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Sample records for multimodal anaesthetic regime

  1. Postoperative recovery profile after elective abdominal hysterectomy: a prospective, observational study of a multimodal anaesthetic regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth; Kehlet, Henrik; Lund, Claus M

    2009-01-01

    insufficiency and time of discharge readiness. RESULTS: The structured regime consisting of total intravenous anaesthesia (propofol-remifentanil), well defined fluid administration, prophylactic antiemetics (dexamethasone, ondansetron, droperidol), weak analgesics (celecoxib, paracetamol) and intraoperative......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the applicability, effectiveness, immediate postoperative complaints and requirements for a postanaesthesia care unit stay after elective abdominal hysterectomy under a well defined, multimodal anaesthetic regime. METHODS: Observational study of 145 consecutive......, was seen in 52%. CONCLUSION: We conclude that a structured multimodal anaesthetic regime is feasible in daily clinical practice and advantageous, and that postoperative pain and oxygen requirements (to sustain an SpO2 >92%) are the major determinants for length of stay in the postanaesthesia care unit...

  2. Post-operative recovery profile after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective, observational study of a multimodal anaesthetic regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Kehlet, H; Lund, Claus

    2007-01-01

    functions. We investigated the feasibility and efficacy of a standardized, evidence-based anaesthesia/analgesic regime to identify residual problems in the early post-operative phase. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four consecutive patients admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy at Hvidovre...

  3. Assessment of Common Anaesthetic and Clinical Indices of Multimodal Therapy of Propofol, Xylazine, and Ketamine in Total Intravenous Anaesthesia in West African Dwarf Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukwueze Celestine Okwudili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of anaesthetic and clinical indices of multimodal therapy of propofol, xylazine, and ketamine was done in West African Dwarf (WAD goat. Sixteen healthy male WAD goats were assigned into four treatment groups, namely, control (group A (ketamine 5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg, group B (propofol 5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg, group C (propofol 5 mg/kg + ketamine 5 mg/kg, and group D (propofol 2.5 mg/kg + ketamine 2.5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.05 mg/kg. All drugs were administered intravenously. The multimodal therapy decreased significantly (P<0.05 the heart rate in groups A, B, and D. Also respiratory rate significantly (P<0.05 decreased in groups A, B, and D but significantly (P<0.05 increased at 20 min after induction in group C. However, temperature significantly (P<0.05 decreased in groups A, B, and C. The induction was good and smooth in groups B and D. Surgical anaesthetic time was longer in groups B and D and shorter in group C. The quality of recovery was good in groups B and D. Side effects such as salivation and apnoea were observed in all groups. In conclusion, the multimodal therapy could be used successfully. However, group D could be the best combination considering the parameters measured.

  4. Post-operative recovery profile after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective, observational study of a multimodal anaesthetic regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Kehlet, H; Lund, Claus Michael

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now often an ambulatory procedure, but dependent on short-term post-operative complaints of pain and post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). The efficacy of post-anaesthesia care units (PACUs) is therefore important to facilitate return to normal fun...... are predictors of a complicated recovery profile and deserve further attention. Transient oxygen desaturations postpone discharge from the PACU, but the clinical significance of this fact is questionable. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr...

  5. Multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I address an ongoing discussion in Danish E-learning research about how to take advantage of the fact that digital media facilitate other communication forms than text, so-called ‘multimodal' communication, which should not be confused with the term ‘multimedia'. While multimedia...... on their teaching and learning situations. The choices they make involve e-learning resources like videos, social platforms and mobile devices, not just as digital artefacts we interact with, but the entire practice of using digital media. In a life-long learning perspective, multimodality is potentially very...

  6. Low-frequency fluctuation regime in a multimode semiconductor laser subject to a mode-selective optical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, F.; Sciamanna, M.; Deparis, O.; Megret, P.; Blondel, M.

    2002-01-01

    We study numerically the dynamics of a multimode laser diode subject to a mode-selective optical feedback by using a generalization of the Lang-Kobayashi equations. In this configuration, only one longitudinal mode of the laser is reinjected into the laser cavity; the other modes are free. When the laser operates in the low-frequency fluctuation regime, our model predicts intensity bursts in the free modes simultaneously with dropouts in the selected mode, in good agreement with recent experiments. In the frame of our model, intensity bursts and dropouts are associated with collisions of the system trajectory in phase space with saddle-type antimodes

  7. Multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    In this paper, I address an ongoing discussion in Danish E-learning research about how to take advantage of the fact that digital media facilitate other communication forms than text, so-called ‘multimodal’ communication, which should not be confused with the term ‘multimedia’. While multimedia...... and learning situations. The choices they make involve E-learning resources like videos, social platforms and mobile devices, not just as digital artefacts we interact with, but the entire practice of using digital media. In a life-long learning perspective, multimodality is potentially very useful...

  8. Local anaesthetic toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local anaesthetic toxicity has been known since the introduction of local anaesthetic drugs into anaesthetic practice more than a hundred ... was the first to think of cocaine as a narcotic. ..... anaesthetics act as Na+ channel-blocking agents, they slow down .... all neurons, leading to global CNS depression, slowing and.

  9. More about … Anaesthetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (intercostal or phrenic nerve paralysis) effect. Although not a direct toxic effect, one must note that ester derivatives and the methylparaben preservative of the amide derivatives may cause allergic reactions, even though this is quite rare. Peak plasma levels of injected local anaesthetics depend on the site of injection.

  10. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  11. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  12. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little consideration has been given to the environmental impact of anaesthetic gas .... our practice to select gases with a lower environmental impact is also ... is used as raw material for new anaesthetics. ... none in the pipeline.1. Conclusion.

  13. Cardiovascular drugs in anaesthetic practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarte, Lothar A.; Loer, S.A.; Wietasch, Johann; Scheeren, TWL

    This two-volume work of 91 chapters covers all aspects of practice in anaesthesia. Volume 1 addresses the underpinning sciences of anaesthesia including physiology, pharmacology, physics, anaesthetic equipment, statistics, and evidence-based anaesthesia. Volume 1 also outlines the fundamental

  14. Teamwork, communication, and anaesthetic assistance in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, J S; Flin, R; Mitchell, L

    2012-07-01

    Teamwork involves supporting others, solving conflicts, exchanging information, and co-ordinating activities. This article describes the results of interviews with anaesthetic assistants (n=22) and consultant anaesthetists (n=11), investigating the non-technical skills involved in the effective teamwork of the anaesthetic assistants in the operating theatre. Anaesthetic assistants most commonly saw themselves as either being part of a theatre team or an anaesthetic subgroup and most commonly described the senior theatre nurse as their team leader. Examples of supporting others included the following: checking equipment, providing equipment, being a second pair of eyes, providing emotional and decision support, and supporting trainee anaesthetists. Of the 19 anaesthetic assistants who were asked if they would speak up if they disagreed with a decision in theatre, only 14 said that they would voice their concerns, and the most common approach was to ask for the logic behind the decision. The WHO checklist was described as prompting some anaesthetists to describe their anaesthetic plan to the anaesthetic assistant, when previously the anaesthetist would have failed to communicate their intentions in time for equipment to be prepared. The prioritization of activities to achieve co-ordination and the anaesthetic assistants becoming familiar with the idiosyncrasies of their regular anaesthetists were also described by anaesthetic assistants.

  15. Anaesthetic considerations for paediatric laparoscopy | Lasersohn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children, infants and neonates represent an anaesthetic challenge because of age-specific anatomical and physiological issues. Apart from paediatric-specific anaesthetic considerations, the paediatric anaesthetist must understand the implications of laparoscopic surgery, and prevent and react appropriately to changes ...

  16. Rural anaesthetic audit 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P D; Newbury, J

    2012-03-01

    In order to review anaesthetic morbidity in our remote rural hospital, a retrospective audit of all anaesthetic records was undertaken for a five-year period between 2006 and 2010. Eight hundred and eighty-nine anaesthetic records were reviewed. The patients were all American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I to III. Ninety-eight percent of the anaesthetics were performed by general practitioner (non-specialist) anaesthetists. There were no anaesthetic deaths or serious adverse outcomes reported over this period. Sixteen intraoperative and seven postoperative problems were documented, but all were resolved uneventfully. The most common problems documented were difficult intubation (n=9) and respiratory depression (n=3). Within the limitations of this retrospective audit, these findings indicate that general practitioner anaesthetists provided safe anaesthesia in a remote rural hospital. It is our opinion that the case selection, prior experience of anaesthetic and theatre staff, stable nursing workforce and the use of protocols were important factors in determining the low rate of adverse events. However, we caution against over-interpretation of the data, given its retrospective nature, relatively small sample size, reliance on case records and the absence of agreed definitions for adverse events. We would also like to encourage all anaesthetic services, however remote, to audit their results as part of ongoing quality assurance.

  17. Anaesthetic management of intussusception in pregnancy | Nwasor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teamwork will win and effective communication between obstetrician, surgeon, anesthesiologist and neonatologist is obligatory. Good knowledge of the simplest and fastest anaesthetic techniques available will ensure a fruitful outcome. Keywords: anaesthesia, intussusception, obstetric patients. Annals of African Medicine ...

  18. An audit of anaesthetic record keeping

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    tive assessment and the intra-operative data is usually con- ... An audit of anaesthetic records was performed to determine the rate of completion and adequacy of such records. ... medicolegal practice, where the risks of legal action being.

  19. Haemodynamic and anaesthetic advantages of dexmedetomidine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-27

    Jan 27, 2012 ... anaesthetic requirements, the pressor response to intuba- tion and ... maintain HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP) within 20% .... opioids or other analgesics in any of the patients during the ..... surgery in prone position.

  20. Local anaesthetics: Characteris tics, uses and toxicities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LA in the body plasma, the more toxic it is. ... pain relief. As always, good judgement is necessary – an insulin- ... postgraduate anaesthetic specialisation training in Bloemfontein. ... at 3 - 5-minute intervals; then (or sooner ... Then, attach the fat.

  1. Anaemia and pregnancy: Anaesthetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Grewal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in pregnancy defined as haemoglobin (Hb level of < 10 gm/dL, is a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of Hb or red blood cells in circulation resulting in reduced oxygen (O 2 -carrying capacity of the blood. Compensatory mechanisms in the form of increase in cardiac output (CO, PaO 2 , 2,3 diphosphoglycerate levels, rightward shift in the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC, decrease in blood viscosity and release of renal erythropoietin, get activated to variable degrees to maintain tissue oxygenation and offset the decreases in arterial O 2 content. Parturients with concomitant medical diseases or those with acute ongoing blood losses may get decompensated, leading to serious consequences like right heart failure, angina or tissue hypoxemia in severe anaemia. Preoperative evaluation is aimed at assessing the severity and cause of anaemia. The concept of an acceptable Hb level varies with the underlying medical condition, extent of physiological compensation, the threat of bleeding and ongoing blood losses. The main anaesthetic considerations are to minimize factors interfering with O 2 delivery, prevent any increase in oxygen consumption and to optimize the partial pressure of O 2 in the arterial blood. Both general anaesthesia and regional anaesthesia can be employed judiciously. Monitoring should focus mainly on the adequacy of perfusion and oxygenation of vital organs. Hypoxia, hyperventilation, hypothermia, acidosis and other conditions that shift the ODC to left should be avoided. Any decrease in CO should be averted and aggressively treated.

  2. Pre-anaesthetic screening of geriatric dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Pre-anaesthetic screening has been advocated as a valuable tool for improving anaesthetic safety and determining anaesthetic risk. This study was done determine whether pre-anaesthetic screening result in cancellation of anaesthesia and the diagnosis of new clinical conditions in geriatric dogs. One hundred and one dogs older than 7 years of age provided informed owner consent were included in the study. Each dog was weighed, and its temperature, pulse and respiration recorded. An abdominal palpation, examination of the mouth, including capillary refill time and mucous membranes, auscultation, body condition and habitus was performed and assessed. A cephalic catheter was placed and blood drawn for pre-anaesthetic testing. A micro-haematocrit tube was filled and the packed cell volume determined. The blood placed was in a test tube, centrifuged and then analysed on an in-house blood analyser. Alkaline phosphatase, alanine transferase, urea, creatinine, glucose and total protein were determined. A urine sample was then obtained by cystocentesis, catheterisation or free-flow for analysis. The urine specific gravity was determined with a refractometer. A small quantity of urine was then placed on a dip stick. Any new diagnoses made during the pre-anaesthetic screening were recorded. The average age of the dogs was 10.99+2.44 years and the weight was 19.64+15.78 kg. There were 13 dogs with pre-existing medical conditions. A total of 30 new diagnoses were made on the basis of the pre-anaesthetic screening. The most common conditions were neoplasia, chronic kidney disease and Cushing's disease. Of the 30 patients with a new diagnosis, 13 did not undergo anaesthesia as result of the new diagnosis. From this study it can be concluded that screening of geriatric patients is important and that sub-clinical disease could be present in nearly 30 % of these patients. The value of screening before anaesthesia is perhaps more questionable in terms of

  3. Extended release formulations for local anaesthetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, C F; Golovanevski, L; Domb, A J; Ickowicz, D

    2012-08-01

    Systemic toxicity through overdose of local anaesthetic agents is a real concern. By encapsulating local anaesthetics in biodegradable carriers to produce a system for prolonged release, their duration of action can be extended. This encapsulation should also improve the safety profile of the local anaesthetic as it is released at a slower rate. Work with naturally occurring local anaestheticss has also shown promise in the area of reducing systemic and neurotoxicity. Extended duration local anaesthetic formulations in current development or clinical use include liposomes, hydrophobic based polymer particles such as Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, pasty injectable and solid polymers like Poly(sebacic-co-ricinoleic acid) P(SA:RA) and their combination with synthetic and natural local anaesthetic. Their duration of action, rationale and limitations are reviewed. Direct comparison of the different agents is limited by their chemical properties, the drug doses encapsulated and the details of in vivo models described. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Anaesthetic Management of Conjoined Twins′ Separation Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolli S Chalam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesia for conjoined twins, either for separation surgery, or for MRI or other evaluation procedures is an enormous challenge to the paediatric anaesthesiologist. This is an extra challenging surgery because we the anaesthesiologists need to care for two patients at the same time instead of just one. Anaesthesia for conjoined twins ′separation surgery mainly centered on the following concerns: 1.Conjoined Twins′ physiology like crossed circulation. distribution of blood volume and organ sharing with their anaesthetic implications. 2.Long marathon surgery with massive fluid shifts and loss of blood & blood components and their rapid replenishment. 3.Meticulous planning for organized management of long hours of anaesthetic administration in two paediatric subjects simultaneously with multi surgical specialties involvement and their unique requirements.We report the anaesthetic and intensive care management of one pair of Pygopagus separation surgery and also the review of literature and world statistics.

  5. Local anaesthetics and chondrotoxicty: What is the evidence?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baker, Joseph F

    2012-11-01

    Recent reports have suggested that local anaesthetic agents have a toxic effect on articular chondrocytes. This is despite the widespread intra-articular use of local anaesthetic agents following arthroscopic procedures for a number of years.

  6. [Anaesthetic-induced myocardial preconditioning: fundamental basis and clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, P; Bouvet, F; Piriou, V

    2005-04-01

    Volatile halogenated anaesthetics offer a myocardial protection when they are administrated before a myocardial ischaemia. Cellular mechanisms involved in anaesthetic preconditioning are now better understood. The objectives of this review are to understand the anaesthetic-induced preconditioning underlying mechanisms and to know the clinical implications. References were obtained from PubMed data bank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi) using the following keywords: volatile anaesthetic, isoflurane, halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane, preconditioning, protection, myocardium. Ischaemic preconditioning (PC) is a myocardial endogenous protection against ischaemia. It has been described as one or several short ischaemia before a sustained ischemia. These short ischaemia trigger a protective signal against this longer ischaemia. An ischemic organ is able to precondition a remote organ. It is possible to replace the short ischaemia by a preadministration of halogenated volatile anaesthetic with the same protective effect, this is called anaesthetic PC (APC). APC and ischaemic PC share similar underlying biochemical mechanisms including protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase activation and mitochondrial and sarcolemnal K(ATP) channels opening. All halogenated anaesthetics can produce an anaesthetic PC effect. Myocardial protection during reperfusion, after the long ischaemia, has been shown by successive short ischaemia or volatile anaesthetic administration, this is called postconditioning. Ischaemic PC has been described in humans in 1993. Clinical studies in human cardiac surgery have shown the possibility of anaesthetic PC with volatile anaesthetics. These studies have shown a decrease of postoperative troponin in patient receiving halogenated anaesthetics.

  7. Anaesthetic management of ostrich. Initial experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccarino, M.; Mauthe Degerfeld, M. von

    1997-01-01

    Different anaesthetic induction and maintenance protocols were used in 2 adult ostriches and 3 juvenile ostriches. After the intramuscolar (im) administration of an induction agent, like ketamine or tiletamine/zolazepam, general anaesthesia in 4 cases was maintained with isoflurane or halothane. General anaesthesia for radiological examinations was also performed with metedomidine/ketamine im [it

  8. anaesthetic registrars' experiences of perioperative death

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Death on the table: anaesthetic registrars' experiences of perioperative ... aDepartment of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa ... Results: Themes expressed by participants fell into three broad categories: ... number (up to 70%) of anaesthetists report experiencing adverse.

  9. Anaesthetic management of tracheobronchial disruption during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-29

    Jan 29, 2011 ... despite advances in surgical technique and intensive care management. ... female was investigated for dysphagia and diagnosed with a middle-third ... was inserted without any difficulty and correct placement confirmed by ... the patient was placed in the lateral thoracotomy position. Anaesthetic ...

  10. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... to be small when compared to gaseous emissions from industrial and agricultural sources, the actual percentage contribution to climate change is small. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  11. Anaesthetic management of endoscopic resection of juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P Khanna, BR Ray, R Sinha, R Kumar, K Sikka, AC Singh ... We present the anaesthetic management of endoscopic resection of 14 JNAs, together with a review. ... Mean duration of surgery was 197.14 ± 77 minutes, and median blood loss ...

  12. Periodic Classification of Local Anaesthetics (Procaine Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Castellano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms for classification are proposed based on criteria (information entropyand its production. The feasibility of replacing a given anaesthetic by similar ones in thecomposition of a complex drug is studied. Some local anaesthetics currently in use areclassified using characteristic chemical properties of different portions of their molecules.Many classification algorithms are based on information entropy. When applying theseprocedures to sets of moderate size, an excessive number of results appear compatible withdata, and this number suffers a combinatorial explosion. However, after the equipartitionconjecture, one has a selection criterion between different variants resulting fromclassification between hierarchical trees. According to this conjecture, for a given charge orduty, the best configuration of a flowsheet is the one in which the entropy production is mostuniformly distributed. Information entropy and principal component analyses agree. Theperiodic law of anaesthetics has not the rank of the laws of physics: (1 the properties ofanaesthetics are not repeated; (2 the order relationships are repeated with exceptions. Theproposed statement is: The relationships that any anaesthetic p has with its neighbour p 1are approximately repeated for each period.

  13. Multimodality and Ambient Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Verhaegh, W.; Aarts, E.; Korst, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss multimodal interface technology. We present eexamples of multimodal interfaces and show problems and opportunities. Fusion of modalities is discussed and some roadmap discussions on research in multimodality are summarized. This chapter also discusses future developments

  14. Achondroplasia: anaesthetic challenges for caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, L; Scott, G A; Agaram, R; McGrady, E; Duncan, A; Litchfield, K N

    2014-08-01

    Pregnancy in women with achondroplasia presents major challenges for anaesthetists and obstetricians. We report the case of a woman with achondroplasia who underwent general anaesthesia for an elective caesarean section. She was 99cm in height and her condition was further complicated by severe kyphoscoliosis and previous back surgery. She was reviewed in the first trimester at the anaesthetic high-risk clinic. A multidisciplinary team was convened to plan her peripartum care. Because of increasing dyspnoea caesarean section was performed at 32weeks of gestation. She received a general anaesthetic using a modified rapid-sequence technique with remifentanil and rocuronium. The intraoperative period was complicated by desaturation and high airway pressures. The woman's postoperative care was complicated by respiratory compromise requiring high dependency care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Congenital lobar emphysema in neonates: Anaesthetic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridu Paban Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE is a potentially reversible, though possibly life-threatening, cause of respiratory distress in the neonate. It poses dilemma in diagnosis and management. We are presenting a 6-week-old baby who presented with a sudden onset of respiratory distress related to CLE affecting the left upper lobe. Lobectomy was performed under general anaesthesia with one lung ventilation. The details of anaesthetic challenges and management are described here.

  16. Local anaesthetic infiltration for peri-operative pain control in total hip and knee replacement: systematic review and meta-analyses of short- and long-term effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Elsa M R; Jones, Hayley E; Elvers, Karen T; Pyke, Mark; Blom, Ashley W; Beswick, Andrew D

    2014-07-05

    Surgical pain is managed with multi-modal anaesthesia in total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR). It is unclear whether including local anaesthetic infiltration before wound closure provides additional pain control. We performed a systematic review of randomised controlled trials of local anaesthetic infiltration in patients receiving THR or TKR. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL to December 2012. Two reviewers screened abstracts, extracted data, and contacted authors for unpublished outcomes and data. Outcomes collected were post-operative pain at rest and during activity after 24 and 48 hours, opioid requirement, mobilisation, hospital stay and complications. When feasible, we estimated pooled treatment effects using random effects meta-analyses. In 13 studies including 909 patients undergoing THR, patients receiving local anaesthetic infiltration experienced a greater reduction in pain at 24 hours at rest by standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.61 (95% CI -1.05, -0.16; p = 0.008) and by SMD -0.43 (95% CI -0.78 -0.09; p = 0.014) at 48 hours during activity.In TKR, diverse multi-modal regimens were reported. In 23 studies including 1439 patients undergoing TKR, local anaesthetic infiltration reduced pain on average by SMD -0.40 (95% CI -0.58, -0.22; p SMD -0.27 (95% CI -0.50, -0.05; p = 0.018) at 48 hours during activity, compared with patients receiving no infiltration or placebo. There was evidence of a larger reduction in studies delivering additional local anaesthetic after wound closure. There was no evidence of pain control additional to that provided by femoral nerve block.Patients receiving local anaesthetic infiltration spent on average an estimated 0.83 (95% CI 1.54, 0.12; p = 0.022) and 0.87 (95% CI 1.62, 0.11; p = 0.025) fewer days in hospital after THR and TKR respectively, had reduced opioid consumption, earlier mobilisation, and lower incidence of vomiting.Few studies reported long-term outcomes. Local

  17. Peri-anaesthetic complications in an equine referral hospital: Risk factors for post anaesthetic colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R C; Corletto, F; Wright, I M

    2015-11-01

    Peri-anaesthetic complications are relatively common in equine patients and further investigations are warranted to identify manageable risk factors. To report morbidity and mortality rates and identify associated risk factors for horses undergoing general anaesthesia, within a predominantly racing Thoroughbred (TB) population. Single centre retrospective observational study. Anaesthetic and case records of all horses ≥12 months old undergoing general anaesthesia at Newmarket Equine Hospital between August 2010 and April 2012 were analysed, excluding emergency abdominal/dystocia procedures or traumatology cases with cardiovascular compromise. Mortality and morbidity rates were calculated and described. Uni- and multivariable analyses were used to investigate the relationship between the principal complication, post anaesthetic colic (PAC) and risk factors. A total of 1067 anaesthetic records of 1021 horses were included in the study; of these, 702 horses (65.8%) were TB, 169 (15.8%) developed a complication within 7 days of general anaesthesia and 10 (0.94%) died as a result. The most prevalent morbidity was PAC, 111 horses (10.5%) developed colic within 7 days of general anaesthesia. Thoroughbred horses (odds ratio [OR] 2.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73-4.96) and horses receiving sodium benzylpenicillin (NaBP) (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.69-4.50) were at increased risk of PAC. Thoroughbred racehorses were identified as at increased risk of PAC in this study and might benefit from more critical evaluation of post anaesthetic gastrointestinal function. An alternative to the administration of NaBP for prophylactic antimicrobial therapy needs to be further investigated if its role in PAC is confirmed by other studies. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  18. What is anaesthetic death? | Tudjegbe | Annals of Biomedical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic death” is often defined as the death of a patient who has had an anaesthetic, within 24 hours of the procedure. This is irrespective of the contribution of anaesthesia to the cause of death. Many people disagree with this definition. We illustrate this point by presenting the case of a 5-year old boy who had ...

  19. Accidental deposition of local anaesthetic in the subdural space ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of accidental injection of local anaesthetic into the subdural space during neuraxial blockade is rare. The presentation of unexplainable clinical signs that do not match the clinical picture of subarachnoid or intravascular injection of the local anaesthetic agent should invoke high suspicion of unintentional ...

  20. The long-term consequences of anaesthetic management | Sessler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, it is reasonable to ask to what extent anaesthetic management might influence long-term outcomes. The distinction being made here is between the classical definition of anaesthetic complications, which is restricted to the immediate perioperative period, perhaps extending to a few days after surgery, and the ...

  1. Anaesthetic indices and vital parameters of PPR-infected West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study, was to assess and compare the anaesthetic indices and vital parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goats naturally infected with PPR before and after epidural anaesthesia with plain lignocaine and also to compare the measured anaesthetic indices with those of healthy goats. Ten goats were used ...

  2. Anaesthetic management of appendectomy in a patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of anaesthetic management for appendectomy in a patient with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is to maintain a stable cardiovascular system. As this condition is rare, there are no definitive guidelines regarding the anaesthetic management of such patients. Case report: We report a case of ...

  3. Tachyphylaxis to local anaesthetics. What is the clinical evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, U E; Werner, M U

    2016-01-01

    : We performed a systematic review of the literature utilising the databases PubMed and Embase employing the search terms [Tachyphylaxis AND Local Anaesthetics AND Human] AND [Tolerance AND Local Anaesthetics AND Human]. RESULTS: A total of 66 records were identified. Thirty-four articles were assessed...

  4. Influence of pre-anaesthetic thoracic radiographs on ASA physical status classification and anaesthetic protocols in traumatized dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigrist, N.; Mosing, M.; Iff, I.; Larenza, M.P.; Lang, J.; Spreng, D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if pre-anaesthetic thoracic radiographs contribute to the anaesthetic management of trauma patients by comparing American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification (ASA grade) with and without information from thoracic radiography findings. Case records of 157 dogs and cats being anaesthetized with or without post-traumatic, pre-anaesthetic chest radiographs were retrospectively evaluated for clinical parameters, radiographic abnormalities and anaesthetic protocol. Animals were retrospectively assigned an ASA grade. ASA grades, clinical signs of respiratory abnormalities and anaesthesia protocols were compared between animals with and without chest radiographs. The group of animals without pre-anaesthetic radiographs was anaesthetized earlier after trauma and showed less respiratory abnormalities at presentation. The retrospectively evaluated ASA grade significantly increased with the information from thoracic radiography. Animals with a higher ASA grade were less frequently mechanically ventilated. Pre-anaesthetic radiographs may provide important information to assess the ASA grade in traumatized patients and may therefore influence the anesthesia protocol

  5. Attitudes and intentions of current anaesthetic trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, S; Moriarty, J

    2013-03-01

    We report the results of a survey of Irish anaesthetic specialist trainees to establish their future training intentions, their interest in seeking a Consultant position in Ireland and identification of factors that may reduce the attractiveness of future employment in the HSE. 149 responses were received (71% of trainees). 137 (92%) are likely to complete further training abroad, but only 24 (16.1%) are definitely planning to return to work in Ireland. Factors, in order of importance that influence their return to Ireland include equivalence of all Consultants, salary level and availability of flexible work practices. Almost all (131 - 91%) would only consider working in Ireland at Consultant level. These results reveal that the current cohort of specialist trainees do not consider Ireland an attractive place to work, and any further diminution of the current Consultant grade will only serve to worsen this perception.

  6. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kh'yuitt, G.

    1980-01-01

    An introduction into the problem of two-phase flows is presented. Flow regimes arizing in two-phase flows are described, and classification of these regimes is given. Structures of vertical and horizontal two-phase flows and a method of their identification using regime maps are considered. The limits of this method application are discussed. The flooding phenomena and phenomena of direction change (flow reversal) of the flow and interrelation of these phenomena as well as transitions from slug regime to churn one and from churn one to annular one in vertical flows are described. Problems of phase transitions and equilibrium are discussed. Flow regimes in tubes where evaporating liquid is running, are described [ru

  7. Variation of tumour radiosensitivity with time after anaesthetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nias, A.H.W.; Perry, P.M. (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (UK). Richard Dimbleby Research Lab.)

    1989-10-01

    Transplanted C{sub 3}H mouse mammary tumours were given single doses of X irradiation in air or oxygen at 1 atmosphere (atm) with or without anaesthesia of recipient mice by ketamine and diazepam. The radiation response to single doses of 25 Gy was determined in terms of time taken to reach 3.5 times the treatment volume. Under all conditions there was more growth delay in tumours irradiated in pure oxygen than in air. In air and oxygen, the radiation response for anaestheitized animals tended to fall below the level for non-anaesthetized ones when only 10 min had elapsed after administration of anaesthesia. After 25 min, the response in air was back to the level for non-anaesthetized animals but the oxygen group then showed significant sensitization compared with the oxygen without anaesthetic group. After 40 min, the air group showed slight sensitization and the oxygen group still showed significant sensitization by the anaesthetic. (author).

  8. Anaesthetic and Obstetric challenges of morbid obesity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic and Obstetric challenges of morbid obesity in caesarean ... in morbidly obese parturient that had caesarean delivery in a Nigerian tertiary care centre. ... This mirrors a World Health Organisation report published in the World Health ...

  9. The concept of anaesthetic-induced cardioprotection: clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Stefan G.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental evidence has clearly demonstrated that volatile anaesthetic agents have direct protective properties against reversible and irreversible ischaemic myocardial damage. These properties have been related to a direct preconditioning effect but also to an effect on the extent of reperfusion

  10. Paravertebral block as a sole technique for the anaesthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinsley Enohumah

    2016-04-11

    Apr 11, 2016 ... anaesthetic management of a ME patient who underwent breast cancer surgery. ... some minor discomfort in the axillary area. Since the patient ... postoperative analgesia without increased toxicity in healthy adults.

  11. Anaesthetic challenges in a patient with Klippel–Feil syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anaesthetic considerations in the management of this patient are also discussed. Keywords: ... based on lean body weight for topical anaesthesia in adults. Co- .... another tool for difficult intubation or a new paradigm in airway.

  12. Anaesthetic effects of Adenia gummifera distillates on Apis mellifera (Honeybee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngarivhume, T; Dzomba, P; Gwizangwe, I; Zendera, C H; Katsvanga, C A T; Jimu, L; Moyo, M; Chagonda, T

    2008-01-01

    The anaesthetic activities of steam distillates of Adenia gummifera stem on Apis mellifera were evaluated by a diffusion method. Live, direct and fractional (61-80 degrees C fraction) distillates had greater anaesthetic effect while vacuum distillates were mild. The anaesthetic activity significantly increased with concentration up to 6% (v/v), and then it levelled off, while excessive exposure was lethal. The number of bees in a given volume had no significant effect on anaesthetic activity but container volume (F(cal) = 66.4; F(3,8) = 4.07) and bee-distillate distance (F(cal) = 31.0; F(2,6) = 5.14) did, suggesting the rate of diffusion of active component could be the determining factor. The active component is likely to contain amines and the rest halogenated alkane.

  13. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liles, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Internal boundaries in multiphase flow greatly complicate fluid-dynamic and heat-transfer descriptions. Different flow regimes or topological configurations can have radically dissimilar interfacial and wall mass, momentum, and energy exchanges. To model the flow dynamics properly requires estimates of these rates. In this paper the common flow regimes for gas-liquid systems are defined and the techniques used to estimate the extent of a particular regime are described. Also, the current computer-code procedures are delineated and introduce a potentially better method is introduced

  14. Cleaning and sterilisation of anaesthetic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Sanjeev Juwarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this review article is to bring up what has been known (practiced about decontamination, disinfection, and sterilisation of anaesthetic equipment. It also discusses how this evidence-based information on infection prevention and control impacts care of patient in routine anaesthesia practice. This review underscores the role played by us, anaesthetists in formulating guidelines, implementing the same, monitoring the outcome and training post-graduate trainees and coworkers in this regard. The article re-emphasises that certain guidelines when followed strictly will go a long way in reducing transmission of hospital acquired infection between patient and anaesthetist or between patients. Anaesthetists do not restrict their work to operating room but are involved in disaster management, interventional radiological procedures and in trauma care. They should ensure that the patients are cared for in clean and safe environment so as to reduce healthcare associated infections (HCAIs simultaneously taking preventive measures against the various health hazards associated with clinical practice. They should ensure that the coworkers too adopt all the preventive measures while delivering their duties. For this review, we conducted literature searches in Medline (PubMed and also searched for relevant abstracts and full texts of related articles that we came across. There is much to be learned from the western world where, health care organisations now have legal responsibility to implement changes in accordance with the newer technology to reduce health care associated infection. There is a need to develop evidence-based infection prevention and control programs and set national guidelines for disinfection and sterilisation of anaesthesia equipment which all the institutions should comply with.

  15. Species specific anaesthetics for fish anaesthesia and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readman, Gareth D; Owen, Stewart F; Knowles, Toby G; Murrell, Joanna C

    2017-08-02

    There is a need to ensure that the care and welfare for fish maintained in the laboratory are to the highest standards. This extends to the use of anaesthetics for both scientific study, humane killing and euthanasia at end of life. An anaesthetic should not induce negative behaviours and fish should not seek to avoid the anaesthetic. Surprisingly little information is available to facilitate a humane choice of anaesthetic agent for fish despite over 100 years of use and the millions of fish currently held in thousands of laboratories worldwide. Using a chemotaxic choice chamber we found different species specific behavioural responses among four closely related fish species commonly held in the laboratory, exposed to three widely used anaesthetic agents. As previously found for zebrafish (Danio rerio), the use of MS-222 and benzocaine also appears to induce avoidance behaviours in medaka (Oryzias latipes); but etomidate could provide an alternative choice. Carp (Cyprinus carpio), although closely related to zebrafish showed avoidance behaviours to etomidate, but not benzocaine or MS-222; and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) showed no avoidance to the three agents tested. We were unable to ascertain avoidance responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and suggest different test paradigms are required for that species.

  16. Regime change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong-Sylvester, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Following the 1998 nuclear tests in South Asia and later reinforced by revelations about North Korean and Iraqi nuclear activities, there has been growing concern about increasing proliferation dangers. At the same time, the prospects of radiological/nuclear terrorism are seen to be rising - since 9/11, concern over a proliferation/terrorism nexus has never been higher. In the face of this growing danger, there are urgent calls for stronger measures to strengthen the current international nuclear nonproliferation regime, including recommendations to place civilian processing of weapon-useable material under multinational control. As well, there are calls for entirely new tools, including military options. As proliferation and terrorism concerns grow, the regime is under pressure and there is a temptation to consider fundamental changes to the regime. In this context, this paper will address the following: Do we need to change the regime centered on the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)? What improvements could ensure it will be the foundation for the proliferation resistance and physical protection needed if nuclear power grows? What will make it a viable centerpiece of future nonproliferation and counterterrorism approaches?

  17. Anaesthetic implications of osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, V A; Henderson, K; Liu, C

    2000-06-01

    Patients with bilateral corneal blindness in whom corneal transplantation has either been unsuccessful or inappropriate may be considered for osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery. During a two-stage procedure the surface of the cornea is removed and covered with a graft of buccal mucosa. An optical cylinder, supported by an osteo-odonto lamina planed from a tooth is then inserted into the mucosa to act as a lens. The anaesthetic implications of this operation include care of patients from a wide age range, often with underlying medical problems undergoing two operations of prolonged duration. The eye can be 'open' during both stages of the operation and anaesthetic techniques directed towards prevention of rises in vitreal pressure are essential. This article outlines the surgical process of osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery with reference to our anaesthetic experiences from nine cases.

  18. Multimodal fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopel, Martijn H W; Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod; Engelborghs, Yves; Visser, Anthonie J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal fluorescence imaging is a versatile method that has a wide application range from biological studies to materials science. Typical observables in multimodal fluorescence imaging are intensity, lifetime, excitation, and emission spectra which are recorded at chosen locations at the sample.

  19. Multimodality in organization studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This afterword reviews the chapters in this volume and reflects on the synergies between organization and management studies and multimodality studies that emerge from the volume. These include the combination of strong sociological theorizing and detailed multimodal analysis, a focus on material...

  20. Managing anaesthetic provision for global disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, R M

    2017-12-01

    The numbers of people affected by large-scale disasters has increased in recent decades. Disasters produce a huge burden of surgical morbidity at a time when the affected country is least able to respond. For this reason an international disaster response is often required. For many years this disaster response was not coordinated. The response consisted of what was available not what was needed and standards of care varied widely producing a healthcare lottery for the affected population. In recent years the World Health organisation has initiated the Emergency Medical Team programme to coordinate the response to disasters and set minimum standards for responding teams. Anaesthetists have a key role to play in Level 2 Surgical Field Hospitals. The disaster context produces a number of logistical challenges that directly impact on the anaesthetist requiring adaptation of anaesthetic techniques from their everyday practice. The context in which they will be working and the wider scope of practice that will be expected from them in the field mandates that deploying anaesthetists should be trained for disaster response. There have been significant improvements in recent years in the speed of response, equipment availability, coordination and training for disasters. Future challenges include increasing local disaster response capacity, agreeing international standards for training and improving data collection to allow for future research and improvement in disaster response. The goal of this review article is to provide an understanding of the disaster context and what logistical challenges it provides. There has been a move during the last decade from a globally uncoordinated, unregulated response, with no consensus on standards, to a globally coordinated response through the World Health Organisation (WHO). A classification system for responding Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs) and a set of agreed minimum standards has been defined. This review outlines the scope of

  1. The perspectives of eThekwini public service anaesthetic doctors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... public service anaesthetic doctors on the informed consent process for anaesthesia. ... in four main areas: the preanaesthetic interview, optimisation of the process, ... the recording of written consent on a specific anaesthetic consent form.

  2. Anaesthetic Management of a 1-Month-Old Puppy Undergoing Lateral Thoracotomy for Vascular Ring Anomaly Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martin Jurado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 1-month-old male flat-coated retriever was anaesthetized for correction of oesophageal constriction caused by a vascular ring anomaly. Anaesthesia was uneventfully induced with intravenous fentanyl, diazepam, and propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and air. An intercostal block with bupivacaine and lidocaine was performed, and additional analgesia with an infusion of fentanyl was provided. Fluid therapy consisted in 5% glucose in lactated Ringer’s solution and hetastarch 6%, which proved adequate to maintain normoglycemia and normovolemia. A lateral thoracotomy was performed, and the ligamentum arteriosum was ligated. Intraoperatively, heart rate (HR varied between 120 and 180 beats min−1 without accompanying changes in blood pressure. No arrhythmias were observed or bleeding occurred. The dog recovered uneventfully. Postoperative analgesia consisted in fentanyl infusion adjusted to the patient's requirement and metamizol. This paper describes for the first time the use of balanced anaesthesia and multimodal analgesia in a paediatric dog undergoing thoracotomy.

  3. Local anaesthetic medication for the treatment of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A Siqueira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It is presumed that drugs able to prevent bronchial spasm and/or inflammation may have therapeutic potential to control asthma symptoms. The local anaesthetic lidocaine has recently received increased attention as an alternative form of treatment for asthmatic patients. This paper reviews the major findings on the topic and summarizes the putative mechanisms underlying the airway effects of local anaesthetic agents. We think that lidocaine extends the spectrum of options in asthma therapy, probably by counteracting both spasmogenic and inflammatory stimuli in the bronchial airways. The possibility of development of new anti-asthma compounds based on the synthesis of lidocaine derivatives is also on the horizon.

  4. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  5. The anaesthetic potency of benzocaine-hydrochloride in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of this substance in fish physiological research was assessed and it compared very favourably with MS 222 in inducing anaesthesia in freshwater fishes (Ferreira et al. 1979a). We have now compared the anaesthetic potency of four different concentrations of BH on three freshwater fish species at three ...

  6. Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications: case report. Mallika Balakrishnan, Renju Kuriakose, Rachel Cherian Koshy. Abstract. Radiation induces a variety of changes in the airway that can potentially lead to difficult intubation. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible, a severe consequence of ...

  7. Cleft lip and palate surgery in children: Anaesthetic considerations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Care of cleft patients is very challenging. Team cleft care is usually lacking in many developing countries due to shortage of qualified manpower. This study is aimed at highlighting anaesthetic challenges in the management of cleft in children. Patients and Methods: This was a study of cleft lip and palate ...

  8. Local anaesthetics: Characteris tics, uses and toxicities | Du Plessis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgeons currently perform more and larger procedures in an ambulatory setting. Local anaesthesia is an important aspect of office-based surgery. Local anaesthetics (LAs) vary in their pharmacological properties and are used in various techniques of local anaesthesia administration, i.e. topical, infiltrative, epidural, spinal, ...

  9. Occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases: a role for TIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael G; Trinh, Theresa; Yao, Che-Lin

    2009-07-01

    Modern anaesthesia is still mostly administered by the inhalational route and there is increasing concern over its potential for pollution. One of the first gaseous anaesthetic agents was nitrous oxide and this is still widely used today despite being associated with adverse effects caused by depression of vitamin B(12) function and diminished reproductive health. The use of halothane is associated with hepatitis but the adverse effects of newer halogenated hydrocarbons are less well recognised. Chronic exposure may cause reduction in antioxidant activity in plasma and erythrocytes, inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis, depression of central neuro-respiratory activity, increased DNA breaks, effects on cerebral blood circulation and altered renal function. Inhalational anaesthetics also have adverse environmental effects, including ozone damage and greenhouse gas effects. Levels of inhalational anaesthetics in the ambient air of operating theatres and recovery rooms often exceed those stated in national guidelines. Anaesthetic procedures can be modified and air-conditioning and air scavenging systems should be used to minimise the risks from occupational exposure and threats to the environment. Such contamination could be avoided with the use of total intravenous anaesthesia.

  10. Strengthening Surgical and Anaesthetic Services at District Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    treatable conditions, with Southeast Asia and Africa accounting for 54% of these cases. .... 22http://dcp-3.org/disease-control-priorities-third-edition ... to surgical and anaesthetic services in a cost-effective manner.28 It is essential, of course,.

  11. Case Report: Anaesthetic management of a Rare Oesophageal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign body impaction is a common and potentially fatal condition encountered by both anaesthetists and surgeons. Skilled airway management is vital to avoid catastrophic outcomes. Children less than five years of age are particularly vulnerable. We report the anaesthetic challenges and management of a 2 year old boy ...

  12. anaesthetic challenges in a high risk parturient with myasthenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-10

    Oct 10, 2013 ... Intraoperative myasthenia crisis was managed with neostigmine infusion. She was managed in ... but world-wide, it is twice as common in women as in men and frequently .... could be a challenge when they present for surgery. The ideal anaesthetic ... intravenous opioids, neuromuscular blocking drugs,.

  13. Anaesthetic Management of Homozygous Sickle Cell Patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell disease is a common comorbidity in patient presenting for surgical care in our hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of anaesthetic management of sickle cell disease patients in our hospital. Patients and method: A prospective audit was conducted for a period of 12 months, ...

  14. special position for the anaesthetic management of a patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... was too huge to allow adoption of the supine position for induction of anaesthesia. In order to achieve a suit- ... Keywords: Anaesthetic position, Operating table, Gi- ant mass, Airway management, General .... tions of stroke and death related to shoulder sur- gery in the sitting position. Arthroscopy 2008.

  15. Cardiac Arrest after Local Anaesthetic Toxicity in a Paediatric Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Maria Torres de Araújo Azi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a paediatric patient undergoing urological procedure in which a possible inadvertent intravascular or intraosseous injection of bupivacaine with adrenaline in usual doses caused subsequent cardiac arrest, completely reversed after administration of 20% intravenous lipid emulsion. Early diagnosis of local anaesthetics toxicity and adequate cardiovascular resuscitation manoeuvres contribute to the favourable outcome.

  16. Evaluation of anaesthetic protocols for laboratory adult zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Martins

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio in biomedical research has increased. Anaesthesia is daily used in fish during experimental procedures to avoid discomfort, stress or pain. Also, fish welfare and the reliability of results can be compromised if an unsuitable anaesthetic protocol is used. Therefore, we aimed to refine anaesthetic protocols to be used in adult zebrafish by evaluating the efficacy of different anaesthetics, used alone or in combination. For that, zebrafish were randomly assigned to 8 different groups: 100 μg/mLMS-222 (MS; 0.2 μg/mL etomidate (E; 0.2 μg/mL etomidate + 100 μg/mL lidocaine (E+L; 1.25 μg/mL propofol (P; 1.25 μg/mL propofol + 100 μg/mL lidocaine (P+L; 100 μg/mL ketamine (K; 100 μg/mL ketamine + 1.25 μg/mL medetomidine (K+M; and 100 μg/mL ketamine + 1.25 μg/mL medetomidine/3.125 μg/mL atipamezole (K+M/A. The animals were placed in an anaesthetic water bath, then, the following parameters were registered: time for equilibrium loss and anaesthesia induction, loss of sensitivity to soft and painful stimuli, respiratory rate, recovery time, and activity after recovery. The combined forms of E+L, P+L and K+M were the fastest to induce a surgical anaesthetic stage. Nevertheless, E+L induced respiratory depression, while K+M was shown to have the longer recovery time compared to MS-222, even when atipamezole was added. In conclusion, the P+L combination was shown to provide good anaesthesia with analgesia, without causing a major respiratory depression, providing as well a quick recovery, similar to MS-222.

  17. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  18. Learning multimodal dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaci, Gianluca; Jost, Philippe; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Mailhé, Boris; Lesage, Sylvain; Gribonval, Rémi

    2007-09-01

    Real-world phenomena involve complex interactions between multiple signal modalities. As a consequence, humans are used to integrate at each instant perceptions from all their senses in order to enrich their understanding of the surrounding world. This paradigm can be also extremely useful in many signal processing and computer vision problems involving mutually related signals. The simultaneous processing of multimodal data can, in fact, reveal information that is otherwise hidden when considering the signals independently. However, in natural multimodal signals, the statistical dependencies between modalities are in general not obvious. Learning fundamental multimodal patterns could offer deep insight into the structure of such signals. In this paper, we present a novel model of multimodal signals based on their sparse decomposition over a dictionary of multimodal structures. An algorithm for iteratively learning multimodal generating functions that can be shifted at all positions in the signal is proposed, as well. The learning is defined in such a way that it can be accomplished by iteratively solving a generalized eigenvector problem, which makes the algorithm fast, flexible, and free of user-defined parameters. The proposed algorithm is applied to audiovisual sequences and it is able to discover underlying structures in the data. The detection of such audio-video patterns in audiovisual clips allows to effectively localize the sound source on the video in presence of substantial acoustic and visual distractors, outperforming state-of-the-art audiovisual localization algorithms.

  19. Multimodality Registration without a Dedicated Multimodality Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Beattie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimodality scanners that allow the acquisition of both functional and structural image sets on a single system have recently become available for animal research use. Although the resultant registered functional/structural image sets can greatly enhance the interpretability of the functional data, the cost of multimodality systems can be prohibitive, and they are often limited to two modalities, which generally do not include magnetic resonance imaging. Using a thin plastic wrap to immobilize and fix a mouse or other small animal atop a removable bed, we are able to calculate registrations between all combinations of four different small animal imaging scanners (positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and computed tomography [CT] at our disposal, effectively equivalent to a quadruple-modality scanner. A comparison of serially acquired CT images, with intervening acquisitions on other scanners, demonstrates the ability of the proposed procedures to maintain the rigidity of an anesthetized mouse during transport between scanners. Movement of the bony structures of the mouse was estimated to be 0.62 mm. Soft tissue movement was predominantly the result of the filling (or emptying of the urinary bladder and thus largely constrained to this region. Phantom studies estimate the registration errors for all registration types to be less than 0.5 mm. Functional images using tracers targeted to known structures verify the accuracy of the functional to structural registrations. The procedures are easy to perform and produce robust and accurate results that rival those of dedicated multimodality scanners, but with more flexible registration combinations and while avoiding the expense and redundancy of multimodality systems.

