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Sample records for multilocus phylogenies based

  1. Algorithms for MDC-Based Multi-locus Phylogeny Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Warnow, Tandy; Nakhleh, Luay

    One of the criteria for inferring a species tree from a collection of gene trees, when gene tree incongruence is assumed to be due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), is minimize deep coalescence, or MDC. Exact algorithms for inferring the species tree from rooted, binary trees under MDC were recently introduced. Nevertheless, in phylogenetic analyses of biological data sets, estimated gene trees may differ from true gene trees, be incompletely resolved, and not necessarily rooted. In this paper, we propose new MDC formulations for the cases where the gene trees are unrooted/binary, rooted/non-binary, and unrooted/non-binary. Further, we prove structural theorems that allow us to extend the algorithms for the rooted/binary gene tree case to these cases in a straightforward manner. Finally, we study the performance of these methods in coalescent-based computer simulations.

  2. Evolutionary history of tree squirrels (Rodentia, Sciurini) based on multilocus phylogeny reconstruction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pečnerová, P.; Martínková, Natália

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2012), s. 211-219 ISSN 0300-3256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : phylogeny * Sciurus * biogeography * colonisation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2012

  3. Multilocus resolution of Mugilidae phylogeny (Teleostei: Mugiliformes): Implications for the family's taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rong; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-03-01

    The interrelationships among mugilids (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) remain highly debated. Using a mitochondrial gene-based phylogeny as criterion, a revised classification with 25 genera in the Mugilidae has recently been proposed. However, phylogenetic relationships of major mitochondrial lineages remain unresolved and to gain a general acceptance the classification requires confirmation based on multilocus evidence and diagnostic morphological characters. Here, we construct a species-tree using twelve nuclear and three mitochondrial loci and infer the evolution of 71 morphological characters. Our multilocus phylogeny does not agree with previous morphology-based hypotheses for the relationships within Mugilidae, confirms the revised classification with 25 genera and further resolves their phylogenetic relationships. Using the well-resolved multilocus phylogeny as the criterion, we reclassify Mugilidae genera into three new subfamilies (Myxinae, Rhinomugilinae, and Cheloninae) and one new, recombined, subfamily (Mugilinae). The Rhinomugilinae subfamily is further divided into four tribes. The revised classification of Mugilidae is supported by morpho-anatomical synapomorphies or a combination of characters. These characters are used to erect a key to the subfamilies and genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Algorithms for MDC-based multi-locus phylogeny inference: beyond rooted binary gene trees on single alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Warnow, Tandy; Nakhleh, Luay

    2011-11-01

    One of the criteria for inferring a species tree from a collection of gene trees, when gene tree incongruence is assumed to be due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), is Minimize Deep Coalescence (MDC). Exact algorithms for inferring the species tree from rooted, binary trees under MDC were recently introduced. Nevertheless, in phylogenetic analyses of biological data sets, estimated gene trees may differ from true gene trees, be incompletely resolved, and not necessarily rooted. In this article, we propose new MDC formulations for the cases where the gene trees are unrooted/binary, rooted/non-binary, and unrooted/non-binary. Further, we prove structural theorems that allow us to extend the algorithms for the rooted/binary gene tree case to these cases in a straightforward manner. In addition, we devise MDC-based algorithms for cases when multiple alleles per species may be sampled. We study the performance of these methods in coalescent-based computer simulations.

  5. Delineation of the species Haemophilus influenzae by phenotype, multilocus sequence phylogeny, and detection of marker genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels; Overballe, MD; Kilian, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    To obtain more information on the much-debated definition of prokaryotic species, we investigated the borders of Haemophilus influenzae by comparative analysis of H. influenzae reference strains with closely related bacteria including strains assigned to Haemophilus haemolyticus, cryptic genospec......To obtain more information on the much-debated definition of prokaryotic species, we investigated the borders of Haemophilus influenzae by comparative analysis of H. influenzae reference strains with closely related bacteria including strains assigned to Haemophilus haemolyticus, cryptic...... genospecies biotype IV, and the never formally validated species "Haemophilus intermedius". Multilocus sequence phylogeny based on six housekeeping genes separated a cluster encompassing the type and the reference strains of H. influenzae from 31 more distantly related strains. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene...

  6. Multi-locus phylogeny and taxonomy of Exserohilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Restrepo, Margarita Ines; Madrid, H.; Tan, Y.P.; da Cunha, K.C.; Gene, Josepa; Guarro, Josep; Crous, P.W.

    2018-01-01

    Exserohilum includes a number of plant pathogenic, saprobic and clinically relevant fungi. Some of these species are of great importance in human activities, but the genus has never been revised in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we revise Exserohilum based on available ex-type cultures

  7. Global diversity of the Ganoderma lucidum complex (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales) inferred from morphology and multilocus phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Wei; Cao, Yun; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Vlasák, Josef; Li, De-Wei; Li, Meng-Jie; Dai, Yu-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Species of the Ganoderma lucidum complex are used in many types of health products. However, the taxonomy of this complex has long been chaotic, thus limiting its uses. In the present study, 32 collections of the complex from Asia, Europe and North America were analyzed from both morphological and molecular phylogenetic perspectives. The combined dataset, including an outgroup, comprised 33 ITS, 24 tef1α, 24 rpb1 and 21 rpb2 sequences, of which 19 ITS, 20 tef1α, 20 rpb1 and 17 rpb2 sequences were newly generated. A total of 13 species of the complex were recovered in the multilocus phylogeny. These 13 species were not strongly supported as a single monophyletic lineage, and were further grouped into three lineages that cannot be defined by their geographic distributions. Clade A comprised Ganoderma curtisii, Ganoderma flexipes, Ganoderma lingzhi, Ganoderma multipileum, Ganoderma resinaceum, Ganoderma sessile, Ganoderma sichuanense and Ganoderma tropicum, Clade B comprised G. lucidum, Ganoderma oregonense and Ganoderma tsugae, and Clade C comprised Ganoderma boninense and Ganoderma zonatum. A dichotomous key to the 13 species is provided, and their key morphological characters from context, pores, cuticle cells and basidiospores are presented in a table. The taxonomic positions of these species are briefly discussed. Noteworthy, the epitypification of G. sichuanense is rejected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both

  9. Multi-locus phylogeny reveals instances of mitochondrial introgression and unrecognized diversity in Kenyan barbs (Cyprininae: Smiliogastrini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ray C; Bart, Henry L; Nyingi, Wanja Dorothy

    2017-06-01

    The phylogenetics and taxonomic status of small African barbs (Cyprininae: Smiliogastrini) remains unresolved despite the recent decision to elevate the genus name Enteromius for the group. The main barrier to understanding the origin of African small barbs and evolutionary relationships within the group is the poor resolution of phylogenies published to date. These phylogenies usually rely on mitochondrial markers and have limited taxon sampling. Here we investigate the phylogenetic relationships of small barbs of Kenya utilizing cytochrome b, Growth Hormone (GH) intron 2, and RAG1 markers from multiple populations of many species in the region. This multi-locus study produced well-supported phylogenies and revealed additional issues that complicate understanding the relationships among East African barbs. We observed widespread mtDNA introgression within the Kenyan barbs, highlighting the need to include nuclear markers in phylogenetic studies of the group. The GH intron 2 resolved heterospecific individuals and aided in inferring the species level phylogeny. The study reveals unrecognized diversity within the group, including within species reported to occur throughout East Africa, and it provides the groundwork for future taxonomic work in the region and across Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A multilocus molecular phylogeny of combtooth blennies (Percomorpha: Blennioidei: Blenniidae): Multiple invasions of intertidal habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Hundt, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The combtooth blennies (f. Blenniidae) is a diverse family of primarily marine fishes with approximately 387 species that inhabit subtidal, intertidal, supralittoral habitats in tropical and warm temperate regions throughout the world. The Blenniidae has typically been divided into six groups based on morphological characters: Blenniini, Nemophini, Omobranchini, Phenablenniini, Parablenniini, and Salariini. There is, however, considerable debate over the validity of these groups and their relationships. Since little is known about the relationships in this group, other aspects of their evolutionary history, such as habitat evolution and remain unexplored. Herein, we use Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of four nuclear loci (ENC1, myh6, ptr, and tbr1) from 102 species, representing 41 genera, to resolve the phylogeny of the Blenniidae, determine the validity of the previously recognized groupings, and explore the evolution of habitat association using ancestral state reconstruction. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of the resulting 3100. bp of DNA sequence produced nearly identical topologies, and identified many well-supported clades. Of these clades, Nemophini was the only traditionally recognized group strongly supported as monophyletic. This highly resolved and thoroughly sampled blenniid phylogeny provides strong evidence that the traditional rank-based classification does not adequately delimit monophyletic groups with the Blenniidae. This phylogeny redefines the taxonomy of the group and supports the use of 13 unranked clades for the classification of blenniids. Ancestral state reconstructions identified four independent invasions of intertidal habitats within the Blenniidae, and subsequent invasions into supralittoral and freshwater habitats from these groups. The independent invasions of intertidal habitats are likely to have played an important role in the evolutionary history of blennies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Multilocus phylogeny reconstruction: new insights into the evolutionary history of the genus Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck-Kortmann, Maikel; Silva-Arias, Gustavo Adolfo; Segatto, Ana Lúcia Anversa; Mäder, Geraldo; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; de Freitas, Loreta Brandão

    2014-12-01

    The phylogeny of Petunia species has been difficult to resolve, primarily due to the recent diversification of the genus. Several studies have included molecular data in phylogenetic reconstructions of this genus, but all of them have failed to include all taxa and/or analyzed few genetic markers. In the present study, we employed the most inclusive genetic and taxonomic datasets for the genus, aiming to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Petunia based on molecular phylogeny, biogeographic distribution, and character evolution. We included all 20 Petunia morphological species or subspecies in these analyses. Based on nine nuclear and five plastid DNA markers, our phylogenetic analysis reinforces the monophyly of the genus Petunia and supports the hypothesis that the basal divergence is more related to the differentiation of corolla tube length, whereas the geographic distribution of species is more related to divergences within these main clades. Ancestral area reconstructions suggest the Pampas region as the area of origin and earliest divergence in Petunia. The state reconstructions suggest that the ancestor of Petunia might have had a short corolla tube and a bee pollination floral syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sophie; Madrid, Hugo; Gerrits Van Den Ende, Bert; Andersen, Birgitte; Marinach-Patrice, Carine; Mazier, Dominique; De Hoog, G Sybren

    2013-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of morphologically similar taxa. This study aimed to assess if strains of four closely-related plant pathogens, i.e., accurately Alternaria dauci (ten strains), Alternaria porri (six), Alternaria solani (ten), and Alternaria tomatophila (ten) could be identified using multilocus phylogenetic analysis and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) profiling of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three loci, i.e., the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rRNA, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) and Alternaria major antigen (Alt a 1) genes. Phylogenetic trees based on ITS sequences did not differentiate strains of A. solani, A. tomatophila, and A. porri, but these three species formed a clade separate from strains of A. dauci. The resolution improved in trees based on gpd and Alt a 1, which distinguished strains of the four species as separate clades. However, none provided significant bootstrap support for all four species, which could only be achieved when results for the three loci were combined. MALDI-TOF-based dendrograms showed three major clusters. The first comprised all A. dauci strains, the second included five strains of A. porri and one of A. solani, and the third included all strains of A. tomatophila, as well as all but one strain of A. solani, and one strain of A. porri. Thus, this study shows the usefulness of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a promising tool for identification of these four species of Alternaria which are closely-related plant pathogens. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A multilocus phylogeny reveals deep lineages within African galagids (Primates: Galagidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Bushbabies (Galagidae) are among the most morphologically cryptic of all primates and their diversity and relationships are some of the most longstanding problems in primatology. Our knowledge of galagid evolutionary history has been limited by a lack of appropriate molecular data and a paucity of fossils. Most phylogenetic studies have produced conflicting results for many clades, and even the relationships among genera remain uncertain. To clarify galagid evolutionary history, we assembled the largest molecular dataset for galagos to date by sequencing 27 independent loci. We inferred phylogenetic relationships using concatenated maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses, and also coalescent-based species tree methods to account for gene tree heterogeneity due to incomplete lineage sorting. Results The genus Euoticus was identified as sister taxon to the rest of the galagids and the genus Galagoides was not recovered as monophyletic, suggesting that a new generic name for the Zanzibar complex is required. Despite the amount of genetic data collected in this study, the monophyly of the family Lorisidae remained poorly supported, probably due to the short internode between the Lorisidae/Galagidae split and the origin of the African and Asian lorisid clades. One major result was the relatively old origin for the most recent common ancestor of all living galagids soon after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Conclusions Using a multilocus approach, our results suggest an early origin for the crown Galagidae, soon after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, making Euoticus one of the oldest lineages within extant Primates. This result also implies that one – or possibly more – stem radiations diverged in the Late Eocene and persisted for several million years alongside members of the crown group. PMID:24694188

  14. Multilocus phylogeny and statistical biogeography clarify the evolutionary history of major lineages of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anieli G; Sterli, Juliana; Moreira, Filipe R R; Schrago, Carlos G

    2017-08-01

    Despite their complex evolutionary history and the rich fossil record, the higher level phylogeny and historical biogeography of living turtles have not been investigated in a comprehensive and statistical framework. To tackle these issues, we assembled a large molecular dataset, maximizing both taxonomic and gene sampling. As different models provide alternative biogeographical scenarios, we have explicitly tested such hypotheses in order to reconstruct a robust biogeographical history of Testudines. We scanned publicly available databases for nucleotide sequences and composed a dataset comprising 13 loci for 294 living species of Testudines, which accounts for all living genera and 85% of their extant species diversity. Phylogenetic relationships and species divergence times were estimated using a thorough evaluation of fossil information as calibration priors. We then carried out the analysis of historical biogeography of Testudines in a fully statistical framework. Our study recovered the first large-scale phylogeny of turtles with well-supported relationships following the topology proposed by phylogenomic works. Our dating result consistently indicated that the origin of the main clades, Pleurodira and Cryptodira, occurred in the early Jurassic. The phylogenetic and historical biogeographical inferences permitted us to clarify how geological events affected the evolutionary dynamics of crown turtles. For instance, our analyses support the hypothesis that the breakup of Pangaea would have driven the divergence between the cryptodiran and pleurodiran lineages. The reticulated pattern in the ancestral distribution of the cryptodiran lineage suggests a complex biogeographic history for the clade, which was supposedly related to the complex paleogeographic history of Laurasia. On the other hand, the biogeographical history of Pleurodira indicated a tight correlation with the paleogeography of the Gondwanan landmasses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Multilocus resolution of phylogeny and timescale in the extant adaptive radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Heather R L; Meyer, Matthias; James, Helen F; Hofreiter, Michael; Fleischer, Robert C

    2011-11-08

    Evolutionary theory has gained tremendous insight from studies of adaptive radiations. High rates of speciation, morphological divergence, and hybridization, combined with low sequence variability, however, have prevented phylogenetic reconstruction for many radiations. The Hawaiian honeycreepers are an exceptional adaptive radiation, with high phenotypic diversity and speciation that occurred within the geologically constrained setting of the Hawaiian Islands. Here we analyze a new data set of 13 nuclear loci and pyrosequencing of mitochondrial genomes that resolves the Hawaiian honeycreeper phylogeny. We show that they are a sister taxon to Eurasian rosefinches (Carpodacus) and probably came to Hawaii from Asia. We use island ages to calibrate DNA substitution rates, which vary substantially among gene regions, and calculate divergence times, showing that the radiation began roughly when the oldest of the current large Hawaiian Islands (Kauai and Niihau) formed, ~5.7 million years ago (mya). We show that most of the lineages that gave rise to distinctive morphologies diverged after Oahu emerged (4.0-3.7 mya) but before the formation of Maui and adjacent islands (2.4-1.9 mya). Thus, the formation of Oahu, and subsequent cycles of colonization and speciation between Kauai and Oahu, played key roles in generating the morphological diversity of the extant honeycreepers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N.; Barker, F. Keith; Olsson, Urban; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although ...

