber-based clay were used to fabricate the mold. In case of both rapid foam and the clay, the experimental animal needs to be pushed down smoothly into the mold for positioning. However, after the mouse was removed, the fabricated clay needed to be dried completely at 60 .deg. C in oven overnight for hardening. Four sealed pipe tips containing [ 18 F]FDG solution were used as fiduciary markers. After injection of [ 18 F]FDG via tail vein, microPET scanning was performed. Successively, MRI scanning was followed in the same animal. Animal-specific positioning molds were fabricated using rapid foam and fiber-based molding clay for multimodality imaging. Functional and anatomical images were obtained with microPET and MRI, respectively. The fused PET/MR images were obtained using freely available AMIDE program. Animal-specific molds were successfully prepared using easily available rapid foam, molding clay and disposable pipet tips. Thanks to animal-specific molds, fusion images of PET and MR were co-registered with negligible misalignment

  6. VoxelStats: A MATLAB Package for Multi-Modal Voxel-Wise Brain Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha; Wang, Seqian; Shin, Monica; Pascoal, Tharick A; Benedet, Andrea L; Kang, Min Su; Beaudry, Thomas; Fonov, Vladimir S; Gauthier, Serge; Labbe, Aurélie; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, behavioral outcomes are highly associated with the variability on brain regional structure or neurochemical phenotypes. Similarly, in the context of neurodegenerative conditions, neuroimaging reveals that cognitive decline is linked to the magnitude of atrophy, neurochemical declines, or concentrations of abnormal protein aggregates across brain regions. However, modeling the effects of multiple regional abnormalities as determinants of cognitive decline at the voxel level remains largely unexplored by multimodal imaging research, given the high computational cost of estimating regression models for every single voxel from various imaging modalities. VoxelStats is a voxel-wise computational framework to overcome these computational limitations and to perform statistical operations on multiple scalar variables and imaging modalities at the voxel level. VoxelStats package has been developed in Matlab(®) and supports imaging formats such as Nifti-1, ANALYZE, and MINC v2. Prebuilt functions in VoxelStats enable the user to perform voxel-wise general and generalized linear models and mixed effect models with multiple volumetric covariates. Importantly, VoxelStats can recognize scalar values or image volumes as response variables and can accommodate volumetric statistical covariates as well as their interaction effects with other variables. Furthermore, this package includes built-in functionality to perform voxel-wise receiver operating characteristic analysis and paired and unpaired group contrast analysis. Validation of VoxelStats was conducted by comparing the linear regression functionality with existing toolboxes such as glim_image and RMINC. The validation results were identical to existing methods and the additional functionality was demonstrated by generating feature case assessments (t-statistics, odds ratio, and true positive rate maps). In summary, VoxelStats expands the current methods for multimodal imaging analysis by allowing the

  7. The clinical utility of multimodal MR image-guided needle biopsy in cerebral gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chengjun; Lv, Shunzeng; Chen, Hong; Tang, Weijun; Guo, Jun; Zhuang, Dongxiao; Chrisochoides, Nikos; Wu, Jinsong; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liangfu

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic value of multimodal Magnetic Resonance (MR) Image in the stereotactic biopsy of cerebral gliomas, and investigate its implications. Twenty-four patients with cerebral gliomas underwent (1)H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS)- and intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (iMRI)-supported stereotactic biopsy, and 23 patients underwent only the preoperative MRI-guided biopsy. The diagnostic yield, morbidity and mortality rates were analyzed. In addition, 20 patients underwent subsequent tumor resection, thus the diagnostic accuracy of the biopsy was further evaluated. The diagnostic accuracies of biopsies evaluated by tumor resection in the trial groups were better than control groups (92.3% and 42.9%, respectively, p = 0.031). The diagnostic yield in the trial groups was better than the control groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (100% and 82.6%, respectively, p = 0.05). The morbidity and mortality rates were similar in both groups. Multimodal MR image-guided glioma biopsy is practical and valuable. This technique can increase the diagnostic accuracy in the stereotactic biopsy of cerebral gliomas. Besides, it is likely to increase the diagnostic yield but requires further validation.

  8. Multimodality imaging in macular telangiectasia 2: A clue to its pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihteh Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular telangiectasia type 2 also known as idiopathic perifoveal telangiectasia and juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis type 2A is an acquired bilateral neurodegenerative macular disease that manifests itself during the fifth or sixth decades of life. It is characterized by minimal dilatation of the parafoveal capillaries with graying of the retinal area involved, a lack of lipid exudation, right-angled retinal venules, refractile deposits in the superficial retina, hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium, foveal atrophy, and subretinal neovascularization (SRNV. Our understanding of the disease has paralleled advances in multimodality imaging of the fundus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT images typically demonstrate the presence of intraretinal hyporeflective spaces that are usually not related to retinal thickening or fluorescein leakage. The typical fluorescein angiographic (FA finding is a deep intraretinal hyperfluorescent staining in the temporal parafoveal area. With time, the staining may involve the whole parafoveal area but does not extend to the center of the fovea. Long-term prognosis for central vision is poor, because of the development of SRNV or macular atrophy. Its pathogenesis remains unclear but multimodality imaging with FA, spectral domain OCT, adaptive optics, confocal blue reflectance and short wave fundus autofluorescence implicate Müller cells and macular pigment. Currently, there is no known treatment for this condition.

  9. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BENIGN FLECK RETINA USING MULTIMODAL IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neriyanuri, Srividya; Rao, Chetan; Raman, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    To report structural and functional features in a case series of benign fleck retina using multimodal imaging. Four cases with benign fleck retina underwent complete ophthalmic examination that included detailed history, visual acuity, and refractive error testing, FM-100 hue test, dilated fundus evaluation, full field electroretinogram, fundus photography with autofluorescence, fundus fluorescein angiography, and swept-source optical coherence tomography. Age group of the cases ranged from 19 years to 35 years (3 males and 1 female). Parental consanguinity was reported in two cases. All of them were visually asymptomatic with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 (moderate astigmatism) in both the eyes. Low color discrimination was seen in two cases. Fundus photography showed pisciform flecks which were compactly placed on posterior pole and were discrete, diverging towards periphery. Lesions were seen as smaller dots within 1500 microns from fovea and were hyperfluorescent on autofluorescence. Palisading retinal pigment epithelium defects were seen in posterior pole on fundus fluorescein angiography imaging; irregular hyper fluorescence was also noted. One case had reduced cone responses on full field electroretinogram; the other three cases had normal electroretinogram. On optical coherence tomography, level of lesions varied from retinal pigment epithelium, inner segment to outer segment extending till external limiting membrane. Functional and structural deficits in benign fleck retina were picked up using multimodal imaging.

  10. MO-DE-202-03: Image-Guided Surgery and Interventions in the Advanced Multimodality Image-Guided Operating (AMIGO) Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, T. [Brigham & Women’s Hospital (United States)

    2016-06-15

    At least three major trends in surgical intervention have emerged over the last decade: a move toward more minimally invasive (or non-invasive) approach to the surgical target; the development of high-precision treatment delivery techniques; and the increasing role of multi-modality intraoperative imaging in support of such procedures. This symposium includes invited presentations on recent advances in each of these areas and the emerging role for medical physics research in the development and translation of high-precision interventional techniques. The four speakers are: Keyvan Farahani, “Image-guided focused ultrasound surgery and therapy” Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, “Advances in image registration and reconstruction for image-guided neurosurgery” Tina Kapur, “Image-guided surgery and interventions in the advanced multimodality image-guided operating (AMIGO) suite” Raj Shekhar, “Multimodality image-guided interventions: Multimodality for the rest of us” Learning Objectives: Understand the principles and applications of HIFU in surgical ablation. Learn about recent advances in 3D–2D and 3D deformable image registration in support of surgical safety and precision. Learn about recent advances in model-based 3D image reconstruction in application to intraoperative 3D imaging. Understand the multi-modality imaging technologies and clinical applications investigated in the AMIGO suite. Understand the emerging need and techniques to implement multi-modality image guidance in surgical applications such as neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology. Research supported by the NIH and Siemens Healthcare.; J. Siewerdsen; Grant Support - National Institutes of Health; Grant Support - Siemens Healthcare; Grant Support - Carestream Health; Advisory Board - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Elekta Oncology.; T. Kapur, P41EB015898; R. Shekhar, Funding: R42CA137886 and R41CA192504

  11. MO-DE-202-03: Image-Guided Surgery and Interventions in the Advanced Multimodality Image-Guided Operating (AMIGO) Suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, T.

    2016-01-01

    At least three major trends in surgical intervention have emerged over the last decade: a move toward more minimally invasive (or non-invasive) approach to the surgical target; the development of high-precision treatment delivery techniques; and the increasing role of multi-modality intraoperative imaging in support of such procedures. This symposium includes invited presentations on recent advances in each of these areas and the emerging role for medical physics research in the development and translation of high-precision interventional techniques. The four speakers are: Keyvan Farahani, “Image-guided focused ultrasound surgery and therapy” Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, “Advances in image registration and reconstruction for image-guided neurosurgery” Tina Kapur, “Image-guided surgery and interventions in the advanced multimodality image-guided operating (AMIGO) suite” Raj Shekhar, “Multimodality image-guided interventions: Multimodality for the rest of us” Learning Objectives: Understand the principles and applications of HIFU in surgical ablation. Learn about recent advances in 3D–2D and 3D deformable image registration in support of surgical safety and precision. Learn about recent advances in model-based 3D image reconstruction in application to intraoperative 3D imaging. Understand the multi-modality imaging technologies and clinical applications investigated in the AMIGO suite. Understand the emerging need and techniques to implement multi-modality image guidance in surgical applications such as neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology. Research supported by the NIH and Siemens Healthcare.; J. Siewerdsen; Grant Support - National Institutes of Health; Grant Support - Siemens Healthcare; Grant Support - Carestream Health; Advisory Board - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Elekta Oncology.; T. Kapur, P41EB015898; R. Shekhar, Funding: R42CA137886 and R41CA192504

  12. Comparative imaging study in ultrasound, MRI, CT, and DSA using a multimodality renal artery phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Deirdre M.; Fagan, Andrew J.; Moran, Carmel M.; Browne, Jacinta E. [Medical Ultrasound Physics and Technology Group, School of Physics, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Centre for Advanced Medical Imaging (CAMI), St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Department of Medical Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); Medical Ultrasound Physics and Technology Group, School of Physics, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: A range of anatomically realistic multimodality renal artery phantoms consisting of vessels with varying degrees of stenosis was developed and evaluated using four imaging techniques currently used to detect renal artery stenosis (RAS). The spatial resolution required to visualize vascular geometry and the velocity detection performance required to adequately characterize blood flow in patients suffering from RAS are currently ill-defined, with the result that no one imaging modality has emerged as a gold standard technique for screening for this disease. Methods: The phantoms, which contained a range of stenosis values (0%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 85%), were designed for use with ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, x-ray computed tomography, and x-ray digital subtraction angiography. The construction materials used were optimized with respect to their ultrasonic speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, MR relaxometry (T{sub 1},T{sub 2}) properties, and Hounsfield number/x-ray attenuation coefficient, with a design capable of tolerating high-pressure pulsatile flow. Fiducial targets, incorporated into the phantoms to allow for registration of images among modalities, were chosen to minimize geometric distortions. Results: High quality distortion-free images of the phantoms with good contrast between vessel lumen, fiducial markers, and background tissue to visualize all stenoses were obtained with each modality. Quantitative assessments of the grade of stenosis revealed significant discrepancies between modalities, with each underestimating the stenosis severity for the higher-stenosed phantoms (70% and 85%) by up to 14%, with the greatest discrepancy attributable to DSA. Conclusions: The design and construction of a range of anatomically realistic renal artery phantoms containing varying degrees of stenosis is described. Images obtained using the main four diagnostic techniques used to detect RAS were free from artifacts and exhibited adequate contrast

  13. Comparative imaging study in ultrasound, MRI, CT, and DSA using a multimodality renal artery phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Deirdre M.; Fagan, Andrew J.; Moran, Carmel M.; Browne, Jacinta E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A range of anatomically realistic multimodality renal artery phantoms consisting of vessels with varying degrees of stenosis was developed and evaluated using four imaging techniques currently used to detect renal artery stenosis (RAS). The spatial resolution required to visualize vascular geometry and the velocity detection performance required to adequately characterize blood flow in patients suffering from RAS are currently ill-defined, with the result that no one imaging modality has emerged as a gold standard technique for screening for this disease. Methods: The phantoms, which contained a range of stenosis values (0%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 85%), were designed for use with ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, x-ray computed tomography, and x-ray digital subtraction angiography. The construction materials used were optimized with respect to their ultrasonic speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, MR relaxometry (T 1 ,T 2 ) properties, and Hounsfield number/x-ray attenuation coefficient, with a design capable of tolerating high-pressure pulsatile flow. Fiducial targets, incorporated into the phantoms to allow for registration of images among modalities, were chosen to minimize geometric distortions. Results: High quality distortion-free images of the phantoms with good contrast between vessel lumen, fiducial markers, and background tissue to visualize all stenoses were obtained with each modality. Quantitative assessments of the grade of stenosis revealed significant discrepancies between modalities, with each underestimating the stenosis severity for the higher-stenosed phantoms (70% and 85%) by up to 14%, with the greatest discrepancy attributable to DSA. Conclusions: The design and construction of a range of anatomically realistic renal artery phantoms containing varying degrees of stenosis is described. Images obtained using the main four diagnostic techniques used to detect RAS were free from artifacts and exhibited adequate contrast to allow

  14. Investigating the Abscopal Effects of Radioablation on Shielded Bone Marrow in Rodent Models Using Multimodality Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Solmaz F; Zawaski, Janice A; Inoue, Taeko; Rendon, David A; Zieske, Arthur W; Punia, Jyotinder N; Sabek, Omaima M; Gaber, M Waleed

    2017-07-01

    The abscopal effect is the response to radiation at sites that are distant from the irradiated site of an organism, and it is thought to play a role in bone marrow (BM) recovery by initiating responses in the unirradiated bone marrow. Understanding the mechanism of this effect has applications in treating BM failure (BMF) and BM transplantation (BMT), and improving survival of nuclear disaster victims. Here, we investigated the use of multimodality imaging as a translational tool to longitudinally assess bone marrow recovery. We used positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging to quantify bone marrow activity, vascular response and marrow repopulation in fully and partially irradiated rodent models. We further measured the effects of radiation on serum cytokine levels, hematopoietic cell counts and histology. PET/CT imaging revealed a radiation-induced increase in proliferation in the shielded bone marrow (SBM) compared to exposed bone marrow (EBM) and sham controls. T 2 -weighted MRI showed radiation-induced hemorrhaging in the EBM and unirradiated SBM. In the EBM and SBM groups, we found alterations in serum cytokine and hormone levels and in hematopoietic cell population proportions, and histological evidence of osteoblast activation at the bone marrow interface. Importantly, we generated a BMT mouse model using fluorescent-labeled bone marrow donor cells and performed fluorescent imaging to reveal the migration of bone marrow cells from shielded to radioablated sites. Our study validates the use of multimodality imaging to monitor bone marrow recovery and provides evidence for the abscopal response in promoting bone marrow recovery after irradiation.

  15. Dual-Labeled Near-Infrared/99mTc Imaging Probes Using PAMAM-Coated Silica Nanoparticles for the Imaging of HER2-Expressing Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Yamaguchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We sought to develop dual-modality imaging probes using functionalized silica nanoparticles to target human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and achieve efficient target imaging of HER2-expressing tumors. Polyamidoamine-based functionalized silica nanoparticles (PCSNs for multimodal imaging were synthesized with near-infrared (NIR fluorescence (indocyanine green (ICG and technetium-99m (99mTc radioactivity. Anti-HER2 antibodies were bound to the labeled PCSNs. These dual-imaging probes were tested to image HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma cells. In vivo imaging was also examined in breast tumor xenograft models in mice. SK-BR3 (HER2 positive cells were imaged with stronger NIR fluorescent signals than that in MDA-MB231 (HER2 negative cells. The increased radioactivity of the SK-BR3 cells was also confirmed by phosphor imaging. NIR images showed strong fluorescent signals in the SK-BR3 tumor model compared to muscle tissues and the MDA-MB231 tumor model. Automatic well counting results showed increased radioactivity in the SK-BR3 xenograft tumors. We developed functionalized silica nanoparticles loaded with 99mTc and ICG for the targeting and imaging of HER2-expressing cells. The dual-imaging probes efficiently imaged HER2-overexpressing cells. Although further studies are needed to produce efficient isotope labeling, the results suggest that the multifunctional silica nanoparticles are a promising vehicle for imaging specific components of the cell membrane in a dual-modality manner.

  16. Comparison of two imaging protocols for acute stroke: unenhanced cranial CT versus a multimodality cranial CT protocol with perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, R. D.; Gorkom, K. Neidl van.; Kaabi, Ho Al.; Torab, F.; Czechowski, J.; Nagi, M.; Ashish, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to validate a multimodality cranial computed tomography (CCT) protocol for patients with acute stroke in the United Arab Emirates as a basic imaging procedure for a stroke unit. Therefore, a comparative study was conducted between two groups: retrospective, historical group 1 with early unenhanced CCT and prospective group 2 undergoing a multimodality CCT protocol. Follow-up unenhanced CCT >48 h served as gold standard in both groups. Group 1: Early unenhanced CCT of 50 patients were evaluated retrospectively, using Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, and compared with the definite infarction on follow-up CCT. Group 2: 50 patients underwent multimodality CCT (unenhanced CCT, perfusion studies: cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, mean transit time and CT angiography) <8 h after clinical onset and follow-up studies. Modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was used clinically in both groups. Group 1 showed 38 men, 12 women, clinical onset 2-8 h before CCT and modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale 0-28. Group 2 included 38 men, 12 women, onset 3-8 h before CCT, modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale 0-28. Sensitivity was 58.3% in group 1 and 84.2% in group 2. Computed tomography angiography detected nine intracranial occlusions/stenoses. The higher sensitivity of the multimodality CCT protocol justifies its use as a basic diagnostic tool for the set-up of a first-stroke unit in the United Arab Emirates

  17. Dual Channel Pulse Coupled Neural Network Algorithm for Fusion of Multimodality Brain Images with Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha SRINIVASAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the review of medical imaging techniques, an important fact that emerged is that radiologists and physicians still are in a need of high-resolution medical images with complementary information from different modalities to ensure efficient analysis. This requirement should have been sorted out using fusion techniques with the fused image being used in image-guided surgery, image-guided radiotherapy and non-invasive diagnosis. Aim: This paper focuses on Dual Channel Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN Algorithm for fusion of multimodality brain images and the fused image is further analyzed using subjective (human perception and objective (statistical measures for the quality analysis. Material and Methods: The modalities used in fusion are CT, MRI with subtypes T1/T2/PD/GAD, PET and SPECT, since the information from each modality is complementary to one another. The objective measures selected for evaluation of fused image were: Information Entropy (IE - image quality, Mutual Information (MI – deviation in fused to the source images and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR – noise level, for analysis. Eight sets of brain images with different modalities (T2 with T1, T2 with CT, PD with T2, PD with GAD, T2 with GAD, T2 with SPECT-Tc, T2 with SPECT-Ti, T2 with PET are chosen for experimental purpose and the proposed technique is compared with existing fusion methods such as the Average method, the Contrast pyramid, the Shift Invariant Discrete Wavelet Transform (SIDWT with Harr and the Morphological pyramid, using the selected measures to ascertain relative performance. Results: The IE value and SNR value of the fused image derived from dual channel PCNN is higher than other fusion methods, shows that the quality is better with less noise. Conclusion: The fused image resulting from the proposed method retains the contrast, shape and texture as in source images without false information or information loss.

  18. Cardiac Function After Multimodal Breast Cancer Therapy Assessed With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Echocardiography Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggemann, Felix, E-mail: felix.heggemann@umm.de [First Medical Department, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Mannheim (Germany); Grotz, Hanna; Welzel, Grit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Dösch, Christina [First Medical Department, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Mannheim (Germany); Hansmann, Jan [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Attenberger, Ulrike; Schönberg, Stephan Oswald [German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Mannheim (Germany); Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Borggrefe, Martin [First Medical Department, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Mannheim (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Papavassiliu, Theano [First Medical Department, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Mannheim (Germany); Lohr, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduces high-dose heart volumes but increases low-dose volumes. We prospectively assessed heart changes after 3D conformal RT (3DCRT) and IMRT for left-sided breast cancer. Heart dose was analyzed individually, 3DCRT patients were moderately exposed, and IMRT was performed only in patients with unacceptably high heart doses upon 3DCRT planning. Methods and Materials: In 49 patients (38 patients received 3DCRT; 11 patients received IMRT; and 20 patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography were performed before and at 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Results: Mean heart dose for IMRT was 12.9 ± 3.9 Gy versus 4.5 ± 2.4 Gy for 3DCRT. Heart volumes receiving >40 Gy were 2.6% (3DCRT) versus 1.3% (IMRT); doses were >50 Gy only with 3DCRT. Temporary ejection fraction (EF) decrease was observed on MRI after 6 months (63%-59%, P=.005) resolving at 24 months. Only 3 patients had pronounced largely transient changes of EF and left ventricular enddiastolic diameter (LVEDD). Mitral (M) and tricuspid (T) annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE and TAPSE) were reduced over the whole cohort (still within normal range). After 24 months left ventricular remodeling index decreased in patients receiving chemotherapy (0.80 vs 0.70, P=.028). Neither wall motion abnormalities nor late enhancements were found. On echocardiography, in addition to EF findings that were similar to those on MRI, global strain was unchanged over the whole cohort at 24 months after a transient decrease at 6 and 12 months. Longitudinal strain decreased in the whole cohort after 24 months in some segments, whereas it increased in others. Conclusions: Until 24 months after risk-adapted modern multimodal adjuvant therapy, only subclinical cardiac changes were observed in both 3DCRT patients with inclusion of small to moderate amounts of heart volume in RT tangents and

  19. Image evaluation of HIV encephalopathy: a multimodal approach using quantitative MR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Paulo T.C.; Escorsi-Rosset, Sara [University of Sao Paulo, Radiology Section, Internal Medicine Department, Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Cervi, Maria C. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Pediatrics, Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Santos, Antonio Carlos [University of Sao Paulo, Radiology Section, Internal Medicine Department, Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hospital das Clinicas da FMRP-USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    A multimodal approach of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy using quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) techniques can demonstrate brain changes not detectable only with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to compare conventional MRI and MR quantitative techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and relaxometry and to determine whether quantitative techniques are more sensitive than conventional imaging for brain changes caused by HIV infection. We studied prospectively nine HIV positive children (mean age 6 years, from 5 to 8 years old) and nine controls (mean age 7.3 years; from 3 to 10 years), using MRS and relaxometry. Examinations were carried on 1.5-T equipment. HIV-positive patients presented with only minor findings and all control patients had normal conventional MR findings. MRS findings showed an increase in choline to creatine (CHO/CRE) ratios bilaterally in both frontal gray and white matter, in the left parietal white matter, and in total CHO/CRE ratio. In contrast, N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/CRE) ratios did not present with any significant difference between both groups. Relaxometry showed significant bilateral abnormalities, with lengthening of the relaxation time in HIV positive in many regions. Conventional MRI is not sensitive for early brain changes caused by HIV infection. Quantitative techniques such as MRS and relaxometry appear as valuable tools in the diagnosis of these early changes. Therefore, a multimodal quantitative study can be useful in demonstrating and understanding the physiopathology of the disease. (orig.)

  20. Cuticular Drusen: Clinical Phenotypes and Natural History Defined Using Multimodal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Cherepanoff, Svetlana; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Killingsworth, Murray; Chen, Fred K; Mendis, Randev; Mrejen, Sarah; Too, Lay Khoon; Gal-Or, Orly; Curcio, Christine A; Freund, K Bailey; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A

    2018-01-01

    To define the range and life cycles of cuticular drusen phenotypes using multimodal imaging and to review the histologic characteristics of cuticular drusen. Retrospective, observational cohort study and experimental laboratory study. Two hundred forty eyes of 120 clinic patients with a cuticular drusen phenotype and 4 human donor eyes with cuticular drusen (n = 2), soft drusen (n = 1), and hard drusen (n = 1). We performed a retrospective review of clinical and multimodal imaging data of patients with a cuticular drusen phenotype. Patients had undergone imaging with various combinations of color photography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, near-infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, high-resolution OCT, and ultrawide-field imaging. Human donor eyes underwent processing for high-resolution light and electron microscopy. Appearance of cuticular drusen in multimodal imaging and the topography of a cuticular drusen distribution; age-dependent variations in cuticular drusen phenotypes, including the occurrence of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) abnormalities, choroidal neovascularization, acquired vitelliform lesions (AVLs), and geographic atrophy (GA); and ultrastructural and staining characteristics of druse subtypes. The mean age of patients at the first visit was 57.9±13.4 years. Drusen and RPE changes were seen in the peripheral retina, anterior to the vortex veins, in 21.8% of eyes. Of eyes with more than 5 years of follow-up, cuticular drusen disappeared from view in 58.3% of eyes, drusen coalescence was seen in 70.8% of eyes, and new RPE pigmentary changes developed in 56.2% of eyes. Retinal pigment epithelium abnormalities, AVLs, neovascularization, and GA occurred at a frequency of 47.5%, 24.2%, 12.5%, and 25%, respectively, and were significantly more common in patients older than 60 years of age (all P < 0.015). Occurrence of GA and neovascularization were important determinants of final visual acuity in eyes with the

  1. Multi-modality imaging of tumor phenotype and response to therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyflot, Matthew J.

    2011-12-01

    Imaging and radiation oncology have historically been closely linked. However, the vast majority of techniques used in the clinic involve anatomical imaging. Biological imaging offers the potential for innovation in the areas of cancer diagnosis and staging, radiotherapy target definition, and treatment response assessment. Some relevant imaging techniques are FDG PET (for imaging cellular metabolism), FLT PET (proliferation), CuATSM PET (hypoxia), and contrast-enhanced CT (vasculature and perfusion). Here, a technique for quantitative spatial correlation of tumor phenotype is presented for FDG PET, FLT PET, and CuATSM PET images. Additionally, multimodality imaging of treatment response with FLT PET, CuATSM, and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is presented, in a trial of patients receiving an antiangiogenic agent (Avastin) combined with cisplatin and radiotherapy. Results are also presented for translational applications in animal models, including quantitative assessment of proliferative response to cetuximab with FLT PET and quantification of vascular volume with a blood-pool contrast agent (Fenestra). These techniques have clear applications to radiobiological research and optimized treatment strategies, and may eventually be used for personalized therapy for patients.

  2. Dermatological Feasibility of Multimodal Facial Color Imaging Modality for Cross-Evaluation of Facial Actinic Keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youngwoo; Son, Taeyoon; Nelson, J. Stuart; Kim, Jae-Hong; Choi, Eung Ho; Jung, Byungjo

    2010-01-01

    Background/Purpose Digital color image analysis is currently considered as a routine procedure in dermatology. In our previous study, a multimodal facial color imaging modality (MFCIM), which provides a conventional, parallel- and cross-polarization, and fluorescent color image, was introduced for objective evaluation of various facial skin lesions. This study introduces a commercial version of MFCIM, DermaVision-PRO, for routine clinical use in dermatology and demonstrates its dermatological feasibility for cross-evaluation of skin lesions. Methods/Results Sample images of subjects with actinic keratosis or non-melanoma skin cancers were obtained at four different imaging modes. Various image analysis methods were applied to cross-evaluate the skin lesion and, finally, extract valuable diagnostic information. DermaVision-PRO is potentially a useful tool as an objective macroscopic imaging modality for quick prescreening and cross-evaluation of facial skin lesions. Conclusion DermaVision-PRO may be utilized as a useful tool for cross-evaluation of widely distributed facial skin lesions and an efficient database management of patient information. PMID:20923462

  3. Spinal focal lesion detection in multiple myeloma using multimodal image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fränzle, Andrea; Hillengass, Jens; Bendl, Rolf

    2015-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a tumor disease in the bone marrow that affects the skeleton systemically, i.e. multiple lesions can occur in different sites in the skeleton. To quantify overall tumor mass for determining degree of disease and for analysis of therapy response, volumetry of all lesions is needed. Since the large amount of lesions in one patient impedes manual segmentation of all lesions, quantification of overall tumor volume is not possible until now. Therefore development of automatic lesion detection and segmentation methods is necessary. Since focal tumors in multiple myeloma show different characteristics in different modalities (changes in bone structure in CT images, hypointensity in T1 weighted MR images and hyperintensity in T2 weighted MR images), multimodal image analysis is necessary for the detection of focal tumors. In this paper a pattern recognition approach is presented that identifies focal lesions in lumbar vertebrae based on features from T1 and T2 weighted MR images. Image voxels within bone are classified using random forests based on plain intensities and intensity value derived features (maximum, minimum, mean, median) in a 5 x 5 neighborhood around a voxel from both T1 and T2 weighted MR images. A test data sample of lesions in 8 lumbar vertebrae from 4 multiple myeloma patients can be classified at an accuracy of 95% (using a leave-one-patient-out test). The approach provides a reasonable delineation of the example lesions. This is an important step towards automatic tumor volume quantification in multiple myeloma.

  4. Prussian blue nanocubes: multi-functional nanoparticles for multimodal imaging and image-guided therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason R.; Dumani, Diego S.; Kubelick, Kelsey P.; Luci, Jeffrey; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2017-03-01

    Imaging modalities utilize contrast agents to improve morphological visualization and to assess functional and molecular/cellular information. Here we present a new type of nanometer scale multi-functional particle that can be used for multi-modal imaging and therapeutic applications. Specifically, we synthesized monodisperse 20 nm Prussian Blue Nanocubes (PBNCs) with desired optical absorption in the near-infrared region and superparamagnetic properties. PBNCs showed excellent contrast in photoacoustic (700 nm wavelength) and MR (3T) imaging. Furthermore, photostability was assessed by exposing the PBNCs to nearly 1,000 laser pulses (5 ns pulse width) with up to 30 mJ/cm2 laser fluences. The PBNCs exhibited insignificant changes in photoacoustic signal, demonstrating enhanced robustness compared to the commonly used gold nanorods (substantial photodegradation with fluences greater than 5 mJ/cm2). Furthermore, the PBNCs exhibited superparamagnetism with a magnetic saturation of 105 emu/g, a 5x improvement over superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. PBNCs exhibited enhanced T2 contrast measured using 3T clinical MRI. Because of the excellent optical absorption and magnetism, PBNCs have potential uses in other imaging modalities including optical tomography, microscopy, magneto-motive OCT/ultrasound, etc. In addition to multi-modal imaging, the PBNCs are multi-functional and, for example, can be used to enhance magnetic delivery and as therapeutic agents. Our initial studies show that stem cells can be labeled with PBNCs to perform image-guided magnetic delivery. Overall, PBNCs can act as imaging/therapeutic agents in diverse applications including cancer, cardiovascular disease, ophthalmology, and tissue engineering. Furthermore, PBNCs are based on FDA approved Prussian Blue thus potentially easing clinical translation of PBNCs.

  5. Shielded piezoresistive cantilever probes for nanoscale topography and electrical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yongliang; Ma, Eric Yue; Cui, Yong-Tao; Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Haemmerli, Alexandre; Harjee, Nahid; Pruitt, Beth L

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of piezoresistive cantilever probes for microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) to enable simultaneous topographic and electrical imaging. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited Si 3 N 4  cantilevers with a shielded center conductor line and nanoscale conductive tip apex are batch fabricated on silicon-on-insulator wafers. Doped silicon piezoresistors are integrated at the root of the cantilevers to sense their deformation. The piezoresistive sensitivity is 2 nm for a bandwidth of 10 kHz, enabling topographical imaging with reasonable speed. The aluminum center conductor has a low resistance (less than 5 Ω) and small capacitance (∼1.7 pF) to ground; these parameters are critical for high sensitivity MIM imaging. High quality piezoresistive topography and MIM images are simultaneously obtained with the fabricated probes at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. These new piezoresistive probes remarkably broaden the horizon of MIM for scientific applications by operating with an integrated feedback mechanism at low temperature and for photosensitive samples. (paper)

  6. Size selectivity of magnetite core- (Ag/Au) shell nanoparticles for multimodal imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pinki; Upadhyay, Chandan

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic and optical properties of nanomaterials play a significant role in the selection of the materials to be used for contrast enhancement in different biological and cell imaging techniques. These nanoparticles can also be used as drug delivery agents. The calculation of absorption efficiency and surface plasmon resonance wavelength has been performed using Mie theory and MATLAB programs. The study of spectrum calculated indicates the dependence of several optical properties such as resonance and absorption efficiency peak on ratio of core radius to the thickness of shell. A systematic study on the effect of nanoparticle dimension has been presented which clearly indicates that the optical properties can be modulated across the visible and near infrared range by changing these parameters. These properties of nanomaterials make them suitable for their application as multimodal imaging agents as they are also magnetically active and biocompatible.