  20. Anaesthetic Considerations of Awake Craniotomy: An Upcoming Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui Lagoo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Awake craniotomy was historically advocated for resistant epilepsy surgery. Presently, its role has widened for resection of lesions abutting or invading the eloquent cortex. It aims at maximizing resection while minimizing neurological damage. Anaesthetic challenges include providing sufficient depth of anaesthesia, full cooperation and consciousness during cortical mapping, smooth transition between anaesthesia and consciousness, airway protection, haemodynamic stability, patient immobility and co-operation. Communication and co-operation between the patient and surgical and anaesthesia teams is vital. We report safe conduct of monitored anaesthesia care by the combined use of dexmedetomidine and scalp nerve blocks for tumour resection. This technique ensured haemodynamic stability, decreased stress response to painful stimuli and improved patient tolerance. As awake craniotomy is an upcoming technique, knowledge about anaesthetic implications, challenges and techniques will help in optimum management.

  1. Chronic fluorosis: The disease and its anaesthetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fluorosis is a widespread disease-related to the ingestion of high levels of fluoride through water and food. Prolonged ingestion of fluoride adversely affects the teeth, bones and other organs and alters their anatomy and physiology. Fluoride excess is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and other major diseases, including hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity. Although anaesthesiologists may be aware of its skeletal and dental manifestations, other systemic manifestations, some of which may impact anaesthetic management are relatively unknown. Keeping this in mind, the topic of chronic fluorosis was hand searched from textbooks, scientific journals and electronically through Google, PubMed and other scientific databases. This article concentrates on the effect of chronic fluorosis on various organ systems, its clinical features, diagnosis and the anaesthetic implications of the disease.

  2. Multimodal Resources in Transnational Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    The paper discusses an empirical analysis which highlights the multimodal nature of identity construction. A documentary on transnational adoption provides real life incidents as research material. The incidents involve (or from them emerge) various kinds of multimodal resources and participants...

  3. Anaesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate and its Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic efficacy of Sodium bicarbonate (NaHC03) and its effects on haematology of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in five different concentrations [0.00 g/L (control), 50.00, 100.00, 150.00 and 200.00 g/L] were determined in two sizes: juvenile (mean length 26.64 cm ± 3.11SD; mean weight 356.21 g ± 12.91SD) ...

  4. Anaesthetic management of a parturient with Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, K; Cockerham, R

    2011-10-01

    We report a case of a parturient with Laron syndrome, a rare form of dwarfism which results from an inability to generate insulin-like growth factor 1. In addition to dwarfism these patients may have craniofacial abnormalities, atlantoaxial instability, spinal stenosis and metabolic, musculoskeletal and genitourinary abnormalities. The patient underwent an urgent caesarean section using combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia. Laron syndrome is reviewed and its anaesthetic implications discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anaesthetic Management of a Patient with Pseudo-TORCH Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Berk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudo-TORCH syndrome is a rare, chronic disorder that is characterised by dimorphic features such as microcephaly, intracranial calcification, seizures, mental retardation, hepatosplenomegaly and coagulation disorders. Case Report: We present the anaesthetic management of a forty day-old boy with Pseudo-TORCH syndrome during magnetic resonance imaging. Microcephaly, growth failure, high palate and bilateral rales in the lungs were detected in pre-anaesthetic physical examination. The peripheral oxygen saturation was 88-89% in room-air and was 95% in a hood with 5 L/min oxygen. We planned general anaesthesia to ensure immobility during magnetic resonance imaging. After standard monitoring, general anaesthesia was induced with 8% sevoflurane in 100% O2. After an adequate depth of anaesthesia was reached, we inserted a supraglottic airway device to avoid intubation without the use of a muscle relaxant. Conclusion: In patients with Pseudo-TORCH syndrome, the perioperative anaesthetic risk was increased. We believe that using a supraglottic airway device to secure the airway is less invasive than intubation, and can be performed without the need of muscle relaxants.

  6. Anaesthetic Management of a Patient with Pseudo-TORCH Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Derya; Kuş, Alparslan; Sahin, Tülay; Solak, Mine; Toker, Kamil

    2013-09-01

    Pseudo-TORCH syndrome is a rare, chronic disorder that is characterised by dimorphic features such as microcephaly, intracranial calcification, seizures, mental retardation, hepatosplenomegaly and coagulation disorders. We present the anaesthetic management of a forty day-old boy with Pseudo-TORCH syndrome during magnetic resonance imaging. Microcephaly, growth failure, high palate and bilateral rales in the lungs were detected in pre-anaesthetic physical examination. The peripheral oxygen saturation was 88-89% in room-air and was 95% in a hood with 5 L/min oxygen. We planned general anaesthesia to ensure immobility during magnetic resonance imaging. After standard monitoring, general anaesthesia was induced with 8% sevoflurane in 100% O2. After an adequate depth of anaesthesia was reached, we inserted a supraglottic airway device to avoid intubation without the use of a muscle relaxant. In patients with Pseudo-TORCH syndrome, the perioperative anaesthetic risk was increased. We believe that using a supraglottic airway device to secure the airway is less invasive than intubation, and can be performed without the need of muscle relaxants.

  7. Can anaesthetic and analgesic techniques affect cancer recurrence or metastasis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heaney, A

    2012-12-01

    Summary Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the ratio of incidence is increasing. Mortality usually results from recurrence or metastases. Surgical removal of the primary tumour is the mainstay of treatment, but this is associated with inadvertent dispersal of neoplastic cells into the blood and lymphatic systems. The fate of the dispersed cells depends on the balance of perioperative factors promoting tumour survival and growth (including surgery per se, many anaesthetics per se, acute postoperative pain, and opioid analgesics) together with the perioperative immune status of the patient. Available evidence from experimental cell culture and live animal data on these factors are summarized, together with clinical evidence from retrospective studies. Taken together, current data are sufficient only to generate a hypothesis that an anaesthetic technique during primary cancer surgery could affect recurrence or metastases, but a causal link can only be proved by prospective, randomized, clinical trials. Many are ongoing, but definitive results might not emerge for a further 5 yr or longer. Meanwhile, there is no hard evidence to support altering anaesthetic technique in cancer patients, pending the outcome of the ongoing clinical trials.

  8. Multimodal sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674

  10. Critical Analysis of Multimodal Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This is an encyclopaedia article which defines the fields of critical discourse analysis and multimodality studies, argues that within critical discourse analysis more attention should be paid to multimodality, and within multimodality to critical analysis, and ends reviewing a few examples of re...

  11. Multimodality imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sopena, Ramón; Bartumeus, Paula; Sopena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In multimodality imaging, the need to combine morphofunctional information can be approached by either acquiring images at different times (asynchronous), and fused them through digital image manipulation techniques or simultaneously acquiring images (synchronous) and merging them automatically. The asynchronous post-processing solution presents various constraints, mainly conditioned by the different positioning of the patient in the two scans acquired at different times in separated machines. The best solution to achieve consistency in time and space is obtained by the synchronous image acquisition. There are many multimodal technologies in molecular imaging. In this review we will focus on those multimodality image techniques more commonly used in the field of diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, PET-CT) and new developments (as PET-MR). The technological innovations and development of new tracers and smart probes are the main key points that will condition multimodality image and diagnostic imaging professionals' future. Although SPECT-CT and PET-CT are standard in most clinical scenarios, MR imaging has some advantages, providing excellent soft-tissue contrast and multidimensional functional, structural and morphological information. The next frontier is to develop efficient detectors and electronics systems capable of detecting two modality signals at the same time. Not only PET-MR but also MR-US or optic-PET will be introduced in clinical scenarios. Even more, MR diffusion-weighted, pharmacokinetic imaging, spectroscopy or functional BOLD imaging will merge with PET tracers to further increase molecular imaging as a relevant medical discipline. Multimodality imaging techniques will play a leading role in relevant clinical applications. The development of new diagnostic imaging research areas, mainly in the field of oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry, will impact the way medicine is performed today. Both clinical and experimental multimodality studies, in

  12. Multimodal Processes Rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Banaszak, Zbigniew A.; Nielsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe-cuted in the......Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe...

  13. Multimode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  14. Multimodal training between agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...

  15. Multimodal news framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Visuals in news media play a vital role in framing citizens’ political preferences. Yet, compared to the written word, visual images are undervalued in political communication research. Using framing theory, this thesis redresses the balance by studying the combined, or multimodal, effects of visual

  16. Multimodal Strategies of Theorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Colombero, Sylvain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper examines the role of multimodal strategies in processes of theorization. Empirically, we investigate the theorization process of a highly disruptive innovation in the history of architecture: reinforced concrete. Relying on archival data from a dominant French architectural journal from...... with well-known rhetorical strategies and develop a process model of theorization....

  17. Anaesthetic management of a child with massive extracranial arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Shamim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular tumors affect the head and neck commonly but arteriovenous malformations are rare. Vascular malformations are often present at birth and grow with the patient, usually only becoming significant later in childhood. Embolization has been the mainstay of treatment in massive and complex arteriovenous malformations. We present a case of massive extracranial arteriovenous malformation in a 7-year-old boy causing significant workload on right heart and respiratory distress. The management of angioembolization under general anaesthesia and anaesthetic concerns are presented.

  18. IgE-mediated reaction to local anaesthetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartal, O.; Gulec, M.; Sener, O.; Caliskaner, A.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Local anaesthetics (LAs) are essential agents in daily practices of dentistry, minor surgery and dermatology. Although they have an impressive history of safety and efficacy, LAs also have the potential to produce adverse events, which are mainly of non-immune nature. The true IgE-mediated allergies are quite rare, but are more considerable in terms of ability to cause life-threatening outcomes. In this report, we present a case of IgE-mediated systemic reaction to LAs occurring during epidural anaesthesia for Cesarean section. (author)

  19. Reconfigurable optical interconnection network for multimode optical fiber sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. T.; Robinson, D.; Lu, H.; Wang, M. R.; Jannson, T.; Baumbick, R.

    1992-01-01

    A single-source, single-detector architecture has been developed to implement a reconfigurable optical interconnection network multimode optical fiber sensor arrays. The network was realized by integrating LiNbO3 electrooptic (EO) gratings working at the Raman Na regime and a massive fan-out waveguide hologram (WH) working at the Bragg regime onto a multimode glass waveguide. The glass waveguide utilized the whole substrate as a guiding medium. A 1-to-59 massive waveguide fan-out was demonstrated using a WH operating at 514 nm. Measured diffraction efficiency of 59 percent was experimentally confirmed. Reconfigurability of the interconnection was carried out by generating an EO grating through an externally applied electric field. Unlike conventional single-mode integrated optical devices, the guided mode demonstrated has an azimuthal symmetry in mode profile which is the same as that of a fiber mode.

  20. Distinct molecular sites of anaesthetic action: pentobarbital block of human brain sodium channels is alleviated by removal of fast inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wartenberg, H. C.; Urban, B. W.; Duch, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    Fast inactivation of sodium channel function is modified by anaesthetics. Its quantitative contribution to the overall anaesthetic effect is assessed by removing the fast inactivation mechanism enzymatically. Sodium channels from human brain cortex were incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. After

  1. Strain-specific response to anaesthetics and analgesics in rat and rabbit : A pharmacogenetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avsaroglu, H.

    2008-01-01

    The response of (laboratory) animals to anaesthetics and analgesics is known to show intraspecies variability. Apart from environmental influences, this may also be caused by genetic factors. In this thesis, rabbit and rat inbred strains were used to identify differences in response to anaesthetics

  2. SBS [stimulated Brillouin scattering] pulse distortion in multimode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Hawkins, R.J.; Laumann, C.W.; Hatch, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have observed sever temporal-pulse-shape distortion due to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in multimode optical fibers used to diagnose 351 m laser pulses on the Nova laser system. Our measurements can be fit by a basic model of SBS and provide a clear indication of the intensity and temporal regimes where significant SBS-induced temporal-pulse-shape distortion can be avoided. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Gestures and multimodal input

    OpenAIRE

    Keates, Simeon; Robinson, Peter

    1999-01-01

    For users with motion impairments, the standard keyboard and mouse arrangement for computer access often presents problems. Other approaches have to be adopted to overcome this. In this paper, we will describe the development of a prototype multimodal input system based on two gestural input channels. Results from extensive user trials of this system are presented. These trials showed that the physical and cognitive loads on the user can quickly become excessive and detrimental to the interac...

  4. Fentanyl bolus induces muscle tremors in sevoflurane-anaesthetized piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, S K; Spielmann, N; Weiss, M; Mauch, J Y

    2016-08-01

    Intravenous fentanyl (10 mcg/kg) or saline (control) was randomly administered to 10 healthy sevoflurane-mono-anaesthetized piglets. Trembling was assessed by two blinded observers using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a simple ordinal scale at baseline and 5 min (T5) after drug administration. If no trembling was observed at that time point, the opposite treatment was administered and piglets were re-evaluated after another 5 min (T10). Four out of five piglets showed trembling after fentanyl (T5), while none given saline showed any trembling. With fentanyl the VAS scores were significantly higher at T5 compared either with baseline or with the control treatment. Control animals received fentanyl after the 5 min evaluation and all piglets showed clear trembling afterwards. The median time after fentanyl administration until first muscle tremors was 51 (20-840) s. In summary, nine out of 10 sevoflurane-anaesthetized piglets showed muscle tremors after intravenous fentanyl. Tremors subsided over time and no specific treatment was necessary. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Burnout and the learning environment of anaesthetic trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanelli, D J; Wickramaarachchi, S A; Wallis, S

    2017-11-01

    Burnout has a high prevalence among healthcare workers and is increasingly recognised as an environmental problem rather than reflecting a personal inability to cope with work stress. We distributed an electronic survey, which included the Maslach Burnout Inventory Health Services Survey and a previously validated learning environment instrument, to 281 Victorian anaesthetic trainees. The response rate was 50%. We found significantly raised rates of burnout in two of three subscales. Ninety-one respondents (67%) displayed evidence of burnout in at least one domain, with 67 (49%) reporting high emotional exhaustion and 57 (42%) reporting high depersonalisation. The clinical learning environment tool demonstrated a significant negative correlation with burnout (r=-0.56, P Burnout was significantly more common than when previously measured in Victoria in 2008 (62% versus 38%). Trainees rated examination preparation the most stressful aspect of the training program. There is a high prevalence of burnout among Victorian anaesthetic trainees. We have shown a significant correlation exists between the clinical learning environment measure and the presence of burnout. This correlation supports the development of interventions to improve the clinical learning environment, as a means to improve trainee wellbeing and address the high prevalence of burnout.

  6. Anaesthetic management of a patient with familial normokalaemic periodic paralysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, F

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: We describe the anaesthetic management of a patient with the autosomal dominant inherited disease, normokalaemic periodic paralysis. The disease results in intermittent bouts of limb and respiratory muscular weakness in association with hypothermia, stress, prolonged fasting or exercise. Unlike hypokalaemic and hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis, the more common variants of the disease, normokalaemic periodic paralysis is not accompanied by alterations in the plasma potassium concentration. CLINICAL FEATURES: A five-year-old boy presented for emergency scrotal exploration. He had a family history of periodic paralysis and had experienced previous episodes of weakness, two of which had required hospitalization for respiratory distress. On admission there was no evidence of weakness and serum potassium concentration was 4.2 mMol.L-1. A spinal anaesthetic was performed and the procedure was uncomplicated by muscle paralysis above the level of the spinal block. CONCLUSION: Avoidance of known precipitating factors and judicious use of neuromuscular blocking drugs has been advocated in patients with this disorder presenting for surgery. In appropriate circumstances, spinal anaesthesia represents a useful option in patients with normokalaemic periodic paralysis.

  7. A novel method of measuring the concentration of anaesthetic vapours using a dew-point hygrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, A R; Mapleson, W W; Mecklenburgh, J S

    1994-02-01

    The Antoine equation relates the saturated vapour pressure of a volatile substance, such as an anaesthetic agent, to the temperature. The measurement of the 'dew-point' of a dry gas mixture containing a volatile anaesthetic agent by a dew-point hygrometer permits the determination of the partial pressure of the anaesthetic agent. The accuracy of this technique is limited only by the accuracy of the Antoine coefficients and of the temperature measurement. Comparing measurements by the dew-point method with measurements by refractometry showed systematic discrepancies up to 0.2% and random discrepancies with SDS up to 0.07% concentration in the 1% to 5% range for three volatile anaesthetics. The systematic discrepancies may be due to errors in available data for the vapour pressures and/or the refractive indices of the anaesthetics.

  8. A multimodal parallel architecture: A cognitive framework for multimodal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Human communication is naturally multimodal, and substantial focus has examined the semantic correspondences in speech-gesture and text-image relationships. However, visual narratives, like those in comics, provide an interesting challenge to multimodal communication because the words and/or images can guide the overall meaning, and both modalities can appear in complicated "grammatical" sequences: sentences use a syntactic structure and sequential images use a narrative structure. These dual structures create complexity beyond those typically addressed by theories of multimodality where only a single form uses combinatorial structure, and also poses challenges for models of the linguistic system that focus on single modalities. This paper outlines a broad theoretical framework for multimodal interactions by expanding on Jackendoff's (2002) parallel architecture for language. Multimodal interactions are characterized in terms of their component cognitive structures: whether a particular modality (verbal, bodily, visual) is present, whether it uses a grammatical structure (syntax, narrative), and whether it "dominates" the semantics of the overall expression. Altogether, this approach integrates multimodal interactions into an existing framework of language and cognition, and characterizes interactions between varying complexity in the verbal, bodily, and graphic domains. The resulting theoretical model presents an expanded consideration of the boundaries of the "linguistic" system and its involvement in multimodal interactions, with a framework that can benefit research on corpus analyses, experimentation, and the educational benefits of multimodality. Copyright © 2015.

  9. Experiments in Multimodal Information Presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, Charlotte; Bosma, W.E.; Krahmer, Emiel; Maes, Alfons; Theune, Mariet; van den Bosch, Antal; Bouma, Gosse

    In this chapter we describe three experiments investigating multimodal information presentation in the context of a medical QA system. In Experiment 1, we wanted to know how non-experts design (multimodal) answers to medical questions, distinguishing between what questions and how questions. In

  10. Anaesthetic Management of Caesarean Section in an Achondroplastic Dwarf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti N Saxena

    2008-01-01

    A twenty year old parturient with short stature presented to the hospital in early labour. An elective lower segment caesarean section(LSCS was planned in view of cephalopelvic disproportion. She had papers which suggested that she had been diagnosed as a case of achondroplasia though details were not available. Combined spinal epidural(CSE anaesthesia was planned in the patient in view of the death of her first baby following caesarean section under general anaesthesia. Repeatedly dry taps were achieved on attempting dural puncture. Dural puncture was abandoned and an 18 G epidural catheter was threaded via the Tuohy needle. Sensory block till T 6 was achieved with 6ml of local anaesthetic solution. The patient was stable during the intraoperative and postoperative period.

  11. Simplified Multimodal Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Shete

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multibiometric systems are expected to be more reliable than unimodal biometric systems for personal identification due to the presence of multiple, fairly independent pieces of evidence e.g. Unique Identification Project "Aadhaar" of Government of India. In this paper, we present a novel wavelet based technique to perform fusion at the feature level and score level by considering two biometric modalities, face and fingerprint. The results indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in multimodal matching performance. The proposed technique is simple because of no preprocessing of raw biometric traits as well as no feature and score normalization.

  12. Multimodality, politics and ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machin, David; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2016-01-01

    This journal's editorial statement is clear that political discourse should be studied not only as regards parliamentary type politics. In this introduction we argue precisely for the need to pay increasing attention to the way that political ideologies are infused into culture more widely...... of power, requires meanings and identities which can hold them in place. We explain the processes by which critical multimodal discourse analysis can best draw out this ideology as it is realized through different semiotics resources. © John Benjamins Publishing Company....

  13. Interference of anaesthetics with radioligand binding in neuroreceptor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfving, Betina; Knudsen, Gitte Moos [Neurobiology Research Unit N9201, University hospital Rigshospitalet, 9 Blegdamsvej, 2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bjoernholm, Berith [Department of Computational Chemistry, H. Lundbeck A/S, Copenhagen-Valby (Denmark)

    2003-06-01

    Evaluations of new emission tomography ligands are usually carried out in animals. In order to keep the animals in a restricted position during the scan session, anaesthesia is almost inevitable. In ex vivo rat studies we investigated the interference of ketamine/xylazine, zoletile mixture, isoflurane and halothane with the serotonin re-uptake site, the serotonin{sub 2A} receptor and the dopamine re-uptake site by use of [{sup 3}H]-(S)-citalopram, [{sup 18}F]altanserin and [{sup 125}I]PE2I, respectively. Ketamine/xylazine decreased the target-to-background ratio (mean {+-} SD) of [{sup 3}H]-(S)-citalopram from 1.5{+-}0.19 to 0.81{+-}0.19 (P<0.05), whereas isoflurane and halothane increased the ratio from 1.5{+-}0.19 to 1.9{+-}0.24 and 2.1{+-}0.13 (P<0.05), respectively. Only with the zoletile mixture did the ratio remain unaltered. None of the tested anaesthetics affected the target-to-background ratio of [{sup 18}F]altanserin. The [{sup 125}I]PE2I target-to-background ratio decreased with both ketamine/xylazine (from 12.4{+-}0.81 to 10.1{+-}1.4, P<0.05) and isoflurane (from 12.4{+-}0.81 to 9.5{+-}1.1, P<0.05) treated rats, whereas treatment with zoletile mixture and halothane left the ratio unaltered. It is concluded that prior to performance of neuroreceptor radioligand studies, the possible interaction between radioligands and anaesthetics should be carefully evaluated. (orig.)

  14. The effects of multiple anaesthetic episodes on equine recovery quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J P; Simon, B T; Coleman, M; Martinez, E A; Lepiz, M A; Watts, A E

    2018-01-01

    Although rare, 70% of equine fatalities during recovery from general anaesthesia (GA) are due to catastrophic fractures from poor recovery quality. To determine the effect of repeated GA recovery on GA recovery quality. Experimental blinded trial. Eight adult horses underwent six GA events on sevoflurane for distal limb MRI examination over a 14-week period. Prior to GA recovery, xylazine was administered. Randomly ordered video-recorded GA recoveries were scored by three blinded board certified veterinary anaesthesiologists, unaware of patient identity or GA event number, for nine parameters using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) where 0 = worst and 100 = best. The number of attempts to stand, duration of lateral and sternal recumbency, total recovery duration and physiologic parameters during each GA event were recorded. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to detect differences. Agreement between observer VAS scores was determined via inter-rater reliability using an intraclass correlation. With GA recovery experience, VAS scores for balance and coordination, knuckling, and overall quality of recovery were improved and the duration of lateral recumbency was increased. There were no differences in total recovery duration, number of attempts to stand, physiologic parameters other than heart rate during GA, or VAS scores for activity in lateral recumbency, move to sternal, move to stand, or strength. Each GA event was relatively short and there was no surgical stimulation. The same results may not occur if there was surgical stimulation and pain during each GA event. Recovery from GA improves with multiple anaesthetic episodes in horses. Clinicians can advise clients that horses are likely to have better GA recovery on repeated GA recovery due to improved balance and coordination and reduced knuckling. Additionally, there is no change in anaesthetic morbidity with six repeated GA events over a 14-week period. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Multimodal Speaker Diarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noulas, A; Englebienne, G; Krose, B J A

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel probabilistic framework that fuses information coming from the audio and video modality to perform speaker diarization. The proposed framework is a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) that is an extension of a factorial Hidden Markov Model (fHMM) and models the people appearing in an audiovisual recording as multimodal entities that generate observations in the audio stream, the video stream, and the joint audiovisual space. The framework is very robust to different contexts, makes no assumptions about the location of the recording equipment, and does not require labeled training data as it acquires the model parameters using the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. We apply the proposed model to two meeting videos and a news broadcast video, all of which come from publicly available data sets. The results acquired in speaker diarization are in favor of the proposed multimodal framework, which outperforms the single modality analysis results and improves over the state-of-the-art audio-based speaker diarization.

  16. Concepts for space nuclear multi-mode reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrabo, L.; Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A number of nuclear multi-mode reactor power plants are conceptualized for use with solid core, fixed particle bed and rotating particle bed reactors. Multi-mode systems generate high peak electrical power in the open cycle mode, with MHD generator or turbogenerator converters and cryogenically stored coolants. Low level stationkeeping power and auxiliary reactor cooling (i.e., for the removal of reactor afterheat) are provided in a closed cycle mode. Depending on reactor design, heat transfer to the low power converters can be accomplished by heat pipes, liquid metal coolants or high pressure gas coolants. Candidate low power conversion cycles include Brayton turbogenerator, Rankine turbogenerator, thermoelectric and thermionic approaches. A methodology is suggested for estimating the system mass of multi-mode nuclear power plants as a function of peak electric power level and required mission run time. The masses of closed cycle nuclear and open cycle chemical power systems are briefly examined to identify the regime of superiority for nuclear multi-mode systems. Key research and technology issues for such power plants are also identified

  17. In vitro toxicity of local anaesthetics and corticosteroids on supraspinatus tenocyte viability and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton W. Nuelle

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This data confirms that peritendinous injection of commonly used local anaesthetics and corticosteroids results in significant supraspinatus tenotoxicity in vitro. Further in vivo studies are required before making definitive clinical recommendations.

  18. The analgesic effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics after breast surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byager, N; Hansen, Mads; Mathiesen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    significant reduction in post-operative, supplemental opioid consumption that was, however, of limited clinical relevance. CONCLUSION: Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics may have a modest analgesic effect in the first few hours after surgery. Pain after breast surgery is, however, generally mild......BACKGROUND: Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics is commonly used during breast surgery in an attempt to reduce post-operative pain and opioid consumption. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics compared with a control group on post......-operative pain after breast surgery. METHODS: A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, the Cochrane database and Embase for randomised, blinded, controlled trials of wound infiltration with local anaesthetics for post-operative pain relief in female adults undergoing breast surgery...

  19. Anaesthetic safety of the Macintosh® oral laryngeal spray device

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-14

    Jan 14, 2013 ... is there a difference in the amount of local anaesthetic delivered when two ... pairwise comparisons were made among the factors using Student's t-test with Tukey's ... a dangerous outlier (Figure 1). This amount, inadvertently.

  20. Efficacy of Clove flower bud powder as anaesthetic for three life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    plastic aquaria and induction and recovery times were recorded. ... respectively. The induction time in juveniles across the concentrations was generally lower than ... The use of some of these anaesthetics has health ..... Poster presentation at.

  1. Anaesthetic management of a child with panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN (Hallervorden-Spatz disease is a rare autosomal recessive chromosomal disorder characterised by progressive neuroaxonal dystrophy. The characteristic features include involuntary movements, rigidity, mental retardation, seizures, emaciation. The anaesthetic concerns include difficult airway, aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, and post-operative respiratory, and renal insufficiency. We report successful anaesthetic management of a 9-year-old intellectually disabled male child with PKAN, scheduled for ophthalmic surgery under general anaesthesia.

  2. Multimodal responsive action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    ; Raymond 2003; Schegloff and Lerner 2009), including those with multimodal actions (e.g. Olsher 2004; Fasulo & Monzoni 2009). Some responsive actions can also be completed with bodily behavior alone, such as: when an agreement display is achieved by using only nonvocal actions (Jarmon 1996), when...... the recipient’s gaze shift becomes a significant part of the speaker’s turn construction (Goodwin 1980), and when head nods show the recipient’s affiliation with the speaker’s stance (Stivers 2008). Still, much room remains for extending our current understanding of responding actions that necessarily involve...... a hairstylist and a client negotiate the quality of the service that has been provided. Here, the first action is usually the stylist’s question and/or explanation of the new cut that invites the client’s assessment/(dis)agreement, accompanied with embodied actions that project an imminent self...

  3. Efficacy of paediatric anaesthetic trolleys: A call for a basic standard and layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sian E; Boleat, Elizabeth; Goodwin, Alison; Sheikh, Asme; Goonasekera, Chulananda

    2015-01-01

    Providing safe anaesthesia to children especially in emergency situations goes hand in hand with instant availability of appropriately sized equipment and monitoring. This is best achieved using a designated paediatric anaesthetic trolley containing essential equipment. Guidance for the contents of such trolleys is neither explicit nor standard. We used a survey and a qualitative enquiry to develop a checklist suitable for standardisation of contents and layout of paediatric anaesthetic trolleys. We conducted an observational study of our current practice and paediatric anaesthetic trolleys in a tertiary care hospital. We also performed a qualitative enquiry from experienced paediatric anaesthetists and operating department practitioners.We developed an empirical checklist to ensure the minimum 'essential' equipment is available on these trolleys and implemented a standard layout to facilitate its use. We identified 11 areas in our hospital where anaesthesia is provided to children, each with a designated paediatric anaesthetic trolley. There were considerable deficiencies of items in all areas with no standard pattern or layout. Different types of trolleys contributed to the confusion. In addition, overstocking of inappropriate items hindered its efficient use. Standardising the contents and layout of the paediatric anaesthetic trolley is an essential pre-requisite for safer paediatric anaesthetic practice.

  4. Numerical modelling of multimode fibre-optic communication lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidelnikov, O S; Fedoruk, M P [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sygletos, S; Ferreira, F [Aston University, England, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-31

    The results of numerical modelling of nonlinear propagation of an optical signal in multimode fibres with a small differential group delay are presented. It is found that the dependence of the error vector magnitude (EVM) on the differential group delay can be reduced by increasing the number of ADC samples per symbol in the numerical implementation of the differential group delay compensation algorithm in the receiver. The possibility of using multimode fibres with a small differential group delay for data transmission in modern digital communication systems is demonstrated. It is shown that with increasing number of modes the strong coupling regime provides a lower EVM level than the weak coupling one. (fibre-optic communication lines)

  5. Multimodal label-free microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different multimodal applications based on a large extent of label-free imaging modalities, ranging from linear to nonlinear optics, while also including spectroscopic measurements. We put specific emphasis on multimodal measurements going across the usual boundaries between imaging modalities, whereas most multimodal platforms combine techniques based on similar light interactions or similar hardware implementations. In this review, we limit the scope to focus on applications for biology such as live cells or tissues, since by their nature of being alive or fragile, we are often not free to take liberties with the image acquisition times and are forced to gather the maximum amount of information possible at one time. For such samples, imaging by a given label-free method usually presents a challenge in obtaining sufficient optical signal or is limited in terms of the types of observable targets. Multimodal imaging is then particularly attractive for these samples in order to maximize the amount of measured information. While multimodal imaging is always useful in the sense of acquiring additional information from additional modes, at times it is possible to attain information that could not be discovered using any single mode alone, which is the essence of the progress that is possible using a multimodal approach.

  6. Interference of anaesthetics with radioligand binding in neuroreceptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfving, Betina; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Bjoernholm, Berith

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations of new emission tomography ligands are usually carried out in animals. In order to keep the animals in a restricted position during the scan session, anaesthesia is almost inevitable. In ex vivo rat studies we investigated the interference of ketamine/xylazine, zoletile mixture, isoflurane and halothane with the serotonin re-uptake site, the serotonin 2A receptor and the dopamine re-uptake site by use of [ 3 H]-(S)-citalopram, [ 18 F]altanserin and [ 125 I]PE2I, respectively. Ketamine/xylazine decreased the target-to-background ratio (mean ± SD) of [ 3 H]-(S)-citalopram from 1.5±0.19 to 0.81±0.19 (P 18 F]altanserin. The [ 125 I]PE2I target-to-background ratio decreased with both ketamine/xylazine (from 12.4±0.81 to 10.1±1.4, P<0.05) and isoflurane (from 12.4±0.81 to 9.5±1.1, P<0.05) treated rats, whereas treatment with zoletile mixture and halothane left the ratio unaltered. It is concluded that prior to performance of neuroreceptor radioligand studies, the possible interaction between radioligands and anaesthetics should be carefully evaluated. (orig.)

  7. A review of an anaesthetic led vascular access list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, S; Sharma, A; Ward, J; Bodenham, A R

    2005-08-01

    The demand for insertion of long-term central venous (Hickman type) catheters is thought to be increasing. Organisation is required to meet this demand in a safe and efficient manner. This report reviews the results from a dedicated, anaesthetic led vascular access list over the initial 61-month period. One thousand procedures were performed. Nine hundred and twenty catheters were inserted under local anaesthesia, with or without intravenous sedation and analgesia. Eighty catheters were removed. All procedures were performed during a dedicated once weekly, morning list. A total of 53% of all procedures were performed on a day-case basis, 43% on in-patients. Only 1.5% of patients required an unexpected overnight stay (usually medically unfit patients). There were 81 (9%) cancellations on the day of procedure due to neutropaenia, pneumonia or urinary tract infections. Ultrasound guidance was used initially selectively in 14%, latterly in 100% of procedures and fluoroscopy in all insertions to confirm or adjust catheter position. This service has been well received by patients and oncology services. In addition it provides an interesting area of practice for anaesthetists and an ideal environment for teaching more advanced aspects of central venous access. It may provide a template of service for other centres.

  8. Parents' experiences of their child's first anaesthetic in day surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lisbet; Johansson, Ingrid; Almerud Österberg, Sofia

    Parents play an important part in their child's anaesthesia. When a child has to receive anaesthesia, it is of great importance that parents are there by his/her side as children depend on them for support. Many parents worry and experience fear before their child's anaesthesia and studies show that there is a correlation between a worried parent and a worried child. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the meaning of being a parent at one's child's first anaesthesia in day surgery. Six parents were interviewed and data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative approach inspired by phenomenology. The phenomenon, 'a child's first anaesthesia in day surgery as experienced by parents' is based on the following components: ambivalence between worry and relief, a feeling of losing control, needing to be prepared, being able to be present and a need of emotional support. Specific individually-adapted information with a compulsory preoperative visit, presence and participation from, if possible, both parents at their child's anaesthesia but also designated staff from the anaesthetic team to focus solely on supporting the parents at their child's anaesthesia induction can improve the conditions for security.

  9. Comparative efficacy and patient preference of topical anaesthetics in dermatological laser treatments and skin microneedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhen Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Topical anaesthetics are effective for patients undergoing superficial dermatological and laser procedures. Our objective was to compare the efficacy and patient preference of three commonly used topical anaesthetics: (2.5% lidocaine/2.5% prilocaine cream (EMLA ® , 4% tetracaine gel (Ametop TM and 4% liposomal lidocaine gel (LMX4 ® in patients undergoing laser procedures and skin microneedling. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, double-blind study of patients undergoing laser and skin microneedling procedures at a laser unit in a tertiary referral dermatology centre. Materials and Methods: All 29 patients had three topical anaesthetics applied under occlusion for 1 hour prior to the procedure, at different treatment sites within the same anatomical zone. A self-assessment numerical pain rating scale was given to each patient to rate the pain during the procedure and each patient was asked to specify their preferred choice of topical anaesthetic at the end of the procedure. Statistical Analysis: Parametric data (mean pain scores and frequency of topical anaesthetic agent of choice were compared using the paired samples t-test. A P-value of ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results and Conclusions: Patients reported a mean (±SD; 95% confidence interval pain score of 5 (±2.58; 3.66-6.46 with Ametop TM , 4.38 (±2.53; 2.64-4.89 with EMLA ® and 3.91 (±1.95; 2.65-4.76 with LMX4 ® . There was no statistically significant difference in pain scores between the different topical anaesthetics. The majority of patients preferred LMX4 ® as their choice of topical anaesthetic for dermatological laser and skin microneedling procedures.

  10. Post-operative bilateral continuous ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block versus continuous local anaesthetic wound infusion in patients undergoing abdominoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ramadan Salama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block and continuous local anaesthetic wound infusion are used as part of multimodal analgesia to treat postoperative pain after lower abdominal surgeries. The aim of this randomised controlled study was to assess the efficacy of the two techniques and compare the two in patients undergoing abdominoplasty. Methods: Ninety female patients undergoing abdominoplasty were allocated to receive continuous wound infusion with saline (control group, GC, n = 30, continuous bilateral TAP block with 0.25% levobupivacaine (group GT, n = 30, or continuous wound infusion with 0.25% levobupivacaine (group GW, n = 30. The primary end-point was morphine requirement in the first 48 h. Numerical rating scale (NRS at rest and during movement, time to first morphine dose and time to first ambulation were recorded. Results: Morphine requirement in the first 48 h was significantly higher in GC than GW and GT (61.9 ± 12.8, 21.5 ± 9.5, and 18.9 ± 8.1 mg, respectively; P = 0.001, but GW and GT were comparable (P = 0.259. NRS was significantly higher in GC during movement in the first 24 h. GW and GT showed significantly longer time to first morphine dose (6.5 ± 1.7 and 8.9 ± 1.4 h, respectively, vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 h in GC and significantly shorter time to first ambulation (7.8 ± 3.1 and 6.9 ± 3.4 h, respectively, vs. 13.2 ± 4.9 h in GC (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Continuous bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP block and continuous local anaesthetic wound infusion significantly decreased total morphine consumption in the first 48 h compared to placebo; however, both treatment techniques were comparable.

  11. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  12. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  13. The perils of dental vacation: possible anaesthetic and medicolegal consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltracco, Paolo; Gaudio, Rosa Maria; Barbieri, Stefania; Tiano, Letizia; Iacobone, Maurizio; Viel, Giovanni; Tonetti, Tommaso; Galligioni, Helmut; Bortolato, Andrea; Ori, Carlo; Avato, Francesco Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to emphasize anaesthesiologists' difficulty in detecting poor dentition in cases of poorly applied prostheses and/or advanced periodontal disease, and to establish whether it is possible, and in which conditions, to calculate compensation in cases of dental damage postlaryngoscopy and/or intubation. The main complex problem here lies in trying to reconstruct exactly what the dental situation was before the teeth were damaged. For this reason the important preoperative factors (dental prostheses, crown fractures, parodontal disease, etc.) must be clearly shown before surgery on a dental chart. Two cases of interest, both to anaesthesiologists practising intubation and medicolegal physicians who have to deal with potential claims, are briefly reported. The first patient was a 55-year-old diabetic patient, who underwent emergency surgery for acute abdominal pathology. He had gone outside Italy for dental treatment three years previously and now presented with very poor pre-existing dentition, carefully noted on an anaesthetic chart. He now demanded compensation for dental damage due to intubation in Italy; the resulting dental treatment was very expensive because substantial remedial work was required. The second patient had received treatment outside Italy, work which involved cosmetic coating of the teeth. After surgery in Italy, she demanded compensation because one tooth, which had been coated and appeared to be healthy, was broken after emergency intubation. In both cases, the patients demanded very high compensation. Dental tourism alone accounts for more than 250,000 patients each year who combine a holiday with dental treatment in Eastern Europe. However, if prosthetic devices or conservative treatments are not applied correctly, it should be noted that durability may be poorer than expected, but iatrogenic damage may also be caused.

  14. Teicoplanin allergy - an emerging problem in the anaesthetic allergy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, L C; Garcez, T; Hopkins, P M; Harper, N J N; Savic, S

    2015-10-01

    Anaphylaxis to teicoplanin appears to be extremely rare, with only one confirmed case report worldwide. Two anaesthetic allergy clinics in the UK have received a number of suspected cases referred for investigation, and we present here the first case series of teicoplanin allergy. We investigated 20 cases of suspected teicoplanin allergy, identified from the two clinics over a period of two years. We devised a set of five criteria to categorize the certainty of their diagnosis. These included: (1) reaction within 15 min of administration of teicoplanin, (2) ≥2 features of anaphylaxis present, (3) positive skin testing or challenge testing, (4) raised serum mast cell tryptase (MCT), (5) alternative diagnosis excluded. Based on these criteria we defined the likelihood of IgE-mediated allergy to teicoplanin as: definite-met all criteria; probable-met criteria 1.2 and 5, plus 3 or 4; uncertain-met criteria 1.2 and 5; excluded- any others. We identified 7 'definite', 7 'probable' and 2 'uncertain' cases of teicoplanin allergy. Four cases were excluded. IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to teicoplanin appears to be more common than previously thought. This is true even if only definitive cases are considered. Investigation of teicoplanin allergy is hampered by the lack of standardized skin test concentrations. In some cases, there was a severe clinical reaction, but without any skin test evidence of histamine release. The mechanism of reaction in these cases is not known and requires further study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Post-anaesthetic myelomalacia in a horse : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a rare neurological complication of anaesthesia in a 2 year-old Clydesdale colt undergoing castration. Anaesthesia was induced with glyceryl guaiacol ether and ketamine and maintained with halothane. Following an uneventful anaesthetic of 40 minutes, the horse recovered from anaesthesia in a padded recovery stall. After approximately 70 minutes in the recovery stall, the horse attempted to stand and adopted a dog sitting position. One hundred and fifty minutes later, the horse became distressed and was sedated with xylazine. Clinical examination of the horse did not reveal any evidence of myositis or fractures. A neurological examination revealed an intact anal reflex, deep pain response in the hind legs, tail tone and voluntary movement of the hind legs was possible. The horse deteriorated neurologically over the next 24 hours and was euthanased on humane grounds. The horse was submitted for necropsy. Gross pathology was unremarkable except for a small amount of haemorrhage around the right kidney. Histopathology revealed no abnormalities in any muscle groups or peripheral nerves. Congestion and axonal swelling of the spinal cord was evident from T16 to S1. Ischaemic neurons were evident from L 1 to L 6. The most prominent lesions were at L4 and L5. A diagnosis of myelomalacia was made. This is a rare complication of anaesthesia in horses with 9 case studies appearing in the literature since 1979. This is the 1st case to be reported in South Africa. The speculated pathophysiology and risk factors for this complication are discussed.

  16. Isolation of HIV-1 from experimentally contaminated multidose local anaesthetic vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, J D; Locarnini, S A; Birch, C J

    1995-05-15

    To investigate the hypothesis that HIV can be transmitted via contamination of multidose vials of local anaesthetic solution through reuse of needles and syringes. Laboratory study. (1) By experiments with multidose vials and disposable needles and syringes, we identified a sequence of events in which HIV could contaminate the anaesthetic solution. (2) Three anaesthetic solutions were contaminated with a laboratory strain of HIV and tested by viral culture and p24 enzyme immunoassay one, two and four hours later to see how long the virus remained active. (1) Needles and syringes retained small volumes of fluid after use (mean, 25 microL; in syringe alone, mean 16 microL) which could be transferred to multidose vials of local anaesthetic. (2) 10 mL of anaesthetic solution contaminated with 8 microL of HIV-infected solution (equivalent to 1% infected lymphocytes in vivo) contained active virus one hour later. In some settings, HIV could be isolated four hours after exposure. When inadvertently contaminated with HIV, multidose solutions represent a potential source of transmissible virus.

  17. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal

  18. Multimodal Discourse Analysis of the Movie "Argo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xu

    2018-01-01

    Based on multimodal discourse theory, this paper makes a multimodal discourse analysis of some shots in the movie "Argo" from the perspective of context of culture, context of situation and meaning of image. Results show that this movie constructs multimodal discourse through particular context, language and image, and successfully…

  19. Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jin; Garcia, P. D.; Ek, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The development of nanoscale optical devices for classical and quantum photonics is affected by unavoidable fabrication imperfections that often impose performance limitations. However, disorder may also enable new functionalities, for example in random lasers, where lasing relies on random...... multiple scattering. The applicability of random lasers has been limited due to multidirectional emission, lack of tunability, and strong mode competition with chaotic fluctuations due to a weak mode confinement. The regime of Anderson localization of light has been proposed for obtaining stable multimode...... random lasing, and initial work concerned macroscopic one-dimensional layered media. Here, we demonstrate on-chip random nanolasers where the cavity feedback is provided by the intrinsic disorder. The strong confinement achieved by Anderson localization reduces the spatial overlap between lasing modes...

  20. Assessment of anaesthetic depth by clustering analysis and autoregressive modelling of electroencephalograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C E; Rosenfalck, A; Nørregaard Christensen, K

    1991-01-01

    The brain activity electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 30 healthy women scheduled for hysterectomy. The patients were anaesthetized with isoflurane, halothane or etomidate/fentanyl. A multiparametric method was used for extraction of amplitude and frequency information from the EEG....... The method applied autoregressive modelling of the signal, segmented in 2 s fixed intervals. The features from the EEG segments were used for learning and for classification. The learning process was unsupervised and hierarchical clustering analysis was used to construct a learning set of EEG amplitude......-frequency patterns for each of the three anaesthetic drugs. These EEG patterns were assigned to a colour code corresponding to similar clinical states. A common learning set could be used for all patients anaesthetized with the same drug. The classification process could be performed on-line and the results were...

  1. Anaesthetic considerations in children with congenital heart disease undergoing non-cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Menghraj Shahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to provide an updated and comprehensive review on current perioperative anaesthetic management of paediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD coming for non-cardiac surgery. Search of terms such as "anaesthetic management," "congenital heart disease" and "non-cardiac surgery" was carried out in KKH eLibrary, PubMed, Medline and Google, focussing on significant current randomised control trials, case reports, review articles and editorials. Issues on how to tailor perioperative anaesthetic management on cases with left to right shunt, right to left shunt and complex heart disease are discussed in this article. Furthermore, the author also highlights special considerations such as pulmonary hypertension, neonates with CHD coming for extracardiac surgery and the role of regional anaesthesia in children with CHD undergoing non-cardiac operation.

  2. The effect of dexmedetomidine on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in healthy piglets with normal and lowered blood pressure anaesthetized with propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Louise Grandsgaard; Ambrus, Rikard; Rasmussen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Background During anaesthesia and surgery, in particular neurosurgery, preservation of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation (CPO) is essential for normal postoperative brain function. The isolated effects on CPO of either individual anaesthetic drugs or entire anaesthetic protocols are of importance...

  3. Preparation of the Drager Fabius CE and Drager Zeus anaesthetic machines for patients susceptible to malignant hyperthermia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Hiliary

    2012-05-01

    Malignant hyperthermia may follow exposure to trace quantities of inhalational anaesthetics. In susceptible patients, the complete avoidance of these triggers is advised when possible; however, failing this, it is essential to washout or purge the anaesthesia machine of residual inhalational anaesthetics.

  4. Neuropeptide Y-enhanced diuresis and natriuresis in anaesthetized rats is independent of renal blood flow reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, A.; Erdbrügger, W.; Smits, J.; Michel, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been reported to enhance diuresis and natriuresis in anaesthetized rats although it is a potent renal vasoconstrictor in vitro in vivo in several species. Therefore, we have investigated anaesthetized rats to see whether reduction in renal blood flow (RBF) and enhancement

  5. Method development for the enantiomeric purity determination of low concentrations of adrenaline in local anaesthetic solutions by capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sänger-Van De Griend, Cari E.; Ek, Anders G.; Widahl-Näsman, Monica E.; Andersson, E. K Margareta

    2006-01-01

    L-Adrenaline is often included in local anaesthetic (LA) solutions for injection to improve the quality of the anaesthetic block. The concentration of the LA is between 2.5 and 20 mg/ml and the concentration of adrenaline is typically ≤0.1% of the LA concentration. In order to follow the

  6. Multimodal Aspects of Corporate Social Responsibility Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Daniela Maier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses how the multimodal persuasive strategies of corporate social responsibility communication can highlight a company’s commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection while advertising simultaneously its products. Drawing on an interdisciplinary methodological framework related to CSR communication, multimodal discourse analysis and gender theory, the article proposes a multimodal analysis model through which it is possible to map and explain the multimodal persuasive strategies employed by Coca-Cola company in their community-related films. By examining the semiotic modes’ interconnectivity and functional differentiation, this analytical endeavour expands the existing research work as the usual textual focus is extended to a multimodal one.

  7. The Multimodal Possibilities of Online Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi-modal analy......The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi...