  17. Toward a Tree-of-Life for the boas and pythons: multilocus species-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham Reynolds, R; Niemiller, Matthew L; Revell, Liam J

    2014-02-01

    Snakes in the families Boidae and Pythonidae constitute some of the most spectacular reptiles and comprise an enormous diversity of morphology, behavior, and ecology. While many species of boas and pythons are familiar, taxonomy and evolutionary relationships within these families remain contentious and fluid. A major effort in evolutionary and conservation biology is to assemble a comprehensive Tree-of-Life, or a macro-scale phylogenetic hypothesis, for all known life on Earth. No previously published study has produced a species-level molecular phylogeny for more than 61% of boa species or 65% of python species. Using both novel and previously published sequence data, we have produced a species-level phylogeny for 84.5% of boid species and 82.5% of pythonid species, contextualized within a larger phylogeny of henophidian snakes. We obtained new sequence data for three boid, one pythonid, and two tropidophiid taxa which have never previously been included in a molecular study, in addition to generating novel sequences for seven genes across an additional 12 taxa. We compiled an 11-gene dataset for 127 taxa, consisting of the mitochondrial genes CYTB, 12S, and 16S, and the nuclear genes bdnf, bmp2, c-mos, gpr35, rag1, ntf3, odc, and slc30a1, totaling up to 7561 base pairs per taxon. We analyzed this dataset using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference and recovered a well-supported phylogeny for these species. We found significant evidence of discordance between taxonomy and evolutionary relationships in the genera Tropidophis, Morelia, Liasis, and Leiopython, and we found support for elevating two previously suggested boid species. We suggest a revised taxonomy for the boas (13 genera, 58 species) and pythons (8 genera, 40 species), review relationships between our study and the many other molecular phylogenetic studies of henophidian snakes, and present a taxonomic database and alignment which may be easily used and built upon by other researchers

  18. Low Divergence of Clonorchis sinensis in China Based on Multilocus Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiufeng Sun

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis, an ancient parasite that infects a number of piscivorous mammals, attracts significant public health interest due to zoonotic exposure risks in Asia. The available studies are insufficient to reflect the prevalence, geographic distribution, and intraspecific genetic diversity of C. sinensis in endemic areas. Here, a multilocus analysis based on eight genes (ITS1, act, tub, ef-1a, cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5 [4.986 kb] was employed to explore the intra-species genetic construction of C. sinensis in China. Two hundred and fifty-six C. sinensis isolates were obtained from environmental reservoirs from 17 provinces of China. A total of 254 recognized Multilocus Types (MSTs showed high diversity among these isolates using multilocus analysis. The comparison analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeny supports separate clusters in a nuclear dendrogram. Genetic differentiation analysis of three clusters (A, B, and C showed low divergence within populations. Most isolates from clusters B and C are geographically limited to central China, while cluster A is extraordinarily genetically diverse. Further genetic analyses between different geographic distributions, water bodies and hosts support the low population divergence. The latter haplotype analyses were consistent with the phylogenetic and genetic differentiation results. A recombination network based on concatenated sequences showed a concentrated linkage recombination population in cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5, with spatial structuring in ITS1. Coupled with the history record and archaeological evidence of C. sinensis infection in mummified desiccated feces, these data point to an ancient origin of C. sinensis in China. In conclusion, we present a likely phylogenetic structure of the C. sinensis population in mainland China, highlighting its possible tendency for biogeographic expansion. Meanwhile, ITS1 was found to be an effective marker for tracking C. sinensis infection

  19. Low Divergence of Clonorchis sinensis in China Based on Multilocus Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiufeng; Huang, Yan; Huang, Huaiqiu; Liang, Pei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Mao, Qiang; Men, Jingtao; Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Chuanhuan; Zhou, Chenhui; Lv, Xiaoli; Zhou, Juanjuan; Zhang, Fan; Li, Ran; Tian, Yanli; Lei, Huali; Liang, Chi; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; XinbingYu

    2013-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis, an ancient parasite that infects a number of piscivorous mammals, attracts significant public health interest due to zoonotic exposure risks in Asia. The available studies are insufficient to reflect the prevalence, geographic distribution, and intraspecific genetic diversity of C. sinensis in endemic areas. Here, a multilocus analysis based on eight genes (ITS1, act, tub, ef-1a, cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5 [4.986 kb]) was employed to explore the intra-species genetic construction of C. sinensis in China. Two hundred and fifty-six C. sinensis isolates were obtained from environmental reservoirs from 17 provinces of China. A total of 254 recognized Multilocus Types (MSTs) showed high diversity among these isolates using multilocus analysis. The comparison analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeny supports separate clusters in a nuclear dendrogram. Genetic differentiation analysis of three clusters (A, B, and C) showed low divergence within populations. Most isolates from clusters B and C are geographically limited to central China, while cluster A is extraordinarily genetically diverse. Further genetic analyses between different geographic distributions, water bodies and hosts support the low population divergence. The latter haplotype analyses were consistent with the phylogenetic and genetic differentiation results. A recombination network based on concatenated sequences showed a concentrated linkage recombination population in cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5, with spatial structuring in ITS1. Coupled with the history record and archaeological evidence of C. sinensis infection in mummified desiccated feces, these data point to an ancient origin of C. sinensis in China. In conclusion, we present a likely phylogenetic structure of the C. sinensis population in mainland China, highlighting its possible tendency for biogeographic expansion. Meanwhile, ITS1 was found to be an effective marker for tracking C. sinensis infection worldwide. Thus, the

  20. Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Sophie; Madrid, Hugo; Gerrits Van Den Ende, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of morp......The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species...... trees based on ITS sequences did not differentiate strains of A. solani, A. tomatophila, and A. porri, but these three species formed a clade separate from strains of A. dauci. The resolution improved in trees based on gpd and Alt a 1, which distinguished strains of the four species as separate clades...... of A. solani, and the third included all strains of A. tomatophila, as well as all but one strain of A. solani, and one strain of A. porri. Thus, this study shows the usefulness of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a promising tool for identification of these four species of Alternaria which are closely...

  1. Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, S.; Madrid, H.; Gerritis van den Ende, B.; Andersen, B.; Marinach-Patrice, C.; Mazier, D.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of

  2. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, S.W.; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence...

  3. Multilocus molecular phylogeny of the suckermouth armored catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) with a focus on subfamily Hypostominae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Nathan K; Armbruster, Jonathan W; Lovejoy, Nathan R; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical catfish family Loricariidae is the fifth most species-rich vertebrate family on Earth, with over 800 valid species. The Hypostominae is its most species-rich, geographically widespread, and ecomorphologically diverse subfamily. Here, we provide a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic reappraisal of genus-level relationships in the Hypostominae based on our sequencing and analysis of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (4293bp total). Our most striking large-scale systematic discovery was that the tribe Hypostomini, which has traditionally been recognized as sister to tribe Ancistrini based on morphological data, was nested within Ancistrini. This required recognition of seven additional tribe-level clades: the Chaetostoma Clade, the Pseudancistrus Clade, the Lithoxus Clade, the 'Pseudancistrus' Clade, the Acanthicus Clade, the Hemiancistrus Clade, and the Peckoltia Clade. Results of our analysis, which included type- and non-type species for every valid genus in Hypostominae, support the reevaluation and restriction of several historically problematic genera, including Baryancistrus, Cordylancistrus, Hemiancistrus, and Peckoltia. Much of the deep lineage diversity in Hypostominae is restricted to Guiana Shield and northern Andean drainages, with three tribe-level clades still largely restricted to the Guiana Shield. Of the six geographically widespread clades, a paraphyletic assemblage of three contain lineages restricted to drainages west of the Andes Mountains, suggesting that early diversification of the Hypostominae predated the late Miocene surge in Andean uplift. Our results also highlight examples of trophic ecological diversification and convergence in the Loricariidae, including support for three independent origins of highly similar and globally unique morphological specializations for eating wood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multilocus phylogeny of the Asian Lance-headed pitvipers (Squamata, Viperidae, Protobothrops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Liu, Qin; Wen, Tao; Xiao, Rong; Fang, Ming; Zhong, Guanghui; Truong, Nguyen Q; Zhu, Fei; Jadin, Robert C; Li, Cao

    2016-03-22

    Despite the public health significance and potential applications to medical research, the evolutionary history of the Asian Lance-headed pitvipers (genus Protobothrops) remains inadequately studied. Previous research generally focused on a few selected species with no comprehensive molecular study of Protobothrops. Here, we conduct the first study to infer the phylogenetic relationships of all currently recognized species in this genus based on four mitochondrial DNA fragments and four nuclear genes. Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses show that within Protobothrops there are four strongly supported clades forming distinct subgroups. The first subgroup, which is sister to the other three, consists of three species, P. himalayanus, P. kaulbacki, and P. sieversorum. The second subgroup contains only P. mangshanensis. The final two subgroups, which are sister groups, include the other four and six Protobothrops species. Although our findings provide additional information on the phylogenetic relationships of the genus Protobothrops, the placement of P. dabieshanensis and P. elegans remains problematic. In addition, our molecular results indicate that P. trungkhanhensis, currently considered endemic to Vietnam, should be added to the species known from China. Our ancestral area estimation indicated that Protobothrops likely originated in southwestern China. This study improves our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among species of Asian Lance-headed pitvipers, providing a greater framework for future studies.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Ranunculaceae based on internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The botanical family Ranunculaceae contains important medicinal plants. To obtain new evolutionary evidence regarding the systematic classification of Ranunculaceae plants, we used molecular phylogenies to test relationships based on the internal transcribed spacer region. The results of phylogenetic analysis of 92 ...

  6. Multilocus phylogeny and antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus section Circumdati from clinical samples and description of A. pseudosclerotiorum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multilocus phylogenetic study was carried out to assess the species distribution in a set of 34 clinical isolates of Aspergillus section Circumdati from the USA and their in vitro antifungal susceptibility were determined against eight antifungal drugs. The genetic markers used were ITS, BenA, CaM...

  7. A multi-locus phylogenetic evaluation of Diaporthe (Phomopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udayanga, D.; Liu, X.; Crous, P.W.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) includes important plant pathogenic fungi with wide host ranges and geographic distributions. In the present study, phylogenetic species recognition in Diaporthe is re-evaluated using a multi-locus phylogeny based on a combined data matrix of rDNA ITS, and partial

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Ranunculaceae based on internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... evidence regarding the systematic classification of Ranunculaceae plants, we used molecular ... Ranunculaceae is a family of flowering plants known as ... and in the analysis of the evolutionary rate for lower level phylogeny ...

  9. Phylogeny based discovery of regulatory elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Barak A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Algorithms that locate evolutionarily conserved sequences have become powerful tools for finding functional DNA elements, including transcription factor binding sites; however, most methods do not take advantage of an explicit model for the constrained evolution of functional DNA sequences. Results We developed a probabilistic framework that combines an HKY85 model, which assigns probabilities to different base substitutions between species, and weight matrix models of transcription factor binding sites, which describe the probabilities of observing particular nucleotides at specific positions in the binding site. The method incorporates the phylogenies of the species under consideration and takes into account the position specific variation of transcription factor binding sites. Using our framework we assessed the suitability of alignments of genomic sequences from commonly used species as substrates for comparative genomic approaches to regulatory motif finding. We then applied this technique to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species by examining all possible six base pair DNA sequences (hexamers and identifying sequences that are conserved in a significant number of promoters. By combining similar conserved hexamers we reconstructed known cis-regulatory motifs and made predictions of previously unidentified motifs. We tested one prediction experimentally, finding it to be a regulatory element involved in the transcriptional response to glucose. Conclusion The experimental validation of a regulatory element prediction missed by other large-scale motif finding studies demonstrates that our approach is a useful addition to the current suite of tools for finding regulatory motifs.

  10. Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant-pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, S.; Madrid, H.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; Andersen, B.; Marinach-Patrice, C.; Mazier, D.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of

  11. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, I.J.; Perez-Eman, J. L.; Sullivan, J.P.; Banks, R.C.; Fiorentino, I.; Cordoba-Cordoba, S.; Echeverry-Galvis, M.; Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, Scott M.; Bermingham, E.