  7. Polarization-Sensitive Hyperspectral Imaging in vivo: A Multimode Dermoscope for Skin Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Chave, Robert; Lindsley, Erik H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-05-01

    Attempts to understand the changes in the structure and physiology of human skin abnormalities by non-invasive optical imaging are aided by spectroscopic methods that quantify, at the molecular level, variations in tissue oxygenation and melanin distribution. However, current commercial and research systems to map hemoglobin and melanin do not correlate well with pathology for pigmented lesions or darker skin. We developed a multimode dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with an efficient analytical model to map the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models. For this system's proof of concept, human skin measurements on melanocytic nevus, vitiligo, and venous occlusion conditions were performed in volunteers. The resulting molecular distribution maps matched physiological and anatomical expectations, confirming a technologic approach that can be applied to next generation dermoscopes and having biological plausibility that is likely to appeal to dermatologists.

  8. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ida Iacono

    Full Text Available Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1-2 mm and with 10-50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named "MIDA". The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii magnetic resonance angiography (MRA data to image the vasculature, and iii diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community.

  9. Separating Bulk and Surface Contributions to Electronic Excited-State Processes in Hybrid Mixed Perovskite Thin Films via Multimodal All-Optical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Mary Jane; Doughty, Benjamin; Das, Sanjib; Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying-Zhong

    2017-07-20

    A comprehensive understanding of electronic excited-state phenomena underlying the impressive performance of solution-processed hybrid halide perovskite solar cells requires access to both spatially resolved electronic processes and corresponding sample morphological characteristics. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical multimodal imaging approach that enables us to obtain both electronic excited-state and morphological information on a single optical microscope platform with simultaneous high temporal and spatial resolution. Specifically, images were acquired for the same region of interest in thin films of chloride containing mixed lead halide perovskites (CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3-x Cl x ) using femtosecond transient absorption, time-integrated photoluminescence, confocal reflectance, and transmission microscopies. Comprehensive image analysis revealed the presence of surface- and bulk-dominated contributions to the various images, which describe either spatially dependent electronic excited-state properties or morphological variations across the probed region of the thin films. These results show that PL probes effectively the species near or at the film surface.

  10. Multicomponent, peptide-targeted glycol chitosan nanoparticles containing ferrimagnetic iron oxide nanocubes for bladder cancer multimodal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Key J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jaehong Key,1,2 Deepika Dhawan,3 Christy L Cooper,3,4 Deborah W Knapp,3 Kwangmeyung Kim,5 Ick Chan Kwon,5 Kuiwon Choi,5 Kinam Park,1,6 Paolo Decuzzi,7–9 James F Leary1,3,41Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Republic of Korea; 3School of Veterinary Medicine-Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, 4Birck Nanotechnology Center at Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA; 5Biomedical Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Sungbook-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Pharmaceutics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 7Department of Translational Imaging, 8Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX USA; 9Laboratory of Nanotechnology for Precision Medicine, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT, Genova, Italy Abstract: While current imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography, play an important role in detecting tumors in the body, no single-modality imaging possesses all the functions needed for a complete diagnostic imaging, such as spatial resolution, signal sensitivity, and tissue penetration depth. For this reason, multimodal imaging strategies have become promising tools for advanced biomedical research and cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. In designing multimodal nanoparticles, the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles should be engineered so that they successfully accumulate at the tumor site and minimize nonspecific uptake by other organs. Finely altering the nano-scale properties can dramatically change the biodistribution and tumor accumulation of nanoparticles in the body. In this study, we engineered multimodal nanoparticles for both MRI, by using ferrimagnetic nanocubes (NCs, and near infrared fluorescence imaging

  11. Multimodal ultrasound tomography for breast imaging: a prospective study of clinical feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, S; Dellas, S; Stieltjes, B; Bongartz, B

    2017-01-01

    To describe the clinical set-up and evaluate the feasibility of multimodal ultrasound tomography (MUT) for breast imaging. Thirty-two consecutive patients referred for breast imaging and 24 healthy volunteers underwent MUT. In the 32 patients, the examination discomfort was compared to that of mammography (n = 31), handheld ultrasound (HUS) (n = 27) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n = 4) on a scale from 1 (lowest discomfort) to 10 (highest discomfort). MUT investigation time was recorded. Findings automatically detected by MUT were correlated with conventional imaging and biopsy results. Breast MUT was well tolerated by all 56 participants; 55 bilateral exams were uneventful. During one exam, the digitalisation card failed and the exam was successfully repeated within three days. Mean examination discomfort was 1.6 (range = 1-5) for MUT, 1.5 (range = 1-5) for HUS, 5.3 (range = 3-7) for MRI, and 6.3 (range = 1-10) for mammography. MUT examination time was 38 ± 6 min (mean ± standard deviation). In the patients referred for breast imaging, MUT detected four lesions and indicated malignancy in three of these cases. These findings were confirmed by additional imaging and biopsy. MUT is feasible in a clinical context considering examination time and patient acceptance. These interesting initial diagnostic findings warrant further studies.

  12. MMX-I: data-processing software for multimodal X-ray imaging and tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.bergamaschi@synchrotron-soleil.fr; Medjoubi, Kadda [Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Messaoudi, Cédric; Marco, Sergio [Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France); Institut Curie, INSERM, PSL Reseach University, F-91405 Orsay (France); Somogyi, Andrea [Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2016-04-12

    The MMX-I open-source software has been developed for processing and reconstruction of large multimodal X-ray imaging and tomography datasets. The recent version of MMX-I is optimized for scanning X-ray fluorescence, phase-, absorption- and dark-field contrast techniques. This, together with its implementation in Java, makes MMX-I a versatile and friendly user tool for X-ray imaging. A new multi-platform freeware has been developed for the processing and reconstruction of scanning multi-technique X-ray imaging and tomography datasets. The software platform aims to treat different scanning imaging techniques: X-ray fluorescence, phase, absorption and dark field and any of their combinations, thus providing an easy-to-use data processing tool for the X-ray imaging user community. A dedicated data input stream copes with the input and management of large datasets (several hundred GB) collected during a typical multi-technique fast scan at the Nanoscopium beamline and even on a standard PC. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first software tool that aims at treating all of the modalities of scanning multi-technique imaging and tomography experiments.

  13. Multimodality Cardiac Imaging for the Assessment of Left Atrial Function and the Association With Atrial Arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Bertelsen, Litten; de Knegt, Martina Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Several cardiac imaging modalities are able to visualize the left atrium (LA) and, therefore, allow for quantification of both structural and functional properties of this cardiac chamber. In echocardiography, only the maximal LA volume is included in the assessment of diastolic function at the c......Several cardiac imaging modalities are able to visualize the left atrium (LA) and, therefore, allow for quantification of both structural and functional properties of this cardiac chamber. In echocardiography, only the maximal LA volume is included in the assessment of diastolic function...... atrial fibrillation, which will be a point of focus in this review. Pivotal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed high correlation between LA fibrosis and risk of atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation, and subsequent multimodality imaging studies have uncovered...... an inverse relationship between LA reservoir function and degree of LA fibrosis. This has sparked an increased interest into the application of advanced imaging modalities, including both speckle tracking echocardiography and tissue tracking by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Even though increasing...

  14. Multimodal backside imaging of a microcontroller using confocal laser scanning and optical-beam-induced current imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkeldey, Markus; Göring, Lena; Schellenberg, Falk; Brenner, Carsten; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Microscopy imaging with a single technology is usually restricted to a single contrast mechanism. Multimodal imaging is a promising technique to improve the structural information that could be obtained about a device under test (DUT). Due to the different contrast mechanisms of laser scanning microscopy (LSM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and optical beam induced current microscopy (OBICM), a combination could improve the detection of structures in integrated circuits (ICs) and helps to reveal their layout. While OBIC imaging is sensitive to the changes between differently doped areas and to semiconductor-metal transitions, CLSM imaging is mostly sensitive to changes in absorption and reflection. In this work we present the implementation of OBIC imaging into a CLSM. We show first results using industry standard Atmel microcontrollers (MCUs) with a feature size of about 250nm as DUTs. Analyzing these types of microcontrollers helps to improve in the field of side-channel attacks to find hardware Trojans, possible spots for laser fault attacks and for reverse engineering. For the experimental results the DUT is placed on a custom circuit board that allows us to measure the current while imaging it in our in-house built stage scanning microscope using a near infrared (NIR) laser diode as light source. The DUT is thinned and polished, allowing backside imaging through the Si-substrate. We demonstrate the possibilities using this optical setup by evaluating OBIC, LSM and CLSM images above and below the threshold of the laser source.

  15. In-situ Multimodal Imaging and Spectroscopy of Mg Electrodeposition at Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yimin A.; Yin, Zuwei; Farmand, Maryam; Yu, Young-Sang; Shapiro, David A.; Liao, Hong-Gang; Liang, Wen-I.; Chu, Ying-Hao; Zheng, Haimei

    2017-02-01

    We report the study of Mg cathodic electrochemical deposition on Ti and Au electrode using a multimodal approach by examining the sample area in-situ using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Magnesium Aluminum Chloride Complex was synthesized and utilized as electrolyte, where non-reversible features during in situ charging-discharging cycles were observed. During charging, a uniform Mg film was deposited on the electrode, which is consistent with the intrinsic non-dendritic nature of Mg deposition in Mg ion batteries. The Mg thin film was not dissolvable during the following discharge process. We found that such Mg thin film is hexacoordinated Mg compounds by in-situ STXM and XAS. This study provides insights on the non-reversibility issue and failure mechanism of Mg ion batteries. Also, our method provides a novel generic method to understand the in situ battery chemistry without any further sample processing, which can preserve the original nature of battery materials or electrodeposited materials. This multimodal in situ imaging and spectroscopy provides many opportunities to attack complex problems that span orders of magnitude in length and time scale, which can be applied to a broad range of the energy storage systems.

  16. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Miao

    Full Text Available To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1 patients using multimodal MRI imaging.T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls.Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (p<0.001 uncorrected in the left precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus.CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  17. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wen; Man, Fengyuan; Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pleft precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus. CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  18. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A.; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. Methods T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Results Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pleft precentral gyrus, left orbital frontal cortex, temporal pole and cingulate gyrus. Conclusions CFEOM1 patients had structural and functional changes in grey matter, but the white matter was unaffected. These alterations in the brain may be due to the abnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1. PMID:26186732

  19. Molecular Imaging Probes for Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Node and Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhengtao

    Molecular imaging is visualizations and measurements of in vivo biological processes at the molecular or cellular level using specific imaging probes. As an emerging technology, biocompatible macromolecular or nanoparticle based targeted imaging probes have gained increasing popularities. Those complexes consist of a carrier, an imaging reporter, and a targeting ligand. The active targeting ability dramatically increases the specificity. And the multivalency effect may further reduce the dose while providing a decent signal. In this thesis, sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and cancer imaging are two research topics. The focus is to develop molecular imaging probes with high specificity and sensitivity, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and optical imaging. The objective of this thesis is to explore dextran radiopharmaceuticals and porous silicon nanoparticles based molecular imaging agents. Dextran polymers are excellent carriers to deliver imaging reporters or therapeutic agents due to its well established safety profile and oligosaccharide conjugation chemistry. There is also a wide selection of dextran polymers with different lengths. On the other hand, Silicon nanoparticles represent another class of biodegradable materials for imaging and drug delivery. The success in fluorescence lifetime imaging and enhancements of the immune activation potency was briefly discussed. Chapter 1 begins with an overview on current molecular imaging techniques and imaging probes. Chapter 2 presents a near-IR dye conjugated probe, IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept. Fluorophore density was optimized to generate the maximum brightness. It was labeled with 68Ga and 99mTc and in vivo SLN mapping was successfully performed in different animals, such as mice, rabbits, dogs and pigs. With 99mTc labeled IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept, chapter 3 introduces a two-day imaging protocol with a hand-held imager. Chapter 4 proposed a method to dual radiolabel the IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept with both 68Ga and

  20. Meet interesting abbreviations in clinical mass spectrometry: from compound classification by REIMS to multimodal and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Dominika; Pluháček, Tomáš; Palyzová, Andrea; Přichystal, Jakub; Balogh, J.; Lemr, Karel; Juránek, I.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2017), s. 353-360 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20229S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : REIMS * multimodal * mass spectrometry imaging Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 0.673, year: 2016

  1. Multi-Modality Imaging in the Evaluation and Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Marc-André; Côté-Laroche, Claudia; Beaudoin, Jonathan

    2017-10-13

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is frequent and associated with increased mortality and morbidity when severe. It may be caused by intrinsic valvular disease (primary MR) or ventricular deformation (secondary MR). Imaging has a critical role to document the severity, mechanism, and impact of MR on heart function as selected patients with MR may benefit from surgery whereas other will not. In patients planned for a surgical intervention, imaging is also important to select candidates for mitral valve (MV) repair over replacement and to predict surgical success. Although standard transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line modality to evaluate MR, newer imaging modalities like three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography, stress echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and computed tomography (CT) are emerging and complementary tools for MR assessment. While some of these modalities can provide insight into MR severity, others will help to determine its mechanism. Understanding the advantages and limitations of each imaging modality is important to appreciate their respective role for MR assessment and help to resolve eventual discrepancies between different diagnostic methods. With the increasing use of transcatheter mitral procedures (repair or replacement) for high-surgical-risk patients, multimodality imaging has now become even more important to determine eligibility, preinterventional planning, and periprocedural guidance.

  2. Laser injury and in vivo multimodal imaging using a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Ginger M.; Boretsky, Adam; Gupta, Praveena; Oliver, Jeff W.; Motamedi, Massoud

    2011-03-01

    Balb/c wild type mice were used to perform in vivo experiments of laser-induced thermal damage to the retina. A Heidelberg Spectralis HRA confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with a spectral domain optical coherence tomographer was used to obtain fundus and cross-sectional images of laser induced injury in the retina. Sub-threshold, threshold, and supra-threshold lesions were observed using optical coherence tomography (OCT), infrared reflectance, red-free reflectance, fluorescence angiography, and autofluorescence imaging modalities at different time points post-exposure. Lesions observed using all imaging modalities, except autofluorescence, were not visible immediately after exposure but did resolve within an hour and grew in size over a 24 hour period. There was a decrease in fundus autofluorescence at exposure sites immediately following exposure that developed into hyper-fluorescence 24-48 hours later. OCT images revealed threshold damage that was localized to the RPE but extended into the neural retina over a 24 hour period. Volumetric representations of the mouse retina were created to visualize the extent of damage within the retina over a 24 hour period. Multimodal imaging provides complementary information regarding damage mechanisms that may be used to quantify the extent of the damage as well as the effectiveness of treatments without need for histology.

  3. Multimodal breast cancer imaging using coregistered dynamic diffuse optical tomography and digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Deng, Bin; Singh, Bhawana; Martino, Mark; Selb, Juliette; Fang, Qianqian; Sajjadi, Amir Y.; Cormier, Jayne; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Boas, David A.; Saksena, Mansi A.; Carp, Stefan A.

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is emerging as a noninvasive functional imaging method for breast cancer diagnosis and neoadjuvant chemotherapy monitoring. In particular, the multimodal approach of combining DOT with x-ray digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is especially synergistic as DBT prior information can be used to enhance the DOT reconstruction. DOT, in turn, provides a functional information overlay onto the mammographic images, increasing sensitivity and specificity to cancer pathology. We describe a dynamic DOT apparatus designed for tight integration with commercial DBT scanners and providing a fast (up to 1 Hz) image acquisition rate to enable tracking hemodynamic changes induced by the mammographic breast compression. The system integrates 96 continuous-wave and 24 frequency-domain source locations as well as 32 continuous wave and 20 frequency-domain detection locations into low-profile plastic plates that can easily mate to the DBT compression paddle and x-ray detector cover, respectively. We demonstrate system performance using static and dynamic tissue-like phantoms as well as in vivo images acquired from the pool of patients recalled for breast biopsies at the Massachusetts General Hospital Breast Imaging Division.

  4. Multi-modality image reconstruction for dual-head small-animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chang-Han; Chou, Cheng-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The hybrid positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) or positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) has become routine practice in clinics. The applications of multi-modality imaging can also benefit research advances. Consequently, dedicated small-imaging system like dual-head small-animal PET (DHAPET) that possesses the advantages of high detection sensitivity and high resolution can exploit the structural information from CT or MRI. It should be noted that the special detector arrangement in DHAPET leads to severe data truncation, thereby degrading the image quality. We proposed to take advantage of anatomical priors and total variation (TV) minimization methods to reconstruct PET activity distribution form incomplete measurement data. The objective is to solve the penalized least-squares function consisted of data fidelity term, TV norm and medium root priors. In this work, we employed the splitting-based fast iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm to split smooth and non-smooth functions in the convex optimization problems. Our simulations studies validated that the images reconstructed by use of the proposed method can outperform those obtained by use of conventional expectation maximization algorithms or that without considering the anatomical prior information. Additionally, the convergence rate is also accelerated.

  5. Mesh-to-raster region-of-interest-based nonrigid registration of multimodal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatano, Rosalia; Berkels, Benjamin; Deserno, Thomas M

    2017-10-01

    Region of interest (RoI) alignment in medical images plays a crucial role in diagnostics, procedure planning, treatment, and follow-up. Frequently, a model is represented as triangulated mesh while the patient data is provided from computed axial tomography scanners as pixel or voxel data. Previously, we presented a 2-D method for curve-to-pixel registration. This paper contributes (i) a general mesh-to-raster framework to register RoIs in multimodal images; (ii) a 3-D surface-to-voxel application, and (iii) a comprehensive quantitative evaluation in 2-D using ground truth (GT) provided by the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) method. The registration is formulated as a minimization problem, where the objective consists of a data term, which involves the signed distance function of the RoI from the reference image and a higher order elastic regularizer for the deformation. The evaluation is based on quantitative light-induced fluoroscopy (QLF) and digital photography (DP) of decalcified teeth. STAPLE is computed on 150 image pairs from 32 subjects, each showing one corresponding tooth in both modalities. The RoI in each image is manually marked by three experts (900 curves in total). In the QLF-DP setting, our approach significantly outperforms the mutual information-based registration algorithm implemented with the Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit and Elastix.

  6. Automated Registration of Multimodal Optic Disc Images: Clinical Assessment of Alignment Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Siene; Legg, Phil; Avadhanam, Venkat; Aye, Kyaw; Evans, Steffan H P; North, Rachel V; Marshall, Andrew D; Rosin, Paul; Morgan, James E

    2016-04-01

    To determine the accuracy of automated alignment algorithms for the registration of optic disc images obtained by 2 different modalities: fundus photography and scanning laser tomography. Images obtained with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II and paired photographic optic disc images of 135 eyes were analyzed. Three state-of-the-art automated registration techniques Regional Mutual Information, rigid Feature Neighbourhood Mutual Information (FNMI), and nonrigid FNMI (NRFNMI) were used to align these image pairs. Alignment of each composite picture was assessed on a 5-point grading scale: "Fail" (no alignment of vessels with no vessel contact), "Weak" (vessels have slight contact), "Good" (vessels with 50% contact), and "Excellent" (complete alignment). Custom software generated an image mosaic in which the modalities were interleaved as a series of alternate 5×5-pixel blocks. These were graded independently by 3 clinically experienced observers. A total of 810 image pairs were assessed. All 3 registration techniques achieved a score of "Good" or better in >95% of the image sets. NRFNMI had the highest percentage of "Excellent" (mean: 99.6%; range, 95.2% to 99.6%), followed by Regional Mutual Information (mean: 81.6%; range, 86.3% to 78.5%) and FNMI (mean: 73.1%; range, 85.2% to 54.4%). Automated registration of optic disc images by different modalities is a feasible option for clinical application. All 3 methods provided useful levels of alignment, but the NRFNMI technique consistently outperformed the others and is recommended as a practical approach to the automated registration of multimodal disc images.

  7. 2017 multimodality appropriate use criteria for noninvasive cardiac imaging: Export consensus of the Asian society of cardiovascular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Kyong Min Sarah [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong A [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Yeon Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-11-15

    In 2010, the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (ASCI) provided recommendations for cardiac CT and MRI, and this document reflects an update of the 2010 ASCI appropriate use criteria (AUC). In 2016, the ASCI formed a new working group for revision of AUC for noninvasive cardiac imaging. A major change that we made in this document is the rating of various noninvasive tests (exercise electrocardiogram, echocardiography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, radionuclide imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance, and cardiac computed tomography/angiography), compared side by side for their applications in various clinical scenarios. Ninety-five clinical scenarios were developed from eight selected pre-existing guidelines and classified into four sections as follows: 1) detection of coronary artery disease, symptomatic or asymptomatic; 2) cardiac evaluation in various clinical scenarios; 3) use of imaging modality according to prior testing; and 4) evaluation of cardiac structure and function. The clinical scenarios were scored by a separate rating committee on a scale of 1–9 to designate appropriate use, uncertain use, or inappropriate use according to a modified Delphi method. Overall, the AUC ratings for CT were higher than those of previous guidelines. These new AUC provide guidance for clinicians choosing among available testing modalities for various cardiac diseases and are also unique, given that most previous AUC for noninvasive imaging include only one imaging technique. As cardiac imaging is multimodal in nature, we believe that these AUC will be more useful for clinical decision making.

  8. A fully automatic approach for multimodal PET and MR image segmentation in gamma knife treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundo, Leonardo; Stefano, Alessandro; Militello, Carmelo; Russo, Giorgio; Sabini, Maria Gabriella; D'Arrigo, Corrado; Marletta, Francesco; Ippolito, Massimo; Mauri, Giancarlo; Vitabile, Salvatore; Gilardi, Maria Carla

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, clinical practice in Gamma Knife treatments is generally based on MRI anatomical information alone. However, the joint use of MRI and PET images can be useful for considering both anatomical and metabolic information about the lesion to be treated. In this paper we present a co-segmentation method to integrate the segmented Biological Target Volume (BTV), using [ 11 C]-Methionine-PET (MET-PET) images, and the segmented Gross Target Volume (GTV), on the respective co-registered MR images. The resulting volume gives enhanced brain tumor information to be used in stereotactic neuro-radiosurgery treatment planning. GTV often does not match entirely with BTV, which provides metabolic information about brain lesions. For this reason, PET imaging is valuable and it could be used to provide complementary information useful for treatment planning. In this way, BTV can be used to modify GTV, enhancing Clinical Target Volume (CTV) delineation. A novel fully automatic multimodal PET/MRI segmentation method for Leksell Gamma Knife ® treatments is proposed. This approach improves and combines two computer-assisted and operator-independent single modality methods, previously developed and validated, to segment BTV and GTV from PET and MR images, respectively. In addition, the GTV is utilized to combine the superior contrast of PET images with the higher spatial resolution of MRI, obtaining a new BTV, called BTV MRI . A total of 19 brain metastatic tumors, undergone stereotactic neuro-radiosurgery, were retrospectively analyzed. A framework for the evaluation of multimodal PET/MRI segmentation is also presented. Overlap-based and spatial distance-based metrics were considered to quantify similarity concerning PET and MRI segmentation approaches. Statistics was also included to measure correlation among the different segmentation processes. Since it is not possible to define a gold-standard CTV according to both MRI and PET images without treatment response assessment

  9. Imaging dynamic redox processes with genetically encoded probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeriņa, Daria; Morgan, Bruce; Dick, Tobias P

    2014-08-01

    Redox signalling plays an important role in many aspects of physiology, including that of the cardiovascular system. Perturbed redox regulation has been associated with numerous pathological conditions; nevertheless, the causal relationships between redox changes and pathology often remain unclear. Redox signalling involves the production of specific redox species at specific times in specific locations. However, until recently, the study of these processes has been impeded by a lack of appropriate tools and methodologies that afford the necessary redox species specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Recently developed genetically encoded fluorescent redox probes now allow dynamic real-time measurements, of defined redox species, with subcellular compartment resolution, in intact living cells. Here we discuss the available genetically encoded redox probes in terms of their sensitivity and specificity and highlight where uncertainties or controversies currently exist. Furthermore, we outline major goals for future probe development and describe how progress in imaging methodologies will improve our ability to employ genetically encoded redox probes in a wide range of situations. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multimodality imaging of 131I uptake in nude mice thyroid based on Cerenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhenhua; Liang Jimin; Qu Xiaochao; Yang Weidong; Ma Xiaowei; Wang Jing; Tian Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform the multimodality 131 I thyroid imaging using Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) and gamma imaging, and to compare the results of CLT and gamma imaging. Methods The nude mice (n=4, mass: (21 ±3) g) were injected with 1.67 ×10 7 Bq 131 I. CLT and gamma imaging were acquired at 0.5, 3, 12 and 24 h after the injection. Three-dimensional biodistribution of 131 I uptake in thyroid was reconstructed using Cerenkov source reconstruction method based on the diffusion equation (DE), and the reconstructed power of 131 I in different acquisition time points was obtained. Additionally, the ROIs were drawn over the gamma images of the mouse neck, and the counts were read. The correlation between the reconstructed power of CLT and gamma ray counts of gamma imaging was analyzed. Results: The power of 131 I uptake in thyroid at 0.5, 3, 12 and 24 h were 7.80 ×10 -13 , 1.62×10 -12 , 2.20×10 -12 and 2.68 × 10 -12 W, respectively. CLT results showed that reconstructed power increased with the increasing of acquisition time. Gamma imaging results indicated that 131 I uptake decreased in abdomen and increased in thyroid with the collection time. The results of CLT were consistent with that of gamma imaging (r 2 =0.7620, P<0.05). Conclusion: CLT has the potential to identify and monitor functioning thyroid tissue at before and (or) after 131 I treatment. (authors)

  11. Multimodality cardiac imaging of a ventricular septal rupture post myocardial infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Surinder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ventricular septal rupture (VSR, a mechanical complication following an acute myocardial infarction (MI, is thought to result from coagulation necrosis due to lack of collateral reperfusion. Although the gold standard test to confirm left-to-right shunting between ventricular cavities remains invasive ventriculography, two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE with color flow Doppler and cardiac MRI (CMR are reliable tests for the non-invasive diagnosis of VSR. Case presentation A 62-year-old Caucasian female presented with a late case of a VSR post inferior MI diagnosed by multimodality cardiac imaging including TTE, CMR and ventriculography. Conclusion We review the presentation, diagnosis and management of VSR post MI.

  12. Tractography-Based Score for Learning Effective Connectivity From Multimodal Imaging Data Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shilpa; Chaudhury, Santanu; Lall, Brejesh; Roy, Prasun K

    2018-05-01

    Effective connectivity (EC) is the methodology for determining functional-integration among the functionally active segregated regions of the brain. By definition EC is "the causal influence exerted by one neuronal group on another" which is constrained by anatomical connectivity (AC) (axonal connections). AC is necessary for EC but does not fully determine it, because synaptic communication occurs dynamically in a context-dependent fashion. Although there is a vast emerging evidence of structure-function relationship using multimodal imaging studies, till date only a few studies have done joint modeling of the two modalities: functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We aim to propose a unified probabilistic framework that combines information from both sources to learn EC using dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). DBNs are probabilistic graphical temporal models that learn EC in an exploratory fashion. Specifically, we propose a novel anatomically informed (AI) score that evaluates fitness of a given connectivity structure to both DTI and fMRI data simultaneously. The AI score is employed in structure learning of DBN given the data. Experiments with synthetic-data demonstrate the face validity of structure learning with our AI score over anatomically uninformed counterpart. Moreover, real-data results are cross-validated by performing classification-experiments. EC inferred on real fMRI-DTI datasets is found to be consistent with previous literature and show promising results in light of the AC present as compared to other classically used techniques such as Granger-causality. Multimodal analyses provide a more reliable basis for differentiating brain under abnormal/diseased conditions than the single modality analysis.

  13. A magnetic nanoparticle stabilized gas containing emulsion for multimodal imaging and triggered drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Diancheng; Zhu, Jia-an; Wei, Xiaohui; Men, Weiwei; Yin, Dazhi; Fan, Mingxia; Xu, Yuhong

    2014-06-01

    To develop a multimodal imaging guided and triggered drug delivery system based on a novel emulsion formulation composed of iron oxide nanoparticles, nanoscopic bubbles, and oil containing drugs. Iron oxide paramagnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and modified with surface conjugation of polyethylenimide (PEI) or Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). Both particles were used to disperse and stabilize oil in water emulsions containing coumarin-6 as the model drug. Sulfur hexafluoride was introduced into the oil phase to form nanoscopic bubbles inside the emulsions. The resulted gas containing emulsions were evaluated for their magnetic resonance (MR) and ultrasound (US) imaging properties. The drug release profile triggered by ultrasound was also examined. We have successfully prepared the highly integrated multi-component emulsion system using the surface modified iron oxide nanoparticles to stabilize the interfaces. The resulted structure had distinctive MR and US imaging properties. Upon application of ultrasound waves, the gas containing emulsion would burst and encapsulated drug could be released. The integrated emulsion formulation was multifunctional with paramagnetic, sono-responsive and drug-carrying characteristics, which may have potential applications for disease diagnosis and imaging guided drug release.

  14. Multimodal imaging of language reorganization in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan A; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Leyden, Kelly M; Kucukboyaci, N Erkut; Iragui, Vicente J; Tecoma, Evelyn S; Kansal, Leena; Norman, Marc A; Compton, Rachelle; Ehrlich, Tobin J; Uttarwar, Vedang S; Reyes, Anny; Paul, Brianna M; McDonald, Carrie R

    2017-07-01

    This study explored the relationships among multimodal imaging, clinical features, and language impairment in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE). Fourteen patients with LTLE and 26 controls underwent structural MRI, functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and neuropsychological language tasks. Laterality indices were calculated for each imaging modality and a principal component (PC) was derived from language measures. Correlations were performed among imaging measures, as well as to the language PC. In controls, better language performance was associated with stronger left-lateralized temporo-parietal and temporo-occipital activations. In LTLE, better language performance was associated with stronger right-lateralized inferior frontal, temporo-parietal, and temporo-occipital activations. These right-lateralized activations in LTLE were associated with right-lateralized arcuate fasciculus fractional anisotropy. These data suggest that interhemispheric language reorganization in LTLE is associated with alterations to perisylvian white matter. These concurrent structural and functional shifts from left to right may help to mitigate language impairment in LTLE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A small animal holding fixture system with positional reproducibility for longitudinal multimodal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokuryo, Daisuke; Kimura, Yuichi; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga; Kawamura, Kazunori; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Kanno, Iwao; Aoki, Ichio, E-mail: ukimura@ieee.or [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-07-21

    This study presents a combined small animal holding fixture system, termed a 'bridge capsule', which provides for small animal re-fixation with positional reproducibility. This system comprises separate holding fixtures for the head and lower body and a connecting part to a gas anesthesia system. A mouse is fixed in place by the combination of a head fixture with a movable part made from polyacetal resin, a lower body fixture made from vinyl-silicone and a holder for the legs and tail. For re-fixation, a similar posture could be maintained by the same holding fixtures and a constant distance between the head and lower body fixtures is maintained. Artifacts caused by the bridge capsule system were not observed on magnetic resonance (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) images. The average position differences of the spinal column and the iliac body before and after re-fixation for the same modality were approximately 1.1 mm. The difference between the MRI and PET images was approximately 1.8 mm for the lower body fixture after image registration using fiducial markers. This system would be useful for longitudinal, repeated and multimodal imaging experiments requiring similar animal postures.

  16. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: A Multimodality Imaging Approach with Impact on Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Dhanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational trophoblastic disease is a condition of uncertain etiology, comprised of hydatiform mole (complete and partial, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, and placental site trophoblastic tumor. It arises from abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue. Early diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease and its potential complications is important for timely and successful management of the condition with preservation of fertility. Initial diagnosis is based on a multimodality approach: encompassing clinical features, serial quantitative β-hCG titers, and pelvic ultrasonography. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is sometimes used as a problem-solving tool to assess the depth of myometrial invasion and extrauterine disease spread in equivocal and complicated cases. Chest radiography, body computed tomography (CT, and brain MRI have been recommended as investigative tools for overall disease staging. Angiography has a role in management of disease complications and metastases. Efficacy of PET (positron emission tomography and PET/CT in the evaluation of recurrent or metastatic disease has not been adequately investigated yet. This paper discusses the imaging features of gestational trophoblastic disease on various imaging modalities and the role of different imaging techniques in the diagnosis and management of this entity.

  17. Vision 20/20: Simultaneous CT-MRI — Next chapter of multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ge; Xi, Yan; Gjesteby, Lars; Getzin, Matthew; Yang, Qingsong; Cong, Wenxiang; Kalra, Mannudeep; Murugan, Venkatesh; Vannier, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Multimodality imaging systems such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and MRI-PET are widely available, but a simultaneous CT-MRI instrument has not been developed. Synergies between independent modalities, e.g., CT, MRI, and PET/SPECT can be realized with image registration, but such postprocessing suffers from registration errors that can be avoided with synchronized data acquisition. The clinical potential of simultaneous CT-MRI is significant, especially in cardiovascular and oncologic applications where studies of the vulnerable plaque, response to cancer therapy, and kinetic and dynamic mechanisms of targeted agents are limited by current imaging technologies. The rationale, feasibility, and realization of simultaneous CT-MRI are described in this perspective paper. The enabling technologies include interior tomography, unique gantry designs, open magnet and RF sequences, and source and detector adaptation. Based on the experience with PET-CT, PET-MRI, and MRI-LINAC instrumentation where hardware innovation and performance optimization were instrumental to construct commercial systems, the authors provide top-level concepts for simultaneous CT-MRI to meet clinical requirements and new challenges. Simultaneous CT-MRI fills a major gap of modality coupling and represents a key step toward the so-called “omnitomography” defined as the integration of all relevant imaging modalities for systems biology and precision medicine

  18. Multi-modal imaging, model-based tracking, and mixed reality visualisation for orthopaedic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Bernhard; Tateno, Keisuke; Johnson, Alex; Fotouhi, Javad; Osgood, Greg; Tombari, Federico; Navab, Nassir

    2017-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons are still following the decades old workflow of using dozens of two-dimensional fluoroscopic images to drill through complex 3D structures, e.g. pelvis. This Letter presents a mixed reality support system, which incorporates multi-modal data fusion and model-based surgical tool tracking for creating a mixed reality environment supporting screw placement in orthopaedic surgery. A red–green–blue–depth camera is rigidly attached to a mobile C-arm and is calibrated to the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging space via iterative closest point algorithm. This allows real-time automatic fusion of reconstructed surface and/or 3D point clouds and synthetic fluoroscopic images obtained through CBCT imaging. An adapted 3D model-based tracking algorithm with automatic tool segmentation allows for tracking of the surgical tools occluded by hand. This proposed interactive 3D mixed reality environment provides an intuitive understanding of the surgical site and supports surgeons in quickly localising the entry point and orienting the surgical tool during screw placement. The authors validate the augmentation by measuring target registration error and also evaluate the tracking accuracy in the presence of partial occlusion. PMID:29184659

  19. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: A Multimodality Imaging Approach with Impact on Diagnosis and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhanda, S.; Ramani, S.; Dhanda, S.; Ramani, S.; Thakur, M.