  8. Evaluation of dressings used with local anaesthetic cream and for peripheral venous cannulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Rowan; Strehle, Eugen-Matthias

    2008-10-01

    To compare four polyurethane dressings manufactured by two different companies for use in children. Seventy-eight dressings were applied to secure either local anaesthetic creams (n = 62) or intravenous cannulae (n = 16). Each dressing was evaluated for ease of application, security and ease of removal, using a simple scoring system. 84 per cent of Opsite flexigrid and 90 per cent of Tegaderm local anaesthetic cream dressings were rated as easy or very easy to apply. Opsite flexigrid was felt to be more secure, whereas Tegaderm was easier to remove. The Tegaderm cannula dressing was easier to apply than the iv3000 dressing. There was little difference between the two brands, including costs.

  9. Drug distribution in spinal cord during administration with spinal loop dialysis probes in anaesthetized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uustalu, Maria; Abelson, Klas S P

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study two methodological concerns of an experimental model, where a spinal loop dialysis probe is used for administration of substances to the spinal cord and sampling of neurotransmitters by microdialysis from the same area of anaesthetized rats. [(3)H]Epibatid......The present investigation aimed to study two methodological concerns of an experimental model, where a spinal loop dialysis probe is used for administration of substances to the spinal cord and sampling of neurotransmitters by microdialysis from the same area of anaesthetized rats. [(3)H...... intraspinal administration of substances through the spinal loop dialysis probe....

  10. Local anaesthetic toxicity in a pregnant patient undergoing lignocaine-induced intravenous regional anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, M

    2012-02-03

    A pregnant patient at 38 weeks\\' gestation developed symptoms of local anaesthetic toxicity following intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) for hand surgery, using a standard dose of lignocaine. Reports suggest that a number of factors, both physiological and pharmacological, combine to increase the likelihood of local anaesthetic (LA) toxicity in pregnancy despite employment of a conventional "safe" IVRA technique. It is suggested that for IVRA, pregnant patients are premedicated with a benzodiazepine, the tourniquet time is increased and the concentration of LA is decreased to reduce the risks of LA toxicity.

  11. Anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case of previously operated with residual pituitary tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerana N Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case with previous pituitary tumour resection, with residual tumour, is reported. The pituitary gland undergoes global hyperplasia during pregnancy. Functional pituitary tumours may exhibit symptomatic enlargement during pregnancy. Growth hormone secreting tumour is associated with acromegaly which has associated anaesthetic implications of difficult airway, systemic hypertension, and diabetes and electrolyte imbalance. Intracranial space occupying lesions can increase intra cranial pressure and compromise cerebral perfusion or cause herniation. We report management of this case.

  12. Anaesthetic management for emergency caesarean section in a patient with an untreated recently diagnosed phaeochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phaeochromocytoma is a rare cause of hypertension during pregnancy with potentially fatal consequences. If not detected and treated early in pregnancy, it is catastrophic for both the mother and the baby. Management requires close co-ordination between the obstetrician, anaesthesiologist, paediatrician and the endocrinologist. Perioperative management for an emergency caesarean section in a parturient with untreated phaeochromocytoma is an anaesthetic challenge and no standard recommendations have been reported till date. In this case report, we present anaesthetic management in such a case with successful maternal and foetal outcome.

  13. A Learning Algorithm for Multimodal Grammar Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ulizia, A; Ferri, F; Grifoni, P

    2011-12-01

    The high costs of development and maintenance of multimodal grammars in integrating and understanding input in multimodal interfaces lead to the investigation of novel algorithmic solutions in automating grammar generation and in updating processes. Many algorithms for context-free grammar inference have been developed in the natural language processing literature. An extension of these algorithms toward the inference of multimodal grammars is necessary for multimodal input processing. In this paper, we propose a novel grammar inference mechanism that allows us to learn a multimodal grammar from its positive samples of multimodal sentences. The algorithm first generates the multimodal grammar that is able to parse the positive samples of sentences and, afterward, makes use of two learning operators and the minimum description length metrics in improving the grammar description and in avoiding the over-generalization problem. The experimental results highlight the acceptable performances of the algorithm proposed in this paper since it has a very high probability of parsing valid sentences.

  14. Multimodal network design and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Ties; Alkim, T.P.; van Eck, Gijs; van Arem, Bart; Arentze, T.

    2010-01-01

    A framework is proposed for the design of an optimal multimodal transport network for the Randstad area. This research framework consists of a multi-objective optimization heuristic and a fast network assessment module, which results in a set of Pareto optimal solutions. Subsequently, a proper

  15. 'CANDLE' burnup regime after LWR regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nagata, Akito

    2008-01-01

    CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) burnup strategy can derive many merits. From safety point of view, the change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and the core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. About 40% of natural or depleted uranium undergoes fission without the conventional reprocessing and enrichment. If the LWR produced energy of X Joules, the CANDLE reactor can produce about 50X Joules from the depleted uranium left at the enrichment facility for the LWR fuel. If we can say LWRs have produced energy sufficient for full 20 years, we can produce the energy for 1000 years by using the CANDLE reactors with depleted uranium. We need not mine any uranium ore, and do not need reprocessing facility. The burnup of spent fuel becomes 10 times. Therefore, the spent fuel amount per produced energy is also reduced to one-tenth. The details of the scenario of CANDLE burnup regime after LWR regime will be presented at the symposium. (author)

  16. Arctic circulation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. THE INFLUENCED FLOW REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril PANDI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The influenced flow regimes. The presence and activities ofhumanity influences the uniform environmental system, and in this context, therivers water resources. In concordance with this, the natural runoff regime suffersbigger and deeper changes. The nature of these changes depending on the type anddegree of water uses. The multitude of the use cause different types of influence,whit different quantitative aspects. In the same time, the influences havequalitative connotations, too, regarding to the modifications of the yearly watervolume runoff. So the natural runoff regime is modified. After analyzing thedistribution laws of the monthly runoff, there have been differenced four types ofinfluenced runoff regimes. In the excess type the influenced runoff is bigger thanthe natural, continuously in the whole year. The deficient type is characterized byinverse rapports like the first type, in the whole year. In the sinusoidal type, theinfluenced runoff is smaller than the natural in the period when the water isretained in the lake reservoirs, and in the depletion period the situation inverts. Atthe irregular type the ratio between influenced and natural runoff is changeable ina random meaner monthly. The recognition of the influenced regime and the gradeof influence are necessary in the evaluation and analysis of the usable hydrologicalriver resources, in the flood defence activities, in the complex scheme of thehydrographic basins, in the environment design and so on.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of eltanolone (pregnanolone), a new steroid intravenous anaesthetic, in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Peder; Høgskilde, S; Lang-Jensen, T

    1994-01-01

    Eltanolone, a new intravenous steroid anaesthetic agent was administered intravenously in a dose of 0.6 mg.kg-1 over 45 s to eight healthy male volunteers to evaluate some of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects. Drug concentration-time data were analysed by PCNONLIN, a non...

  19. Inflammatory response and cardioprotection during open-heart surgery: the importance of anaesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, M-S; Zacharowski, K; Angelini, G D

    2008-01-01

    Open-heart surgery triggers an inflammatory response that is largely the result of surgical trauma, cardiopulmonary bypass, and organ reperfusion injury (e.g. heart). The heart sustains injury triggered by ischaemia and reperfusion and also as a result of the effects of systemic inflammatory mediators. In addition, the heart itself is a source of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species that are likely to contribute to the impairment of cardiac pump function. Formulating strategies to protect the heart during open heart surgery by attenuating reperfusion injury and systemic inflammatory response is essential to reduce morbidity. Although many anaesthetic drugs have cardioprotective actions, the diversity of the proposed mechanisms for protection (e.g. attenuating Ca(2+) overload, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, pre- and post-conditioning-like protection) may have contributed to the slow adoption of anaesthetics as cardioprotective agents during open heart surgery. Clinical trials have suggested at least some cardioprotective effects of volatile anaesthetics. Whether these benefits are relevant in terms of morbidity and mortality is unclear and needs further investigation. This review describes the main mediators of myocardial injury during open heart surgery, explores available evidence of anaesthetics induced cardioprotection and addresses the efforts made to translate bench work into clinical practice.

  20. Impact of local anaesthetics and needle calibres used for painless PRP injections on platelet functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausset, Olivier; Magalon, Jeremy; Giraudo, Laurent; Louis, Marie-Laure; Serratrice, Nicolas; Frere, Corrine; Magalon, Guy; Dignat-George, Françoise; Sabatier, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous biotherapy commonly used for its healing properties. Once activated, platelets released a real "cocktail" of growth factor and cytokines implied in numerous regenerative processes. However the impact of medical practices associated to PRP therapeutic use on platelets functionality remains poorly known. we evaluated the in vitro effects of two commonly used local anesthetics (Xylocaine(*) and Naropin(*)) on PRP functionality. We also investigated the quantity and quality of PRP that passed through the smallest gauge needle commercialized. PRP from 9 healthy volunteers were prepared using our previously described home made purification protocol. Platelet aggregation capacity was evaluated by aggregometry assays and the growth factor release was determined by ELISA after platelet activation. We also evaluated the platelet activation status, reactivity and stability of platelets by flow cytometry using the P-selectin expression marker. the association of local anaesthetics with PRP injections resulted in a significant decrease of platelets functionality, assessed by their capacity of aggregating. Local anaesthetics did not interfere with the growth factor release. The different needle sizes and calibres tested for PRP injections did not influence the platelet functionality. the use of local anaesthetics to prevent pain during PRP injections could compromise the therapeutic potential of PRP. These results suggest using carefully local anaesthetics or limiting their use as often is possible. To minimize injection pain, we recommend using 30 G needles. These data will lead to clinical recommendations for painless and controlled PRP injections.

  1. Efficacy of sodium bicarbonate as anaesthetic for yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pawar, H.B.; Ingole, B.S.; Sreepada, R.A.

    .J., Ryu, B.M., Kim, M.M., Kim, S.K., 2008. Free Radical and Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Activities of the Extracts from Seahorse, Hippocampus kuda, Bleeler. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 13, 705- 715. 20. Ross, L.G., Ross, B., 1999. Anaesthetic...

  2. Effects of chronic occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases on the rate of neutrophil apoptosis among anaesthetists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Volatile anaesthetic agents are known to influence neutrophil function. The aim was to determine the effect of chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents on the rate of neutrophil apoptosis among anaesthetists. To test this hypothesis, we compared the rate of neutrophil apoptosis in anaesthetists who had been chronically exposed to volatile anaesthetic agents with that in unexposed volunteers. METHODS: Venous blood (20 mL) was withdrawn from 24 ASA I-II volunteers, from which neutrophils were isolated, and maintained in culture. At 1, 12 and 24 h in culture, the percentage of neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. RESULTS: At 1 h (but not at 12 and 24 h) in culture, the rate of neutrophil apoptosis was significantly less in the anaesthetists--13.8 (12.9%) versus 34.4 (12.1%) (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents may inhibit neutrophil apoptosis. This may have implications for anaesthetists and similarly exposed healthcare workers in terms of the adequacy of their inflammatory response.

  3. Medication errors in anaesthetic practice: a report of two cases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Key words: Medication errors, anaesthetic practice, vigilance, safety .... reports in the Australian Incident Monitoring Study. (AIMS). ... contribute to systems failure and prescription errors were most ... being due to equipment error.17 Previous studies have ... errors reported occurred during day shifts and they.

  4. Anaesthetic implications of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doodnath, R.

    2010-04-01

    With the increasing immigrant population in the Republic of Ireland, the number of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) seen in the paediatric hospitals is climbing. In this case report, we review the anaesthetic implications and outcome of the first two paediatric patients with SCD to have a laparoscopic splenectomy due to repeated splenic infarcts in the Republic of Ireland.

  5. Improving needle tip identification during ultrasound-guided procedures in anaesthetic practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.J.; Pourtaherian, A.; Mihajlovic, N.; Korsten, H.; Bouwman, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound guidance is becoming standard practice for needle-based interventions in anaesthetic practice, such as vascular access and peripheral nerve blocks. However, difficulties in aligning the needle and the transducer can lead to incorrect identification of the needle tip, possibly damaging

  6. Comparative efficacy of four anaesthetic agents in the yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pawar, H.B.; Sanaye, S.V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Harish, V.; Suryavanshi, U.; Tanu; Ansari, Z.A.

    155.1±9.8 mm Ht (as in Lourie et al., 1999) and weighing, 11.15±1.68 g wet weight were selected. Seahorses from two different FRP tanks were used to avoid a possible tank effect and were starved 24 h prior to the initiation of anaesthetic...

  7. Anaesthetic implications of laparoscopic splenectomy in patients with sickle cell anaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doodnath, R

    2012-02-01

    With the increasing immigrant population in the Republic of Ireland, the number of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) seen in the paediatric hospitals is climbing. In this case report, we review the anaesthetic implications and outcome of the first two paediatric patients with SCD to have a laparoscopic splenectomy due to repeated splenic infarcts in the Republic of Ireland.

  8. Multimode-singlemode-multimode fiber sensor for alcohol sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofi'ah, Iftihatur; Hatta, A. M.; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol is volatile and flammable liquid which is soluble substances both on polar and non polar substances that has been used in some industrial sectors. Alcohol detection method now widely used one of them is the optical fiber sensor. In this paper used fiber optic sensor based on Multimode-Single-mode-Multimode (MSM) to detect alcohol solution at a concentration range of 0-3%. The working principle of sensor utilizes the modal interference between the core modes and the cladding modes, thus make the sensor sensitive to environmental changes. The result showed that characteristic of the sensor not affect the length of the single-mode fiber (SMF). We obtain that the sensor with a length of 5 mm of single-mode can sensing the alcohol with a sensitivity of 0.107 dB/v%.

  9. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  10. Prepubertal gonadectomy in cats: different injectable anaesthetic combinations and comparison with gonadectomy at traditional age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porters, Nathalie; de Rooster, Hilde; Moons, Christel P H; Duchateau, Luc; Goethals, Klara; Bosmans, Tim; Polis, Ingeborgh

    2015-06-01

    Anaesthetic and analgesic effects of three different injectable anaesthetic combinations for prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) in cats were studied. One anaesthetic protocol was compared with a similar one for gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). Kittens were randomly assigned to PPG or TAG. For PPG, three different protocols were compared: (1) intramuscular (IM) administration of 60 μg/kg dexmedetomidine plus 20 μg/kg buprenorphine followed by an IM injection of the anaesthetic agent (20 mg/kg ketamine) (DB-IM protocol); (2) oral transmucosal (OTM) administration of 80 μg/kg dexmedetomidine plus 20 μg/kg buprenorphine followed by an IM injection of 20 mg/kg ketamine combined with 20 µg/kg dexmedetomidine (DB-OTM protocol); (3) IM injection of a 40 μg/kg medetomidine-20 μg/kg buprenorphine-20 mg/kg ketamine combination (MBK-IM protocol). For TAG, a DB-IM protocol was used, but with different doses for dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg). All cats (PPG and TAG) received a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory before surgery. Anaesthetic and analgesic effects were assessed pre- and postoperatively (until 6 h). Cumulative logit, linear and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. Compared with the DB-OTM protocol, the DB-IM and MBK-IM protocols provided better anaesthesia with fewer adverse effects in PPG cats. Postoperative pain was not significantly different between anaesthetic protocols. PPG and TAG cats anaesthetised with the two DB-IM protocols differed significantly only for sedation and pain scores, but sedation and pain scores were generally low. Although there were no anaesthesia-related mortalities in the present study and all anaesthetic protocols for PPG in cats provided a surgical plane of anaesthesia and analgesia up to 6 h postoperatively, our findings were in favour of the intramuscular (DB-IM and MBK-IM) protocols. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  11. The hairy lizard: heterothermia affects anaesthetic requirements in the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Mads F; Mohammed, Osama; Wang, Tobias; Manger, Paul R; Scantlebury, David Michael; Ismael, Khairi; Bennett, Nigel C; Alagaili, Abdulaziz

    2017-07-01

    To study the effect of heterothermia on anaesthetic drug requirements in semi-free ranging Arabian oryx and to assess the temperature quotient (Q 10 ) of oxygen consumption. Prospective observational study and controlled metabolic experiment. Sixty-eight anaesthetic events in 59 Arabian oryx from Mahazat As-Sayd protected area, Saudi Arabia METHODS: Anaesthesia was induced by remote injection of 25 mg ketamine, 10 mg midazolam and 0.5 mg medetomidine with a variable amount of etorphine based on a target dosage of 20 μg kg -1 and subjective assessment of body mass. Animals not recumbent within 15 minutes or insufficiently anaesthetized were physically restrained and administered supplementary etorphine intravenously depending on the anaesthetic depth. Body temperature (Tb) was measured rectally immediately upon handling of each animal. From six anaesthetized oryx, expiratory gasses for oxygen analysis and metabolic rate calculation were collected at two Tbs; before and after submersion in ice water for approximately 30 minutes. Forty-two animals (62%) became recumbent with the initial dose, with a mean induction time (± standard deviation) of 9 ± 2 minutes. The remaining animals could be handled but needed 0.3 ± 0.1 mg etorphine intravenously to reach the desired level of anaesthesia. There was a significant positive correlation between Tb and effective etorphine dosage (R 2  = 0.48, p 0.5°C immediately after induction to 35.5 ± 0.5°C after cooling. This reduction was associated with a reduction in oxygen uptake from 3.11 ± 0.33 to 2.22 ± 0.29 mL O 2 minute -1 kg -1 , reflected in Q 10 of 2.17 ± 0.14. Tb significantly affects anaesthetic requirements in Arabian oryx and should be considered when selecting dosages for anaesthetic induction for species showing diurnal heterothermy. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. ANAESTHETIC CHALLENGES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PEDIATRIC ENCEPHALOCOELE REPAIR: RETROSPECTIVE CASE SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Giri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Encephalocele is the protrusion of the cranial contents beyond the normal confines of the skull through a defect in the calvarium and is far less common than spinal dysraphism. 1 Anaesthetic challenges in management of occipital meningoencephalocele include securing the airway with intubation in lateral position, intraoperative prone position and its associated complications, careful securing of the endotracheal tube and accurate assessment of blood loss. These babies also have associated congenital anomalie s, gastrointestinal malrotation, renal anomalies, cardiac malformations and tracheoesophageal fistula, making anaesthetic management even more difficult. Meticulous anaesthetic management is crucial for early repair of encephalocoele to prevent any sequel. 2 METHODS: To identify the anaesthetic challenges, perioperative and postoperative complications during encephalocele repair, 20 cases were studied retrospectively from 2012 to 2014 at Department of Anaesthesia , Department of Neurosurgery, MR Medical College, Gulbarga. RESULTS: 20 cases of encephalocoele repair were undertaken during the study period. Out of these 12 (60% were male and 8(40% female. Age range was 1 day to 6 years. Most common type of encephalocele was occipital 12(60%, which posed a difficulty during positioning & intubation, followed by occipito - cervical 4(20%, Parietal 2(10%, Fronto - nasal 1(5% & Fronto - naso - ethmoidal 1(5%. Most of the patients were extubated successfully on table, only one patient required post - operative ventilator support for a day. Peri - operative complications included bronchospasm (15%, followed by hypotension, tachycardia, laryngospasm, hypoxia, accidental extubation (10% each & bradycardia, endobronchial intubation (5%. CONCLUSION: Children with Encephalocoele are prone to have peri - operative complications which can be managed by meticulous anaesthetic managenement. 3 Early surgical management of encephalocoele is not

  13. Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Multimodal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humair S. Quadri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite its declining incidence, gastric cancer (GC remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. A multimodal approach to GC is critical to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Pretherapy fine resolution contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and staging laparoscopy play an important role in patients with newly diagnosed ostensibly operable GC to avoid unnecessary non-therapeutic laparotomies. Currently, margin negative gastrectomy and adequate lymphadenectomy performed at high volume hospitals remain the backbone of GC treatment. Importantly, adequate GC surgery should be integrated in the setting of a multimodal treatment approach. Treatment for advanced GC continues to expand with the emergence of additional lines of systemic and targeted therapies.

  14. Robustness of multimodal processes itineraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Banaszak, Z.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa

    2013-01-01

    itineraries for assumed (O-D) trip. Since itinerary planning problem, constitutes a common routing and scheduling decision faced by travelers, hence the main question regards of itinerary replanning and particularly a method aimed at prototyping of mode sequences and paths selections. The declarative model......This paper concerns multimodal transport systems (MTS) represented by a supernetworks in which several unimodal networks are connected by transfer links and focuses on the scheduling problems encountered in these systems. Assuming unimodal networks are modeled as cyclic lines, i.e. the routes...... of multimodal processes driven itinerary planning problem is our main contribution. Illustrative examples providing alternative itineraries in some cases of MTS malfunction are presented....

  15. Anaesthetics stop diverse plant organ movements, affect endocytic vesicle recycling and ROS homeostasis, and block action potentials in Venus flytraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokawa, K; Kagenishi, T; Pavlovic, A; Gall, S; Weiland, M; Mancuso, S; Baluška, F

    2017-12-11

    Anaesthesia for medical purposes was introduced in the 19th century. However, the physiological mode of anaesthetic drug actions on the nervous system remains unclear. One of the remaining questions is how these different compounds, with no structural similarities and even chemically inert elements such as the noble gas xenon, act as anaesthetic agents inducing loss of consciousness. The main goal here was to determine if anaesthetics affect the same or similar processes in plants as in animals and humans. A single-lens reflex camera was used to follow organ movements in plants before, during and after recovery from exposure to diverse anaesthetics. Confocal microscopy was used to analyse endocytic vesicle trafficking. Electrical signals were recorded using a surface AgCl electrode. Mimosa leaves, pea tendrils, Venus flytraps and sundew traps all lost both their autonomous and touch-induced movements after exposure to anaesthetics. In Venus flytrap, this was shown to be due to the loss of action potentials under diethyl ether anaesthesia. The same concentration of diethyl ether immobilized pea tendrils. Anaesthetics also impeded seed germination and chlorophyll accumulation in cress seedlings. Endocytic vesicle recycling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance, as observed in intact Arabidopsis root apex cells, were also affected by all anaesthetics tested. Plants are sensitive to several anaesthetics that have no structural similarities. As in animals and humans, anaesthetics used at appropriate concentrations block action potentials and immobilize organs via effects on action potentials, endocytic vesicle recycling and ROS homeostasis. Plants emerge as ideal model objects to study general questions related to anaesthesia, as well as to serve as a suitable test system for human anaesthesia. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  17. Dynamics of modal power distribution in a multimode semiconductor laser with optical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldu, J M; Trull, J; Torrent, M C; GarcIa-Ojalvo, J; Mirasso, Claudio R

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of power distribution between longitudinal modes of a multimode semiconductor laser subjected to external optical feedback is experimentally analysed in the low-frequency fluctuation regime. Power dropouts in the total light intensity are invariably accompanied by sudden activations of several longitudinal modes. These activations are seen not to be simultaneous to the dropouts, but to occur after them. The phenomenon is statistically analysed in a systematic way, and the corresponding delay is estimated. (letter to the editor)

  18. Dynamics of modal power distribution in a multimode semiconductor laser with optical feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buldu, J M [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Trull, J [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Torrent, M C [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); GarcIa-Ojalvo, J [Departament de FIsica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Mirasso, Claudio R [Departament de FIsica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2002-02-01

    The dynamics of power distribution between longitudinal modes of a multimode semiconductor laser subjected to external optical feedback is experimentally analysed in the low-frequency fluctuation regime. Power dropouts in the total light intensity are invariably accompanied by sudden activations of several longitudinal modes. These activations are seen not to be simultaneous to the dropouts, but to occur after them. The phenomenon is statistically analysed in a systematic way, and the corresponding delay is estimated. (letter to the editor)

  19. Cargo liability regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    There are at present at least three international regimes of maritime cargo liability in force in different countries of the world - the original Hague rules (1924), the updated version known as the Hague-Visby rules (1968, further amended 1979), and...

  20. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  1. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  2. Coherent multimoded dielectric wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J.

    1998-01-01

    There has recently been a study of the potential uses of multimode dielectric structures for wakefield acceleration [1]. This technique is based on adjusting the wakefield modes of the structure to constructively interfere at certain delays with respect to the drive bunch, thus providing an accelerating gradient enhancement over single mode devices. In this report we examine and attempt to clarify the issues raised by this work in the light of the present state of the art in wakefield acceleration

  3. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining...... synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features....

  4. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, T.J.P.; Mortensen, K.H.; Gopalan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis

  5. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, T.J.P., E-mail: timothyjpbray@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); Mortensen, K.H., E-mail: mortensen@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); University Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Box 318, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Gopalan, D., E-mail: deepa.gopalan@btopenworld.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis.

  6. Diffusion Maps for Multimodal Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Piella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal image registration is a difficult task, due to the significant intensity variations between the images. A common approach is to use sophisticated similarity measures, such as mutual information, that are robust to those intensity variations. However, these similarity measures are computationally expensive and, moreover, often fail to capture the geometry and the associated dynamics linked with the images. Another approach is the transformation of the images into a common space where modalities can be directly compared. Within this approach, we propose to register multimodal images by using diffusion maps to describe the geometric and spectral properties of the data. Through diffusion maps, the multimodal data is transformed into a new set of canonical coordinates that reflect its geometry uniformly across modalities, so that meaningful correspondences can be established between them. Images in this new representation can then be registered using a simple Euclidean distance as a similarity measure. Registration accuracy was evaluated on both real and simulated brain images with known ground-truth for both rigid and non-rigid registration. Results showed that the proposed approach achieved higher accuracy than the conventional approach using mutual information.

  7. Multimodal Estimation of Distribution Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Chen, Wei-Neng; Li, Yun; Chen, C L Philip; Xu, Xiang-Min; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-15

    Taking the advantage of estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs) in preserving high diversity, this paper proposes a multimodal EDA. Integrated with clustering strategies for crowding and speciation, two versions of this algorithm are developed, which operate at the niche level. Then these two algorithms are equipped with three distinctive techniques: 1) a dynamic cluster sizing strategy; 2) an alternative utilization of Gaussian and Cauchy distributions to generate offspring; and 3) an adaptive local search. The dynamic cluster sizing affords a potential balance between exploration and exploitation and reduces the sensitivity to the cluster size in the niching methods. Taking advantages of Gaussian and Cauchy distributions, we generate the offspring at the niche level through alternatively using these two distributions. Such utilization can also potentially offer a balance between exploration and exploitation. Further, solution accuracy is enhanced through a new local search scheme probabilistically conducted around seeds of niches with probabilities determined self-adaptively according to fitness values of these seeds. Extensive experiments conducted on 20 benchmark multimodal problems confirm that both algorithms can achieve competitive performance compared with several state-of-the-art multimodal algorithms, which is supported by nonparametric tests. Especially, the proposed algorithms are very promising for complex problems with many local optima.

  8. Multimodal Diversity of Postmodernist Fiction Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. I. Tykha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of structural and functional manifestations of multimodal diversity in postmodernist fiction texts. Multimodality is defined as the coexistence of more than one semiotic mode within a certain context. Multimodal texts feature a diversity of semiotic modes in the communication and development of their narrative. Such experimental texts subvert conventional patterns by introducing various semiotic resources – verbal or non-verbal.

  9. International Food Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Malov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The review article reveals the content of the concept of Food Regime, which is little-known in the Russian academic reference. The author monitored and codified the semantic dynamic of the terminological unit from its original interpretations to modern formulations based on the retrospective analysis. The rehabilitation of the academic merits of D. Puchala and R. Hopkins — authors who used the concept Food Regime for a few years before its universally recognized origin and official scientific debut, was accomplished with help of historical and comparative methods. The author implemented the method of ascension from the abstract to the concrete to demonstrating the classification of Food Regimes compiled on the basis of geopolitical interests in the sphere of international production, consumption, and distribution of foodstuffs. The characteristic features of historically formed Food Regime were described in the chronological order, as well as modern tendencies possessing reformist potential were identified. In particular, it has been established that the idea of Food Sovereignty (which is an alternative to the modern Corporate Food Regime is the subject for acute academic disputes. The discussion between P. McMichael P. and H. Bernstein devoted to the “peasant question” — mobilization frame of the Food Sovereignty strategy was analyzed using the secondary data processing method. Due to the critical analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to follow the principles of the Food Sovereignty strategy to prevent the catastrophic prospects associated with ecosystem degradation, accelerated erosion of soils, the complete disappearance of biodiversity and corporate autoc racy successfully. The author is convinced that the idea of Food Sovereignty can ward off energetic liberalization of nature, intensive privatization of life and rapid monetization of unconditioned human reflexes.

  10. An observational study of patient care outcomes sensitive to handover quality in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillibridge, Nichole; Botti, Mari; Wood, Beverley; Redley, Bernice

    2017-12-01

    To identify patient care outcome indicators sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover between the anaesthetist and the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit nurse. The relationship between interprofessional clinical handover when patients are transferred from the operating theatre to the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit and patient outcomes of subsequent patient care delivery is not well understood. Naturalistic, exploratory descriptive design using observation. Observations of 31 patient journeys through Post-Anaesthetic Care Units across three public and private hospitals. Characteristics of interprofessional handover on arrival in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit, the trajectory of patient care activities in Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit and patient outcomes were observed. Of the 821 care activities observed across 31 "patient journeys" in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit, observations (assessments and vital signs) (52.5 %), communication (15.8 %) and pain management (assessment of pain and analgesic administration) (10.3%) were most common. Examination of patterns in handover communications and subsequent trajectories of patient care activities revealed three patient trajectory typologies and two patient outcome indicators expected to be sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover communication in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit: pain on discharge from the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit and timely response to clinical deterioration. An additional process indicator, seeking missing information, was also identified. Patient's pain on discharge from Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit, escalation of care in response to early signs of deterioration and the need for nurses to seek out missing information to deliver care are indicators expected to be sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover communication in the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit. Future research should test these indicators. Patient outcomes sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover on patient

  11. Multimodal exemplification: The expansion of meaning in electronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Functional Multimodal Discourse Analysis (SF-MDA) and argues for improving their exemplifica-tion multimodally. Multimodal devices, if well coordinated, can help optimize e-dictionary exam-ples in informativity, diversity, dynamicity and ...

  12. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON LOCAL ANAESTHETIC INFILTRATION FOR POSTOPERATIVE PAIN RELIEF AFTER LAPAROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Manoharan Chellapa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laparoscopic surgery is a modern surgical technique in which operations are performed through small incisions and with the aid of a camera. Pain is the most common complaint following any surgery, but as compared to open surgery, the severity of pain is much lower in patients undergoing surgery via laparoscopy. The pain following laparoscopic procedure can be divided into three components- parietal pain, visceral pain and shoulder pain. The use of local long-acting anaesthetics reduces postoperative parietal pain. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that local anaesthetics instilled at the end of laparoscopic procedure are able to prevent postoperative pain during the first 24 hours post-surgery. The outcome measures were pain scores, analgesic consumption and time to analgesic request. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective study conducted by the surgical department, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences for a period of 13 months. The study comprised of 50 patients with an ASA I or II who underwent laparoscopic procedures between April 2016 to May 2017. Patients in this study were randomly categorised equally into two groups; in the study group (Group A patients received local anaesthetic infiltration with bupivacaine, while in the control group (Group B, patients did not receive local anaesthetic infiltration. Following history taking and physical examination, patients were subjected to routine laboratory investigations and ultrasonogram. Contrast-enhanced computerised tomography was done in patients when indicated and following which patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis or who had symptomatic cholelithiasis were taken up for laparoscopic surgery. In the study group, local anaesthetic was instilled at the end of surgery after port removal. The total volume of infiltrated solution in the study group was 10 mL divided proportionally according to the length of the skin incisions (3 mL for 10 mm incisions and 2 m

  13. Comparing charcoal and zeolite reflection filters for volatile anaesthetics: A laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturesson, Louise W; Frennström, Jan O; Ilardi, Marcella; Reinstrup, Peter

    2015-08-01

    A modified heat-moisture exchanger that incorporates a reflecting filter for use with partial rebreathing of exhaled volatile anaesthetics has been commercially available since the 1990 s. The main advantages of the device are efficient delivery of inhaled sedation to intensive care patients and reduced anaesthetic consumption during anaesthesia. However, elevated arterial CO2 values have been observed with an anaesthetic conserving device compared with a conventional heat and moisture exchanger, despite compensation for larger apparatus dead space. The objective of this study is to thoroughly explore the properties of two reflecting materials (charcoal and zeolites). A controlled, prospective, observational laboratory study. Lund University Hospital, Sweden, from December 2011 to December 2012. None. Three filters, with identical volumes, were compared using different volatile anaesthetics at different conditions of temperature and moisture. The filtering materials were charcoal or zeolite. Glass spheres were used as an inert control. Consumption of volatile anaesthetics using different reflecting materials in filters at different conditions regarding temperature and moisture. CO2 reflection by the filtering materials: glass spheres, charcoal or zeolite. Isoflurane consumption in an open system was 60.8 g h(-1). The isoflurane consumption in dry, warm air was 39.8 g h(-1) with glass spheres. Changing to charcoal and zeolite had a profound effect on isoflurane consumption, 11.8 and 10.7 g h(-1), respectively. Heating and humidifying the air as well as the addition of N2O created only minor changes in consumption. The percentage of isoflurane conserved by the charcoal filter was independent of the isoflurane concentration (0.5 to 4.5%). Reflection of sevoflurane, desflurane and halothane by the charcoal filter was similar to reflection of isoflurane. Both charcoal and zeolite filters had CO2 reflecting properties and end-tidal CO2 increased by 3 to 3.7% compared

  14. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  15. Ear acupuncture or local anaesthetics as pain relief during postpartum surgical repair: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, S; Klünder, L; Strøm, J

    2009-01-01

    -hour hands-on training in the use of ear acupuncture. All midwives (n= 36) in the department had previous experience in using acupuncture for obstetric pain relief. Pain and wound healing were evaluated using validated scores. Data collection was performed by research assistants blinded towards...... treatment allocation. Randomisation was computer assisted. A total of 207 women were randomised to receive ear acupuncture (105) and local anaesthetics (102), respectively. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was pain during surgical repair. Secondary outcomes were wound healing at 24-48 hours and 14...... days postpartum, participant satisfaction, revision of wound or dyspareunia reported 6 months postpartum. Results Pain during surgical repair was more frequently reported by participants allocated to ear acupuncture compared with participants receiving local anaesthetics (89 versus 54%, P

  16. Anaesthetic Management of A Child with Multiple Congenital Anomalies Scheduled for Cataract Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Kulkarni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In infants& children variety of conditions and syndromes are associated with difficult Airway. Anaesthetic management becomes a challenge if it remains unrecognized until induction and sometimes results in disaster, leading to oropharyngeal trauma, laryngeal oedema, cardiovascular& neurological complications. A 4-month-old child with multiple congenital anomalies was posted for cataract extraction for early and better development of vision. He had history of post birth respiratory distress, difficulty in feeding, breath holding with delayed mile stones. He was treated as for Juvenile asthma. This child was induced with inhalation anaesthesia. There was difficulty in laryngoscopic intubation and could pass much smaller size of the tube than predicted. He developed post operative stridor and desaturation. The problems which we faced during the anaesthetic management and during postoperative period are discussed with this case.

  17. Anaesthetic management of a patient with microvillus inclusion disease for intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Luis J; Santamaría, Manuel López; Gámez, Manuel

    2002-03-01

    We report the anaesthetic management of a 3-year-old-child with microvillus inclusion disease undergoing isolated small bowel transplantation. He required long-term total parenteral nutrition which was complicated with numerous episodes of catheter related sepsis. This resulted in thrombosis of the major blood vessels which critically restricted vascular access available for intravenous nutrition, becoming a life-threatening condition for the patient. Haemodynamic, respiratory parameters and urinary output were well preserved throughout the procedure. Besides a transitory increase in potassium following graft revascularization, biochemical changes were small. Anaesthetic management included comprehensive preoperative assessment, central venous angiography to depict accessibility of central and peripheral veins, assurance of additional vascular access through the intraoperative catheterization of the left renal vein, perioperative epidural analgesia and preservation of splanchnic perfusion to ensure implant viability.

  18. Evaluation of three topical anaesthetic agents against pain : A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM : To compare pain responses of children during local anaesthetic infiltration at bilateral buccal sites prepared with topical application of EMLA 5% cream, benzocaine 18% gel or lignocaine 5% ointment and also to find out the rapidity of onset of action of these agents. METHODS : 60 healthy children aged 6 to 12 years old, received bilateral buccal infiltration following application of topical anaesthetic agents applied in a double blind design. Pain responses were compared based on subject self report using visual analogue scale (VAS and operator assessment using Sound -Eye -Motor (SEM scale. RESULTS : Benzocaine gel had the rapidest onset of action. EMLA 5% cream proved to be superior in pain reduction compared to benzocaine and lignocaine. Taste acceptance was better with benzocaine gel. Further studies are required for EMLA cream with an improved formulation more suitable for mucosal application before its routine use in dentistry.

  19. The history of anaesthetic equipment evaluation in the United Kingdom: lessons for developing future strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, A R; Pandit, J J; O'Sullivan, E

    2011-12-01

    Recent guidance published by the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland encourages the purchase of equipment based on evidence of safety and performance. For many years, evidence of the safety and performance of anaesthetic equipment was published by various government departments and agencies. However, these schemes were gradually eroded over time such that many devices entered the market with little or no clinical evidence of their efficacy. This recently led to the Difficult Airway Society's issuing guidance to its members on how best to select new airway devices; guidance that was based on the available evidence. This article provides a short history of the evaluation of anaesthetic equipment in the United Kingdom. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Emergency Surgery in a Patient with Scleroderma - Anaesthetic Challenges: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teena Bansal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis is a multisystem disease involving the skin, airway, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, renal and cardiac systems that can pose a significant challenge for the anaesthetist. The multisystem involvement of scleroderma can impact on every aspect of anaesthetic care especially airway management. There are no specific contraindications to the use of any type of anaesthesia, although the selection must be guided by identification of organ dysfunction. The anaesthetist must be aware of the organs involved, the severity of the disease and the associated anaesthetic considerations and potential risks in order to safely & skilfully manage the patient with scleroderma. We hereby present a case report of a patient with scleroderma for emergency orbital decompression because of orbital cellulitis.

  1. Analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic wound administration in knee arthroplasty: volume vs concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L Ø; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Kristensen, B B

    2010-01-01

    was reduced in both groups with ropivacaine administration 24 h postoperatively (p time intervals. No reduction in pain scores was observed with ropivacaine injection 6 h postoperatively. The median (IQR [range]) dose of oxycodone administered......Wound administration of local anaesthetic may be effective for postoperative pain management in knee arthroplasty, but the analgesic efficacy of local anaesthetic in relation to volume vs concentration has not been determined. In a double-blinded trial, 48 patients scheduled for total knee...... arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive either a high volume/low concentration solution of ropivacaine (20 ml, 0.5%) or a low volume/high concentration solution of ropivacaine (10 ml, 1%), 6 and 24 h postoperatively through an intracapsular catheter. Pain was assessed for 2 h after administration. Pain...

  2. Anaesthetic Management of Caesarean Section in a Patient with Large Mediastinal Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashif, S.; Saleem, J.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with both anatomical and physiological changes in the body, especially in cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Patients with anterior and middle mediastinal masses are recognized to be at risk for cardiorespiratory compromise. Likewise, pregnancy has a widely known constellation of potential complications that confront the anaesthesiologist. The combination of both (pregnancy and mediastinal mass) in a single patient presents an unusual anaesthetic challenge. Caesarean sections are usually the mode of delivery, therefore, the cardio-respiratory stability is very important. The following is the report of a 31 weeks pregnant patient with a large, symptomatic anterior and middle mediastinal mass, who required anaesthesia for emergency caesarean section. The anaesthetic management entailed Combined Spinal and Epidural (CSE) technique with safe feto-maternal outcome. (author)

  3. Anaesthetic management of patients with congenital heart disease presenting for non-cardiac surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohindra R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of congenital heart disease is about one percent of all live births in the United States. Treatment is being performed at a younger age and these children are showing improved survival. It is not unusual for children with congenital heart disease to present for non-cardiac surgery. Their management depends on their age, type of lesion, extent of corrective procedure, the presence of complications and other congenital anomalies. Each patient needs a detailed pre-operative evaluation to understand the abnormal anatomy and physiology, and related anaesthetic implications. No anaesthetic agent is an absolute contraindication, although drugs beneficial for one lesion may be detrimental for another. Regional anaesthesia has also been safely used in children with congenital heart disease. However the anaesthesiologist must have a detailed understanding of the pathophysiology of the lesion and the pharmacology of drugs being used to be able to provide safe anaesthesia for children with congenital heart disease.

  4. Multimodal Pedagogies for Teacher Education in TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youngjoo; Angay-Crowder, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    As a growing number of English language learners (ELLs) engage in digital and multimodal literacy practices in their daily lives, teachers are starting to incorporate multimodal approaches into their instruction. However, anecdotal and empirical evidence shows that teachers often feel unprepared for integrating such practices into their curricula…

  5. Modeling multimodal human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obrenovic, Z.; Starcevic, D.

    2004-01-01

    Incorporating the well-known Unified Modeling Language into a generic modeling framework makes research on multimodal human-computer interaction accessible to a wide range off software engineers. Multimodal interaction is part of everyday human discourse: We speak, move, gesture, and shift our gaze

  6. Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T

    1976-09-01

    The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.

  7. Filter. Remix. Make.: Cultivating Adaptability through Multimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenberry, Lisa; Hutter, Liz; Robinson, Joy

    2015-01-01

    This article establishes traits of adaptable communicators in the 21st century, explains why adaptability should be a goal of technical communication educators, and shows how multimodal pedagogy supports adaptability. Three examples of scalable, multimodal assignments (infographics, research interviews, and software demonstrations) that evidence…

  8. (Re-)Examination of Multimodal Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, N.E.; Werkhoven, P.J.; Hürst, W.O.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of augmented reality (AR) research has been concerned with visual perception, however the move towards multimodality is imminent. At the same time, there is no clear vision of what multimodal AR is. The purpose of this position paper is to consider possible ways of examining AR other

  9. Multimodal pain management after arthroscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sten

    Multimodal Pain Management after Arthroscopic Surgery By Sten Rasmussen, M.D. The thesis is based on four randomized controlled trials. The main hypothesis was that multimodal pain treatment provides faster recovery after arthroscopic surgery. NSAID was tested against placebo after knee arthroscopy...

  10. Drusen Characterization with Multimodal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaide, Richard F.; Curcio, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multimodal imaging findings and histological demonstration of soft drusen, cuticular drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits provided information used to develop a model explaining their imaging characteristics. Purpose To characterize the known appearance of cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits (reticular pseudodrusen), and soft drusen as revealed by multimodal fundus imaging; to create an explanatory model that accounts for these observations. Methods Reported color, fluorescein angiographic, autofluorescence, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of patients with cuticular drusen, soft drusen, and subretinal drusenoid deposits were reviewed, as were actual images from affected eyes. Representative histological sections were examined. The geometry, location, and imaging characteristics of these lesions were evaluated. A hypothesis based on the Beer-Lambert Law of light absorption was generated to fit these observations. Results Cuticular drusen appear as numerous uniform round yellow-white punctate accumulations under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Soft drusen are larger yellow-white dome-shaped mounds of deposit under the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits are polymorphous light-grey interconnected accumulations above the RPE. Based on the model, both cuticular and soft drusen appear yellow due to the removal of shorter wavelength light by a double pass through the RPE. Subretinal drusenoid deposits, which are located on the RPE, are not subjected to short wavelength attenuation and therefore are more prominent when viewed with blue light. The location and morphology of extracellular material in relationship to the RPE, and associated changes to RPE morphology and pigmentation, appeared to be primary determinants of druse appearance in different imaging modalities. Conclusion Although cuticular drusen, subretinal drusenoid deposits, and soft drusen are composed of common components, they are distinguishable

  11. Multifuel multimodal network design; Projeto de redes multicombustiveis multimodal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Carolina; Dias, Gustavo; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the Multi commodity Multimodal Network Project is the development of modeling tools and methodologies for the optimal sizing of production networks and multimodal distribution of multiple fuel and its incomes, considering investments and transportation costs. Given the inherently non-linear combinatory nature of the problem, the resolution of real instances by the complete model, in an exact way, becomes computationally intractable. Thus, the strategy for resolution should contain a combination of exacts and heuristics methods, that must be applied to subdivisions of the original problem. This paper deals with one of these subdivisions, tackling the problem of modeling a network of pipelines in order to drain the production of ethanol away from the producing plants. The objective consists in defining the best network topology, minimizing investment and operational costs, and attending the total demand. In order to do that, the network was considered a tree, where the nodes are the center of producing regions and the edges are the pipelines, trough where the ethanol produced by plants must be drained away. The main objective also includes the decision over the optimal diameter of each pipeline and the optimal size of the bombs, in order to minimize the pumping costs. (author)

  12. Using screen-based simulation of inhaled anaesthetic delivery to improve patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, J H

    2015-12-01

    Screen-based simulation can improve patient care by giving novices and experienced clinicians insight into drug behaviour. Gas Man(®) is a screen-based simulation program that depicts pictorially and graphically the anaesthetic gas and vapour tension from the vaporizer to the site of action, namely the brain and spinal cord. The gases and vapours depicted are desflurane, enflurane, ether, halothane, isoflurane, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, and xenon. Multiple agents can be administered simultaneously or individually and the results shown on an overlay graph. Practice exercises provide in-depth knowledge of the subject matter. Experienced clinicians can simulate anaesthesia occurrences and practices for application to their clinical practice, and publish the results to benefit others to improve patient care. Published studies using this screen-based simulation have led to a number of findings, as follows: changing from isoflurane to desflurane toward the end of anaesthesia does not accelerate recovery in humans; vital capacity induction can produce loss of consciousness in 45 s; simulated context-sensitive decrement times explain recovery profiles; hyperventilation does not dramatically speed emergence; high fresh gas flow is wasteful; fresh gas flow and not the vaporizer setting should be reduced during intubation; re-anaesthetization can occur with severe hypoventilation after extubation; and in re-anaesthetization, the anaesthetic redistributes from skeletal muscle. Researchers using screen-based simulations can study fewer subjects to reach valid conclusions that impact clinical care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Usefulness of an injectable anaesthetic protocol for semen collection through urethral catheterisation in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria Carmela; Ponzio, Patrizia; Rovella, Chiara; Baravalle, Michela; Veronesi, Maria Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Although less often requested in comparison with dogs, the collection of semen in cats can be necessary for artificial insemination, for semen evaluation in tom cats used for breeding and for semen storage. Urethral catheterisation after pharmacological induction with medetomidine has proved to be useful for the collection of semen in domestic cats. However, most of the previously used protocols require the administration of high doses of medetomidine that can increase the risk of side effects, especially on the cardiovascular system. In routine clinical practice, one safe and useful injectable anaesthetic protocol for short-term clinical investigations or surgery in cats involves premedication with low intramuscular doses of dexmedetomidine with methadone, followed by intravenous propofol bolus injection. We aimed to assess the usefulness of this injectable anaesthetic protocol for semen collection, via urethral catheterisation, in domestic cats. Methods The study was performed on 38 purebred, adult cats, during the breeding season, and semen was collected via urethral catheterisation using an injectable anaesthesia protocol with methadone (0.2 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg) premedication, followed by induction with propofol. Results The anaesthetic protocol used in the present study allowed the collection of large-volume semen samples, characterised by good parameters and without side effects. Conclusions and relevance The results from the present study suggest that the injectable anaesthetic protocol using methadone and dexmedetomidine premedication, followed by induction with propofol, could be suitable and safe for the collection of a good-quality semen sample, via urethral catheterisation, in domestic cats. It can therefore be used as an alternative to previous medetomidine-based sedation protocols.