    2010-01-01

    The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Multilocus Phylogeny of the Afrotropical Freshwater Crab Fauna Reveals Historical Drainage Connectivity and Transoceanic Dispersal Since the Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Savel R; Phiri, Ethel E; Klaus, Sebastian; Albrecht, Christian; Cumberlidge, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction, divergence time estimations and ancestral range estimation were undertaken for 66% of the Afrotropical freshwater crab fauna (Potamonautidae) based on four partial DNA loci (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome oxidase one [COI], and histone 3). The present study represents the most comprehensive taxonomic sampling of any freshwater crab family globally, and explores the impact of paleodrainage interconnectivity on cladogenesis among freshwater crabs. Phylogenetic analyses of the total evidence data using maximum-likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian inference (BI) produced a robust statistically well-supported tree topology that reaffirmed the monophyly of the Afrotropical freshwater crab fauna. The estimated divergence times suggest that the Afrotropical Potamonautidae diverged during the Eocene. Cladogenesis within and among several genera occurred predominantly during the Miocene, which was associated with major tectonic and climatic ameliorations throughout the region. Paleodrainage connectivity was observed with specimens from the Nilo-Sudan and East African coast proving to be sister to specimens from the Upper Guinea Forests in West Africa. In addition, we observed strong sister taxon affinity between specimens from East Africa and the Congo basin, including specimens from Lake Tanganyika, while the southern African fauna was retrieved as sister to the Angolan taxa. Within the East African clade we observed two independent transoceanic dispersal events, one to the Seychelles Archipelago and a second to Madagascar, while we observe a single transoceanic dispersal event from West Africa to São Tomé. The ancestral area estimation suggested a West African/East African ancestral range for the family with multiple dispersal events between southern Africa and East Africa, and between East Africa and Central Africa The taxonomic implications of our results are discussed in light of the widespread paraphyly evident among a

  13. Major clades of Agaricales: a multilocus phylogenetic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Brandon Matheny; Judd M. Curtis; Valerie Hofstetter; M. Catherine Aime; Jean-Marc Moncalvo; Zai-Wei Ge; Zhu-Liang Yang; Joseph F. Ammirati; Timothy J. Baroni; Neale L. Bougher; Karen W. Lodge Hughes; Richard W. Kerrigan; Michelle T. Seidl; Aanen; Matthew Duur K. DeNitis; Graciela M. Daniele; Dennis E. Desjardin; Bradley R. Kropp; Lorelei L. Norvell; Andrew Parker; Else C. Vellinga; Rytas Vilgalys; David S. Hibbett

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the phylogeny of the Agaricales is presented based on a multilocus analysis of a six-gene region supermatrix. Bayesian analyses of 5611 nucleotide characters of rpb1, rpb1-intron 2, rpb2 and 18S, 25S, and 5.8S ribosomal RNA genes recovered six major clades, which are recognized informally and labeled the Agaricoid, Tricholomatoid, Marasmioid, Pluteoid,...

  14. Development of a multilocus-based approach for sponge (phylum Porifera) identification: refinement and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Franco, Christopher M M; Sorokin, Shirley J; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-02

    For sponges (phylum Porifera), there is no reliable molecular protocol available for species identification. To address this gap, we developed a multilocus-based Sponge Identification Protocol (SIP) validated by a sample of 37 sponge species belonging to 10 orders from South Australia. The universal barcode COI mtDNA, 28S rRNA gene (D3-D5), and the nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were evaluated for their suitability and capacity for sponge identification. The highest Bit Score was applied to infer the identity. The reliability of SIP was validated by phylogenetic analysis. The 28S rRNA gene and COI mtDNA performed better than the ITS region in classifying sponges at various taxonomic levels. A major limitation is that the databases are not well populated and possess low diversity, making it difficult to conduct the molecular identification protocol. The identification is also impacted by the accuracy of the morphological classification of the sponges whose sequences have been submitted to the database. Re-examination of the morphological identification further demonstrated and improved the reliability of sponge identification by SIP. Integrated with morphological identification, the multilocus-based SIP offers an improved protocol for more reliable and effective sponge identification, by coupling the accuracy of different DNA markers.

  15. An alu-based phylogeny of lemurs (infraorder: Lemuriformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T McLain

    Full Text Available LEMURS (INFRAORDER: Lemuriformes are a radiation of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar. As of 2012, 101 lemur species, divided among five families, have been described. Genetic and morphological evidence indicates all species are descended from a common ancestor that arrived in Madagascar ∼55-60 million years ago (mya. Phylogenetic relationships in this species-rich infraorder have been the subject of debate. Here we use Alu elements, a family of primate-specific Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, to construct a phylogeny of infraorder Lemuriformes. Alu elements are particularly useful SINEs for the purpose of phylogeny reconstruction because they are identical by descent and confounding events between loci are easily resolved by sequencing. The genome of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus was computationally assayed for synapomorphic Alu elements. Those that were identified as Lemuriformes-specific were analyzed against other available primate genomes for orthologous sequence in which to design primers for PCR (polymerase chain reaction verification. A primate phylogenetic panel of 24 species, including 22 lemur species from all five families, was examined for the presence/absence of 138 Alu elements via PCR to establish relationships among species. Of these, 111 were phylogenetically informative. A phylogenetic tree was generated based on the results of this analysis. We demonstrate strong support for the monophyly of Lemuriformes to the exclusion of other primates, with Daubentoniidae, the aye-aye, as the basal lineage within the infraorder. Our results also suggest Lepilemuridae as a sister lineage to Cheirogaleidae, and Indriidae as sister to Lemuridae. Among the Cheirogaleidae, we show strong support for Microcebus and Mirza as sister genera, with Cheirogaleus the sister lineage to both. Our results also support the monophyly of the Lemuridae. Within Lemuridae we place Lemur and Hapalemur together to the

  16. Genotyping of B. licheniformis based on a novel multi-locus sequence typing (MLST scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madslien Elisabeth H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus licheniformis has for many years been used in the industrial production of enzymes, antibiotics and detergents. However, as a producer of dormant heat-resistant endospores B. licheniformis might contaminate semi-preserved foods. The aim of this study was to establish a robust and novel genotyping scheme for B. licheniformis in order to reveal the evolutionary history of 53 strains of this species. Furthermore, the genotyping scheme was also investigated for its use to detect food-contaminating strains. Results A multi-locus sequence typing (MLST scheme, based on the sequence of six house-keeping genes (adk, ccpA, recF, rpoB, spo0A and sucC of 53 B. licheniformis strains from different sources was established. The result of the MLST analysis supported previous findings of two different subgroups (lineages within this species, named “A” and “B” Statistical analysis of the MLST data indicated a higher rate of recombination within group “A”. Food isolates were widely dispersed in the MLST tree and could not be distinguished from the other strains. However, the food contaminating strain B. licheniformis NVH1032, represented by a unique sequence type (ST8, was distantly related to all other strains. Conclusions In this study, a novel and robust genotyping scheme for B. licheniformis was established, separating the species into two subgroups. This scheme could be used for further studies of evolution and population genetics in B. licheniformis.

  17. Mitochondrial phylogeny of the Chrysisignita (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) species group based on simultaneous Bayesian alignment and phylogeny reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Villu; Saarma, Urmas

    2011-07-01

    The ignita species group within the genus Chrysis includes over 100 cuckoo wasp species, which all lead a parasitic lifestyle and exhibit very similar morphology. The lack of robust, diagnostic morphological characters has hindered phylogenetic reconstructions and contributed to frequent misidentification and inconsistent interpretations of species in this group. Therefore, molecular phylogenetic analysis is the most suitable approach for resolving the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group. We present a well-resolved phylogeny of the Chrysis ignita species group based on mitochondrial sequence data from 41 ingroup and six outgroup taxa. Although our emphasis was on European taxa, we included samples from most of the distribution range of the C. ignita species group to test for monophyly. We used a continuous mitochondrial DNA sequence consisting of 16S rRNA, tRNA(Val), 12S rRNA and ND4. The location of the ND4 gene at the 3' end of this continuous sequence, following 12S rRNA, represents a novel mitochondrial gene arrangement for insects. Due to difficulties in aligning rRNA genes, two different Bayesian approaches were employed to reconstruct phylogeny: (1) using a reduced data matrix including only those positions that could be aligned with confidence; or (2) using the full sequence dataset while estimating alignment and phylogeny simultaneously. In addition maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses were performed to test the robustness of the Bayesian approaches. Although all approaches yielded trees with similar topology, considerably more nodes were resolved with analyses using the full data matrix. Phylogenetic analysis supported the monophyly of the C. ignita species group and divided its species into well-supported clades. The resultant phylogeny was only partly in accordance with published subgroupings based on morphology. Our results suggest that several taxa currently treated as subspecies or names treated as synonyms may in fact constitute

  18. Phylogeny of the Acanthocephala based on morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, S

    2001-02-01

    Only four previous studies of relationships among acanthocephalans have included cladistic analyses, and knowledge of the phylogeny of the group has not kept pace with that of other taxa. The purpose of this study is to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among members of the phylum Acanthocephala using morphological characters. The most appropriate outgroups are those that share a common early cell-cleavage pattern (polar placement of centrioles), such as the Rotifera, rather than the Priapulida (meridional placement of centrioles) to provide character polarity based on common ancestry rather than a general similarity likely due to convergence of body shapes. The phylogeny of 22 species of the Acanthocephala was evaluated based on 138 binary and multistate characters derived from comparative morphological and ontogenetic studies. Three assumptions of cement gland structure were tested: (i) the plesiomorphic type of cement glands in the Rotifera, as the sister group, is undetermined; (ii) non-syncytial cement glands are plesiomorphic; and (iii) syncytial cement glands are plesiomorphic. The results were used to test an early move of Tegorhynchus pectinarius to Koronacantha and to evaluate the relationship between Tegorhynchus and Illiosentis. Analysis of the data-set for each of these assumptions of cement gland structure produced the same single most parsimonious tree topology. Using Assumptions i and ii for the cement glands, the trees were the same length (length = 404 steps, CI = 0.545, CIX = 0.517, HI = 0.455, HIX = 0.483, RI = 0.670, RC = 0.365). Using Assumption iii, the tree was three steps longer (length = 408 steps, CI = 0.539, CIX = 0.512, HI = 0.461, HIX = 0.488, RI = 0.665, RC = 0.359). The tree indicates that the Palaeacanthocephala and Eoacanthocephala both are monophyletic and are sister taxa. The members of the Archiacanthocephala are basal to the other two clades, but do not themselves form a clade. The results

  19. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, G.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    The interrelationships of major clades within the Arthropoda remain one of the most contentious issues in systematics, which has traditionally been the domain of morphologists. A growing body of DNA sequences and other types of molecular data has revitalized study of arthropod phylogeny and has inspired new considerations of character evolution. Novel hypotheses such as a crustacean-hexapod affinity were based on analyses of single or few genes and limited taxon sampling, but have received recent support from mitochondrial gene order, and eye and brain ultrastructure and neurogenesis. Here we assess relationships within Arthropoda based on a synthesis of all well sampled molecular loci together with a comprehensive data set of morphological, developmental, ultrastructural and gene-order characters. The molecular data include sequences of three nuclear ribosomal genes, three nuclear protein-coding genes, and two mitochondrial genes (one protein coding, one ribosomal). We devised new optimization procedures and constructed a parallel computer cluster with 256 central processing units to analyse molecular data on a scale not previously possible. The optimal 'total evidence' cladogram supports the crustacean-hexapod clade, recognizes pycnogonids as sister to other euarthropods, and indicates monophyly of Myriapoda and Mandibulata.

  20. Multilocus phylogeny, divergence times, and a major role for the benthic-to-pelagic axis in the diversification of grunts (Haemulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera, Jose; Acero P, Arturo; Wainwright, Peter C

    2018-04-01

    We present a phylogenetic analysis with divergence time estimates, and an ecomorphological assessment of the role of the benthic-to-pelagic axis of diversification in the history of haemulid fishes. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on 97 grunt species based on sequence data collected from seven loci. Divergence time estimation indicates that Haemulidae originated during the mid Eocene (54.7-42.3 Ma) but that the major lineages were formed during the mid-Oligocene 30-25 Ma. We propose a new classification that reflects the phylogenetic history of grunts. Overall the pattern of morphological and functional diversification in grunts appears to be strongly linked with feeding ecology. Feeding traits and the first principal component of body shape strongly separate species that feed in benthic and pelagic habitats. The benthic-to-pelagic axis has been the major axis of ecomorphological diversification in this important group of tropical shoreline fishes, with about 13 transitions between feeding habitats that have had major consequences for head and body morphology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Population structure of Lactobacillus helveticus isolates from naturally fermented dairy products based on multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihong; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Yu, Jie; Bilige, Menghe; Zhang, Heping; Chen, Yongfu

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is an economically important lactic acid bacterium used in industrial dairy fermentation. In the present study, the population structure of 245 isolates of L. helveticus from different naturally fermented dairy products in China and Mongolia were investigated using an multilocus sequence typing scheme with 11 housekeeping genes. A total of 108 sequence types were detected, which formed 8 clonal complexes and 27 singletons. Results from Structure, SplitsTree, and ClonalFrame software analyses demonstrated the presence of 3 subpopulations in the L. helveticus isolates used in our study, namely koumiss, kurut-tarag, and panmictic lineages. Most L. helveticus isolates from particular ecological origins had specific population structures. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rank-based characterization of pollen assemblages collected by honey bees using a multi-locus metabarcoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rodney T; Lin, Chia-Hua; Quijia, Juan O; Riusech, Natalia S; Goodell, Karen; Johnson, Reed M

    2015-11-01

    Difficulties inherent in microscopic pollen identification have resulted in limited implementation for large-scale studies. Metabarcoding, a relatively novel approach, could make pollen analysis less onerous; however, improved understanding of the quantitative capacity of various plant metabarcode regions and primer sets is needed to ensure that such applications are accurate and precise. We applied metabarcoding, targeting the ITS2, matK, and rbcL loci, to characterize six samples of pollen collected by honey bees, Apis mellifera. Additionally, samples were analyzed by light microscopy. We found significant rank-based associations between the relative abundance of pollen types within our samples as inferred by the two methods. Our findings suggest metabarcoding data from plastid loci, as opposed to the ribosomal locus, are more reliable for quantitative characterization of pollen assemblages. Furthermore, multilocus metabarcoding of pollen may be more reliable than single-locus analyses, underscoring the need for discovering novel barcodes and barcode combinations optimized for molecular palynology.

  3. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-R Luis M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.

  4. A fungal phylogeny based on 42 complete genomes derived from supertree and combined gene analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajich Jason E

    2006-11-01

    relatives. We could not confidently resolve whether Candida glabrata or Saccharomyces castellii lies at the base of the WGD clade. Conclusion We have constructed robust phylogenies for fungi based on whole genome analysis. Overall, our phylogenies provide strong support for the classification of phyla, sub-phyla, classes and orders. We have resolved the relationship of the classes Leotiomyctes and Sordariomycetes, and have identified two classes within the CTG clade of the Saccharomycotina that may correlate with sexual status.

  5. KGCAK: a K-mer based database for genome-wide phylogeny and complexity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Xu, Jiayue; Yu, Jun

    2015-09-16

    The K-mer approach, treating genomic sequences as simple characters and counting the relative abundance of each string upon a fixed K, has been extensively applied to phylogeny inference for genome assembly, annotation, and comparison. To meet increasing demands for comparing large genome sequences and to promote the use of the K-mer approach, we develop a versatile database, KGCAK ( http://kgcak.big.ac.cn/KGCAK/ ), containing ~8,000 genomes that include genome sequences of diverse life forms (viruses, prokaryotes, protists, animals, and plants) and cellular organelles of eukaryotic lineages. It builds phylogeny based on genomic elements in an alignment-free fashion and provides in-depth data processing enabling users to compare the complexity of genome sequences based on K-mer distribution. We hope that KGCAK becomes a powerful tool for exploring relationship within and among groups of species in a tree of life based on genomic data.