    2014-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic disease is a condition of uncertain etiology, comprised of hydatiform mole (complete and partial), invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, and placental site trophoblastic tumor. It arises from abnormal proliferation of trophoblastic tissue. Early diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease and its potential complications is important for timely and successful management of the condition with preservation of fertility. Initial diagnosis is based on a multimodality approach: encompassing clinical features, serial quantitative β-hCG titers, and pelvic ultrasonography. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sometimes used as a problem-solving tool to assess the depth of myometrial invasion and extra uterine disease spread in equivocal and complicated cases. Chest radiography, body computed tomography (CT), and brain MRI have been recommended as investigative tools for overall disease staging. Angiography has a role in management of disease complications and metastases. Efficacy of PET (positron emission tomography) and PET/CT in the evaluation of recurrent or metastatic disease has not been adequately investigated yet. This paper discusses the imaging features of gestational trophoblastic disease on various imaging modalities and the role of different imaging techniques in the diagnosis and management of this entity. 1. Introduction Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) refers to an abnormal trophoblastic proliferation composed of a broad spectrum of lesions ranging from benign, albeit pre malignant hydatiform mole (complete and partial), through to the aggressive invasive mole, choriocarcinoma

  20. Vision 20/20: Simultaneous CT-MRI — Next chapter of multimodality imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ge, E-mail: wangg6@rpi.edu; Xi, Yan; Gjesteby, Lars; Getzin, Matthew; Yang, Qingsong; Cong, Wenxiang [Biomedical Imaging Center/Cluster, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Kalra, Mannudeep; Murugan, Venkatesh [Department of Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Vannier, Michael [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Multimodality imaging systems such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and MRI-PET are widely available, but a simultaneous CT-MRI instrument has not been developed. Synergies between independent modalities, e.g., CT, MRI, and PET/SPECT can be realized with image registration, but such postprocessing suffers from registration errors that can be avoided with synchronized data acquisition. The clinical potential of simultaneous CT-MRI is significant, especially in cardiovascular and oncologic applications where studies of the vulnerable plaque, response to cancer therapy, and kinetic and dynamic mechanisms of targeted agents are limited by current imaging technologies. The rationale, feasibility, and realization of simultaneous CT-MRI are described in this perspective paper. The enabling technologies include interior tomography, unique gantry designs, open magnet and RF sequences, and source and detector adaptation. Based on the experience with PET-CT, PET-MRI, and MRI-LINAC instrumentation where hardware innovation and performance optimization were instrumental to construct commercial systems, the authors provide top-level concepts for simultaneous CT-MRI to meet clinical requirements and new challenges. Simultaneous CT-MRI fills a major gap of modality coupling and represents a key step toward the so-called “omnitomography” defined as the integration of all relevant imaging modalities for systems biology and precision medicine.

  1. Versatile quantitative phase imaging system applied to high-speed, low noise and multimodal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Antoine; Aknoun, Sherazade; Savatier, Julien; Wattellier, Benoit F.

    2017-02-01

    Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) is a well-established quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique based on the analysis of interference patterns of four diffraction orders by an optical grating set in front of an array detector [1]. As a QPI modality, this is a non-invasive imaging technique which allow to measure the optical path difference (OPD) of semi-transparent samples. We present a system enabling QWLSI with high-performance sCMOS cameras [2] and apply it to perform high-speed imaging, low noise as well as multimodal imaging. This modified QWLSI system contains a versatile optomechanical device which images the optical grating near the detector plane. Such a device is coupled with any kind of camera by varying its magnification. In this paper, we study the use of a sCMOS Zyla5.5 camera from Andor along with our modified QWLSI system. We will present high-speed live cell imaging, up to 200Hz frame rate, in order to follow intracellular fast motions while measuring the quantitative phase information. The structural and density information extracted from the OPD signal is complementary to the specific and localized fluorescence signal [2]. In addition, QPI detects cells even when the fluorophore is not expressed. This is very useful to follow a protein expression with time. The 10 µm spatial pixel resolution of our modified QWLSI associated to the high sensitivity of the Zyla5.5 enabling to perform high quality fluorescence imaging, we have carried out multimodal imaging revealing fine structures cells, like actin filaments, merged with the morphological information of the phase. References [1]. P. Bon, G. Maucort, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, "Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry for quantitative phase microscopy of living cells," Opt. Express, vol. 17, pp. 13080-13094, 2009. [2] P. Bon, S. Lécart, E. Fort and S. Lévêque-Fort, "Fast label-free cytoskeletal network imaging in living mammalian cells," Biophysical journal, 106

  2. Probing plasma membrane microdomains in cowpea protoplasts using lipidated GFP-fusion proteins and multimode FRET microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, J.E.M.; van Munster, E.B.; Vischer, N.O.; Gadella, T.

    2004-01-01

    Multimode fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy was applied to study the plasma membrane organization using different lipidated green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins co-expressed in cowpea protoplasts. Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was fused to the hyper variable region

  3. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging:Concepts and in vivo applications

    OpenAIRE

    Duijnhoven, van, SMJ Sander; Robillard, MS Marc; Langereis, S Sander; Grüll, H Holger

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of molecular imaging probes, known as bioresponsive molecular probes, has been developed. These probes generally benefit from signal enhancement at the site of interaction with its target. There are mainly ...

  4. Hybrid of two-photon microscopy and optical multimodality imaging for multi-scale imaging of small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianmeng; Hui, Hui; Ma, He; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Non-invasive imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical multimodality imaging methods, are commonly used for diagnosing and supervising the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These in vivo imaging methods can provide morphology changes information of IBD in macro-scale. However, it is difficult to investigate the intestinal wall in molecular and cellular level. State-of-art light-sheet and two-photon microscopy have the ability to acquire the changes for IBD in micro-scale. The aim of this work is to evaluate the size of the enterocoel and the thickness of colon wall using both MRI for in vivo imaging, and light-sheet and two-photon microscope for in vitro imaging. C57BL/6 mice were received 3.5% Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water for 5 days to build IBD model. Mice were imaged with MRI on days 0, 6 to observe colitis progression. After MRI imaging, the mice were sacrificed to take colons for tissue clearing. Then, light-sheet and two-photon microscopies are used for in vitro imaging of the cleared samples. The experimental group showed symptoms of bloody stools, sluggishness and weight loss. It showed that the colon wall was thicker while the enterocoel was narrower compare to control group. The more details are observed using light-sheet and two-photon microscope. It is demonstrated that hybrid of MRI in macro-scale and light-sheet and two-photon microscopy in micro-scale imaging is feasible for colon inflammation diagnosing and supervising.

  5. Multimodality pH imaging in a mouse dorsal skin fold window chamber model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hui Min; Schafer, Rachel; Pagel, Mark M.; Robey, Ian F.; Gmitro, Arthur F.

    2013-03-01

    Upregulate levels of expression and activity of membrane H+ ion pumps in cancer cells drives the extracellular pH (pHe,) to values lower than normal. Furthermore, disregulated pH is indicative of the changes in glycolytic metabolism in tumor cells and has been shown to facilitate extracellular tissue remodeling during metastasis Therefore, measurement of pHe could be a useful cancer biomarker for diagnostic and therapy monitoring evaluation. Multimodality in-vivo imaging of pHe in tumorous tissue in a mouse dorsal skin fold window chamber (DSFWC) model is described. A custom-made plastic window chamber structure was developed that is compatible with both imaging optical and MR imaging modalities and provides a model system for continuous study of the same tissue microenvironment on multiple imaging platforms over a 3-week period. For optical imaging of pHe, SNARF-1 carboxylic acid is injected intravenously into a SCID mouse with an implanted tumor. A ratiometric measurement of the fluorescence signal captured on a confocal microscope reveals the pHe of the tissue visible within the window chamber. This imaging method was used in a preliminary study to evaluate sodium bicarbonate as a potential drug treatment to reverse tissue acidosis. For MR imaging of pHe the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) was used as an alternative way of measuring pHe in a DSFWC model. ULTRAVIST®, a FDA approved x-ray/CT contrast agent has been shown to have a CEST effect that is pH dependent. A ratiometric analysis of water saturation at 5.6 and 4.2 ppm chemical shift provides a means to estimate the local pHe.

  6. MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF MOSAIC RETINOPATHY IN CARRIERS OF HEREDITARY X-LINKED RECESSIVE DISEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, An-Lun; Wang, Jung-Pan; Tseng, Yun-Ju; Liu, Laura; Kang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Kuan-Jen; Chao, An-Ning; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Chen, Tun-Lu; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Wu, Wei-Chi; Lai, Chi-Chun; Wang, Nan-Kai

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the clinical features in carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked ocular albinism, and choroideremia (CHM) using multimodal imaging and to assess their diagnostic value in these three mosaic retinopathies. We prospectively examined 14 carriers of 3 X-linked recessive disorders (X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked ocular albinism, and CHM). Details of abnormalities of retinal morphology were evaluated using fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. In six X-linked retinitis pigmentosa carriers, fundus appearance varied from unremarkable to the presence of tapetal-like reflex and pigmentary changes. On FAF imaging, all carriers exhibited a bright radial reflex against a dark background. By spectral domain optical coherence tomography, loss of the ellipsoid zone in the macula was observed in 3 carriers (50%). Regarding the retinal laminar architecture, 4 carriers (66.7%) showed thinning of the outer nuclear layer and a dentate appearance of the outer plexiform layer. All five X-linked ocular albinism carriers showed a characteristic mud-splatter patterned fundus, dark radial streaks against a bright background on FAF imaging, and a normal-appearing retinal structure by spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. Two of the 3 CHM carriers (66.7%) showed a diffuse moth-eaten appearance of the fundus, and all 3 showed irregular hyper-FAF and hypo-FAF spots throughout the affected area. In the CHM carriers, the structural changes observed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging were variable. Our findings in an Asian cohort suggest that FAF imaging is a practical diagnostic test for differentiating X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked ocular albinism, and CHM carriers. Wide-field FAF is an easy and helpful adjunct to testing for the correct diagnosis and identification of lyonization in carriers of these three mosaic retinopathies.

  7. Prostate multimodality image registration based on B-splines and quadrature local energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jhimli; Martí, Robert; Oliver, Arnau; Lladó, Xavier; Ghose, Soumya; Vilanova, Joan C; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2012-05-01

    Needle biopsy of the prostate is guided by Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) imaging. The TRUS images do not provide proper spatial localization of malignant tissues due to the poor sensitivity of TRUS to visualize early malignancy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been shown to be sensitive for the detection of early stage malignancy, and therefore, a novel 2D deformable registration method that overlays pre-biopsy MRI onto TRUS images has been proposed. The registration method involves B-spline deformations with Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) as the similarity measure computed from the texture images obtained from the amplitude responses of the directional quadrature filter pairs. Registration accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by computing the Dice Similarity coefficient (DSC) and 95% Hausdorff Distance (HD) values for 20 patients prostate mid-gland slices and Target Registration Error (TRE) for 18 patients only where homologous structures are visible in both the TRUS and transformed MR images. The proposed method and B-splines using NMI computed from intensities provide average TRE values of 2.64 ± 1.37 and 4.43 ± 2.77 mm respectively. Our method shows statistically significant improvement in TRE when compared with B-spline using NMI computed from intensities with Student's t test p = 0.02. The proposed method shows 1.18 times improvement over thin-plate splines registration with average TRE of 3.11 ± 2.18 mm. The mean DSC and the mean 95% HD values obtained with the proposed method of B-spline with NMI computed from texture are 0.943 ± 0.039 and 4.75 ± 2.40 mm respectively. The texture energy computed from the quadrature filter pairs provides better registration accuracy for multimodal images than raw intensities. Low TRE values of the proposed registration method add to the feasibility of it being used during TRUS-guided biopsy.

  8. Multimodal ophthalmic imaging using handheld spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (SECTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeburg, Kelsey C.; El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Malone, Joseph D.; Terrones, Benjamin D.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2018-02-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) provides high-speed, noninvasive en face imaging of the retinal fundus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the current "gold-standard" for ophthalmic diagnostic imaging and enables depth-resolved visualization of ophthalmic structures and image-based surrogate biomarkers of disease. We present a compact optical and mechanical design for handheld spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (SECTR) for multimodality en face spectrally encoded reflectometry (SER) and cross-sectional OCT imaging. We custom-designed a double-pass telecentric scan lens, which halves the size of 4-f optical relays and allowed us to reduce the footprint of our SECTR scan-head by a factor of >2.7x (volume) over our previous design. The double-pass scan lens was optimized for diffraction-limited performance over a +/-10° scan field. SECTR optics and optomechanics were combined in a compact rapid-prototyped enclosure with dimensions 87 x 141.8 x 137 mm (w x h x d). SECTR was implemented using a custom-built 400 kHz 1050 nm swept-source. OCT and SER were simultaneously digitized on dual input channels of a 4 GS/s digitizer at 1.4 GS/s per channel. In vivo human en face SER and cross-sectional OCT images were acquired at 350 fps. OCT volumes of 1000 B-scans were acquired in 2.86 s. We believe clinical translation of our compact handheld design will benefit point-of-care ophthalmic diagnostics in patients who are unable to be imaged on conventional slit-lamp based systems, such as infants and the bedridden. When combined with multi-volumetric registration methods, handheld SECTR will have advantages in motion-artifact free imaging over existing handheld technologies.

  9. Multimodal adaptive optics for depth-enhanced high-resolution ophthalmic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Mujat, Mircea; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Lue, Niyom; Ferguson, R. Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The development represents the first ever high performance AO system constructed that combines AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 μm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. The system is designed to operate on a broad clinical population with a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration that allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction. The system also includes a wide field line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation; an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of rotational eye motion; and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation to the subject of stimuli and other visual cues. The system was tested in a limited number of human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. The system was able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 μm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve targets deep into the choroid. In addition to instrument hardware development, analysis algorithms were developed for efficient information extraction from clinical imaging sessions, with functionality including automated image registration, photoreceptor counting, strip and montage stitching, and segmentation. The system provides clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help

  10. The development of nanobody probes for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zhiling; Lan Xiaoli; Zhang Yongxue

    2014-01-01

    The nanobody is a novel antibody fragment, which has beneficial biophysical and pharmacokinetic properties, such as the small molecular weight, high affinity and specificity for antigen. Nanobody is ideally suitable for molecular imaging as a targeting probe that could label antigen at nmol level in vitro. In animal models of xenografted tumor, atherosclerotic plaques and brain disorders, the target tissues were specifically and clearly detected and the high tumor-to-blood (T/B) ratios were obtained. Structural or chemical modified nanobodies will have higher affinity and retention to target tissues, and be convenient for the application of molecular imaging. With the development of the related research, nanobody-based molecular imaging will be gradually transformed into the clinical applications, and play an important role in early diagnosis and therapeutic assessment. (authors)

  11. A high brightness probe of polymer nanoparticles for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sirong; Zhu, Jiarong; Li, Yaping; Feng, Liheng

    2018-03-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) with high brightness in long wavelength region were prepared by the nano-precipitation method. Based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism, the high brightness property of the CPNs was realized by four different emission polymers. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed that the CPNs possessed a spherical structure and an average diameter of 75 nm. Analysis assays showed that the CPNs had excellent biocompatibility, good photostability and low cytotoxicity. The CPNs were bio-modified with a cell penetrating peptide (Tat, a targeted element) through covalent link. Based on the entire wave fluorescence emission, the functionalized CPNs1-4 can meet multichannel and high throughput assays in cell and organ imaging. The contribution of the work lies in not only providing a new way to obtain a high brightness imaging probe in long wavelength region, but also using targeted cell and organ imaging.

  12. Towards an ultra-thin medical endoscope: multimode fibre as a wide-field image transferring medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriš, Miroslav; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian; Hughes, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Multimode optical fibres are attractive for biomedical and industrial applications such as endoscopes because of the small cross section and imaging resolution they can provide in comparison to widely-used fibre bundles. However, the image is randomly scrambled by propagation through a multimode fibre. Even though the scrambling is unpredictable, it is deterministic, and therefore the scrambling can be reversed. To unscramble the image, we treat the multimode fibre as a linear, disordered scattering medium. To calibrate, we scan a focused beam of coherent light over thousands of different beam positions at the distal end and record complex fields at the proximal end of the fibre. This way, the inputoutput response of the system is determined, which then allows computational reconstruction of reflection-mode images. However, there remains the problem of illuminating the tissue via the fibre while avoiding back reflections from the proximal face. To avoid this drawback, we provide here the first preliminary confirmation that an image can be transferred through a 2x2 fibre coupler, with the sample at its distal port interrogated in reflection. Light is injected into one port for illumination and then collected from a second port for imaging.

  13. White paper of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) on multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof Delaloye, Angelika; Carrio, Ignasi; Cuocolo, Alberto; Knapp, Wolfram; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; McCall, Iain; Reiser, Maximilian; Silberman, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    New multimodality imaging systems bring together anatomical and molecular information and require the competency and accreditation of individuals from both nuclear medicine and radiology. This paper sets out the positions and aspirations of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) working together on an equal and constructive basis for the future benefit of both specialties. EANM and ESR recognise the importance of coordinating working practices for multimodality imaging systems and that undertaking the nuclear medicine and radiology components of imaging with hybrid systems requires different skills. It is important to provide adequate and appropriate training in the two disciplines in order to offer a proper service to the patient using hybrid systems. Training models are proposed with the overall objective of providing opportunities for acquisition of special competency certification in multimodality imaging. Both organisations plan to develop common procedural guidelines and recognise the importance of coordinating the purchasing and management of hybrid systems to maximise the benefits to both specialties and to ensure appropriate reimbursement of these examinations. European multimodality imaging research is operating in a highly competitive environment. The coming years will decide whether European research in this area manages to defend its leading position or whether it falls behind research in other leading economies. Since research teams in the Member States are not always sufficiently interconnected, more European input is necessary to create interdisciplinary bridges between research institutions in Europe and to stimulate excellence. EANM and ESR will work with the European Institute for Biomedical Imaging Research (EIBIR) to develop further research opportunities across Europe. European Union grant-funding bodies should allocate funds to joint research initiatives that encompass clinical research

  14. White paper of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; McCall, Iain; Reiser, Maximilian; Silberman, Bruno; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika; Carrio, Ignacio; Cuocolo, Alberto; Knapp, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    New multimodality imaging systems bring together anatomical and molecular information and require the competency and accreditation of individuals from both radiology and nuclear medicine. This paper sets out the positions and aspirations of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) working together on an equal and constructive basis for the future benefit of both specialties. ESR and EANM recognise the importance of coordinating working practices for multimodality imaging systems and that undertaking the radiology and nuclear medicine components of imaging with hybrid systems requires different skills. It is important to provide adequate and appropriate training in the two disciplines in order to offer a proper service to the patient using hybrid systems. Training models are proposed with the overall objective of providing opportunities for acquisition of special competency certification in multimodality imaging. Both organisations plan to develop common procedural guidelines and recognise the importance of coordinating the purchasing and management of hybrid systems to maximise the benefits to both specialties and to ensure appropriate reimbursement of these examinations. European multimodality imaging research is operating in a highly competitive environment. The coming years will decide whether European research in this area manages to defend its leading position or whether it falls behind research in other leading economies. Since research teams in the member states are not always sufficiently interconnected, more European input is necessary to create interdisciplinary bridges between research institutions in Europe and to stimulate excellence. ESR and EANM will work with the European Institute for Biomedical Imaging Research (EIBIR) to develop further research opportunities across Europe. European Union grant-funding bodies should allocate funds to joint research initiatives that encompass clinical research

  15. Multimodality multiparametric imaging of early tumor response to a novel antiangiogenic therapy based on anticalins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Meier

    Full Text Available Anticalins are a novel class of targeted protein therapeutics. The PEGylated Anticalin Angiocal (PRS-050-PEG40 is directed against VEGF-A. The purpose of our study was to compare the performance of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI and positron emission tomography with the tracer [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET for monitoring early response to antiangiogenic therapy with PRS-050-PEG40. 31 mice were implanted subcutaneously with A673 rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts and underwent DWI, DCE-MRI and FDG-PET before and 2 days after i.p. injection of PRS-050-PEG40 (n = 13, Avastin (n = 6 or PBS (n = 12. Tumor size was measured manually with a caliper. Imaging results were correlated with histopathology. In the results, the tumor size was not significantly different in the treatment groups when compared to the control group on day 2 after therapy onset (P = 0.09. In contrast the imaging modalities DWI, DCE-MRI and FDG-PET showed significant differences between the therapeutic compared to the control group as early as 2 days after therapy onset (P<0.001. There was a strong correlation of the early changes in DWI, DCE-MRI and FDG-PET at day 2 after therapy onset and the change in tumor size at the end of therapy (r = -0.58, 0.71 and 0.67 respectively. The imaging results were confirmed by histopathology, showing early necrosis and necroptosis in the tumors. Thus multimodality multiparametric imaging was able to predict therapeutic success of PRS-050-PEG40 and Avastin as early as 2 days after onset of therapy and thus promising for monitoring early response of antiangiogenic therapy.

  16. Multimodal ophthalmic imaging using spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Malone, Joseph D.; Li, Jianwei D.; Bozic, Ivan; Arquitola, Amber M.; Joos, Karen M.; Patel, Shriji N.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2017-08-01

    Ophthalmic surgery involves manipulation of delicate, layered tissue structures on milli- to micrometer scales. Traditional surgical microscopes provide an inherently two-dimensional view of the surgical field with limited depth perception which precludes accurate depth-resolved visualization of these tissue layers, and limits the development of novel surgical techniques. We demonstrate multimodal swept-source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (SS-SESLO-OCT) to address current limitations of image-guided ophthalmic microsurgery. SS-SESLO-OCT provides inherently co-registered en face and cross-sectional field-of-views (FOVs) at a line rate of 400 kHz and >2 GPix/s throughput. We show in vivo imaging of the anterior segment and retinal fundus of a healthy volunteer, and preliminary results of multi-volumetric mosaicking for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with 90° FOV. Additionally, a scan-head was rapid-prototyped with a modular architecture which enabled integration of SS-SESLO-OCT with traditional surgical microscope and slit-lamp imaging optics. Ex vivo surgical maneuvers were simulated in cadaveric porcine eyes. The system throughput enabled volumetric acquisition at 10 volumes-per-second (vps) and allowed visualization of surgical dynamics in corneal sweeps, compressions, and dissections, and retinal sweeps, compressions, and elevations. SESLO en face images enabled simple real-time co-registration with the surgical microscope FOV, and OCT cross-sections provided depth-resolved visualization of instrument-tissue interactions. Finally, we demonstrate novel augmented-reality integration with the surgical view using segmentation overlays to aid surgical guidance. SS-SESLO-OCT may benefit clinical diagnostics by enabling aiming, registration, and mosaicking; and intraoperative imaging by allowing for real-time surgical feedback, instrument tracking, and overlays of computationally extracted biomarkers of disease.

  17. Multimodal imaging of the human knee down to the cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, G.; Götz, C.; Müller-Gerbl, M.; Zanette, I.; Zdora, M.-C.; Khimchenko, A.; Deyhle, H.; Thalmann, P.; Müller, B.

    2017-06-01

    Computed tomography reaches the best spatial resolution for the three-dimensional visualization of human tissues among the available nondestructive clinical imaging techniques. Nowadays, sub-millimeter voxel sizes are regularly obtained. Regarding investigations on true micrometer level, lab-based micro-CT (μCT) has become gold standard. The aim of the present study is firstly the hierarchical investigation of a human knee post mortem using hard X-ray μCT and secondly a multimodal imaging using absorption and phase contrast modes in order to investigate hard (bone) and soft (cartilage) tissues on the cellular level. After the visualization of the entire knee using a clinical CT, a hierarchical imaging study was performed using the lab-system nanotom® m. First, the entire knee was measured with a pixel length of 65 μm. The highest resolution with a pixel length of 3 μm could be achieved after extracting cylindrically shaped plugs from the femoral bones. For the visualization of the cartilage, grating-based phase contrast μCT (I13-2, Diamond Light Source) was performed. With an effective voxel size of 2.3 μm it was possible to visualize individual chondrocytes within the cartilage.

  18. Integrated nanotechnology platform for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and therapeutic cargo release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Hitomi; Dobroff, Andrey S; Driessen, Wouter H P; Cristini, Vittorio; Brinker, Lina M; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Cardó-Vila, Marina; D'Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Proneth, Bettina; Lin, Yu-Shen; Dunphy, Darren R; Dogra, Prashant; Melancon, Marites P; Stafford, R Jason; Miyazono, Kohei; Gelovani, Juri G; Kataoka, Kazunori; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-02-16

    A major challenge of targeted molecular imaging and drug delivery in cancer is establishing a functional combination of ligand-directed cargo with a triggered release system. Here we develop a hydrogel-based nanotechnology platform that integrates tumor targeting, photon-to-heat conversion, and triggered drug delivery within a single nanostructure to enable multimodal imaging and controlled release of therapeutic cargo. In proof-of-concept experiments, we show a broad range of ligand peptide-based applications with phage particles, heat-sensitive liposomes, or mesoporous silica nanoparticles that self-assemble into a hydrogel for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Because nanoparticles pack densely within the nanocarrier, their surface plasmon resonance shifts to near-infrared, thereby enabling a laser-mediated photothermal mechanism of cargo release. We demonstrate both noninvasive imaging and targeted drug delivery in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer. Finally, we applied mathematical modeling to predict and confirm tumor targeting and drug delivery. These results are meaningful steps toward the design and initial translation of an enabling nanotechnology platform with potential for broad clinical applications.

  19. Development of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles for multimodal image-guided therapy to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Asahi; Arami, Hamed; Raymond, Andrea; Yndart, Adriana; Kaushik, Ajeet; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Takemura, Yasushi; Cai, Yong; Toborek, Michal; Nair, Madhavan

    2017-01-05

    Magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles are one of the emerging multi-functional materials in the field of nanomedicine. Their potential for targeting and multi-modal imaging is highly attractive. In this study, magnetic core/gold shell (MNP@Au) magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate reduction of Au ions on magnetic nanoparticle seeds. Hydrodynamic size and optical properties of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles synthesized with the variation of Au ions and reducing agent concentrations were evaluated. The synthesized magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic properties, and their magnetic properties contributed to the concentration-dependent contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The imaging contrast from the gold shell part of the magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles was also confirmed by X-ray computed tomography (CT). The transmigration study of the magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles using an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model proved enhanced transmigration efficiency without disrupting the integrity of the BBB, and showed potential to be used for brain diseases and neurological disorders.

  20. Multimodal nonlinear imaging of atherosclerotic plaques differentiation of triglyceride and cholesterol deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Matthäus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases in general and atherothrombosis as the most common of its individual disease entities is the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Therefore, visualization and characterization of inner arterial plaque composition is of vital diagnostic interest, especially for the early recognition of vulnerable plaques. Established clinical techniques provide valuable morphological information but cannot deliver information about the chemical composition of individual plaques. Therefore, spectroscopic imaging techniques have recently drawn considerable attention. Based on the spectroscopic properties of the individual plaque components, as for instance different types of lipids, the composition of atherosclerotic plaques can be analyzed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Here, we compare the feasibility of multimodal nonlinear imaging combining two-photon fluorescence (TPF, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS and second-harmonic generation (SHG microscopy to contrast composition and morphology of lipid deposits against the surrounding matrix of connective tissue with diffraction limited spatial resolution. In this contribution, the spatial distribution of major constituents of the arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaques like elastin, collagen, triglycerides and cholesterol can be simultaneously visualized by a combination of nonlinear imaging methods, providing a powerful label-free complement to standard histopathological methods with great potential for in vivo application.

  1. Topological mass of magnetic Skyrmions probed by ultrafast dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, Felix

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the GHz dynamics of skyrmionic spin structures by means of pump-probe dynamic imaging to determine the equation of motion that governs the behavior of these technologically relevant spin structures. To achieve this goal, we first designed and optimized a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy CoB/Pt multilayer material for low magnetic pinning, as required for ultrafast pump-probe imaging experiments. Second, we developed an integrated sample design for X-ray holography capable of tracking relative magnetic positional changes down to 3 nm spatial resolution. These advances enabled us to image the trajectory of a single magnetic Skyrmion. We find that the motion is comprised of two gyrotropic modes, one clockwise and one counterclockwise. The existence of two modes shows that Skyrmions are massive quasiparticles. From their derived frequencies we find an inertial mass for the Skyrmion which is a factor of five larger than expected based on existing models for inertia in magnetism. Our results demonstrate that the mass of Skyrmions is based on a novel mechanism emerging from their confined nature, which is a direct consequence of their topology.

  2. Progress on molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Zhang Yongxue

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a new era of medical imaging,which can non-invasively monitor biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo, including molecular imaging of nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance molecular imaging, ultrasound molecular imaging,optical molecular imaging and molecular imaging with X-ray. Recently, with the development of multi-subjects amalgamation, multimodal molecular imaging technology has been applied in clinical imaging, such as PET-CT and PET-MRI. We believe that with development of molecular probe and multi-modal imaging, more and more molecular imaging techniques will be applied in clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  3. Detection of relationships among multi-modal brain imaging meta-features via information flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robyn L; Vergara, Victor M; Calhoun, Vince D

    2018-01-15

    Neuroscientists and clinical researchers are awash in data from an ever-growing number of imaging and other bio-behavioral modalities. This flow of brain imaging data, taken under resting and various task conditions, combines with available cognitive measures, behavioral information, genetic data plus other potentially salient biomedical and environmental information to create a rich but diffuse data landscape. The conditions being studied with brain imaging data are often extremely complex and it is common for researchers to employ more than one imaging, behavioral or biological data modality (e.g., genetics) in their investigations. While the field has advanced significantly in its approach to multimodal data, the vast majority of studies still ignore joint information among two or more features or modalities. We propose an intuitive framework based on conditional probabilities for understanding information exchange between features in what we are calling a feature meta-space; that is, a space consisting of many individual featurae spaces. Features can have any dimension and can be drawn from any data source or modality. No a priori assumptions are made about the functional form (e.g., linear, polynomial, exponential) of captured inter-feature relationships. We demonstrate the framework's ability to identify relationships between disparate features of varying dimensionality by applying it to a large multi-site, multi-modal clinical dataset, balance between schizophrenia patients and controls. In our application it exposes both expected (previously observed) relationships, and novel relationships rarely considered investigated by clinical researchers. To the best of our knowledge there is not presently a comparably efficient way to capture relationships of indeterminate functional form between features of arbitrary dimension and type. We are introducing this method as an initial foray into a space that remains relatively underpopulated. The framework we propose is

  4. Registration for Optical Multimodal Remote Sensing Images Based on FAST Detection, Window Selection, and Histogram Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhao

    2018-04-01

    . The results from this study indicate that the proposed method can be effective for registering optical multimodal remote sensing images that have been captured with different imaging sensors.

  5. Multimodality Imaging Approach towards Primary Aortic Sarcomas Arising after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Case Series Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamran, Mudassar, E-mail: kamranm@mir.wustl.edu; Fowler, Kathryn J., E-mail: fowlerk@mir.wustl.edu; Mellnick, Vincent M., E-mail: mellnickv@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Sicard, Gregorio A., E-mail: sicard@wudosis.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery (United States); Narra, Vamsi R., E-mail: narrav@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Primary aortic neoplasms are rare. Aortic sarcoma arising after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a scarce subset of primary aortic malignancies, reports of which are infrequent in the published literature. The diagnosis of aortic sarcoma is challenging due to its non-specific clinical presentation, and the prognosis is poor due to delayed diagnosis, rapid proliferation, and propensity for metastasis. Post-EVAR, aortic sarcomas may mimic other more common aortic processes on surveillance imaging. Radiologists are rarely knowledgeable about this rare entity for which multimodality imaging and awareness are invaluable in early diagnosis. A series of three pathologically confirmed cases are presented to display the multimodality imaging features and clinical presentations of aortic sarcoma arising after EVAR.