  14. Review of hypoxaemia in anaesthetized horses: predisposing factors, consequences and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auckburally, Adam; Nyman, Görel

    2017-05-01

    To discuss how hypoxaemia might be harmful and why horses are particularly predisposed to developing it, to review the strategies that are used to manage hypoxaemia in anaesthetized horses, and to describe how successful these strategies are and the adverse effects associated with them. Google Scholar and PubMed, using the search terms horse, pony, exercise, anaesthesia, hypoxaemia, oxygen, mortality, morbidity and ventilation perfusion mismatch. Although there is no evidence that hypoxaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in anaesthetized horses, most anaesthetists would agree that it is important to recognise and prevent or treat it. Favourable anatomical and physiological adaptations of a horse for exercise adversely affect gas exchange once the animal is recumbent. Hypoxaemia is recognised more frequently in horses than in other domestic species during general anaesthesia, although its incidence in healthy horses remains unreported. Management of hypoxaemia in anaesthetized horses is challenging and often unsuccessful. Positive pressure ventilation strategies to address alveolar atelectasis in humans have been modified for implementation in recumbent anaesthetized horses, but are often accompanied by unpredictable and unacceptable cardiopulmonary adverse effects, and some strategies are difficult or impossible to achieve in adult horses. Furthermore, anticipated beneficial effects of these techniques are inconsistent. Increasing the inspired fraction of oxygen during anaesthesia is often unsuccessful since much of the impairment in gas exchange is a direct result of shunt. Alternative approaches to the problem involve manipulation of pulmonary blood away from atelectatic regions of the lung to better ventilated areas. However, further work is essential, with particular focus on survival associated with general anaesthesia in horses, before any technique can be accepted into widespread clinical use. Copyright © 2017 Association of

  15. Metawidgets in the multimodal interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattner, M.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Glinert, E.P.; Jorge, J.A.; Ormsby, G.R. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    We analyze two intertwined and fundamental issues concerning computer-to-human communication in the multimodal interfaces: the interplay between sound and graphics, and the role of object persistence. Our observations lead us to introduce metawidgets as abstract entities capable of manifesting themselves to users as image, as sound, or as various combinations and/or sequences of the two media. We show examples of metawidgets in action, and discuss mechanisms for choosing among alternative media for metawidget instantiation. Finally, we describe a couple of experimental microworlds we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Multimodal approach to postoperative recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide updated information on recent developments within individual components of multimodal interventions to improve postoperative outcome (fast-track methodology). RECENT FINDINGS: The value of the fast-track methodology to improve recovery and decrease hospital stay...... and morbidity has been firmly consolidated, especially in colorectal procedures. An increasing amount of data from other procedures supports the value of the fast-track concept across procedures. Fast-track programs should be based on the analysis of procedure-specific factors that may influence outcome...

  17. Ketamina en analgesia multimodal postcesarea

    OpenAIRE

    Monzón Rubio, Eva María

    2011-01-01

    Mediante la analgesia multimodal influimos en las diferentes vías del dolor a la vez que minimizamos los potenciales efectos adversos de los diferentes fármacos administrados. En el caso del dolor postcesárea esto adquiere un importante matiz debido a la necesidad de disminuir el uso de opioides que pasan a la leche materna en caso de lactancia natural. El uso de dosis subanestésicas de Ketamina ha demostrado en diferentes estudios la disminución de requerimientos de opioides en las primer...

  18. Effects of some anaesthetics on honeybees: nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, ammonium nitrate smoker fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J

    1954-08-01

    Honeybees were apparently unaffected by atmospheric oxygen concentrations between 7% and 100%, and only became motionless when the oxygen concentration was less than 2%. The effects of nitrous oxide-oxygen mixtures differed little, if at all, from those nitrogen-oxygen mixtures. Bees were not visibly affected by carbon dioxide concentrations up to 10-15% but they became motionless if the concentration exceeded 40-45%. Fumes produced by adding ammonium nitrate to the fuel in a beekeeper's smoker were found to contain hydrogen cyanide or cyanogen. Their effectiveness as an anaesthetic may be due to this or to some unidentified component, but not to nitrous oxide. All three anaesthetics caused foraging bees to stop collecting pollen, and accelerated the retrogression of the pharyngeal glands of young bees. Anaesthesia of a few bees in a colony with nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, or ammonium nitrate smoker fumes did not appear to inhibit their drift back to the original site when their hive was moved, nor was any reduction in drifting observed when a whole colony was moved while anaesthetized with ammonium nitrate smoker fumes. 4 tables.

  19. THE USE OF SELECTED ANAESTHETIC DRUGS IN SEARCH OF A METHOD FOR IMPROVING EARTHWORMS’ WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Podolak-Machowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes selected effects of body contact of earthworms Dendrobaena veneta Rosa with local anaesthetic (LA drugs used for human anesthesia (lidocaine and prilocaine and anaesthetics for aquatic animals (MS-222. The findings showed safe and effective immobilization of earthworms with prilocaine at a concentration of 0.25-1%. At the applied concentrations lidocaine was safe, but less effective. On the other hand, MS-222, at the applied concentrations had a strongly irritating effect for earthworms and induced convulsive body movements connected with a discharge of coelomic fluid. The results may be relevant both for improving the welfare of earthworms during experiments and for the organization of research involving testing drugs on invertebrates. In this case, by using earthworms as an experimental model and by applying the method for measuring their mobility after contact with anaesthetics, which has been described in this article, it might be possible to replace experiments on guinea pigs, rabbits, rats and mice, which are expensive and require an approval of an ethics committee, with laboratory tests on earthworms.

  20. Theory versus Practice in the Twentieth-Century Search for the Ideal Anaesthetic Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Ian D

    2016-02-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, an anaesthetist could choose between nitrous oxide, chloroform, and ether (diethyl ether) for the induction of painrelieving unconsciousness. By the end of century, the choice was between a small number of fluorinated aliphatic ethers such as Enflurane, Desflurane, and Sevoflurane, and (in some jurisdictions) the rare gas, xenon. Between these endpoints researchers had identified a surprisingly broad range of hydrocarbons, noble gases, organohalogens, and aliphatic ethers that possessed anaesthetic properties. None was entirely satisfactory, but clinicians at various times and in various places employed substances in each of these categories. Behind the search for new anaesthetic gases was a theory of action (Meyer- Overton theory) that was known to be inadequate, but as no alternative was strong enough to displace it the search continued on purely empirical grounds, while lip-service was paid to the theory. By the time a theory couched in more modern terms was proposed, a suite of modern anaesthetic gases was in place, and there have been no attempts to use that theory to drive a new search.

  1. Effects of Topical Anaesthetic and Buccal Meloxicam Treatments on Concurrent Castration and Dehorning of Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Saag, Dominique; White, Peter; Ingram, Lachlan; Manning, Jaime; Windsor, Peter; Thomson, Peter; Lomax, Sabrina

    2018-02-28

    The use of pain relief during castration and dehorning of calves on commercial beef operations can be limited by constraints associated with the delivery of analgesic agents. As topical anaesthetic (TA) and buccal meloxicam (MEL) are now available in Australia, offering practical analgesic treatments for concurrent castration and dehorning of beef calves, a study was conducted to determine their efficacy in providing pain relief when applied separately or in combination. Weaner calves were randomly allocated to; (1) no castration and dehorning/positive control (CONP); (2) castration and dehorning/negative control (CONN); (3) castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam (BM); (4) castration and dehorning with topical anaesthetic (TA); and (5) castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam and topical anaesthetic (BMTA). Weight gain, paddock utilisation, lying activity and individual behaviours following treatment were measured. CONP and BMTA calves had significantly greater weight gain than CONN calves ( p castrated calves spent more time walking ( p = 0.024) and less time eating ( p castration and amputation dehorning.

  2. Anaesthetic neurotoxicity and neuroplasticity: an expert group report and statement based on the BJA Salzburg Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevtovic-Todorovic, V.; Absalom, A. R.; Blomgren, K.; Brambrink, A.; Crosby, G.; Culley, D. J.; Fiskum, G.; Giffard, R. G.; Herold, K. F.; Loepke, A. W.; Ma, D.; Orser, B. A.; Planel, E.; Slikker, W.; Soriano, S. G.; Stratmann, G.; Vutskits, L.; Xie, Z.; Hemmings, H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Although previously considered entirely reversible, general anaesthesia is now being viewed as a potentially significant risk to cognitive performance at both extremes of age. A large body of preclinical as well as some retrospective clinical evidence suggest that exposure to general anaesthesia could be detrimental to cognitive development in young subjects, and might also contribute to accelerated cognitive decline in the elderly. A group of experts in anaesthetic neuropharmacology and neurotoxicity convened in Salzburg, Austria for the BJA Salzburg Seminar on Anaesthetic Neurotoxicity and Neuroplasticity. This focused workshop was sponsored by the British Journal of Anaesthesia to review and critically assess currently available evidence from animal and human studies, and to consider the direction of future research. It was concluded that mounting evidence from preclinical studies reveals general anaesthetics to be powerful modulators of neuronal development and function, which could contribute to detrimental behavioural outcomes. However, definitive clinical data remain elusive. Since general anaesthesia often cannot be avoided regardless of patient age, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms and effects involved in anaesthesia-induced neurotoxicity, and to develop strategies for avoiding or limiting potential brain injury through evidence-based approaches. PMID:23722106

  3. Job satisfaction, stress and burnout in anaesthetic technicians in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, M T; Bryant, J

    2008-03-01

    Anaesthetic technicians play a key role in the operating room, yet little is known about their levels of job satisfaction or workplace stress. A blinded, confidential single mail-out survey was posted to anaesthetic technicians in New Zealand. The survey consisted of demographic information, a job satisfaction survey, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Short Form 12. At total of 154 forms were returned (51% response rate). Respondents worked predominantly in public hospitals and many had duties outside the operating room. Job satisfaction was related to teamwork, practical nature of work and patient contact, while dissatisfaction was related to lack of respect from nurses and limited career pathway. High to moderate levels of emotional exhaustion (48%), depersonalisation (39%) and low levels of personal accomplishment (58%) were indicators of burnout. The Short Form 12 revealed high levels of physical impairment in 24% and emotional impairment in 35% of respondents. These data suggest that work is needed to evaluate anaesthetic assistants' job structure and actively manage their important physical and emotional sequelae.

  4. All-fiber multimode interference micro-displacement sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio-Lopez, J E; LiKamWa, P; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; May-Arrioja, D A

    2013-01-01

    We report an all-fiber micro-displacement sensor based on multimode interference (MMI) effects. The micro-displacement sensor consists of a segment of No-Core multimode fiber (MMF) with one end spliced to a segment of single mode fiber (SMF) which acts as the input. The other end of the MMF and another SMF are inserted into a capillary ferrule filled with index matching liquid. Since the refractive index of the liquid is higher than that of the ferrule, a liquid MMF with a diameter of 125 µm is formed between the fibers inside the ferrule. When the fibers are separated this effectively increases the length of the MMF. Since the peak wavelength response of MMI devices is very sensitive to changes in the MMF's length, this can be used to detect micro-displacements. By measuring spectral changes we have obtained a sensing range of 3 mm with a sensitivity of 25 nm mm −1 and a resolution of 20 µm. The sensor can also be used to monitor small displacements by using a single wavelength to interrogate the transmission of the MMI device close to the resonance peak. Under this latter regime we were able to obtain a sensitivity of 7000 mV mm −1 and a sensing range of 100 µm, with a resolution up to 1 µm. The simplicity and versatility of the sensor make it very suitable for many diverse applications. (paper)

  5. Multimodality localization of epileptic foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desco, Manuel; Pascau, Javier; Pozo, M. A.; Santos, Andres; Reig, Santiago; Gispert, Juan D.; Garcia-Barreno, Pedro

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents a multimodality approach for the localization of epileptic foci using PET, MRI and EEG combined without the need of external markers. Mutual Information algorithm is used for MRI-PET registration. Dipole coordinates (provided by BESA software) are projected onto the MRI using a specifically developed algorithm. The four anatomical references used for electrode positioning (nasion, inion and two preauricular points) are located on the MRI using a triplanar viewer combined with a surface-rendering tool. Geometric transformation using deformation of the ideal sphere used for dipole calculations is then applied to match the patient's brain size and shape. Eight treatment-refractory epileptic patients have been studied. The combination of the anatomical information from the MRI, hipoperfusion areas in PET and dipole position and orientation helped the physician in the diagnosis of epileptic focus location. Neurosurgery was not indicated for patients where PET and dipole results were inconsistent; in two cases it was clinically indicated despite the mismatch, showing a negative follow up. The multimodality approach presented does not require external markers for dipole projection onto the MRI, this being the main difference with previous methods. The proposed method may play an important role in the indication of surgery for treatment- refractory epileptic patients.

  6. Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2009-07-01

    An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

  7. Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelen, Manfred; Erbel, Raimund; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Barkhausen, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

  8. Practical multimodal care for cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, Matthew; Hopkinson, Jane; Conibear, John; Reeves, Annie; Shaw, Clare; Fearon, Ken C H

    2016-12-01

    Cancer cachexia is common and reduces function, treatment tolerability and quality of life. Given its multifaceted pathophysiology a multimodal approach to cachexia management is advocated for, but can be difficult to realise in practice. We use a case-based approach to highlight practical approaches to the multimodal management of cachexia for patients across the cancer trajectory. Four cases with lung cancer spanning surgical resection, radical chemoradiotherapy, palliative chemotherapy and no anticancer treatment are presented. We propose multimodal care approaches that incorporate nutritional support, exercise, and anti-inflammatory agents, on a background of personalized oncology care and family-centred education. Collectively, the cases reveal that multimodal care is part of everyone's remit, often focuses on supported self-management, and demands buy-in from the patient and their family. Once operationalized, multimodal care approaches can be tested pragmatically, including alongside emerging pharmacological cachexia treatments. We demonstrate that multimodal care for cancer cachexia can be achieved using simple treatments and without a dedicated team of specialists. The sharing of advice between health professionals can help build collective confidence and expertise, moving towards a position in which every team member feels they can contribute towards multimodal care.

  9. [Utilization of multimodal therapy concepts in stomach carcinoma in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösing, N M; Heise, J W; Röher, H D

    2000-01-01

    In view of disappointing results after surgery alone multimodal therapeutic regimes are used to improve long-term prognosis in locally advanced gastric carcinomas. In presence of many reports about encouraging results ("down staging", improved R0-resection rates) but simultaneously missing evidence of efficiency of neoadjuvant therapies in respect to long-term survival (large randomized multicenter trials do not exist until today) and the herewith related uncertainties, we started an inquiry among many surgical units with the intention to evaluate the clinical practice of multimodal treatment for gastric cancer patients in Germany today. In a questionnaire (3/99) we asked among 97 surgical units (41 university hospitals, 56 big community hospitals) in Germany for the management of gastric cancer patients with special interest to practice and state of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapeutic strategies. Further we analyzed all resected gastric cancer patients (1986-1995) without neoadjuvant treatment in advanced stage of disease (pT3/4NxMx; stage III/IV (UICC'92) in respect to R0-resection rate and long-term prognosis (Kaplan-Meier). Overall feedback amounted to 78% (76/97) and was higher in university hospitals (90%) than in big community hospitals (70%). Today, neoadjuvant therapies are of more interest than adjuvant therapeutic regimes. But also neoadjuvant therapy is only used in 32% as a rule (in 16% with, in 16% without study conditions). 25% of all surgical units do not employ any neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced gastric cancer until today. In all other surgical units neoadjuvant treatment is performed more individually and sporadically (43%) only in some patients. Neoadjuvant therapies are practiced by haematooncologists in 50%, gastroenterologists in 32% and surgeons in 27%. The predominant neoadjuvant therapeutic strategy is chemotherapy alone (84%). Many surgical units in Germany are interested to participate in a multicenter trial with more interest

  10. Mediating multimodal environmental knowledge across animation techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    2011-01-01

    ://www.sustainlane.com/. The multimodal discourse analysis is meant to reveal how selection and representation of environmental knowledge about social actors, social actions, resources, time and space are influenced by animation techniques. Furthermore, in the context of this multimodal discourse analysis, their influence upon......The growing awareness of and concern about present environmental problems generate a proliferation of new forms of environmental discourses that are mediated in various ways. This chapter explores issues related to the ways in which environmental knowledge is multimodally communicated...

  11. Characteristics of regulatory regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noralv Veggeland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this paper is institutional analysis of basic characteristics of regulatory regimes. The concepts of path dependence and administrative traditions are used throughout. Self-reinforcing or positive feedback processes in political systems represent a basic framework. The empirical point of departure is the EU public procurement directive linked to OECD data concerning use of outsourcing among member states. The question is asked: What has caused the Nordic countries, traditionally not belonging to the Anglo-Saxon market-centred administrative tradition, to be placed so high on the ranking as users of the Market-Type Mechanism (MTM of outsourcing in the public sector vs. in-house provision of services? A thesis is that the reason may be complex, but might be found in an innovative Scandinavian regulatory approach rooted in the Nordic model.

  12. Multimodal integration in statistical learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Aaron; Christiansen, Morten Hyllekvist; Weiss, Dan

    2014-01-01

    , we investigated the ability of adults to integrate audio and visual input during statistical learning. We presented learners with a speech stream synchronized with a video of a speaker’s face. In the critical condition, the visual (e.g., /gi/) and auditory (e.g., /mi/) signals were occasionally...... facilitated participants’ ability to segment the speech stream. Our results therefore demonstrate that participants can integrate audio and visual input to perceive the McGurk illusion during statistical learning. We interpret our findings as support for modality-interactive accounts of statistical learning.......Recent advances in the field of statistical learning have established that learners are able to track regularities of multimodal stimuli, yet it is unknown whether the statistical computations are performed on integrated representations or on separate, unimodal representations. In the present study...

  13. Multimodality image analysis work station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratib, O.; Huang, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this project is to design and implement a PACS (picture archiving and communication system) workstation for quantitative analysis of multimodality images. The Macintosh II personal computer was selected for its friendly user interface, its popularity among the academic and medical community, and its low cost. The Macintosh operates as a stand alone workstation where images are imported from a central PACS server through a standard Ethernet network and saved on a local magnetic or optical disk. A video digitizer board allows for direct acquisition of images from sonograms or from digitized cine angiograms. The authors have focused their project on the exploration of new means of communicating quantitative data and information through the use of an interactive and symbolic user interface. The software developed includes a variety of image analysis, algorithms for digitized angiograms, sonograms, scintigraphic images, MR images, and CT scans

  14. Multimodal signalling in estrildid finches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, A. C. R.; Funghi, C.; Soma, M.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual traits (e.g. visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multimodal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g. to increase the efficiency of communication) or that different signals trade off with each other...... (e.g. due to limited resources). Alternatively, multiple signals may evolve independently for different functions, or to communicate different information (multiple message hypothesis). We evaluated these hypotheses with a comparative study in the family Estrildidae, one of the largest songbird...... compromise, but generally courtship dance also evolved independently from other signals. Instead of correlated evolution, we found that song, dance and colour are each related to different socio-ecological traits. Song complexity evolved together with ecological generalism, song performance with investment...

  15. Multispectral analysis of multimodal images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvinnsland, Yngve; Brekke, Njaal (Dept. of Surgical Sciences, Univ. of Bergen, Bergen (Norway)); Taxt, Torfinn M.; Gruener, Renate (Dept. of Biomedicine, Univ. of Bergen, Bergen (Norway))

    2009-02-15

    An increasing number of multimodal images represent a valuable increase in available image information, but at the same time it complicates the extraction of diagnostic information across the images. Multispectral analysis (MSA) has the potential to simplify this problem substantially as unlimited number of images can be combined, and tissue properties across the images can be extracted automatically. Materials and methods. We have developed a software solution for MSA containing two algorithms for unsupervised classification, an EM-algorithm finding multinormal class descriptions and the k-means clustering algorithm, and two for supervised classification, a Bayesian classifier using multinormal class descriptions and a kNN-algorithm. The software has an efficient user interface for the creation and manipulation of class descriptions, and it has proper tools for displaying the results. Results. The software has been tested on different sets of images. One application is to segment cross-sectional images of brain tissue (T1- and T2-weighted MR images) into its main normal tissues and brain tumors. Another interesting set of images are the perfusion maps and diffusion maps, derived images from raw MR images. The software returns segmentation that seem to be sensible. Discussion. The MSA software appears to be a valuable tool for image analysis with multimodal images at hand. It readily gives a segmentation of image volumes that visually seems to be sensible. However, to really learn how to use MSA, it will be necessary to gain more insight into what tissues the different segments contain, and the upcoming work will therefore be focused on examining the tissues through for example histological sections.

  16. Driver Education for New Multimodal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    Local and state transportation agencies are redesigning roads to accommodate multimodal travel, including the addition of new configurations, infrastructures, and rules that may be unfamiliar to current drivers and other road users. Education and out...

  17. Responsive Multimodal Transportation Management Strategies And IVHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE NEW AND INNOVATIVE WAYS TO INCORPORATE IVHS TECHNOLOGIES INTO MULTIMODAL TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES. MUCH OF THE IVHS RESEARCH DONE TO DATE HAS ADDRESSED THE MODES INDIVIDUALLY. THIS PROJECT FOCU...

  18. Influence of Blood Contamination During Multimode Adhesive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... (μTBS) of multimode adhesives to dentin when using the self‑etch approach. Materials and Methods: ... adhesion, the collagen fibers collapse during the. Introduction ..... The failure mode was determined using an optical.

  19. Quantifying Quality Aspects of Multimodal Interactive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the quantification of quality aspects of multimodal interactive systems. The conceptual structure is based on a schematic view on human-computer interaction where the user interacts with the system and perceives it via input and output interfaces. Thus, aspects of multimodal interaction are analyzed first, followed by a discussion of the evaluation of output and input and concluding with a view on the evaluation of a complete system.

  20. Anaesthetic effects of alfaxalone administered intraperitoneally alone or combined with dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Mario; Gomez de Segura, Ignacio A

    2018-01-01

    Alfaxalone is a neuroactive steroid used as a general anaesthetic in several species including dogs, cats, rabbits and ferrets. It has a wide margin of safety and a similar anaesthetic profile to propofol. To increase its aqueous solubility, a new formulation with cyclodextrins has been marketed recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anaesthetic effect of several doses of alfaxalone alone, considering differences between sexes, and alfaxalone combined with dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in the rat administered by the intraperitoneal route. A total of 40 Sprague Dawley rats, involved in three studies, were used. Firstly, 25, 35 and 45 mg kg -1 of alfaxalone alone were tested. In a second study, alfaxalone (25 mg kg -1 , females; 75 mg kg -1 , males) was combined with dexmedetomidine (0.05 mg kg -1 ). Finally, alfaxalone (20 mg kg -1 , females; 60 mg kg -1 , males) was combined with dexmedetomidine (0.05 mg kg -1 ) and fentanyl (0.1 mg kg -1 ). Times of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and analgesia, deemed as losing of withdrawal pedal reflex, were recorded. Alfaxalone alone produced a 2 - to 3-fold longer time of anaesthesia in females, although surgical anaesthesia was not achieved in either sex. The addition of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl to alfaxalone produced a similar time of analgesia as well as increased time of anaesthesia in both sexes. In conclusion, alfaxalone produces light anaesthesia in rats, and males required a higher dose. The combination with other sedatives or analgesics, such as dexmedetomidine or fentanyl, allows a more prolonged anaesthesia with analgesic effects, potentially suitable for invasive procedures.

  1. First administration to man of Org 25435, an intravenous anaesthetic: A Phase 1 Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby-Jones, Ann E; Sneyd, J Robert; Vijn, Peter; Boen, Patrick; Cross, Maurice

    2010-06-29

    Org 25435 is a new water-soluble alpha-amino acid ester intravenous anaesthetic which proved satisfactory in animal studies. This study aimed to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of Org 25435 and to obtain preliminary pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data. In the Short Infusion study 8 healthy male volunteers received a 1 minute infusion of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg (n = 2 per group); a further 10 received 3.0 mg/kg (n = 5) or 4.0 mg/kg (n = 5). Following preliminary pharmacokinetic modelling 7 subjects received a titrated 30 minute Target Controlled Infusion (TCI), total dose 5.8-20 mg/kg. Within the Short Infusion study, all subjects were successfully anaesthetised at 3 and 4 mg/kg. Within the TCI study 5 subjects were anaesthetised and 2 showed signs of sedation. Org 25435 caused hypotension and tachycardia at doses over 2 mg/kg. Recovery from anaesthesia after a 30 min administration of Org 25435 was slow (13.7 min). Pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that the context sensitive half-time of Org 25435 is slightly shorter than that of propofol in infusions up to 20 minutes but progressively longer thereafter. Org 25435 is an effective intravenous anaesthetic in man at doses of 3 and 4 mg/kg given over 1 minute. Longer infusions can maintain anaesthesia but recovery is slow. Hypotension and tachycardia during anaesthesia and slow recovery of consciousness after cessation of drug administration suggest this compound has no advantages over currently available intravenous anaesthetics.

  2. Effects of Topical Anaesthetic and Buccal Meloxicam Treatments on Concurrent Castration and Dehorning of Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Van der Saag

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of pain relief during castration and dehorning of calves on commercial beef operations can be limited by constraints associated with the delivery of analgesic agents. As topical anaesthetic (TA and buccal meloxicam (MEL are now available in Australia, offering practical analgesic treatments for concurrent castration and dehorning of beef calves, a study was conducted to determine their efficacy in providing pain relief when applied separately or in combination. Weaner calves were randomly allocated to; (1 no castration and dehorning/positive control (CONP; (2 castration and dehorning/negative control (CONN; (3 castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam (BM; (4 castration and dehorning with topical anaesthetic (TA; and (5 castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam and topical anaesthetic (BMTA. Weight gain, paddock utilisation, lying activity and individual behaviours following treatment were measured. CONP and BMTA calves had significantly greater weight gain than CONN calves (p < 0.001. CONN calves spent less time lying compared to BMTA calves on all days (p < 0.001. All dehorned and castrated calves spent more time walking (p = 0.024 and less time eating (p < 0.001 compared to CONP calves. There was a trend for CONP calves to spend the most time standing and CONN calves to spend the least time standing (p = 0.059. There were also trends for the frequency of head turns to be lowest in CONP and BMTA calves (p = 0.098 and tail flicks to be highest in CONN and BM calves (p = 0.061. The findings of this study suggest that TA and MEL can potentially improve welfare and production of calves following surgical castration and amputation dehorning.

  3. Adrenaline reveals the torsadogenic effect of combined blockade of potassium channels in anaesthetized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G; Kane, K A; Coker, S J

    2008-08-01

    Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be induced in several species by a reduction in cardiac repolarizing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess whether combined I(Kr) and I(Ks) blockade could induce TdP in anaesthetized guinea pigs and whether short-term variability (STV) or triangulation of action potentials could predict TdP. Experiments were performed in open-chest, pentobarbital-anaesthetized, adrenaline-stimulated male Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs, which received three consecutive i.v. infusions of either vehicle, the I(Kr) blocker E-4031 (3, 10 and 30 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)), the I(Ks) blocker HMR1556 (75, 250, 750 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or E-4031 and HMR1556 combined. Phenylephrine-stimulated guinea pigs were also treated with the K(+) channel blockers in combination. Arterial blood pressure, ECGs and epicardial monophasic action potential (MAP) were recorded. TdP was observed in 75% of adrenaline-stimulated guinea pigs given the K(+) channel blockers in combination, but was not observed in guinea pigs treated with either I(K) blocker alone, or in phenylephrine-stimulated guinea pigs. Salvos and ventricular tachycardia occurred with adrenaline but not with phenylephrine. No changes in STV or triangulation of the MAP signals were observed before TdP. Combined blockade of both I(Kr) and I(Ks) plus the addition of adrenaline were required to induce TdP in anaesthetized guinea pigs. This suggests that there must be sufficient depletion of repolarization reserve and an appropriate trigger for TdP to occur.

  4. Anaesthetic management of supratentorial tumor craniotomy using awake-throughout approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, F.; Salim, F.; Parkash, J.

    2017-01-01

    The authors are reporting an anaesthetic management of patient presenting with left parietal lobe space occupying lesion and scheduled for Awake-craniotomy. Awake-throughout approach using scalp block was planned. Among techniques reported for keeping patient awake during the surgery, this one is really underutilized. The successful conduct requires thorough preoperative assessment and psychological preparation. We used powerpoint presentation as a preoperative teaching tool. The anatomical landmark technique was used to institute scalp block, where individual nerves were targeted bilaterally. Patient remained stable throughout and participated actively in intraoperative neurological monitoring. Postoperative period showed remarkable recovery, better pain control, and shorter length of stay in hospital. (author)

  5. Anaesthetic Management of Supratentorial Tumor Craniotomy Using Awake-Throughout Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Faraz; Salim, Fahad; Enam, Ather; Parkash, Jai; Faheem, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    The authors are reporting an anaesthetic management of patient presenting with left parietal lobe space occupying lesion and scheduled for Awake-craniotomy. Awake-throughout approach using scalp block was planned. Among techniques reported for keeping patient awake during the surgery, this one is really underutilized. The successful conduct requires thorough preoperative assessment and psychological preparation. We used powerpoint presentation as a preoperative teaching tool. The anatomical landmark technique was used to institute scalp block, where individual nerves were targeted bilaterally. Patient remained stable throughout and participated actively in intraoperative neurological monitoring. Postoperative period showed remarkable recovery, better pain control, and shorter length of stay in hospital.

  6. The value of decision tree analysis in planning anaesthetic care in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, J H; Evans, S A

    2016-08-01

    The use of decision tree analysis is discussed in the context of the anaesthetic and obstetric management of a young pregnant woman with joint hypermobility syndrome with a history of insensitivity to local anaesthesia and a previous difficult intubation due to a tongue tumour. The multidisciplinary clinical decision process resulted in the woman being delivered without complication by elective caesarean section under general anaesthesia after an awake fibreoptic intubation. The decision process used is reviewed and compared retrospectively to a decision tree analytical approach. The benefits and limitations of using decision tree analysis are reviewed and its application in obstetric anaesthesia is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effects of Some Anaesthetics on the Electrocardiograms of Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    PİŞKİN, İlksin; ŞİRELİ, Meltem; SAĞMANLIGİL, Vedat; EMRE, Bahri

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out to observe the effects on electrocardiography of using droperidol-fentanyl and ketamine-xylazine combinations, urethane and pentothal sodium as anaesthetic doses. In this study, thirty-five 4-5 months-old quinea pigs of both sexes weighing 540-600 g were used. The quinea pigs were divided equally into 5 groups. The first group was used as the control group and nothing was given to this group. The combination of droperidol (20 mg/ml)-fentanyl (0.4 mg/ml) in a dose o...

  8. Anaesthetic management of a patient with deep brain stimulation implant for radical nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Khetarpal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old man with severe Parkinson′s disease (PD who had been implanted with deep brain stimulators into both sides underwent radical nephrectomy under general anaesthesia with standard monitoring. Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an alternative and effective treatment option for severe and refractory PD and other illnesses such as essential tremor and intractable epilepsy. Anaesthesia in the patients with implanted neurostimulator requires special consideration because of the interaction between neurostimulator and the diathermy. The diathermy can damage the brain tissue at the site of electrode. There are no standard guidelines for the anaesthetic management of a patient with DBS electrode in situ posted for surgery.

  9. Anaesthetic Implications in Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Severe Hypercalcaemia; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Bansal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism is a rare endocrinal disorder of excess production of parathormone. A wide array of presenting symptoms may occur from parathormone induced hypercalcaemia leading to nephrolithiasis, osteoporosis, muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. We present a case of young female who presented with non union of an operated fracture femur and generalized bony pains and frequent complaints of vomiting, polyuria and polydipsia. She was diagnosed to have primary hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcaemia and underwent parathyroidectomy. The potential perioperative problems and anaesthetic concerns require a focused management and are discussed.

  10. Morbidly obese patient with obstructive sleep apnoea for major spine surgery: An anaesthetic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Redhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidly obese patients with clinical features of obstructive sleep apnoea can present a myriad of challenges to the anaesthesiologists which must be addressed to minimise the perioperative risks. Initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy early in the pre- and post-operative period along with appropriate anaesthetic planning is of paramount importance in such patients. This case report emphasises the usefulness of CPAP therapy, even for a short duration, to minimise morbidity, improve recovery and hasten early discharge from the hospital after major surgery.

  11. Anaesthetic management of a patient with Liddle's syndrome for emergency caesarean hysterectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, N E

    2011-04-01

    We describe the anaesthetic management of a patient with Liddle\\'s syndrome during caesarean section and emergency hysterectomy for placenta accreta associated with significant intrapartum haemorrhage. Liddle\\'s syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterised by early onset arterial hypertension and hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis. Additional issues were the presence of short stature, limb hypertonicity and preeclampsia. Initial management with a low-dose combined spinal-epidural technique was subsequently converted to general anaesthesia due to patient discomfort. The management of Liddle\\'s syndrome in the setting of neuraxial and general anaesthesia in a patient undergoing caesarean section is discussed.

  12. Anaesthetic management of a patient with Liddle's syndrome for emergency caesarean hysterectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, N E

    2012-02-01

    We describe the anaesthetic management of a patient with Liddle\\'s syndrome during caesarean section and emergency hysterectomy for placenta accreta associated with significant intrapartum haemorrhage. Liddle\\'s syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterised by early onset arterial hypertension and hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis. Additional issues were the presence of short stature, limb hypertonicity and preeclampsia. Initial management with a low-dose combined spinal-epidural technique was subsequently converted to general anaesthesia due to patient discomfort. The management of Liddle\\'s syndrome in the setting of neuraxial and general anaesthesia in a patient undergoing caesarean section is discussed.

  13. Efficacy of 2-Phenoxyethanol as an Anaesthetic for Adult Redline Torpedo Fish, Sahyadria denisonii (Day 1865

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mercy Thoranam Varkey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of 2-phenoxyethanol for redline torpedo fish exposed to five concentrations (200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 μlL−1 was evaluated. The time periods necessary for each characteristic stage of induction and recovery were recorded. Results indicated that the induction time of the fish exposed to five anaesthetic concentrations significantly (P<0.05 decreased with increasing concentration but recovery time was independent of concentration. Concentration of 500 μlL−1 (induction time: 173 ± 7 and recovery time: 129 ± 41 seconds was determined as the minimum effective concentration that induces anaesthesia in less than 3 minutes.

  14. Multimodal system designed to reduce errors in recording and administration of drugs in anaesthesia: prospective randomised clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Alan F; Webster, Craig S; Hannam, Jacqueline; Mitchell, Simon J; Henderson, Robert; Reid, Papaarangi; Edwards, Kylie-Ellen; Jardim, Anisoara; Pak, Nick; Cooper, Jeremy; Hopley, Lara; Frampton, Chris; Short, Timothy G

    2011-09-22

    To clinically evaluate a new patented multimodal system (SAFERSleep) designed to reduce errors in the recording and administration of drugs in anaesthesia. Prospective randomised open label clinical trial. Five designated operating theatres in a major tertiary referral hospital. Eighty nine consenting anaesthetists managing 1075 cases in which there were 10,764 drug administrations. Use of the new system (which includes customised drug trays and purpose designed drug trolley drawers to promote a well organised anaesthetic workspace and aseptic technique; pre-filled syringes for commonly used anaesthetic drugs; large legible colour coded drug labels; a barcode reader linked to a computer, speakers, and touch screen to provide automatic auditory and visual verification of selected drugs immediately before each administration; automatic compilation of an anaesthetic record; an on-screen and audible warning if an antibiotic has not been administered within 15 minutes of the start of anaesthesia; and certain procedural rules-notably, scanning the label before each drug administration) versus conventional practice in drug administration with a manually compiled anaesthetic record. Primary: composite of errors in the recording and administration of intravenous drugs detected by direct observation and by detailed reconciliation of the contents of used drug vials against recorded administrations; and lapses in responding to an intermittent visual stimulus (vigilance latency task). Secondary: outcomes in patients; analyses of anaesthetists' tasks and assessments of workload; evaluation of the legibility of anaesthetic records; evaluation of compliance with the procedural rules of the new system; and questionnaire based ratings of the respective systems by participants. The overall mean rate of drug errors per 100 administrations was 9.1 (95% confidence interval 6.9 to 11.4) with the new system (one in 11 administrations) and 11.6 (9.3 to 13.9) with conventional methods (one

  15. A critical test of Drosophila anaesthetics: Isoflurane and sevoflurane are benign alternatives to cold and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Heath A; Nørgård, Mikkel; MacLean, Heidi J; Overgaard, Johannes; Williams, Catherine J A

    2017-08-01

    Anaesthesia is often a necessary step when studying insects like the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Most studies of Drosophila and other insects that require anaesthesia use either cold exposure or carbon dioxide exposure to induce a narcotic state. These anaesthetic methods are known to disrupt physiology and behavior with increasing exposure, and thus ample recovery time is required prior to experimentation. Here, we examine whether two halogenated ethers commonly used in vertebrate anaesthesia, isoflurane and sevoflurane, may serve as alternative means of insect anaesthesia. Using D. melanogaster, we generated dose-response curves to identify exposure times for each anaesthetic (cold, CO 2 , isoflurane and sevoflurane) that allow for five-minutes of experimental manipulation of the animals after the anaesthetic was removed (i.e. 5min recovery doses). We then compared the effects of this practical dose on high temperature, low temperature, starvation, and desiccation tolerance, as well as locomotor activity and fecundity of female flies following recovery from anaesthesia. Cold, CO 2 and isoflurane each had significant or near significant effects on the traits measured, but the specific effects of each anaesthetic differed, and effects on stress tolerance generally did not persist if the flies were given 48h to recover from anaesthesia. Sevoflurane had no measureable effect on any of the traits examined. Care must be taken when choosing an anaesthetic in Drosophila research, as the impacts of specific anaesthetics on stress tolerance, behavior and reproduction can widely differ. Sevoflurane may be a practical alternative to cold and CO 2 anaesthesia in insects - particularly if flies are to be used for experiments shortly after anesthesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaesthetic Management of a patient with Myasthenia Gravis and Small Bowel Intussusception for Jejuno-Ileal Anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting voluntary skeletal muscles. The altered sensitivity of acetylcholine receptors to muscle relaxants and concomitant treatment with anticholinesterase in these patients affect their anaesthetic management. Patients who have undergone bowel anastomosis and are on regular anticholinesterase treatment are susceptible to anastomotic leaks. We report successful anaesthetic management of class I myasthenic patient with coexisting small bowel intussusception operated for jejuno-ileal anastomoses using regional, inhalational and intravenous (i.v anaesthesia based on train of four responses, and avoiding the use of reversal (anticholinesterase.

  17. Local anaesthetic refinement of pentobarbital euthanasia reduces abdominal writhing without affecting immunohistochemical endpoints in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Shaun Y-S; Lay, Belinda P P; Joya, Josephine; McNally, Gavan P

    2018-04-01

    Sodium pentobarbital is a commonly used agent for euthanizing laboratory rats, however its high pH can cause abdominal discomfort after intraperitoneal injection. Previous studies suggest that the addition of a local anaesthetic may alleviate this discomfort, but the practice has not been widely adopted. We examined the effect of combining lidocaine with pentobarbital on abdominal writhing, defecation, ultrasonic vocalizations, the rat grimace scale and immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos in the nucleus accumbens and basolateral amygdala of the brain. We also compared the amount of abdominal writhing following intraperitoneal administration of pentobarbital-lidocaine with that of pentobarbital-bupivacaine. Our results show that lidocaine reduces abdominal writhing and defecation without affecting immunohistochemistry for c-Fos or latency to loss of posture. However, scores on the rat grimace scale were low in both situations and almost no ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded. Additionally, we found that the amount of abdominal writhing was not significantly different when bupivacaine was used rather than lidocaine. Our results suggest that pentobarbital-induced euthanasia can be refined with the addition of lidocaine or other local anaesthetics.

  18. [Anaesthetic management in a paediatric patient with a difficult airway due to epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez Gómez, E; Garcés Aletá, A; Monclus Diaz, E; Manen Berga, F; García-Aparicio, L; Ontanilla López, A

    2015-05-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by blistering after minimal trauma. These blisters tend to form dystrophic scars, leading to limiting and life-threatening sequelae. The anaesthetic management of patients with DEB is a challenge, even for the most experienced anaesthesiologists, but basic principles can help us prepare the plan of care. The main goals are to prevent trauma/infection of skin/mucous, and to establish a secure airway without causing bullae. Patient positioning and the instruments used to monitor vital signs and administering anaesthetic agents can cause new lesions. It is advisable to lubricate the instruments and to avoid adhesive material and shearing forces on the skin. Besides the implications of the comorbidities, there is a potential difficult intubation and difficult vascular access. Acute airway obstruction can occur due to airway instrumentation. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with EBD difficult airway and undergoing correction of syndactylyl and dental extractions. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of three different formulations of local anaesthetics for cervical epidural anaesthesia during thyroid surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare the efficacy and safety of local anaesthetics under cervical epidural anaesthesia (CEA using lignocaine (1%, bupivacaine (0.25% and ropivacaine (0.5% for thyroid surgery. Methods: In a prospective, randomized fashion, 81 patients were selected for thyroid surgery under CEA. They were assigned to one of three groups: Group L, B and R to receive 10 mL of 1% lignocaine, 0.25% bupivacaine and 0.5% ropivacaine, respectively. We compared their efficacy in terms of pulmonary and haemodynamic parameters, blockade quality and complications. Results: Of the total, 74 patients completed the study successfully. Sensory block attained the median dermatomal range of C2-T4/T5 in all the groups. Motor block was more pronounced in the ropivacaine group. Cardiorespiratory parameters decreased significantly in all the groups; however, none of the patients had any major complications except for bradycardia in two patients. Among the measured variables, the decrease in heart rate and peak expiratory force was more in the lignocaine group while forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume at 1 sec declined to a greater extent in the ropivacaine group. The lignocaine group required significantly more epidural top-ups compared with the other two groups. Conclusion: We conclude that cervical epidural route can be safely used for surgery on thyroid gland in patients with normal cardiorespiratory reserve, using either of local anaesthetics chosen for our study. Under the selected dose and concentrations, the decrease in cardiorespiratory parameters was lesser with bupivacaine.

  20. Halogenated anaesthetics and cardiac protection in cardiac and non-cardiac anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landoni Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile anaesthetic agents have direct protective properties against ischemic myocardial damage. The implementation of these properties during clinical anaesthesia can provide an additional tool in the treatment or prevention, or both, of ischemic cardiac dysfunction in the perioperative period. A recent meta-analysis showed that desflurane and sevoflurane reduce postoperative mortality and incidence of myocardial infarction following cardiac surgery, with significant advantages in terms of postoperative cardiac troponin release, need for inotrope support, time on mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and overall hospital stay. Multicentre, randomised clinical trials had previously demonstrated that the use of desflurane can reduce the postoperative release of cardiac troponin I, the need for inotropic support, and the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalisation following coronary artery bypass graft surgery either with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines recommend volatile anaesthetic agents during non-cardiac surgery for the maintenance of general anaesthesia in patients at risk for myocardial infarction. Nonetheless, e vidence in non-coronary surgical settings is contradictory and will be reviewed in this paper together with the mechanisms of cardiac protection by volatile agents.

  1. Optimal Solubility of Diclofenac β-Cyclodextrin in Combination with Local Anaesthetics for Mesotherapy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Giuseppe; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    Because of low injection volume, the recently marketed injectable solution of diclofenac in complex with β -cyclodextrin (Akis®, IBSA Farmaceutici Italia) is an ideal candidate for mesotherapy applications. In this study, we investigated the solubility of Akis, 25 and 50 mg/kg, in combination with various local anaesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine) at different concentrations in aqueous vehicles (normal saline, sterile water, or bicarbonate). Final injection mixtures were classified as limpid, turbid, or milky at visual analysis under standardized conditions. We found that (i) the use of sterile water for injections or normal saline as vehicles to dilute Akis in combination with whatever local anaesthetic normally results in milky solutions and therefore is not recommended; (ii) using bicarbonate, optimal solubility was obtained combining Akis with lidocaine, both 1 and 2%, or mepivacaine, both 1 and 2%, whereas solutions were turbid in combination with bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, or ropivacaine. Thus, we recommend that Akis is used in combination with lidocaine or mepivacaine in a bicarbonate vehicle.

  2. Optimal Solubility of Diclofenac β-Cyclodextrin in Combination with Local Anaesthetics for Mesotherapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tringali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of low injection volume, the recently marketed injectable solution of diclofenac in complex with β-cyclodextrin (Akis®, IBSA Farmaceutici Italia is an ideal candidate for mesotherapy applications. In this study, we investigated the solubility of Akis, 25 and 50 mg/kg, in combination with various local anaesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine at different concentrations in aqueous vehicles (normal saline, sterile water, or bicarbonate. Final injection mixtures were classified as limpid, turbid, or milky at visual analysis under standardized conditions. We found that (i the use of sterile water for injections or normal saline as vehicles to dilute Akis in combination with whatever local anaesthetic normally results in milky solutions and therefore is not recommended; (ii using bicarbonate, optimal solubility was obtained combining Akis with lidocaine, both 1 and 2%, or mepivacaine, both 1 and 2%, whereas solutions were turbid in combination with bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, or ropivacaine. Thus, we recommend that Akis is used in combination with lidocaine or mepivacaine in a bicarbonate vehicle.

  3. Anaesthetic management and perioperative complications during deep brain stimulation surgery: Our institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Bala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery is an established therapeutic option for alleviating movement disorders. It represents unique challenges for anaesthesiologists. We retrospectively reviewed the patients, who underwent this surgery at our institution, to study anaesthetic management and perioperative complications. Materials and Methods: After taking approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee, medical, surgical and anaesthesia records of 67 patients who were admitted to undergo DBS surgery during 11 years period (January 2001 to December 2011 were retrieved and reviewed. Sixty-five patients underwent the procedure. Various anaesthetic events and perioperative complications were noted and appropriate statistical analysis was carried out to analyse the data. Results: Electrode placement under monitored anaesthesia care (MAC was the most commonly used technique (86% of patients. Intra-operative complications occurred in 16 patients (24% whereas post-operative complication occurred in 10 patients (15.4%. There was one mortality. Though age >60 years and American Society of Anesthesiologists status > II were found to be the risk factors for post-operative complications in the bivariate analysis; they were not significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: We report our experience of DBS surgery, which was performed using MAC in majority of patients, though general anaesthesia is also feasible. Further prospective randomised studies comprising large number of patients are warranted to corroborate our finding and to find out the most suitable sedative agent.

  4. Meningomyelocele Repair in a Premature Newborn with Hydrocephalus: Anaesthetic Confronts and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Ghodke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Deficit of neural tube closure in the initial phases of intrauterine development leads to a gamut of abnormalities ranging from spina-bifida occulta, a relatively benign condition, to encephalocele and meningomyelocele, an anomaly in vertebral bodies, spinal cord and sometimes involving brainstem (in cervical meningomyelocele. Meningomyelocele is the most common nonlethal malformation in the spectrum of neural tube deficits. The intrinsic challenges associated with the latter disorder warrants tailor-made approaches for providing anaesthesia to the requisite therapeutic surgical interventions. Pediatric patients pose a set of natural barriers because of their ever budding and maturing neurophysiological status, apart from the central neural disease process. Hence, in order to provide optimal neuro-anaesthetic care, the anaesthesiologist must have the knowledge of the outcomes of various pharmacologic interventions on cerebral aerodynamics apart from his professional experience in pediatric neuroanaesthesia. The current case report accounts for a challenging anaesthetic management in a premature newborn having hydrocephalus and lumbosacral meningomyelocele, presented for surgical repair within four hours of delivery.

  5. Low-frequency fluctuation in multimode semiconductor laser subject to optical feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhang; Huiying Ye; Zhaoxin Song

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of a semiconductor laser subject to moderate optical feedback operating in the low-frequency fluctuation regime is numerically investigated.Multimode Lang-Kobayashi(LK)equations show that the low-frequency intensity dropout including the total intensity and sub-modes intensity is accompanied by sudden dropout simultaneously,which is in good agreement with experimental observation.The power fluctuation is quite annoying in practical applications,therefore it becomes important to study the mechanism of power fluctuation.It is also shown that many factors,such as spontaneous emission noise and feedback parameter,may influence power fluctuation larger than previously expected.