  6. A well-resolved phylogeny of the trees of Puerto Rico based on DNA barcode sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María; Erickson, David L; Swenson, Nathan G; Zimmerman, Jess K; Kress, W John

    2014-01-01

    The use of phylogenetic information in community ecology and conservation has grown in recent years. Two key issues for community phylogenetics studies, however, are (i) low terminal phylogenetic resolution and (ii) arbitrarily defined species pools. We used three DNA barcodes (plastid DNA regions rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) to infer a phylogeny for 527 native and naturalized trees of Puerto Rico, representing the vast majority of the entire tree flora of the island (89%). We used a maximum likelihood (ML) approach with and without a constraint tree that enforced monophyly of recognized plant orders. Based on 50% consensus trees, the ML analyses improved phylogenetic resolution relative to a comparable phylogeny generated with Phylomatic (proportion of internal nodes resolved: constrained ML = 74%, unconstrained ML = 68%, Phylomatic = 52%). We quantified the phylogenetic composition of 15 protected forests in Puerto Rico using the constrained ML and Phylomatic phylogenies. We found some evidence that tree communities in areas of high water stress were relatively phylogenetically clustered. Reducing the scale at which the species pool was defined (from island to soil types) changed some of our results depending on which phylogeny (ML vs. Phylomatic) was used. Overall, the increased terminal resolution provided by the ML phylogeny revealed additional patterns that were not observed with a less-resolved phylogeny. With the DNA barcode phylogeny presented here (based on an island-wide species pool), we show that a more fully resolved phylogeny increases power to detect nonrandom patterns of community composition in several Puerto Rican tree communities. Especially if combined with additional information on species functional traits and geographic distributions, this phylogeny will (i) facilitate stronger inferences about the role of historical processes in governing the assembly and composition of Puerto Rican forests, (ii) provide insight into Caribbean

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Toxoplasmatinae: comparison between inferences based on mitochondrial and apicoplast genetic sequences

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    Michelle Klein Sercundes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phylogenies within Toxoplasmatinae have been widely investigated with different molecular markers. Here, we studied molecular phylogenies of the Toxoplasmatinae subfamily based on apicoplast and mitochondrial genes. Partial sequences of apicoplast genes coding for caseinolytic protease (clpC and beta subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB, and mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome B (cytB were analyzed. Laboratory-adapted strains of the closely related parasites Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona were investigated, along with Neospora caninum, Neospora hughesi, Toxoplasma gondii (strains RH, CTG and PTG, Besnoitia akodoni, Hammondia hammondiand two genetically divergent lineages of Hammondia heydorni. The molecular analysis based on organellar genes did not clearly differentiate between N. caninum and N. hughesi, but the two lineages of H. heydorni were confirmed. Slight differences between the strains of S. falcatula and S. neurona were encountered in all markers. In conclusion, congruent phylogenies were inferred from the three different genes and they might be used for screening undescribed sarcocystid parasites in order to ascertain their phylogenetic relationships with organisms of the family Sarcocystidae. The evolutionary studies based on organelar genes confirm that the genusHammondia is paraphyletic. The primers used for amplification of clpC and rpoB were able to amplify genetic sequences of organisms of the genus Sarcocystisand organisms of the subfamily Toxoplasmatinae as well.

  8. Rank-based characterization of pollen assemblages collected by honey bees using a multi-locus metabarcoding approach1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rodney T.; Lin, Chia-Hua; Quijia, Juan O.; Riusech, Natalia S.; Goodell, Karen; Johnson, Reed M.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Difficulties inherent in microscopic pollen identification have resulted in limited implementation for large-scale studies. Metabarcoding, a relatively novel approach, could make pollen analysis less onerous; however, improved understanding of the quantitative capacity of various plant metabarcode regions and primer sets is needed to ensure that such applications are accurate and precise. Methods and Results: We applied metabarcoding, targeting the ITS2, matK, and rbcL loci, to characterize six samples of pollen collected by honey bees, Apis mellifera. Additionally, samples were analyzed by light microscopy. We found significant rank-based associations between the relative abundance of pollen types within our samples as inferred by the two methods. Conclusions: Our findings suggest metabarcoding data from plastid loci, as opposed to the ribosomal locus, are more reliable for quantitative characterization of pollen assemblages. Furthermore, multilocus metabarcoding of pollen may be more reliable than single-locus analyses, underscoring the need for discovering novel barcodes and barcode combinations optimized for molecular palynology. PMID:26649264

  9. High-resolution melting genotyping of Enterococcus faecium based on multilocus sequence typing derived single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Y C Tong

    Full Text Available We have developed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP nucleated high-resolution melting (HRM technique to genotype Enterococcus faecium. Eight SNPs were derived from the E. faecium multilocus sequence typing (MLST database and amplified fragments containing these SNPs were interrogated by HRM. We tested the HRM genotyping scheme on 85 E. faecium bloodstream isolates and compared the results with MLST, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and an allele specific real-time PCR (AS kinetic PCR SNP typing method. In silico analysis based on predicted HRM curves according to the G+C content of each fragment for all 567 sequence types (STs in the MLST database together with empiric data from the 85 isolates demonstrated that HRM analysis resolves E. faecium into 231 "melting types" (MelTs and provides a Simpson's Index of Diversity (D of 0.991 with respect to MLST. This is a significant improvement on the AS kinetic PCR SNP typing scheme that resolves 61 SNP types with D of 0.95. The MelTs were concordant with the known ST of the isolates. For the 85 isolates, there were 13 PFGE patterns, 17 STs, 14 MelTs and eight SNP types. There was excellent concordance between PFGE, MLST and MelTs with Adjusted Rand Indices of PFGE to MelT 0.936 and ST to MelT 0.973. In conclusion, this HRM based method appears rapid and reproducible. The results are concordant with MLST and the MLST based population structure.

  10. Ascaris phylogeny based on multiple whole mtDNA genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Hawash, Mohamed B F; Betson, Martha

    2016-01-01

    and C) of human and pig Ascaris based on partial cox1 sequences. In the present study, we selected major haplotypes from these different clusters to characterize their whole mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic analysis. We also undertook coalescent simulations to investigate the evolutionary history...

  11. PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we describe a stochastic search method for a maximum parsimony tree, implemented in a software package we named PTree. Our method is based on a new pattern-based technique that enables us to infer intermediate sequences efficiently where the incorporation of these sequences in the current tree topology yields a phylogenetic tree with a lower cost. Evaluation across multiple datasets showed that our method is comparable to the algorithms implemented in PAUP* or TNT, which are widely used by the bioinformatics community, in terms of topological accuracy and runtime. We show that our method can process large-scale datasets of 1,000–8,000 sequences. We believe that our novel pattern-based method enriches the current set of tools and methods for phylogenetic tree inference. The software is available under: http://algbio.cs.uni-duesseldorf.de/webapps/wa-download/.

  12. PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Ivan; Steinbrück, Lars; McHardy, Alice C

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we describe a stochastic search method for a maximum parsimony tree, implemented in a software package we named PTree. Our method is based on a new pattern-based technique that enables us to infer intermediate sequences efficiently where the incorporation of these sequences in the current tree topology yields a phylogenetic tree with a lower cost. Evaluation across multiple datasets showed that our method is comparable to the algorithms implemented in PAUP* or TNT, which are widely used by the bioinformatics community, in terms of topological accuracy and runtime. We show that our method can process large-scale datasets of 1,000-8,000 sequences. We believe that our novel pattern-based method enriches the current set of tools and methods for phylogenetic tree inference. The software is available under: http://algbio.cs.uni-duesseldorf.de/webapps/wa-download/.

  13. Microsatellite-based phylogeny of Indian domestic goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Pramod K; Joshi, Manjunath B; Mandal, Ajoy; Laloe, D; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2008-01-01

    Background The domestic goat is one of the important livestock species of India. In the present study we assess genetic diversity of Indian goats using 17 microsatellite markers. Breeds were sampled from their natural habitat, covering different agroclimatic zones. Results The mean number of alleles per locus (NA) ranged from 8.1 in Barbari to 9.7 in Jakhrana goats. The mean expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.739 in Barbari to 0.783 in Jakhrana goats. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) were statistically significant (P goat breeds. Both a phylogenetic tree and Principal Component Analysis showed the distribution of breeds in two major clusters with respect to their geographic distribution. Conclusion Our study concludes that Indian goat populations can be classified into distinct genetic groups or breeds based on the microsatellites as well as mtDNA information. PMID:18226239

  14. Critical analysis of eukaryotic phylogeny: a case study based on the HSP70 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germot, A; Philippe, H

    1999-01-01

    Trichomonads, together with diplomonads and microsporidia, emerge at the base of the eukaryotic tree, on the basis of the small subunit rRNA phylogeny. However, phylogenies based on protein sequences such as tubulin are markedly different with these protists emerging much later. We have investigated 70 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70), which could be a reliable phylogenetic marker. In eukaryotes, HSP70s are found in cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, and organelles (mitochondria and chloroplasts). In Trichomonas vaginalis we identified nine different HSP70-encoding genes and sequenced three nearly complete cDNAs corresponding to cytosolic, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondrial-type HSP70. Phylogenies of eukaryotes were reconstructed using the classical methods while varying the number of species and characters considered. Almost all the undoubtedly monophyletic groups, defined by ultrastructural characters, were recovered. However, due to the long branch attraction phenomenon, the evolutionary rates were the main factor determining the position of species, even with the use of a close outgroup, which is an important advantage of HSP70 with respect to many other markers. Numerous variable sites are peculiar to Trichomonas and probably generated the artefactual placement of this species at the base of the eukaryotes or as the sister group of fast-evolving species. The inter-phyla relationships were not well supported and were sensitive to the reconstruction method, the number of species; and the quantity of information used. This lack of resolution could be explained by the very rapid diversification of eukaryotes, likely after the mitochondrial endosymbiosis.

  15. Phylogeny of the Serrasalmidae (Characiformes based on mitochondrial DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ortí

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial (mt rRNA genes showed three main groups within the subfamily Serrasalminae: (1 a "pacu" clade of herbivores (Colossoma, Mylossoma, Piaractus; (2 the "Myleus" clade (Myleus, Mylesinus, Tometes, Ossubtus; and (3 the "piranha" clade (Serrasalmus, Pygocentrus, Pygopristis, Pristobrycon, Catoprion, Metynnis. The genus Acnodon was placed as the sister taxon of clade (2+3. However, poor resolution within each clade was obtained due to low levels of variation among rRNA gene sequences. Complete sequences of the hypervariable mtDNA control region for a total of 45 taxa, and additional sequences of 12S and 16S rRNA from a total of 74 taxa representing all genera in the family are now presented to address intragroup relationships. Control region sequences of several serrasalmid species exhibit tandem repeats of short motifs (12 to 33 bp in the 3' end of this region, accounting for substantial length variation. Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony analyses of these sequences identify the same groupings as before and provide further evidence to support the following observations: (a Serrasalmus gouldingi and species of Pristobrycon (non-striolatus form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to other species of Serrasalmus and Pygocentrus; (b Catoprion, Pygopristis, and Pristobrycon striolatus form a well supported clade, sister to the group described above; (c some taxa assigned to the genus Myloplus (M. asterias, M tiete, M ternetzi, and M rubripinnis form a well supported group whereas other Myloplus species remain with uncertain affinities (d Mylesinus, Tometes and Myleus setiger form a monophyletic group.

  16. Discrimination of multilocus sequence typing-based Campylobacter jejuni subgroups by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zautner, Andreas Erich; Masanta, Wycliffe Omurwa; Tareen, Abdul Malik; Weig, Michael; Lugert, Raimond; Groß, Uwe; Bader, Oliver

    2013-11-07

    Campylobacter jejuni, the most common bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis, shows a wide genetic diversity. Previously, we demonstrated by the combination of multi locus sequence typing (MLST)-based UPGMA-clustering and analysis of 16 genetic markers that twelve different C. jejuni subgroups can be distinguished. Among these are two prominent subgroups. The first subgroup contains the majority of hyperinvasive strains and is characterized by a dimeric form of the chemotaxis-receptor Tlp7(m+c). The second has an extended amino acid metabolism and is characterized by the presence of a periplasmic asparaginase (ansB) and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (ggt). Phyloproteomic principal component analysis (PCA) hierarchical clustering of MALDI-TOF based intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) spectra was able to group particular C. jejuni subgroups of phylogenetic related isolates in distinct clusters. Especially the aforementioned Tlp7(m+c)(+) and ansB+/ ggt+ subgroups could be discriminated by PCA. Overlay of ICMS spectra of all isolates led to the identification of characteristic biomarker ions for these specific C. jejuni subgroups. Thus, mass peak shifts can be used to identify the C. jejuni subgroup with an extended amino acid metabolism. Although the PCA hierarchical clustering of ICMS-spectra groups the tested isolates into a different order as compared to MLST-based UPGMA-clustering, the isolates of the indicator-groups form predominantly coherent clusters. These clusters reflect phenotypic aspects better than phylogenetic clustering, indicating that the genes corresponding to the biomarker ions are phylogenetically coupled to the tested marker genes. Thus, PCA clustering could be an additional tool for analyzing the relatedness of bacterial isolates.