  6. Vortex imaging in superconducting films by scanning Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral, A.; Bending, S.J.; Humphreys, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have used a low noise Scanning Hall Probe Microscope (SHPM) to study vortex structures in superconducting films. The microscope has high magnetic field (∼2.9 x 10 -8 T/√Hz at 77K) and spatial resolution, ∼0.85 μm. Magnetic field profiles of single vortices in High T c YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin films have been successfully measured and the microscopic penetration depth of the superconductor has been extracted as a function of temperature. Flux penetration into the superconductor has been imaged in real time (∼8s/frame)

  7. DNA imaging and quantification using chemi-luminescent probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, G.; Redjdal, N.; Laniece, P.; Siebert, R.; Tricoire, H.; Valentin, L.

    1999-01-01

    During this interdisciplinary study we have developed an ultra sensitive and reliable imaging system of DNA labelled by chemiluminescence. Based on a liquid nitrogen cooled CCD, the system achieves sensitivities down to 10 fg/mm 2 labelled DNA over a surface area of 25 x 25 cm 2 with a sub-millimeter resolution. Commercially available chemi-luminescent - and enhancer molecules are compared and their reaction conditions optimized for best signal-to-noise ratios. Double labelling was performed to verify quantification with radioactive probes. (authors)

  8. Use of multimodality imaging and artificial intelligence for diagnosis and prognosis of early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Teresa; Weidman, David; Lure, Fleming; Li, Jing

    2018-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. Currently, no treatment exists to slow down or stop the progression of AD. There is converging belief that disease-modifying treatments should focus on early stages of the disease, that is, the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and preclinical stages. Making a diagnosis of AD and offering a prognosis (likelihood of converting to AD) at these early stages are challenging tasks but possible with the help of multimodality imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission topography (PET), amyloid-PET, and recently introduced tau-PET, which provides different but complementary information. This article is a focused review of existing research in the recent decade that used statistical machine learning and artificial intelligence methods to perform quantitative analysis of multimodality image data for diagnosis and prognosis of AD at the MCI or preclinical stages. We review the existing work in 3 subareas: diagnosis, prognosis, and methods for handling modality-wise missing data-a commonly encountered problem when using multimodality imaging for prediction or classification. Factors contributing to missing data include lack of imaging equipment, cost, difficulty of obtaining patient consent, and patient drop-off (in longitudinal studies). Finally, we summarize our major findings and provide some recommendations for potential future research directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The value of multimodality imaging in the investigation of a PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy in the Irish hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, L C; Inder, S; Moran, D; O'Rourke, C; Manecksha, R P; Lynch, T H

    2018-02-01

    The diagnostic evaluation of a PSA recurrence after RP in the Irish hospital setting involves multimodality imaging with MRI, CT, and bone scanning, despite the low diagnostic yield from imaging at low PSA levels. We aim to investigate the value of multimodality imaging in PC patients after RP with a PSA recurrence. Forty-eight patients with a PSA recurrence after RP who underwent multimodality imaging were evaluated. Demographic data, postoperative PSA levels, and imaging studies performed at those levels were evaluated. Eight (21%) MRIs, 6 (33%) CTs, and 4 (9%) bone scans had PCa-specific findings. Three (12%) patients had a positive MRI with a PSA PSA ≥1.1 ng/ml (p = 0.05). Zero patient had a positive CT TAP at a PSA level PSA levels PSA levels PSA levels ≥1.1 ng/ml. MRI alone is of investigative value at PSA <1.0 ng/ml. The indication for CT, MRI, or isotope bone scanning should be carefully correlated with the clinical question and how it will affect further management.

  10. SU-E-I-83: Error Analysis of Multi-Modality Image-Based Volumes of Rodent Solid Tumors Using a Preclinical Multi-Modality QA Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fullerton, G; Goins, B [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In our previous study a preclinical multi-modality quality assurance (QA) phantom that contains five tumor-simulating test objects with 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14 mm diameters was developed for accurate tumor size measurement by researchers during cancer drug development and testing. This study analyzed the errors during tumor volume measurement from preclinical magnetic resonance (MR), micro-computed tomography (micro- CT) and ultrasound (US) images acquired in a rodent tumor model using the preclinical multi-modality QA phantom. Methods: Using preclinical 7-Tesla MR, US and micro-CT scanners, images were acquired of subcutaneous SCC4 tumor xenografts in nude rats (3–4 rats per group; 5 groups) along with the QA phantom using the same imaging protocols. After tumors were excised, in-air micro-CT imaging was performed to determine reference tumor volume. Volumes measured for the rat tumors and phantom test objects were calculated using formula V = (π/6)*a*b*c where a, b and c are the maximum diameters in three perpendicular dimensions determined by the three imaging modalities. Then linear regression analysis was performed to compare image-based tumor volumes with the reference tumor volume and known test object volume for the rats and the phantom respectively. Results: The slopes of regression lines for in-vivo tumor volumes measured by three imaging modalities were 1.021, 1.101 and 0.862 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. For phantom, the slopes were 0.9485, 0.9971 and 0.9734 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. Conclusion: For both animal and phantom studies, random and systematic errors were observed. Random errors were observer-dependent and systematic errors were mainly due to selected imaging protocols and/or measurement method. In the animal study, there were additional systematic errors attributed to ellipsoidal assumption for tumor shape. The systematic errors measured using the QA phantom need to be taken into account to reduce measurement

  11. Multimodal Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Investigations of a Photovoltaic WSe2/MoS2 Type-II Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadori, Yann; Bendiab, Nedjma; Grévin, Benjamin

    2018-01-10

    Atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) have become a new platform for the development of next-generation optoelectronic and light-harvesting devices. Here, we report a Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) investigation carried out on a type-II photovoltaic heterojunction based on WSe 2 monolayer flakes and a bilayer MoS 2 film stacked in vertical configuration on a Si/SiO 2 substrate. Band offset characterized by a significant interfacial dipole is pointed out at the WSe 2 /MoS 2 vertical junction. The photocarrier generation process and phototransport are studied by applying a differential technique allowing to map directly two-dimensional images of the surface photovoltage (SPV) over the vertical heterojunctions (vHJ) and in its immediate vicinity. Differential SPV reveals the impact of chemical defects on the photocarrier generation and that negative charges diffuse in the MoS 2 a few hundreds of nanometers away from the vHJ. The analysis of the SPV data confirms unambiguously that light absorption results in the generation of free charge carriers that do not remain coulomb-bound at the type-II interface. A truly quantitative determination of the electron-hole (e-h) quasi-Fermi levels splitting (i.e., the open-circuit voltage) is achieved by measuring the differential vacuum-level shift over the WSe 2 flakes and the MoS 2 layer. The dependence of the energy-level splitting as a function of the optical power reveals that Shockley-Read-Hall processes significantly contribute to the interlayer recombination dynamics. Finally, a newly developed time-resolved mode of the KPFM is applied to map the SPV decay time constants. The time-resolved SPV images reveal the dynamics of delayed recombination processes originating from photocarriers trapping at the SiO 2 /TMDC interfaces.

  12. Multimodal Nonlinear Optical Imaging for Sensitive Detection of Multiple Pharmaceutical Solid-State Forms and Surface Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Dunja; Saarinen, Jukka; Rojalin, Tatu; Antikainen, Osmo; Fraser-Miller, Sara J; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Isomäki, Antti; Strachan, Clare J

    2017-11-07

    Two nonlinear imaging modalities, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and sum-frequency generation (SFG), were successfully combined for sensitive multimodal imaging of multiple solid-state forms and their changes on drug tablet surfaces. Two imaging approaches were used and compared: (i) hyperspectral CARS combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and SFG imaging and (ii) simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging. Three different solid-state forms of indomethacin-the crystalline gamma and alpha forms, as well as the amorphous form-were clearly distinguished using both approaches. Simultaneous narrowband CARS and SFG imaging was faster, but hyperspectral CARS and SFG imaging has the potential to be applied to a wider variety of more complex samples. These methodologies were further used to follow crystallization of indomethacin on tablet surfaces under two storage conditions: 30 °C/23% RH and 30 °C/75% RH. Imaging with (sub)micron resolution showed that the approach allowed detection of very early stage surface crystallization. The surfaces progressively crystallized to predominantly (but not exclusively) the gamma form at lower humidity and the alpha form at higher humidity. Overall, this study suggests that multimodal nonlinear imaging is a highly sensitive, solid-state (and chemically) specific, rapid, and versatile imaging technique for understanding and hence controlling (surface) solid-state forms and their complex changes in pharmaceuticals.

  13. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet

    2014-01-01

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing

  14. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet [Terahertz Systems Laboratory (TeSLa) - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  15. Benign familial fleck retina: multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jose Mauricio Botto de Barros; Isaac, David Leonardo Cruvinel; Sardeiro, Tainara; Aquino, Érika; Avila, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    This report presents multimodal imaging of a 27-year-old woman diagnosed with benign familial fleck retina (OMIM 228980), an uncommon disorder. Fundus photographs revealed retinal flecks that affected her post-equatorial retina but spared the macular area. Fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging demonstrated a symmetrical pattern of yellow-white fleck lesions that affected both eyes. Her full-field electroretinogram and electrooculogram were normal. An optical coherence tomography B-scan was performed for both eyes, revealing increased thickness of the retinal pigmented epithelium leading to multiple small pigmented epithelium detachments. The outer retina remained intact in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm and 3 × 3 mm structural en face optical coherence tomography did not show macular lesions. Benign familial fleck retina belongs to a heterogenous group of so-called flecked retina syndromes, and should be considered in patients with yellowish-white retinal lesions without involvement of the macula.

  16. Benign familial fleck retina: multimodal imaging including optical coherence tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauricio Botto de Barros Garcia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This report presents multimodal imaging of a 27-year-old woman diagnosed with benign familial fleck retina (OMIM 228980, an uncommon disorder. Fundus photographs revealed retinal flecks that affected her post-equatorial retina but spared the macular area. Fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging demonstrated a symmetrical pattern of yellow-white fleck lesions that affected both eyes. Her full-field electroretinogram and electrooculogram were normal. An optical coherence tomography B-scan was performed for both eyes, revealing increased thickness of the retinal pigmented epithelium leading to multiple small pigmented epithelium detachments. The outer retina remained intact in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm and 3 × 3 mm structural en face optical coherence tomography did not show macular lesions. Benign familial fleck retina belongs to a heterogenous group of so-called flecked retina syndromes, and should be considered in patients with yellowish-white retinal lesions without involvement of the macula.

  17. MMX-I: A data-processing software for multi-modal X-ray imaging and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, A; Medjoubi, K; Somogyi, A; Messaoudi, C; Marco, S

    2017-01-01

    Scanning hard X-ray imaging allows simultaneous acquisition of multimodal information, including X-ray fluorescence, absorption, phase and dark-field contrasts, providing structural and chemical details of the samples. Combining these scanning techniques with the infrastructure developed for fast data acquisition at Synchrotron Soleil permits to perform multimodal imaging and tomography during routine user experiments at the Nanoscopium beamline. A main challenge of such imaging techniques is the online processing and analysis of the generated very large volume (several hundreds of Giga Bytes) multimodal data-sets. This is especially important for the wide user community foreseen at the user oriented Nanoscopium beamline (e.g. from the fields of Biology, Life Sciences, Geology, Geobiology), having no experience in such data-handling. MMX-I is a new multi-platform open-source freeware for the processing and reconstruction of scanning multi-technique X-ray imaging and tomographic datasets. The MMX-I project aims to offer, both expert users and beginners, the possibility of processing and analysing raw data, either on-site or off-site. Therefore we have developed a multi-platform (Mac, Windows and Linux 64bit) data processing tool, which is easy to install, comprehensive, intuitive, extendable and user-friendly. MMX-I is now routinely used by the Nanoscopium user community and has demonstrated its performance in treating big data. (paper)

  18. MMX-I: A data-processing software for multi-modal X-ray imaging and tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, A.; Medjoubi, K.; Messaoudi, C.; Marco, S.; Somogyi, A.

    2017-06-01

    Scanning hard X-ray imaging allows simultaneous acquisition of multimodal information, including X-ray fluorescence, absorption, phase and dark-field contrasts, providing structural and chemical details of the samples. Combining these scanning techniques with the infrastructure developed for fast data acquisition at Synchrotron Soleil permits to perform multimodal imaging and tomography during routine user experiments at the Nanoscopium beamline. A main challenge of such imaging techniques is the online processing and analysis of the generated very large volume (several hundreds of Giga Bytes) multimodal data-sets. This is especially important for the wide user community foreseen at the user oriented Nanoscopium beamline (e.g. from the fields of Biology, Life Sciences, Geology, Geobiology), having no experience in such data-handling. MMX-I is a new multi-platform open-source freeware for the processing and reconstruction of scanning multi-technique X-ray imaging and tomographic datasets. The MMX-I project aims to offer, both expert users and beginners, the possibility of processing and analysing raw data, either on-site or off-site. Therefore we have developed a multi-platform (Mac, Windows and Linux 64bit) data processing tool, which is easy to install, comprehensive, intuitive, extendable and user-friendly. MMX-I is now routinely used by the Nanoscopium user community and has demonstrated its performance in treating big data.

  19. MR image features predicting hemorrhagic transformation in acute cerebral infarction: a multimodal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chunming; Xu, Liang; Dong, Longchun; Liu, Zhenxing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jun; Dong, Zhengchao; Khursheed, Aiman

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to observe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the frequency of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute cerebral infarction and to identify the risk factors of HT. We first performed multimodal MRI (anatomical, diffusion weighted, and susceptibility weighted) scans on 87 patients with acute cerebral infarction within 24 hours after symptom onset and documented the image findings. We then performed follow-up examinations 3 days to 2 weeks after the onset or whenever the conditions of the patients worsened within 3 days. We utilized univariate statistics to identify the correlations between HT and image features and used multivariate logistical regression to correct for confounding factors to determine relevant independent image features of HT. HT was observed in 17 out of total 87 patients (19.5 %). The infarct size (p = 0.021), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) (p = 0.004), relative apparent diffusion (rADC) (p = 0.023), and venous anomalies (p = 0.000) were significantly related with HT in the univariate statistics. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CMBs (odd ratio (OR) = 0.082; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.597; p = 0.014), rADC (OR = 0.000; 95 % CI = 0.000-0.692; p = 0.041), and venous anomalies (OR = 0.066; 95 % CI = 0.011-0.403; p = 0.003) were independent risk factors for HT. The frequency of HT is 19.5 % in this study. CMBs, rADC, and venous anomalies are independent risk factors for HT of acute cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  20. COBRA: A prospective multimodal imaging study of dopamine, brain structure and function, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, N; Riklund, K; Andersson, M; Axelsson, J; Ögren, M; Lövdén, M; Lindenberger, U; Bäckman, L; Nyberg, L

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive decline is a characteristic feature of normal human aging. Previous work has demonstrated marked interindividual variability in onset and rate of decline. Such variability has been linked to factors such as maintenance of functional and structural brain integrity, genetics, and lifestyle. Still, few, if any, studies have combined a longitudinal design with repeated multimodal imaging and a comprehensive assessment of cognition as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The present paper introduces the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study, in which cognitive performance and brain structure and function are measured in a cohort of 181 older adults aged 64 to 68 years at baseline. Participants will be followed longitudinally over a 10-year period, resulting in a total of three equally spaced measurement occasions. The measurement protocol at each occasion comprises a comprehensive set of behavioral and imaging measures. Cognitive performance is evaluated via computerized testing of working memory, episodic memory, perceptual speed, motor speed, implicit sequence learning, and vocabulary. Brain imaging is performed using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]-raclopride to assess dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for assessment of white and gray-matter integrity and cerebrovascular perfusion, and functional MRI maps brain activation during rest and active task conditions. Lifestyle descriptives are collected, and blood samples are obtained and stored for future evaluation. Here, we present selected results from the baseline assessment along with a discussion of sample characteristics and methodological considerations that determined the design of the study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. MR image features predicting hemorrhagic transformation in acute cerebral infarction: a multimodal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chunming; Xu, Liang; Dong, Longchun; Liu, Zhenxing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Union Medicine Centre, Department of Radiology, Tianjin (China); Dong, Zhengchao [Columbia University, Translational Imaging and MRI Unit, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States); New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY (United States); Khursheed, Aiman [Tianjin Medical University, International Medical School, Tianjin (China)

    2015-11-15

    The aims of this study were to observe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the frequency of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute cerebral infarction and to identify the risk factors of HT. We first performed multimodal MRI (anatomical, diffusion weighted, and susceptibility weighted) scans on 87 patients with acute cerebral infarction within 24 hours after symptom onset and documented the image findings. We then performed follow-up examinations 3 days to 2 weeks after the onset or whenever the conditions of the patients worsened within 3 days. We utilized univariate statistics to identify the correlations between HT and image features and used multivariate logistical regression to correct for confounding factors to determine relevant independent image features of HT. HT was observed in 17 out of total 87 patients (19.5 %). The infarct size (p = 0.021), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) (p = 0.004), relative apparent diffusion (rADC) (p = 0.023), and venous anomalies (p = 0.000) were significantly related with HT in the univariate statistics. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CMBs (odd ratio (OR) = 0.082; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.597; p = 0.014), rADC (OR = 0.000; 95 % CI = 0.000-0.692; p = 0.041), and venous anomalies (OR = 0.066; 95 % CI = 0.011-0.403; p = 0.003) were independent risk factors for HT. The frequency of HT is 19.5 % in this study. CMBs, rADC, and venous anomalies are independent risk factors for HT of acute cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  2. PET/SPECT/CT multimodal imaging in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisgard, R.; Alberini, J.L.; Jego, B.; Siquier, K.; Theze, B.; Guillermet, S.; Tavitian, B. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie BioMedicale, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Inserm, U803, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2008-02-15

    Background. - In the therapy monitoring of breast cancer, conventional imaging methods include ultrasound, mammography, CT and MRI, which are essentially based on tumor size modifications. However these modifications represent a late consequence of the biological response and fail to differentiate scar or necrotic tissue from residual viable tumoral tissue. Therefore, a current objective is to develop tools able to predict early response to treatment. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) are imaging modalities able to provide extremely sensitive quantitative molecular data and are widely used in humans and animals. Results. - Mammary epithelial cells of female transgenic mice expressing the polyoma middle T onco-protein (Py M.T.), undergo four distinct stages of tumour progression, from pre malignant to malignant stages. Stages are identifiable in the mammary tissue and can lead to the development of distant metastases Longitudinal studies by dynamic whole body acquisitions by multimodal imaging including PET, SPECT and Computed Tomography (CT) allow following the tumoral evolution in Py M.T. mice in comparison with the histopathological analysis. At four weeks of age, mammary hyperplasia was identified by histopathology, but no abnormalities were found by palpation or detected by PET with 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose. Such as in some human mammary cancers, the sodium iodide sym-porter (N.I.S.) in tumoral mammary epithelial cells is expressed in this mouse model. In order to investigate the expression of N.I.S. in the Py M.T. mice mammary tumours, [{sup 99m}Tc]TcO{sub 4} imaging was performed with a dedicated SPECT/CT system camera (B.I.O.S.P.A.C.E. Gamma Imager/CT). Local uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TcO{sub 4} was detected as early as four weeks of age. The efficacy of chemotherapy was evaluated in this mouse model using a conventional regimen (Doxorubicine, 100 mg/ kg) administered weekly from nine to

  3. Theranostic nanoshells: from probe design to imaging and treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Rizia; Lal, Surbhi; Joshi, Amit; Halas, Naomi J

    2011-10-18

    Recent advances in nanoscience and biomedicine have expanded our ability to design and construct multifunctional nanoparticles that combine targeting, therapeutic, and diagnostic functions within a single nanoscale complex. The theranostic capabilities of gold nanoshells, spherical nanoparticles with silica cores and gold shells, have attracted tremendous attention over the past decade as nanoshells have emerged as a promising tool for cancer therapy and bioimaging enhancement. This Account examines the design and synthesis of nanoshell-based theranostic agents, their plasmon-derived optical properties, and their corresponding applications. We discuss the design and preparation of nanoshell complexes and their ability to enhance the photoluminescence of fluorophores while maintaining their properties as MR contrast agents. In this Account, we discuss the underlying physical principles that contribute to the photothermal response of nanoshells. We then elucidate the photophysical processes that induce nanoshells to enhance the fluorescence of weak near-infrared fluorophores. Nanoshells illuminated with resonant light are either strong optical absorbers or scatterers, properties that give rise to their unique capabilities. These physical processes have been harnessed to visualize and eliminate cancer cells. We describe the application of nanoshells as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography of breast carcinoma cells in vivo. Our recent studies examine nanoshells as a multimodal theranostic probe, using these nanoparticles for near-infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and for the photothermal ablation of cancer cells. Multimodal nanoshells show theranostic potential for imaging subcutaneous breast cancer tumors in animal models and the distribution of tumors in various tissues. Nanoshells also show promise as light-triggered gene therapy vectors, adding temporal control to the spatial control characteristic of nanoparticle-based gene

  4. Role of the multi-modality image archival and communication system in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela Kari; Adam Mester; Erno Mako; Zoltan Gyorfi; Bela Mihalik; Zsolt; Hegyi

    2004-01-01

    Various non-invasive imaging systems produce increasing amount of diagnostic images day by day in digital format. The direct consequence of this tendency places electronic archives and image transfers in spotlight. Moreover, the digital image archives may support any other activities like simultaneous displaying of multi-modality images, telediagnostics, on-line consultation, construction of standard databases for dedicated organs by regional and/or country wide (e.g. myocardial scintigraphy, mammography, etc....) in order to obtain much more exact diagnosis as well as to support education and training. Our institute started similar research and developing activities few years ago, resulting the construction of our PACS systems -MEDISA LINUX Debian and eRAD ImageMedical TM LINUX Red Hat- together with the telecommunication part. Mass storage unit of PACS is based on hard drives connecting in RAID with l.2Tbyte capacity. The on-line telecommunication system consists of an ISDN Multi-Media System (MMS) and Internet based independent units. MMS was dedicated mainly for on-line teleconferencing and consultation by the simultaneously transferred morphological and functional images obtaining from the central archives by DICOM or any other allowable image formats. MMS has been created as a part and requirements of an EU research project - RETRANSPLANT -. The central archives -PACS- can be accessed by DICOM 3.0 protocol on Internet surface through well maintained and secure access rights. Displaying and post-processing of any retrieved images on individual workstations are supported by eRAD ImageMedical TM PracticeBuilder1-2-3 (Window based) image manager with its unique supports and services. The 'real engine' of PracticeBuilder is Ver.5.0 or newer Internet Explorer. The unique feature of PracticelBuilder1-2-3 is the extremely fast patient and image access from the archives even from very 'far distance' (through continents), due to the exceptional image communication

  5. Primary evaluation of a nickel-chlorophyll derivative as a multimodality agent for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozge Er; Fatma Yurt Lambrecht; Kasim Ocakoglu; Cagla Kayabasi; Cumhur Gunduz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the biological potential of a nickel chlorophyll derivative (Ni-PH-A) as a multimodal agent for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT) was investigated. Optimum conditions of labeling with 131 I were investigated and determined as pH 10 and 1 mg amount of iodogen. Biodistribution results of 131 I labeled Ni-PH-A in female rats indicated that radiolabeled Ni-PH-A maximum uptake in the liver, spleen and ovary was observed at 30 min. Intercellular uptake and PDT efficacy of Ni-PH-A were better in MDAH-2774 (human ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma) than in MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cells. Ni-PH-A might be a promising multimodal agent for lung, ovary and liver tumor imaging and PDT. (author)

  6. Intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring-guided surgery for treating supratentorial cavernomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang-Ye; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Xu, Bai-Nan

    2016-09-01

    To determine the beneficial effects of intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring-guided surgery for treating supratentorial cavernomas. Twelve patients with 13 supratentorial cavernomas were prospectively enrolled and operated while using a 1.5 T intraoperative MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring. All cavernomas were deeply located in subcortical areas or involved critical areas. Intraoperative high-field MRIs were obtained for the intraoperative "visualization" of surrounding eloquent structures, "brain shift" corrections, and navigational plan updates. All cavernomas were successfully resected with guidance from intraoperative MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring. In 5 cases with supratentorial cavernomas, intraoperative "brain shift" severely deterred locating of the lesions; however, intraoperative MRI facilitated precise locating of these lesions. During long-term (>3 months) follow-up, some or all presenting signs and symptoms improved or resolved in 4 cases, but were unchanged in 7 patients. Intraoperative high-field MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring are helpful in surgeries for the treatment of small deeply seated subcortical cavernomas.

  7. Design of a multimodal fibers optic system for small animal optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Pagliazzi, Marco; Boschi, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Small animals optical imaging systems are widely used in pre-clinical research to image in vivo the bio-distribution of light emitting probes using fluorescence or bioluminescence modalities. In this work we presented a set of simulated results of a novel small animal optical imaging module based on a fibers optics matrix, coupled with a position sensitive detector, devoted to acquire bioluminescence and Cerenkov images. Simulations were performed using GEANT 4 code with the GAMOS architecture using the tissue optics plugin. Results showed that it is possible to image a 30 × 30 mm region of interest using a fiber optics array containing 100 optical fibers without compromising the quality of the reconstruction. The number of fibers necessary to cover an adequate portion of a small animal is thus quite modest. This design allows integrating the module with magnetic resonance (MR) in order to acquire optical and MR images at the same time. A detailed model of the mouse anatomy, obtained by segmentation of 3D MRI images, will improve the quality of optical 3D reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Papillary fibroelastoma diagnosed through multimodality cardiac imaging: a rare tumour in an uncommon location with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Senthil; Sydow, Nicole; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2017-08-08

    We describe the case of a woman presenting with transient ischaemic attack, who was found to have a papillary fibroelastoma arising from the aortic wall, an extremely rare location. We describe the multimodality imaging techniques used in diagnosing this patient and review the most recent literature on evaluation and management of patients with cardiac papillary fibroelastomas. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Multimodal sensing and imaging technology by integrated scanning electron, force, and nearfield microwave microscopy and its application to submicrometer studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hänßler, Olaf C.

    2018-01-01

    The work covers a multimodal microscope technology for the analysis, manipulation and transfer of materials and objects in the submicrometer range. An atomic force microscope (AFM) allows imaging of the surface topography and a Scanning Microwave Microscope (SMM) detects electromagnetic properties, both operating in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The described technology demonstrator allows to observe the region-of-interest live with the SEM, while at the same time a characterization w...

  10. Polyvinyl chloride as a multimodal tissue-mimicking material with tuned mechanical and medical imaging properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weisi; Belmont, Barry; Greve, Joan M; Manders, Adam B; Downey, Brian C; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Zhen; Guo, Dongming; Shih, Albert

    2016-10-01

    The mechanical and imaging properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) can be adjusted to meet the needs of researchers as a tissue-mimicking material. For instance, the hardness can be adjusted by changing the ratio of softener to PVC polymer, mineral oil can be added for lubrication in needle insertion, and glass beads can be added to scatter acoustic energy similar to biological tissue. Through this research, the authors sought to develop a regression model to design formulations of PVC with targeted mechanical and multimodal medical imaging properties. The design of experiment was conducted by varying three factors-(1) the ratio of softener to PVC polymer, (2) the mass fraction of mineral oil, and (3) the mass fraction of glass beads-and measuring the mechanical properties (elastic modulus, hardness, viscoelastic relaxation time constant, and needle insertion friction force) and the medical imaging properties [speed of sound, acoustic attenuation coefficient, magnetic resonance imaging time constants T 1 and T 2 , and the transmittance of the visible light at wavelengths of 695 nm (T λ695 ) and 532 nm (T λ532 )] on twelve soft PVC samples. A regression model was built to describe the relationship between the mechanical and medical imaging properties and the values of the three composition factors of PVC. The model was validated by testing the properties of a PVC sample with a formulation distinct from the twelve samples. The tested soft PVC had elastic moduli from 6 to 45 kPa, hardnesses from 5 to 50 Shore OOO-S, viscoelastic stress relaxation time constants from 114.1 to 191.9 s, friction forces of 18 gauge needle insertion from 0.005 to 0.086 N/mm, speeds of sound from 1393 to 1407 m/s, acoustic attenuation coefficients from 0.38 to 0.61 (dB/cm)/MHz, T 1 relaxation times from 426.3 to 450.2 ms, T 2 relaxation times from 21.5 to 28.4 ms, T λ695 from 46.8% to 92.6%, and T λ532 from 41.1% to 86.3%. Statistically significant factors of each property were

  11. Predicting standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using mapping-based sparse representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jiliu; Zhang, Pei; An, Le; Ma, Guangkai; Kang, Jiayin; Shi, Feng; Shen, Dinggang; Wu, Xi; Lalush, David S; Lin, Weili

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis for diseases and disorders. To obtain high-quality PET images requires a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) injection into the human body, which inevitably increases risk of radiation exposure. One possible solution to this problem is to predict the standard-dose PET image from its low-dose counterpart and its corresponding multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Inspired by the success of patch-based sparse representation (SR) in super-resolution image reconstruction, we propose a mapping-based SR (m-SR) framework for standard-dose PET image prediction. Compared with the conventional patch-based SR, our method uses a mapping strategy to ensure that the sparse coefficients, estimated from the multimodal MR images and low-dose PET image, can be applied directly to the prediction of standard-dose PET image. As the mapping between multimodal MR images (or low-dose PET image) and standard-dose PET images can be particularly complex, one step of mapping is often insufficient. To this end, an incremental refinement framework is therefore proposed. Specifically, the predicted standard-dose PET image is further mapped to the target standard-dose PET image, and then the SR is performed again to predict a new standard-dose PET image. This procedure can be repeated for prediction refinement of the iterations. Also, a patch selection based dictionary construction method is further used to speed up the prediction process. The proposed method is validated on a human brain dataset. The experimental results show that our method can outperform benchmark methods in both qualitative and quantitative measures. (paper)

  12. Multimodal fluorescence molecular imaging for in vivo characterization of skin cancer using endogenous and exogenous fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica P.; Habimana-Griffin, LeMoyne; Edwards, Tracy S.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Similarity of skin cancer with many benign skin pathologies requires reliable methods to detect and differentiate the different types of these lesions. Previous studies have explored the use of disparate optical techniques to identify and estimate the invasive nature of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma with varying outcomes. Here, we used a concerted approach that provides complementary information for rapid screening and characterization of tumors, focusing on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Assessment of in vivo autofluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging of endogenous fluorophores that are excitable at longer wavelengths (480 nm) than conventional NADH and FAD revealed a decrease in the short FLT component for SCC compared to normal skin, with mean values of 0.57±0.026 ns and 0.61±0.021 ns, respectively (p=0.004). Subsequent systemic administration of a near-infrared fluorescent molecular probe in SCC bearing mice, followed by the implementation of image processing methods on data acquired from two-dimensional and three-dimensional fluorescence molecular imaging, allowed us to estimate the tumor volume and depth, as well as quantify the fluorescent probe in the tumor. The result suggests the involvement of lipofuscin-like lipopigments and riboflavin in SCC metabolism and serves as a model for staging SCC.