  6. Recent developments in multimodality fluorescence imaging probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodality optical imaging probes have emerged as powerful tools that improve detection sensitivity and accuracy, important in disease diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we focus on recent developments of optical fluorescence imaging (OFI probe integration with other imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, and photoacoustic imaging (PAI. The imaging technologies are briefly described in order to introduce the strengths and limitations of each techniques and the need for further multimodality optical imaging probe development. The emphasis of this account is placed on how design strategies are currently implemented to afford physicochemically and biologically compatible multimodality optical fluorescence imaging probes. We also present studies that overcame intrinsic disadvantages of each imaging technique by multimodality approach with improved detection sensitivity and accuracy. KEY WORDS: Optical imaging, Fluorescence, Multimodality, Near-infrared fluorescence, Nanoprobe, Computed tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Positron emission tomography, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Photoacoustic imaging

  7. Multimodality, creativity and children's meaning-making: Drawings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multimodality, creativity and children's meaning-making: Drawings, writings, imaginings. ... Framed by social semiotic theories of communication, multimodal ... to create imaginary worlds and express meanings according to their interests.

  8. Multimodal Behavior Therapy: Case Study of a High School Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1981-01-01

    A case study of a high school student concerned with weight problems illustrates multimodal behavior therapy and its use in a high school setting. Multimodal therapy allows the school counselor to maximize referral sources while emphasizing growth and actualization. (JAC)

  9. Polarization Characterization of a Multi-Moded Feed Structure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Polarization Characterization of a Multi-Moded Feed Structure projects characterize the polarization response of a multi-moded feed horn as an innovative...

  10. Multimodale trafiknet i GIS (Multimodal Traffic Network in GIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Brems, Camilla Riff

    1996-01-01

    The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example.......The report introduces the use of multi-modal traffic networks within a geographical Information System (GIS). The necessary theory of modelling multi-modal traffic network is reviewed and applied to the ARC/INFO GIS by an explorative example....

  11. Role of ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block as a component of multimodal analgesic regimen for lower segment caesarean section: a randomized double blind clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Ashok; Jain, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Swastika; Motaka, Mayur; Parida, Sudhansu Sekhar; Sinha, Neelam; Agrawal, Amit; Pati, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-14

    While opioids are the mainstay for post-operative analgesia after lower segment caesarean section, they are associated with various untoward effects. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been postulated to provide effective analgesia for caesarean section. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of this block for post caesarean analgesia in a randomised controlled trial. One hundred thirty-nine mothers undergoing caesarean delivery were randomised to receive TAP block with either 20 ml 0.375% ropivacaine or 20 ml saline after obtaining informed consent. All the subjects received a standard spinal anaesthetic and diclofenac was administered for post-operative pain. Breakthrough pain was treated with tramadol. Post-operatively, all the subjects were assessed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18 & 24 h. The primary outcome was the time to first analgesic request. The secondary measures of outcome were pain, nausea, sedation, number of doses of tramadol administered and satisfaction with the pain management. The median (interquartile range) time to first analgesic request was prolonged in the TAP group compared to the control group (p consumption when used for multimodal analgesia for pain relief after caesarean section. However, the risk of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity remains unknown with this block. Hence larger safety trials and measures to limit this complication need to be ascertained. The trial was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India ( CTRI/2017/03/008194 ) on 23/03/2017 (trial registered retrospectively).

  12. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  13. Multimodality Data Integration in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Muzik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An important goal of software development in the medical field is the design of methods which are able to integrate information obtained from various imaging and nonimaging modalities into a cohesive framework in order to understand the results of qualitatively different measurements in a larger context. Moreover, it is essential to assess the various features of the data quantitatively so that relationships in anatomical and functional domains between complementing modalities can be expressed mathematically. This paper presents a clinically feasible software environment for the quantitative assessment of the relationship among biochemical functions as assessed by PET imaging and electrophysiological parameters derived from intracranial EEG. Based on the developed software tools, quantitative results obtained from individual modalities can be merged into a data structure allowing a consistent framework for advanced data mining techniques and 3D visualization. Moreover, an effort was made to derive quantitative variables (such as the spatial proximity index, SPI characterizing the relationship between complementing modalities on a more generic level as a prerequisite for efficient data mining strategies. We describe the implementation of this software environment in twelve children (mean age 5.2±4.3 years with medically intractable partial epilepsy who underwent both high-resolution structural MR and functional PET imaging. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and might ultimately have an impact on treatment. Moreover, our software environment holds promise to be useful in many other neurological disorders, where integration of multimodality data is crucial for a better understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  14. Video genre classification using multimodal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Bae, Tae Meon; Choo, Jin Ho; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-12-01

    We propose a video genre classification method using multimodal features. The proposed method is applied for the preprocessing of automatic video summarization or the retrieval and classification of broadcasting video contents. Through a statistical analysis of low-level and middle-level audio-visual features in video, the proposed method can achieve good performance in classifying several broadcasting genres such as cartoon, drama, music video, news, and sports. In this paper, we adopt MPEG-7 audio-visual descriptors as multimodal features of video contents and evaluate the performance of the classification by feeding the features into a decision tree-based classifier which is trained by CART. The experimental results show that the proposed method can recognize several broadcasting video genres with a high accuracy and the classification performance with multimodal features is superior to the one with unimodal features in the genre classification.

  15. Validation of a capillary electrophoresis method for the enantiomeric purity testing of ropivacaine, a new local anaesthetic compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sänger-Van De Griend, C. E.; Gröningsson, K.

    A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of the enantiomeric purity of ropivacaine, a new local anaesthetic compound developed by Astra Pain Control AB, has been validated. The method showed the required limit of quantitation of 0.1%, enantiomeric impurity and proved to be robust.

  16. Reference Resolution in Multi-modal Interaction: Position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernando, T.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2002-01-01

    In this position paper we present our research on multimodal interaction in and with virtual environments. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the necessity to spend more research on reference resolution in multimodal contexts. In multi-modal interaction the human conversational partner can

  17. Reference resolution in multi-modal interaction: Preliminary observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González González, G.R.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present our research on multimodal interaction in and with virtual environments. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the necessity to spend more research on reference resolution in multimodal contexts. In multi-modal interaction the human conversational partner can apply

  18. Training of Perceptual Motor Skills in Multimodal Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopher Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal, immersive, virtual reality (VR techniques open new perspectives for perceptualmotor skill trainers. They also introduce new risks and dangers. This paper describes the benefits and pitfalls of multimodal training and the cognitive building blocks of a multimodal, VR training simulators.

  19. Randomized trial of anaesthetic interventions in external cephalic version for breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, K S; Lee, S W Y; Ngan Kee, W D; Law, L W; Lau, T K; Ng, F F; Leung, T Y

    2015-06-01

    Successful external cephalic version (ECV) for breech presenting fetus reduces the need for Caesarean section (CS). We aimed to compare the success rate of ECV with either spinal anaesthesia (SA) or i.v. analgesia using remifentanil. In a double-phased, stratified randomized blinded controlled study we compared the success rates of ECV, performed under spinal anaesthesia (SA), i.v. analgesia (IVA) using remifentanil or no anaesthetic interventions. In phase I, 189 patients were stratified by parity before randomization to ECV, performed by blinded operators, under SA using either hyperbaric bupivacaine 9 mg with fentanyl 15 µg, i.v. remifentanil infusion 0.1 µg kg min(-1), or Control (no anaesthetic intervention). Operators performing ECV were blinded to the treatment allocation. In phase 2, patients in the Control group in whom the initial ECV failed were further randomized to receive either SA (n=9) or IVA (n=9) for a re-attempt. The primary outcome was the incidence of successful ECV. The success rate in Phase 1 was greatest using SA [52/63 (83%)], compared with IVA [40/63 (64%)] and Control [40/63 (64%)], (P=0.027). Median [IQR] pain scores on a visual analogue scale (range 0-100), were 0 [0-0] with SA, 35 [0-60] with IVA and 50 [30-75] in the Control group (P<0.001). Median [IQR] VAS sedation scores were highest with IVA [75 (50-80)], followed by SA, [0 (0-50)] and Control [0 (0-0)]. In phase 2, 7/9 (78%) of ECV re-attempts were successful with SA, whereas all re-attempts using IVA failed (P=0.0007). The incidence of fetal bradycardia necessitating emergency CS within 30 min, was similar among groups; 1.6% (1/63) in the SA and IVA groups and 3.2% (2/63) in the Control group. SA increased the success rate and reduced pain for both primary and re-attempts of ECV, whereas IVA using remifentanil infusion only reduced the pain. There was no significant increase in the incidence of fetal bradycardia or emergency CS, with ECV performed under anaesthetic

  20. A New Anaesthetic Protocol for Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio: Propofol Combined with Lidocaine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Valentim

    Full Text Available The increasing use of zebrafish model has not been accompanied by the evolution of proper anaesthesia for this species in research. The most used anaesthetic in fishes, MS222, may induce aversion, reduction of heart rate, and consequently high mortality, especially during long exposures. Therefore, we aim to explore new anaesthetic protocols to be used in zebrafish by studying the quality of anaesthesia and recovery induced by different concentrations of propofol alone and in combination with different concentrations of lidocaine.In experiment A, eighty-three AB zebrafish were randomly assigned to 7 different groups: control, 2.5 (2.5P, 5 (5P or 7.5 μg/ml (7.5P of propofol; and 2.5 μg/ml of propofol combined with 50, (P/50L, 100 (P/100L or 150 μg/ml (P/150L of lidocaine. Zebrafish were placed in an anaesthetic water bath and time to lose the equilibrium, reflex to touch, reflex to a tail pinch, and respiratory rate were measured. Time to gain equilibrium was also assessed in a clean tank. Five and 24 hours after anaesthesia recovery, zebrafish were evaluated concerning activity and reactivity. Afterwards, in a second phase of experiments (experiment B, the best protocol of the experiment A was compared with a new group of 8 fishes treated with 100 mg/L of MS222 (100M.In experiment A, only different concentrations of propofol/lidocaine combination induced full anaesthesia in all animals. Thus only these groups were compared with a standard dose of MS222 in experiment B. Propofol/lidocaine induced a quicker loss of equilibrium, and loss of response to light and painful stimuli compared with MS222. However zebrafish treated with MS222 recovered quickly than the ones treated with propofol/lidocaine.In conclusion, propofol/lidocaine combination and MS222 have advantages in different situations. MS222 is ideal for minor procedures when a quick recovery is important, while propofol/lidocaine is best to induce a quick and complete anaesthesia.

  1. Current US nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act Adopted by US Congress in 1957 as the world's first national nuclear liability regime. It is a comprehensive, complicated and unique system and stems from special features of US legal regime and federal system of government. It differs from other systems by providing for 'economic', not legal; channeling of liability to facility operator and not recommended as model for other states, but most features adopted by other states and international conventions

  2. Totalitäre Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    "The development of the term and the analytical concept of totalitarianism have gone through several stages since the 1920s. However, even in its most sophisticated form, the version seen in Friedrich/ Brzezinski, the concept exhibits substantial systematic classification problems and analytical weaknesses. This article attempts to frame the type of totalitarian regime within a general typology of political regimes. Special attention is dedicated to the problem of distinguishing autocra...

  3. Endogenous Monetary Policy Regime Change

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Davig; Eric M. Leeper

    2006-01-01

    This paper makes changes in monetary policy rules (or regimes) endogenous. Changes are triggered when certain endogenous variables cross specified thresholds. Rational expectations equilibria are examined in three models of threshold switching to illustrate that (i) expectations formation effects generated by the possibility of regime change can be quantitatively important; (ii) symmetric shocks can have asymmetric effects; (iii) endogenous switching is a natural way to formally model preempt...

  4. PET-MRI and multimodal cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taisong; Zhao Jinhua; Song Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Multimodality imaging, specifically PET-CT, brought a new perspective into the fields of clinical imaging. Clinical cases have shown that PET-CT has great value in clinical diagnosis and experimental research. But PET-CT still bears some limitations. A major drawback is that CT provides only limited soft tissue contrast and exposes the patient to a significant radiation dose. MRI overcome these limitations, it has excellent soft tissue contrast, high temporal and spatial resolution and no radiation damage. Additionally, since MRI provides also functional information, PET-MRI will show a new direction of multimodality imaging in the future. (authors)

  5. Strategy development management of Multimodal Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterova Natalia S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief overview of works on the development of transport infrastructure for multimodal transportation and integration of Russian transport system into the international transport corridors. The technology for control of the strategy, that changes shape and capacity of Multi-modal Transport Network (MTN, is considered as part of the methodology for designing and development of MTN. This technology allows to carry out strategic and operational management of the strategy implementation based on the use of the balanced scorecard.

  6. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  7. Anaesthetic efficacy of bupivacaine 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin for dental anaesthesia after inferior alveolar nerve block in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpe, L; Franz-Montan, M; Santos, C P dos; Silva, C B da; Nolasco, F P; Caldas, C S; Volpato, M C; Paula, E de; Groppo, F C

    2014-05-01

    Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anaesthetic that is widely used in medicine and dentistry. The duration and intensity of its sensory blockade in animal models is increased by its inclusion in complexes with cyclodextrins. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anaesthetic efficacy of bupivacaine 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) inclusion complex for dental anaesthesia after inferior alveolar nerve block in rats. Thirty rats were each given an injection close to the mandibular foramen of 0.2ml of one of the following formulations: 0.5% bupivacaine alone; 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine; and 0.5% bupivacaine-HPβCD inclusion complex (bupivacaine-HPβCD). The other sides were used as controls, with either 0.9% saline or anaesthetic-free HPβCD solution being injected. The onset, success, and duration of pulpal anaesthesia were assessed by electrical stimulation ("pulp tester") on inferior molars. Results were analysed using ANOVA (Tukey), log rank, and chi square tests (α=5%). There were no differences among the formulations in onset of anaesthesia (p=0.59) or between the bupivacaine plus epinephrine and bupivacaine plus HPβCD in duration of anaesthesia, but bupivacaine plus epinephrine gave significantly higher values than bupivacaine alone (p=0.007). Bupivacaine plus epinephrine was a better anaesthetic than bupivacaine alone (p=0.02), while Bupi-HPβCD gave intermediate results, and therefore did not differ significantly from the other 2 groups (p=0.18 with bupivacaine alone; and p=0.44 with bupivacaine plus epinephrine). The bupivacaine-HPβCD complex showed similar anaesthetic properties to those of bupivacaine with epinephrine. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. No cases of perioperative allergy to local anaesthetics in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisselgaard, A D; Krøigaard, M; Mosbech, H F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Local anaesthetics (LA) are often suspected as possible causes of allergic reactions. The Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre (DAAC) is the national reference centre for investigation of perioperative allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of Ig......E-mediated immediate type perioperative allergic reactions to LA. METHODS: In the period 2004-2013, a total of 409 patients (244 women/165 men; median age 49 years, range 1-86 years) were investigated in DAAC on suspicion of allergy associated with anaesthesia and surgery. A total of 162 (40%) patients were exposed...... were carried out on 162 patients (89 women/73 men; mean age 49 years, range 2-85 years) with the following drugs: Lidocaine n = 80 (49%), bupivacaine n = 82 (51%), ropivacaine n = 31 (19%) and mepivacaine n = 10 (6%). All 162 patients had negative subcutaneous provocation for all tested LA (95% CI: 0...

  9. Molecular and kinetic determinants of local anaesthetic action on sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R J; Zamponi, G W; Sierralta, I E

    1998-11-23

    (1) Local anaesthetics (LA) rely for their clinical actions on state-dependent inhibition of voltage-dependent sodium channels. (2) Single, batrachoxin-modified sodium channels in planar lipid bilayers allow direct observation of drug-channel interactions. Two modes of inhibition of single-channel current are observed: fast block of the open channels and prolongation of a long-lived closed state, some of whose properties resemble those of the inactivated state of unmodified channels. (3) Analogues of different parts of the LA molecule separately mimic each blocking mode: amines--fast block, and water-soluble aromatics--closed state prolongation. (4) Interaction between a mu-conotoxin derivative and diethylammonium indicate an intrapore site of fast, open-state block. (5) Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that hydrophobic residues in transmembrane segment 6 of repeat domain 4 of sodium channels are critical for both LA binding and stabilization of the inactivated state.

  10. [Questions on the first operation with ethyl ether as anaesthetic by Dr. Peter Parker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q

    2017-01-28

    Ethyl ether was the first accepted effective general anaesthetic. It was introduced into China by an America missionary, Dr. Peter Parker. This was one of the historical events of medical communication between China and the West. In the records of the first operation with ether, however, Dr. Parker unusually omitted the patient's medical record number and the date of the operation, while those of other operations with ether anesthetics were all available. This was very unusual for a doctor like Peter Parker who always recorded every important case in detail in the hospital reports. It seems that he deliberately rather than carelessly omitted the information for some reasons. Based on the analysis of Parker's reports, a conclusion is made that the anesthetic effect of the case was actually ineffective. Furthermore, possible answers to this are outlined and question by discussion based on the situation that Parker faced in the late Qing era.

  11. Quantification of anaesthetic effects on atrial fibrillation rate by partial least-squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervigón, R; Moreno, J; Pérez-Villacastín, J; Reilly, R B; Castells, F

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism underlying atrial fibrillation (AF) remains poorly understood. Multiple wandering propagation wavelets drifting through both atria under hierarchical models are not understood. Some pharmacological drugs, known as antiarrhythmics, modify the cardiac ionic currents supporting the fibrillation process within the atria and may modify the AF propagation dynamics terminating the fibrillation process. Other medications, theoretically non-antiarrhythmic, may slightly affect the fibrillation process in non-defined mechanisms. We evaluated whether the most commonly used anaesthetic agent, propofol, affects AF patterns. Partial least-squares (PLS) analysis was performed to reduce significant noise into the main latent variables to find the differences between groups. The final results showed an excellent discrimination between groups with slow atrial activity during the propofol infusion. (paper)

  12. Anaesthetic management of a case of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabade, Savitri D; Sheikh, Safiya; Periyadka, Bhavya

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of fibroid uterus with Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) syndrome in a 48-year-old female, posted for elective hysterectomy. Patient gave history of short recurrent episodes of palpitation and electrocardiograph confirmed the diagnosis of WPW syndrome. The anaesthetic management of these patients is challenging as they are known to develop life threatening tachyarrhythmia like paroxysmal supra-ventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Epidural anaesthesia is preferred compared to general anaesthesia to avoid polypharmacy, noxious stimuli of laryngoscopy and intubation. To deal with perioperative complications like PSVT and AF, anti-arrhythmic drugs like adenosine, beta blockers and defibrillator should be kept ready. Perioperative monitoring is essential as patients can develop complications. PMID:22013256

  13. Anaesthetic management of a case of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri D Kabade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fibroid uterus with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome in a 48-year-old female, posted for elective hysterectomy. Patient gave history of short recurrent episodes of palpitation and electrocardiograph confirmed the diagnosis of WPW syndrome. The anaesthetic management of these patients is challenging as they are known to develop life threatening tachyarrhythmia like paroxysmal supra-ventricular tachycardia (PSVT and atrial fibrillation (AF. Epidural anaesthesia is preferred compared to general anaesthesia to avoid polypharmacy, noxious stimuli of laryngoscopy and intubation. To deal with perioperative complications like PSVT and AF, anti-arrhythmic drugs like adenosine, beta blockers and defibrillator should be kept ready. Perioperative monitoring is essential as patients can develop complications.

  14. Anaesthetic management of two Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris cubs for fracture repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This case series describes the anaesthetic management of two sibling Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris cubs that were found to have spontaneous femur fractures due to severe nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Both cubs received a combination of medetomidine (25 µg/kg and ketamine (4 mg/kg intramuscularly and were maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. An epidural injection of morphine (0.1 mg/kg and ropivacaine (1.6 mg/kg was administered to both tigers, which allowed a low end-tidal isoflurane concentration to be maintained throughout the femur fracture reduction operations. Both cubs experienced profound bradycardia and hypotension during general anaesthesia, and were unresponsive to anticholinergic treatment. Possible causes for these cardiovascular complications included: drug pharmacodynamics (medetomidine, morphine, isoflurane, decreased sympathetic tone due to the epidural (ropivacaine and hypothermia. These possible causes are discussed in detail.

  15. Anaesthetic management of splenectomy in Evan′s syndrome during pregnancy with pregnancy induced hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherke R

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The management of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP during pregnancy, especially with ongoing bleeding diathesis, has not been highlighted sufficiently in the literature. Aortocaval compression and reduction in uteroplacental circulation resulting in foetal hypoxia and acidosis, Mendelson′s syndrome due to gravid uterus, trauma to airway with resultant haemorrhage and aspiration into lungs, compromised airway due to short neck, anasarca and heavy breast, limitation in using invasive monitoring and regional anaesthesia and uncontrolled bleeding leading to placental hypoperfusion and foetal hypoxia are some of the important risks. In the present case report, anaesthetic management for splenectomy during pregnancy complicated with pregnancy induced hypertension and bleeding diathesis secondary to ITP is described with reference to above risks.

  16. Anaesthetic management of shoulder arthroscopic repair in Parkinson′s disease with deep brain stimulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the anaesthetic management of arthroscopic repair for complete rotator cuff tear of shoulder in a 59-year-old female with Parkinson′s disease (PD with deep brain stimulator (DBS using a combination of general anaesthesia with interscalene approach to brachial plexus block. The DBS consists of implanted electrodes in the brain connected to the implantable pulse generator (IPG normally placed in the anterior chest wall subcutaneously. It can be programmed externally from a hand-held device placed directly over the battery stimulator unit. In our patient, IPG with its leads was located in close vicinity of the operative site with potential for DBS malfunction. Implications of DBS in a patient with PD for shoulder arthroscopy for anaesthesiologist are discussed along with a brief review of DBS.

  17. Monitoring variables affecting positron emission tomography measurements of cerebral blood flow in anaesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Simonsen, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Background Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetized pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the distribution of several radiotracers. However, the effect of physiological factors regulating...... and the monitoring parameters. Results No significant statistical correlations were found between CBF and the nine monitoring variables. However, we found that arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and body temperature were important predictors of CBF that should be observed and kept constant. In addition, we...... found that long-duration anaesthesia was significantly correlated with high heart rate, low arterial oxygen tension, and high body temperature, but not with CBF. Conclusions The findings indicate that PaCO2 and body temperature are crucial for maintaining stable levels of CBF and thus optimizing PET...

  18. Anaesthetic management of craniotomy for intracranial lesion in a child with uncorrected Tetrology of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, N. B.; Hamid, M.

    2013-01-01

    The case of a 16 years old female with uncorrected Tetrology of Fallot, who operated for intracranial lesion in parieto frontal area with midline shift is presented. She had right ventricular hypertrophy, clubbing, central and peripheral cyanosis. Patient was anaesthetized keeping all measures required to avoid haemodynamic swings, tachycardia, desaturation, acidosis and dehydration. Pre-operative antibiotic cover was given to prevent bacterial endocarditis. Neurosurgeon, Paediatric cardiologist, Anaesthesiologist and Intensivist were involved in the preoperative planning and management of the patient. Haemodynamics were maintained and managed by monitoring continuous arterial line secured pre-induction and central line after induction. During surgery pain was controlled with fentanyl boluses intra-operatively and post operatively by tramadol infusion. Patient was extubated post operatively in the recovery room fulfilling the extubation criteria. She remained haemodynamically stable throughout the course. She was discharged on 5th post operative day from the hospital on SpO/sub 2/ of 70-80% at room air. (author)

  19. Transition from weak wave turbulence regime to solitonic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Roumaissa; Mordant, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    The Weak Turbulence Theory (WTT) is a statistical theory describing the interaction of a large ensemble of random waves characterized by very different length scales. For both weak non-linearity and weak dispersion a different regime is predicted where solitons propagate while keeping their shape unchanged. The question under investigation here is which regime between weak turbulence or soliton gas does the system choose ? We report an experimental investigation of wave turbulence at the surface of finite depth water in the gravity-capillary range. We tune the wave dispersion and the level of nonlinearity by modifying the depth of water and the forcing respectively. We use space-time resolved profilometry to reconstruct the deformed surface of water. When decreasing the water depth, we observe a drastic transition between weak turbulence at the weakest forcing and a solitonic regime at stronger forcing. We characterize the transition between both states by studying their Fourier Spectra. We also study the efficiency of energy transfer in the weak turbulence regime. We report a loss of efficiency of angular transfer as the dispersion of the wave is reduced until the system bifurcates into the solitonic regime. This project has recieved funding from the European Research Council (ERC, Grant Agreement No. 647018-WATU).

  20. Anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics of a diazepam-ketamine combination compared with propofol in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques P. Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Induction of anaesthesia occasionally has been associated with undesirable behaviour in dogs. High quality of induction of anaesthesia with propofol has been well described while in contrast variable induction and recovery quality has been associated with diazepam-ketamine. In this study, anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics of diazepam-ketamine combination with propofol alone were compared in dogs undergoing elective orchidectomy. Thirty-six healthy adult male dogs were used. After habitus scoring (simple descriptive scale [SDS], the dogs were sedated with morphine and acepromazine. Forty minutes later a premedication score (SDS was allocated and general anaesthesia was induced using a combination of diazepam-ketamine (Group D/K or propofol (Group P and maintained with isoflurane. Scores for the quality of induction, intubation and degree of myoclonus were allocated (SDS. Orchidectomy was performed after which recovery from anaesthesia was scored (SDS and times to extubation and standing were recorded. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Kappa Reliability and Kendall Tau B tests. Both groups were associated with acceptable quality of induction and recovery from anaesthesia. Group P, however, was associated with a poorer quality of induction (p = 0.014, prolonged induction period (p = 0.0018 and more pronounced myoclonus (p = 0.003, but had better quality of recovery (p = 0.000002 and shorter recovery times (p = 0.035 compared with Group D/K. Diazepam-ketamine and propofol are associated with acceptable induction and recovery from anaesthesia. Propofol had inferior anaesthetic induction characteristics, but superior and quicker recovery from anaesthesia compared with diazepam-ketamine.

  1. Anaesthetic specialist registrars in Ireland: current teaching practices and perceptions of their role as undergraduate teachers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, K

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Teaching is an important responsibility of non-consultant hospital doctors. In Ireland, specialist registrars (SpRs) in anaesthesia are contractually obliged to teach medical students, other doctors and nurses. Both medical students and fellow non-consultant hospital doctors attribute between 30 and 40% of their knowledge gain to non-consultant hospital doctors. METHODS: We carried out a confidential telephone survey of anaesthetic SpRs in Ireland regarding their current teaching practices and the perceptions of their role as undergraduate teachers. All the SpRs currently working in clinical practice in Ireland were eligible. RESULTS: Fifty-five of the 79 (70%) SpRs responded to the questionnaire. Only 7 (12.7%) of the respondents said they had been well trained as a teacher. The majority of the respondents stated that they would attend a learning-to-teach course\\/workshop if one was available, and felt that such a course would improve their ability as a teacher. Only 8 (14.5%) agreed that adequate emphasis is placed on commitment to teaching in the assessment of SpRs, both by individual departments and by the College of Anaesthetists. Anaesthetic SpRs in Ireland spend a considerable amount of time each day teaching undergraduate medical students, the majority (68.9%) stated that they had inadequate time to prepare for teaching. CONCLUSION: The majority of the respondents stated that they enjoy teaching, feel that they play an important role in undergraduate teaching but have inadequate time to prepare for teaching. An adequate emphasis is not placed on their commitment to teaching.

  2. Measurement of tidal volume using respiratory ultrasonic plethysmography in anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russold, Elena; Ambrisko, Tamas D; Schramel, Johannes P; Auer, Ulrike; Van Den Hoven, Rene; Moens, Yves P

    2013-01-01

    To compare tidal volume estimations obtained from Respiratory Ultrasonic Plethysmography (RUP) with simultaneous spirometric measurements in anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated horses. Prospective randomized experimental study. Five experimental horses. Five horses were anaesthetized twice (1 week apart) in random order in lateral and in dorsal recumbency. Nine ventilation modes (treatments) were scheduled in random order (each lasting 4 minutes) applying combinations of different tidal volumes (8, 10, 12 mL kg(-1)) and positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) (0, 10, 20 cm H(2)O). Baseline ventilation mode (tidal volume=15 mL kg(-1), PEEP=0 cm H(2)O) was applied for 4 minutes between all treatments. Spirometry and RUP data were downloaded to personal computers. Linear regression analyses (RUP versus spirometric tidal volume) were performed using different subsets of data. Additonally RUP was calibrated against spirometry using a regression equation for all RUP signal values (thoracic, abdominal and combined) with all data collectively and also by an individually determined best regression equation (highest R(2)) for each experiment (horse versus recumbency) separately. Agreement between methods was assessed with Bland-Altman analyses. The highest correlation of RUP and spirometric tidal volume (R(2)=0.81) was found with the combined RUP signal in horses in lateral recumbency and ventilated without PEEP. The bias ±2 SD was 0±2.66 L when RUP was calibrated for collective data, but decreased to 0±0.87 L when RUP was calibrated with individual data. A possible use of RUP for tidal volume measurement during IPPV needs individual calibration to obtain limits of agreement within ±20%. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  3. Intraoperative esmolol infusion reduces postoperative analgesic consumption and anaesthetic use during septorhinoplasty: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Celebi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Esmolol is known to have no analgesic activity and no anaesthetic properties; however, it could potentiate the reduction in anaesthetic requirements and reduce postoperative analgesic use. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous esmolol infusion on intraoperative and postoperative analgesic consumptions as well as its effect on depth of anaesthesia. Methods: This randomized-controlled double blind study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital between March and June 2010. Sixty patients undergoing septorhinoplasty were randomized into two groups. History of allergy to drugs used in the study, ischaemic heart disease, heart block, bronchial asthma, hepatic or renal dysfunction, obesity and a history of chronic use of analgesic or β-blockers were considered cause for exclusion from the study. Thirty patients received esmolol and remifentanil (esmolol group and 30 patients received normal saline and remifentanil (control group as an intravenous infusion during the procedure. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index values were recorded every 10min. Total remifentanil consumption, visual analogue scale scores, time to first analgesia and total postoperative morphine consumption were recorded. Results: The total remifentanil consumption, visual analogue scale scores at 0, 20 and 60 min, total morphine consumption, time to first analgesia and the number of patients who needed an intravenous morphine were lower in the esmolol group. Conclusions: Intravenous infusion of esmolol reduced the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic consumption, reduced visual analogue scale scores in the early postoperative period and prolonged the time to first analgesia; however it did not influence the depth of anaesthesia.

  4. Optimised NLC: a nanotechnological approach to improve the anaesthetic effect of bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues da Silva, Gustavo H; Ribeiro, Lígia N M; Mitsutake, Hery; Guilherme, Viviane A; Castro, Simone R; Poppi, Ronei J; Breitkreitz, Márcia C; de Paula, Eneida

    2017-08-30

    The short time of action and systemic toxicity of local anaesthetics limit their clinical application. Bupivacaine is the most frequently used local anaesthetic in surgical procedures worldwide. The discovery that its S(-) enantiomeric form is less toxic than the R(+) form led to the introduction of products with enantiomeric excess (S75:R25 bupivacaine) in the market. Nevertheless, the time of action of bupivacaine is still short; to overcome that, bupivacaine S75:R25 (BVC S75 ) was encapsulated in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). In this work, we present the development of the formulation using chemometric tools of experimental design to study the formulation factors and Raman mapping associated with Classical Least Squares (CLS) to study the miscibility of the solid and the liquid lipids. The selected formulation of the nanostructured lipid carrier containing bupivacaine S75:R25 (NLC BVC ) was observed to be stable for 12 months under room conditions regarding particle size, polydispersion, Zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency. The characterisation by DSC, XDR and TEM confirmed the encapsulation of BVC S75 in the lipid matrix, with no changes in the structure of the nanoparticles. The in vivo analgesic effect elicited by NLC BVC was twice that of free BVC S75 . Besides improving the time of action , no statistical difference in the blockage of the sciatic nerve of rats was found between 0.125% NLC BVC and 0.5% free BVC S75 . Therefore, the formulation allows a reduction in the required anaesthesia dose, decreasing the systemic toxicity of bupivacaine, and opening up new possibilities for different clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. National survey on perioperative anaesthetic management in the endovascular treatment of acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Kräuchi, O; Valencia, L; Iturri, F; Mariscal Ortega, A; López Gómez, A; Valero, R

    2018-01-01

    To assess the anaesthetic management of treatment for endovascular acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) in Spain. A survey was designed by the SEDAR Neuroscience Section and sent to the Spanish anaesthesiology departments with a primary stroke centre between July and November 2016. Of the 47 hospitals where endovascular treatment of AIS is performed, 37 anaesthesiology departments participated. Thirty responses were obtained; three of which were eliminated due to duplication (response rate of 72.9%). Health coverage for AIS endovascular treatment was available 24hours a day in 63% of the hospitals. The anaesthesiologist in charge of the procedure was physically present in the hospital in 55.3%. There was large inter-hospital variability in non-standard monitoring and type of anaesthesia. The most important criterion for selecting type of anaesthesia was multidisciplinary choice made by the anaesthesiologist, neurologist and neuroradiologist (59.3%). The duration of time from arrival to arterial puncture was 10-15minutes in 59.2%. In 44.4%, systolic blood pressure was maintained between 140-180mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure<105mmHg. Glycaemic levels were taken in 81.5% of hospitals. Intravenous heparinisation was performed during the procedure in 66.7% with different patterns of action. In cases of moderate neurological deterioration with no added complications, 85.2% of the included hospitals awakened and extubated the patients. The wide variability observed in the anaesthetic management and the organization of the endovascular treatment of AIS demonstrates the need to create common guidelines for anaesthesiologists in Spain. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaesthetic and other treatments of shell shock: World War I and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, A G

    2012-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important health risk factor for military personnel deployed in modern warfare. In World War I this condition (then known as shell shock or 'neurasthenia') was such a problem that 'forward psychiatry' was begun by French doctors in 1915. Some British doctors tried general anaesthesia as a treatment (ether and chloroform), while others preferred application of electricity. Four British 'forward psychiatric units' were set up in 1917. Hospitals for shell shocked soldiers were also established in Britain, including (for officers) Craiglockhart War Hospital in Edinburgh; patients diagnosed to have more serious psychiatric conditions were transferred to the Royal Edinburgh Asylum. Towards the end of 1918 anaesthetic and electrical treatments of shell shock were gradually displaced by modified Freudian methods psychodynamic intervention. The efficacy of 'forward psychiatry' was controversial. In 1922 the War Office produced a report on shell shock with recommendations for prevention of war neurosis. However, when World War II broke out in 1939, this seemed to have been ignored. The term 'combat fatigue' was introduced as breakdown rates became alarming, and then the value of pre-selection was recognised. At the Maudsley Hospital in London in 1940 barbiturate abreaction was advocated for quick relief from severe anxiety and hysteria, using i.v. anaesthetics: Somnifaine, paraldehyde, Sodium Amytal. 'Pentothal narcosis' and 'narco-analysis' were adopted by British and American military psychiatrists. However, by 1945 medical thinking gradually settled on the same approaches that had seemed to be effective in 1918. The term PTSD was introduced in 1980. In the UK the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for management (2005) recommend trauma-focussed Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and consideration of antidepressants.

  7. Pharmacoeconomics of volatile inhalational anaesthetic agents: an 11-year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, L; Story, D; Nam, J; McNicol, L

    2010-09-01

    With continuously increasing expenditure on health care resources, various cost containment strategies have been suggested in regard to controlling the cost of inhalational anaesthetic agents. We performed a cost identification analysis assessing inhalational anaesthetic agent expenditure at a tertiary level hospital, along with an evaluation of strategies to contain the cost of these agents. The number of bottles of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane used during the financial years 1997 to 2007 was retrospectively determined and the acquisition costs and cumulative drug expenditure calculated. Pharmacoeconomic modelling using low fresh gas flow anaesthesia was performed to evaluate practical methods of cost reduction. The use of isoflurane decreased from 384 bottles during 1997 to 204 in 2007. In contrast, use of sevoflurane increased from 226 bottles during 1998 to 875 during 2007. Desflurane use increased from 34 bottles per year during 2002 (its year of introduction) to 163 bottles per year in 2007. While the inflation-adjusted cumulative expenditure for these inhalational agents (Australian dollars) increased from $132,000 in 1997 to over $326,000 in 2007, an increase of 168%, patient workload over the same period increased by only 11%. Pharmacoeconomic modelling demonstrated that sevoflurane at 2 l/minute costs 19 times more than isoflurane at 0.5 l/minute. For the financial years 1997 to 2007, we found a progressive shift from the cheaper isoflurane to the more expensive agents, sevoflurane and desflurane, a shift associated with marked increases in costs. Low flow anaesthesia with isoflurane is one strategy to reduce costs.

  8. Connecting multimodality in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenbogen, Christina; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo

    2013-01-01

    DCM analysis instead showed a pronounced top-down control. Remarkably, all connections from the dmPFC to the three other regions were modulated by the experimental conditions. This observation is in line with the presumed role of the dmPFC in the allocation of attention. In contrary, all incoming connections to the AG were modulated, indicating its key role in integrating multimodal information and supporting comprehension. Notably, the input from the FFG to the AG was enhanced when facial expressions conveyed emotional information. These findings serve as preliminary results in understanding network dynamics in human emotional communication and empathy.

  9. Reading Multimodal Texts for Learning – a Model for Cultivating Multimodal Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Danielsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The re-conceptualisation of texts over the last 20 years, as well as the development of a multimodal understanding of communication and representation of knowledge, has profound consequences for the reading and understanding of multimodal texts, not least in educational contexts. However, if teachers and students are given tools to “unwrap” multimodal texts, they can develop a deeper understanding of texts, information structures, and the textual organisation of knowledge. This article presents a model for working with multimodal texts in education with the intention to highlight mutual multimodal text analysis in relation to the subject content. Examples are taken from a Singaporean science textbook as well as a Chilean science textbook, in order to demonstrate that the framework is versatile and applicable across different cultural contexts. The model takes into account the following aspects of texts: the general structure, how different semiotic resources operate, the ways in which different resources are combined (including coherence, the use of figurative language, and explicit/implicit values. Since learning operates on different dimensions – such as social and affective dimensions besides the cognitive ones – our inclusion of figurative language and values as components for textual analysis is a contribution to multimodal text analysis for learning.

  10. Influence of Blood Contamination During Multimode Adhesive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The present study evaluated the effects of blood contamination performed at different steps of bonding on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of multimode adhesives to dentin when using the self-etch approach. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five molars were randomly assigned to three adhesive groups ...

  11. Multimodal representations in collaborative history learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prangsma, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the question: How does making and connecting different types of multimodal representations affect the collaborative learning process and the acquisition of a chronological frame of reference in 12 to 14-year olds in pre vocational education? A chronological frame of

  12. A Multimodal Interaction Framework for Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidakis, Nikolaos; Kalafatis, Konstantinos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Humans interact with each other by utilizing the five basic senses as input modalities, whereas sounds, gestures, facial expressions etc. are utilized as output modalities. Multimodal interaction is also used between humans and their surrounding environment, although enhanced with further senses ...... framework enabling deployment of a vast variety of modalities, tailored appropriately for use in blended learning environment....

  13. Multimodal Student Interaction Online: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Therese Ornberg

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the influence of tool and task design on student interaction in language learning at a distance. Interaction in a multimodal desktop video conferencing environment, FlashMeeting, is analyzed from an ecological perspective with two main foci: participation rates and conversational feedback strategies. The quantitative…

  14. Multimodal Dialogue Management - State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.

    This report is about the state of the art in dialogue management. We first introduce an overview of a multimodal dialogue system and its components. Second, four main approaches to dialogue management are described (finite-state and frame-based, information-state based and probabilistic, plan-based,

  15. Multimode waveguide speckle patterns for compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, George C; Sefler, George A; Justin Shaw, T

    2016-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) of sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using microwave photonics may achieve better performances with smaller size, weight, and power than electronic CS or conventional Nyquist rate sampling. The critical element in a CS system is the device that produces the CS measurement matrix (MM). We show that passive speckle patterns in multimode waveguides potentially provide excellent MMs for CS. We measure and calculate the MM for a multimode fiber and perform simulations using this MM in a CS system. We show that the speckle MM exhibits the sharp phase transition and coherence properties needed for CS and that these properties are similar to those of a sub-Gaussian MM with the same mean and standard deviation. We calculate the MM for a multimode planar waveguide and find dimensions of the planar guide that give a speckle MM with a performance similar to that of the multimode fiber. The CS simulations show that all measured and calculated speckle MMs exhibit a robust performance with equal amplitude signals that are sparse in time, in frequency, and in wavelets (Haar wavelet transform). The planar waveguide results indicate a path to a microwave photonic integrated circuit for measuring sparse gigahertz-band RF signals using CS.

  16. Single versus multimodality training basic laparoscopic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.M.; Havermans, S.Y.; Buzink, S.N.; Botden, S.M.B.I.; Jakimowicz, J.J.; Schoot, B.C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction - Even though literature provides compelling evidence of the value of simulators for training of basic laparoscopic skills, the best way to incorporate them into a surgical curriculum is unclear. This study compares the training outcome of single modality training with multimodality

  17. New two-port multimode interference reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, E.; Smit, M.K.; Wale, M.J.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-mode interference reflectors (MIRs) are versatile components. Two new MIR designs with a fixed 50/50 reflection to transmission ratio are introduced. Measurements on these new devices and on devices similar to those in [1] are presented and compared to the design values. Measured losses are

  18. Scenemash: multimodal route summarization for city exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J. van den; Rudinac, S.; Worring, M.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of mining tourist information from social multimedia data gives rise to new applications offering much richer impressions of the city. In this paper we propose Scenemash, a system that generates multimodal summaries of multiple alternative routes between locations in a city. To get

  19. Naming Block Structures: A Multimodal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study describes symbolic representation in block play in a culturally diverse suburban preschool classroom. Block play is "multimodal" and can allow children to experiment with materials to represent the world in many forms of literacy. Combined qualitative and quantitative data from seventy-seven block structures were collected and analyzed.…

  20. Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Douglas J., Ed.; Griffith, Bryant, Ed.; Bérci, Margaret E., Ed.; Ortlieb, Evan, Ed.; Sullivan, Pamela, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    While incorporating digital technologies into the classroom has offered new ways of teaching and learning into educational processes, it is essential to take a look at how the digital shift impacts teachers, school administration, and curriculum development. "Academic Knowledge Construction and Multimodal Curriculum Development" presents…

  1. Facilitating Multiple Intelligences Through Multimodal Learning Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha PERVEEN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework for employing learning analytics in online education to trace multiple learning variations of online students by considering their potential of being multiple intelligences based on Howard Gardner’s 1983 theory of multiple intelligences. The study first emphasizes the need to facilitate students as multiple intelligences by online education systems and then suggests a framework of the advanced form of learning analytics i.e., multimodal learning analytics for tracing and facilitating multiple intelligences while they are engaged in online ubiquitous learning. As multimodal learning analytics is still an evolving area, it poses many challenges for technologists, educationists as well as organizational managers. Learning analytics make machines meet humans, therefore, the educationists with an expertise in learning theories can help technologists devise latest technological methods for multimodal learning analytics and organizational managers can implement them for the improvement of online education. Therefore, a careful instructional design based on a deep understanding of students’ learning abilities, is required to develop teaching plans and technological possibilities for monitoring students’ learning paths. This is how learning analytics can help design an adaptive instructional design based on a quick analysis of the data gathered. Based on that analysis, the academicians can critically reflect upon the quick or delayed implementation of the existing instructional design based on students’ cognitive abilities or even about the single or double loop learning design. The researcher concludes that the online education is multimodal in nature, has the capacity to endorse multiliteracies and, therefore, multiple intelligences can be tracked and facilitated through multimodal learning analytics in an online mode. However, online teachers’ training both in technological implementations and

  2. Arbitrary-ratio power splitter based on nonlinear multimode interference coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajaldini, Mehdi; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat

    2015-01-01

    We propose an ultra-compact multimode interference (MMI) power splitter based on nonlinear effects from simulations using nonlinear modal propagation analysis (NMPA) cooperation with finite difference Method (FDM) to access free choice of splitting ratio. Conventional multimode interference power splitter could only obtain a few discrete ratios. The power splitting ratio may be adjusted continuously while the input set power is varying by a tunable laser. In fact, using an ultra- compact MMI with a simple structure that is launched by a tunable nonlinear input fulfills the problem of arbitrary-ratio in integrated photonics circuits. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is used as the offered material due to the high contrast refractive index and Centro symmetric properties. The high-resolution images at the end of the multimode waveguide in the simulated power splitter have a high power balance, whereas access to a free choice of splitting ratio is not possible under the linear regime in the proposed length range except changes in the dimension for any ratio. The compact dimensions and ideal performance of the device are established according to optimized parameters. The proposed regime can be extended to the design of M×N arbitrary power splitters ratio for programmable logic devices in all optical digital signal processing. The results of this study indicate that nonlinear modal propagation analysis solves the miniaturization problem for all-optical devices based on MMI couplers to achieve multiple functions in a compact planar integrated circuit and also overcomes the limitations of previously proposed methods for nonlinear MMI

  3. Arbitrary-ratio power splitter based on nonlinear multimode interference coupler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajaldini, Mehdi [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Baft Branch, Islamic Azad University, Baft (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    We propose an ultra-compact multimode interference (MMI) power splitter based on nonlinear effects from simulations using nonlinear modal propagation analysis (NMPA) cooperation with finite difference Method (FDM) to access free choice of splitting ratio. Conventional multimode interference power splitter could only obtain a few discrete ratios. The power splitting ratio may be adjusted continuously while the input set power is varying by a tunable laser. In fact, using an ultra- compact MMI with a simple structure that is launched by a tunable nonlinear input fulfills the problem of arbitrary-ratio in integrated photonics circuits. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is used as the offered material due to the high contrast refractive index and Centro symmetric properties. The high-resolution images at the end of the multimode waveguide in the simulated power splitter have a high power balance, whereas access to a free choice of splitting ratio is not possible under the linear regime in the proposed length range except changes in the dimension for any ratio. The compact dimensions and ideal performance of the device are established according to optimized parameters. The proposed regime can be extended to the design of M×N arbitrary power splitters ratio for programmable logic devices in all optical digital signal processing. The results of this study indicate that nonlinear modal propagation analysis solves the miniaturization problem for all-optical devices based on MMI couplers to achieve multiple functions in a compact planar integrated circuit and also overcomes the limitations of previously proposed methods for nonlinear MMI.

  4. Time-bin entangled photon pairs from spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a cw multi-mode diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Ra, Young-Sik; Kim, Yong-Su; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2013-10-21

    Generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs requires the use of the Franson interferometer which consists of two spatially separated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers through which the signal and idler photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) are made to transmit individually. There have been two SPDC pumping regimes where the scheme works: the narrowband regime and the double-pulse regime. In the narrowband regime, the SPDC process is pumped by a narrowband cw laser with the coherence length much longer than the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In the double-pulse regime, the longitudinal separation between the pulse pair is made equal to the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In this paper, we propose another regime by which the generation of time-bin entanglement is possible and demonstrate the scheme experimentally. In our scheme, differently from the previous approaches, the SPDC process is pumped by a cw multi-mode (i.e., short coherence length) laser and makes use of the coherence revival property of such a laser. The high-visibility two-photon Franson interference demonstrates clearly that high-quality time-bin entanglement source can be developed using inexpensive cw multi-mode diode lasers for various quantum communication applications.