  17. Why do morphological phylogenies vary in quality? An investigation based on the comparative history of lizard clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, E N

    1990-05-22

    Phylogenies based on morphology vary considerably in their quality: some are robust and explicit with little conflict in the data set, whereas others are far more tenuous, with much conflict and many possible alternatives. The main primary reasons for untrue or inexplicit morphological phylogenies are: not enough characters developed between branching points, uncertain character polarity, poorly differentiated character states, homoplasy caused by parallelism or reversal, and extinction, which may remove species entirely from consideration and can make originally conflicting data sets misleadingly compatible, increasing congruence at the expense of truth. Extinction differs from other confounding factors in not being apparent either in the data set or in subsequent analysis. One possibility is that variation in the quality of morphological phylogenies has resulted from exposure to different ecological situations. To investigate this, it is necessary to compare the histories of the clades concerned. In the case of explicit morphological phylogenies, ecological and behavioural data can be integrated with them and it may then be possible to decide whether morphological characters are likely to have been elicited by the environments through which the clade has passed. The credibility of such results depends not only on the phylogeny being robust but also on its detailed topology: a pectinate phylogeny will often allow more certain and more explicit statements to be made about historical events. In the case of poor phylogenies, it is not possible to produce detailed histories, but they can be compared with robust phylogenies in the range of ecological situations occupied, and whether they occupy novel situations in comparison with their outgroups. LeQuesne testing can give information about niche homoplasy, and it may also be possible to see if morphological features are functionally associated with ecological parameters, even if the direction of change is unknown

  18. Molecular phylogeny of Anopheles hyrcanus group (Diptera: Culicidae) based on mtDNA COI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Shi, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Yi

    2017-05-08

    The Anopheles hyrcanus group, which includes at least 25 species, is widely distributed in the Oriental and Palearctic regions. Some group members have been incriminated as vectors of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. It is difficult to identify Hyrcanus Group members by morphological features. Thus, molecular phylogeny has been proposed as an important complementary method to traditional morphological taxonomy. Based on the GenBank database and our original study data, we used 466 mitochondrial DNA COI sequences belonging to 18 species to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the Hyrcanus Group across its worldwide geographic range. The results are as follows. 1) The average conspecific K2P divergence was 0.008 (range 0.002-0.017), whereas sequence divergence between congroup species averaged 0.064 (range 0.026-0.108). 2) The topology of COI tree of the Hyrcanus Group was generally consistent with classical morphological taxonomy in terms of species classification, but disagreed in subgroup division. In the COI tree, the group was divided into at least three main clusters. The first cluster contained An. nimpe; the second was composed of the Nigerrimus Subgroup and An. argyropus; and the third cluster was comprised of the Lesteri Subgroup and other unassociated species. 3) Phylogenetic analysis of COI indicated that ancient hybridizations probably occurred among the three closely related species, An. sinensis, An. belenrae, and An. kleini. 4) The results supported An. paraliae as a probable synonym of An. lesteri, and it was possible that An. pseudopictus and An. hyrcanus were the same species, as evident from their extremely low interspecific genetic divergence (0.020 and 0.007, respectively) and their phylogenetic positions. In summary, we reconstructed the molecular phylogeny and analysed genetic divergence of the Hyrcanus Group using mitochondrial COI sequences. Our results suggest that in the future of malaria surveillance, we should not only pay

  19. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick J B Isaac

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation priority setting based on phylogenetic diversity has frequently been proposed but rarely implemented. Here, we define a simple index that measures the contribution made by different species to phylogenetic diversity and show how the index might contribute towards species-based conservation priorities. We describe procedures to control for missing species, incomplete phylogenetic resolution and uncertainty in node ages that make it possible to apply the method in poorly known clades. We also show that the index is independent of clade size in phylogenies of more than 100 species, indicating that scores from unrelated taxonomic groups are likely to be comparable. Similar scores are returned under two different species concepts, suggesting that the index is robust to taxonomic changes. The approach is applied to a near-complete species-level phylogeny of the Mammalia to generate a global priority list incorporating both phylogenetic diversity and extinction risk. The 100 highest-ranking species represent a high proportion of total mammalian diversity and include many species not usually recognised as conservation priorities. Many species that are both evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered (EDGE species do not benefit from existing conservation projects or protected areas. The results suggest that global conservation priorities may have to be reassessed in order to prevent a disproportionately large amount of mammalian evolutionary history becoming extinct in the near future.

  20. Identifying the true oysters (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) with mitochondrial phylogeny and distance-based DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2011-09-01

    Oysters (family Ostreidae), with high levels of phenotypic plasticity and wide geographic distribution, are a challenging group for taxonomists and phylogenetics. As a useful tool for molecular species identification, DNA barcoding might offer significant potential for oyster identification and taxonomy. This study used two mitochondrial fragments, cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rDNA), to assess whether oyster species could be identified by phylogeny and distance-based DNA barcoding techniques. Relationships among species were estimated by the phylogenetic analyses of both genes, and then pairwise inter- and intraspecific genetic divergences were assessed. Species forming well-differentiated clades in the molecular phylogenies were identical for both genes even when the closely related species were included. Intraspecific variability of 16S rDNA overlapped with interspecific divergence. However, average intra- and interspecific genetic divergences for COI were 0-1.4% (maximum 2.2%) and 2.6-32.2% (minimum 2.2%), respectively, indicating the existence of a barcoding gap. These results confirm the efficacy of species identification in oysters via DNA barcodes and phylogenetic analysis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of the lionfish genera Dendrochirus and Pterois (Scorpaenidae, Pteroinae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochzius, Marc; Söller, Rainer; Khalaf, Maroof A; Blohm, Dietmar

    2003-09-01

    This study investigates the molecular phylogeny of seven lionfishes of the genera Dendrochirus and Pterois. MP, ML, and NJ phylogenetic analysis based on 964 bp of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and 16S rDNA) revealed two main clades: (1) "Pterois" clade (Pterois miles and Pterois volitans), and (2) "Pteropterus-Dendrochirus" clade (remainder of the sampled species). The position of Dendrochirus brachypterus either basal to the main clades or in the "Pteropterus-Dendrochirus" clade cannot be resolved. However, the molecular phylogeny did not support the current separation of the genera Pterois and Dendrochirus. The siblings P. miles and P. volitans are clearly separated and our results support the proposed allopatric or parapatric distribution in the Indian and Pacific Ocean. However, the present analysis cannot reveal if P. miles and P. volitans are separate species or two populations of a single species, because the observed separation in different clades can be either explained by speciation or lineage sorting. Molecular clock estimates for the siblings P. miles and P. volitans suggest a divergence time of 2.4-8.3 mya, which coincide with geological events that created vicariance between populations of the Indian and Pacific Ocean.

  2. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: Addressing Zika outbreak by a phylogeny-based drug target study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Preyesh; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Since the first major outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2007, ZIKV is spreading explosively through South and Central America, and recent reports in highly populated developing countries alarm the possibility of a more catastrophic outbreak. ZIKV infection in pregnant women leads to embryonic microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. At present, there is limited understanding of the infectious mechanism, and no approved therapy has been reported. Despite the withdrawal of public health emergency, the WHO still considers the ZIKV as a highly significant and long-term public health challenge that the situation has to be addressed rapidly. Non-structural protein 5 is essential for capping and replication of viral RNA and comprises a methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. We used molecular modeling to obtain the structure of ZIKV RdRp, and by molecular docking and phylogeny analysis, we here demonstrate the potential sites for drug screening. Two metal binding sites and an NS3-interacting region in ZIKV RdRp are demonstrated as potential drug screening sites. The docked structures reveal a remarkable degree of conservation at the substrate binding site and the potential drug screening sites. A phylogeny-based approach is provided for an emergency preparedness, where similar class of ligands could target phylogenetically related proteins. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Multilocus Sequence Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Belén, Ana; Pavón, Ibarz; Maiden, Martin C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was first proposed in 1998 as a typing approach that enables the unambiguous characterization of bacterial isolates in a standardized, reproducible, and portable manner using the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis as the exemplar organism. Since then, the approach has been applied to a large and growing number of organisms by public health laboratories and research institutions. MLST data, shared by investigators over the world via the Internet, have been ...

  4. Phylogeny and evolutionary histories of Pyrus L. revealed by phylogenetic trees and networks based on data from multiple DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reconstructing the phylogeny of Pyrus has been difficult due to the wide distribution of the genus and lack of informative data. In this study, we collected 110 accessions representing 25 Pyrus species and constructed both phylogenetic trees and phylogenetic networks based on multiple DNA sequence d...

  5. New higher taxa in the lichen family Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) based on a three-gene skeleton phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Thorsten Lumbsch; Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Shirley Cunha Feuerstein; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Bettina Staiger; Dries Van den Broeck; Robert. Lücking

    2014-01-01

    We provide an updated skeleton phylogeny of the lichenized family Graphidaceae (excluding subfamily Gomphilloideae), based on three loci (mtSSU, nuLSU, RPB2), to elucidate the position of four new genera, Aggregatorygma, Borinquenotrema, Corticorygma, and Paratopeliopsis, as well as the placement of the enigmatic species Diorygma erythrellum, Fissurina monilifera, and...

  6. Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-02-20

    Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

  7. Bacterial whole genome-based phylogeny: construction of a new benchmarking dataset and assessment of some existing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenfeldt, Johanne; Skaarup, Carina; Hasman, Henrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lund, Ole

    2017-01-05

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used in diagnostics and surveillance of infectious diseases. A major application for WGS is to use the data for identifying outbreak clusters, and there is therefore a need for methods that can accurately and efficiently infer phylogenies from sequencing reads. In the present study we describe a new dataset that we have created for the purpose of benchmarking such WGS-based methods for epidemiological data, and also present an analysis where we use the data to compare the performance of some current methods. Our aim was to create a benchmark data set that mimics sequencing data of the sort that might be collected during an outbreak of an infectious disease. This was achieved by letting an E. coli hypermutator strain grow in the lab for 8 consecutive days, each day splitting the culture in two while also collecting samples for sequencing. The result is a data set consisting of 101 whole genome sequences with known phylogenetic relationship. Among the sequenced samples 51 correspond to internal nodes in the phylogeny because they are ancestral, while the remaining 50 correspond to leaves. We also used the newly created data set to compare three different online available methods that infer phylogenies from whole-genome sequencing reads: NDtree, CSI Phylogeny and REALPHY. One complication when comparing the output of these methods with the known phylogeny is that phylogenetic methods typically build trees where all observed sequences are placed as leafs, even though some of them are in fact ancestral. We therefore devised a method for post processing the inferred trees by collapsing short branches (thus relocating some leafs to internal nodes), and also present two new measures of tree similarity that takes into account the identity of both internal and leaf nodes. Based on this analysis we find that, among the investigated methods, CSI Phylogeny had the best performance, correctly identifying 73% of all branches in the

  8. A molecular phylogeny of the Cephinae (Hymenoptera, Cephidae based on mtDNA COI gene: a test of traditional classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Budak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cephinae is traditionally divided into three tribes and about 24 genera based on morphology and host utilization. There has been no study testing the monophyly of taxa under a strict phylogenetic criterion. A molecular phylogeny of Cephinae based on a total of 68 sequences of mtDNA COI gene, representing seven genera of Cephinae, is reconstructed to test the traditional limits and relationships of taxa. Monophyly of the traditional tribes is not supported. Monophyly of the genera are largely supported except for Pachycephus. A few host shift events are suggested based on phylogenetic relationships among taxa. These results indicate that a more robust phylogeny is required for a more plausible conclusion. We also report two species of Cephus for the first time from Turkey.

  9. Phylogeny of kemenyan (Styrax sp.) from North Sumatra based on morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, A.; Kholibrina, C. R.; Rachmat, H. H.; Munthe, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Kemenyan is the most famous local tree species from North Sumatra. Kemenyan is known as rosin producer that very valuable for pharmacheutical, cosmetic, food preservatives and vernis. Based on its history, there were only two species of kemenyan those were kemenyan durame and toba, but in its the natural distribution we also found others species showing different characteristics with previously known ones. The objectives of this research were:The objectives of this research were: (1). To determine the morphological diversity of kemenyan in North Sumatra and (2). To determine phylogeny clustering based on the morphological characters. Data was collected from direct observation and morphological characterization, based on purposive sampling technique to those samples trees atPakpak Bharat, North Sumatra. Morphological characters were examined using descriptive analysis, phenotypic variability using standard deviation, and cluster analysis. The result showed that there was a difference between 4 species kemenyen (batak, minyak, durame and toba) according to 75 observed characters including flower, fruits, leaf, stem, bark, crown type, wood and the resin. Analysis and both quantitative and qualitative characters kemenyan clustered into two groups. In which, kemenyan toba separated with other clusters.

  10. Evolution in Australasian mangrove forests: multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the Gerygone warblers (Aves: Acanthizidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád S Nyári

    Full Text Available The mangrove forests of Australasia have many endemic bird species but their evolution and radiation in those habitats has been little studied. One genus with several mangrove specialist species is Gerygone (Passeriformes: Acanthizidae. The phylogeny of the Acanthizidae is reasonably well understood but limited taxon sampling for Gerygone has constrained understanding of its evolution and historical biogeography in mangroves. Here we report on a phylogenetic analysis of Gerygone based on comprehensive taxon sampling and a multilocus dataset of thirteen loci spread across the avian genome (eleven nuclear and two mitochondrial loci. Since Gerygone includes three species restricted to Australia's coastal mangrove forests, we particularly sought to understand the biogeography of their evolution in that ecosystem. Analyses of individual loci, as well as of a concatenated dataset drawn from previous molecular studies indicates that the genus as currently defined is not monophyletic, and that the Grey Gerygone (G. cinerea from New Guinea should be transferred to the genus Acanthiza. The multilocus approach has permitted the nuanced view of the group's evolution into mangrove ecosystems having occurred on multiple occasions, in three non-overlapping time frames, most likely first by the G. magnirostris lineage, and subsequently followed by those of G. tenebrosa and G. levigaster.

  11. Phylogeny and systematics of the brake fern genus Pteris (Pteridaceae) based on molecular (plastid and nuclear) and morphological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Li-Bing

    2018-01-01

    The brake fern genus Pteris belongs to Pteridaceae subfamily Pteridoideae. It is one of the largest fern genera and has been estimated to contain 200-250 species distributed on all continents except Antarctica. Previous studies were either based on plastid data only or based on both plastid and nuclear data but the sampling was small. In addition, an infrageneric classification of Pteris based on morphological and molecular evidence has not been available yet. In the present study, based on molecular data of eight plastid markers and one nuclear marker (gapCp) of 256 accessions representing ca. 178 species of Pteris, we reconstruct a global phylogeny of Pteris. The 15 major clades identified earlier are recovered here and we further identified a new major clade. Our nuclear phylogeny recovered 11 of these 16 major clades, seven of which are strongly supported. The inclusion of Schizostege in Pteris is confirmed for the first time. Based on the newly reconstructed phylogeny and evidence from morphology, distribution and/or ecology, we classify Pteris into three subgenera: P. subg. Pteris, P. subg. Campteria, and P. subg. Platyzoma. The former two are further divided into three and 12 sections, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On the Origin of Pantepui montane biotas: A Perspective Based on the Phylogeny of Aulacorhynchus toucanets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bonaccorso

    Full Text Available To understand the origin of Pantepui montane biotas, we studied the biogeography of toucanets in the genus Aulacorhynchus. These birds are ideal for analyzing historical relationships among Neotropical montane regions, given their geographic distribution from Mexico south to Bolivia, including northern Venezuela (Cordillera de la Costa, and the Pantepui. Analyses were based on molecular phylogenies using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Topology tests were applied to compare alternative hypotheses that may explain the current distribution of Aulacorhynchus toucanets, in the context of previous hypotheses of the origin of Pantepui montane biotas. Biogeographic reconstructions in RASP and Lagrange were used to estimate the ancestral area of the genus, and an analysis in BEAST was used to estimate a time framework for its diversification. A sister relationship between the Pantepui and Andes+Cordillera de la Costa was significantly more likely than topologies indicating other hypothesis for the origin of Pantepui populations. The Andes was inferred as the ancestral area for Aulacorhynchus, and the group has diversified since the late Miocene. The biogeographic patterns found herein, in which the Andes are the source for biotas of other regions, are consistent with those found for flowerpiercers and tanagers, and do not support the hypothesis of the geologically old Pantepui as a source of Neotropical montain diversity. Based on the high potential for cryptic speciation and isolation of Pantepui populations, we consider that phylogenetic studies of additional taxa are important from a conservation perspective.