  13. A multimodality vascular imaging phantom of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a visible thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Louise; Chayer, Boris; Qin Zhao [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, Research Center, University of Montreal Hospital (CRCHUM), Quebec H2L 2W5 (Canada); Soulez, Gilles [Department of Radiology, University of Montreal Hospital (CHUM), Quebec H2L 2M1 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Roy, David [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Cloutier, Guy [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, Research Center, University of Montreal Hospital (CRCHUM), Quebec H2L 2W5 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: With the continuous development of new stent grafts and implantation techniques, it has now become technically feasible to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with challenging anatomy using endovascular repair with standard, fenestrated, or branched stent-grafts. In vitro experimentations are very useful to improve stent-graft design and conformability or imaging guidance for stent-graft delivery or follow-up. Vascular replicas also help to better understand the limitation of endovascular approaches in challenging anatomy and possibly improve surgical planning or training by practicing high risk clinical procedures in the laboratory to improve outcomes in the operating room. Most AAA phantoms available have a very basic anatomy, which is not representative of the clinical reality. This paper presents a method of fabrication of a realistic AAA phantom with a visible thrombus, as well as some mechanical properties characterizing such phantom. Methods: A realistic AAA geometry replica of a real patient anatomy taken from a multidetector computed tomography (CT) scan was manufactured. To demonstrate the multimodality imaging capability of this new phantom with a thrombus visible in magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, CT angiography (CTA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and ultrasound, image acquisitions with all these modalities were performed by using standard clinical protocols. Potential use of this phantom for stent deployment was also tested. A rheometer allowed defining hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of phantom materials. Results: MR imaging measurements of SNR and CNR values on T1 and T2-weighted sequences and MR angiography indicated reasonable agreement with published values of AAA thrombus and abdominal components in vivo. X-ray absorption also lay within normal ranges of AAA patients and was representative of findings observed on CTA, fluoroscopy, and DSA. Ultrasound propagation speeds for developed materials were also in

  14. A multimodality vascular imaging phantom of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a visible thrombus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Louise; Chayer, Boris; Qin Zhao; Soulez, Gilles; Roy, David; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With the continuous development of new stent grafts and implantation techniques, it has now become technically feasible to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with challenging anatomy using endovascular repair with standard, fenestrated, or branched stent-grafts. In vitro experimentations are very useful to improve stent-graft design and conformability or imaging guidance for stent-graft delivery or follow-up. Vascular replicas also help to better understand the limitation of endovascular approaches in challenging anatomy and possibly improve surgical planning or training by practicing high risk clinical procedures in the laboratory to improve outcomes in the operating room. Most AAA phantoms available have a very basic anatomy, which is not representative of the clinical reality. This paper presents a method of fabrication of a realistic AAA phantom with a visible thrombus, as well as some mechanical properties characterizing such phantom. Methods: A realistic AAA geometry replica of a real patient anatomy taken from a multidetector computed tomography (CT) scan was manufactured. To demonstrate the multimodality imaging capability of this new phantom with a thrombus visible in magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, CT angiography (CTA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and ultrasound, image acquisitions with all these modalities were performed by using standard clinical protocols. Potential use of this phantom for stent deployment was also tested. A rheometer allowed defining hyperelastic and viscoelastic properties of phantom materials. Results: MR imaging measurements of SNR and CNR values on T1 and T2-weighted sequences and MR angiography indicated reasonable agreement with published values of AAA thrombus and abdominal components in vivo. X-ray absorption also lay within normal ranges of AAA patients and was representative of findings observed on CTA, fluoroscopy, and DSA. Ultrasound propagation speeds for developed materials were also in

  15. Development of novel imaging probe for optical/acoustic radiation imaging (OARI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejofodomi, O'tega A; Zderic, Vesna; Zara, Jason M

    2013-11-01

    Optical/acoustic radiation imaging (OARI) is a novel imaging modality being developed to interrogate the optical and mechanical properties of soft tissues. OARI uses acoustic radiation force to generate displacement in soft tissue. Optical images before and after the application of the force are used to generate displacement maps that provide information about the mechanical properties of the tissue under interrogation. Since the images are optical images, they also represent the optical properties of the tissue as well. In this paper, the authors present the first imaging probe that uses acoustic radiation force in conjunction with optical coherence tomography (OCT) to provide information about the optical and mechanical properties of tissues to assist in the diagnosis and staging of epithelial cancers, and in particular bladder cancer. The OARI prototype probe consisted of an OCT probe encased in a plastic sheath, a miniaturized transducer glued to a plastic holder, both of which were encased in a 10 cm stainless steel tube with an inner diameter of 10 mm. The transducer delivered an acoustic intensity of 18 W/cm(2) and the OCT probe had a spatial resolution of approximately 10-20 μm. The tube was filled with deionized water for acoustic coupling and covered by a low density polyethylene cap. The OARI probe was characterized and tested on bladder wall phantoms. The phantoms possessed Young's moduli ranging from 10.2 to 12 kPa, mass density of 1.05 g/cm(3), acoustic attenuation coefficient of 0.66 dB/cm MHz, speed of sound of 1591 m/s, and optical scattering coefficient of 1.80 mm(-1). Finite element model (FEM) theoretical simulations were performed to assess the performance of the OARI probe. The authors obtained displacements of 9.4, 8.7, and 3.4 μm for the 3%, 4%, and 5% bladder wall phantoms, respectively. This shows that the probe is capable of generating optical images, and also has the ability to generate and track displacements in tissue. This will

  16. A Passive Learning Sensor Architecture for Multimodal Image Labeling: An Application for Social Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Gutiérrez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Object detection and classification have countless applications in human–robot interacting systems. It is a necessary skill for autonomous robots that perform tasks in household scenarios. Despite the great advances in deep learning and computer vision, social robots performing non-trivial tasks usually spend most of their time finding and modeling objects. Working in real scenarios means dealing with constant environment changes and relatively low-quality sensor data due to the distance at which objects are often found. Ambient intelligence systems equipped with different sensors can also benefit from the ability to find objects, enabling them to inform humans about their location. For these applications to succeed, systems need to detect the objects that may potentially contain other objects, working with relatively low-resolution sensor data. A passive learning architecture for sensors has been designed in order to take advantage of multimodal information, obtained using an RGB-D camera and trained semantic language models. The main contribution of the architecture lies in the improvement of the performance of the sensor under conditions of low resolution and high light variations using a combination of image labeling and word semantics. The tests performed on each of the stages of the architecture compare this solution with current research labeling techniques for the application of an autonomous social robot working in an apartment. The results obtained demonstrate that the proposed sensor architecture outperforms state-of-the-art approaches.

  17. A multi-modality concept for radiotherapy planning with imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, J.

    1993-01-01

    The reported multi-modality concept of radiotherapy planning in the LAN can be realised in any hospital with standard equipment, although in some cases by way of auxiliary configurations. A software is currently developed as a tool for reducing the entire planning work. The heart of any radiotherapy planning is the therapy simulator, which has to be abreast with the requirements of modern radiotherapy. Integration of tomograpy, digitalisation, and electronic data processing has added important modalities to therapy planning which allow more precise target volume definition, and better biophysical planning. This is what is needed in order to achieve well differentiated radiotherapy for treatment of the manifold tumors, and the quality standards expected by the supervisory quality assurance regime and the population. At present, the CT data still are transferred indirect, on storage media, to the EDP processing system of the radiotherapy planning system. Based on the tomographic slices given by the imaging data, the contours and technical problem solutions are derived automatically, either for multi-field radiotherapy or moving field irradiation, depending on the anatomy or the targets to be protected from ionizing radiation. (orig./VHE) [de

  18. Feature-Fusion Guidelines for Image-Based Multi-Modal Biometric Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Brown

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The feature level, unlike the match score level, lacks multi-modal fusion guidelines. This work demonstrates a new approach for improved image-based biometric feature-fusion. The approach extracts and combines the face, fingerprint and palmprint at the feature level for improved human identification accuracy. Feature-fusion guidelines, proposed in our recent work, are extended by adding a new face segmentation method and the support vector machine classifier. The new face segmentation method improves the face identification equal error rate (EER by 10%. The support vector machine classifier combined with the new feature selection approach, proposed in our recent work, outperforms other classifiers when using a single training sample. Feature-fusion guidelines take the form of strengths and weaknesses as observed in the applied feature processing modules during preliminary experiments. The guidelines are used to implement an effective biometric fusion system at the feature level, using a novel feature-fusion methodology, reducing the EER of two groups of three datasets namely: SDUMLA face, SDUMLA fingerprint and IITD palmprint; MUCT Face, MCYT Fingerprint and CASIA Palmprint.

  19. Introduction of a standardized multimodality image protocol for navigation-guided surgery of suspected low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Aygül; Kiesel, Barbara; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Martínez-Moreno, Mauricio; Minchev, Georgi; Furtner, Julia; Knosp, Engelbert; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Widhalm, Georg

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT Surgery of suspected low-grade gliomas (LGGs) poses a special challenge for neurosurgeons due to their diffusely infiltrative growth and histopathological heterogeneity. Consequently, neuronavigation with multimodality imaging data, such as structural and metabolic data, fiber tracking, and 3D brain visualization, has been proposed to optimize surgery. However, currently no standardized protocol has been established for multimodality imaging data in modern glioma surgery. The aim of this study was therefore to define a specific protocol for multimodality imaging and navigation for suspected LGG. METHODS Fifty-one patients who underwent surgery for a diffusely infiltrating glioma with nonsignificant contrast enhancement on MRI and available multimodality imaging data were included. In the first 40 patients with glioma, the authors retrospectively reviewed the imaging data, including structural MRI (contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR sequences), metabolic images derived from PET, or MR spectroscopy chemical shift imaging, fiber tracking, and 3D brain surface/vessel visualization, to define standardized image settings and specific indications for each imaging modality. The feasibility and surgical relevance of this new protocol was subsequently prospectively investigated during surgery with the assistance of an advanced electromagnetic navigation system in the remaining 11 patients. Furthermore, specific surgical outcome parameters, including the extent of resection, histological analysis of the metabolic hotspot, presence of a new postoperative neurological deficit, and intraoperative accuracy of 3D brain visualization models, were assessed in each of these patients. RESULTS After reviewing these first 40 cases of glioma, the authors defined a specific protocol with standardized image settings and specific indications that allows for optimal and simultaneous visualization of structural and metabolic data, fiber tracking, and 3D brain

  20. Automatic multimodal real-time tracking for image plane alignment in interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) aims at performing minimally invasive percutaneous interventions, such as tumor ablations and biopsies, under MRI guidance. During such interventions, the acquired MR image planes are typically aligned to the surgical instrument (needle) axis and to surrounding anatomical structures of interest in order to efficiently monitor the advancement in real-time of the instrument inside the patient's body. Object tracking inside the MRI is expected to facilitate and accelerate MR-guided interventions by allowing to automatically align the image planes to the surgical instrument. In this PhD thesis, an image-based work-flow is proposed and refined for automatic image plane alignment. An automatic tracking work-flow was developed, performing detection and tracking of a passive marker directly in clinical real-time images. This tracking work-flow is designed for fully automated image plane alignment, with minimization of tracking-dedicated time. Its main drawback is its inherent dependence on the slow clinical MRI update rate. First, the addition of motion estimation and prediction with a Kalman filter was investigated and improved the work-flow tracking performance. Second, a complementary optical sensor was used for multi-sensor tracking in order to decouple the tracking update rate from the MR image acquisition rate. Performance of the work-flow was evaluated with both computer simulations and experiments using an MR compatible test bed. Results show a high robustness of the multi-sensor tracking approach for dynamic image plane alignment, due to the combination of the individual strengths of each sensor. (author)

  1. Positrons as imaging agents and probes in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Suzanne V

    2009-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) tracks a positron emitting radiopharmaceutical injected into the body and generates a 3-dimensional image of its location. Introduced in the early 70s, it has now developed into a powerful medical diagnostic tool for routine clinical use as well as in drug development. Unrivalled as a highly sensitive, specific and non-invasive imaging tool, PET unfortunately lacks the resolution of Computer Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). As the resolution of PET depends significantly on the energy of the positron incorporated in the radiopharmaceutical and its interaction with its surrounding tissue, there is growing interest in expanding our understanding of how positrons interact at the atomic and molecular level. A better understanding of these interactions will contribute to improving the resolution of PET and assist in the design of better imaging agents. Positrons are also used in Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) to determine electron density and or presence and incidence of micro- and mesopores (0.1 to 10 nm) in materials. The control of porosity in engineered materials is crucial for applications such as controlled release or air and water resistant films. Equally important to the design of nano and microtechnologies, is our understanding of the microenvironments within these pores and on surfaces. Hence as radiopharmaceuticals are designed to track disease, nuclear probes (radioactive molecules) are synthesized to investigate the chemical properties within these pores. This article will give a brief overview of the present role of positrons in imaging as well as explore its potential to contribute in the engineering of new materials to the marketplace.

  2. Synthesis of a novel iron oxide contrast agent as a platform for multimodal molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borny, R.

    2014-01-01

    hairy layer” was visualized by electron tomography and provided additional information about the architecture of iron oxide particles. Biological targets can be easily addressed by further functionalization of the available attachment sites. In future, the particles will be adapted to serve as a platform for multimodal molecular imaging and targeted radiation therapy. (author) [de

  3. Aptamer-Based Dual-Functional Probe for Rapid and Specific Counting and Imaging of MCF-7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Yin, Xiao; Xu, Chi; Hu, Bin

    2018-02-06

    Development of multimodal detection technologies for accurate diagnosis of cancer at early stages is in great demand. In this work, we report a novel approach using an aptamer-based dual-functional probe for rapid, sensitive, and specific counting and visualization of MCF-7 cells by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and fluorescence imaging. The probe consists of a recognition unit of aptamer to catch cancer cells specifically, a fluorescent dye (FAM) moiety for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based "off-on" fluorescence imaging as well as gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) tag for both ICP-MS quantification and fluorescence quenching. Due to the signal amplification effect and low spectral interference of Au NPs in ICP-MS, an excellent linearity and sensitivity were achieved. Accordingly, a limit of detection of 81 MCF-7 cells and a relative standard deviation of 5.6% (800 cells, n = 7) were obtained. The dynamic linear range was 2 × 10 2 to 1.2 × 10 4 cells, and the recoveries in human whole blood were in the range of 98-110%. Overall, the established method provides quantitative and visualized information on MCF-7 cells with a simple and rapid process and paves the way for a promising strategy for biomedical research and clinical diagnostics.

  4. Multivariate Associations Among Behavioral, Clinical, and Multimodal Imaging Phenotypes in Patients With Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Dominik A; Doucet, Gaelle E; Lee, Won Hee; Rasgon, Alexander; Krinsky, Hannah; Leibu, Evan; Ing, Alex; Schumann, Gunter; Rasgon, Natalie; Frangou, Sophia

    2018-04-01

    Alterations in multiple neuroimaging phenotypes have been reported in psychotic disorders. However, neuroimaging measures can be influenced by factors that are not directly related to psychosis and may confound the interpretation of case-control differences. Therefore, a detailed characterization of the contribution of these factors to neuroimaging phenotypes in psychosis is warranted. To quantify the association between neuroimaging measures and behavioral, health, and demographic variables in psychosis using an integrated multivariate approach. This imaging study was conducted at a university research hospital from June 26, 2014, to March 9, 2017. High-resolution multimodal magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 100 patients with schizophrenia, 40 patients with bipolar disorder, and 50 healthy volunteers; computed were cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, white matter fractional anisotropy, task-related brain activation (during working memory and emotional recognition), and resting-state functional connectivity. Ascertained in all participants were nonimaging measures pertaining to clinical features, cognition, substance use, psychological trauma, physical activity, and body mass index. The association between imaging and nonimaging measures was modeled using sparse canonical correlation analysis with robust reliability testing. Multivariate patterns of the association between nonimaging and neuroimaging measures in patients with psychosis and healthy volunteers. The analyses were performed in 92 patients with schizophrenia (23 female [25.0%]; mean [SD] age, 27.0 [7.6] years), 37 patients with bipolar disorder (12 female [32.4%]; mean [SD] age, 27.5 [8.1] years), and 48 healthy volunteers (20 female [41.7%]; mean [SD] age, 29.8 [8.5] years). The imaging and nonimaging data sets showed significant covariation (r = 0.63, P nonimaging variables examined, age (r = -0.53), IQ (r = 0.36), and body mass index (r = -0.25) were associated

  5. Design and performance evaluation of a coplanar multimodality scanner for rodent imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, E; Vaquero, J J; Sisniega, A; Tapias, G; Abella, M; Rodriguez-Ruano, A; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Espana, S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Ortuno, J E [Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Zaragoza (Spain); Udias, A [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada (Spain)], E-mail: elage@mce.hggm.es

    2009-09-21

    This work reports on the development and performance evaluation of the VrPET/CT, a new multimodality scanner with coplanar geometry for in vivo rodent imaging. The scanner design is based on a partial-ring PET system and a small-animal CT assembled on a rotatory gantry without axial displacement between the geometric centers of both fields of view (FOV). We report on the PET system performance based on the NEMA NU-4 protocol; the performance characteristics of the CT component are not included herein. The accuracy of inter-modality alignment and the imaging capability of the whole system are also evaluated on phantom and animal studies. Tangential spatial resolution of PET images ranged between 1.56 mm at the center of the FOV and 2.46 at a radial offset of 3.5 cm. The radial resolution varies from 1.48 mm to 1.88 mm, and the axial resolution from 2.34 mm to 3.38 mm for the same positions. The energy resolution was 16.5% on average for the entire system. The absolute coincidence sensitivity is 2.2% for a 100-700 keV energy window with a 3.8 ns coincident window. The scatter fraction values for the same settings were 11.45% for a mouse-sized phantom and 23.26% for a rat-sized phantom. The peak noise equivalent count rates were also evaluated for those phantoms obtaining 70.8 kcps at 0.66 MBq/cc and 31.5 kcps at 0.11 MBq/cc, respectively. The accuracy of inter-modality alignment is below half the PET resolution, and the image quality of biological specimens agrees with measured performance parameters. The assessment presented in this study shows that the VrPET/CT system is a good performance small-animal imager, while the cost derived from a partial ring detection system is substantially reduced as compared with a full-ring PET tomograph.

  6. Novel DOTA-based prochelator for divalent peptide vectorization: synthesis of dimeric bombesin analogues for multimodality tumor imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiraj, Keelara; Jaccard, Hugues; Kretzschmar, Martin; Helm, Lothar; Maecke, Helmut R

    2008-07-28

    Dimeric peptidic vectors, obtained by the divalent grafting of bombesin analogues on a newly synthesized DOTA-based prochelator, showed improved qualities as tumor targeted imaging probes in comparison to their monomeric analogues.

  7. On the Multi-Modal Object Tracking and Image Fusion Using Unsupervised Deep Learning Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHaye, N.; Ott, J.; Garay, M. J.; El-Askary, H. M.; Linstead, E.

    2017-12-01

    The number of different modalities of remote-sensors has been on the rise, resulting in large datasets with different complexity levels. Such complex datasets can provide valuable information separately, yet there is a bigger value in having a comprehensive view of them combined. As such, hidden information can be deduced through applying data mining techniques on the fused data. The curse of dimensionality of such fused data, due to the potentially vast dimension space, hinders our ability to have deep understanding of them. This is because each dataset requires a user to have instrument-specific and dataset-specific knowledge for optimum and meaningful usage. Once a user decides to use multiple datasets together, deeper understanding of translating and combining these datasets in a correct and effective manner is needed. Although there exists data centric techniques, generic automated methodologies that can potentially solve this problem completely don't exist. Here we are developing a system that aims to gain a detailed understanding of different data modalities. Such system will provide an analysis environment that gives the user useful feedback and can aid in research tasks. In our current work, we show the initial outputs our system implementation that leverages unsupervised deep learning techniques so not to burden the user with the task of labeling input data, while still allowing for a detailed machine understanding of the data. Our goal is to be able to track objects, like cloud systems or aerosols, across different image-like data-modalities. The proposed system is flexible, scalable and robust to understand complex likenesses within multi-modal data in a similar spatio-temporal range, and also to be able to co-register and fuse these images when needed.

  8. A strategy for multimodal deformable image registration to integrate PET/MR into radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibfarth, Sara; Moennich, David; Thorwarth, Daniela; Welz, Stefan; Siegel, Christine; Zips, Daniel; Schwenzer, Nina; Holger Schmidt, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background: Combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly promising for biologically individualized radiotherapy (RT). Hence, the purpose of this work was to develop an accurate and robust registration strategy to integrate combined PET/MR data into RT treatment planning. Material and methods: Eight patient datasets consisting of an FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) and a subsequently acquired PET/MR of the head and neck (HN) region were available. Registration strategies were developed based on CT and MR data only, whereas the PET components were fused with the resulting deformation field. Following a rigid registration, deformable registration was performed with a transform parametrized by B-splines. Three different optimization metrics were investigated: global mutual information (GMI), GMI combined with a bending energy penalty (BEP) for regularization (GMI + BEP) and localized mutual information with BEP (LMI + BEP). Different quantitative registration quality measures were developed, including volumetric overlap and mean distance measures for structures segmented on CT and MR as well as anatomical landmark distances. Moreover, the local registration quality in the tumor region was assessed by the normalized cross correlation (NCC) of the two PET datasets. Results: LMI + BEP yielded the most robust and accurate registration results. For GMI, GMI + BEP and LMI + BEP, mean landmark distances (standard deviations) were 23.9 mm (15.5 mm), 4.8 mm (4.0 mm) and 3.0 mm (1.0 mm), and mean NCC values (standard deviations) were 0.29 (0.29), 0.84 (0.14) and 0.88 (0.06), respectively. Conclusion: Accurate and robust multimodal deformable image registration of CT and MR in the HN region can be performed using a B-spline parametrized transform and LMI + BEP as optimization metric. With this strategy, biologically individualized RT based on combined PET/MRI in terms of dose painting is possible

  9. A spinal cord window chamber model for in vivo longitudinal multimodal optical and acoustic imaging in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Figley

    Full Text Available In vivo and direct imaging of the murine spinal cord and its vasculature using multimodal (optical and acoustic imaging techniques could significantly advance preclinical studies of the spinal cord. Such intrinsically high resolution and complementary imaging technologies could provide a powerful means of quantitatively monitoring changes in anatomy, structure, physiology and function of the living cord over time after traumatic injury, onset of disease, or therapeutic intervention. However, longitudinal in vivo imaging of the intact spinal cord in rodent models has been challenging, requiring repeated surgeries to expose the cord for imaging or sacrifice of animals at various time points for ex vivo tissue analysis. To address these limitations, we have developed an implantable spinal cord window chamber (SCWC device and procedures in mice for repeated multimodal intravital microscopic imaging of the cord and its vasculature in situ. We present methodology for using our SCWC to achieve spatially co-registered optical-acoustic imaging performed serially for up to four weeks, without damaging the cord or induction of locomotor deficits in implanted animals. To demonstrate the feasibility, we used the SCWC model to study the response of the normal spinal cord vasculature to ionizing radiation over time using white light and fluorescence microscopy combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT in vivo. In vivo power Doppler ultrasound and photoacoustics were used to directly visualize the cord and vascular structures and to measure hemoglobin oxygen saturation through the complete spinal cord, respectively. The model was also used for intravital imaging of spinal micrometastases resulting from primary brain tumor using fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging. Our SCWC model overcomes previous in vivo imaging challenges, and our data provide evidence of the broader utility of hybridized optical-acoustic imaging methods for obtaining

  10. A Dream of a Mission: Stellar Imager and Seismic Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Stellar Imager and Seismic Probe (SISP) is a mission to understand the various effects of magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate them, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which they exist. The ultimate goal is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity on times scales ranging up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on astrobiology and life in the Universe. The road to that goal will revolutionize our understanding of stars and stellar systems, the building blocks of the Universe. SISP will zoom in on what today - with few exceptions - we only know as point sources, revealing processes never before seen, thus providing a tool to astrophysics as fundamental as the microscope is to the study of life on Earth. SISP is an ultraviolet aperture-synthesis imager with 8-10 telescopes with meter-class apertures, and a central hub with focal-plane instrumentation that allows spectrophotometry in passbands as narrow as a few Angstroms up to hundreds of Angstroms. SISP will image stars and binaries with one hundred to one thousand resolution elements on their surface, and sound their interiors through asteroseismology to image internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations; this will provide accurate knowledge of stellar structure and evolution and complex transport processes, and will impact numerous branches of (astro)physics ranging from the Big Bang to the future of the Universe. Fitting naturally within the NASA long-term time line, SISP complements defined missions, and with them will show us entire other solar systems, from the central star to their orbiting planets.

  11. Self-imaging effect of TM modes in photonic crystal multimode waveguides only exhibiting band gaps for TE modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tianbao; Jiang Xiaoqing; Yang Jianyi; Zhou Haifeng; Liao Qinghua; Wang Minghua

    2007-01-01

    This Letter presents the properties of transverse-magnetic (TM) modes in multimode photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs), which only exhibit photonic band gaps for transverse-electric (TE) modes. A good equivalent model is applied to analysis the designed structures on the basis of multimode interference effect and self-imaging principle. The performance shows that the TM modes can also be propagated with high efficiency, and resemble index-guided modes owing to the combination of total internal reflection (TIR) and distribution Bragg reflection. It provides a novel way to realize the components for both TM and TE polarizations by combining PBG and TIR effect in PCWs. As one of potential applications, polarization-insensitive power splitter based on the proposed structures can be designed

  12. Multimodal imaging analysis of single-photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography for improving diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, H.; Georgi, P.; Slomka, P.; Dannenberg, C.; Kahn, T.

    2000-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a degeneration of nigrostriated dopaminergic neurons, which can be imaged with 123 I-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl) tropane ([ 123 I]β-CIT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, the quality of the region of interest (ROI) technique used for quantitative analysis of SPECT data is compromised by limited anatomical information in the images. We investigated whether the diagnosis of PD can be improved by combining the use of SPECT images with morphological image data from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT). We examined 27 patients (8 men, 19 women; aged 55±13 years) with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2.1±0.8) by high-resolution [ 123 I]β-CIT SPECT (185-200 MBq, Ceraspect camera). SPECT images were analyzed both by a unimodal technique (ROIs defined directly within the SPECT studies) and a multimodal technique (ROIs defined within individual MRI/CT studies and transferred to the corresponding interactively coregistered SPECT studies). [ 123 I]β-CIT binding ratios (cerebellum as reference), which were obtained for heads of caudate nuclei (CA), putamina (PU), and global striatal structures were compared with clinical parameters. Differences between contra- and ipsilateral (related to symptom dominance) striatal [ 123 I]β-CIT binding ratios proved to be larger in the multimodal ROI technique than in the unimodal approach (e.g., for PU: 1.2*** vs. 0.7**). Binding ratios obtained by the unimodal ROI technique were significantly correlated with those of the multimodal technique (e.g., for CA: y=0.97x+2.8; r=0.70; P com subscore (r=-0.49* vs. -0.32). These results show that the impact of [ 123 I]β-CIT SPECT for diagnosing PD is affected by the method used to analyze the SPECT images. The described multimodal approach, which is based on coregistration of SPECT and morphological imaging data, leads to improved determination of the degree of this dopaminergic disorder

  13. Image-derived biomarkers and multimodal imaging strategies for lung cancer management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, Alexander W. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Schwenzer, Nina; Pfannenberg, Christina [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Divine, Mathew R.; Pichler, Bernd J. [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. For this reason, advances in diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed. With the introduction of new, highly innovative hybrid imaging technologies such as PET/CT, staging and therapy response monitoring in lung cancer patients have substantially evolved. In this review, we discuss the role of FDG PET/CT in the management of lung cancer patients and the importance of new emerging imaging technologies and radiotracer developments on the path to personalized medicine. (orig.)

  14. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, Matthew F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 350 Serra Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lee, Brian J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, 440 Escondido Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Levin, Craig S., E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu [Departments of Radiology, Physics, Bioengineering and Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Dr., Stanford, California 94305-5128 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  15. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, Matthew F.; Lee, Brian J.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial “Micro Deluxe” phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. Methods: CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results: Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. Conclusions: This work shows that 3D printed

  16. Technical Note: Characterization of custom 3D printed multimodality imaging phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, Matthew F; Lee, Brian J; Levin, Craig S

    2015-10-01

    Imaging phantoms are important tools for researchers and technicians, but they can be costly and difficult to customize. Three dimensional (3D) printing is a widely available rapid prototyping technique that enables the fabrication of objects with 3D computer generated geometries. It is ideal for quickly producing customized, low cost, multimodal, reusable imaging phantoms. This work validates the use of 3D printed phantoms by comparing CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial "Micro Deluxe" phantom. This report also presents results from a customized 3D printed PET/MRI phantom, and a customized high resolution imaging phantom with sub-mm features. CT and PET scans of a 3D printed phantom and a commercial Micro Deluxe (Data Spectrum Corporation, USA) phantom with 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, and 4.8 mm diameter hot rods were acquired. The measured PET and CT rod sizes, activities, and attenuation coefficients were compared. A PET/MRI scan of a custom 3D printed phantom with hot and cold rods was performed, with photon attenuation and normalization measurements performed with a separate 3D printed normalization phantom. X-ray transmission scans of a customized two level high resolution 3D printed phantom with sub-mm features were also performed. Results show very good agreement between commercial and 3D printed micro deluxe phantoms with less than 3% difference in CT measured rod diameter, less than 5% difference in PET measured rod diameter, and a maximum of 6.2% difference in average rod activity from a 10 min, 333 kBq/ml (9 μCi/ml) Siemens Inveon (Siemens Healthcare, Germany) PET scan. In all cases, these differences were within the measurement uncertainties of our setups. PET/MRI scans successfully identified 3D printed hot and cold rods on PET and MRI modalities. X-ray projection images of a 3D printed high resolution phantom identified features as small as 350 μm wide. This work shows that 3D printed phantoms can be functionally equivalent to

  17. First multimodal embolization particles visible on x-ray/computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartling, Soenke H; Budjan, Johannes; Aviv, Hagit; Haneder, Stefan; Kraenzlin, Bettina; Michaely, Henrik; Margel, Shlomo; Diehl, Steffen; Semmler, Wolfhard; Gretz, Norbert; Schönberg, Stefan O; Sadick, Maliha

    2011-03-01

    sufficient image contrast on DSA, CT (signal to noise [SNR], 13 ± 2.5), and MRI (SNR, 35 ± 1) in in vitro scans. Successful embolization of renal tissue was confirmed by catheter angiography, revealing at least partial perfusion stop in all kidneys. Signal changes that were attributed to particles residing within the kidney were found in all cases in all the 3 imaging modalities. Localization distribution of particles corresponded well in all imaging modalities. Dynamic imaging during embolization provided real-time monitoring of the inflow of embolization particles within DSA, CT, and MRI. Histologic visualization of the residing particles as well as associated thrombosis in renal arteries could be performed. Visual assessment of the likelihood of embolization particle presence received full rating scores (153/153) after embolization. Multimodal-visible embolization particles have been developed, characterized, and tested in vivo in an animal model. Their implementation in clinical radiology may provide optimization of embolization procedures with regard to prevention of particle misplacement and direct intraprocedural visualization, at the same time improving follow-up examinations by utilizing the complementary characteristics of CT and MRI. Radiation dose savings can also be considered. All these advantages could contribute to future refinements and improvements in embolization therapy. Additionally, new approaches in embolization research may open up.

  18. Transfection of genetically encoded photoswitchable probes for STORM imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Mark; Jones, Sara A; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-06-01

    Conventional fluorescence microscopy is limited by its spatial resolution, leaving many biological structures too small to be studied in detail. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) is a method for superresolution fluorescence imaging based on the high accuracy localization of individual fluorophores. It uses optically switchable fluorophores: molecules that can be switched between a nonfluorescent and a fluorescent state by exposure to light. This protocol describes the transfection of genetically encoded photoswitchable probes for STORM imaging. It includes a discussion of how to choose a photoswitchable fluorescent protein; standard molecular biology techniques should be used to generate a plasmid containing the sequence of the photoswitchable protein linked to the gene of interest. Once the plasmid has been generated and has been verified, it can be introduced into cells via any standard means of gene delivery, such as lipofection or electroporation. Optimal conditions will vary considerably for different cell lines and plasmids. Here, we present an example protocol for the transfection of BS-C-1 cells with an mEos2-vimentin plasmid using the lipid-based reagent FuGENE6.

  19. A multimodal imaging framework for enhanced robot-assisted partial nephrectomy guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halter, Ryan J.; Wu, Xiaotian; Hartov, Alex; Seigne, John; Khan, Shadab

    2015-03-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomies (RALPN) are performed to treat patients with locally confined renal carcinoma. There are well-documented benefits to performing partial (opposed to radical) kidney resections and to using robot-assisted laparoscopic (opposed to open) approaches. However, there are challenges in identifying tumor margins and critical benign structures including blood vessels and collecting systems during current RALPN procedures. The primary objective of this effort is to couple multiple image and data streams together to augment visual information currently provided to surgeons performing RALPN and ultimately ensure complete tumor resection and minimal damage to functional structures (i.e. renal vasculature and collecting systems). To meet this challenge we have developed a framework and performed initial feasibility experiments to couple pre-operative high-resolution anatomic images with intraoperative MRI, ultrasound (US) and optical-based surface mapping and kidney tracking. With these registered images and data streams, we aim to overlay the high-resolution contrast-enhanced anatomic (CT or MR) images onto the surgeon's view screen for enhanced guidance. To date we have integrated the following components of our framework: 1) a method for tracking an intraoperative US probe to extract the kidney surface and a set of embedded kidney markers, 2) a method for co-registering intraoperative US scans with pre-operative MR scans, and 3) a method for deforming pre-op scans to match intraoperative scans. These components have been evaluated through phantom studies to demonstrate protocol feasibility.

  20. vECTlab-A fully integrated multi-modality Monte Carlo simulation framework for the radiological imaging sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Joerg; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2007-01-01

    Alongside and in part motivated by recent advances in molecular diagnostics, the development of dual-modality instruments for patient and dedicated small animal imaging has gained attention by diverse research groups. The desire for such systems is high not only to link molecular or functional information with the anatomical structures, but also for detecting multiple molecular events simultaneously at shorter total acquisition times. While PET and SPECT have been integrated successfully with X-ray CT, the advance of optical imaging approaches (OT) and the integration thereof into existing modalities carry a high application potential, particularly for imaging small animals. A multi-modality Monte Carlo (MC) simulation approach at present has been developed that is able to trace high-energy (keV) as well as optical (eV) photons concurrently within identical phantom representation models. We show that the involved two approaches for ray-tracing keV and eV photons can be integrated into a unique simulation framework which enables both photon classes to be propagated through various geometry models representing both phantoms and scanners. The main advantage of such integrated framework for our specific application is the investigation of novel tomographic multi-modality instrumentation intended for in vivo small animal imaging through time-resolved MC simulation upon identical phantom geometries. Design examples are provided for recently proposed SPECT-OT and PET-OT imaging systems

  1. Multiresolution image registration for multimodal brain images and fusion for better neurosurgical planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddeshappa Nandish

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The end resultant fused images are validated by the radiologists and mutual information measure is used to validate registration results. It is found that CT and MRI sequence with more number of slices gave promising results. Few cases with deformation during misregistrations recorded with low mutual information of about 0.3 and which is not acceptable and few recorded with 0.6 and above mutual information during registration gives promising results.