  5. On the regimes of premixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, S.; Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for Risk Studies and Safety

    1998-01-01

    The conditions of the MAGICO-2000 experiment are extended to more broadly investigate the regimes of premixing, and the corresponding internal structures of mixing zones. With the help of the data and numerical simulations using the computer code PM-ALPHA, we can distinguish extremes of behavior dominated by inertia and thermal effects - we name these the inertia and thermal regimes, respectively. This is an important distinction that should guide future experiments aimed at code verification in this area. Interesting intermediate behaviors are also delineated and discussed. (author)

  6. Neuromuscular blocking and cardiovascular effects of Org 9487, a new short-acting aminosteroidal blocking agent, in anaesthetized animals and in isolated muscle preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, A.W.; Sleigh, T.; Marshall, R.J.; Pow, E.; Anderson, K.; Booij, L.H.D.J.; Hill, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the neuromuscular blocking profile and cardiovascular effects of Org 9487, a new aminosteroidal, non-depolarizing, neuromuscular blocking agent structurally related to vecuronium, in anaesthetized animals and in isolated muscle preparations. In in vitro

  7. Land degradation and property regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  8. Regime identification in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, L; Sips, A C C; Kardaun, O; Spreitler, F; Suttrop, W

    2004-01-01

    The ability to recognize the transition from the L-mode to the H-mode or from the H-mode to the improved H-mode reliably from a conveniently small number of measurements in real time is of increasing importance for machine control. Discriminant analysis has been applied to regime identification of plasma discharges in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. An observation consists of a set of plasma parameters averaged over a time slice in a discharge. The data set consists of all observations over different discharges and time slices. Discriminant analysis yields coefficients allowing the classification of a new observation. The results of a frequentist and a formal Bayesian approach to discriminant analysis are compared. With five plasma variables, a failure rate of 1.3% for predicting the L-mode and the H-mode confinement regime was achieved. With five plasma variables, a failure rate of 5.3% for predicting the H-mode and the improved H-mode confinement regime was achieved. The coefficients derived by discriminant analysis have been applied subsequently to discharges to illustrate the operation of regime identification in a real time control system

  9. Monetary regimes in open economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpos, A.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-country open economy framework for the analysis of strategic interactions among monetary authorities and wage bargaining institutions. From this perspective, the thesis investigates the economic consequences of replacing flexible and fixed exchange rate regimes with a

  10. Ensuring availability of in date and fit for purpose emergency guidelines in all anaesthetic areas throughout the South East Scotland deanery

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to institute a system whereby emergency anaesthetic guidelines are available in >90% of appropriate clinical areas throughout each of the acute hospital sites in three health board administrative regions, and whereby >90% of available guidelines are deemed to be in date and fit for purpose. Our objective was to achieve these targets within 6 months. Using quality improvement methodology, we inventoried available emergency anaesthetic guidelines in 132 locations throughout seven ac...

  11. Efficacy of sub-Tenon's block using an equal volume of local anaesthetic administered either as a single or as divided doses. A randomised clinical trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, Ehtesham I

    2009-01-01

    Sub-Tenon\\'s anaesthetic is effective and reliable in producing both akinesia and anaesthesia for cataract surgery. Our clinical experience indicates that it is sometimes necessary when absolute akinesia is required during surgery to augment the block with 1-2 ml of local anaesthetic. Hypothesis was that after first injection some of the volume injected may spill out and before second injection the effect of hyaluronidase has taken place and second volume injectate will have desired effect.

  12. An investigation into how the European Working Time Directive has affected anaesthetic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowhay Andrew R

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Working Time Directive (EWTD became law in 1993 but only applied to doctors in training in the United Kingdom in 2004. The trainees have in consequence had a reduction in their working hours but also a change to a shift pattern of working. For craft specialities, such as anaesthesia, there are concerns that a reduction in working hours has also led to a reduction in the time available for learning and that ultimately this may affect patient care. However, there is scant research on the perceptions of trainees concerning the impact of the EWTD on their training and working lives. This study investigated what the anaesthetic Specialist Registrars (SpRs on the Mersey Deanery SpR rotation perceived to be training and also what effect the EWTD has had on that training and their quality of life, both within and outside work. Methods The project was a cross sectional survey, using a quantitative questionnaire with qualitative free text comments which were aggregated into overarching themes and sub themes. Results 117 SpRs were sent questionnaires in April 2005; 73 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 62.4%. Hierarchies of training opportunities emerged with training by consultants being most valued. 71.8% (95% CI 60.7 – 81.3 of trainees believed the EWTD has had a deleterious effect on their training and experience and 74.3% (95% CI 63.2 – 83.4 thought that they will be less prepared for a consultant post. 69.9% (95% CI 58.7 – 79.5 considered that their quality of life outside work had deteriorated, with only 15% (95% CI 8.3 – 24.6 finding improvement. 38.6% (95% CI 27.8 – 50.3 felt that they were not functioning as well as doctors, only 14.3% (95% CI 7.6 – 23.9 noting improvement. The trainees were still positive about anaesthesia and 73.2% (95% CI 62.2 – 82.5 would recommend this specialty to a student. Conclusion The majority of anaesthetic SpRs in the Mersey Deanery have not welcomed

  13. An investigation into how the European Working Time Directive has affected anaesthetic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowhay, Andrew R

    2008-08-12

    The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) became law in 1993 but only applied to doctors in training in the United Kingdom in 2004. The trainees have in consequence had a reduction in their working hours but also a change to a shift pattern of working. For craft specialities, such as anaesthesia, there are concerns that a reduction in working hours has also led to a reduction in the time available for learning and that ultimately this may affect patient care. However, there is scant research on the perceptions of trainees concerning the impact of the EWTD on their training and working lives. This study investigated what the anaesthetic Specialist Registrars (SpRs) on the Mersey Deanery SpR rotation perceived to be training and also what effect the EWTD has had on that training and their quality of life, both within and outside work. The project was a cross sectional survey, using a quantitative questionnaire with qualitative free text comments which were aggregated into overarching themes and sub themes. 117 SpRs were sent questionnaires in April 2005; 73 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 62.4%). Hierarchies of training opportunities emerged with training by consultants being most valued. 71.8% (95% CI 60.7-81.3) of trainees believed the EWTD has had a deleterious effect on their training and experience and 74.3% (95% CI 63.2-83.4) thought that they will be less prepared for a consultant post. 69.9% (95% CI 58.7-79.5) considered that their quality of life outside work had deteriorated, with only 15% (95% CI 8.3-24.6) finding improvement. 38.6% (95% CI 27.8-50.3) felt that they were not functioning as well as doctors, only 14.3% (95% CI 7.6-23.9) noting improvement. The trainees were still positive about anaesthesia and 73.2% (95% CI 62.2-82.5) would recommend this specialty to a student. The majority of anaesthetic SpRs in the Mersey Deanery have not welcomed the changes brought by the EWTD to their training, experience and quality of life

  14. Paediatric minor oral surgical procedures under inhalation sedation and general anaesthetic: a comparison of variety and duration of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J

    2008-03-01

    To develop baseline data in relation to paediatric minor oral surgical procedures undertaken with both general anaesthesia and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation within a Hospital Dental Service. Data were collected prospectively over a three-year period from May 2003 to June 2006 for patients attending the Departments of Paediatric Dentistry, Dundee Dental Hospital and Ninewells Hospital, NHS Tayside, Great Britain, for all surgical procedures undertaken with either inhalation sedation or general anaesthetic. Both operator status and the procedure being undertaken were noted. In addition, the operating time was recorded. Data for 166 patients (F: 102; M: 64) with a median age of 12.50 (inter-quartile range 10.00, 14.20) years showed that 195 surgical procedures were undertaken. Of these 160 and 35 were with general anaesthetic and sedation respectively. The surgical removal of impacted, carious and supernumerary unit(s) accounted for 53.8% of all procedures, whilst the exposure of impacted teeth and soft tissue surgery represented 34.9% and 11.3% of procedures respectively. The median surgical time for techniques undertaken with sedation was 30.00 (inter-quartile range 25.00, 43.50) minutes whilst that for general anaesthetic was similar at 30.00 (inter-quartile range 15.25, 40.00) minutes (not statistically significant, (Mann Whitney U, W = 3081.5, P = 0.331). The majority of paediatric minor oral surgical procedures entail surgical exposure or removal of impacted teeth. The median treatment time for most procedures undertaken with either general anaesthetic or nitrous oxide sedation was 30 minutes.

  15. An anaesthetic pre-operative assessment clinic reduces pre-operative inpatient stay in patients requiring major vascular surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, D B

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing major vascular surgery (MVS) require extensive anaesthetic assessment. This can require extended pre-operative stays. AIMS: We investigated whether a newly established anaesthetic pre-operative assessment clinic (PAC) would reduce the pre-operative inpatient stay, avoid unnecessary investigations and facilitate day before surgery (DBS) admissions for patients undergoing MVS. PATIENT AND METHODS: One year following and preceding the establishment of the PAC the records of patients undergoing open or endovascular aortic aneurysm repair, carotid endarterectomy and infra-inguinal bypass were reviewed to measure pre-operative length of stay (LoS). RESULTS: Pre-operative LoS was significantly reduced in the study period (1.85 vs. 4.2 days, respectively, P < 0.0001). Only 12 out of 61 patients in 2007 were admitted on the DBS and this increased to 33 out of 63 patients (P = 0.0002). No procedure was cancelled for medical reasons. CONCLUSION: The PAC has facilitated accurate outpatient anaesthetic assessment for patients requiring MVS. The pre-operative in-patient stay has been significantly reduced.

  16. Does the anaesthetic infl uence behavioural transmission of the monogenean Gyrodactylus gasterostei Gläser, 1974 off the host?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grano-Maldonado M. I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of the anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol on the transmission factors of gyrodactylid and to ascertain how this may affect in the colonisation of new hosts using the Gyrodactylus gasterostei Gläser, 1974 - Gasterosteus aculeatus L. model which is a simple and successful system to examine aspects of transmission of parasites from live and dead fish. Laboratory experiments include determining the maturity (presence of male copulate organ and reproductive (presence of daughter status of transmitting worms, in order to consider the factors that influence parasite option to migrate to a new individual of the same host species. This study demonstrates that parasites with a Male Copulate Organ (MCO present are more likely to abandon the host and attempt a host transfer. The use of the anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol does not affect transmission of gyrodactylids which leave the host to colonise a new host. Finally, the use of other anaesthetic although its relative importance with respect to transmission remains uncertain.

  17. Enhancement of delayed-rectifier potassium conductance by low concentrations of local anaesthetics in spinal sensory neurones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olschewski, Andrea; Wolff, Matthias; Bräu, Michael E; Hempelmann, Gunter; Vogel, Werner; Safronov, Boris V

    2002-01-01

    Combining the patch-clamp recordings in slice preparation with the ‘entire soma isolation' method we studied action of several local anaesthetics on delayed-rectifier K+ currents in spinal dorsal horn neurones.Bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine at low concentrations (1–100 μM) enhanced delayed-rectifier K+ current in intact neurones within the spinal cord slice, while exhibiting a partial blocking effect at higher concentrations (>100 μM). In isolated somata 0.1–10 μM bupivacaine enhanced delayed-rectifier K+ current by shifting its steady-state activation characteristic and the voltage-dependence of the activation time constant to more negative potentials by 10–20 mV.Detailed analysis has revealed that bupivacaine also increased the maximum delayed-rectifier K+ conductance by changing the open probability, rather than the unitary conductance, of the channel.It is concluded that local anaesthetics show a dual effect on delayed-rectifier K+ currents by potentiating them at low concentrations and partially suppressing at high concentrations. The phenomenon observed demonstrated the complex action of local anaesthetics during spinal and epidural anaesthesia, which is not restricted to a suppression of Na+ conductance only. PMID:12055132

  18. A simplified concept for controlling oxygen mixtures in the anaesthetic machine--better, cheaper and more user-friendly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, J A; Gramstad, L; Grimnes, S

    1995-05-01

    Modern anaesthetic machines are equipped with several safety components to prevent delivery of hypoxic mixtures. However, such a technical development has increased the complexity of the equipment. We report a reconstructed anaesthetic machine in which a paramagnetic oxygen analyzer has provided the means to simplify the apparatus. The new machine is devoid of several components conventionally included to prevent hypoxic mixtures: oxygen failure protection device, reservoir O2 alarm, N2O/air selector, and proportioning system for oxygen/nitrous oxide delivery. These devices have been replaced by a simple safety system using a paramagnetic oxygen analyzer at the common gas outlet, which in a feed-back system cuts off the supply of nitrous oxide whenever the oxygen concentration falls below 25%. The simplified construction of the anaesthetic machine has important consequences for safety, cost and user-friendliness. Reducing the complexity of the construction also simplifies the pre-use checkout procedure, and an efficient 5-point check list is presented for the new machine.

  19. Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess.

  20. Multimodal location estimation of videos and images

    CERN Document Server

    Friedland, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the field of multimodal location estimation, i.e. using acoustic, visual, and/or textual cues to estimate the shown location of a video recording. The authors' sample research results in this field in a unified way integrating research work on this topic that focuses on different modalities, viewpoints, and applications. The book describes fundamental methods of acoustic, visual, textual, social graph, and metadata processing as well as multimodal integration methods used for location estimation. In addition, the text covers benchmark metrics and explores the limits of the technology based on a human baseline. ·         Discusses localization of multimedia data; ·         Examines fundamental methods of establishing location metadata for images and videos (other than GPS tagging); ·         Covers Data-Driven as well as Semantic Location Estimation.

  1. Multimodality imaging of the postoperative shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Multimodality imaging of the postoperative shoulder includes radiography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR arthrography, computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, and ultrasound. Target-oriented evaluation of the postoperative shoulder necessitates familiarity with surgical techniques, their typical complications and sources of failure, knowledge of normal and abnormal postoperative findings, awareness of the advantages and weaknesses with the different radiologic techniques, and clinical information on current symptoms and function. This article reviews the most commonly used surgical procedures for treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability, lesions of the labral-bicipital complex, subacromial impingement, and rotator cuff lesions and highlights the significance of imaging findings with a view to detection of recurrent lesions and postoperative complications in a multimodality approach. (orig.)

  2. Multimodal interaction in image and video applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sappa, Angel D

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Pattern Recognition (PR) and Computer Vision (CV) technologies have mainly focused on full automation, even though full automation often proves elusive or unnatural in many applications, where the technology is expected to assist rather than replace the human agents. However, not all the problems can be automatically solved being the human interaction the only way to tackle those applications. Recently, multimodal human interaction has become an important field of increasing interest in the research community. Advanced man-machine interfaces with high cognitive capabilities are a hot research topic that aims at solving challenging problems in image and video applications. Actually, the idea of computer interactive systems was already proposed on the early stages of computer science. Nowadays, the ubiquity of image sensors together with the ever-increasing computing performance has open new and challenging opportunities for research in multimodal human interaction. This book aims to show how existi...

  3. Semiconductor laser using multimode interference principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zisu; Yin, Rui; Ji, Wei; Wu, Chonghao

    2018-01-01

    Multimode interference (MMI) structure is introduced in semiconductor laser used in optical communication system to realize higher power and better temperature tolerance. Using beam propagation method (BPM), Multimode interference laser diode (MMI-LD) is designed and fabricated in InGaAsP/InP based material. As a comparison, conventional semiconductor laser using straight single-mode waveguide is also fabricated in the same wafer. With a low injection current (about 230 mA), the output power of the implemented MMI-LD is up to 2.296 mW which is about four times higher than the output power of the conventional semiconductor laser. The implemented MMI-LD exhibits stable output operating at the wavelength of 1.52 μm and better temperature tolerance when the temperature varies from 283.15 K to 293.15 K.

  4. Multimodality therapy of local regional esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, David P

    2005-12-01

    Recent trials regarding the use of multimodality therapy for patients with cancers of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction have not conclusively shown benefit. Regimens containing cisplatin and fluorouracil administered preoperatively appear to be tolerable and do not increase operative morbidity or mortality when compared with surgery alone. Yet clinical trials have not clearly shown that such regimens improve outcome as measured by survival. Likewise, trials of postoperative chemoradiation have not reported a significant improvement in median or overall survival. The reasons for the lack of clinical benefit from multimodality therapy are not completely understood, but improvements in systemic therapy will probably be necessary before disease-free or overall survival improves substantially. Some new single agents such as the taxanes (docetaxel or paclitaxel) and the camptothecan analog irinotecan have shown modest activity for palliative therapy.

  5. Pattern recognition of neurotransmitters using multimode sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Moldoveanu, Iuliana; van Staden, Jacobus Frederick

    2014-05-30

    Pattern recognition is essential in chemical analysis of biological fluids. Reliable and sensitive methods for neurotransmitters analysis are needed. Therefore, we developed for pattern recognition of neurotransmitters: dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine a method based on multimode sensing. Multimode sensing was performed using microsensors based on diamond paste modified with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrine, hemin and protoporphyrin IX in stochastic and differential pulse voltammetry modes. Optimized working conditions: phosphate buffer solution of pH 3.01 and KCl 0.1mol/L (as electrolyte support), were determined using cyclic voltammetry and used in all measurements. The lowest limits of quantification were: 10(-10)mol/L for dopamine and epinephrine, and 10(-11)mol/L for norepinephrine. The multimode microsensors were selective over ascorbic and uric acids and the method facilitated reliable assay of neurotransmitters in urine samples, and therefore, the pattern recognition showed high reliability (RSDneurotransmitters on biological fluids at a lower determination level than chromatographic methods. The sampling of the biological fluids referees only to the buffering (1:1, v/v) with a phosphate buffer pH 3.01, while for chromatographic methods the sampling is laborious. Accordingly with the statistic evaluation of the results at 99.00% confidence level, both modes can be used for pattern recognition and quantification of neurotransmitters with high reliability. The best multimode microsensor was the one based on diamond paste modified with protoporphyrin IX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The multimodal treatment of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    HALMI, KATHERINE A.

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of eating disorders is based on a multimodal model, recognizing that these disorders do not have a single cause or a predictable course. The treatment strategy is determined by the severity of illness and the specific eating disorder diagnosis. For the treatment of anorexia nervosa, the key elements are medical management, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and family therapy, while pharmacotherapy is at best an adjunct to other therapies. In bulimia nervosa...

  7. A Multimodal Robot Game for Seniors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Krogsager, Anders; Fredslund, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the initial findings of a multimodal game which has been implemented on a humanoid robot platform and tested with seniors suffering from dementia. Physical and cognitive activities can improve the overall wellbeing of seniors, but it is often difficult to motivate seniors...... feedback and includes animated gestures and sounds. The game has been tested in a nursing home with four seniors suffering from moderate to severe dementia....

  8. Speech Perception as a Multimodal Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblum, Lawrence D.

    2008-01-01

    Speech perception is inherently multimodal. Visual speech (lip-reading) information is used by all perceivers and readily integrates with auditory speech. Imaging research suggests that the brain treats auditory and visual speech similarly. These findings have led some researchers to consider that speech perception works by extracting amodal information that takes the same form across modalities. From this perspective, speech integration is a property of the input information itself. Amodal s...

  9. Learning new skills in Multimodal Enactive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardy Benoît G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A European consortium of researchers in movement and cognitive sciences, robotics, and interaction design developed multimodal technologies to accelerate and transfer the (relearning of complex skills from virtual to real environments. The decomposition of skill into functional elements — the subskills — and the enactment of informational variables used as accelerators are here described. One illustration of accelerator using virtual reality in team rowing is described.

  10. Frequency tripling with multimode-lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, H.; Roehr, H.; Wrobel, W.G.

    1978-10-01

    The presence of different modes with random phases in a laser beam leads to fluctuations in nonlinear optical interactions. This paper describes the influence of the linewidth of a dye laser on the generation of intensive Lyman-alpha radiation by frequency tripling. Using this Lyman-alpha source for resonance scattering on strongly doppler-broadened lines in fusion plasmas the detection limit of neutral hydrogen is nearly two orders higher with the multimode than the singlemode dye laser. (orig.) [de

  11. Digital Storytelling and Multimodal Literacy in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gregori-Signes, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This article argues in favour of using digital storytelling to encourage a critical socio-educational focus in education and include multimodal explicit teaching in the curriculum.The analysis of fifty digital stories indicates that the students developed a certain awareness of the issue chosen for their story (e.g. violence, racism, war) since the final product transmits a critical perspective on the topic itself. Further work, however, needs to be invested in the development of the digital ...

  12. Multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Kanji; Iida, Atsushi; Fujita, Takashi; Kobayashi, Taizo; Shinmoto, Syuichi; Hirose, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Akio; Yoshida, Masanori

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve in prognosis and quality of life (QOL), the multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancers were performed. Bypass surgery was carried out for unresectable pancreatic cancer with intraoperative irradiation (IOR). After surgery, patients were treated with the combination of CDDP (25 mg) and MMC (4 mg) administration, intravenously continuous injection of 5-FU (250 mg for 24 hours), external radiation by the high voltage X-ray (1.5 Gy per irradiation, 4 times a week, and during hyperthermia 3 Gy per irradiation) and hyperthermia using the Thermotron RF-8 warmer. Six out of 13 patients received hyperthermia at over 40degC, were obtained PR, and their survival periods were 22, 21, 19, 18, 11 and 8 months and they could return to work. For all patients with pain, the symptom was abolished or reduced. The survival periods in cases of the multimodal treatment were longer than those of only bypass-surgery or of the resective cases with the curability C. The multimodal treatment combined with radiation, hyperthermia and surgery is more useful for the removal of pain and the improvement of QOL, and also expected the improvement of the prognosis than pancreatectomy. And hyperthermia has an important role on the effect of this treatment. (K.H.)

  13. Multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Kanji; Iida, Atsushi; Fujita, Takashi; Kobayashi, Taizo; Shinmoto, Syuichi; Hirose, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Akio; Yoshida, Masanori [Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    In order to improve in prognosis and quality of life (QOL), the multimodal treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancers were performed. Bypass surgery was carried out for unresectable pancreatic cancer with intraoperative irradiation (IOR). After surgery, patients were treated with the combination of CDDP (25 mg) and MMC (4 mg) administration, intravenously continuous injection of 5-FU (250 mg for 24 hours), external radiation by the high voltage X-ray (1.5 Gy per irradiation, 4 times a week, and during hyperthermia 3 Gy per irradiation) and hyperthermia using the Thermotron RF-8 warmer. Six out of 13 patients received hyperthermia at over 40degC, were obtained PR, and their survival periods were 22, 21, 19, 18, 11 and 8 months and they could return to work. For all patients with pain, the symptom was abolished or reduced. The survival periods in cases of the multimodal treatment were longer than those of only bypass-surgery or of the resective cases with the curability C. The multimodal treatment combined with radiation, hyperthermia and surgery is more useful for the removal of pain and the improvement of QOL, and also expected the improvement of the prognosis than pancreatectomy. And hyperthermia has an important role on the effect of this treatment. (K.H.)

  14. Optimal Face-Iris Multimodal Fusion Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.

  15. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

  16. [Design and validation of an oral health questionnaire for preoperative anaesthetic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-López Del Prado, Gema; Blaya-Nováková, Vendula; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Álvarez-Montero, Óscar Luis; Ayala, Alba; Muñoz-Moreno, Maria Fe; Forjaz, Maria João

    Dental injuries incurred during endotracheal intubation are more frequent in patients with previous oral pathology. The study objectives were to develop an oral health questionnaire for preanaesthesia evaluation, easy to apply for personnel without special dental training; and establish a cut-off value for detecting persons with poor oral health. Validation study of a self-administered questionnaire, designed according to a literature review and an expert group's recommendations. The questionnaire was applied to a sample of patients evaluated in a preanaesthesia consultation. Rasch analysis of the questionnaire psychometric properties included viability, acceptability, content validity and reliability of the scale. The sample included 115 individuals, 50.4% of men, with a median age of 58 years (range: 38-71). The final analysis of 11 items presented a Person Separation Index of 0.861 and good adjustment of data to the Rasch model. The scale was unidimensional and its items were not biased by sex, age or nationality. The oral health linear measure presented good construct validity. The cut-off value was set at 52 points. The questionnaire showed sufficient psychometric properties to be considered a reliable tool, valid for measuring the state of oral health in preoperative anaesthetic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Design and validation of an oral health questionnaire for preoperative anaesthetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Ruíz-López del Prado

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Dental injuries incurred during endotracheal intubation are more frequent in patients with previous oral pathology. The study objectives were to develop an oral health questionnaire for preanaesthesia evaluation, easy to apply for personnel without special dental training; and establish a cut-off value for detecting persons with poor oral health. Methods: Validation study of a self-administered questionnaire, designed according to a literature review and an expert group's recommendations. The questionnaire was applied to a sample of patients evaluated in a preanaesthesia consultation. Rasch analysis of the questionnaire psychometric properties included viability, acceptability, content validity and reliability of the scale. Results: The sample included 115 individuals, 50.4% of men, with a median age of 58 years (range: 38-71. The final analysis of 11 items presented a Person Separation Index of 0.861 and good adjustment of data to the Rasch model. The scale was unidimensional and its items were not biased by sex, age or nationality. The oral health linear measure presented good construct validity. The cut-off value was set at 52 points. Conclusions: The questionnaire showed sufficient psychometric properties to be considered a reliable tool, valid for measuring the state of oral health in preoperative anaesthetic evaluations.

  18. Modified PADSS (Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System) for monitoring outpatients discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Piergaspare; Tellan, Guglielmo; Perotti, Bruno; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Vietri, Francesco; Illuminati, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    The decision to discharge a patient undergoing day surgery is a major step in the hospitalization pathway, because it must be achieved without compromising the quality of care, thus ensuring the same assistance and wellbeing as for a long-term stay. Therefore, the use of an objective assessment for the management of a fair and safe discharge is essential. The authors propose the Post Anaesthetic Discharge Scoring System (PADSS), which considers six criteria: vital signs, ambulation, nausea/vomiting, pain, bleeding and voiding. Each criterion is given a score ranging from 0 to 2. Only patients who achieve a score of 9 or more are considered ready for discharge. Furthermore, PADSS has been modified to ensure a higher level of safety, thus the "vital signs" criteria must never score lower than 2, and none of the other five criteria must ever be equal to 0, even if the total score reaches 9. The effectiveness of PADSS was analyzed on 2432 patients, by recording the incidence of postoperative complications and the readmission to hospital. So far PADDS has proved to be an efficient system that guarantees safe discharge.

  19. Comparison of stress in anaesthetic trainees between Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A C L; Irwin, M G; Lee, P W H; Lee, T H W; Man, S E

    2008-11-01

    A postal survey was sent to anaesthetic trainees in Hong Kong and Victoria, Australia to compare work-related stress levels. Demographic data were collected. Anaesthetist-specific stressors, Maslach Burnout Inventory and Global Job Satisfaction scores were used for psychological testing. The response rates from Hong Kong and Melbourne were 64 of 133 (48.1%) and 108 of 196 (55.1%), respectively. Victorian respondents were older with greater family commitments, but more advanced in fulfilling training requirements. Hong Kong respondents, being faced with both the challenge of dual College requirements, exhibited consistently higher indices of stress (P stress scores observed in Hong Kong trainees related to service provision and a perceived lack of resources. Despite the complex nature of stress, its antecedents and manifestations, an inverse relationship between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction was evident in correlation analysis (P stress was present in some trainees in both areas. Hong Kong trainees may benefit from local development to address mental wellbeing as being important to fulfil this highly competitive training program.

  20. Anaesthetic management of a paediatric patient with congenital fibre type disproportion myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisán, F; de la Varga, O; Flores, M; Sánchez-Ruano, J

    2018-04-23

    Congenital fibre type disproportion (CFTD) is a rare type of myopathy that is characterised by muscle weakness and hypotonia during childhood. Clinical features include motor delay, feeding difficulties, limb weakness, joint contractures, and scoliosis. A report is presented of the anaesthetic management of a 3-year-old girl with CFTD myopathy associated with a mutation of the TPM3 gene, scheduled for adenotonsillectomy because of obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). The main concerns were the possible susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia, the risk of anaesthesia-induced rhabdomyolysis, a greater sensitivity to non-depolarising muscle relaxants, and the presence of OSAHS. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and the use of rocuronium/sugammadex appear to be safe options. Given the high risk of respiratory compromise and other complications, patients should be closely monitored in the post-operative period. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct and indirect cardiovascular actions of cathinone and MDMA in the anaesthetized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsufyani, Hadeel A; Docherty, James R

    2015-07-05

    The stimulants cathinone (from Khat leaves) and methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine (MDMA) produce adrenoceptor mediated tachycardia and vasopressor actions that may be the result of direct receptor stimulation, actions on the noradrenaline transporter, and/or displacement of noradrenaline from nerve terminals. Effects of cathinone or MDMA were compared with those of the indirect sympathomimetic tyramine. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized with pentobarbitone for blood pressure and heart rate recording. Some rats were sympathectomised by treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine. In the anaesthetised rat, cathinone, MDMA and tyramine (all 0.001-1 mg/kg) produced marked tachycardia, tyramine produced marked pressor responses and MDMA produced small pressor responses. The tachycardia to cathinone and MDMA was almost abolished by propranolol (1mg/kg). Pretreatment with cocaine (1mg/kg) did not significantly affect the tachycardia to cathinone or MDMA, but reduced the response to tyramine. However, in sympathectomised rats, the tachycardia to cathinone or MDMA was markedly attenuated, but the tachycardia to tyramine was only partially reduced. Blood pressure effects of tyramine and MDMA were also markedly attenuated by sympathectomy. The results demonstrate firstly that cocaine may not be the most suitable agent for assessing direct versus indirect agonism in cardiovascular studies. Secondly, the use of chemical sympathectomy achieved the desired goal of demonstrating that cardiac β-adrenoceptor mediated actions of cathinone and MDMA are probably largely indirect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Subcutaneous versus subcutaneous and intraperitoneal local anaesthetic in the management of post appendicectomy pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.Z.; Gondal, Z.I.; Raza, A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of subcutaneous only and combined subcutaneous and peritoneal infiltration of 0.5% bupivacaine during appendicectomy for the management of early post operative pain. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, CMH Kohat from 13th December 2007 to 20th December 2008. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients of a cute appendicitis, divided into two groups of 30 each, were included in the study. Group A was given 0.5% bupivacaine subcutaneously, whereas group B was given the anaesthetic subcutaneously as well as intraperitoneally during appendectomy. Results: In group A, 24 (80%) were VAS (visual analoguescoring) 3 (uncomfortable) and 6 (20%) were VAS 2 (mild pain) whereas in study group B, 11 (36.6%) were VAS 3, 19 (63.3%) were VAS 2 and 19 (63.3%) were VAS 2 during 1st 12 hrs postoperatively (p=0.001). In 12-24 hrs post operatively, 15 (50%) patients were VAS 3 in group A and same number was VAS 2 and in group B, only 3 (10%) were in VAS 3 and 27 (90%) were VAS 2 (p=0.001). Conclusion: A combination of subcutaneous and peritoneal infiltration with bupivacaine is superior in relieving post appendectomy pain so patients require less dosage of analgesics in early post operative period along with early mobilization. (author)

  3. The effect of the anaesthetic agent isoflurane on the rate of neutrophil apoptosis in vitro.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Volatile anaesthetic agents influence neutrophil function, and potentially, the inflammatory response to surgery. AIM: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of isoflurane (1-4%) on human polymorphonuclear neutrophil apoptosis in vitro. METHODS: Venous blood from 12 healthy volunteers was exposed to 0, 1, and 4% isoflurane delivered via a 14G Wallace flexihub internal jugular cannula, at a fresh gas flow of 0.51\\/min for 5 minutes. Isolated neutrophils were assessed for apoptosis at 1, 12, and 24 hours in culture using dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (Annexin-V FITC assay). Data were analysed using paired, one-tailed Student\\'s t-tests. p<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: At 1 hour apoptosis was inhibited in the 1% (5.1 [6.8]%; p=0.017) and 4% (4.8 [4.5]%; p=0.008) isoflurane groups compared to control (11.3 [6.9]%). At 12 and 24 hours, a dose-dependent inhibition of apoptosis was demonstrated, i.e. 4% > 1% > 0%. CONCLUSION: Human neutrophil apoptosis is inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro by isoflurane in clinical concentrations.

  4. Improving needle tip identification during ultrasound-guided procedures in anaesthetic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, H J; Pourtaherian, A; Mihajlovic, N; Korsten, H H M; A Bouwman, R

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasound guidance is becoming standard practice for needle-based interventions in anaesthetic practice, such as vascular access and peripheral nerve blocks. However, difficulties in aligning the needle and the transducer can lead to incorrect identification of the needle tip, possibly damaging structures not visible on the ultrasound screen. Additional techniques specifically developed to aid alignment of needle and probe or identification of the needle tip are now available. In this scoping review, advantages and limitations of the following categories of those solutions are presented: needle guides; alterations to needle or needle tip; three- and four-dimensional ultrasound; magnetism, electromagnetic or GPS systems; optical tracking; augmented (virtual) reality; robotic assistance; and automated (computerised) needle detection. Most evidence originates from phantom studies, case reports and series, with few randomised clinical trials. Improved first-pass success and reduced performance time are the most frequently cited benefits, whereas the need for additional and often expensive hardware is the greatest limitation to widespread adoption. Novice ultrasound users seem to benefit most and great potential lies in education. Future research should focus on reporting relevant clinical parameters to learn which technique will benefit patients most in terms of success and safety. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Central respiratory and circulatory effects of Gymnodinium breve toxin in anaesthetized cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borison, Herbert L.; Ellis, Sydney; McCarthy, Lawrence E.

    1980-01-01

    1 In cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone, observations were made on respiration, spontaneous and evoked diaphragmatic electromyograms, blood pressure, heart rate, indirectly-induced contractions of the anterior tibialis muscle and nictitating membrane, and electrical excitability of the inspiratory centre in the medulla oblongata. 2 Gymnodinium breve toxin (GBTX) was administered intravenously, intra-arterially to the brain, and intracerebroventricularly. Physiological effects were recorded while alveolar PCO2 was controlled at a constant level except when changes in gas tension were made in order to measure CO2-ventilatory responsiveness. 3 Adequate doses of GBTX given intravenously by bolus injection elicited a non-tachyphylactic reflex response triad of apnoea, hypotension and bradycardia mediated by the vagus nerves independently of arterial baroreceptor and chemoreceptor innervation. 4 After vagotomy, additional amounts of GBTX (i.v.) resulted in apneustic breathing, hypertension and tachycardia. The cardiovascular effects were abolished by ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium. 5 Smaller doses of GBTX were required intra-arterially and intracerebroventricularly than by the intravenous route of injection to produce respiratory irregularity and cardiovascular hyperactivity. 6 Evoked motor responses, electrical excitability of the medulla oblongata and CO2-ventilatory responsiveness were largely spared even though GBTX caused marked disturbances in respiratory rhythmicity and cardiovascular functions. 7 It is concluded that GBTX acts reflexly on vagally innervated receptors to evoke a Bezold-Jarisch effect but that the toxin further acts centrally to cause irregular breathholding and hypertension with tachycardia, leading ultimately to respiratory and circulatory failure. PMID:7191740

  6. An analysis of the delivery of anaesthetic training sessions in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A; Tatham, K C; Yentis, S M; Wilson, J; Cox, M

    2017-11-01

    We analysed data from the electronic rota system CLWRota, covering 2,689,962 anaesthetic sessions between 01/01/2014 and 31/12/2015, in 91 UK Trusts, in order to investigate trainees' supervision. There were 8209 trainee attachments analysed, during which 618,695 sessions were undertaken by trainees. The number of supervised sessions per week that trainees worked varied considerably (median (IQR [range]) 2.6 (1.6-3.6 [0-10]) for all grades combined), with senior trainees more likely than junior trainees to be supervised for fewer than the three sessions per week mandated by the Royal College of Anaesthetists. The number of supervised sessions was unrelated to Trusts' size, suggesting that trainees in smaller hospitals receive the same level of supervision as in larger teaching hospitals. Analysis of a dataset of this size should be a good reflection of the delivery of anaesthesia training in the UK. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Chemical restraint and anaesthetic effects of a tiletamine-zolazepam/ketamine/detomidine combination in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Michela; Blanco-Murcia, Francisco J; Gómez de Segura, Ignacio A

    2011-10-01

    The immobilisation and anaesthesia of free-ranging cattle requires the administration of appropriate drugs in small volume via rifle or dart. The objective of this randomised controlled study was to test the capacity of a concentrated combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ), ketamine (K) and detomidine (D) (TZKD) to immobilise/anaesthetise calves. Following administration of low, medium and high doses of TZKD to six healthy animals IM, the time-of-onset and duration of anaesthesia were recorded, in addition to standard cardio-respiratory parameters. Two noxious stimuli were applied to assess the analgesic effect of the combination. TZKD produced a dose-dependent anaesthetic action associated with respiratory depression and moderate hypoxaemia. Total recumbency lasted from 1h (with low dose) to 2h (with medium and high doses). The findings indicate that TZKD induces anaesthesia in calves, suitable not only for animal immobilisation, but also to carry out minor surgical procedures with or without additional local analgesia. Respiratory depression was the most severe side-effect and careful patient monitoring is recommended when using this drug combination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and validation of an oral health questionnaire for preoperative anaesthetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-López Del Prado, Gema; Blaya-Nováková, Vendula; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Álvarez-Montero, Óscar Luis; Ayala, Alba; Muñoz-Moreno, Maria Fe; Forjaz, Maria João

    Dental injuries incurred during endotracheal intubation are more frequent in patients with previous oral pathology. The study objectives were to develop an oral health questionnaire for preanaesthesia evaluation, easy to apply for personnel without special dental training; and establish a cut-off value for detecting persons with poor oral health. Validation study of a self-administered questionnaire, designed according to a literature review and an expert group's recommendations. The questionnaire was applied to a sample of patients evaluated in a preanaesthesia consultation. Rasch analysis of the questionnaire psychometric properties included viability, acceptability, content validity and reliability of the scale. The sample included 115 individuals, 50.4% of men, with a median age of 58 years (range: 38-71). The final analysis of 11 items presented a Person Separation Index of 0.861 and good adjustment of data to the Rasch model. The scale was unidimensional and its items were not biased by sex, age or nationality. The oral health linear measure presented good construct validity. The cut-off value was set at 52 points. The questionnaire showed sufficient psychometric properties to be considered a reliable tool, valid for measuring the state of oral health in preoperative anaesthetic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of clonidine and magnesium sulphate on anaesthetic consumption, haemodynamics and postoperative recovery: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjushree Ray

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to assess the effect of intravenous clonidine and magnesium sulphate on intraoperative haemodynamics, anaesthetic consumption and postoperative recovery. Seventy five patients undergoing elective upper limb orthopaedic surgery were randomised into three groups. Group C received clonidine 3 μg/kg as a bolus before induction and 1μg/kg/hour by infusion intraopertively. Group M received magnesium sulphate 30 mg/kg as a bolus before induction and 10 mg/kg/hour by infusion. Group P received same volume of isotonic saline. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with fentanyl citrate and propofol. Muscular relaxation was achieved by vecuronium bromide. Induction time, recovery time and consumption of propofol as well as fentanyl citrate were recorded. Induction of anaesthesia was rapid with both clonidine and magnesium sulphate. Time of bispectral index (BIS to reach 60 was significantly lower in Group C and Group M (P < 0.0001. Requirements of propofol and fentanyl were significantly less in Group C and Group M (P < 0.001. Postoperative recovery was slower in Group M compared with other two groups (P < 0.001. Perioperative use of both clonidine and magnesium sulphate significantly reduced the consumption of propofol and fentanyl citrate. Magnesium sulphate caused a delayed recovery.

  10. Evaluation of Masimo signal extraction technology pulse oximetry in anaesthetized pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Christopher T; Raisis, Anthea L; Musk, Gabrielle C

    2013-03-01

    Evaluation of the accuracy of Masimo signal extraction technology (SET) pulse oximetry in anaesthetized late gestational pregnant sheep. Prospective experimental study. Seventeen pregnant Merino ewes. Animals included in study were late gestation ewes undergoing general anaesthesia for Caesarean delivery or foetal surgery in a medical research laboratory. Masimo Radical-7 pulse oximetry (SpO(2) ) measurements were compared to co-oximetry (SaO(2) ) measurements from arterial blood gas analyses. The failure rate of the pulse oximeter was calculated. Accuracy was assessed by Bland & Altman's (2007) limits of agreement method. The effect of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), perfusion index (PI) and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration on accuracy were assessed by regression analysis. Forty arterial blood samples paired with SpO(2) and blood pressure measurements were obtained. SpO(2) ranged from 42 to 99% and SaO(2) from 43.7 to 99.9%. MAP ranged from 24 to 82 mmHg, PI from 0.1 to 1.56 and Hb concentration from 71 to 114 g L(-1) . Masimo pulse oximetry measurements tended to underestimate oxyhaemoglobin saturation compared to co-oximetry with a bias (mean difference) of -2% and precision (standard deviation of the differences) of 6%. Accuracy appeared to decrease when SpO(2) was oximeter function during extreme hypotension and hypoxaemia. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  11. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    Multimodality is the theory of communication as it applies to social and educational semiotics (making meaning through the use of multiple signs and symbols). The term multimodality describes a communication methodology that includes multiple textual, aural, and visual applications (modes) that are woven together to create what is referred to as an artifact. Multimodal teaching methodology attempts to create a deeper meaning to course content by activating the higher cognitive areas of the student's brain, creating a more sustained retention of the information (Murray, 2009). The introduction of multimodality educational methodologies as a means to more optimally engage students has been documented within educational literature. However, studies analyzing the distribution and penetration into basic sciences, more specifically anatomy and physiology, have not been forthcoming. This study used a quantitative survey design to determine the degree to which instructors integrated multimodality teaching practices into their course curricula. The instrument used for the study was designed by the researcher based on evidence found in the literature and sent to members of three associations/societies for anatomy and physiology instructors: the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society; the iTeach Anatomy & Physiology Collaborate; and the American Physiology Society. Respondents totaled 182 instructor members of two- and four-year, private and public higher learning colleges collected from the three organizations collectively with over 13,500 members in over 925 higher learning institutions nationwide. The study concluded that the expansion of multimodal methodologies into anatomy and physiology classrooms is at the beginning of the process and that there is ample opportunity for expansion. Instructors continue to use lecture as their primary means of interaction with students. Email is still the major form of out-of-class communication for full-time instructors. Instructors with

  12. Comparison of alfaxalone, ketamine and thiopental for anaesthetic induction and recovery in Thoroughbred horses premedicated with medetomidine and midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakuno, A; Aoki, M; Kushiro, A; Mae, N; Kodaira, K; Maeda, T; Yamazaki, Y; Ohta, M

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on clinical use of the new injectable anaesthetic agent alfaxalone in Thoroughbred horses. To compare anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary responses between alfaxalone, ketamine and thiopental in Thoroughbred horses premedicated with medetomidine and midazolam. Randomised blinded experimental cross-over study. Six Thoroughbred horses were anaesthetised 3 times with alfaxalone 1 mg/kg bwt, ketamine 2.5 mg/kg bwt or thiopental 4 mg/kg bwt after premedication with medetomidine 6 μg/kg bwt and midazolam 20 μg/kg bwt. Qualities of anaesthetic induction and recovery were scored on a scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent). Induction time and recovery time were recorded. Cardiopulmonary values (heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressures, and arterial blood gases) were recorded throughout anaesthesia. Data were analysed with nonparametric methods. The anaesthetic induction (P = 0.2) and recovery (P = 0.1) quality scores (median, range) were not different amongst protocols and were 4.0, 3-5; 5.0, 4-5; 4.5, 3-5; and 4.5, 3-5; 3.5, 2-5; 4.0, 2-5 for alfaxalone, ketamine and thiopental, respectively. Induction time for ketamine (67, 53-89 s) was significantly longer than that for alfaxalone (49, 40-51 s, P = 0.01) and thiopental (48, 43-50 s, P = 0.01). Time to standing for alfaxalone (44, 40-63 min, P = 0.01) and thiopental (39, 30-58 min, P = 0.01) was significantly longer than that for ketamine (25, 18-26 min). Cardiovascular values were maintained within the clinically acceptable level throughout anaesthesia. Respiratory rate significantly decreased during anaesthesia for all 3 drugs; however, spontaneous breathing did not disappear, and PaCO 2 values were maintained at approximately 50 mmHg. All 3 drugs showed similar effects in relation to anaesthetic induction and recovery qualities and cardiopulmonary responses. However, alfaxalone and thiopental prolonged recovery time

  13. Detecting spatial regimes in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Eason, Tarsha; Nelson, R. John; Angeler, David G.; Barichievy, Chris; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Graham, Nicholas A.J.; Granholm, Dean; Gunderson, Lance; Knutson, Melinda; Nash, Kirsty L.; Spanbauer, Trisha; Stow, Craig A.; Allen, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Research on early warning indicators has generally focused on assessing temporal transitions with limited application of these methods to detecting spatial regimes. Traditional spatial boundary detection procedures that result in ecoregion maps are typically based on ecological potential (i.e. potential vegetation), and often fail to account for ongoing changes due to stressors such as land use change and climate change and their effects on plant and animal communities. We use Fisher information, an information theory-based method, on both terrestrial and aquatic animal data (U.S. Breeding Bird Survey and marine zooplankton) to identify ecological boundaries, and compare our results to traditional early warning indicators, conventional ecoregion maps and multivariate analyses such as nMDS and cluster analysis. We successfully detected spatial regimes and transitions in both terrestrial and aquatic systems using Fisher information. Furthermore, Fisher information provided explicit spatial information about community change that is absent from other multivariate approaches. Our results suggest that defining spatial regimes based on animal communities may better reflect ecological reality than do traditional ecoregion maps, especially in our current era of rapid and unpredictable ecological change.

  14. Cloud regimes as phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechmann, Samuel; Hottovy, Scott

    2017-11-01

    Clouds are repeatedly identified as a leading source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. Of particular importance are stratocumulus clouds, which can appear as either (i) closed cells that reflect solar radiation back to space or (ii) open cells that allow solar radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Here we show that these clouds regimes - open versus closed cells - fit the paradigm of a phase transition. In addition, this paradigm characterizes pockets of open cells (POCs) as the interface between the open- and closed-cell regimes, and it identifies shallow cumulus clouds as a regime of higher variability. This behavior can be understood using an idealized model for the dynamics of atmospheric water as a stochastic diffusion process. Similar viewpoints of deep convection and self-organized criticality will also be discussed. With these new conceptual viewpoints, ideas from statistical mechanics could potentially be used for understanding uncertainties related to clouds in the climate system and climate predictions. The research of S.N.S. is partially supported by a Sloan Research Fellowship, ONR Young Investigator Award N00014-12-1-0744, and ONR MURI Grant N00014-12-1-0912.

  15. The effect of a topical anaesthetic formulation, systemic flunixin and carprofen, singly or in combination, on cortisol and behavioural responses of Merino lambs to mulesing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, D R; Lee, C; Colditz, I G; Atkinson, S J; Fisher, A D

    2007-03-01

    To determine the pain responses of lambs to mulesing, and the effectiveness of potential analgesic treatments. Merino lambs (n=64) were allocated at 5 weeks of age to eight treatment groups: 1) sham mules; 2) conventional mules; 3) topical anaesthetic, incorporating lignocaine, bupivicaine, adrenaline and cetrimide, applied immediately after mulesing; 4) flunixin + topical anaesthetic, with flunixin administered 2.5 mg/kg s.c. 90 min before mulesing; 5) carprofen + topical anaesthetic, with carprofen administered 4 mg/kg s.c. 90 min before mulesing; 6) carprofen, administered as above; 7) flunixin, administered as above; and 8) carprofen + flunixin, administered as above. Plasma cortisol was measured at 0, 0.5, 6, 12 and 24 h relative to mulesing. Animal behaviour, including posture, was recorded for 12 h after mulesing. The conventional mules lambs exhibited large increases in plasma cortisol, reduced lying and increased standing with a hunched back compared with sham mules animals. Topical anaesthetic reduced the cortisol peak to mulesing and hunched standing, and increased lying compared with the conventional mules treatment, but generally did not result in values equivalent to sham mules animals. Carprofen, flunixin, and carprofen + flunixin treatments did not reduce the cortisol response to mulesing but substantially ameliorated some changes in behavioural postures. Flunixin + topical anaesthetic reduced the cortisol peak following mulesing and substantially ameliorated most changes in behavioural postures. Carprofen + topical anaesthetic abolished the cortisol peak following mulesing and substantially ameliorated most changes in behavioural postures. All mulesed animals lost weight in the week after mulesing regardless of analgesic administration, but there were no significant differences in growth rate between any of the eight treatments over the 3 weeks after mulesing. Analgesics can moderate the pain response of lambs to mulesing. The welfare outcome for

  16. Evidence for a bubble-competition regime in indirectly driven ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D A; Smalyuk, V A; Kane, J O; Casner, A; Liberatore, S; Masse, L P

    2015-05-29

    We investigate on the National Ignition Facility the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes. A planar plastic package with preimposed two-dimensional broadband modulations is accelerated for up to 12 ns by the x-ray drive of a gas-filled Au radiation cavity with a radiative temperature plateau at 175 eV. This extended tailored drive allows a distance traveled in excess of 1 mm for a 130  μm thick foil. Measurements of the modulation optical density performed by x-ray radiography show that a bubble-merger regime for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at an ablation front is achieved for the first time in indirect drive. The mutimode modulation amplitudes are in the nonlinear regime, grow beyond the Haan multimode saturation level, evolve toward the longer wavelengths, and show insensitivity to the initial conditions.