  13. A gene phylogeny of the red algae (Rhodophyta) based on plastid rbcL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, D W; Fredericq, S; Butler, B S; Hommersand, M H; Chase, M W

    1994-01-01

    A phylogeny for the Rhodophyta has been inferred by parsimony analysis of plastid rbcL sequences representing 81 species, 68 genera, 38 families, and 17 orders of red algae; rbcL encodes the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Levels of sequence divergence among species, genera, and families are high in red algae, typically much greater than those reported for flowering plants. The Rhodophyta traditionally consists of one class, Rhodophyceae, and two subclasses, Bangiophycidae and Florideophycidae. The Bangiophycidae with three orders (Porphyridiales, Compsopogonales, and Bangiales) appears to be polyphyletic, and the Florideophycidae with 17 orders is monophyletic in this study. The current classification of the Florideophycidae based on ultrastructure of pit connections is supported. With the exception of the Rhodogorgonales, which appears to be misplaced, orders with one or two pit-plug cap layers (Hildenbrandiales, Corallinales, Acrochaetiales, Palmanales, Batrachospermales, and Nemaliales) terminate long branches of basal position within Florideophycidae in the most parsimonious rbcL tree. Orders that lack typical cap layers but possess a cap membrane are resolved as a monophyletic clade sister to the Ahnfeltiales. The large order Gigartinales, which is distributed among five rbcL clades, is polyphyletic. Families that possess typical carrageenan in their cell walls are resolved as a terminal clade containing two family complexes centered around the Solieriaceae and Gigartinaceae. PMID:8041781

  14. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus citrus based on the nuclear ribosomal dna its region sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.L.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce showing high economic values. In this study, the taxonomy and phylogeny of Citrus species is evaluated using sequence analysis of the ITS region of nrDNA. This study is based on 26 plants materials belonging to 22 Citrus species having wild, domesticated, and cultivated species. Through DNA alignment of the ITS sequence, ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed relatively high variations of sequence length and nucleotide among these Citrus species. According to previous six-tribe discrimination theory by Swingle and Reece, the grouping in our ITS phylogenetic tree reconstructed by ITS sequences was not related to tribe discrimination but species discrimination. However, the molecular analysis could provide more information on citrus taxonomy. Combined with ITS sequences of other subgenera in then true citrus fruit tree group, the ITS phylogenetic tree indicated subgenera Citrus was monophyletic and nearer to Fortunella, Poncirus, and Clymenia compared to Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Abundant sequence variations of the ITS region shown in this study would help species identification and tribe differentiation of the genus Citrus. (author)

  15. Innovative Bayesian and Parsimony Phylogeny of Dung Beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae) Enhanced by Ontology-Based Partitioning of Morphological Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Sergei; Génier, François

    2015-01-01

    Scarabaeine dung beetles are the dominant dung feeding group of insects and are widely used as model organisms in conservation, ecology and developmental biology. Due to the conflicts among 13 recently published phylogenies dealing with the higher-level relationships of dung beetles, the phylogeny of this lineage remains largely unresolved. In this study, we conduct rigorous phylogenetic analyses of dung beetles, based on an unprecedented taxon sample (110 taxa) and detailed investigation of morphology (205 characters). We provide the description of morphology and thoroughly illustrate the used characters. Along with parsimony, traditionally used in the analysis of morphological data, we also apply the Bayesian method with a novel approach that uses anatomy ontology for matrix partitioning. This approach allows for heterogeneity in evolutionary rates among characters from different anatomical regions. Anatomy ontology generates a number of parameter-partition schemes which we compare using Bayes factor. We also test the effect of inclusion of autapomorphies in the morphological analysis, which hitherto has not been examined. Generally, schemes with more parameters were favored in the Bayesian comparison suggesting that characters located on different body regions evolve at different rates and that partitioning of the data matrix using anatomy ontology is reasonable; however, trees from the parsimony and all the Bayesian analyses were quite consistent. The hypothesized phylogeny reveals many novel clades and provides additional support for some clades recovered in previous analyses. Our results provide a solid basis for a new classification of dung beetles, in which the taxonomic limits of the tribes Dichotomiini, Deltochilini and Coprini are restricted and many new tribes must be described. Based on the consistency of the phylogeny with biogeography, we speculate that dung beetles may have originated in the Mesozoic contrary to the traditional view pointing to a

  16. Building a Twig Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students build a phylogeny for woody plant species based on the morphology of their twigs. Using any available twigs, students can practice the process of cladistics to test evolutionary hypotheses for real organisms. They identify homologous characters, determine polarity through outgroup comparison, and construct a…

  17. A multi gene sequence-based phylogeny of the Musaceae (banana) family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Christelová, Pavla; Valárik, Miroslav; Hřibová, Eva; De Langhe, E.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 103 (2011), s. 1-13 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600380703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY * FLOWERING PLANTS * RIBOSOMAL DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.521, year: 2011

  18. A dated molecular phylogeny of manta and devil rays (Mobulidae) based on mitogenome and nuclear sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, Marloes; Olsen, Jeanine L; Croll, Donald A; Bernardi, Giacomo; Newton, Kelly; Kollias, Spyros; O'Sullivan, John; Fernando, Daniel; Stevens, Guy; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Seret, Bernard; Wintner, Sabine; Hoarau, Galice

    2015-02-01

    Manta and devil rays are an iconic group of globally distributed pelagic filter feeders, yet their evolutionary history remains enigmatic. We employed next generation sequencing of mitogenomes for nine of the 11 recognized species and two outgroups; as well as additional Sanger sequencing of two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in an extended taxon sampling set. Analysis of the mitogenome coding regions in a Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian framework provided a well-resolved phylogeny. The deepest divergences distinguished three clades with high support, one containing Manta birostris, Manta alfredi, Mobula tarapacana, Mobula japanica and Mobula mobular; one containing Mobula kuhlii, Mobula eregoodootenkee and Mobula thurstoni; and one containing Mobula munkiana, Mobula hypostoma and Mobula rochebrunei. Mobula remains paraphyletic with the inclusion of Manta, a result that is in agreement with previous studies based on molecular and morphological data. A fossil-calibrated Bayesian random local clock analysis suggests that mobulids diverged from Rhinoptera around 30 Mya. Subsequent divergences are characterized by long internodes followed by short bursts of speciation extending from an initial episode of divergence in the Early and Middle Miocene (19-17 Mya) to a second episode during the Pliocene and Pleistocene (3.6 Mya - recent). Estimates of divergence dates overlap significantly with periods of global warming, during which upwelling intensity - and related high primary productivity in upwelling regions - decreased markedly. These periods are hypothesized to have led to fragmentation and isolation of feeding regions leading to possible regional extinctions, as well as the promotion of allopatric speciation. The closely shared evolutionary history of mobulids in combination with ongoing threats from fisheries and climate change effects on upwelling and food supply, reinforces the case for greater protection of this charismatic family of pelagic filter feeders

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of pelecaniformes (aves based on osteological data: implications for waterbird phylogeny and fossil calibration studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Smith

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Debate regarding the monophyly and relationships of the avian order Pelecaniformes represents a classic example of discord between morphological and molecular estimates of phylogeny. This lack of consensus hampers interpretation of the group's fossil record, which has major implications for understanding patterns of character evolution (e.g., the evolution of wing-propelled diving and temporal diversification (e.g., the origins of modern families. Relationships of the Pelecaniformes were inferred through parsimony analyses of an osteological dataset encompassing 59 taxa and 464 characters. The relationships of the Plotopteridae, an extinct family of wing-propelled divers, and several other fossil pelecaniforms (Limnofregata, Prophaethon, Lithoptila, ?Borvocarbo stoeffelensis were also assessed. The antiquity of these taxa and their purported status as stem members of extant families makes them valuable for studies of higher-level avian diversification.Pelecaniform monophyly is not recovered, with Phaethontidae recovered as distantly related to all other pelecaniforms, which are supported as a monophyletic Steganopodes. Some anatomical partitions of the dataset possess different phylogenetic signals, and partitioned analyses reveal that these discrepancies are localized outside of Steganopodes, and primarily due to a few labile taxa. The Plotopteridae are recovered as the sister taxon to Phalacrocoracoidea, and the relationships of other fossil pelecaniforms representing key calibration points are well supported, including Limnofregata (sister taxon to Fregatidae, Prophaethon and Lithoptila (successive sister taxa to Phaethontidae, and ?Borvocarbo stoeffelensis (sister taxon to Phalacrocoracidae. These relationships are invariant when 'backbone' constraints based on recent avian phylogenies are imposed.Relationships of extant pelecaniforms inferred from morphology are more congruent with molecular phylogenies than previously assumed, though

  20. Combined use of a new SNP-based assay and multilocus SSR markers to assess genetic diversity of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca infecting citrus and coffee plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Lopes, Joao R S; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Landa, Blanca B

    2015-03-01

    Two haplotypes of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp) that correlated with their host of origin were identified in a collection of 90 isolates infecting citrus and coffee plants in Brazil, based on a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gyrB sequence. A new single-nucleotide primer extension (SNuPE) protocol was designed for rapid identification of Xfp according to the host source. The protocol proved to be robust for the prediction of the Xfp host source in blind tests using DNA from cultures of the bacterium, infected plants, and insect vectors allowed to feed on Xfp-infected citrus plants. AMOVA and STRUCTURE analyses of microsatellite data separated most Xfp populations on the basis of their host source, indicating that they were genetically distinct. The combined use of the SNaPshot protocol and three previously developed multilocus SSR markers showed that two haplotypes and distinct isolates of Xfp infect citrus and coffee in Brazil and that multiple, genetically different isolates can be present in a single orchard or infect a single tree. This combined approach will be very useful in studies of the epidemiology of Xfp-induced diseases, host specificity of bacterial genotypes, the occurrence of Xfp host jumping, vector feeding habits, etc., in economically important cultivated plants or weed host reservoirs of Xfp in Brazil and elsewhere. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  1. Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Comparison of PCR-based open reading frame typing, multilocus sequence typing, and Staphylococcus protein A gene typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Shinji; Saito, Ryoichi; Sawabe, Etsuko; Kozakai, Takahiro; Shima, Mari; Aiso, Yoshibumi; Fujie, Toshihide; Nukui, Yoko; Koike, Ryuji; Hagihara, Michio; Tohda, Shuji

    2018-04-01

    The recently developed PCR-based open reading frame typing (POT) method is a useful molecular typing tool. Here, we evaluated the performance of POT for molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and compared its performance to those of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Staphylococcus protein A gene typing (spa typing). Thirty-seven MRSA isolates were collected between July 2012 and May 2015. MLST, spa typing, and POT were performed, and their discriminatory powers were evaluated using Simpson's index analysis. The MRSA isolates were classified into 11, 18, and 33 types by MLST, spa typing, and POT, respectively. The predominant strains identified by MLST, spa typing, and POT were ST8 and ST764, t002, and 93-191-127, respectively. The discriminatory power of MLST, spa typing, and POT was 0.853, 0.875, and 0.992, respectively, indicating that POT had the highest discriminatory power. Moreover, the results of MLST and spa were available after 2 days, whereas that of POT was available in 5 h. Furthermore, POT is rapid and easy to perform and interpret. Therefore, POT is a superior molecular typing tool for monitoring nosocomial transmission of MRSA. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phylogeny of the owlet-nightjars (Aves: Aegothelidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, J.P.; Pratt, T.K.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    The avian family Aegothelidae (Owlet-nightjars) comprises nine extant species and one extinct species, all of which are currently classified in a single genus, Aegotheles. Owlet-nightjars are secretive nocturnal birds of the South Pacific. They are relatively poorly studied and some species are known from only a few specimens. Furthermore, their confusing morphological variation has made it difficult to cluster existing specimens unambiguously into hierarchical taxonomic units. Here we sample all extant owlet-nightjar species and all but three currently recognized subspecies. We use DNA extracted primarily from museum specimens to obtain mitochondrial gene sequences and construct a molecular phylogeny. Our phylogeny suggests that most species are reciprocally monophyletic, however A. albertisi appears paraphyletic. Our data also suggest splitting A. bennettii into two species and splitting A. insignis and A. tatei as suggested in another recent paper. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  3. The phylogeny of Myxosporea (Myxozoa) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 14 (2006), s. 1521-1534 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) 58/2002//P-BF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Myxosporea * SSU rDNA * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.337, year: 2006

  4. BPhyOG: An interactive server for genome-wide inference of bacterial phylogenies based on overlapping genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Kui

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overlapping genes (OGs in bacterial genomes are pairs of adjacent genes of which the coding sequences overlap partly or entirely. With the rapid accumulation of sequence data, many OGs in bacterial genomes have now been identified. Indeed, these might prove a consistent feature across all microbial genomes. Our previous work suggests that OGs can be considered as robust markers at the whole genome level for the construction of phylogenies. An online, interactive web server for inferring phylogenies is needed for biologists to analyze phylogenetic relationships among a set of bacterial genomes of interest. Description BPhyOG is an online interactive server for reconstructing the phylogenies of completely sequenced bacterial genomes on the basis of their shared overlapping genes. It provides two tree-reconstruction methods: Neighbor Joining (NJ and Unweighted Pair-Group Method using Arithmetic averages (UPGMA. Users can apply the desired method to generate phylogenetic trees, which are based on an evolutionary distance matrix for the selected genomes. The distance between two genomes is defined by the normalized number of their shared OG pairs. BPhyOG also allows users to browse the OGs that were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships. It provides detailed annotation for each OG pair and the features of the component genes through hyperlinks. Users can also retrieve each of the homologous OG pairs that have been determined among 177 genomes. It is a useful tool for analyzing the tree of life and overlapping genes from a genomic standpoint. Conclusion BPhyOG is a useful interactive web server for genome-wide inference of any potential evolutionary relationship among the genomes selected by users. It currently includes 177 completely sequenced bacterial genomes containing 79,855 OG pairs, the annotation and homologous OG pairs of which are integrated comprehensively. The reliability of phylogenies complemented by

  5. A molecular phylogeny of the marine red algae (Rhodophyta) based on the nuclear small-subunit rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, M A; Bird, C J; Rice, E L; Gutell, R R; Murphy, C A; Singh, R K