  2. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mitchell, Sally [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore (United States); Keefer, Jeffrey [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Hematology, Department of Pediatrics, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Mitchell, Sally; Keefer, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses. LCAs are rarely seen in children. We present the US, CT, and MRI findings including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in a 2-year-old boy with histologically proven LCA. Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease. The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Multimodal Translation System Using Texture-Mapped Lip-Sync Images for Video Mail and Automatic Dubbing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a multimodal English-to-Japanese and Japanese-to-English translation system that also translates the speaker's speech motion by synchronizing it to the translated speech. This system also introduces both a face synthesis technique that can generate any viseme lip shape and a face tracking technique that can estimate the original position and rotation of a speaker's face in an image sequence. To retain the speaker's facial expression, we substitute only the speech organ's image with the synthesized one, which is made by a 3D wire-frame model that is adaptable to any speaker. Our approach provides translated image synthesis with an extremely small database. The tracking motion of the face from a video image is performed by template matching. In this system, the translation and rotation of the face are detected by using a 3D personal face model whose texture is captured from a video frame. We also propose a method to customize the personal face model by using our GUI tool. By combining these techniques and the translated voice synthesis technique, an automatic multimodal translation can be achieved that is suitable for video mail or automatic dubbing systems into other languages.

  5. Multimodal Translation System Using Texture-Mapped Lip-Sync Images for Video Mail and Automatic Dubbing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Shigeo; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2004-12-01

    We introduce a multimodal English-to-Japanese and Japanese-to-English translation system that also translates the speaker's speech motion by synchronizing it to the translated speech. This system also introduces both a face synthesis technique that can generate any viseme lip shape and a face tracking technique that can estimate the original position and rotation of a speaker's face in an image sequence. To retain the speaker's facial expression, we substitute only the speech organ's image with the synthesized one, which is made by a 3D wire-frame model that is adaptable to any speaker. Our approach provides translated image synthesis with an extremely small database. The tracking motion of the face from a video image is performed by template matching. In this system, the translation and rotation of the face are detected by using a 3D personal face model whose texture is captured from a video frame. We also propose a method to customize the personal face model by using our GUI tool. By combining these techniques and the translated voice synthesis technique, an automatic multimodal translation can be achieved that is suitable for video mail or automatic dubbing systems into other languages.

  6. Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674

  7. Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography as a Diagnosis Tool: Recent Progress with Multimodal Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Thouvenin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT is a variant of OCT that is able to register 2D en face views of scattering samples at a given depth. Thanks to its superior resolution, it can quickly reveal information similar to histology without the need to physically section the sample. Sensitivity and specificity levels of diagnosis performed with FF-OCT are 80% to 95% of the equivalent histological diagnosis performances and could therefore benefit from improvement. Therefore, multimodal systems have been designed to increase the diagnostic performance of FF-OCT. In this paper, we will discuss which contrasts can be measured with such multimodal systems in the context of ex vivo biological tissue examination. We will particularly emphasize three multimodal combinations to measure the tissue mechanics, dynamics, and molecular content respectively.

  8. Mobile, Multimodal, Label-Free Imaging Probe Analysis of Choroidal Oximetry and Retinal Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Stephen T.C. Wong CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Methodist Hospital Houston TX 77030 REPORT DATE: December 2017 TYPE OF...5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0537 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stephen T.C. Wong, Jiasong Li 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E...experimentation and intepretation of results Funding Support: N/A Name: Stephen Wong Project Role: PI Researcher Identifier (e.g. ORCID ID): 143285

  9. Mobile, Multi-modal, Label-Free Imaging Probe Analysis of Choroidal Oximetry and Retinal Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    in aqueous hemoglobin solutions. Our current setup is not ideal for accurately calibrating these measurements, but changes in the microscope setup and...in the addition of gaseous oxygen to the physical sample are promising next steps. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Primary blast injury, PBI, hypoxia, ischemia...picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in order to enhance the parametric amplification and the output power. We worked on the instability

  10. Evaluation of Esophageal Motility Utilizing the Functional Lumen Imaging Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A; Kahrilas, Peter J; Lin, Zhiyue; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Listernick, Zoe; Ritter, Katherine; Tye, Michael; Ponds, Fraukje A; Wong, Ian; Pandolfino, John E

    2016-12-01

    Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility and distension-mediated peristalsis can be assessed with the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) during a sedated upper endoscopy. We aimed to describe esophageal motility assessment using FLIP topography in patients presenting with dysphagia. In all, 145 patients (aged 18-85 years, 54% female) with dysphagia that completed upper endoscopy with a 16-cm FLIP assembly and high-resolution manometry (HRM) were included. HRM was analyzed according to the Chicago Classification of esophageal motility disorders; major esophageal motility disorders were considered "abnormal". FLIP studies were analyzed using a customized program to calculate the EGJ-distensibility index (DI) and generate FLIP topography plots to identify esophageal contractility patterns. FLIP topography was considered "abnormal" if EGJ-DI was esophageal motility and 29 normal motility. In all, 17 (50%) had abnormal FLIP topography including 13 (37%) with abnormal EGJ-DI. FLIP topography provides a well-tolerated method for esophageal motility assessment (especially to identify achalasia) at the time of upper endoscopy. FLIP topography findings that are discordant with HRM may indicate otherwise undetected abnormalities of esophageal function, thus FLIP provides an alternative and complementary method to HRM for evaluation of non-obstructive dysphagia.

  11. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  12. Multimodal label-free ex vivo imaging using a dual-wavelength microscope with axial chromatic aberration compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Andrea; Dal Sasso, Eleonora; Iop, Laura; Armani, Andrea; Gintoli, Michele; Sandri, Marco; Gerosa, Gino; Romanato, Filippo; Borile, Giulia

    2018-03-01

    Label-free microscopy is a very powerful technique that can be applied to study samples with no need for exogenous fluorescent probes, keeping the main benefits of multiphoton microscopy, such as longer penetration depths and intrinsic optical sectioning while enabling serial multitechniques examinations on the same specimen. Among the many label-free microscopy methods, harmonic generation (HG) is one of the most intriguing methods due to its generally low photo-toxicity and relative ease of implementation. Today, HG and common two-photon microscopy (TPM) are well-established techniques, and are routinely used in several research fields. However, they require a significant amount of fine-tuning to be fully exploited, making them quite difficult to perform in parallel. Here, we present our designed multimodal microscope, capable of performing simultaneously TPM and HG without any kind of compromise thanks to two, separate, individually optimized laser sources with axial chromatic aberration compensation. We also apply our setup to the examination of a plethora of ex vivo samples to prove its capabilities and the significant advantages of a multimodal approach. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  13. Sparse sampling and reconstruction for electron and scanning probe microscope imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hyrum; Helms, Jovana; Wheeler, Jason W.; Larson, Kurt W.; Rohrer, Brandon R.

    2015-07-28

    Systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy are provided herein. In a general embodiment, the systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy with an undersampled data set include: driving an electron beam or probe to scan across a sample and visit a subset of pixel locations of the sample that are randomly or pseudo-randomly designated; determining actual pixel locations on the sample that are visited by the electron beam or probe; and processing data collected by detectors from the visits of the electron beam or probe at the actual pixel locations and recovering a reconstructed image of the sample.

  14. Workflow optimisation for multimodal imaging procedures: a case of combined X-ray and MRI-guided TACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gutiérrez, Fabiola; Wolska-Krawczyk, Malgorzata; Buecker, Arno; Houston, J Graeme; Melzer, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    This study presents a framework for workflow optimisation of multimodal image-guided procedures (MIGP) based on discrete event simulation (DES). A case of a combined X-Ray and magnetic resonance image-guided transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) is presented to illustrate the application of this method. We used a ranking and selection optimisation algorithm to measure the performance of a number of proposed alternatives to improve a current scenario. A DES model was implemented with detail data collected from 59 TACE procedures and durations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic procedures usually performed in a common MRI suite. Fourteen alternatives were proposed and assessed to minimise the waiting times and improve workflow. Data analysis observed an average of 20.68 (7.68) min of waiting between angiography and MRI for TACE patients in 71.19% of the cases. Following the optimisation analysis, an alternative was identified to reduce waiting times in angiography suite up to 48.74%. The model helped to understand and detect 'bottlenecks' during multimodal TACE procedures, identifying a better alternative to the current workflow and reducing waiting times. Simulation-based workflow analysis provides a cost-effective way to face some of the challenges of introducing MIGP in clinical radiology, highligthed in this study.

  15. Versatile ultrafast pump-probe imaging with high sensitivity CCD camera

    OpenAIRE

    Pezeril , Thomas; Klieber , Christoph; Temnov , Vasily; Huntzinger , Jean-Roch; Anane , Abdelmadjid

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A powerful imaging technique based on femtosecond time-resolved measurements with a high dynamic range, commercial CCD camera is presented. Ultrafast phenomena induced by a femtosecond laser pump are visualized through the lock-in type acquisition of images recorded by a femtosecond laser probe. This technique allows time-resolved measurements of laser excited phenomena at multiple probe wavelengths (spectrometer mode) or conventional imaging of the sample surface (ima...

  16. Optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticle probes in live cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gufeng; Stender, Anthony S.; Sun, Wei; and Fang, Ning

    2009-12-17

    Precise imaging of cellular and subcellular structures and dynamic processes in live cells is crucial for fundamental research in life sciences and in medical applications. Non-fluorescent nanoparticles are an important type of optical probe used in live-cell imaging due to their photostability, large optical cross-sections, and low toxicity. Here, we provide an overview of recent developments in the optical imaging of non-fluorescent nanoparticle probes in live cells.

  17. Multimodality imaging using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in local prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla-Dave, Amita; Wassberg, Cecilia; Pucar, Darko; Schöder, Heiko; Goldman, Debra A; Mazaheri, Yousef; Reuter, Victor E; Eastham, James; Scardino, Peter T; Hricak, Hedvig

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the relationship using multimodality imaging between intermediary citrate/choline metabolism as seen on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI) and glycolysis as observed on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS The study included 22 patients with local PCa who were referred for endorectal magnetic resonance imaging/1H-MRSI (April 2002 to July 2007) and 18F-FDG-PET/CT and then underwent prostatectomy as primary or salvage treatment. Whole-mount step-section pathology was used as the standard of reference. We assessed the relationships between PET parameters [standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVmean)] and MRSI parameters [choline + creatine/citrate (CC/Cmax and CC/Cmean) and total number of suspicious voxels] using spearman’s rank correlation, and the relationships of PET and 1H-MRSI index lesion parameters to surgical Gleason score. RESULTS Abnormal intermediary metabolism on 1H-MRSI was present in 21/22 patients, while abnormal glycolysis on 18F-FDG-PET/CT was detected in only 3/22 patients. Specifically, index tumor localization rates were 0.95 (95%CI: 0.77-1.00) for 1H-MRSI and 0.14 (95%CI: 0.03-0.35) for 18F-FDG-PET/CT. Spearman rank correlations indicated little relationship (ρ = -0.36-0.28) between 1H-MRSI parameters and 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameters. Both the total number of suspicious voxels (ρ = 0.55, P = 0.0099) and the SUVmax (ρ = 0.46, P = 0.0366) correlated weakly with the Gleason score. No significant relationship was found between the CC/Cmax, CC/Cmean or SUVmean and the Gleason score (P = 0.15-0.79). CONCLUSION The concentration of intermediary metabolites detected by 1H MRSI and glycolytic flux measured 18F-FDG PET show little correlation. Furthermore, only few tumors were FDG avid on PET, possibly because increased glycolysis represents a late and rather ominous event in the progression of PCa. PMID:28396727

  18. Variability of Target and Normal Structure Delineation Using Multimodality Imaging for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalah, Entesar; Moraru, Ion [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Paulson, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Erickson, Beth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To explore the potential of multimodality imaging (dynamic contrast–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [DCE-MRI], apparent diffusion-coefficient diffusion-weighted imaging [ADC-DWI], fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [FDG-PET], and computed tomography) to define the gross tumor volume (GTV) and organs at risk in radiation therapy planning for pancreatic cancer. Delineated volumetric changes of DCE-MRI, ADC-DWI, and FDG-PET were assessed in comparison with the finding on 3-dimensional/4-dimensional CT with and without intravenous contrast, and with pathology specimens for resectable and borderline resectable cases of pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We studied a total of 19 representative patients, whose DCE-MRI, ADC-DWI, and FDG-PET data were reviewed. Gross tumor volume and tumor burden/active region inside pancreatic head/neck or body were delineated on MRI (denoted GTV{sub DCE}, and GTV{sub ADC}), a standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5, 40%SUVmax, and 50%SUVmax on FDG-PET (GTV2.5, GTV{sub 40%}, and GTV{sub 50%}). Volumes of the pancreas, duodenum, stomach, liver, and kidneys were contoured according to CT (V{sub CT}), T1-weighted MRI (V{sub T1}), and T2-weighted MRI (V{sub T2}) for 7 patients. Results: Significant statistical differences were found between the GTVs from DCE-MRI, ADC-DW, and FDG-PET, with a mean and range of 4.73 (1.00-9.79), 14.52 (3.21-25.49), 22.04 (1.00-45.69), 19.10 (4.84-45.59), and 9.80 (0.32-35.21) cm{sup 3} for GTV{sub DCE}, GTV{sub ADC}, GTV2.5, GTV{sub 40%}, and GTV{sub 50%}, respectively. The mean difference and range in the measurements of maximum dimension of tumor on DCE-MRI, ADC-DW, SUV2.5, 40%SUVmax, and 50%SUVmax compared with pathologic specimens were −0.84 (−2.24 to 0.9), 0.41 (−0.15 to 2.3), 0.58 (−1.41 to 3.69), 0.66 (−0.67 to 1.32), and 0.15 (−1.53 to 2.38) cm, respectively. The T1- and T2-based volumes for pancreas, duodenum, stomach, and liver were generally smaller

  19. Variability of Target and Normal Structure Delineation Using Multimodality Imaging for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalah, Entesar; Moraru, Ion; Paulson, Eric; Erickson, Beth; Li, X. Allen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the potential of multimodality imaging (dynamic contrast–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [DCE-MRI], apparent diffusion-coefficient diffusion-weighted imaging [ADC-DWI], fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [FDG-PET], and computed tomography) to define the gross tumor volume (GTV) and organs at risk in radiation therapy planning for pancreatic cancer. Delineated volumetric changes of DCE-MRI, ADC-DWI, and FDG-PET were assessed in comparison with the finding on 3-dimensional/4-dimensional CT with and without intravenous contrast, and with pathology specimens for resectable and borderline resectable cases of pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We studied a total of 19 representative patients, whose DCE-MRI, ADC-DWI, and FDG-PET data were reviewed. Gross tumor volume and tumor burden/active region inside pancreatic head/neck or body were delineated on MRI (denoted GTV DCE , and GTV ADC ), a standardized uptake value (SUV) of 2.5, 40%SUVmax, and 50%SUVmax on FDG-PET (GTV2.5, GTV 40% , and GTV 50% ). Volumes of the pancreas, duodenum, stomach, liver, and kidneys were contoured according to CT (V CT ), T1-weighted MRI (V T1 ), and T2-weighted MRI (V T2 ) for 7 patients. Results: Significant statistical differences were found between the GTVs from DCE-MRI, ADC-DW, and FDG-PET, with a mean and range of 4.73 (1.00-9.79), 14.52 (3.21-25.49), 22.04 (1.00-45.69), 19.10 (4.84-45.59), and 9.80 (0.32-35.21) cm 3 for GTV DCE , GTV ADC , GTV2.5, GTV 40% , and GTV 50% , respectively. The mean difference and range in the measurements of maximum dimension of tumor on DCE-MRI, ADC-DW, SUV2.5, 40%SUVmax, and 50%SUVmax compared with pathologic specimens were −0.84 (−2.24 to 0.9), 0.41 (−0.15 to 2.3), 0.58 (−1.41 to 3.69), 0.66 (−0.67 to 1.32), and 0.15 (−1.53 to 2.38) cm, respectively. The T1- and T2-based volumes for pancreas, duodenum, stomach, and liver were generally smaller compared with those from CT, except for the kidneys

  20. Structure with improved self-imaging in its graded-index multimode interference region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Rui; Jiang Xiaoqing; Yang Jianyi; Wang Minghua

    2002-01-01

    Propagation constant errors (PCEs) of guided modes in regions of multimode interference in optical networks were analyzed. Results show that a graded-index waveguide can effectively decrease the PCEs. An example based on an exponential function is presented. Numerical results show that addition of a graded-index waveguide greatly improves device performance in this structure

  1. Quantum dots. From multimodal imaging diagnostics to radiation-induced photodynamic therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalova, R.; Aoki, Ichio; Zhelev, Z.; Kanno, Iwao

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based tools and techniques are rapidly emerging in the field of molecular imaging, biosensing and targeted drug delivery. Employing constructs such as quantum dots (QDs), fullerenes, dendrimers, liposomes, nanotubes and emulsion, these advances lead toward the concept of personalized medicine and the potential for very early, even pre-symptomatic, diagnoses coupled with highly effective targeted therapy. The new term nanomedicine has been used recently. Why nanoparticles are so attractive for molecular imaging diagnostics? Nanoparticles allow a concentration of a large amount of contrast molecules in a very small area/volume (∼20-100 nm in diameter). Thus, after conjugation with target-specific ligands, even single cells or molecules could be detected in the blood stream or tissues, using different techniques. The nanoparticles have also a potential for therapeutic purposes (e.g., drug and gene delivery), which is expected to generate innovations and play a crucial role in medicine. For example, the diagnosis and treatment of cancer at the cellular level could be greatly improved with the development of techniques that enable a highly selective interaction and delivery of analyte probes into the cancer cells and subcellular compartments. Target-specific drug/gene delivery and early diagnosis of cancer is one of the priority research areas in which nanomedicine will play a vital role. Nanomedicine attracts also other clinical fields as surgery, cardiology, respiratory diseases, etc. (author)

  2. Evaluation of texture parameters for the quantitative description of multimodal nonlinear optical images from atherosclerotic rabbit arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostaco-Guidolin, Leila B; Ko, Alex C-T; Popescu, Dan P; Smith, Michael S D; Kohlenberg, Elicia K; Sowa, Michael G [Institute for Biodiagnostics, National Research Council Canada, Winnipeg, R3B 1Y6 (Canada); Shiomi, Masashi [Institute of Experimental Animals, School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Major, Arkady [Department Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, E3-559 Engineering Building, Winnipeg, R3T 5V6 (Canada)

    2011-08-21

    The composition and structure of atherosclerotic lesions can be directly related to the risk they pose to the patient. Multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy provides a powerful means to visualize the major extracellular components of the plaque that critically determine its structure. Textural features extracted from NLO images were investigated for their utility in providing quantitative descriptors of structural and compositional changes associated with plaque development. Ten texture parameters derived from the image histogram and gray level co-occurrence matrix were examined that highlight specific structural and compositional motifs that distinguish early and late stage plaques. Tonal-texture parameters could be linked to key histological features that characterize vulnerable plaque: the thickness and density of the fibrous cap, size of the atheroma, and the level of inflammation indicated through lipid deposition. Tonal and texture parameters from NLO images provide objective metrics that correspond to structural and biochemical changes that occur within the vessel wall in early and late stage atherosclerosis.

  3. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  4. Portable LED-induced autofluorescence imager with a probe of L shape for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Wei; Lee, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Chiang, Hou-Chi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-08-01

    The difference of spectral distribution between lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence is one of methods for the cancer diagnosis. In our previous work, we developed a portable LED Induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager contained the multiple wavelength of LED excitation light and multiple filters to capture ex-vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. Our portable system for detection of oral cancer has a probe in front of the lens for fixing the object distance. The shape of the probe is cone, and it is not convenient for doctor to capture the oral image under an appropriate view angle in front of the probe. Therefore, a probe of L shape containing a mirror is proposed for doctors to capture the images with the right angles, and the subjects do not need to open their mouse constrainedly. Besides, a glass plate is placed in probe to prevent the liquid entering in the body, but the light reflected from the glass plate directly causes the light spots inside the images. We set the glass plate in front of LED to avoiding the light spots. When the distance between the glasses plate and the LED model plane is less than the critical value, then we can prevent the light spots caused from the glasses plate. The experiments show that the image captured with the new probe that the glasses plate placed in the back-end of the probe has no light spots inside the image.

  5. Progression of hydroxychloroquine toxic effects after drug therapy cessation: new evidence from multimodal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mititelu, Mihai; Wong, Brandon J; Brenner, Marie; Bryar, Paul J; Jampol, Lee M; Fawzi, Amani A

    2013-09-01

    hydroxychloroquine toxic effects because it may be associated with regeneration of the photoreceptor layer and with potential functional visual improvement on static perimetry. The patterns of abnormal FAF persist despite cessation of the medication, with enlargement of the total area of abnormal FAF being the hallmark of severe toxic effects. Relative foveal resistance in hydroxychloroquine toxic effects was supported by this case series. These findings emphasize the importance of early detection and the need for correlating clinical observations with multimodal imaging, particularly FAF and spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

  6. Multimodality imaging in Europe: a survey by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Society of Radiology (ESR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuocolo, Alberto; Breatnach, Eamann

    2010-01-01

    Multimodality imaging represents an area of rapid growth with important professional implication for both nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists throughout Europe. As a preliminary step for future action aimed at improving the quality and accessibility of PET/SPECT/CT multimodality imaging practice in Europe, the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) performed a survey among the individual membership of both societies to obtain information on the status of multimodality imaging in their facilities and their future visions on training for combined modalities. A questionnaire was forwarded to all individual members of the EANM and ESR. The main subject matter of the questionnaire related to: (1) study performance, current procedures, current equipment including its supervisory personnel at respondents' individual facilities and (2) vision of future practice, performance and the potential for combined interdisciplinary viewing and training for future professionals. The reporting and the billing procedures of multimodality imaging studies are very heterogeneous in European countries. The majority of the members of both societies believe that the proportion of PET/CT conducted as a full diagnostic CT with contrast enhancement will increase over time. As expected, 18 F-FDG is the most commonly used PET tracer for clinical applications. The large majority of respondents were in favour of an interdisciplinary training programme being developed on a European level together by the EANM and the ESR and the respective sections of the European Union of Medical Specialists. The results of this survey show that there is wide heterogeneity in the current practice of multimodality imaging in Europe. This situation may limit the full potential and integration of multimodality imaging within the clinical arena. There is a strong desire within both specialties for the development of interdisciplinary training to address some

  7. Image Processing in Optical Guidance for Autonomous Landing of Lunar Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Ding; Yun-feng, Cao; Qing-xian, Wu; Zhen, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Because of the communication delay between earth and moon, the GNC technology of lunar probe is becoming more important than ever. Current navigation technology is not able to provide precise motion estimation for probe landing control system Computer vision offers a new approach to solve this problem. In this paper, author introduces an image process algorithm of computer vision navigation for autonomous landing of lunar probe. The purpose of the algorithm is to detect and track feature poin...

  8. Multimodal Imaging in Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber Syndrome: Clinical Photography, Computed Tomoangiography, Infrared Thermography, and 99mTc-Phytate Lymphoscintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Wan; Song, Heesung

    2017-12-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old man who presented with a 12-year history of progressive fatigue, feeling hot, excessive sweating, and numbness in the left arm. He had undergone multimodal imaging and was diagnosed as having Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS). This is a rare congenital disease, defined by combinations of nevus flammeus, venous and lymphatic malformation, and hypertrophy of the affected limbs. Lower extremities are affected mostly. Conventional modalities for evaluating KTWS are ultrasonography, CT, MRI, lymphoscintigraphy, and angiography. There are few reports on multimodal imaging of upper extremities of KTWS patients, and this is the first report of an infrared thermography in KTWS.

  9. IMAGING WITH MULTIMODAL ADAPTIVE-OPTICS OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME: THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labriola, Leanne T; Legarreta, Andrew D; Legarreta, John E; Nadler, Zach; Gallagher, Denise; Hammer, Daniel X; Ferguson, R Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the location of pathological changes in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) with the use of multimodal adaptive optics (AO) imaging. A 5-year observational case study of a 24-year-old female with recurrent MEWDS. Full examination included history, Snellen chart visual acuity, pupil assessment, intraocular pressures, slit lamp evaluation, dilated fundoscopic exam, imaging with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography. Three distinct acute episodes of MEWDS occurred during the period of follow-up. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive-optics imaging showed disturbance in the photoreceptor outer segments (PR OS) in the posterior pole with each flare. The degree of disturbance at the photoreceptor level corresponded to size and extent of the visual field changes. All findings were transient with delineation of the photoreceptor recovery from the outer edges of the lesion inward. Hyperautofluorescence was seen during acute flares. Increase in choroidal thickness did occur with each active flare but resolved. Although changes in the choroid and RPE can be observed in MEWDS, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, and multimodal adaptive optics imaging localized the visually significant changes seen in this disease at the level of the photoreceptors. These transient retinal changes specifically occur at the level of the inner segment ellipsoid and OS/RPE line. En face optical coherence tomography imaging provides a detailed, yet noninvasive method for following the convalescence of MEWDS and provides insight into the structural and functional relationship of this transient inflammatory retinal disease.

  10. Hoechst tagging: a modular strategy to design synthetic fluorescent probes for live-cell nucleus imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akinobu; Takigawa, Kazumasa; Kurishita, Yasutaka; Kuwata, Keiko; Ishida, Manabu; Shimoda, Yasushi; Hamachi, Itaru; Tsukiji, Shinya

    2014-06-11

    We report a general strategy to create small-molecule fluorescent probes for the nucleus in living cells. Our strategy is based on the attachment of the DNA-binding Hoechst compound to a fluorophore of interest. Using this approach, simple fluorescein, BODIPY, and rhodamine dyes were readily converted to novel turn-on fluorescent nucleus-imaging probes.

  11. A potential amyloid-imaging probe for Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jiong; Wang Shizhen; Yuan Jiangang; Qiang Boqin

    2004-01-01

    sequencing data demonstrated that the gene was consisted of 768 bp and the deduced amino acids sequence confirmed its typical antibody structure. After cloning the antibody gene into the protokayotic system, the His6-tagged single-chain antibody was expressed as the expected size. The SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and ELISA testing demonstrated that the single-chain antibody we purified from the inclusion bodies is pure and active. Conclusions: After five rounds of bio-panning and subsequently serial ELISA testing, the specific antibody clones against amyloid β peptide 40 were screened out successfully. The binding epitope of the antibody from the 5 clones was between first to sixteenth amino acids at amino-end of amyloid β peptide 40. The His6-tagged was expressed and purified as an active form, which is a potential amyloid imaging probe for Alzheimer's disease. (authors)

  12. Acute calcific tendinopathy of the popliteus tendon: a rare case diagnosed using a multimodality imaging approach and treated conservatively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucet, Cedric; Gotra, Akshat; Reddy, Santhosh Mauvva Venkatesh; Boily, Mathieu [McGill University, Royal Victoria Hospital, Department of Radiology, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2017-07-15

    Acute calcific tendinopathy of the popliteus tendon is a rare medical entity associated with significant patient discomfort. We present the case of a previously healthy 48-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with acute onset of left knee pain. Initial radiographs revealed calcifications within the posterolateral compartment of the knee. Ultrasound imaging demonstrated a swollen and hypoechoic popliteus tendon with an increased color Doppler signal at the periphery of the tendon as well as calcification in the tendon and adjacent soft tissues. Subsequently performed MRI revealed a thickened and heterogeneous popliteus tendon near its femoral attachment with marked edematous changes surrounding the tendon. Local ultrasound-guided glucocorticoid injection had successful clinical results with no recurrence at 8-month follow-up. In this case report we review the literature for similar previously reported cases. This case report of popliteus tendon calcific tendinopathy provides comprehensive multimodality imaging findings and a description of its non-surgical management. (orig.)

  13. Performance study of a fan beam collimator designed for a multi-modality small animal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbir Ahmed, ASM; Kramer, Gary H.; Semmler, Wolfrad; Peter, Jorg

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology to design and conduct the performances of a fan beam collimator. This fan beam collimator was designed to use with a multi-modality small animal imaging device and the performance of the collimator was studied for a 3D geometry. Analytical expressions were formulated to calculate the parameters for the collimator. A Monte Carlo model was developed to analyze the scattering and image noises for a 3D object. The results showed that the performance of the fan beam collimator was strongly dependent on the source distribution and position. The fan beam collimator showed increased counting efficiency in comparison to a parallel hole collimator. Inside attenuating medium, the increased attenuating effect outweighed the fan beam increased counting efficiency.

  14. Multimodal Discourse Analysis of the Movie "Argo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xu

    2018-01-01

    Based on multimodal discourse theory, this paper makes a multimodal discourse analysis of some shots in the movie "Argo" from the perspective of context of culture, context of situation and meaning of image. Results show that this movie constructs multimodal discourse through particular context, language and image, and successfully…

  15. Smart optical probes for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of Alzheimer's disease pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Scott B.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Skoch, Jesse; Hills, Ivory D.; Swager, Timothy M.; Nesterov, Evgueni E.

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent probes for amyloid-beta (Aβ) are an exciting option for molecular imaging in Alzheimer's disease research and may translate to clinical diagnostics. However, Aβ-targeted optical probes often suffer from poor specificity and slow clearance from the brain. We are designing smart optical probes that emit characteristic fluorescence signal only when bound to Aβ. We synthesized a family of dyes and tested Aβ-binding sensitivity with fluorescence spectroscopy and tissue-staining. Select compounds exhibited Aβ-dependent changes in fluorescence quantum yield, lifetime, and emission spectra that may be imaged microscopically or in vivo using new lifetime and spectral fluorescence imaging techniques. Smart optical probes that turn on when bound to Aβ will improve amyloid detection and may enable quantitative molecular imaging in vivo. (orig.)

  16. Dual CARS and SHG image acquisition scheme that combines single central fiber and multimode fiber bundle to collect and differentiate backward and forward generated photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Sheng; Chen, Xu; Xu, Xiaoyun; Wong, Kelvin K.; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2016-01-01

    In coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging, backward and forward generated photons exhibit different image patterns and thus capture salient intrinsic information of tissues from different perspectives. However, they are often mixed in collection using traditional image acquisition methods and thus are hard to interpret. We developed a multimodal scheme using a single central fiber and multimode fiber bundle to simultaneously collect and differentiate images formed by these two types of photons and evaluated the scheme in an endomicroscopy prototype. The ratio of these photons collected was calculated for the characterization of tissue regions with strong or weak epi-photon generation while different image patterns of these photons at different tissue depths were revealed. This scheme provides a new approach to extract and integrate information captured by backward and forward generated photons in dual CARS/SHG imaging synergistically for biomedical applications. PMID:27375938

  17. Preparation and characterization of alginate based-fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for fluorescence/magnetic resonance multimodal imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Choi, Kee-Bong; Lim, Hyungjun; Lee, Sunghwi; Lee, Jae-Jong

    2018-06-01

    Simple and versatile methodologies have been reported that customize the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and impart additional fluorescence capabilities to these contrast agents. Herein, we present the rational design, synthesis, characterization, and biological applications of a new magnetic-based fluorescent probe. The dual modality imaging protocol was developed by labeling fluorophore with alginate natural polymers that have excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, and using gelification method to form nanocomposites containing SPIO. The formation of alginate-based fluorescent magnetic (AFM) nanoparticles was observed in spherical and elliptical forms with a diameter of less than 500 nm by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The fluorescent wavelength band in the range of 560 nm was also confirmed in the UV–visible spectrophotometer. In this study, we demonstrate that the multi-tasking design of AFM nanoparticles provides an ideal platform for building balanced dual-image probes of magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging.

  18. A benzothiazole-based fluorescent probe for hypochlorous acid detection and imaging in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khac Hong; Hao, Yuanqiang; Zeng, Ke; Fan, Shengnan; Li, Fen; Yuan, Suke; Ding, Xuejing; Xu, Maotian; Liu, You-Nian

    2018-06-01

    A benzothiazole-based turn-on fluorescent probe with a large Stokes shift (190 nm) has been developed for hypochlorous acid detection. The probe displays prompt fluorescence response for HClO with excellent selectivity over other reactive oxygen species as well as a low detection limit of 0.08 μM. The sensing mechanism involves the HClO-induced specific oxidation of oxime moiety of the probe to nitrile oxide, which was confirmed by HPLC-MS technique. Furthermore, imaging studies demonstrated that the probe is cell permeable and can be applied to detect HClO in living cells.