  17. Stochastic dynamical models for ecological regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Carstensen, Jacob; Madsen, Henrik

    the physical and biological knowledge of the system, and nonlinearities introduced here can generate regime shifts or enhance the probability of regime shifts in the case of stochastic models, typically characterized by a threshold value for the known driver. A simple model for light competition between...... definition and stability of regimes become less subtle. Ecological regime shifts and their modeling must be viewed in a probabilistic manner, particularly if such model results are to be used in ecosystem management....

  18. Multimodal follow-up questions to multimodal answers in a QA system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a dialogue manager (DM) for a multimodal interactive Question Answering (QA) system. Our QA system presents answers using text and pictures, and the user may pose follow-up questions using text or speech, while indicating screen elements with the mouse. We developed a corpus of

  19. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2004-01-01

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  20. Ventricular distension and diastolic coronary blood flow in the anaesthetized dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattullo, D; Linden, R J; Losano, G; Pagliaro, P; Westerhof, N

    1993-01-01

    There appears to be no agreement as to whether or not an increase in diastolic left ventricular pressure and/or volume can cause a decrease in diastolic coronary blood flow. We investigated the problem in the anaesthetized dog using a flaccid freely distensible latex balloon inserted into the left ventricle with the animal on extracorporeal circulation and the coronary perfusion pressure constant at about 45 mm Hg. Maximal vasodilatation and suppression of autoregulation in coronary vasculature was obtained by the intracoronary infusion of dipyridamole (10-40 mg/h). Ventricular volume was changed in steps of 10 ml from 10 to 70 ml and back to 10 ml, whilst recording coronary blood flow and left ventricular pressure in the left circumflex coronary artery. Over a range of ventricular volumes from 20 to 50 ml and a concomitant rise in diastolic ventricular pressure to about 20 mm Hg there was no change in the diastolic coronary flow. Only when the ventricular volume was more than two times the control value (i.e. exceeded 50 ml) and left ventricular pressure was more than 20 mm Hg, was there a decrease in coronary flow. During the return of the volume to the control level there was a fall in diastolic flow and ventricular contractility with respect to the values obtained when the volume was increased; these two effects were transient lasting less than 10 min. It was not considered that any of the three models of the coronary circulation, waterfall, intramyocardial pump or varying elastance model could explain our results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Acid-base status and cardiovascular function in mink (Mustela vison) anaesthetized with ketamine/midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamberg, S; Svendsen, P; Johansen, B

    1996-01-01

    Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and blood acid-base status were determined in 18 adult female mink (mean (+/- SEM) body weight 1052 +/- 34 g) during long-term anaesthesia with either controlled ventilation (n=12) or spontaneous respiration (n=6). Surgical anaesthesia was induced by intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (Ketaminol Vet, 40.0 +/- 1.7 mg/kg) and midazolam hydrochloride (Dormicum 2.8 +/- 0.1 mg/kg) and maintained for at least 5 h by continuous intravenous infusion of this drug combination in 0.9% saline. For all animals, the mean rates of infusion of ketamine and midazolam were 48.4 +/- 1.6 and 1.61 +/- 0.12 mg/h, respectively. Following continuous infusion of the anaesthetics in isotonic saline, at a rate of 20 ml/h, a moderate 'dilution acidosis' developed, which could be corrected by replacement of part of the saline with sodium bicarbonate to a final concentration of approximately 25 mmol NaHCO3 per litre. However, when the animals were allowed to breathe spontaneously, an increase in heart rate and a combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis occurred, due to severe respiratory depression. Apart from these effects and a few cases of increased salivation, no adverse effects over time were observed on the arterial blood acid-base status and cardiovascular function of the animals during ketamine/midazolam anaesthesia. It is concluded that the procedure described for long-term anaesthesia in mink is convenient and safe for acute physiological experiments in this species, provided normal body temperature and pulmonary gas exchange is sufficiently maintained. Thus, the need for an adequately controlled artificial ventilation is strongly emphasized. Finally, a proposal for the composition of an intravenous solution, containing ketamine and midazolam hydrochloride, and sodium bicarbonate in saline, suitable for long-term anaesthesia in adult mink is presented.

  2. Manipulation under anaesthetic for frozen shoulder using Codman's paradox: a safe and early return of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvieli, Oren; Atoun, Ehud; Consigliere, Paolo; Polyzois, Ioannis; Walecka, Joanna; Pradhan, Rajib; Ippolito, Giorgio; Rath, Ehud; Levy, Ofer

    2018-02-01

    Although previously frozen shoulder was thought to resolve by two to three years, recent studies demonstrated the symptoms can remain for much longer. Manipulation under anaesthetic (MUA) has been shown to be successful in relieving pain and restoring function. Yet, concerns have been raised regarding its safety and the risks of complications. We utilise Codman's paradox to manipulate the shoulder, avoiding rotational torque on the humerus. The aim of our study was to asses shoulder function in the early post MUA period. Two hundred twelve consecutive patients (224 shoulders) (mean age 52.4 years) underwent MUA using Codman's paradox for frozen shoulder as sole procedure between 2005 and 2013. All were evaluated clinically, preoperatively and postoperatively, at three weeks and three months, for Constant score (CS), pain, range of motion (ROM), patient satisfaction and subjective shoulder value (SSV). At three weeks and three months, a significant improvement was found in CS from 30.7 to 66 and 70 respectively. Forward elevation improved from 91° to 154° and 160 °, abduction from 69° to 150° and 156 °, internal rotation from 12° to 62° and 66 °, and external rotation from 10° to 46° and 50 °. Pain score improved from 4.4/15 to 9.6/15 and 10.4/15, SSV improved from 1.5/10 to 6.5/10 and 6.7/10. (pparadox provides a safe and efficient way to perform MUA for frozen shoulder. It results in dramatic early improvement in ROM, functional outcomes and high satisfaction, as early as three weeks post-operatively.

  3. Arterial supply, venous drainage and collateral circulation in the nose of the anaesthetized dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, M A; Wang, J C

    1987-01-01

    1. In pentobarbitone-anaesthetized dogs, nasal blood flows were measured with electromagnetic flow sensors. 2. The terminal internal maxillary artery was found to supply 22 +/- 2.2 ml min-1 (one side) to the nasal mucosa via the sphenopalatine and major palatine branches; the artery was found to receive multiple supply routes from common carotid, vertebral and subclavian arteries. 3. Nasal mucosa was found to receive collateral flow from contralateral terminal internal maxillary artery (about 5 to 10% of normal flow) and branches of subclavian arteries (about 36% of normal flow). 4. Nasal mucosa was found to have two venous systems: the low-flow (12 +/- 1.0 ml min-1; both sides) and low-pressure (7 +/- 0.6 mmHg) sphenopalatine veins draining the posterior nasal cavity and the high-flow (30 +/- 1.4 ml min-1; both sides) and high-pressure (17 +/- 1.0 mmHg) dorsal nasal veins draining the anterior nasal cavity. 5. PO2 of nasal venous blood was found to range from 62 +/- 2.9 mmHg to 65 +/- 3.4 mmHg. During nitrogen challenge to the nose, the sphenopalatine venous PO2 dropped to 35 +/- 3.0 mmHg while the dorsal nasal venous PO2 remained unchanged, suggesting that the sphenopalatine veins were responsible for draining capillary flow and dorsal nasal veins arteriovenous anastomotic flow as well. 6. Microscopic examination of the vascular casts confirmed that arteriovenous anastomoses were located only in the anterior nasal cavity. Images Fig. 5 Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:3443958

  4. Feed forward and feedback control for over-ground locomotion in anaesthetized cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, K. A.; Holinski, B. J.; Everaert, D. G.; Stein, R. B.; Etienne-Cummings, R.; Mushahwar, V. K.

    2012-04-01

    The biological central pattern generator (CPG) integrates open and closed loop control to produce over-ground walking. The goal of this study was to develop a physiologically based algorithm capable of mimicking the biological system to control multiple joints in the lower extremities for producing over-ground walking. The algorithm used state-based models of the step cycle each of which produced different stimulation patterns. Two configurations were implemented to restore over-ground walking in five adult anaesthetized cats using intramuscular stimulation (IMS) of the main hip, knee and ankle flexor and extensor muscles in the hind limbs. An open loop controller relied only on intrinsic timing while a hybrid-CPG controller added sensory feedback from force plates (representing limb loading), and accelerometers and gyroscopes (representing limb position). Stimulation applied to hind limb muscles caused extension or flexion in the hips, knees and ankles. A total of 113 walking trials were obtained across all experiments. Of these, 74 were successful in which the cats traversed 75% of the 3.5 m over-ground walkway. In these trials, the average peak step length decreased from 24.9 ± 8.4 to 21.8 ± 7.5 (normalized units) and the median number of steps per trial increased from 7 (Q1 = 6, Q3 = 9) to 9 (8, 11) with the hybrid-CPG controller. Moreover, within these trials, the hybrid-CPG controller produced more successful steps (step length ≤ 20 cm ground reaction force ≥ 12.5% body weight) than the open loop controller: 372 of 544 steps (68%) versus 65 of 134 steps (49%), respectively. This supports our previous preliminary findings, and affirms that physiologically based hybrid-CPG approaches produce more successful stepping than open loop controllers. The algorithm provides the foundation for a neural prosthetic controller and a framework to implement more detailed control of locomotion in the future.

  5. Species of Compassion: Aesthetics, Anaesthetics, and Pain in the Physiological Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Boddice

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the interplay of different species of compassion with regard to physiological practices in the final decades of the nineteenth century. Drawing on the lexicon from which ideals of late-Victorian compassion were formed, it illustrates their contested nature, demonstrating how physiologists developed their own concepts of compassion based on the theories of Darwin and Spencer. Within this purview, the essay examines the historical specificity of antivivisectionist compassion as well as ways in which pain in the laboratory was conceptualized, experienced, and managed ethically. This article explores the interplay of different species of compassion with regard to physiological practices in the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Britain. The lexicographical web of late-Victorian compassion included ‘humanity’, ‘pity’, ‘commiseration’, ‘tenderness’ (or ‘tender sympathy’, and ‘sympathetic pain’, all of which projected contested ideals of both individual character and moral conduct. As well as showing the historical specificity of antivivisectionist compassion – a complex aesthetic of pain closely linked to disgust – the article will principally demonstrate that physiologists (and the community of evolutionary scientists in general were applying their own newly, but no less highly, developed form of compassion that emerged straight from the pages of Darwin and Spencer. There is a story here of pain awareness and pain imagination within physiology, specifically connected to feelings of ‘humanity’. In practice, this story centres on anaesthesia and its role in allowing physiologists to live up to an ideal of ‘imperturbability’. It includes an investigation into what physiologists thought about causing pain in animals, as well as analysis of what changed after the use of anaesthetics became widespread. The article inquires anew about the ways in which pain in the laboratory was conceptualized

  6. Instant centre frequency at anaesthetic induction--a new way to analyse sympathovagal balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Neto, Edmundo Pereira; Cerutti, Catherine; Loufoua, Joseph; Saroul, Christine; Chiari, Pascal; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Lehot, Jean-Jacques

    2003-02-01

    The instant centre frequency (ICF) of RR interval has been proposed as a global index to analyse the sympathovagal interaction in the heart. The aim of this study was to assess the ICF during anaesthesia to test if it can reliably capture the neural control of the cardiovascular system. Twenty-four ASA II or III patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were included in the study. They were allocated in two groups: control, no treatment (group 1, n = 12), and beta-adrenergic blockade by atenolol (group 2, n = 12). Spectra of pulse interval series were computed with a time-frequency method and they were divided into: very low frequency (VLF, 0.000-0.040 Hz), low frequency (LF, 0.050-0.150 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 0.160-0.500 Hz). Normalized power was obtained by dividing the cumulative power within each frequency band (LF or HF) by the sum of LF and HF; the ratio of LF/HF was also calculated. Instant centre frequency is a time-varying parameter that the evolution along time of the gravity centrum of a local spectrum. All spectral indexes were recorded at the following time points: before induction, after induction and before intubation, during intubation, and after intubation. The atenolol group had lower normalized LF and the LF/HF ratio (P ICF was higher in atenolol group at all times. The ICF shifted towards HF frequency after induction and before intubation and shifted towards LF during intubation in both groups. The autonomic nervous system control on the heart through the interaction of sympathetic and parasympathetic reflex mechanisms could be studied by the ICF. The ICF may assess the autonomic cardiac modulation and may provide useful information for anaesthetic management.

  7. Anaesthetic and ICU management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a survey of European practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velly, Lionel J; Bilotta, Federico; Fàbregas, Neus; Soehle, Martin; Bruder, Nicolas J; Nathanson, Michael H

    2015-03-01

    Many aspects of the perioperative management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) remain controversial. It would be useful to assess differences in the treatment of SAH in Europe to identify areas for improvement. To determine the clinical practice of physicians treating SAH and to evaluate any discrepancy between practice and published evidence. An electronic survey. Physicians identified through each national society of neuroanaesthesiology and neurocritical care. A 31-item online questionnaire was distributed by the ENIG group. Questions were designed to investigate anaesthetic management of SAH and diagnostic and treatment approaches to cerebral vasospasm. The survey was available from early October to the end of November 2012. Completed surveys were received from 268 respondents, of whom 81% replied that aneurysm treatment was conducted early (within 24 h). Sixty-five percent of centres treated more than 60% of SAH by coiling, 19% had high-volume clipping (>60% of aneurysms clipped) and 16% used both methods equally. No clear threshold for arterial blood pressure target was identified during coiling, temporary clipping or in patients without vasospasm after the aneurysm had been secured. Almost all respondents used nimodipine (97%); 21% also used statins and 20% used magnesium for prevention of vasospasm. A quarter of respondents used intra-arterial vasodilators alone, 5% used cerebral angioplasty alone and 48% used both endovascular methods to treat symptomatic vasospasm. In high-volume clipping treatment centres, 58% of respondents used endovascular methods to manage vasospasm compared with 86% at high-volume coiling treatment centres (P practice patterns of European physicians involved in early treatment of SAH. Significant differences were noted among countries and between high and low-volume coiling centres.

  8. Advanced paediatric conscious sedation: an alternative to dental general anaesthetic in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Darren; Averley, Paul; Lyne, John; Girdler, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Child dental anxiety is widespread, and it is not always possible to treat children using traditional methods such as behavioural management, local anaesthesia and even relative analgesia. In such cases a dental general anaesthetic (DGA) is the only option available to facilitate dental treatment in anxious children. This study describes an advanced conscious sedation protocol which allows invasive treatment to be carried out in anxious children. It incorporates the use of titrated intravenous midazolam and fentanyl and inhalation agents, sevoflurane and nitrous oxide/oxygen, which is administered by a Consultant Anaesthetist. The aim is to produce an evidence- based study which can offer a sedation technique as a safe and effective alternative to a DGA. Retrospective audit. 267 clinical records were audited retrospectively from a specialist sedation-based clinic, for children aged 5-15 years old. The subjects all underwent invasive dental procedures with this technique between August and November 2008 as an alternative to a DGA. 262/267 (98%) of the subjects were treated safely and successfully and without the loss of verbal communication using this technique. This included many treatments requiring four quadrant dentistry, with both restorations and extractions as necessary being carried out in one visit. 5 subjects (2%) did not tolerate treatment and had to be referred for a DGA. No medical emergencies occurred. Based on the evidence for this group of patients, this advanced conscious sedation technique, offers a safe and effective alternative to DGA. This technique must be carried out in an appropriate environment by an appropriately trained and experienced team who are able to comply with the recommendations for "alternative" sedation techniques.

  9. The use of anaesthetic agents to provide anxiolysis and sedation in dentistry and oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Michael

    2013-12-31

    Throughout the world there is considerable variation in the techniques used to manage anxious dental patients requiring treatment. Traditionally anxious or phobic dental patients may have been sent for general anaesthesia to allow dental treatment be undertaken. While this is still the case for the more invasive oral surgical procedures, such as wisdom teeth extraction, sedation in general dentistry is becoming more popular. Various sedation techniques using many different anaesthetic agents have gained considerable popularity over the past 30 years. While the practice of sedating patients for dental procedures is invaluable in the management of suitably assessed patients, patient safety must always be the primary concern. Medical, dental and psychosocial considerations must be taken into account when evaluating the patient need and the patient suitability for sedation or general anaesthesia. The regulations that govern the practice of dental sedation vary throughout the world, in particular regarding the techniques used and the training necessary for dental practitioners to sedate patients. It is necessary for medical and dental practitioners to be up to date on current practice to ensure standards of practice, competence and safety throughout our profession. This article, the first in a two-part series, will provide information to practitioners on the practice of sedation in dentistry, the circumstances where it may be appropriate instead of general anaesthesia and the risks involved with sedation. It will also discuss the specific training and qualifications required for dental practitioners to provide sedation. The second article in this series will outline the different techniques used to administer inhalation, oral and intravenous sedation in dentistry and will focus on specific methods that are practiced.

  10. Basil, tea tree and clove essential oils as analgesics and anaesthetics in Amphiprion clarkii (Bennett, 1830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Correia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study were evaluated the anaesthesia and analgesic effects of clove Eugenia caryophyllata, tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia and basil Ocimum basilicum essential oils (EO during handling of yellowtail clownfish Amphiprion clarkii. Juveniles (3.70 ± 0.75 cm and 1.03 ± 0.50 g; mean ± standard deviation were submitted to concentrations of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 µl L-1 of clove, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 µl L-1 of basil and 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 µl L-1 of tea tree oils (n=10/concentration, previously defined in pilot tests. Individually and only once, fish from each treatment were placed in a glass recipient containing 1 L of seawater at a temperature of 25 °C, salinity of 35 g L-1 and the specific concentration of diluted EO (stock solution. Control (only seawater and blank (seawater and ethanol at the highest concentration used to dilute the oils treatments were also conducted. After reaching the stage of surgical anaesthesia, fish were submitted to biometry and a sensibility test. After that, they were transferred to clean seawater for anaesthesia recovery. The times of induction needed to reach each anaesthesia stage and anaesthesia recovery were recorded. Animals were observed for 72 hours after the procedures. All the EO provoked anaesthesia and analgesic effects in A. clarkii, but basil oil is not recommended because it caused involuntary muscle contractions and mortality in 100% and 12% of fish, respectively. The lower concentrations that promote suitable induction and recovery times are 50 µl L-1 of clove oil and 500 µl L-1 of tea tree oil. However, due to its complementary high analgesic efficiency, clove oil is recommended as the ideal anaesthetic for A. clarkii.

  11. Advanced Multimodal Solutions for Information Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Godfroy-Cooper, Martine

    2018-01-01

    High-workload, fast-paced, and degraded sensory environments are the likeliest candidates to benefit from multimodal information presentation. For example, during EVA (Extra-Vehicular Activity) and telerobotic operations, the sensory restrictions associated with a space environment provide a major challenge to maintaining the situation awareness (SA) required for safe operations. Multimodal displays hold promise to enhance situation awareness and task performance by utilizing different sensory modalities and maximizing their effectiveness based on appropriate interaction between modalities. During EVA, the visual and auditory channels are likely to be the most utilized with tasks such as monitoring the visual environment, attending visual and auditory displays, and maintaining multichannel auditory communications. Previous studies have shown that compared to unimodal displays (spatial auditory or 2D visual), bimodal presentation of information can improve operator performance during simulated extravehicular activity on planetary surfaces for tasks as diverse as orientation, localization or docking, particularly when the visual environment is degraded or workload is increased. Tactile displays offer a third sensory channel that may both offload information processing effort and provide a means to capture attention when urgently required. For example, recent studies suggest that including tactile cues may result in increased orientation and alerting accuracy, improved task response time and decreased workload, as well as provide self-orientation cues in microgravity on the ISS (International Space Station). An important overall issue is that context-dependent factors like task complexity, sensory degradation, peripersonal vs. extrapersonal space operations, workload, experience level, and operator fatigue tend to vary greatly in complex real-world environments and it will be difficult to design a multimodal interface that performs well under all conditions. As a

  12. The semiotics of typography in literary texts. A multimodal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2009-01-01

    to multimodal discourse proposed, for instance, by Kress & Van Leeuwen (2001) and Baldry & Thibault (2006), and, more specifically, the multimodal approach to typography suggested by Van Leeuwen (2005b; 2006), in order to sketch out a methodological framework applicable to the description and analysis...... of the semiotic potential of typography in literary texts....

  13. Validation of a multimodal travel simulator with travel information provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.; Molin, E.J.E.; Arentze, T.A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Wee, van G.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a computer based travel simulator for collecting data concerning the use of next-generation ATIS and their effects on traveler decision making in a multimodal travel environment. The tool distinguishes itself by presenting a completely abstract multimodal transport network, where

  14. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Tmall's Double Eleven Advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Luo, Mengxi

    2016-01-01

    From the 1990s, the multimodal turn in discourse studies makes multimodal discourse analysis a popular topic in linguistics and communication studies. An important approach to applying Systemic Functional Linguistics to non-verbal modes is Visual Grammar initially proposed by Kress and van Leeuwen (1996). Considering that commercial advertisement…

  15. Deterministic multimode photonic device for quantum-information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We propose the implementation of a light source that can deterministically generate a rich variety of multimode quantum states. The desired states are encoded in the collective population of different ground hyperfine states of an atomic ensemble and converted to multimode photonic states by exci...

  16. Interactivity in Educational Apps for Young Children: A Multimodal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz-Raith, Alexandra H.; Liu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Interactivity is an important indicator of an educational app's reception. Since most educational apps are multimodal, it justifies a methodological initiative to understand meaningful involvement of multimodality in enacting and even amplifying interactivity in an educational app. Yet research so far has largely concentrated on algorithm…

  17. Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2012-01-01

    Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

  18. Multimodal versus Unimodal Instruction in a Complex Learning Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellevij, Mark; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton; Pieters, Jules

    2002-01-01

    Compared multimodal instruction with text and pictures with unimodal text-only instruction as 44 college students used a visual or textual manual to learn a complex software application. Results initially support dual coding theory and indicate that multimodal instruction led to better performance than unimodal instruction. (SLD)

  19. Multimodal warnings to enhance risk communication and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, E.C.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal warnings incorporate audio and/or skin-based (tactile) cues to supplement or replace visual cues in environments where the user’s visual perception is busy, impaired, or nonexistent. This paper describes characteristics of audio, tactile, and multimodal warning displays and their role in

  20. Adaptive multimodal interaction in mobile augmented reality: A conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Rimaniza Zainal; Arshad, Haslina; Shukri, Saidatul A'isyah Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Recently, Augmented Reality (AR) is an emerging technology in many mobile applications. Mobile AR was defined as a medium for displaying information merged with the real world environment mapped with augmented reality surrounding in a single view. There are four main types of mobile augmented reality interfaces and one of them are multimodal interfaces. Multimodal interface processes two or more combined user input modes (such as speech, pen, touch, manual gesture, gaze, and head and body movements) in a coordinated manner with multimedia system output. In multimodal interface, many frameworks have been proposed to guide the designer to develop a multimodal applications including in augmented reality environment but there has been little work reviewing the framework of adaptive multimodal interface in mobile augmented reality. The main goal of this study is to propose a conceptual framework to illustrate the adaptive multimodal interface in mobile augmented reality. We reviewed several frameworks that have been proposed in the field of multimodal interfaces, adaptive interface and augmented reality. We analyzed the components in the previous frameworks and measure which can be applied in mobile devices. Our framework can be used as a guide for designers and developer to develop a mobile AR application with an adaptive multimodal interfaces.

  1. Player/Avatar Body Relations in Multimodal Augmented Reality Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality research is finally moving towards multimodal experiences: more and more applications do not only include visuals, but also audio and even haptics. The purpose of multimodality in these applications can be to increase realism or to increase the amount or quality of communicated

  2. Multimodal network design for sustainable household plastic recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Groot, J.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This research studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. This research aims to quantify the impact of multimodality on the network, to provide decision

  3. A Multimodal Database for Affect Recognition and Implicit Tagging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleymani, Mohammad; Lichtenauer, Jeroen; Pun, Thierry; Pantic, Maja

    MAHNOB-HCI is a multimodal database recorded in response to affective stimuli with the goal of emotion recognition and implicit tagging research. A multimodal setup was arranged for synchronized recording of face videos, audio signals, eye gaze data, and peripheral/central nervous system

  4. The Big Five: Addressing Recurrent Multimodal Learning Data Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Mitri, Daniele; Schneider, Jan; Specht, Marcus; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of multimodal data in learning is a growing field of research, which has led to the development of different analytics solutions. However, there is no standardised approach to handle multimodal data. In this paper, we describe and outline a solution for five recurrent challenges in

  5. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  6. Multimodal Scaffolding in the Secondary English Classroom Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche, Benjamin; Henning, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the topic of multimodal scaffolding in the secondary English classroom curriculum through the viewpoint of one teacher's experiences. With technology becoming more commonplace and readily available in the English classroom, we must pinpoint specific and tangible ways to help teachers use and teach multimodalities in their…

  7. MULTIMODAL ANALGESIA AFTER TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Mukutsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - to assess the effect of multimodal analgesia in the early rehabilitation of patients after hip replacement. Materials and methods. A prospective single-centre randomized research, which included 32 patients. Patients of the 1st group received paracetamol, ketorolac and tramadol, the 2nd group of patients - ketorolac intravenously and the 3rd group of patients - etoricoxib and gabapentin. Patients of the 2nd and the 3rd groups underwent epidural analgesia with ropivacaine. Multimodal analgesia was carried out for 48 hours after the surgery. Assessment of pain intensity was performed by the VAS (visual analogue scale, a neuropathic pain component - on the DN4 questionnaire . Time was recorded during the first and second verticalization of patients, using the distance walkers and by fixing the distance covered with in 2 minutes. Results. The intensity of pain for more than 50 mm on VAS at movement at least once every 48 hours after the surgery was occurred among 9% of the 1st group, 22% of patients from the 2nd group and 8% of patients of the 3rd group. Number of patients with neuropathic pain component decreased from 25% to 3% (p ≤ 0.05. The first verticalization was performed 10 ± 8 hours after the surgery, the second - 21 ± 8 hours later. Two-minute walk distance was 5 ± 3 and 8 ± 4 m, respectively. It is noted more frequent adverse events in patients of the 1st group was noted compared to patients of the 2nd and the 3rd groups during first (91%, 33% and 25%, p ≤ 0.05 and the second verticalization (70%, 25% and 17%, p ≤ 0.05. Multimodal analgesia allows to proceed with the successful activation of patients after hip replacement with in the first day after the surgery. The 3rd group patients are noted with a tendency for the optimal combination of efficient and safe of analgetic therapy.

  8. New developments in multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    80 years ago, the PhD student Maria Goeppert predicted in her thesis in Goettingen, Germany, two-photon effects. It took 30 years to prove her theory, and another three decades to realize the first two-photon microscope. With the beginning of this millennium, first clinical multiphoton tomographs started operation in research institutions, hospitals, and in the cosmetic industry. The multiphoton tomograph MPTflexTM with its miniaturized flexible scan head became the Prism-Award 2010 winner in the category Life Sciences. Multiphoton tomographs with its superior submicron spatial resolution can be upgraded to 5D imaging tools by adding spectral time-correlated single photon counting units. Furthermore, multimodal hybrid tomographs provide chemical fingerprinting and fast wide-field imaging. The world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph in spring 2010. In particular, nonfluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen have been imaged in patients with dermatological disorders. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution imaging tools such as ultrasound, optoacoustic, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer (malignant melanoma), optimization of treatment strategies (wound healing, dermatitis), and cosmetic research including long-term biosafety tests of ZnO sunscreen nanoparticles and the measurement of the stimulated biosynthesis of collagen by anti-ageing products.

  9. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2012-12-01

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  10. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.

    2012-01-01

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom—the symplectic eigenvalues—which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  11. Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.

  12. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-09-01

    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  13. Multimodal Landscaping in Higher Education Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Multimodal Landscaping (ML) as a conceptual framework, and to illustrate how this approach can be applied within the field of higher education research. It is argued that ML is a suitable tool, especially, in studies investigating university...... internationalization, and in studies focusing on the agent level of higher education organizations. ML is argued to add to the diversity of methods within a social constructivist methodology. The author illustrates how ML is connected and/or different from kindred approaches. Pathways are proposed as to how...

  14. Multimodality Imaging of Heart Valve Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajani, Ronak; Khattar, Rajdeep; Chiribiri, Amedeo; Victor, Kelly; Chambers, John

    2014-01-01

    Unidentified heart valve disease is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. It has therefore become important to accurately identify, assess and monitor patients with this condition in order that appropriate and timely intervention can occur. Although echocardiography has emerged as the predominant imaging modality for this purpose, recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography indicate that they may have an important contribution to make. The current review describes the assessment of regurgitant and stenotic heart valves by multimodality imaging (echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance) and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses

  15. Multimodality Imaging of Heart Valve Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajani, Ronak, E-mail: Dr.R.Rajani@gmail.com [Department of Cardiology, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Khattar, Rajdeep [Department of Cardiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Chiribiri, Amedeo [Divisions of Imaging Sciences, The Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Victor, Kelly; Chambers, John [Department of Cardiology, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Unidentified heart valve disease is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. It has therefore become important to accurately identify, assess and monitor patients with this condition in order that appropriate and timely intervention can occur. Although echocardiography has emerged as the predominant imaging modality for this purpose, recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography indicate that they may have an important contribution to make. The current review describes the assessment of regurgitant and stenotic heart valves by multimodality imaging (echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance) and discusses their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  16. Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Santos Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In recent years, connectivity studies using neuroimaging data have increased the understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, data analysis is time consuming as rigorous procedures must be assured, from structuring data and pre-processing to modality specific data procedures. Until now, no single toolbox was able to perform such investigations on truly multimodal image data from beginning to end, including the combination of different connectivity analyses. Thus, we have developed the Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA toolbox with the goal of diminishing time waste in data processing and to allow an innovative and comprehensive approach to brain connectivity.Materials and Methods. The MIBCA toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity toolbox that offers pre-processing, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses of multimodal image data such as diffusion-weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET. It was developed in MATLAB environment and pipelines well-known neuroimaging softwares such as Freesurfer, SPM, FSL, and Diffusion Toolkit. It further implements routines for the construction of structural, functional and effective or combined connectivity matrices, as well as, routines for the extraction and calculation of imaging and graph-theory metrics, the latter using also functions from the Brain Connectivity Toolbox. Finally, the toolbox performs group statistical analysis and enables data visualization in the form of matrices, 3D brain graphs and connectograms. In this paper the MIBCA toolbox is presented by illustrating its capabilities using multimodal image data from a group of 35 healthy subjects (19–73 years old with volumetric T1-weighted, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state fMRI data, and 10 subjets with 18F-Altanserin PET data also.Results. It was observed both a high inter

  17. Registration of deformed multimodality medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshfeghi, M.; Naidich, D.

    1989-01-01

    The registration and combination of images from different modalities have several potential applications, such as functional and anatomic studies, 3D radiation treatment planning, surgical planning, and retrospective studies. Image registration algorithms should correct for any local deformations caused by respiration, heart beat, imaging device distortions, and so forth. This paper reports on an elastic matching technique for registering deformed multimodality images. Correspondences between contours in the two images are used to stretch the deformed image toward its goal image. This process is repeated a number of times, with decreasing image stiffness. As the iterations continue, the stretched image better approximates its goal image

  18. Multimodal neuromonitoring in pediatric cardiac anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. C. Mittnacht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in overall outcome, neurological injury remains a feared complication following pediatric congenital heart surgery (CHS. Only if adverse events are detected early enough, can effective actions be initiated preventing potentially serious injury. The multifactorial etiology of neurological injury in CHS patients makes it unlikely that one single monitoring modality will be effective in capturing all possible threats. Improving current and developing new technologies and combining them according to the concept of multimodal monitoring may allow for early detection and possible intervention with the goal to further improve neurological outcome in children undergoing CHS.

  19. Development of Multimodal Human Interface Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Michitaka

    About 20 years have passed since the word “Virtual Reality” became popular. During these two decades, novel human interface technology so called “multimodal interface technology” has been formed. In this paper, firstly, recent progress in realtime CG, BCI and five senses IT is quickly reviewed. Since the life cycle of the information technology is said to be 20 years or so, novel directions and paradigms of VR technology can be found in conjunction with the technologies forementioned. At the end of the paper, these futuristic directions such as ultra-realistic media are briefly introduced.

  20. Multimodal approach to the international transit transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bazaras

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article not only the problems of multi-modal and inter-modal conveyances in Lithuania and the concept of transit and the transit system stimulating factors are analysed, but also the modelling of transit transport and the flows of the loads are given. The main part of the article comes to the analysis of resent situation of Lithuania. In this part the place of transport sector in the market of transit services is analysed and the transit profit for Lithuanian economy is evaluated. The conclusions and proposals are given at the end of the article.

  1. Percorsi linguistici e semiotici: Critical Multimodal Analysis of Digital Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    edited by Ilaria Moschini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The language section of LEA - edited by Ilaria Moschini - is dedicated to the Critical Multimodal Analysis of Digital Discourse, an approach that encompasses the linguistic and semiotic detailed investigation of texts within a socio-cultural perspective. It features an interview with Professor Theo van Leeuwen by Ilaria Moschini and four essays: “Retwitting, reposting, repinning; reshaping identities online: Towards a social semiotic multimodal analysis of digital remediation” by Elisabetta Adami; “Multimodal aspects of corporate social responsibility communication” by Carmen Daniela Maier; “Pervasive Technologies and the Paradoxes of Multimodal Digital Communication” by Sandra Petroni and “Can the powerless speak? Linguistic and multimodal corporate media manipulation in digital environments: the case of Malala Yousafzai” by Maria Grazia Sindoni. 

  2. Adaptation in Collaborative Governance Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.

    2014-10-01

    Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.

  3. Measuring the effectiveness of international environmental regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C.; Sprinz, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    While past research has emphasized the importance of international regimes for international governance, systematic assessments of regime effects are missing. This article derives a standardized measurement concept for the effectiveness of international environmental regimes by developing an operational rational choice calculus to evaluate actual policy simultaneously against a non-regime counterfactual and a collective optimum. Subsequently, the empirical feasibility of the measurement instrument is demonstrated by way of two international treaties regulating transboundary air pollution in Europe. The results demonstrate that the regimes indeed show positive effects - but fall substantially short of the collective optima. (orig.)

  4. Sensitivity to spatial and temporal scale and fire regime inputs in deriving fire regime condition class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Tedrow; Wendel J. Hann

    2015-01-01

    The Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) is a composite departure measure that compares current vegetation structure and fire regime to historical reference conditions. FRCC is computed as the average of: 1) Vegetation departure (VDEP) and 2) Regime (frequency and severity) departure (RDEP). In addition to the FRCC rating, the Vegetation Condition Class (VCC) and Regime...

  5. Anaesthetic induction with alfaxalone in the ball python (Python regius): dose response and effect of injection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lauren E; Williams, Catherine Ja; Bertelsen, Mads F; Wang, Tobias

    2018-05-01

    To characterise the minimum dose of intramuscular alfaxalone required to facilitate intubation for mechanical ventilation, and to investigate the impact of cranial versus caudal injection on anaesthetic depth. Randomised crossover study. Six healthy juvenile ball pythons (Python regius). Three dosages (10, 20 and 30 mg kg -1 ) of alfaxalone were administered to each python in a caudal location with a minimum 2 weeks washout. Induction and recovery were monitored by assessing muscle tone, righting reflex, response to a noxious stimulus and the ability to intubate. A subsequent experiment assessed the influence of injection site by comparing administration of 20 mg kg -1 alfaxalone in a cranial location (1 cm cranial to the heart) with the caudal site. Respiration rate was monitored throughout, and when intubation was possible, snakes were mechanically ventilated. Regardless of dose and injection site, maximum effect was reached within 10.0 ± 2.7 minutes. When administered at the caudal injection site, intubation was only successful after a dosage of 30 mg kg- 1 , which is higher than in previous reports for other reptiles. However, intubation was possible in all cases after 7.2 ± 1.6 minutes upon cranial administration of 20 mg kg -1 , and anaesthetic duration was significantly lengthened (p pythons, and may serve as a useful induction agent prior to provision of volatile anaesthetics. The same dosage injected in the cranial site led to deeper anaesthesia than when injected caudally, suggesting that shunting to the liver and first-pass metabolism of alfaxalone occur when injected caudally, via the renal portal system. Copyright © 2018 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of four anaesthetic protocols for maintenance of anaesthesia on trans-diaphragmatic pressure in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiriaki Pavlidou

    Full Text Available The diaphragm is the main inspiratory muscle and the main indicator of diaphragmatic contractility is the trans-diaphragmatic pressure (Pdi. The aim of this clinical study was to determine the effect of four different anaesthetic protocols on Pdi in anaesthetized healthy dogs. Eighty client-owned dogs were recruited in this clinical study. All the animals received dexmedetomidine and morphine as premedication and propofol for induction. Anaesthesia was maintained with one of four protocols: isoflurane (I, isoflurane with CRI of propofol (IP, isoflurane with CRI of fentanyl (IF, and isoflurane with CRI of ketamine (IK. When the surgical plane of anaesthesia was achieved, two balloon catheters were inserted, one into the stomach and one into the mid-third of the oesophagus for Pdi measurement. Pdi value was the highest in groups I (14.9±4.7 mmHg and IK (15.2±3.5 mmHg and the lowest in groups IP (12.2±3.2 mmHg and IF (12.0±5.9 mmHg. There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.029 between groups IK and IF. PE'CO2 was statistically significantly higher (p<0.0005 in group IF (7.7±0.8 kPa than in group IK (6.5±0.7 kPa. Isoflurane alone or isoflurane with ketamine for the maintenance of anaesthesia seem to better preserve the respiratory function and the diaphragmatic contractility than isoflurane with either propofol or fentanyl in dogs. Therefore, the use of isoflurane or isoflurane with ketamine may be of benefit when animals with respiratory problems have to be anaesthetized.

  7. Highly Sensitive Liquid Core Temperature Sensor Based on Multimode Interference Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Fuentes-Fuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel fiber optic temperature sensor based on a liquid-core multimode interference device is demonstrated. The advantage of such structure is that the thermo-optic coefficient (TOC of the liquid is at least one order of magnitude larger than that of silica and this, combined with the fact that the TOC of silica and the liquid have opposite signs, provides a liquid-core multimode fiber (MMF highly sensitive to temperature. Since the refractive index of the liquid can be easily modified, this allows us to control the modal properties of the liquid-core MMF at will and the sensor sensitivity can be easily tuned by selecting the refractive index of the liquid in the core of the device. The maximum sensitivity measured in our experiments is 20 nm/°C in the low-temperature regime up to 60 °C. To the best of our knowledge, to date, this is the largest sensitivity reported for fiber-based MMI temperature sensors.

  8. Anaesthesia in Dental Medicine with Local Infiltrative Anaesthetic Technique Versus Diploe Anaesthesia Delivery Systems: Efficacy and Behaviour, an Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Marques-Ferreira; Eunice Carrilho; Siri Paulo; Teresa Carrilho; José Pedro Figueiredo; Ricardo Macedo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy and the influence of local infiltrative anesthesia techniques, with diploe anesthesia, on the cardiac rhythm Material and Methods: We selected 32 healthy volunteers who were given both anaesthetic techniques on tooth 1.4 (0.45 mL of lidocaine with adrenaline, 1:80 000). In the first phase, the volunteers underwent periapical infiltrative anaesthesia. In the second phase, diploe anaesthesia was performed with a QuickSleeper® d...

  9. Anaesthetic injection versus ischemic compression for the pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Mary L L S; Braz, Carolina A; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio C; Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco J; Nogueira, Antonio A; Poli-Neto, Omero B

    2015-12-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition among women, and 10 to 30 % of causes originate from the abdominal wall, and are associated with trigger points. Although little is known about their pathophysiology, variable methods have been practiced clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of local anaesthetic injections versus ischemic compression via physical therapy for pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain. We conducted a parallel group randomized trial including 30 women with chronic pelvic pain with abdominal wall trigger points. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups. One group received an injection of 2 mL 0.5 % lidocaine without a vasoconstrictor into a trigger point. In the other group, ischemic compression via physical therapy was administered at the trigger points three times, with each session lasting for 60 s, and a rest period of 30 s between applications. Both treatments were administered during one weekly session for four weeks. Our primary outcomes were satisfactory clinical response rates and percentages of pain relief. Our secondary outcomes are pain threshold and tolerance at the trigger points. All subjects were evaluated at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the interventions. The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital that was associated with a university providing assistance predominantly to working class women who were treated by the public health system. Clinical response rates and pain relief were significantly better at 1, 4, and 12 weeks for those receiving local anaesthetic injections than ischemic compression via physical therapy. The pain relief of women treated with local anaesthetic injections progressively improved at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after intervention. In contrast, women treated with ischemic compression did not show considerable changes in pain relief after intervention. In the local anaesthetic injection group, pain threshold

  10. Development of an anaesthetized-rat model of exercise hyperpnoea: an integrative model of respiratory control using an equilibrium diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tadayoshi; Manabe, Kou; Ueda, Shinya; Nakahara, Hidehiro

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? The lack of useful small-animal models for studying exercise hyperpnoea makes it difficult to investigate the underlying mechanisms of exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states. What is the main finding and its importance? We developed an anaesthetized-rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea, using a respiratory equilibrium diagram for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. This experimental model will provide an opportunity to clarify the major determinant mechanisms of exercise hyperpnoea, and will be useful for understanding the mechanisms responsible for abnormal ventilatory responses to exercise in disease models. Exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states seem to arise from pathological changes of respiratory regulation. Although experimental studies in small animals are essential to investigate the pathophysiological basis of various disease models, the lack of an integrated framework for quantitatively characterizing respiratory regulation during exercise prevents us from resolving these problems. The purpose of this study was to develop an anaesthetized-rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system. In 24 anaesthetized rats, we induced muscle contraction by stimulating bilateral distal sciatic nerves at low and high voltage to mimic exercise. We recorded breath-by-breath respiratory gas analysis data and cardiorespiratory responses while running two protocols to characterize the controller and plant of the respiratory chemoreflex. The controller was characterized by determining the linear relationship between end-tidal CO 2 pressure (P ETC O2) and minute ventilation (V̇E), and the plant by the hyperbolic relationship between V̇E and P ETC O2. During exercise, the controller curve shifted upward without change in controller gain, accompanying

  11. Anaesthetic practice for groin hernia repair--a nation-wide study in Denmark 1998-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2005-01-01

    -effects and is without documented advantages on morbidity in this small operation. METHODS: To describe the use of the three anaesthetic techniques for elective open groin hernia surgery in Denmark from January 1st 1998 to December 31st 2003, based on the Danish Hernia Database collaboration. RESULTS: In a total of 57......,505 elective open operations 63.6% were performed in general anaesthesia, 18.3% in regional anaesthesia and 18.1% in local anaesthesia. Regional anaesthesia was utilized with an increased rate in elderly and hospitalized patients. Outpatient surgery was most common with local infiltration anaesthesia...

  12. Perioperative Anaesthetic Management of a Patient of Gilbert’s Syndrome with Adult Congenital Heart Disease - A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambhunath Das

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gilbert's syndrome is a hereditary condition with the genetic mutation of the enzyme uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase, characterized by intermittent jaundice in the absence of hemolysis or underlying liver disease. These patients develop jaundice when subjected to fasting, stress and exercise. Majority of anaesthetics are metabolized by liver. Anaesthesia, surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB can act as triggers to hepatic injury. The successful perioperative management of an adult congenital heart disease patient for atrial septal defect closure under cardiopulmonary bypass was discussed in this report.

  13. Intermittent hypercapnia-induced phrenic long-term depression is revealed after serotonin receptor blockade with methysergide in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valic, Maja; Pecotic, Renata; Pavlinac Dodig, Ivana; Valic, Zoran; Stipica, Ivona; Dogas, Zoran

    2016-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Intermittent hypercapnia is a concomitant feature of breathing disorders. Hypercapnic stimuli evoke a form of respiratory plasticity known as phrenic long-term depression in experimental animals. This study was performed to investigate the putative role of serotonin receptors in the initiation of phrenic long-term depression in anaesthetized rats. What is the main finding and its importance? Phrenic nerve long-term depression was revealed in animals pretreated with the serotonin broad-spectrum antagonist, methysergide. This study highlights that serotonin receptors modulate respiratory plasticity evoked by acute intermittent hypercapnia in anaesthetized rats. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that intermittent hypercapnia can evoke a form of respiratory plasticity known as long-term depression of the phrenic nerve (pLTD) and that 5-HT receptors play a role in the initiation of pLTD. Adult male urethane-anaesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed, mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to an acute intermittent hypercapnia protocol. One group received i.v. injection of the non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist methysergide and another group received i.v. injection of the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 20 min before exposure to intermittent hypercapnia. A control group received i.v. injection of saline. Peak phrenic nerve activity and respiratory rhythm parameters were analysed at baseline (T0), during each of five hypercapnic episodes, and 15, 30 and 60 min (T60) after the last hypercapnia. Intravenous injection of methysergide before exposure to acute intermittent hypercapnia induced development of amplitude pLTD at T60 (decreased by 46.1 ± 6.9%, P = 0.003). Conversely, in control and WAY-100635-pretreated animals, exposure to acute intermittent hypercapnia did not evoke amplitude pLTD. However, a long-term decrease in phrenic nerve frequency was evoked both in control (42 ± 4

  14. Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Guido; Casula, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of burnt areas time series in Mediterranean regions suggests that ecosystems characterising this area consist primarily of species highly vulnerable to the fire but highly resilient, as characterized by a significant regenerative capacity after the fire spreading. In a few years the area burnt may once again be covered by the same vegetation present before the fire. Similarly, Mediterranean conifer forests, which often refers to plantations made in order to reforest the areas most severely degraded with high erosion risk, regenerate from seed after the fire resulting in high resilience to the fire as well. Only rarely, and usually with negligible damages, fire affects the areas covered by climax species in relation with altitude and soil types (i.e, quercus, fagus, abies). On the basis of these results, this paper shows how the simple Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model is able to reproduce the forest fire regime in terms of number of fires and burned area, describing whit good accuracy the actual fire perimeters. The original Drossel-Schwabl model has been slightly modified in this work by introducing two parameters (probability of propagation and regrowth) specific for each different class of vegetation cover. Using model selection methods based on AIC, the model with the optimal number of classes with different fire behaviour was selected. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are situated in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in

  15. Multimodal EEG Recordings, Psychometrics and Behavioural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeijinga, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    High spatial and temporal resolution measurements of neuronal activity are preferably combined. In an overview on how this approach can take shape, multimodal electroencephalography (EEG) is treated in 2 main parts: by experiments without a task and in the experimentally cued working brain. It concentrates first on the alpha rhythm properties and next on data-driven search for patterns such as the default mode network. The high-resolution volumic distributions of neuronal metabolic indices result in distributed cortical regions and possibly relate to numerous nuclei, observable in a non-invasive manner in the central nervous system of humans. The second part deals with paradigms in which nowadays assessment of target-related networks can align level-dependent blood oxygenation, electrical responses and behaviour, taking the temporal resolution advantages of event-related potentials. Evidence-based electrical propagation in serial tasks during performance is now to a large extent attributed to interconnected pathways, particularly chronometry-dependent ones, throughout a chain including a dorsal stream, next ventral cortical areas taking the flow of information towards inferior temporal domains. The influence of aging is documented, and results of the first multimodal studies in neuropharmacology are consistent. Finally a scope on implementation of advanced clinical applications and personalized marker strategies in neuropsychiatry is indicated. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; Basurto-Pensado, M A; LiKamWa, P; May-Arrioja, D A

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 μV/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  17. Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor using Multimode Interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Perez, V I; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J [INAOE, Apartado Postal 51 y 216, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Basurto-Pensado, M A [CIICAp, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); LiKamWa, P [CREOL, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); May-Arrioja, D A, E-mail: iruiz@inaoep.mx, E-mail: mbasurto@uaem.mx, E-mail: delta_dirac@hotmail.com, E-mail: daniel_may_arrioja@hotmail.com [UAT Reynosa Rodhe, Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of multimode interference (MMI) and self-image formation, we developed a novel intrinsic optical fiber pressure sensor. The sensing element consists of a section of multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding spliced between two single mode fibers (SMF). The MMI pressure sensor is based on the intensity changes that occur in the transmitted light when the effective refractive index of the MMF is changed. Basically, a thick layer of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is placed in direct contact with the MMF section, such that the contact area between the PDMS and the fiber will change proportionally with the applied pressure, which results in a variation of the transmitted light intensity. Using this configuration, a good correlation between the measured intensity variations and the applied pressure is obtained. The sensitivity of the sensor is 3 {mu}V/psi, for a range of 0-60 psi, and the maximum resolution of our system is 0.25 psi. Good repeatability is also observed with a standard deviation of 0.0019. The key feature of the proposed pressure sensor is its low fabrication cost, since the cost of the MMF is minimal.