    1994-01-01

    A phylogeny of marine Rhodophyta has been inferred by a number of methods from nucleotide sequences of nuclear genes encoding small subunit rRNA from 39 species in 15 orders. Sequence divergences are relatively large, especially among bangiophytes and even among congeners in this group. Subclass Bangiophycidae appears polyphyletic, encompassing at least three lineages, with Porphyridiales distributed between two of these. Subclass Florideophycidae is monophyletic, with Hildenbrandiales, Corallinales, Ahnfeltiales, and a close association of Nemaliales, Acrochaetiales, and Palmariales forming the four deepest branches. Cermiales may represent a convergence of vegetative and reproductive morphologies, as family Ceramiaceae is at best weakly related to the rest of the order, and one of its members appears to be allied to Gelidiales. Except for Gigartinales, for which more data are required, the other florideophyte orders appear distinct and taxonomically justified. A good correlation was observed with taxonomy based on pit-plug ultrastructure. Tests under maximum-likelihood and parsimony of alternative phylogenies based on structure and chemistry refuted suggestions that Acrochaetiales is the most primitive florideophyte order and that Gelidiales and Hildenbrandiales are sister groups. PMID:8041780

  6. A core phylogeny of Dictyostelia inferred from genomes representative of the eight major and minor taxonomic divisions of the group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Reema; Schilde, Christina; Schaap, Pauline

    2016-11-17

    Dictyostelia are a well-studied group of organisms with colonial multicellularity, which are members of the mostly unicellular Amoebozoa. A phylogeny based on SSU rDNA data subdivided all Dictyostelia into four major groups, but left the position of the root and of six group-intermediate taxa unresolved. Recent phylogenies inferred from 30 or 213 proteins from sequenced genomes, positioned the root between two branches, each containing two major groups, but lacked data to position the group-intermediate taxa. Since the positions of these early diverging taxa are crucial for understanding the evolution of phenotypic complexity in Dictyostelia, we sequenced six representative genomes of early diverging taxa. We retrieved orthologs of 47 housekeeping proteins with an average size of 890 amino acids from six newly sequenced and eight published genomes of Dictyostelia and unicellular Amoebozoa and inferred phylogenies from single and concatenated protein sequence alignments. Concatenated alignments of all 47 proteins, and four out of five subsets of nine concatenated proteins all produced the same consensus phylogeny with 100% statistical support. Trees inferred from just two out of the 47 proteins, individually reproduced the consensus phylogeny, highlighting that single gene phylogenies will rarely reflect correct species relationships. However, sets of two or three concatenated proteins again reproduced the consensus phylogeny, indicating that a small selection of genes suffices for low cost classification of as yet unincorporated or newly discovered dictyostelid and amoebozoan taxa by gene amplification. The multi-locus consensus phylogeny shows that groups 1 and 2 are sister clades in branch I, with the group-intermediate taxon D. polycarpum positioned as outgroup to group 2. Branch II consists of groups 3 and 4, with the group-intermediate taxon Polysphondylium violaceum positioned as sister to group 4, and the group-intermediate taxon Dictyostelium polycephalum

  7. Species-Level Phylogeny and Polyploid Relationships in Hordeum (Poaceae) Inferred by Next-Generation Sequencing and In Silico Cloning of Multiple Nuclear Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassac, Jonathan; Blattner, Frank R

    2015-09-01

    Polyploidization is an important speciation mechanism in the barley genus Hordeum. To analyze evolutionary changes after allopolyploidization, knowledge of parental relationships is essential. One chloroplast and 12 nuclear single-copy loci were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all Hordeum plus six out-group species. Amplicons from each of 96 individuals were pooled, sheared, labeled with individual-specific barcodes and sequenced in a single run on a 454 platform. Reference sequences were obtained by cloning and Sanger sequencing of all loci for nine supplementary individuals. The 454 reads were assembled into contigs representing the 13 loci and, for polyploids, also homoeologues. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted for all loci separately and for a concatenated data matrix of all loci. For diploid taxa, a Bayesian concordance analysis and a coalescent-based dated species tree was inferred from all gene trees. Chloroplast matK was used to determine the maternal parent in allopolyploid taxa. The relative performance of different multilocus analyses in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization was also assessed. The resulting multilocus phylogeny reveals for the first time species phylogeny and progenitor-derivative relationships of all di- and polyploid Hordeum taxa within a single analysis. Our study proves that it is possible to obtain a multilocus species-level phylogeny for di- and polyploid taxa by combining PCR with next-generation sequencing, without cloning and without creating a heavy load of sequence data. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  8. Phylogeny and evolution of the auks (subfamily Alcinae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moum, Truls; Johansen, Steinar; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Piatt, John F.

    1994-01-01

    The genetic divergence and phylogeny of the auks was assessed by mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons in a study using 19 of the 22 auk species and two outgroup representatives. We compared more than 500 nucleotides from each of two mitochondrial genes encoding 12S rRNA and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6. Divergence times were estimated from transversional substitutions. The dovekie (Alle alle) is related to the razorbill (Alca torda) and the murres (Uria spp). Furthermore, the Xantus's murrelet (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus) and the ancient (Synthliboramphus antiquus) and Japanese murrelets (Synthliboramphus wumizusume) are genetically distinct members of the same main lineage, whereas brachyramphine and synthliboramphine murrelets are not closely related. An early adaptive radiation of six main species groups of auks seems to trace back to Middle Miocene. Later speciation probably involved ecological differentiations and geographical isolations.

  9. Evolution of electric communication signals in the South American ghost knifefishes (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae): A phylogenetic comparative study using a sequence-based phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam R; Proffitt, Melissa R; Ho, Winnie W; Mullaney, Claire B; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Alves-Gomes, José A; Smith, G Troy

    2016-10-01

    The electric communication signals of weakly electric ghost knifefishes (Gymnotiformes: Apteronotidae) provide a valuable model system for understanding the evolution and physiology of behavior. Apteronotids produce continuous wave-type electric organ discharges (EODs) that are used for electrolocation and communication. The frequency and waveform of EODs, as well as the structure of transient EOD modulations (chirps), vary substantially across species. Understanding how these signals have evolved, however, has been hampered by the lack of a well-supported phylogeny for this family. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the Apteronotidae by using sequence data from three genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, recombination activating gene 2, and cytochrome oxidase B) in 32 species representing 13 apteronotid genera. This phylogeny and an extensive database of apteronotid signals allowed us to examine signal evolution by using ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) and phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) models. Our molecular phylogeny largely agrees with another recent sequence-based phylogeny and identified five robust apteronotid clades: (i) Sternarchorhamphus+Orthosternarchus, (ii) Adontosternarchus, (iii) Apteronotus+Parapteronotus, (iv) Sternarchorhynchus, and (v) a large clade including Porotergus, 'Apteronotus', Compsaraia, Sternarchogiton, Sternarchella, and Magosternarchus. We analyzed novel chirp recordings from two apteronotid species (Orthosternarchus tamandua and Sternarchorhynchus mormyrus), and combined data from these species with that from previously recorded species in our phylogenetic analyses. Some signal parameters in O. tamandua were plesiomorphic (e.g., low frequency EODs and chirps with little frequency modulation that nevertheless interrupt the EOD), suggesting that ultra-high frequency EODs and "big" chirps evolved after apteronotids diverged from other gymnotiforms. In contrast to previous studies, our PGLS analyses using the

  10. New insights in Russula subsect. Rubrinae: phylogeny and the quest for synapomorphic characters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caboň, M.; Eberhardt, U.; Looney, B.; Hampe, F.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Jančovičová, S.; Verbeken, A.; Adamčík, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 9 (2017), s. 877-892 ISSN 1617-416X Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) SAV-16-06 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Sulphovanillin * Incrustations * Multi-locus phylogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.616, year: 2016

  11. Multilocus analyses of an Antarctic fish species flock (Teleostei, Notothenioidei, Trematominae): Phylogenetic approach and test of the early-radiation event

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Marshall, C.; Musilová, Zuzana; Van Houdt, J.; Couloux, A.; Cruaud, C.; Lecointre, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2011), s. 305-316 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600450903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Species tree versus gene tree * Multilocus phylogeny * Diversification rate Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2011

  12. Multilocus and SSU rRNA gene phylogenetic analyses of available cyanobacterial genomes, and their relation to the current taxonomic system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 811, č. 1 (2018), s. 19-34 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11912S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : 16S rRNA * Cyanobacterial orders * Multilocus phylogeny Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  13. Phylogeny of minute carabid beetles and their relatives based upon DNA sequence data (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechitae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maddison

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The phylogeny of ground beetles of supertribe Trechitae is inferred using DNA sequences of genes that code for 28S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, and wingless. Within the outgroups, austral psydrines are inferred to be monophyletic, and separate from the three genera of true Psydrina (Psydrus, Nomius, Laccocenus; the austral psydrines are formally removed from Psydrini and are treated herein as their own tribe, Moriomorphini Sloane. All three genes place Gehringia with Psydrina. Trechitae is inferred to be monophyletic, and sister to Patrobini.Within trechites, evidence is presented that Tasmanitachoides is not a tachyine, but is instead a member of Trechini. Perileptus is a member of subtribe Trechodina. Against Erwin’s hypothesis of anillines as a polyphyletic lineage derived from the tachyine genus Paratachys, the anillines sampled are monophyletic, and not related to Paratachys. Zolini, Pogonini, Tachyina, and Xystosomina are all monophyletic, with the latter two being sister groups. The relationships of the subtribe Bembidiina were studied in greater detail. Phrypeus is only distantly related to Bembidion, and there is no evidence from sequence data that it belongs within Bembidiina. Three groups that have been recently considered to be outside of the large genus Bembidion are shown to be derived members of Bembidion, related to subgroups: Cillenus is related to the Ocydromus complex of Bembidion, Zecillenus is related to the New Zealand subgenus Zeplataphus, and Hydrium is close to subgenus Metallina. The relationships among major lineages of Trechitae are not, however, resolved with these data.

  14. A preliminary molecular phylogeny of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available The planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea (Insecta: Hemiptera is one of the most dominant groups of phytophagous insects. It comprises about 20 families, containing a total of 9000 species worldwide. Despite several recent studies, the phylogeny of Fulgoroidea is not yet satisfactorily resolved and the phylogenetic positions of several key families, especially Cixiidae, Delphacidae, Tettigometridae, Nogodinidae, Acanaloniidae and Issidae, are contentious. Here, we expand upon recent phylogenetic work using additional nuclear (18S and 28S and novel mitochondrial (16S and cytb markers. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded robust phylogenetic trees. In these topologies, a group containing Cixiidae and Delphacidae is recovered as the sister group to the remaining taxa. Tettigometridae is placed in a more nested position and is grouped with Caliscelidae. Sister relationships are found between Flatidae and Ricaniidae, and between Dictyopharidae and Fulgoridae. Nogodinidae and Issidae are confirmed to be non-monophyletic families. For major nodes of interest, divergence date estimates are generally older than those from the fossil record.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of the spoonbills (Aves: Threskiornithidae) based on mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R. Terry; Yeung, Carol K.L.; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    Spoonbills (genus Platalea) are a small group of wading birds, generally considered to constitute the subfamily Plataleinae (Aves: Threskiornithidae). We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among the six species of spoonbills using variation in sequences of the mitochondrial genes ND2 and cytochrome b (total 1796 bp). Topologies of phylogenetic trees reconstructed using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses were virtually identical and supported monophyly of the spoonbills. Most relationships within Platalea received strong support: P. minor and P. regia were closely related sister species, P. leucorodia was sister to the minor-regia clade, and P. alba was sister to the minor-regia-leucorodia clade. Relationships of P. flavipes and P. ajaja were less well resolved: these species either formed a clade that was sister to the four-species clade, or were successive sisters to this clade. This phylogeny is consistent with ideas of relatedness derived from spoonbill morphology. Our limited sampling of the Threskiornithinae (ibises), the putative sister group to the spoonbills, indicated that this group is paraphyletic, in agreement with previous molecular data; this suggests that separation of the Threskiornithidae into subfamilies Plataleinae and Threskiornithinae may not be warranted.

  16. Phylogeny of the gymnosperm genus Cycas L. (Cycadaceae) as inferred from plastid and nuclear loci based on a large-scale sampling: Evolutionary relationships and taxonomical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Shouzhou; Nagalingum, Nathalie S; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Lindstrom, Anders J; Gong, Xun

    2018-05-18

    The gymnosperm genus Cycas is the sole member of Cycadaceae, and is the largest genus of extant cycads. There are about 115 accepted Cycas species mainly distributed in the paleotropics. Based on morphology, the genus has been divided into six sections and eight subsections, but this taxonomy has not yet been tested in a molecular phylogenetic framework. Although the monophyly of Cycas is broadly accepted, the intrageneric relationships inferred from previous molecular phylogenetic analyses are unclear due to insufficient sampling or uninformative DNA sequence data. In this study, we reconstructed a phylogeny of Cycas using four chloroplast intergenic spacers and seven low-copy nuclear genes and sampling 90% of extant Cycas species. The maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenies suggest: (1) matrices of either concatenated cpDNA markers or of concatenated nDNA lack sufficient informative sites to resolve the phylogeny alone, however, the phylogeny from the combined cpDNA-nDNA dataset suggests the genus can be roughly divided into 13 clades and six sections that are in agreement with the current classification of the genus; (2) although with partial support, a clade combining sections Panzhihuaenses + Asiorientales is resolved as the earliest diverging branch; (3) section Stangerioides is not monophyletic because the species resolve as a grade; (4) section Indosinenses is not monophyletic as it includes Cycas macrocarpa and C. pranburiensis from section Cycas; (5) section Cycas is the most derived group and its subgroups correspond with geography. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Population genetic and evolution analysis of controversial genus Edwardsiella by multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buján, Noemí; Balboa, Sabela; L Romalde, Jesús; E Toranzo, Alicia; Magariños, Beatriz