  19. Near-infrared light-triggered theranostics for tumor-specific enhanced multimodal imaging and photothermal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bo Wu,1,* Bing Wan,2,* Shu-Ting Lu,1 Kai Deng,3 Xiao-Qi Li,1 Bao-Lin Wu,1 Yu-Shuang Li,1 Ru-Fang Liao,1 Shi-Wen Huang,3 Hai-Bo Xu1,2 1Department of Radiology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 2Department of Radiology, Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 3Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Polymers, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The major challenge in current clinic contrast agents (CAs and chemotherapy is the poor tumor selectivity and response. Based on the self-quench property of IR820 at high concentrations, and different contrast effect ability of Gd-DOTA between inner and outer of liposome, we developed “bomb-like” light-triggered CAs (LTCAs for enhanced CT/MRI/FI multimodal imaging, which can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of tumor tissue specifically. IR820, Iohexol and Gd-chelates were firstly encapsulated into the thermal-sensitive nanocarrier with a high concentration. This will result in protection and fluorescence quenching. Then, the release of CAs was triggered by near-infrared (NIR light laser irradiation, which will lead to fluorescence and MRI activation and enable imaging of inflammation. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that LTCAs with 808 nm laser irradiation have shorter T1 relaxation time in MRI and stronger intensity in FI compared to those without irradiation. Additionally, due to the high photothermal conversion efficiency of IR820, the injection of LTCAs was demonstrated to completely inhibit C6 tumor growth in nude mice up to 17 days after NIR laser irradiation. The results indicate that the LTCAs can serve as a promising platform for NIR-activated multimodal imaging and photothermal therapy. Keywords: light triggered, near-infrared light, tumor-specific, multimodal imaging, photothermal therapy, contrast agents

  20. Fluoromodule-based reporter/probes designed for in vivo fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Chakraborty, Subhasish K.; Sampath, Padma; Rojas, Juan J.; Hou, Weizhou; Saurabh, Saumya; Thorne, Steve H.; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Waggoner, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    Optical imaging of whole, living animals has proven to be a powerful tool in multiple areas of preclinical research and has allowed noninvasive monitoring of immune responses, tumor and pathogen growth, and treatment responses in longitudinal studies. However, fluorescence-based studies in animals are challenging because tissue absorbs and autofluoresces strongly in the visible light spectrum. These optical properties drive development and use of fluorescent labels that absorb and emit at longer wavelengths. Here, we present a far-red absorbing fluoromodule–based reporter/probe system and show that this system can be used for imaging in living mice. The probe we developed is a fluorogenic dye called SC1 that is dark in solution but highly fluorescent when bound to its cognate reporter, Mars1. The reporter/probe complex, or fluoromodule, produced peak emission near 730 nm. Mars1 was able to bind a variety of structurally similar probes that differ in color and membrane permeability. We demonstrated that a tool kit of multiple probes can be used to label extracellular and intracellular reporter–tagged receptor pools with 2 colors. Imaging studies may benefit from this far-red excited reporter/probe system, which features tight coupling between probe fluorescence and reporter binding and offers the option of using an expandable family of fluorogenic probes with a single reporter gene. PMID:26348895

  1. Cell-permeable Ln(III) chelate-functionalized InP quantum dots as multimodal imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiuk, Graeme J; Tamang, Sudarsan; Imbert, Daniel; Poillot, Cathy; Giardiello, Marco; Tisseyre, Céline; Barbier, Emmanuel L; Fries, Pascal Henry; de Waard, Michel; Reiss, Peter; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2011-10-25

    Quantum dots (QDs) are ideal scaffolds for the development of multimodal imaging agents, but their application in clinical diagnostics is limited by the toxicity of classical CdSe QDs. A new bimodal MRI/optical nanosized contrast agent with high gadolinium payload has been prepared through direct covalent attachment of up to 80 Gd(III) chelates on fluorescent nontoxic InP/ZnS QDs. It shows a high relaxivity of 900 mM(-1) s(-1) (13 mM(-1 )s(-1) per Gd ion) at 35 MHz (0.81 T) and 298 K, while the bright luminescence of the QDs is preserved. Eu(III) and Tb(III) chelates were also successfully grafted to the InP/ZnS QDs. The absence of energy transfer between the QD and lanthanide emitting centers results in a multicolor system. Using this convenient direct grafting strategy additional targeting ligands can be included on the QD. Here a cell-penetrating peptide has been co-grafted in a one-pot reaction to afford a cell-permeable multimodal multimeric MRI contrast agent that reports cellular localization by fluorescence and provides high relaxivity and increased tissue retention with respect to commercial contrast agents.

  2. Development of comprehensive image processing technique for differential diagnosis of liver disease by using multi-modality images. Pixel-based cross-correlation method using a profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akira; Okura, Yasuhiko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Ishida, Takayuki; Kawashita, Ikuo; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Sanada, Taizo

    2009-01-01

    Imaging techniques such as high magnetic field imaging and multidetector-row CT have been markedly improved recently. The final image-reading systems easily produce more than a thousand diagnostic images per patient. Therefore, we developed a comprehensive cross-correlation processing technique using multi-modality images, in order to decrease the considerable time and effort involved in the interpretation of a radiogram (multi-formatted display and/or stack display method, etc). In this scheme, the criteria of an attending radiologist for the differential diagnosis of liver cyst, hemangioma of liver, hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastatic liver cancer on magnetic resonance images with various sequences and CT images with and without contrast enhancement employ a cross-correlation coefficient. Using a one-dimensional cross-correlation method, comprehensive image processing could be also adapted for various artifacts (some depending on modality imaging, and some on patients), which may be encountered at the clinical scene. This comprehensive image-processing technique could assist radiologists in the differential diagnosis of liver diseases. (author)

  3. Late effects of high-dose adjuvant chemotherapy on white and gray matter in breast cancer survivors: Converging results from multimodal magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Boogerd, Willem; Veltman, Dick J.; Caan, Matthan; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Lavini, Cristina; Linn, Sabine C.; Boven, Epie; van Dam, Frits S. A. M.; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2012-01-01

    The neural substrate underlying cognitive impairments after chemotherapy is largely unknown. Here, we investigated very late (>9 years) effects of adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy on brain white and gray matter in primary breast cancer survivors (n = 17) with multimodal magnetic resonance imaging

  4. Confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes for high speed measurements and better imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Wanhee; Lee, SeungWoo; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2008-02-01

    Confocal scanning microscopy (CSM) needs a scanning mechanism because only one point information of specimen can be obtained. Therefore the speed of the confocal scanning microscopy is limited by the speed of the scanning tool. To overcome this limitation from scanning tool we propose another scanning mechanism. We make three optical probes in the specimen under confocal condition of each point. Three optical probes are moved by beam scanning mechanism with shared resonant scanning mirror (RM) and galvanometer driven mirror (GM). As each optical probe scan allocated region of the specimen, information from three points is obtained simultaneously and image acquisition time is reduced. Therefore confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is expected to have three times faster speed of the image acquisition than conventional one. And as another use, multiple optical probes to which different light wavelength is applied can scan whole same region respectively. It helps to obtain better contrast image in case of specimens having different optical characteristics for specific light wavelength. In conclusion confocal scanning microscopy with multiple optical probes is useful technique for views of image acquisition speed and image quality.

  5. Highlights lecture EANM 2016: ''Embracing molecular imaging and multi-modal imaging: a smart move for nuclear medicine towards personalized medicine''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboagye, Eric O. [Imperial College London, Cancer Imaging Centre, Department of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Kraeber-Bodere, Francoise [Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Nantes (France); CRCINA, Inserm U1232, Nantes (France); ICO Cancer Center, Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Herblain (France)

    2017-08-15

    The 2016 EANM Congress took place in Barcelona, Spain, from 15 to 19 October under the leadership of Prof. Wim Oyen, chair of the EANM Scientific Committee. With more than 6,000 participants, this congress was the most important European event in nuclear medicine, bringing together a multidisciplinary community involved in the different fields of nuclear medicine. There were over 600 oral and 1,200 poster or e-Poster presentations with an overwhelming focus on development and application of imaging for personalized care, which is timely for the community. Beyond FDG PET, major highlights included progress in the use of PSMA and SSTR receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals and associated theranostics in oncology. Innovations in radiopharmaceuticals for imaging pathologies of the brain and cardiovascular system, as well as infection and inflammation, were also highlighted. In the areas of physics and instrumentation, multimodality imaging and radiomics were highlighted as promising areas of research. (orig.)

  6. Highlights lecture EANM 2016: "Embracing molecular imaging and multi-modal imaging: a smart move for nuclear medicine towards personalized medicine".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboagye, Eric O; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise

    2017-08-01

    The 2016 EANM Congress took place in Barcelona, Spain, from 15 to 19 October under the leadership of Prof. Wim Oyen, chair of the EANM Scientific Committee. With more than 6,000 participants, this congress was the most important European event in nuclear medicine, bringing together a multidisciplinary community involved in the different fields of nuclear medicine. There were over 600 oral and 1,200 poster or e-Poster presentations with an overwhelming focus on development and application of imaging for personalized care, which is timely for the community. Beyond FDG PET, major highlights included progress in the use of PSMA and SSTR receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals and associated theranostics in oncology. Innovations in radiopharmaceuticals for imaging pathologies of the brain and cardiovascular system, as well as infection and inflammation, were also highlighted. In the areas of physics and instrumentation, multimodality imaging and radiomics were highlighted as promising areas of research.

  7. Differential diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy: usefulness of multimodality imaging and tissue characterization with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izgi, Cemil; Vassiliou, Vassilis; Baksi, A John; Prasad, Sanjay K

    2016-11-01

    Differential diagnosis of asymmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy may be challenging, particularly in patients with history of hypertension. A middle-aged man underwent an echocardiographic examination during workup for hypertension, which unexpectedly showed significant asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and raised suspicion for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance confirmed the asymmetrical hypertrophy. No myocardial late gadolinium contrast enhancement was seen. However, precontrast T1 mapping revealed a low native myocardial T1 value. This was highly suggestive of Anderson-Fabry disease, which was subsequently proved with very low alpha galactosidase enzyme levels and mutation analysis. The case illustrates clinical usefulness of multimodality imaging and the novel tissue characterization techniques for assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Residual Shuffling Convolutional Neural Networks for Deep Semantic Image Segmentation Using Multi-Modal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Weinmann, M.; Gao, X.; Yan, M.; Hinz, S.; Jutzi, B.; Weinmann, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we address the deep semantic segmentation of aerial imagery based on multi-modal data. Given multi-modal data composed of true orthophotos and the corresponding Digital Surface Models (DSMs), we extract a variety of hand-crafted radiometric and geometric features which are provided separately and in different combinations as input to a modern deep learning framework. The latter is represented by a Residual Shuffling Convolutional Neural Network (RSCNN) combining the characteristics of a Residual Network with the advantages of atrous convolution and a shuffling operator to achieve a dense semantic labeling. Via performance evaluation on a benchmark dataset, we analyze the value of different feature sets for the semantic segmentation task. The derived results reveal that the use of radiometric features yields better classification results than the use of geometric features for the considered dataset. Furthermore, the consideration of data on both modalities leads to an improvement of the classification results. However, the derived results also indicate that the use of all defined features is less favorable than the use of selected features. Consequently, data representations derived via feature extraction and feature selection techniques still provide a gain if used as the basis for deep semantic segmentation.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques: current imaging strategies and molecular imaging probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Mani, Venkatesh; Hyafil, Fabien; Amirbekian, Vardan; Aguinaldo, Juan Gilberto S.; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2007-01-01

    The vulnerability or destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques has been directly linked to plaque composition. Imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, that allow for evaluation of plaque composition at a cellular and molecular level, could further improve the detection of

  10. Fluorescent Probes for Analysis and Imaging of Monoamine Oxidase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dokyoung; Jun, Yong Woong; Ahn, Kyo Han [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Monoamine oxidases catalyze the oxidative deamination of dietary amines and amine neurotransmitters, and assist in maintaining the homeostasis of the amine neurotransmitters in the brain. Dysfunctions of these enzymes can cause neurological and behavioral disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. To understand their physiological roles, efficient assay methods for monoamine oxidases are essential. Reviewed in this Perspective are the recent progress in the development of fluorescent probes for monoamine oxidases and their applications to enzyme assays in cells and tissues. It is evident that still there is strong need for a fluorescent probe with desirable substrate selectivity and photophysical properties to challenge the much unsolved issues associated with the enzymes and the diseases.

  11. Enhanced fluorescence imaging of live cells by effective cytosolic delivery of probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Massignani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microscopic techniques enable real-space imaging of complex biological events and processes. They have become an essential tool to confirm and complement hypotheses made by biomedical scientists and also allow the re-examination of existing models, hence influencing future investigations. Particularly imaging live cells is crucial for an improved understanding of dynamic biological processes, however hitherto live cell imaging has been limited by the necessity to introduce probes within a cell without altering its physiological and structural integrity. We demonstrate herein that this hurdle can be overcome by effective cytosolic delivery. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show the delivery within several types of mammalian cells using nanometre-sized biomimetic polymer vesicles (a.k.a. polymersomes that offer both highly efficient cellular uptake and endolysomal escape capability without any effect on the cellular metabolic activity. Such biocompatible polymersomes can encapsulate various types of probes including cell membrane probes and nucleic acid probes as well as labelled nucleic acids, antibodies and quantum dots. SIGNIFICANCE: We show the delivery of sufficient quantities of probes to the cytosol, allowing sustained functional imaging of live cells over time periods of days to weeks. Finally the combination of such effective staining with three-dimensional imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy allows cell imaging in complex three-dimensional environments under both mono-culture and co-culture conditions. Thus cell migration and proliferation can be studied in models that are much closer to the in vivo situation.

  12. Investigation of Biophysical Mechanisms in Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Laser Manipulation of Cells Using a Multimodal Holographic and Fluorescence Imaging Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoski, Mirko S.; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Laser based cell manipulation has proven to be a versatile tool in biomedical applications. In this context, combining weakly focused laser pulses and nanostructures, e.g. gold nanoparticles, promises to be useful for high throughput cell manipulation, such as transfection and photothermal therapy. Interactions between laser pulses and gold nanoparticles are well understood. However, it is still necessary to study cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated laser manipulation. While parameters like cell viability or perforation efficiency are commonly addressed, the influence of the manipulation process on other essential cell parameters is not sufficiently investigated yet. Thus, we set out to study four relevant cell properties: cell volume and area, ion exchange and cytoskeleton structure after gold nanoparticle based laser manipulation. For this, we designed a multimodal imaging and manipulation setup. 200 nm gold nanoparticles were attached unspecifically to canine cells and irradiated by weakly focused 850 ps laser pulses. Volume and area change in the first minute post laser manipulation was monitored using digital holography. Calcium imaging and cells expressing a marker for filamentous actin (F-actin) served to analyze the ion exchange and the cytoskeleton, respectively. High radiant exposures led to cells exhibiting a tendency to shrink in volume and area, possibly due to outflow of cytoplasm. An intracellular raise in calcium was observed and accompanied by an intercellular calcium wave. This multimodal approach enabled for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated cell manipulation. Additionally, this work can pave the way for a better understanding and the evaluation of new applications in the context of cell transfection or photothermal therapy. PMID:25909631

  13. Investigation of biophysical mechanisms in gold nanoparticle mediated laser manipulation of cells using a multimodal holographic and fluorescence imaging setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kalies

    Full Text Available Laser based cell manipulation has proven to be a versatile tool in biomedical applications. In this context, combining weakly focused laser pulses and nanostructures, e.g. gold nanoparticles, promises to be useful for high throughput cell manipulation, such as transfection and photothermal therapy. Interactions between laser pulses and gold nanoparticles are well understood. However, it is still necessary to study cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated laser manipulation. While parameters like cell viability or perforation efficiency are commonly addressed, the influence of the manipulation process on other essential cell parameters is not sufficiently investigated yet. Thus, we set out to study four relevant cell properties: cell volume and area, ion exchange and cytoskeleton structure after gold nanoparticle based laser manipulation. For this, we designed a multimodal imaging and manipulation setup. 200 nm gold nanoparticles were attached unspecifically to canine cells and irradiated by weakly focused 850 ps laser pulses. Volume and area change in the first minute post laser manipulation was monitored using digital holography. Calcium imaging and cells expressing a marker for filamentous actin (F-actin served to analyze the ion exchange and the cytoskeleton, respectively. High radiant exposures led to cells exhibiting a tendency to shrink in volume and area, possibly due to outflow of cytoplasm. An intracellular raise in calcium was observed and accompanied by an intercellular calcium wave. This multimodal approach enabled for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated cell manipulation. Additionally, this work can pave the way for a better understanding and the evaluation of new applications in the context of cell transfection or photothermal therapy.

  14. Assessment of rigid multi-modality image registration consistency using the multiple sub-volume registration (MSR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceylan, C; Heide, U A van der; Bol, G H; Lagendijk, J J W; Kotte, A N T J

    2005-01-01

    Registration of different imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, functional MRI (fMRI), positron (PET) and single photon (SPECT) emission tomography is used in many clinical applications. Determining the quality of any automatic registration procedure has been a challenging part because no gold standard is available to evaluate the registration. In this note we present a method, called the 'multiple sub-volume registration' (MSR) method, for assessing the consistency of a rigid registration. This is done by registering sub-images of one data set on the other data set, performing a crude non-rigid registration. By analysing the deviations (local deformations) of the sub-volume registrations from the full registration we get a measure of the consistency of the rigid registration. Registration of 15 data sets which include CT, MR and PET images for brain, head and neck, cervix, prostate and lung was performed utilizing a rigid body registration with normalized mutual information as the similarity measure. The resulting registrations were classified as good or bad by visual inspection. The resulting registrations were also classified using our MSR method. The results of our MSR method agree with the classification obtained from visual inspection for all cases (p < 0.02 based on ANOVA of the good and bad groups). The proposed method is independent of the registration algorithm and similarity measure. It can be used for multi-modality image data sets and different anatomic sites of the patient. (note)

  15. Multi-modal neuroimaging in premanifest and early Huntington's disease: 18 month longitudinal data from the IMAGE-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez D, Juan F; Egan, Gary F; Gray, Marcus A; Poudel, Govinda R; Churchyard, Andrew; Chua, Phyllis; Stout, Julie C; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2013-01-01

    IMAGE-HD is an Australian based multi-modal longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in premanifest and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (pre-HD and symp-HD, respectively). In this investigation we sought to determine the sensitivity of imaging methods to detect macrostructural (volume) and microstructural (diffusivity) longitudinal change in HD. We used a 3T MRI scanner to acquire T1 and diffusion weighted images at baseline and 18 months in 31 pre-HD, 31 symp-HD and 29 controls. Volume was measured across the whole brain, and volume and diffusion measures were ascertained for caudate and putamen. We observed a range of significant volumetric and, for the first time, diffusion changes over 18 months in both pre-HD and symp-HD, relative to controls, detectable at the brain-wide level (volume change in grey and white matter) and in caudate and putamen (volume and diffusivity change). Importantly, longitudinal volume change in the caudate was the only measure that discriminated between groups across all stages of disease: far from diagnosis (>15 years), close to diagnosis (fractional anisotropy, FA), only longitudinal FA change was sensitive to group differences, but only after diagnosis. These findings further confirm caudate atrophy as one of the most sensitive and early biomarkers of neurodegeneration in HD. They also highlight that different tissue properties have varying schedules in their ability to discriminate between groups along disease progression and may therefore inform biomarker selection for future therapeutic interventions.

  16. Challenges in clinical studies with multiple imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, Kenneth A.; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Crowley, John; Eary, Janet F.; Linden, Hannah M.; Link, Jeanne M.; Mankoff, David A.; Muzi, Mark; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Spence, Alexander M.; Swanson, Kristin R.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses two related issues: (a) When a new imaging agent is proposed, how does the imager integrate it with other biomarkers, either sampled or imaged? (b) When we have multiple imaging agents, is the information additive or duplicative and how is this objectively determined? Molecular biology is leading to new treatment options with reduced normal tissue toxicity, and imaging should have a role in objectively evaluating new treatments. There are two roles for molecular characterization of disease. Molecular imaging measurements before therapy help predict the aggressiveness of disease and identify therapeutic targets and, therefore, help choose the optimal therapy for an individual. Measurements of specific biochemical processes made during or after therapy should be sensitive measures of tumor response. The rules of evidence are not fully developed for the prognostic role of imaging biomarkers, but the potential of molecular imaging provides compelling motivation to push forward with convincing validation studies. New imaging procedures need to be characterized for their effectiveness under realistic clinical conditions to improve the management of patients and achieve a better outcome. The purpose of this article is to promote a critical discussion within the molecular imaging community because our future value to the overall biomedical community will be in supporting better treatment outcomes rather than in detection

  17. CONVERGENT SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF 18F-LABELED AZULENIC COX2 PROBES FOR CANCER IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald D. Nolting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objectives of this research are to (i develop azulene-based PET probes and (ii image COX2 as a potential biomarker of breast cancer. Several lines of research have demonstrated that COX2 is overexpressed in breast cancer and that its presence correlates with poor prognoses. While other studies have reported that COX2 inhibition can be modulated and used beneficially as a chemopreventive strategy in cancer, no viable mechanism for achieving that approach has yet been developed. This shortfall could be circumvented through in vivo imaging of COX2 activity, particularly using sensitive imaging techniques such as PET. Toward that goal, our laboratory focuses on the development of novel 18F-labled COX2 probes. We began the synthesis of the probes by transforming tropolone into a lactone, which was subjected to an [8+2] cycloaddition reaction to yield 2-methylazulene as the core ring of the probe. After exploring numerous synthetic routes, the final target molecule and precursor PET compounds were prepared successfully using convergent synthesis. Conventional 18F labeling methods caused precursor decomposition, which prompted us to hypothesize that the acidic protons of the methylene moiety between the azulene and thiazole rings were readily abstracted by a strong base such as potassium carbonate. Ultimately, this caused the precursors to disintegrate. This observation was supported after successfully using an 18F labeling strategy that employed a much milder phosphate buffer. The 18F-labeled COX2 probe was tested in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model. The data obtained via successive whole-body PET/CT scans indicated probe accumulation and retention in the tumor. Overall, the probe was stable in vivo and no defluorination was observed. A biodistribution study and Western blot analysis corroborate with the imaging data. In conclusion, this novel COX2 PET probe was shown to be a promising agent for cancer imaging and deserves further

  18. A robust method for processing scanning probe microscopy images and determining nanoobject position and dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silly, F.

    2009-01-01

    P>Processing of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) images is essential to explore nanoscale phenomena. Image processing and pattern recognition techniques are developed to improve the accuracy and consistency of nanoobject and surface characterization. We present a robust and versatile method to

  19. Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youmin; Raj, Milan; McGuff, H. Stan; Bhave, Gauri; Yang, Bin; Shen, Ting; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a MEMS micromirror enabled handheld confocal imaging probe for portable oral cancer detection, where a comparatively large field of view (FOV) was generated through the programmable Lissajous scanning pattern of the MEMS micromirror. Miniaturized handheld MEMS confocal imaging probe was developed, and further compared with the desktop confocal prototype under clinical setting. For the handheld confocal imaging system, optical design simulations using CODE VR® shows the lateral and axial resolution to be 0.98 µm and 4.2 µm, where experimental values were determined to be 3 µm and 5.8 µm, respectively, with a FOV of 280 µm×300 µm. Fast Lissajous imaging speed up to 2 fps was realized with improved Labview and Java based real-time imaging software. Properties such as 3D imaging through autofocusing and mosaic imaging for extended lateral view (6 mm × 8 mm) were examined for carcinoma real-time pathology. Neoplastic lesion tissues of giant cell fibroma and peripheral ossifying fibroma, the fibroma inside the paraffin box and ex vivo gross tissues were imaged by the bench-top and handheld imaging modalities, and further compared with commercial microscope imaging results. The MEMS scanner-based handheld confocal imaging probe shows great promise as a potential clinical tool for oral cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Portable oral cancer detection using a miniature confocal imaging probe with a large field of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Youmin; Raj, Milan; Bhave, Gauri; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaojing; McGuff, H. Stan; Shen, Ting

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a MEMS micromirror enabled handheld confocal imaging probe for portable oral cancer detection, where a comparatively large field of view (FOV) was generated through the programmable Lissajous scanning pattern of the MEMS micromirror. Miniaturized handheld MEMS confocal imaging probe was developed, and further compared with the desktop confocal prototype under clinical setting. For the handheld confocal imaging system, optical design simulations using CODE V R® shows the lateral and axial resolution to be 0.98 µm and 4.2 µm, where experimental values were determined to be 3 µm and 5.8 µm, respectively, with a FOV of 280 µm×300 µm. Fast Lissajous imaging speed up to 2 fps was realized with improved Labview and Java based real-time imaging software. Properties such as 3D imaging through autofocusing and mosaic imaging for extended lateral view (6 mm × 8 mm) were examined for carcinoma real-time pathology. Neoplastic lesion tissues of giant cell fibroma and peripheral ossifying fibroma, the fibroma inside the paraffin box and ex vivo gross tissues were imaged by the bench-top and handheld imaging modalities, and further compared with commercial microscope imaging results. The MEMS scanner-based handheld confocal imaging probe shows great promise as a potential clinical tool for oral cancer diagnosis and treatment. (paper)

  1. Wavelength-Dependent Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy: Selectively Imaging Nanoparticle Probes in Live Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning; and Yeung, Edward S.

    2009-11-15

    Gold and silver nanoparticles display extraordinarily large apparent refractive indices near their plasmon resonance (PR) wavelengths. These nanoparticles show good contrast in a narrow spectral band but are poorly resolved at other wavelengths in differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The wavelength dependence of DIC contrast of gold/silver nanoparticles is interpreted in terms of Mie's theory and DIC working principles. We further exploit this wavelength dependence by modifying a DIC microscope to enable simultaneous imaging at two wavelengths. We demonstrate that gold/silver nanoparticles immobilized on the same glass slides through hybridization can be differentiated and imaged separately. High-contrast, video-rate images of living cells can be recorded both with and without illuminating the gold nanoparticle probes, providing definitive probe identification. Dual-wavelength DIC microscopy thus presents a new approach to the simultaneous detection of multiple probes of interest for high-speed live-cell imaging.

  2. A new strategic neurosurgical planning tool for brainstem cavernous malformations using interactive computer graphics with multimodal fusion images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Taichi; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Shojima, Masaaki; Tanaka, Minoru; Ino, Kenji; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the authors used preoperative simulation employing 3D computer graphics (interactive computer graphics) to fuse all imaging data for brainstem cavernous malformations. The authors evaluated whether interactive computer graphics or 2D imaging correlated better with the actual operative field, particularly in identifying a developmental venous anomaly (DVA). The study population consisted of 10 patients scheduled for surgical treatment of brainstem cavernous malformations. Data from preoperative imaging (MRI, CT, and 3D rotational angiography) were automatically fused using a normalized mutual information method, and then reconstructed by a hybrid method combining surface rendering and volume rendering methods. With surface rendering, multimodality and multithreshold techniques for 1 tissue were applied. The completed interactive computer graphics were used for simulation of surgical approaches and assumed surgical fields. Preoperative diagnostic rates for a DVA associated with brainstem cavernous malformation were compared between conventional 2D imaging and interactive computer graphics employing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The time required for reconstruction of 3D images was 3-6 hours for interactive computer graphics. Observation in interactive mode required approximately 15 minutes. Detailed anatomical information for operative procedures, from the craniotomy to microsurgical operations, could be visualized and simulated three-dimensionally as 1 computer graphic using interactive computer graphics. Virtual surgical views were consistent with actual operative views. This technique was very useful for examining various surgical approaches. Mean (±SEM) area under the ROC curve for rate of DVA diagnosis was significantly better for interactive computer graphics (1.000±0.000) than for 2D imaging (0.766±0.091; pcomputer graphics than with 2D images. Interactive computer graphics was also useful in helping to plan the surgical

  3. Millimeter-wave radiation from a Teflon dielectric probe and its imaging application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Eiji; Sakai, Shigeki

    2008-01-01

    The beam profile of a millimeter wave radiated from the tip of a Teflon dielectric probe was characterized experimentally by using a three-dimensional scanning dielectric probe and numerically by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The measured intensity distribution and polarization of the millimeter wave radiated from the tip of the probe was in good agreement with those of the FDTD simulation. A reflection type of a millimeter- wave imaging system using this dielectric probe was constructed. The resolution of the imaging system was as small as 1 mm, which was slightly smaller than a half wavelength, 1.6 mm, of the radiation wave. Translucent measurement of a commercially manufactured IC card which consists of an IC chip and a leaf-shaped antenna coil was demonstrated. Not only the internal two-dimensional structures but also the vertical information of the card could be provided

  4. Label-free imaging of acanthamoeba using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsubasa; Cha, Yu-Rok; Kaji, Yuichi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Kano, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a disease in which amoebae named Acanthamoeba invade the cornea of an eye. To diagnose this disease before it becomes serious, it is important to detect the cyst state of Acanthamoeba in the early stage of infection. In the present study, we explored spectroscopic signitures of the cyst state of Acanthamoeba using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy with the channels of multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second harmonic generation (SHG), and third harmonic generation (THG). A sharp band at around 1603 cm-1 in the CARS (Im[χ(3)]) spectrum was found at the cyst state of Acanthamoeba, which possibly originates from ergosterol and/or 7-dehydrostigmasterol. It can be used as a maker band of Acanthamoeba for medical treatment. Keyword: Acanthamoeba keratitis, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, CARS, second harmonic generation, SHG, microspectroscopy, multiphoton microscopy

  5. A novel image fusion algorithm based on 2D scale-mixing complex wavelet transform and Bayesian MAP estimation for multimodal medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Bengueddoudj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new image fusion algorithm based on two-dimensional Scale-Mixing Complex Wavelet Transform (2D-SMCWT. The fusion of the detail 2D-SMCWT coefficients is performed via a Bayesian Maximum a Posteriori (MAP approach by considering a trivariate statistical model for the local neighboring of 2D-SMCWT coefficients. For the approximation coefficients, a new fusion rule based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA is applied. We conduct several experiments using three different groups of multimodal medical images to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The obtained results prove the superiority of the proposed method over the state of the art fusion methods in terms of visual quality and several commonly used metrics. Robustness of the proposed method is further tested against different types of noise. The plots of fusion metrics establish the accuracy of the proposed fusion method.

  6. ADMultiImg: a novel missing modality transfer learning based CAD system for diagnosis of MCI due to AD using incomplete multi-modality imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Teresa; Weidman, David; Lure, Fleming; Li, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and currently has no cure. Treatments targeting early stages of AD such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) may be most effective to deaccelerate AD, thus attracting increasing attention. However, MCI has substantial heterogeneity in that it can be caused by various underlying conditions, not only AD. To detect MCI due to AD, NIA-AA published updated consensus criteria in 2011, in which the use of multi-modality images was highlighted as one of the most promising methods. It is of great interest to develop a CAD system based on automatic, quantitative analysis of multi-modality images and machine learning algorithms to help physicians more adequately diagnose MCI due to AD. The challenge, however, is that multi-modality images are not universally available for many patients due to cost, access, safety, and lack of consent. We developed a novel Missing Modality Transfer Learning (MMTL) algorithm capable of utilizing whatever imaging modalities are available for an MCI patient to diagnose the patient's likelihood of MCI due to AD. Furthermore, we integrated MMTL with radiomics steps including image processing, feature extraction, and feature screening, and a post-processing for uncertainty quantification (UQ), and developed a CAD system called "ADMultiImg" to assist clinical diagnosis of MCI due to AD using multi-modality images together with patient demographic and genetic information. Tested on ADNI date, our system can generate a diagnosis with high accuracy even for patients with only partially available image modalities (AUC=0.94), and therefore may have broad clinical utility.

  7. Multimodality Image Fusion and Planning and Dose Delivery for Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Beatty, Ron E.; Wagner, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) relies on the quality of fused images to yield accurate and reproducible patient setup prior to dose delivery. The registration of 2 image datasets can be characterized as hardware-based or software-based image fusion. Hardware-based image fusion is performed by hybrid scanners that combine 2 distinct medical imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) into a single device. In hybrid scanners, the patient maintains the same position during both studies making the fusion of image data sets simple. However, it cannot perform temporal image registration where image datasets are acquired at different times. On the other hand, software-based image fusion technique can merge image datasets taken at different times or with different medical imaging modalities. Software-based image fusion can be performed either manually, using landmarks, or automatically. In the automatic image fusion method, the best fit is evaluated using mutual information coefficient. Manual image fusion is typically performed at dose planning and for patient setup prior to dose delivery for IGRT. The fusion of orthogonal live radiographic images taken prior to dose delivery to digitally reconstructed radiographs will be presented. Although manual image fusion has been routinely used, the use of fiducial markers has shortened the fusion time. Automated image fusion should be possible for IGRT because the image datasets are derived basically from the same imaging modality, resulting in further shortening the fusion time. The advantages and limitations of both hardware-based and software-based image fusion methodologies are discussed

  8. Instant live-cell super-resolution imaging of cellular structures by nanoinjection of fluorescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Simon; van de Linde, Sebastian; Lummer, Martina; Simonis, Matthias; Huser, Thomas; Sauer, Markus

    2015-02-11

    Labeling internal structures within living cells with standard fluorescent probes is a challenging problem. Here, we introduce a novel intracellular staining method that enables us to carefully control the labeling process and provides instant access to the inner structures of living cells. Using a hollow glass capillary with a diameter of <100 nm, we deliver functionalized fluorescent probes directly into the cells by (di)electrophoretic forces. The label density can be adjusted and traced directly during the staining process by fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate the potential of this technique by delivering and imaging a range of commercially available cell-permeable and nonpermeable fluorescent probes to cells.

  9. Image-guided intraocular injection using multimodality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy in rodent ophthalmological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrones, Benjamin D.; Benavides, Oscar R.; Leeburg, Kelsey C.; Mehanathan, Sankarathi B.; Levine, Edward M.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2018-02-01

    Intraocular injections are routinely performed for delivery of anti-VEGF and anti-inflammatory therapies in humans. While these injections are also performed in mice to develop novel models of ophthalmic diseases and screen novel therapeutics, the injection location and volume are not well-controlled and reproducible. We overcome limitations of conventional injections methods by developing a multimodality, long working distance, non-contact optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) system for retinal imaging before and after injections. Our OCT+cSLO system combines a custom-built spectraldomain OCT engine (875+/-85 nm) with 125 kHz line-rate with a modified commercial cSLO with a maximum frame-rate of 30 fps (512 x 512 pix.). The system was designed for an overlapping OCT+cSLO field-of-view of 1.1 mm with a 7.76 mm working distance to the pupil. cSLO excitation light sources and filters were optimized for simultaneous GFP and tdTomato imaging. Lateral resolution was 3.02 µm for OCT and 2.74 μm for cSLO. Intravitreal injections of 5%, 10%, and 20% intralipid with Alex Fluor 488 were manually injected intraocularly in C57BL/6 mice. Post-injection imaging showed structural changes associated with retinal puncture, including the injection track, a retinal elevation, and detachment of the posterior hyaloid. OCT enables quantitative analysis of injection location and volumes whereas complementary cSLO improves specificity for identifying fluorescently labeled injected compounds and transgenic cells. The long working distance of our non-contact OCT+cSLO system is uniquely-suited for concurrent imaging with intraocular injections and may be applied for imaging of ophthalmic surgical dynamics and real-time image-guided injections.