  18. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy.

  19. Multimodal 2D Brain Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajidy, Rand K; Boudria, Yacine; Hofmann, Ulrich G; Besio, Walter; Mankodiya, Kunal

    2015-08-01

    In this work we used multimodal, non-invasive brain signal recording systems, namely Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), disc electrode electroencephalography (EEG) and tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) electroencephalography (tEEG). 7 healthy subjects participated in our experiments to control a 2-D Brain Computer Interface (BCI). Four motor imagery task were performed, imagery motion of the left hand, the right hand, both hands and both feet. The signal slope (SS) of the change in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration measured by NIRS was used for feature extraction while the power spectrum density (PSD) of both EEG and tEEG in the frequency band 8-30Hz was used for feature extraction. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was used to classify different combinations of the aforementioned features. The highest classification accuracy (85.2%) was achieved by using features from all the three brain signals recording modules. The improvement in classification accuracy was highly significant (p = 0.0033) when using the multimodal signals features as compared to pure EEG features.

  20. Photonic lantern with multimode fibers embedded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Jiao; Yan, Qi; Huang, Zong-Jun; Tian, He; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Sun, Wei-Min

    2014-08-01

    A photonic lantern is studied which is formed by seven multimode fibers inserted into a pure silica capillary tube. The core of the tapered end has a uniform refractive index because the polymer claddings are removed before the fibers are inserted. Consequently, the light distribution is also uniform. Two theories describing a slowly varying waveguide and multimode coupling are used to analyze the photonic lantern. The transmission loss decreases as the length of the tapered part increases. For a device with a taper length of 3.4 cm, the loss is about 1.06 dB on average for light propagating through the taper from an inserted fiber to the tapered end and 0.99 dB in the reverse direction. For a device with a taper length of 0.7 cm, the two loss values are 2.63 dB and 2.53 dB, respectively. The results show that it is possible to achieve a uniform light distribution with the tapered end and a low-loss transmission in the device if parameters related to the lantern are reasonably defined.

  1. Photonic lantern with multimode fibers embedded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hai-Jiao; Yan Qi; Huang Zong-Jun; Tian He; Jiang Yu; Liu Yong-Jun; Zhang Jian-Zhong; Sun Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    A photonic lantern is studied which is formed by seven multimode fibers inserted into a pure silica capillary tube. The core of the tapered end has a uniform refractive index because the polymer claddings are removed before the fibers are inserted. Consequently, the light distribution is also uniform. Two theories describing a slowly varying waveguide and multimode coupling are used to analyze the photonic lantern. The transmission loss decreases as the length of the tapered part increases. For a device with a taper length of 3.4 cm, the loss is about 1.06 dB on average for light propagating through the taper from an inserted fiber to the tapered end and 0.99 dB in the reverse direction. For a device with a taper length of 0.7 cm, the two loss values are 2.63 dB and 2.53 dB, respectively. The results show that it is possible to achieve a uniform light distribution with the tapered end and a low-loss transmission in the device if parameters related to the lantern are reasonably defined. (research papers)

  2. Multimodal brain monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal Jr, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting. PMID:27574545

  3. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity

  4. Multimodal Network Equilibrium with Stochastic Travel Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The private car, unlike public traffic modes (e.g., subway, trolley running along dedicated track-ways, is invariably subject to various uncertainties resulting in travel time variation. A multimodal network equilibrium model is formulated that explicitly considers stochastic link capacity variability in the road network. The travel time of combined-mode trips is accumulated based on the concept of the mean excess travel time (METT which is a summation of estimated buffer time and tardy time. The problem is characterized by an equivalent VI (variational inequality formulation where the mode choice is expressed in a hierarchical logit structure. Specifically, the supernetwork theory and expansion technique are used herein to represent the multimodal transportation network, which completely represents the combined-mode trips as constituting multiple modes within a trip. The method of successive weighted average is adopted for problem solutions. The model and solution method are further applied to study the trip distribution and METT variations caused by the different levels of the road conditions. Results of numerical examples show that travelers prefer to choose the combined travel mode as road capacity decreases. Travelers with different attitudes towards risk are shown to exhibit significant differences when making travel choice decisions.

  5. Effects of administration of a local anaesthetic and/or an NSAID and of docking length on the behaviour of piglets during 5 h after tail docking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Thodberg, Karen

    2016-01-01

    cautery 2–4 days after birth and based on behaviour during docking as well as the following 5 h. The study involved three main factors: local anaesthetic (Lidocain), NSAID (Meloxicam) and docking length. Either 100%, 75%, 50% or 25% of the tails were left on the body of the piglets. Irrespective...... that effects of this management routine are more persistent than earlier suggested, and suggesting that docking length may influence the post-surgical behaviour of piglets. By use of the present sites of injection and dosages, neither local anaesthetic nor NSAID had marked effects on post-surgical behavioural......In many countries, piglets are tail docked to prevent tail biting. The aim of this study was 1) to evaluate the efficacy of a local anaesthetic and/or NSAID to reduce pain caused by tail docking; and 2) to examine interactions with docking length. This was examined in 295 piglets docked by hot iron...

  6. Neoclassical transport in ERS regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.; Lee, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    The core ion thermal conductivity has been observed to fall below the standard neoclassical level in recent TFTR reversed magnetic shear discharges. Due to the combination of high central q and small local inverse aspect ratio, the ion poloidal gyroradius can be larger than the minor radius and comparable to the pressure gradient scale length in this ERS regime. It is then expected that finite orbit width effects play a key role in modifying the standard picture of neoclassical transport. Specifically, both the trapped particle fraction and the banana orbit width axe reduced by the finite minor radius and possibly by the pressure-gradient-driven radial electric field. In addition, the steep pressure gradient can generate neoclassical poloidal flows which, in turn, could reduce the particle and heat transports. Results from analytic estimates as well as those from full toroidal gyrokinetic neoclassical simulations will be presented

  7. Unitary Housing Regimes in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Bo; Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Path dependence is strong in housing institutions and policy. In both Denmark and Sweden, today’s universal and ‘unitary’ (Kemeny) housing regimes can be traced back to institutions that were introduced fifty years back in history or more. Recently, universal and unitary housing systems...... in Scandinavia, and elsewhere, are under challenge from strong political and economic forces. These challenges can be summarized as economic cutbacks, privatization and Europeanization. Although both the Danish and the Swedish housing system are universal and unitary in character, they differ considerably...... in institutional detail. Both systems have corporatist features, however in Denmark public housing is based on local tenant democracy and control, and in Sweden on companies owned and controlled by the municipalities, combined with a centralized system of rent negotiations. In the paper the present challenges...

  8. Reassessing the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havinh Phuong

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear liability regime was thoroughly reviewed by nuclear plant operators, officials of regulatory authorities, and legal and insurance experts at the Symposium on Nuclear Third Party Liability and Insurance, held in September 1984 in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany. The symposium highlighted specific areas where adjustments or improvements would be needed in order to cope with practical problems encountered or emerging issues. By focusing on questions of legitimate concern to the public, it also sought to promote confidence in a compensation system for public protection that is in many ways unique. Topics addressed included the following: greater harmonization of the compensation amounts for nuclear damage established in different countries and in territorial scope; the concept of unlimited liability; the time limitation for compensation claims; the problem of proving causation; the concept of nuclear damage; and insurance coverage

  9. Hall effect in hopping regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdonin, A.; Skupiński, P.; Grasza, K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  10. Hall effect in hopping regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdonin, A., E-mail: avdonin@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Skupiński, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  11. Anaesthetic efficacy of articaine versus lidocaine in children's dentistry: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Huei Jinn; Alzahrani, Fatma Salem; Sim, Yu Fan; Tahmassebi, Jinous F; Duggal, Monty

    2018-04-10

    Over the last few years, numerous reviews and studies have awarded articaine hydrochloride local anaesthetic (LA) a superior reputation, with outcomes of different studies demonstrating a general tendency for articaine hydrochloride to outperform lidocaine hydrochloride for dental treatment. Nevertheless, there seems to be no clear agreement on which LA solution is more efficacious in dental treatment for children. There is no previous publication systematically reviewing and summarising the current best evidence with respect to the success rates of LA solutions in children. To evaluate the available evidence on the efficacy of lidocaine and articaine, used in paediatric dentistry. A systematic search was conducted on Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (OVID; 1950 to June 2017), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; EBSCOhost; 1982 to June 2017), EMBASE (OVID; 1980 to June 2017), SCI-EXPANDED (ISI Web of Knowledge; 1900 to June 2017), key journals, and previous review bibliographies through June 2017. Original research studies that compared articaine with lidocaine for dental treatment in children were included. Methodological quality assessment and assessment of risk of bias were carried out for each of the included studies. Electronic searching identified 525 publications. Following the primary and secondary assessment process, six randomised controlled trials (RCT) were included in the final analysis. There was no difference between patient self-reported pain between articaine and lidocaine during treatment procedures (SMD = 0.06, P-value = 0.614), and no difference in the occurrence of adverse events between articaine and lidocaine injections following treatment in paediatric patients (RR = 1.10, P-value = 0.863). Yet, patients reported significantly less pain post-procedure following articaine injections (SMD = 0.37, P-value = 0.013). Substantial heterogeneity was noted in the reporting of outcomes among studies

  12. Myasthenia gravis and pregnancy: anaesthetic management--a series of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Carlos; Coutinho, Ester; Moreira, Daniela; Santos, Ernestina; Aguiar, José

    2010-11-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease, usually affecting women in the second and third decades. The course is unpredictable during pregnancy and puerperium. Myasthenia gravis can cause major interference in labour and partum and exacerbations of the disease frequently occur. The aim of this series of cases is to analyse retrospectively the anaesthetic management of myasthenia gravis patients and complications during the peripartum period. Retrospective, single centre study from clinical files of female myasthenia gravis patients who delivered between 1985 and 2007 at Hospital de Santo António, Porto, Portugal. Seventeen myasthenia gravis patients delivered between 1985 and 2007 in Hospital Santo António. Two women were not included in the study as they had a spontaneous abortion in the first trimester. Four patients presented exacerbations of the disease during pregnancy, no exacerbation occurred in eight patients and three patients presented their first symptoms of myasthenia gravis during pregnancy (without diagnosis at time of delivery). Concerning the eight patients without exacerbations of the disease during pregnancy, pregnancy was brought to term in 87.5% of the cases; five women were submitted to nonurgent caesarean section (62.5%); and epidural block was performed in six patients (75%). No complications related to anaesthesia occurred in the peripartum period. Concerning the four patients with exacerbations of the disease, pregnancy was brought to term in three cases (75%); three women were submitted to nonurgent caesarean section (75%); and epidural block was performed in three patients (75%). One patient underwent an uncomplicated thymectomy under general anaesthesia during pregnancy and, in the postpartum period, there was a myasthenic crisis in another patient. Concerning the three patients without a myasthenia gravis diagnosis at partum, one woman already being followed for presenting muscular weakness had a vaginal delivery under

  13. Convergent and reciprocal modulation of a leak K+ current and Ih by an inhalational anaesthetic and neurotransmitters in rat brainstem motoneurones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Jay E; Lynch, Carl; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2002-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and volatile anaesthetics have opposing effects on motoneuronal excitability which appear to reflect contrasting modulation of two types of subthreshold currents. Neurotransmitters increase motoneuronal excitability by inhibiting TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ channels (TASK) and shifting activation of a hyperpolarization-activated cationic current (Ih) to more depolarized potentials; on the other hand, anaesthetics decrease excitability by activating a TASK-like current and inducing a hyperpolarizing shift in Ih activation. Here, we used whole-cell recording from motoneurones in brainstem slices to test if neurotransmitters (serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA)) and an anaesthetic (halothane) indeed compete for modulation of the same ion channels - and we determined which prevails. When applied together under current clamp conditions, 5-HT reversed anaesthetic-induced membrane hyperpolarization and increased motoneuronal excitability. Under voltage clamp conditions, 5-HT and NA overcame most, but not all, of the halothane-induced current. When Ih was blocked with ZD 7288, the neurotransmitters completely inhibited the K+ current activated by halothane; the halothane-sensitive neurotransmitter current reversed at the equilibrium potential for potassium (EK) and displayed properties expected of acid-sensitive, open-rectifier TASK channels. To characterize modulation of Ih in relative isolation, effects of 5-HT and halothane were examined in acidified bath solutions that blocked TASK channels. Under these conditions, 5-HT and halothane each caused their characteristic shift in voltage-dependent gating of Ih. When tested concurrently, however, halothane decreased the neurotransmitter-induced depolarizing shift in Ih activation. Thus, halothane and neurotransmitters converge on TASK and Ih channels with opposite effects; transmitter action prevailed over anaesthetic effects on TASK channels, but not over effects on Ih. These data suggest that

  14. Towards an intelligent framework for multimodal affective data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poria, Soujanya; Cambria, Erik; Hussain, Amir; Huang, Guang-Bin

    2015-03-01

    An increasingly large amount of multimodal content is posted on social media websites such as YouTube and Facebook everyday. In order to cope with the growth of such so much multimodal data, there is an urgent need to develop an intelligent multi-modal analysis framework that can effectively extract information from multiple modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel multimodal information extraction agent, which infers and aggregates the semantic and affective information associated with user-generated multimodal data in contexts such as e-learning, e-health, automatic video content tagging and human-computer interaction. In particular, the developed intelligent agent adopts an ensemble feature extraction approach by exploiting the joint use of tri-modal (text, audio and video) features to enhance the multimodal information extraction process. In preliminary experiments using the eNTERFACE dataset, our proposed multi-modal system is shown to achieve an accuracy of 87.95%, outperforming the best state-of-the-art system by more than 10%, or in relative terms, a 56% reduction in error rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Multimodal Multifeature Authentication System Using KNN Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Rajagopal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a multimodal multifeature biometric system for human recognition using two traits, that is, palmprint and iris. The purpose of this research is to analyse integration of multimodal and multifeature biometric system using feature level fusion to achieve better performance. The main aim of the proposed system is to increase the recognition accuracy using feature level fusion. The features at the feature level fusion are raw biometric data which contains rich information when compared to decision and matching score level fusion. Hence information fused at the feature level is expected to obtain improved recognition accuracy. However, information fused at feature level has the problem of curse in dimensionality; here PCA (principal component analysis is used to diminish the dimensionality of the feature sets as they are high dimensional. The proposed multimodal results were compared with other multimodal and monomodal approaches. Out of these comparisons, the multimodal multifeature palmprint iris fusion offers significant improvements in the accuracy of the suggested multimodal biometric system. The proposed algorithm is tested using created virtual multimodal database using UPOL iris database and PolyU palmprint database.

  16. Use of Pre-Injection Diffusion of Local Anaesthetic as a Means of Reducing Needle Penetration Discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Sandalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine if pre-injection diffusion of local anaesthetic solution influences the discomfort of needle penetration in the palate. Methods: A placebo-controlled, randomised, doubleblind split-mouth investigation was conducted. 25 healthy adult volunteers were recruited and each received two needle penetrations in a random order during one visit. The penetration sites were 1 cm from the gingival margin of the first maxillary premolars on each side of the mouth. 30 gauge-13 mm needles which were attached to syringes that contained either 2% lidocaine with 0.125mg/ml epinephrine or physiological saline were used. For each penetration an operator encouraged a drop of solution to appear at the end of the needle and placed this drop with the bevel of the needle flat on the palate for 20 seconds. The discomfort was noted on a 100 mm visual analogue scale with end points marked “No pain” and “Unbearable pain”. Results: There was no significant difference in penetration discomfort between solutions, (mean VAS = 26.80±19.36mm for lidocaine and 26.20±18.39mm for saline however the 2nd penetration was significantly more uncomfortable than the first (mean VAS = 31.00±19.84 mm and 22.00±16.65 mm respectively. Conclusion: Pre-injection diffusion of local anaesthetic solution did not influence the discomfort of needle penetration in the palate.

  17. The effect of body position on the 'hanging drop' method for identifying the extradural space in anaesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganobu, Kiyokazu; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of the 'hanging drop method' for identifying the extradural space in anaesthetized dogs positioned in sternal or lateral recumbency. Prospective randomized-experimental study. Seventeen clinically healthy adult dogs, 10 females and seven males weighing 8.4-26.2 kg. Dogs were positioned in either sternal (n = 8) or lateral (n = 9) recumbency under general anaesthesia. A 20 SWG spinal needle pre-filled with 0.9% saline was advanced through the skin into the lumbosacral extradural space and the response of the saline drop recorded, i.e. whether it: 1) was aspirated from the hub into the needle; 2) remained within the hub, or 3) moved synchronously with i) spontaneous respiration, ii) heart beat or iii) manual lung inflation. The position of the needle tip was ultimately determined by positive contrast radiography. One dog positioned in lateral recumbency was excluded from the study because bleeding occurred from the needle hub. Saline was aspirated into the needle in seven of eight dogs held in sternal recumbency but in none of the dogs positioned in lateral recumbency. Accurate needle tip placement in the extradural space was confirmed by positive contrast radiography in all dogs. The 'hanging drop' method, when performed with a spinal needle, appears to be a useful technique for identifying the location of the extradural space in anaesthetized medium-sized dogs positioned in sternal, but not in lateral recumbency. The technique may yield 'false negative' results when performed in dogs positioned in sternal recumbency.

  18. Effect of a topical anaesthetic formulation on the cortisol response to surgical castration of unweaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D; Lomax, S; Windsor, P A; White, P J

    2016-01-01

    Impracticality and cost of existing pain management strategies during surgical castration of beef cattle have limited their widespread implementation on-farm. A farmer-applied topical anaesthetic formulation, originally developed and used commercially to mitigate the pain of mulesing in lambs, was investigated for its potential use for managing pain in surgically castrated calves. This formulation contained lidocaine, bupivacaine, adrenalin and cetrimide. In this study, 24 Angus bull calves were randomly allocated to (1) surgical castration (C, n=8), (2) surgical castration with the post-operative application of topical anaesthetic (CTA, n=8) and (3) sham castration/control (CON, n=8). The experiment was conducted over 2 days, with treatment groups evenly represented across each day. Calves were habituated to handling before the experiment and blood samples were collected for plasma cortisol measurement at defined time periods before, at and post treatment, (at -0.5, 0 h, then +0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4 and 6 h). There was a significant effect of time on cortisol concentrations across all treatment groups (Pcastration did not significantly reduce plasma cortisol concentrations. However, the trend for CTA calves to display lower cortisol concentrations than C calves warrants further investigation into the use of TA for pain relief of surgically castrated beef calves.

  19. Accommodating human values in the climate regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Cook

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The climate regime addresses one of the most important challenges facing humankind today. However, while the environmental and economic sides of the problem are well represented, it lacks the inclusion of social and human aspects. The human rights regime, in contrast, is a regime which has been established precisely to implement human values. This article ex-plains the problems of climate change in terms of human values and argues that some proce-dures from the human rights regime offer possibilities for improvement. It is submitted that through the inclusion of human rights instruments, such as individual communication, pro-gressive realisation and authoritative interpretation, the inclusion of human values into the climate regime will be facilitated. This article presents these instruments and discusses their potential for inclusion in the climate regime.

  20. Improving treatment planning accuracy through multimodality imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailer, Scott L.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Soltys, Mitchel; Cullip, Tim J.; Chen, Jun

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: In clinical practice, physicians are constantly comparing multiple images taken at various times during the patient's treatment course. One goal of such a comparison is to accurately define the gross tumor volume (GTV). The introduction of three-dimensional treatment planning has greatly enhanced the ability to define the GTV, but there are times when the GTV is not visible on the treatment-planning computed tomography (CT) scan. We have modified our treatment-planning software to allow for interactive display of multiple, registered images that enhance the physician's ability to accurately determine the GTV. Methods and Materials: Images are registered using interactive tools developed at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC). Automated methods are also available. Images registered with the treatment-planning CT scan are digitized from film. After a physician has approved the registration, the registered images are made available to the treatment-planning software. Structures and volumes of interest are contoured on all images. In the beam's eye view, wire loop representations of these structures can be visualized from all image types simultaneously. Each registered image can be seamlessly viewed during the treatment-planning process, and all contours from all image types can be seen on any registered image. A beam may, therefore, be designed based on any contour. Results: Nineteen patients have been planned and treated using multimodality imaging from November 1993 through August 1994. All registered images were digitized from film, and many were from outside institutions. Brain has been the most common site (12), but the techniques of registration and image display have also been used for the thorax (4), abdomen (2), and extremity (1). The registered image has been an magnetic resonance (MR) scan in 15 cases and a diagnostic CT scan in 5 cases. In one case, sequential MRs, one before treatment and another after 30 Gy, were used to plan

  1. Acoustic multimode interference and self-imaging phenomena realized in multimodal phononic crystal waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Qiushun; Yu, Tianbao; Liu, Jiangtao; Wang, Tongbiao; Liao, Qinghua; Liu, Nianhua

    2015-01-01

    We report an acoustic multimode interference effect and self-imaging phenomena in an acoustic multimode waveguide system which consists of M parallel phononic crystal waveguides (M-PnCWs). Results show that the self-imaging principle remains applicable for acoustic waveguides just as it does for optical multimode waveguides. To achieve the dispersions and replicas of the input acoustic waves produced along the propagation direction, we performed the finite element method on M-PnCWs, which support M guided modes within the target frequency range. The simulation results show that single images (including direct and mirrored images) and N-fold images (N is an integer) are identified along the propagation direction with asymmetric and symmetric incidence discussed separately. The simulated positions of the replicas agree well with the calculated values that are theoretically decided by self-imaging conditions based on the guided mode propagation analysis. Moreover, the potential applications based on this self-imaging effect for acoustic wavelength de-multiplexing and beam splitting in the acoustic field are also presented. (paper)

  2. De Facto Regimes in International Law

    OpenAIRE

    Essen, Jonte van

    2012-01-01

    The ambiguous position of de facto regimes in international law has long been the subject of scholarly debate and a source of political conflict. An assessment of the current standing of these regimes in international law and the consequences of actions by international actors on this status has, however, been long overdue. The manner in which de facto regimes are regarded internationally has serious consequences for the individuals under the influence of this legal grey area. Therefore, the ...

  3. Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B; Kerr, Paul; Bowman, Steve; Hildreth, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    .... national security interests. Multilateral regimes were established to restrict trade in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missile technologies, and to monitor their civil applications...

  4. Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon; Bowman, Steve; Hildreth, Steven A

    2006-01-01

    .... national security interests. Multilateral regimes were established to restrict trade in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missile technologies, and to monitor their civil applications...

  5. Investigating multimodal communication in virtual meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Mathiassen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    recordings of their oral exchanges and video recordings of their shared dynamic representation of the project’s status and plans, our analysis reveals how their interrelating of visual and verbal communication acts enabled effective communication and coordination. In conclusion, we offer theoretical......To manage distributed work, organizations increasingly rely on virtual meetings based on multimodal, synchronous communication technologies. However, despite technological advances, it is still challenging to coordinate knowledge through these meetings with spatial and cultural separation. Against...... propositions that explain how interrelating of verbal and visual acts based on shared dynamic representations enable communication repairs during virtual meetings. We argue the proposed framework provides researchers with a novel and practical approach to investigate the complex data involved in virtual...

  6. Testing Two Tools for Multimodal Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Liljedahl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest smartphones with GPS, electronic compasses, directional audio, touch screens, and so forth, hold a potential for location-based services that are easier to use and that let users focus on their activities and the environment around them. Rather than interpreting maps, users can search for information by pointing in a direction and database queries can be created from GPS location and compass data. Users can also get guidance to locations through point and sweep gestures, spatial sound, and simple graphics. This paper describes two studies testing two applications with multimodal user interfaces for navigation and information retrieval. The applications allow users to search for information and get navigation support using combinations of point and sweep gestures, nonspeech audio, graphics, and text. Tests show that users appreciated both applications for their ease of use and for allowing users to interact directly with the surrounding environment.

  7. Automatic processing of multimodal tomography datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Aaron D; Price, Stephen W T; Wadeson, Nicola; Basham, Mark; Beale, Andrew M; Ashton, Alun W; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Quinn, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    With the development of fourth-generation high-brightness synchrotrons on the horizon, the already large volume of data that will be collected on imaging and mapping beamlines is set to increase by orders of magnitude. As such, an easy and accessible way of dealing with such large datasets as quickly as possible is required in order to be able to address the core scientific problems during the experimental data collection. Savu is an accessible and flexible big data processing framework that is able to deal with both the variety and the volume of data of multimodal and multidimensional scientific datasets output such as those from chemical tomography experiments on the I18 microfocus scanning beamline at Diamond Light Source.

  8. Multimodal Feature Learning for Video Captioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Video captioning refers to the task of generating a natural language sentence that explains the content of the input video clips. This study proposes a deep neural network model for effective video captioning. Apart from visual features, the proposed model learns additionally semantic features that describe the video content effectively. In our model, visual features of the input video are extracted using convolutional neural networks such as C3D and ResNet, while semantic features are obtained using recurrent neural networks such as LSTM. In addition, our model includes an attention-based caption generation network to generate the correct natural language captions based on the multimodal video feature sequences. Various experiments, conducted with the two large benchmark datasets, Microsoft Video Description (MSVD and Microsoft Research Video-to-Text (MSR-VTT, demonstrate the performance of the proposed model.

  9. Multimodal event streams for virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Spiczak, J.; Samset, E.; DiMaio, S.; Reitmayr, G.; Schmalstieg, D.; Burghart, C.; Kikinis, R.

    2007-01-01

    Applications in the fields of virtual and augmented reality as well as image-guided medical applications make use of a wide variety of hardware devices. Existing frameworks for interconnecting low-level devices and high-level application programs do not exploit the full potential for processing events coming from arbitrary sources and are not easily generalizable. In this paper, we will introduce a new multi-modal event processing methodology using dynamically-typed event attributes for event passing between multiple devices and systems. The existing OpenTracker framework was modified to incorporate a highly flexible and extensible event model, which can store data that is dynamically created and arbitrarily typed at runtime. The main factors impacting the library's throughput were determined and the performance was shown to be sufficient for most typical applications. Several sample applications were developed to take advantage of the new dynamic event model provided by the library, thereby demonstrating its flexibility and expressive power.

  10. Multimodal strategies to improve surgical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Wilmore, Douglas W

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of modifying perioperative care in noncardiac surgical patients on morbidity, mortality, and other outcome measures. BACKGROUND: New approaches in pain control, introduction of techniques that reduce the perioperative stress response, and the more frequent use...... anesthesia in elective operations, and pilot studies of fast track surgical procedures using the multimodality approach. RESULTS: The introduction of newer approaches to perioperative care has reduced both morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. In the future, most elective operations will become day...... surgical procedures or require only 1 to 2 days of postoperative hospitalization. Reorganization of the perioperative team (anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and physical therapists) will be essential to achieve successful fast track surgical programs. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding perioperative...

  11. User habits and multimodal route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Katona

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of route planning researches are monitored by logistic and automotive industries. The economic aspects of the cost saving are in the focus of the attention. An optimal route could cause time or fuel savings. An effective driving or an optimal route is a good basis to achieve an economical aim. Moreover the spread of new automotive solutions especially in case of electric cars the optimisation has particular significance regarding the limited battery storage. Additionally the autonomous car development could not be neglected. As a result the society could expect safer roads, better space usage and effective resource management. Nevertheless the requirements of users are extremely diverse, which is not negligible. Supporting these aims, in this paper the connection between the multimodal route planning and the user requirements are investigated. The examination is focused to a sensitivity analysis and a survey to evaluate the data and support the settings of a user habit effect to the final route.

  12. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and facilitate high-quality light field or glasses-free 3D image synthesis. In this paper, we introduce a new multi-mode compressive display architecture that supports switching between 3D and high dynamic range (HDR) modes as well as a new super-resolution mode. The proposed hardware consists of readily-available components and is driven by a novel splitting algorithm that computes the pixel states from a target high-resolution image. In effect, the display pixels present a compressed representation of the target image that is perceived as a single, high resolution image. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  13. Multimodal distribution of human cold pain thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Lieb, Isabel; Zimmermann, Michael; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    It is assumed that different pain phenotypes are based on varying molecular pathomechanisms. Distinct ion channels seem to be associated with the perception of cold pain, in particular TRPM8 and TRPA1 have been highlighted previously. The present study analyzed the distribution of cold pain thresholds with focus at describing the multimodality based on the hypothesis that it reflects a contribution of distinct ion channels. Cold pain thresholds (CPT) were available from 329 healthy volunteers (aged 18 - 37 years; 159 men) enrolled in previous studies. The distribution of the pooled and log-transformed threshold data was described using a kernel density estimation (Pareto Density Estimation (PDE)) and subsequently, the log data was modeled as a mixture of Gaussian distributions using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to optimize the fit. CPTs were clearly multi-modally distributed. Fitting a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to the log-transformed threshold data revealed that the best fit is obtained when applying a three-model distribution pattern. The modes of the identified three Gaussian distributions, retransformed from the log domain to the mean stimulation temperatures at which the subjects had indicated pain thresholds, were obtained at 23.7 °C, 13.2 °C and 1.5 °C for Gaussian #1, #2 and #3, respectively. The localization of the first and second Gaussians was interpreted as reflecting the contribution of two different cold sensors. From the calculated localization of the modes of the first two Gaussians, the hypothesis of an involvement of TRPM8, sensing temperatures from 25 - 24 °C, and TRPA1, sensing cold from 17 °C can be derived. In that case, subjects belonging to either Gaussian would possess a dominance of the one or the other receptor at the skin area where the cold stimuli had been applied. The findings therefore support a suitability of complex analytical approaches to detect mechanistically determined patterns from pain phenotype data.

  14. Preterm EEG: a multimodal neurophysiological protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjerna, Susanna; Voipio, Juha; Metsäranta, Marjo; Kaila, Kai; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2012-02-18

    Since its introduction in early 1950s, electroencephalography (EEG) has been widely used in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for assessment and monitoring of brain function in preterm and term babies. Most common indications are the diagnosis of epileptic seizures, assessment of brain maturity, and recovery from hypoxic-ischemic events. EEG recording techniques and the understanding of neonatal EEG signals have dramatically improved, but these advances have been slow to penetrate through the clinical traditions. The aim of this presentation is to bring theory and practice of advanced EEG recording available for neonatal units. In the theoretical part, we will present animations to illustrate how a preterm brain gives rise to spontaneous and evoked EEG activities, both of which are unique to this developmental phase, as well as crucial for a proper brain maturation. Recent animal work has shown that the structural brain development is clearly reflected in early EEG activity. Most important structures in this regard are the growing long range connections and the transient cortical structure, subplate. Sensory stimuli in a preterm baby will generate responses that are seen at a single trial level, and they have underpinnings in the subplate-cortex interaction. This brings neonatal EEG readily into a multimodal study, where EEG is not only recording cortical function, but it also tests subplate function via different sensory modalities. Finally, introduction of clinically suitable dense array EEG caps, as well as amplifiers capable of recording low frequencies, have disclosed multitude of brain activities that have as yet been overlooked. In the practical part of this video, we show how a multimodal, dense array EEG study is performed in neonatal intensive care unit from a preterm baby in the incubator. The video demonstrates preparation of the baby and incubator, application of the EEG cap, and performance of the sensory stimulations.

  15. Multimodal nanoparticle imaging agents: design and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Benjamin P.; Cawthorne, Christopher; Archibald, Stephen J.

    2017-10-01

    Molecular imaging, where the location of molecules or nanoscale constructs can be tracked in the body to report on disease or biochemical processes, is rapidly expanding to include combined modality or multimodal imaging. No single imaging technique can offer the optimum combination of properties (e.g. resolution, sensitivity, cost, availability). The rapid technological advances in hardware to scan patients, and software to process and fuse images, are pushing the boundaries of novel medical imaging approaches, and hand-in-hand with this is the requirement for advanced and specific multimodal imaging agents. These agents can be detected using a selection from radioisotope, magnetic resonance and optical imaging, among others. Nanoparticles offer great scope in this area as they lend themselves, via facile modification procedures, to act as multifunctional constructs. They have relevance as therapeutics and drug delivery agents that can be tracked by molecular imaging techniques with the particular development of applications in optically guided surgery and as radiosensitizers. There has been a huge amount of research work to produce nanoconstructs for imaging, and the parameters for successful clinical translation and validation of therapeutic applications are now becoming much better understood. It is an exciting time of progress for these agents as their potential is closer to being realized with translation into the clinic. The coming 5-10 years will be critical, as we will see if the predicted improvement in clinical outcomes becomes a reality. Some of the latest advances in combination modality agents are selected and the progression pathway to clinical trials analysed. This article is part of the themed issue 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging'.

  16. Fiber-Optic Vibration Sensor Based on Multimode Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lujo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a fiberoptic vibration sensor based on the monitoring of the mode distribution in a multimode optical fiber. Detection of vibrations and their parameters is possible through observation of the output speckle pattern from the multimode optical fiber. A working experimental model has been built in which all used components are widely available and cheap: a CCD camera (a simple web-cam, a multimode laser in visible range as a light source, a length of multimode optical fiber, and a computer for signal processing. Measurements have shown good agreement with the actual frequency of vibrations, and promising results were achieved with the amplitude measurements although they require some adaptation of the experimental model. Proposed sensor is cheap and lightweight and therefore presents an interesting alternative for monitoring large smart structures.

  17. Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal Systems GPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Data were collected during the Multi-Modal Intelligent Transportation Signal Systems (MMITSS) study. MMITSS is a next-generation traffic signal system that seeks to...

  18. Multimodality and children's participation in classrooms: Instances of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multimodality and children's participation in classrooms: Instances of research. ... deficit models of children, drawing on their everyday experiences and their existing ... It outlines the theoretical framework supporting the pedagogical approach, ...

  19. Squeezing in multi-mode nonlinear optical state truncation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, R.S.; Wahiddin, M.R.B.; Umarov, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, we show that multi-mode qubit states produced via nonlinear optical state truncation driven by classical external pumpings exhibit squeezing condition. We restrict our discussions to the two- and three-mode cases

  20. Multi-Modal Traveler Information System - Gateway Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-17

    The Multi-Modal Traveler Information System (MMTIS) project involves a large number of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) related tasks. It involves research of all ITS initiatives in the Gary-Chicago-Milwaukee (GCM) Corridor which are currently...

  1. Multimodal transport and TransLoad facilities in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    National Priorities consist of building a clean and ecient 21st century : transportation sector, and Multimodal Transportation is one of ve : Transportation System Eciency strategies at the US Department of Energy. Six : locomotives co...

  2. Reliability-Based Decision Fusion in Multimodal Biometric Verification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryszczuk Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology of reliability estimation in the multimodal biometric verification scenario. Reliability estimation has shown to be an efficient and accurate way of predicting and correcting erroneous classification decisions in both unimodal (speech, face, online signature and multimodal (speech and face systems. While the initial research results indicate the high potential of the proposed methodology, the performance of the reliability estimation in a multimodal setting has not been sufficiently studied or evaluated. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantages of using the unimodal reliability information in order to perform an efficient biometric fusion of two modalities. We further show the presented method to be superior to state-of-the-art multimodal decision-level fusion schemes. The experimental evaluation presented in this paper is based on the popular benchmarking bimodal BANCA database.

  3. Photoacoustic-Based Multimodal Nanoprobes: from Constructing to Biological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Duyang; Yuan, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Multimodal nanoprobes have attracted intensive attentions since they can integrate various imaging modalities to obtain complementary merits of single modality. Meanwhile, recent interest in laser-induced photoacoustic imaging is rapidly growing due to its unique advantages in visualizing tissue structure and function with high spatial resolution and satisfactory imaging depth. In this review, we summarize multimodal nanoprobes involving photoacoustic imaging. In particular, we focus on the method to construct multimodal nanoprobes. We have divided the synthetic methods into two types. First, we call it "one for all" concept, which involves intrinsic properties of the element in a single particle. Second, "all in one" concept, which means integrating different functional blocks in one particle. Then, we simply introduce the applications of the multifunctional nanoprobes for in vivo imaging and imaging-guided tumor therapy. At last, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the present methods to construct the multimodal nanoprobes and share our viewpoints in this area.

  4. Multimodal OCT for complex assessment of tumors response to therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkina, Marina A.; Kiseleva, Elena B.; Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Matveev, Lev A.; Zaitsev, Vladimir Yu.; Matveyev, Alexander L.; Shirmanova, Marina V.; Sovetsky, Alexander A.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Zagaynova, Elena V.; Vitkin, Alex; Gladkova, Natalia D.

    2017-07-01

    Multimodal OCT is a promising tool for monitoring of individual tumor response to antitumor therapies. The changes of tumor cells, connective tissue, microcirculation and stiffness can be estimated simultaneously in real time with high resolution.

  5. Agrupador de imágenes multimodal no supervisado

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Hernando, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Trabajo Fin de Máster donde se implementa un método multimodal para la clasificación de imágenes sin etiquetar y sin intervención humana. Treball Fi de Màster on s'implementa un mètode multimodal per a la classificació d'imatges sense etiquetar i sense intervenció humana. Master thesis for the Computer Science Engineering program.

  6. Approaching Athenian Graffiti as a Multimodal Genre with GIS Application

    OpenAIRE

    Stampoulidis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Graffiti as an ever-changing form of urban art and visual communication is naturally multimodal, focusing on text–image relations (Bateman 2014; Forceville 2008; Kress 2006), which owe their existence mainly to the sociocultural and historical knowledge of the represented world of our experience – Husserlian Lebenswelt [Lifeworld] (Sonesson 2008; 2015). These relations constitute an interesting challenge to multimodal interpretations, because both verbal and/or pictorial representations can i...

  7. Acting rehearsal in collaborative multimodal mixed reality environments

    OpenAIRE

    Steptoe, William; Normand, Jean-Marie; Oyekoya, Oyewole; Pece, Fabrizio; Giannopoulos, Elias; Tecchia, Franco; Steed, Anthony; Weyrich, Tim; Kautz, Jan; Slater, Mel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the use of our multimodal mixed reality telecommunication system to support remote acting rehearsal. The rehearsals involved two actors, located in London and Barcelona, and a director in another location in London. This triadic audiovisual telecommunication was performed in a spatial and multimodal collaborative mixed reality environment based on the 'destination-visitor' paradigm, which we define and put into use. We detail our heterogeneous system architecture, which sp...

  8. Exploring Multimodal Registers in and Across Organizations and Institutional Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Jancsary, Dennis; Höllerer, Markus

    In this article, we develop methodology that enables a systematic analysis of the structuralaspects of multimodal discourse from larger amounts of data. While existing research in visualorganization studies has provided interesting insights into the content and meaning(s) of visualand multimodal ......Responsibility (CSR), a complex and multivocal management idea that touches a variety oftopics and incorporates multiple levels of audience engagement with regard to a substantialdiversity of audiences....

  9. Optical sensor in planar configuration based on multimode interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahut, Marek

    2017-08-01

    In the paper a numerical analysis of optical sensors based on multimode interference in planar one-dimensional step-index configuration is presented. The structure consists in single-mode input and output waveguides and multimode waveguide which guide only few modes. Material parameters discussed refer to a SU8 polymer waveguide on SiO2 substrate. The optical system described will be designed to the analysis of biological substances.

  10. Multi-modal RGB–Depth–Thermal Human Body Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmero, Cristina; Clapés, Albert; Bahnsen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of human body segmentation from multi-modal visual cues as a first stage of automatic human behavior analysis. We propose a novel RGB-Depth-Thermal dataset along with a multi-modal seg- mentation baseline. The several modalities are registered us- ing a calibration...... to other state-of-the-art meth- ods, obtaining an overlap above 75% on the novel dataset when compared to the manually annotated ground-truth of human segmentations....

  11. Capacitance densitometer for flow regime identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, R.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a capacitance densitometer for determining the flow regime of a two-phase flow system. A two-element capacitance densitometer is used in conjunction with a conventional single-beam gamma densitometer to unambiguously identify the prevailing flow regime and the average density of a flowing fluid

  12. TARIFFS AND REGIMES OF POWER CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Batsova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regimes of electro-consumption at RUP «BMZ» is carried out. It is shown that in conditions of rapid growth of prices for electric power one of the conditions of reduction of production expenses is to be the increase of efficiency of the electro-consumption regimes control.

  13. Strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2003-01-01

    Although the nuclear non-proliferation regime has enjoyed considerable success, today the regime has never been under greater threat. Three states have challenged the objectives of the NPT, and there is a technology challenge - the spread of centrifuge enrichment technology and know-how. A major issue confronting the international community is, how to deal with a determined proliferator? Despite this gloomy scenario, however, the non-proliferation regime has considerable strengths - many of which can be developed further. The regime comprises complex interacting and mutually reinforcing elements. At its centre is the NPT - with IAEA safeguards as the Treaty's verification mechanism. Important complementary elements include: restraint in the supply and the acquisition of sensitive technologies; multilateral regimes such as the CTBT and proposed FMCT; various regional and bilateral regimes; the range of security and arms control arrangements outside the nuclear area (including other WMD regimes); and the development of proliferation-resistant technologies. Especially important are political incentives and sanctions in support of non-proliferation objectives. This paper outlines some of the key issues facing the non-proliferation regime

  14. Synergies between nonproliferation regimes: A pragmatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, Trevor; Meier, Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Full text: With the recent progress in establishing international nonproliferation regimes, the question of synergies between different verification and monitoring regimes is becoming more acute. Three multilateral and universal nonproliferation organisations covering safeguards on civil nuclear materials, nuclear testing, and chemical weapons are up and running. A regime on biological weapons is under negotiation. Several regional organisations concerned with monitoring nonproliferation commitments in the nuclear field are in place; others are being established. Past discussions on synergies between these regimes have suffered from being too far-reaching. These discussions often have not reflected adequately the political difficulties of cooperation between regimes with different membership, scope and institutional set-up. This paper takes a pragmatic look at exploiting synergies and identifies some potential and real overlaps in the work between different verification regimes. It argues for a bottom-up approach and identifies building blocks for collaboration between verification regimes. By realising such, more limited potential for cooperation, the ground could be prepared for exploiting other synergies between these regimes. (author)

  15. Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, T.P.; Carpenter, S.; Rockstrom, J.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.

    2013-01-01

    Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime shifts occur when the climate or biosphere transgresses a

  16. Crustal stress regime in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cesaro

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a reliable map of the present-day stress field in Italy, needed to better understand the active tectonic processes and to contribute to the assessment of seismic hazard, in 1992 we started to collect and analyze new data from borehole breakouts in deep oil and geothermal wells and focal mechanisms of earthquakes (2.5 < M <5 occurred in Italy between 1988 and 1995. From about 200 deep wells and 300 focal mechanisms analyzed to date, we infer that: the internal (SW sector of the Northern Apenninic arc is extending with minimum compressional stress (Shmin oriented ? ENE, while the external front is thrusting over the Adriatic foreland (Shmin ? NW-SE. The entire Southern Apennine is extending in NE direction (from the Tyrrhenian margin to the Apulian foreland and compression (in the foredeep is no longer active at the outer (NE thrust front. Between these two arcs, an abrupt change in the tectonic regime is detected with directions of horizontal stress changing by as much as 90º in the external front, around latitude 430N. Along the Ionian side of the Calabrian arc the stress directions inferred from breakouts and focal mechanisms are scattered with a hint of rotation from N-S Shmin close to the Southern Apennines, to ~ E-W directions in the Messina Strait. In Sicily, a NW-SE direction of SHmax is evident in the Hyblean foreland, parallel to the direction of plate motion between Africa and Europe. A more complex pattern of stress directions is observed in the thrust belt zone, with rotations from the regional trend (NW í directed SHmax to NE oriented SHmax. A predominant NW direction of SHmax is also detected in mainland Sicily from earthquake focal mechanisms, but no well data are available in this region. In the northern part of Sicily (Aeolian Islands a ~N-S direction of SHmax is observed.

  17. Gastric mucosal electrical potential difference and blood flow during high FFA/albumin ratios in anaesthetized Göttingen mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bülow, J B; Madsen, J

    1988-01-01

    The gastric blood flow and the gastric mucosal potential difference (p.d.) was studied in anaesthetized Göttingen mini-pigs under normal conditions and during increased FFA/albumin ratios. The antrum mucosal p.d. was measured continuously with a newly developed intragastric microelectrode principle...

  18. DNA and chromosomal damage in medical workers exposed to anaesthetic gases assessed by the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. A critical review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel; Mušák, L.; Fiorito, G.; Vymetálková, Veronika; Vodičková, Ludmila; Naccarati, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 770, SI (2016), s. 26-34 ISSN 1383-5742 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14050; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14789S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : micronuclei * anaesthetics gas exposure * operating room personnel Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.500, year: 2016

  19. Effects of AL 107, a novel semisynthetic cardiac glycoside, on the cardiovascular system in anaesthetized beagle dogs with pentobarbital-induced cardiac insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogel, B; Schneider, J; Gleitz, J; Wilffert, B; Peters, Thies

    The inotropic efficacy, arrhythmogenicity and cardiohaemodynamic properties of AL 107 (3-alpha-methyl-digitoxigenin glucoside. CAS 62190-59-4), a novel cardiac glycoside, were studied in anaesthetized dogs with pentobarbital-induced acute cardiac insufficiency. Three groups of dogs received AL 107,

  20. Anaesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine mandibular buccal infiltration compared to 2% lignocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in children with irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arali, Veena; P, Mytri

    2015-04-01

    Lidocaine is the gold standard anaesthetic solution that has been used since its inception into dentistry till date. Around 80% of failures have been reported when lignocaine has been used for inferior alveolar nerve block in children and adults with irreversible pulpitis. There is a need to use newer drugs which are available which have been reported to be effective like lignocaine, such as articaine. Although articaine has been used in adults, literature supporting its use in children is sparse. The purpose of this study is to compare the anaesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine buccal infiltration and 2% lignocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in children with irreversible pulpitis. It also aims to assess the need for supplemental intrapulpal injections. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind cross over trial comparing the anaesthetic effectiveness of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in buccal infiltration and 2% lignocaine IAN block anaesthesia. The study subject and the pediatric dentist performing the pulpectomy procedures were blinded to the study. A sample size of 40 subjects in the age group of 5-8 y was included in the study. The onset of anaesthesia with 4% articaine was faster as compared to 2% lignocaine. The duration of anaesthesia with articaine infiltration was shorter. The need for supplemental injection in the articaine group was less. Four percent articaine infiltration can be used in children with irreversible pulpitis. It can be used to replace the IAN block in children thereby reducing the post anaesthetic complications like lip biting.