  10. Finite-element modeling of compression and gravity on a population of breast phantoms for multimodality imaging simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Gregory M; Kiarashi, Nooshin; Lo, Joseph Y; Samei, E; Segars, W P

    2016-05-01

    The authors are developing a series of computational breast phantoms based on breast CT data for imaging research. In this work, the authors develop a program that will allow a user to alter the phantoms to simulate the effect of gravity and compression of the breast (craniocaudal or mediolateral oblique) making the phantoms applicable to multimodality imaging. This application utilizes a template finite-element (FE) breast model that can be applied to their presegmented voxelized breast phantoms. The FE model is automatically fit to the geometry of a given breast phantom, and the material properties of each element are set based on the segmented voxels contained within the element. The loading and boundary conditions, which include gravity, are then assigned based on a user-defined position and compression. The effect of applying these loads to the breast is computed using a multistage contact analysis in FEBio, a freely available and well-validated FE software package specifically designed for biomedical applications. The resulting deformation of the breast is then applied to a boundary mesh representation of the phantom that can be used for simulating medical images. An efficient script performs the above actions seamlessly. The user only needs to specify which voxelized breast phantom to use, the compressed thickness, and orientation of the breast. The authors utilized their FE application to simulate compressed states of the breast indicative of mammography and tomosynthesis. Gravity and compression were simulated on example phantoms and used to generate mammograms in the craniocaudal or mediolateral oblique views. The simulated mammograms show a high degree of realism illustrating the utility of the FE method in simulating imaging data of repositioned and compressed breasts. The breast phantoms and the compression software can become a useful resource to the breast imaging research community. These phantoms can then be used to evaluate and compare imaging

  11. Development of a simplified simulation model for performance characterization of a pixellated CdZnTe multimodality imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, P; Santos, A [Departamento de IngenierIa Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Darambara, D G [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and The Institute of Cancer Research, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: pguerra@die.um.es

    2008-02-21

    Current requirements of molecular imaging lead to the complete integration of complementary modalities in a single hybrid imaging system to correlate function and structure. Among the various existing detector technologies, which can be implemented to integrate nuclear modalities (PET and/or single-photon emission computed tomography with x-rays (CT) and most probably with MR, pixellated wide bandgap room temperature semiconductor detectors, such as CdZnTe and/or CdTe, are promising candidates. This paper deals with the development of a simplified simulation model for pixellated semiconductor radiation detectors, as a first step towards the performance characterization of a multimodality imaging system based on CdZnTe. In particular, this work presents a simple computational model, based on a 1D approximate solution of the Schockley-Ramo theorem, and its integration into the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) platform in order to perform accurately and, therefore, improve the simulations of pixellated detectors in different configurations with a simultaneous cathode and anode pixel readout. The model presented here is successfully validated against an existing detailed finite element simulator, the multi-geometry simulation code, with respect to the charge induced at the anode, taking into consideration interpixel charge sharing and crosstalk, and to the detector charge induction efficiency. As a final point, the model provides estimated energy spectra and time resolution for {sup 57}Co and {sup 18}F sources obtained with the GATE code after the incorporation of the proposed model.

  12. Performance characterization of the Inveon preclinical small-animal PET/SPECT/CT system for multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magota, Keiichi; Kubo, Naoki; Kuge, Yuji; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Zhao, Songji; Tamaki, Nagara

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the performance of the Inveon small-animal PET/SPECT/CT system and compared the imaging capabilities of the SPECT and PET components. For SPECT, the energy resolution, tomographic spatial resolution and system sensitivity were evaluated with a 99m Tc solution using a single pinhole collimator. For PET, the spatial resolution, absolute sensitivity, scatter fraction and peak noise equivalent count were evaluated. Phantoms and a normal rat were scanned to compare the imaging capabilities of SPECT and PET. The SPECT spatial resolution was 0.84 mm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) at a radius of rotation of 25 mm using a 0.5-mm pinhole aperture collimator, while the PET spatial resolution was 1.63 mm FWHM at the centre. The SPECT system sensitivity at a radius of rotation of 25 mm was 35.3 cps/MBq (4 x 10 -3 %) using the 0.5-mm pinhole aperture, while the PET absolute sensitivity was 3.2% for 350-650 keV and 3.432 ns. Accordingly, the volume sensitivity of PET was three orders of magnitude higher than that of SPECT. This integrated PET/SPECT/CT system showed high performance with excellent spatial resolution for SPECT and sensitivity for PET. Based on the tracer availability and system performance, SPECT and PET have complementary roles in multimodality small-animal imaging. (orig.)

  13. Transforming thymidine into a magnetic resonance imaging probe for monitoring gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shir, Amnon; Liu, Guanshu; Liang, Yajie; Yadav, Nirbhay N; McMahon, Michael T; Walczak, Piotr; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Pomper, Martin G; Tallman, Keri A; Greenberg, Marc M; van Zijl, Peter C M; Bulte, Jeff W M; Gilad, Assaf A

    2013-01-30

    Synthetic chemistry has revolutionized the understanding of many biological systems. Small compounds that act as agonists and antagonists of proteins, and occasionally as imaging probes, have contributed tremendously to the elucidation of many biological pathways. Nevertheless, the function of thousands of proteins is still elusive, and designing new imaging probes remains a challenge. Through screening and characterization, we identified a thymidine analogue as a probe for imaging the expression of herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK). To detect the probe, we used chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging (CEST-MRI), in which a dynamic exchange process between an exchangeable proton and the surrounding water protons is used to amplify the desired contrast. Initially, five pyrimidine-based molecules were recognized as putative imaging agents, since their exchangeable imino protons resonate at 5-6 ppm from the water proton frequency and their detection is therefore less affected by endogenous CEST contrast or confounded by direct water saturation. Increasing the pK(a) value of the imino proton by reduction of its 5,6-double bond results in a significant reduction of the exchange rate (k(ex)) between this proton and the water protons. This reduced k(ex) of the dihydropyrimidine nucleosides fulfills the "slow to intermediate regime" condition for generating high CEST-MRI contrast. Consequently, we identified 5-methyl-5,6-dihydrothymidine as the optimal probe and demonstrated its feasibility for in vivo imaging of HSV1-TK. In light of these findings, this new approach can be generalized for designing specific probes for the in vivo imaging of a variety of proteins and enzymes.

  14. An image fiber based fluorescent probe with associated signal processing scheme for biomedical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishakh, M; Murukeshan, V M; Seah, L K

    2008-01-01

    A dual-modality image fiber based fluorescent probe that can be used for depth sensitive imaging and suppression of fluorescent emissions with nanosecond lifetime difference is proposed and illustrated in this paper. The system can give high optical sectioning and employs an algorithm for obtaining phase sensitive images. The system can find main application in in vivo biomedical diagnostics for detecting biochemical changes for distinguishing malignant tissue from healthy tissue

  15. Avaliação ocular multimodal em doenças heredodistróficas e degenerativas da retina Multimodal fundus imaging in heredodystrophic and degenerative diseases of the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalcanti Ferrara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A tomografia de coerência óptica incorporou-se gradativamente ao contemporâneo arsenal diagnóstico em Oftalmologia, passando a exercer papel fundamental na investigação e condução de doenças oculares, particularmente na especialidade de Retina e Vítreo. A disponibilização comercial da nova geração de aparelhos, chamada de tomografia de coerência óptica "espectral", baseada em conceito físico distinto que permite a aquisição de imagens em alta velocidade, marcou o início de uma nova era desta tecnologia de investigação auxiliar. Adicionalmente, sua recente combinação com o oftalmoscópio de varredura a laser confocal (confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope vem propiciando a aquisição de imagens tomográficas guiadas em tempo real pelos diferentes modos de imagem (autofluorescência de fundo, reflectância com luz "infravermelha" e angiografia com fluoresceína ou indocianina verde. A avaliação ocular multimodal (multimodal fundus imaging permite a correlação real e minuciosa de achados da morfologia retiniana e do epitélio pigmentar com dados de estudos angiográficos e de autofluorescência ou reflectância, propiciando assim inferências valiosas sobre a fisiologia do tecido. Neste artigo, discutimos brevemente as possíveis implicações da avaliação ocular multimodal na prática da especialidade de Retina e Vítreo.Optical coherence tomography was progressively incorporated to the contemporary diagnostic arsenal in Ophthalmology, playing a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of eye diseases, particularly in the specialty of retina and vitreous. The commercial availability of the new generation of devices, coined "spectral" optical coherence tomography, which is based in a distinct physical concept that permits high-speed image acquisition, launched a new era for this investigative ancillary tool. In addition, the recent combination of this new technology with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope

  16. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality. Copyright © 2015.

  17. Nanotechnology in medical imaging: probe design and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cormode, David P.; Skajaa, Torjus; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles have become more and more prevalent in reports of novel contrast agents, especially for molecular imaging, the detection of cellular processes. The advantages of nanoparticles include their potency to generate contrast, the ease of integrating multiple properties, lengthy circulation

  18. Three-dimensional whole-brain perfused blood volume imaging with multimodal CT for evaluation of acute ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.; Zhang, M.; Cao, Y.; Ma, Q.; Chen, J.; Ji, X.; Li, K.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the diagnostic value of integrating three-dimensional perfused blood volume (3D PBV) with multimodal computed tomography (CT) [non-enhanced CT (NECT), CT perfusion (CTP), and CT angiography (CTA)] in acute ischaemic stroke. Materials and methods: NECT, CTP, and CTA were performed in 25 acute ischaemic stroke patients. The ischaemia detection rate of 3D PBV was compared with the results of baseline NECT and CTP. The correlation of ischaemic lesion volume between 3D PBV, CTP images, and follow-up NECT were analysed. Results: NECT demonstrated ischaemic signs in 12 of 25 patients with proven infarction. CTP maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and time to peak (TTP) all demonstrated perfusion deficits in 21 of 25 patients. However, 3D PBV demonstrated perfusion deficits in all of the 25 patients. Among the 25 patients, a strong correlation was found between PBV and the follow-up NECT infarct (r = 0.858). The correlation between CTP and the follow-up NECT infarct as following: CBF (r = 0.718), CBV (r = 0.785), and TTP (r = 0.569). In 14 thrombolytic patients, strong correlation was found between the ischaemic volume on 3D PBV and follow-up NECT (r = 0.798). Conclusion: In acute stroke patients, the combination of 3D PBV and multimodal CT (NECT, CTP, and CTA) can improve the detection rate of ischaemia and enable assessment of the full extent of ischaemia, which correlates well with follow-up NECT.

  19. A general technique for interstudy registration of multifunction and multimodality images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.P.; Huang, S.C.; Bacter, L.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    A technique that can register anatomic/structural brain images (e.g., MRI) with various functional images (e.g., PET-FDG and PET-FDOPA) of the same subject has been developed. The procedure of this technique includes the following steps: (1) segmentation of MRI brain images into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and, muscle (MS) components, (2) assignment of appropriate radio-tracer concentrations to various components depending on the kind of functional image that is being registered, (3) generation of simulated functional images to have a spatial resolution that is comparable to that of the measured ones, (4) alignment of the measured functional images to the simulated ones that are based on MRI images. A self-organization clustering method is used to segment the MRI images. The image alignment is based on the criterion of least squares of the pixel-by-pixel differences between the two sets of images that are being matched and on the Powell's algorithm for minimization. The technique was applied successfully for registering the MRI, PET-FDG, and PET-FDOPA images. This technique offers a general solution to the registration of structural images to functional images and to the registration of different functional images of markedly different distributions

  20. Can multimodality imaging using {sup 18}F-FDG/{sup 18}F-FLT PET/CT benefit the diagnosis and management of patients with pulmonary lesions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Baixuan; Guan, Zhiwei; Liu, Changbin; Wang, Ruimin; Yin, Dayi; Zhang, Jinming; Chen, Yingmao; Yao, Shulin; Shao, Mingzhe; Wang, Hui; Tian, Jiahe [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2011-02-15

    Dual-tracer, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxythymidine ({sup 18}F-FDG/{sup 18}F-FLT), dual-modality (positron emission tomography and computed tomography, PET/CT) imaging was used in a clinical trial on differentiation of pulmonary nodules. The aims of this trial were to investigate if multimodality imaging is of advantage and to what extent it could benefit the patients in real clinical settings. Seventy-three subjects in whom it was difficult to establish the diagnosis and determine management of their pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled in this clinical trial. All subjects underwent {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 18}F-FLT PET/CT imaging sequentially. The images were interpreted with different strategies as either individual or combined modalities. The pathological or clinical evidence during a follow-up period of more than 22 months served as the standard of truth. The diagnostic performance of each interpretation and their impact on clinical decision making was investigated. {sup 18}F-FLT/{sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was proven to be of clinical value in improving the diagnostic confidence in 28 lung tumours, 18 tuberculoses and 27 other benign lesions. The ratio between maximum standardized uptake values of {sup 18}F-FLT and {sup 18}F-FDG was found to be of great potential in separating the three subgroups of patients. The advantage could only be obtained with the full use of the multimodality interpretation. Multimodality imaging induced substantial change in clinical management in 31.5% of the study subjects and partial change in another 12.3%. Multimodality imaging using {sup 18}F-FDG/{sup 18}F-FLT PET/CT provided the best diagnostic efficacy and the opportunity for better management in this group of clinically challenging patients with pulmonary lesions. (orig.)

  1. Multimodality Registration without a Dedicated Multimodality Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Beattie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimodality scanners that allow the acquisition of both functional and structural image sets on a single system have recently become available for animal research use. Although the resultant registered functional/structural image sets can greatly enhance the interpretability of the functional data, the cost of multimodality systems can be prohibitive, and they are often limited to two modalities, which generally do not include magnetic resonance imaging. Using a thin plastic wrap to immobilize and fix a mouse or other small animal atop a removable bed, we are able to calculate registrations between all combinations of four different small animal imaging scanners (positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and computed tomography [CT] at our disposal, effectively equivalent to a quadruple-modality scanner. A comparison of serially acquired CT images, with intervening acquisitions on other scanners, demonstrates the ability of the proposed procedures to maintain the rigidity of an anesthetized mouse during transport between scanners. Movement of the bony structures of the mouse was estimated to be 0.62 mm. Soft tissue movement was predominantly the result of the filling (or emptying of the urinary bladder and thus largely constrained to this region. Phantom studies estimate the registration errors for all registration types to be less than 0.5 mm. Functional images using tracers targeted to known structures verify the accuracy of the functional to structural registrations. The procedures are easy to perform and produce robust and accurate results that rival those of dedicated multimodality scanners, but with more flexible registration combinations and while avoiding the expense and redundancy of multimodality systems.

  2. Nanomaterials and MRI molecular probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inubushi, Toshiro

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the current state and future prospect of enhancing probes in MRI which enable to image specific cells and molecules mainly from the aspect of cell trafficking. Although MRI requires such probes for specific imaging, it has an advantage that anatomical images are simultaneously available even during surgical operation without radiation exposure, differing from X-CT, -transillumination and positron emission tomography (PET). In the development of novel MRI molecular probes, the recent topic concerns the cell trafficking biology where cells related with transplantation and immunological therapy can be traced. Although superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) has been used as a commercially available enhancer, this nanoparticle has problems like a difficulty to penetrate cell, cytotoxicity and others. For these, authors have developed the nanoparticle SPIO covered with silica shell, which can be chemically modified, e.g., by binding fluorescent pigments to possibly allow MR bimodal molecular imaging. For penetration of particles in cells, envelop of Sendai virus is used. PET-CT has been more popular these days; however, MRI is superior to CT for imaging soft tissues, and development of PET-MRI is actively under progress aiming the multi-modal imaging. At present, molecular probes for MRI are certainly not so many as those for PET and cooperative efforts to develop the probes are required in medical, technological and pharmaceutical fields. (R.T.)

  3. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Sanjiv [Portola Valley, CA; Pritha, Ray [Mountain View, CA

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  4. Multi-Modal Imaging in a Mouse Model of Orthotopic Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Priya; Kato, Tatsuya; Ujiie, Hideki; Wada, Hironobu; Lee, Daiyoon; Hu, Hsin-pei; Hirohashi, Kentaro; Ahn, Jin Young; Zheng, Jinzi; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigation of CF800, a novel PEGylated nano-liposomal imaging agent containing indocyanine green (ICG) and iohexol, for real-time near infrared (NIR) fluorescence and computed tomography (CT) image-guided surgery in an orthotopic lung cancer model in nude mice. Methods CF800 was intravenously administered into 13 mice bearing the H460 orthotopic human lung cancer. At 48 h post-injection (peak imaging agent accumulation time point), ex vivo NIR and CT imaging was performed. A cli...

  5. Preparation of 99Tcm-CLP imaging probe of lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Yonggang; Liao Yonghua

    2004-01-01

    The process of preparing an imaging micro-probe 99 Tc m -CLP from bovine nose cartilage is described in detail. Both labeled rate and radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -CLP are greater than 90%, and KA is 1.12 x 10 9 L/mol in vitro. After the Balb/c nu/nu mice with lung cancer were intravenously injected by the 99 Tc m -CLP, the radioactivity was found to be well concentrated at the lung-cancer region, which suggests that the 99 Tc m -CLP micro-probe can be used in imaging study of lung carcinoma. (authors)

  6. Cu2+-labeled dansyl compounds as fluorescent and PET probes for imaging apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyan; Wang, Xukui; Yu, MeiXiang

    2016-11-15

    Compound DNSTT-Cu 2+ , a novel chelate of Cu 2+ with DOTA conjugated to a fluorescent dansyl fragment, is developed for imaging cell apoptosis. Apoptotic U-87MG cells could be selectively visualized by the fluorescence of DNSTT-Cu 2+ from cytoplasm of cells, confirmed by the fluorescence of apoptosis cells co-labeled with Alexa Fluor 568-labeled annexin V, a conventional probe for selectively labeling membranes of apoptosis cells. A radioactive 64 Cu 2 + analog, DNSTT- 64 Cu 2+ , was easily synthesized, providing a potential PET probe for imaging apoptosis in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fusion of multimodal medical images. Application to dynamic tri dimensional study of vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunie, L.

    1992-12-01

    The object of this thesis is to put in correspondence images coming from different ways. The area of application is biomedical imaging, particularly dynamic imaging in three dimensional calculations of spinal cord. The use of computers allows modeling. Then a study of validation by clinical experimentation on spinal cord proves the efficiency of the simulation

  8. Neuronal correlates of the five factor model (FFM) of human personality: Multimodal imaging in a large healthy sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnebekk, Astrid; Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B; Grydeland, Håkon; Torgersen, Svenn; Westlye, Lars T

    2013-01-15

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques have recently provided glimpse into the neurobiology of complex traits of human personality. Whereas some intriguing findings have connected aspects of personality to variations in brain morphology, the relations are complex and our current understanding is incomplete. Therefore, we aimed to provide a comprehensive investigation of brain-personality relations using a multimodal neuroimaging approach in a large sample comprising 265 healthy individuals. The NEO Personality Inventory was used to provide measures of core aspects of human personality, and imaging phenotypes included measures of total and regional brain volumes, regional cortical thickness and arealization, and diffusion tensor imaging indices of white matter (WM) microstructure. Neuroticism was the trait most clearly linked to brain structure. Higher neuroticism including facets reflecting anxiety, depression and vulnerability to stress was associated with smaller total brain volume, widespread decrease in WM microstructure, and smaller frontotemporal surface area. Higher scores on extraversion were associated with thinner inferior frontal gyrus, and conscientiousness was negatively associated with arealization of the temporoparietal junction. No reliable associations between brain structure and agreeableness and openness, respectively, were found. The results provide novel evidence of the associations between brain structure and variations in human personality, and corroborate previous findings of a consistent neuroanatomical basis of negative emotionality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly stable polymer coated nano-clustered silver plates: a multimodal optical contrast agent for biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Mukundan, Ananya; Karamchand, Leshern; Kopelman, Raoul; Xie, Zhixing; Wang, Xueding

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present a new optical contrast agent based on silver nanoplate clusters embedded inside of a polymer nano matrix. Unlike nanosphere clusters, which have been well studied, nanoplate clusters have unique properties due to the different possible orientations of interaction between the individual plates, resulting in a significant broadening of the absorption spectra. These nanoclusters were immobilized inside of a polymer cladding so as to maintain their stability and optical properties under in vivo conditions. The polymer-coated silver nanoplate clusters show a lower toxicity compared to the uncoated nanoparticles. At high nanoparticle concentrations, cell death occurs mostly due to apoptosis. These nanoparticles were used for targeted fluorescence imaging in a rat glioma cell line by incorporating a fluorescent dye into the matrix, followed by conjugation of a tumor targeting an F3 peptide. We further used these nanoparticles as photoacoustic contrast agents in vivo to enhance the contrast of the vasculature structures in a rat ear model. We observed a contrast enhancement of over 90% following the nanoparticle injection. It is also shown that these NPs can serve as efficient contrast agents, with specific targeting abilities for broadband multimodal imaging that are usable for diagnostic applications and that extend into use as therapeutic agents as well. (paper)

  10. From Grey Scale B-Mode to Elastosonography: Multimodal Ultrasound Imaging in Meningioma Surgery-Pictorial Essay and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Francesco; Del Bene, Massimiliano; Moiraghi, Alessandro; Casali, Cecilia; Legnani, Federico Giuseppe; Saladino, Andrea; Perin, Alessandro; Vetrano, Ignazio Gaspare; Mattei, Luca; Richetta, Carla; Saini, Marco; DiMeco, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The main goal in meningioma surgery is to achieve complete tumor removal, when possible, while improving or preserving patient neurological functions. Intraoperative imaging guidance is one fundamental tool for such achievement. In this regard, intra-operative ultrasound (ioUS) is a reliable solution to obtain real-time information during surgery and it has been applied in many different aspect of neurosurgery. In the last years, different ioUS modalities have been described: B-mode, Fusion Imaging with pre-operative acquired MRI, Doppler, contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and elastosonography. In this paper, we present our US based multimodal approach in meningioma surgery. We describe all the most relevant ioUS modalities and their intraoperative application to obtain precise and specific information regarding the lesion for a tailored approach in meningioma surgery. For each modality, we perform a review of the literature accompanied by a pictorial essay based on our routinely use of ioUS for meningioma resection.

  11. A magnetooptic imaging probe for continuous magnetic field profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimonte, G.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic field profiles are measured continuously in space and time using Faraday rotation in magnetooptic glass. A line focused laser beam which undergoes Faraday rotation within the glass element is imaged in one dimension through a polarizer and onto a streak camera. The system is described and used to characterize an exploding diamagnetic plasma cavity

  12. An excited-state intramolecular photon transfer fluorescence probe for localizable live cell imaging of cysteine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Wen; Liu, Si-Jia; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2017-03-01

    Small molecule probes suitable for selective and specific fluorescence imaging of some important but low-concentration intracellular reactive sulfur species such as cysteine (Cys) pose a challenge in chemical biology. We present a readily available, fast-response fluorescence probe CHCQ-Ac, with 2-(5‧-chloro-2-hydroxyl-phenyl)-6-chloro-4(3 H)-quinazolinone (CHCQ) as the fluorophore and acrylate group as the functional moiety, that enables high-selectivity and high-sensitivity for detecting Cys in both solution and biological system. After specifically reacted with Cys, the probe undergoes a seven-membered intramolecular cyclization and released the fluorophore CHCQ with excited-state intramolecular photon transfer effect. A highly fluorescent, insoluble aggregate was then formed to facilitate high-sensitivity and high-resolution imaging. The results showed that probe CHCQ-Ac affords a remarkably large Stokes shift and can detect Cys under physiological pH condition with no interference from other analytes. Moreover, this probe was proved to have excellent chemical stability, low cytotoxicity and good cell permeability. Our design of this probe provides a novel potential tool to visualize and localize cysteine in bioimaging of live cells that would greatly help to explore various Cys-related physiological and pathological cellular processes in cell biology and diagnostics.

  13. Multifunctional gadolinium-based dendritic macromolecules as liver targeting imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kui; Liu, Gang; He, Bin; Wu, Yao; Gong, Qingyong; Song, Bin; Ai, Hua; Gu, Zhongwei

    2011-04-01

    The quest for highly efficient and safe contrast agents has become the key factor for successful application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The gadolinium (Gd) based dendritic macromolecules, with precise and tunable nanoscopic sizes, are excellent candidates as multivalent MRI probes. In this paper, a novel series of Gd-based multifunctional peptide dendritic probes (generation 2, 3, and 4) possessing highly controlled structures and single molecular weight were designed and prepared as liver MRI probes. These macromolecular Gd-ligand agents exhibited up to 3-fold increase in T(1) relaxivity comparing to Gd-DTPA complexes. No obvious in vitro cytotoxicity was observed from the measured concentrations. These dendritic probes were further functionalized with multiple galactosyl moieties and led to much higher cell uptake in vitro as demonstrated in T(1)-weighted scans. During in vivo animal studies, the probes provided better signal intensity (SI) enhancement in mouse liver, especially at 60 min post-injection, with the most efficient enhancement from the galactosyl moiety decorated third generation dendrimer. The imaging results were verified with analysis of Gd content in liver tissues. The design strategy of multifunctional Gd-ligand peptide dendritic macromolecules in this study may be used for developing other sensitive MRI probes with targeting capability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Benzothiadiazole Derivatives as Fluorescence Imaging Probes: Beyond Classical Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Brenno A D; Carvalho, Pedro H P R; Correa, Jose R

    2015-06-16

    This Account describes the origins, features, importance, and trends of the use of fluorescent small-molecule 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTD) derivatives as a new class of bioprobes applied to bioimaging analyses of several (live and fixed) cell types. BTDs have been successfully used as probes for a plethora of biological analyses for only a few years, and the impressive responses obtained by using this important class of heterocycle are fostering the development of new fluorescent BTDs and expanding the biological applications of such derivatives. The first use of a fluorescent small-molecule BTD derivative as a selective cellular probe dates back to 2010, and since then impressive advances have been described by us and others. The well-known limitations of classical scaffolds urged the development of new classes of bioprobes. Although great developments have been achieved by using classical scaffolds such as coumarins, BODIPYs, fluoresceins, rhodamines, cyanines, and phenoxazines, there is still much to be done, and BTDs aim to succeed where these dyes have shown their limitations. Important organelles and cell components such as nuclear DNA, mitochondria, lipid droplets, and others have already been successfully labeled by fluorescent small-molecule BTD derivatives. New technological systems that use BTDs as the fluorophores for bioimaging experiments have been described in recent scientific literature. The successful application of BTDs as selective bioprobes has led some groups to explore their potential for use in studying membrane pores or tumor cells under hypoxic conditions. Finally, BTDs have also been used as fluorescent tags to investigate the action mechanism of some antitumor compounds. The attractive photophysical data typically observed for π-extended BTD derivatives is fostering interest in the use of this new class of bioprobes. Large Stokes shifts, large molar extinction coefficients, high quantum yields, high stability when stored in solution or

  15. Multi-modal neuroimaging in premanifest and early Huntington's disease: 18 month longitudinal data from the IMAGE-HD study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Domínguez D

    Full Text Available IMAGE-HD is an Australian based multi-modal longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study in premanifest and early symptomatic Huntington's disease (pre-HD and symp-HD, respectively. In this investigation we sought to determine the sensitivity of imaging methods to detect macrostructural (volume and microstructural (diffusivity longitudinal change in HD. We used a 3T MRI scanner to acquire T1 and diffusion weighted images at baseline and 18 months in 31 pre-HD, 31 symp-HD and 29 controls. Volume was measured across the whole brain, and volume and diffusion measures were ascertained for caudate and putamen. We observed a range of significant volumetric and, for the first time, diffusion changes over 18 months in both pre-HD and symp-HD, relative to controls, detectable at the brain-wide level (volume change in grey and white matter and in caudate and putamen (volume and diffusivity change. Importantly, longitudinal volume change in the caudate was the only measure that discriminated between groups across all stages of disease: far from diagnosis (>15 years, close to diagnosis (<15 years and after diagnosis. Of the two diffusion metrics (mean diffusivity, MD; fractional anisotropy, FA, only longitudinal FA change was sensitive to group differences, but only after diagnosis. These findings further confirm caudate atrophy as one of the most sensitive and early biomarkers of neurodegeneration in HD. They also highlight that different tissue properties have varying schedules in their ability to discriminate between groups along disease progression and may therefore inform biomarker selection for future therapeutic interventions.

  16. Multimodal hypoxia imaging and intensity modulated radiation therapy for unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer: the HIL trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askoxylakis Vasileios

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiotherapy, preferably combined with chemotherapy, is the treatment standard for locally advanced, unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The tumor response to different therapy protocols is variable, with hypoxia known to be a major factor that negatively influences treatment effectiveness. Visualisation of tumor hypoxia prior to the use of modern radiation therapy strategies, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, might allow optimized dose applications to the target volume, leading to improvement of therapy outcome. 18 F-fluoromisonidazole dynamic positron emission tomography and computed tomography (18 F-FMISO dPET-CT and functional magnetic resonance imaging (functional MRI are attractive options for imaging tumor hypoxia. Methods/design The HIL trial is a single centre study combining multimodal hypoxia imaging with 18 F-FMISO dPET-CT and functional MRI, with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in patients with inoperable stage III NSCLC. 15 patients will be recruited in the study. All patients undergo initial FDG PET-CT and serial 18 F-FMISO dPET-CT and functional MRI before treatment, at week 5 of radiotherapy and 6 weeks post treatment. Radiation therapy is performed as inversely planned IMRT based on 4D-CT. Discussion Primary objectives of the trial are to characterize the correlation of 18 F-FMISO dPET-CT and functional MRI for tumor hypoxia imaging in NSCLC and evaluate possible effects of radiation therapy on tumor re-oxygenation. Further objectives include the generation of data regarding the prognostic value of 18 F-FMISO dPET-CT and functional MRI for locoregional control, progression free survival and overall survival of NSCLC treated with IMRT, which will form the basis for larger clinical trials focusing on possible interactions between tumor oxygenation and radiotherapy outcome. Trial registration The ClinicalTrials.gov protocol ID is NCT01617980

  17. Multimodal imaging utilising integrated MR-PET for human brain tumour assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuner, Irene; Kaffanke, Joachim B.; Langen, Karl-Josef; Kops, Elena Rota; Tellmann, Lutz; Stoffels, Gabriele; Weirich, Christoph; Filss, Christian; Scheins, Juergen; Herzog, Hans; Shah, N. Jon

    2012-01-01

    The development of integrated magnetic resonance (MR)-positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging opens up new horizons for imaging in neuro-oncology. In cerebral gliomas the definition of tumour extent may be difficult to ascertain using standard MR imaging (MRI) only. The differentiation of post-therapeutic scar tissue, tumour rests and tumour recurrence is challenging. The relationship to structures such as the pyramidal tract to the tumour mass influences the therapeutic neurosurgical approach. The diagnostic information may be enriched by sophisticated MR techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multiple-volume proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Metabolic imaging with PET, especially using amino acid tracers such as 18 F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET) or 11 C-l-methionine (MET) will indicate tumour extent and response to treatment. The new technologies comprising MR-PET hybrid systems have the advantage of providing comprehensive answers by a one-stop-job of 40-50 min. The combined approach provides data of different modalities using the same iso-centre, resulting in optimal spatial and temporal realignment. All images are acquired exactly under the same physiological conditions. We describe the imaging protocol in detail and provide patient examples for the different imaging modalities such as FET-PET, standard structural imaging (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1-weighted contrast agent enhanced), DTI, MRSI and fMRI. (orig.)

  18. Multimodal imaging utilising integrated MR-PET for human brain tumour assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuner, Irene [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Aachen (Germany); JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Kaffanke, Joachim B. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); MR-Transfer e.K., Wuppertal (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef; Kops, Elena Rota; Tellmann, Lutz; Stoffels, Gabriele; Weirich, Christoph; Filss, Christian; Scheins, Juergen; Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); Shah, N. Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The development of integrated magnetic resonance (MR)-positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging opens up new horizons for imaging in neuro-oncology. In cerebral gliomas the definition of tumour extent may be difficult to ascertain using standard MR imaging (MRI) only. The differentiation of post-therapeutic scar tissue, tumour rests and tumour recurrence is challenging. The relationship to structures such as the pyramidal tract to the tumour mass influences the therapeutic neurosurgical approach. The diagnostic information may be enriched by sophisticated MR techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multiple-volume proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Metabolic imaging with PET, especially using amino acid tracers such as {sup 18}F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET) or {sup 11}C-l-methionine (MET) will indicate tumour extent and response to treatment. The new technologies comprising MR-PET hybrid systems have the advantage of providing comprehensive answers by a one-stop-job of 40-50 min. The combined approach provides data of different modalities using the same iso-centre, resulting in optimal spatial and temporal realignment. All images are acquired exactly under the same physiological conditions. We describe the imagi