    2018-05-08

    At present, the genus Edwardsiella compiles five species: E. tarda, E. hoshinae, E. ictaluri, E. piscicida and E. anguillarum. Some species of this genus such us E. ictaluri and E. piscicida are important pathogens of numerous fish species. With the description of the two latter species, the phylogeny of Edwardsiella became more complicated. With the aim to clarify the relationships among all species in the genus, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach was developed and applied to characterize 56 isolates and 6 reference strains belonging to the five Edwardsiella species. Moreover, several analyses based on the MLST scheme were performed to investigate the evolution within the genus, as well as the influence of recombination and mutation in the speciation. Edwardsiella isolates presented a high genetic variability reflected in the fourteen sequence types (ST) represented by a single isolates out of eighteen total ST. Mutation events were considerably more frequent than recombination, although both approximately equal influenced the genetic diversification. However, the speciation among species occurred mostly by recombination. Edwardsiella genus displays a non-clonal population structure with some degree of geographical isolation followed by a population expansion of E. piscicida. A database from this study was created and hosted on pubmlst.org (http://pubmlst.org/edwardsiella/). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships between functional genes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolates and phenotypic characteristics associated with fermentation time and flavor production in yogurt elucidated using multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Sun, Zhihong; Song, Yuqin; Wang, Xueni; Wang, Hongmei; Wuren, Tuoya; Zha, Musu; Menghe, Bilige; Heping, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is well known for its worldwide application in yogurt production. Flavor production and acid producing are considered as the most important characteristics for starter culture screening. To our knowledge this is the first study applying functional gene sequence multilocus sequence typing technology to predict the fermentation and flavor-producing characteristics of yogurt-producing bacteria. In the present study, phenotypic characteristics of 35 L. bulgaricus strains were quantified during the fermentation of milk to yogurt and during its subsequent storage; these included fermentation time, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, and flavor characteristics (acetaldehyde concentration). Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing analysis of 7 functional genes associated with fermentation time, acid production, and flavor formation was done to elucidate the phylogeny and genetic evolution of the same L. bulgaricus isolates. The results showed that strains significantly differed in fermentation time, acidification rate, and acetaldehyde production. Combining functional gene sequence analysis with phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that groups of strains established using genotype data were consistent with groups identified based on their phenotypic traits. This study has established an efficient and rapid molecular genotyping method to identify strains with good fermentation traits; this has the potential to replace time-consuming conventional methods based on direct measurement of phenotypic traits. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phylogeny and evolutionary histories of Pyrus L. revealed by phylogenetic trees and networks based on data from multiple DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Cai, Danying; Potter, Daniel; Postman, Joseph; Liu, Jing; Teng, Yuanwen

    2014-11-01

    Reconstructing the phylogeny of Pyrus has been difficult due to the wide distribution of the genus and lack of informative data. In this study, we collected 110 accessions representing 25 Pyrus species and constructed both phylogenetic trees and phylogenetic networks based on multiple DNA sequence datasets. Phylogenetic trees based on both cpDNA and nuclear LFY2int2-N (LN) data resulted in poor resolution, especially, only five primary species were monophyletic in the LN tree. A phylogenetic network of LN suggested that reticulation caused by hybridization is one of the major evolutionary processes for Pyrus species. Polytomies of the gene trees and star-like structure of cpDNA networks suggested rapid radiation is another major evolutionary process, especially for the occidental species. Pyrus calleryana and P. regelii were the earliest diverged Pyrus species. Two North African species, P. cordata, P. spinosa and P. betulaefolia were descendent of primitive stock Pyrus species and still share some common molecular characters. Southwestern China, where a large number of P. pashia populations are found, is probably the most important diversification center of Pyrus. More accessions and nuclear genes are needed for further understanding the evolutionary histories of Pyrus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal Eric; Ortet Philippe; Roy Sylvaine; Bastien Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic recon...

  1. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Non-aureus Staphylococci Species Based on Whole-Genome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naushad, Sohail; Barkema, Herman W.; Luby, Christopher; Condas, Larissa A. Z.; Nobrega, Diego B.; Carson, Domonique A.; De Buck, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), a heterogeneous group of a large number of species and subspecies, are the most frequently isolated pathogens from intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Phylogenetic relationships among bovine NAS species are controversial and have mostly been determined based on single-gene trees. Herein, we analyzed phylogeny of bovine NAS species using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 441 distinct isolates. In addition, evolutionary relationships among bovine NAS were estimated from multilocus data of 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoB, sodA, and tuf genes and sequences from these and numerous other single genes/proteins. All phylogenies were created with FastTree, Maximum-Likelihood, Maximum-Parsimony, and Neighbor-Joining methods. Regardless of methodology, WGS-trees clearly separated bovine NAS species into five monophyletic coherent clades. Furthermore, there were consistent interspecies relationships within clades in all WGS phylogenetic reconstructions. Except for the Maximum-Parsimony tree, multilocus data analysis similarly produced five clades. There were large variations in determining clades and interspecies relationships in single gene/protein trees, under different methods of tree constructions, highlighting limitations of using single genes for determining bovine NAS phylogeny. However, based on WGS data, we established a robust phylogeny of bovine NAS species, unaffected by method or model of evolutionary reconstructions. Therefore, it is now possible to determine associations between phylogeny and many biological traits, such as virulence, antimicrobial resistance, environmental niche, geographical distribution, and host specificity. PMID:28066335

  2. CVTree3 Web Server for Whole-genome-based and Alignment-free Prokaryotic Phylogeny and Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghong Zuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A faithful phylogeny and an objective taxonomy for prokaryotes should agree with each other and ultimately follow the genome data. With the number of sequenced genomes reaching tens of thousands, both tree inference and detailed comparison with taxonomy are great challenges. We now provide one solution in the latest Release 3.0 of the alignment-free and whole-genome-based web server CVTree3. The server resides in a cluster of 64 cores and is equipped with an interactive, collapsible, and expandable tree display. It is capable of comparing the tree branching order with prokaryotic classification at all taxonomic ranks from domains down to species and strains. CVTree3 allows for inquiry by taxon names and trial on lineage modifications. In addition, it reports a summary of monophyletic and non-monophyletic taxa at all ranks as well as produces print-quality subtree figures. After giving an overview of retrospective verification of the CVTree approach, the power of the new server is described for the mega-classification of prokaryotes and determination of taxonomic placement of some newly-sequenced genomes. A few discrepancies between CVTree and 16S rRNA analyses are also summarized with regard to possible taxonomic revisions. CVTree3 is freely accessible to all users at http://tlife.fudan.edu.cn/cvtree3/ without login requirements.

  3. CVTree3 Web Server for Whole-genome-based and Alignment-free Prokaryotic Phylogeny and Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guanghong; Hao, Bailin

    2015-10-01

    A faithful phylogeny and an objective taxonomy for prokaryotes should agree with each other and ultimately follow the genome data. With the number of sequenced genomes reaching tens of thousands, both tree inference and detailed comparison with taxonomy are great challenges. We now provide one solution in the latest Release 3.0 of the alignment-free and whole-genome-based web server CVTree3. The server resides in a cluster of 64 cores and is equipped with an interactive, collapsible, and expandable tree display. It is capable of comparing the tree branching order with prokaryotic classification at all taxonomic ranks from domains down to species and strains. CVTree3 allows for inquiry by taxon names and trial on lineage modifications. In addition, it reports a summary of monophyletic and non-monophyletic taxa at all ranks as well as produces print-quality subtree figures. After giving an overview of retrospective verification of the CVTree approach, the power of the new server is described for the mega-classification of prokaryotes and determination of taxonomic placement of some newly-sequenced genomes. A few discrepancies between CVTree and 16S rRNA analyses are also summarized with regard to possible taxonomic revisions. CVTree3 is freely accessible to all users at http://tlife.fudan.edu.cn/cvtree3/ without login requirements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. A framework for assessing the concordance of molecular typing methods and the true strain phylogeny of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli using draft genome sequence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Dianna Carrillo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracking of sources of sporadic cases of campylobacteriosis remains challenging, as commonly used molecular typing methods have limited ability to unambiguously link genetically related strains. Genomics has become increasingly prominent in the public health response to enteric pathogens as methods enable characterization of pathogens at an unprecedented level of resolution. However, the cost of sequencing and expertise required for bioinformatic analyses remains prohibitive, and these comprehensive analyses are limited to a few priority strains. Although several molecular typing methods are currently widely used for epidemiological analysis of campylobacters, it is not clear how accurately these methods reflect true strain relationships. To address this, we analyzed 104 publically available whole genome sequences (WGS of C. jejuni and C. coli. In addition to in silico determination of multi-locus sequence (MLST, fla and porA type, as well as comparative genomic fingerprint (CGF, we inferred a reference phylogeny based on conserved core genome elements. Molecular typing data were compared to the reference phylogeny for concordance using the Adjusted Wallace Coefficient (AWC with confidence intervals. Although MLST targets the sequence variability in core genes and CGF targets insertions/deletions of accessory genes, both methods are based on multilocus analysis and provided better estimates of true phylogeny than methods based on single loci (porA, fla. A more comprehensive WGS dataset including additional genetically related strains, both epidemiologically linked and unlinked, will be necessary to assess performance of methods for outbreak investigations and surveillance activities. Analyses of the strengths and weaknesses of widely used typing methodologies in inferring true strain relationships will provide guidance in the interpretation of this data for epidemiological purposes.

  5. Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika – the result of repeated introgressive hybridization

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    Blanc Michel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tribe Lamprologini is the major substrate breeding lineage of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species flock. Among several different life history strategies found in lamprologines, the adaptation to live and breed in empty gastropod shells is probably the most peculiar. Although shell-breeding arose several times in the evolutionary history of the lamprologines, all obligatory and most facultative shell-breeders belong to the so called "ossified group", a monophyletic lineage within the lamprologine cichlids. Since their distinctive life style enables these species to live and breed in closest vicinity, we hypothesized that these cichlids might be particularly prone to accidental hybridization, and that introgression might have affected the evolutionary history of this cichlid lineage. Results Our analyses revealed discrepancies between phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP data. While the nuclear phylogeny was congruent with morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics, several species – usually highly specialized shell-breeders – were placed at contradicting positions in the mitochondrial phylogeny. The discordant phylogenies strongly suggest repeated incidents of introgressive hybridization between several distantly related shell-breeding species, which reticulated the phylogeny of this group of cichlids. Long interior branches and high bootstrap support for many interior nodes in the mitochondrial phylogeny argue against a major effect of ancient incomplete lineage sorting on the phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we provide morphological and genetic (mtDNA and microsatellites evidence for ongoing hybridization among distantly related shell-breeders. In these cases, the territorial males of the inferred paternal species are too large to enter the shells of their mate, such that they have to release their sperm over the entrance of the shell to fertilize the eggs. With sperm

  6. Whole genome-based phylogeny of reptile-associated Helicobacter indicates independent niche adaptation followed by diversification in a poikilothermic host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Duim, Birgitta; Timmerman, Arjen J; Zomer, Aldert L; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-08-21

    Reptiles have been shown to host a significant Helicobacter diversity. In order to survive, reptile-associated Helicobacter lineages need to be adapted to the thermally dynamic environment encountered in a poikilothermic host. The whole genomes of reptile-associated Helicobacter lineages can provide insights in Helicobacter host adaptation and coevolution. These aspects were explored by comparing the genomes of reptile-, bird-, and mammal-associated Helicobacter lineages. Based on average nucleotide identity, all reptile-associated Helicobacter lineages in this study could be considered distinct species. A whole genome-based phylogeny showed two distinct clades, one associated with chelonians and one associated with lizards. The phylogeny indicates initial adaptation to an anatomical niche, which is followed by an ancient host jump and subsequent diversification. Furthermore, the ability to grow at low temperatures, which might reflect thermal adaptation to a reptilian host, originated at least twice in Helicobacter evolution. A putative tricarballylate catabolism locus was specifically present in Campylobacter and Helicobacter isolates from reptiles. The phylogeny of reptile-associated Helicobacter parallels host association, indicating a high level of host specificity. The high diversity and deep branching within these clades supports long-term coevolution with, and extensive radiation within the respective reptilian host type.

  7. Phylogeny of the cycads based on multiple single copy nuclear genes: congruence of concatenation and species tree inference methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite a recent new classification, a stable tree of life for the cycads has been elusive, particularly regarding resolution of Bowenia, Stangeria and Dioon. In this study we apply five single copy nuclear genes (SCNGs) to the phylogeny of the order Cycadales. We specifically aim to evaluate seve...

  8. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Klitgaard, Bente B; Forest, Félix; Francis, Louise; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Hawkins, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce. In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships. This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this field, after further refinement of the techniques, will expand into

  9. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Haris Saslis-Lagoudakis

    Full Text Available The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce.In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae. We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships.This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this field, after further refinement of the techniques

  10. Phylogeny and divergence-date estimates of rapid radiations in muroid rodents based on multiple nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steppan, Scott; Adkins, Ronald; Anderson, Joel

    2004-08-01

    The muroid rodents are the largest superfamily of mammals, containing nearly one third of all mammal species. We report on a phylogenetic study comprising 53 genera sequenced for four nuclear genes, GHR, BRCA1, RAG1, and c-myc, totaling up to 6400 nucleotides. Most relationships among the subfamilies are resolved. All four genes yield nearly identical phylogenies, differing only in five key regions, four of which may represent particularly rapid radiations. Support is very strong for a fundamental division of the mole rats of the subfamilies Spalacinae and Rhizomyinae from all other muroids. Among the other "core" muroids, a rapid radiation led to at least four distinct lineages: Asian Calomyscus, an African clade of at least four endemic subfamilies, including the diverse Nesomyinae of Madagascar, a hamster clade with maximum diversity in the New World, and an Old World clade including gerbils and the diverse Old World mice and rats (Murinae). The Deomyinae, recently removed from the Murinae, is well supported as the sister group to the gerbils (Gerbillinae). Four key regions appear to represent rapid radiations and, despite a large amount of sequence data, remain poorly resolved: the base of the "core" muroids, among the five cricetid (hamster) subfamilies, within a large clade of Sigmodontinae endemic to South America, and among major geographic lineages of Old World Murinae. Because of the detailed taxon sampling within the Murinae, we are able to refine the fossil calibration of a rate-smoothed molecular clock and apply this clock to date key events in muroid evolution. We calculate rate differences among the gene regions and relate those differences to relative contribution of each gene to the support for various nodes. The among-gene variance in support is greatest for the shortest branches. We present a revised classification for this largest but most unsettled mammalian superfamily.

  11. Phylogeny and temporal diversification of darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Thomas J; Bossu, Christen M; Bradburd, Gideon S; Carlson, Rose L; Harrington, Richard C; Hollingsworth, Phillip R; Keck, Benjamin P; Etnier, David A

    2011-10-01

    Discussions aimed at resolution of the Tree of Life are most often focused on the interrelationships of major organismal lineages. In this study, we focus on the resolution of some of the most apical branches in the Tree of Life through exploration of the phylogenetic relationships of darters, a species-rich clade of North American freshwater fishes. With a near-complete taxon sampling of close to 250 species, we aim to investigate strategies for efficient multilocus data sampling and the estimation of divergence times using relaxed-clock methods when a clade lacks a fossil record. Our phylogenetic data set comprises a single mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene and two nuclear genes sampled from 245 of the 248 darter species. This dense sampling allows us to determine if a modest amount of nuclear DNA sequence data can resolve relationships among closely related animal species. Darters lack a fossil record to provide age calibration priors in relaxed-clock analyses. Therefore, we use a near-complete species-sampled phylogeny of the perciform clade Centrarchidae, which has a rich fossil record, to assess two distinct strategies of external calibration in relaxed-clock divergence time estimates of darters: using ages inferred from the fossil record and molecular evolutionary rate estimates. Comparison of Bayesian phylogenies inferred from mtDNA and nuclear genes reveals that heterospecific mtDNA is present in approximately 12.5% of all darter species. We identify three patterns of mtDNA introgression in darters: proximal mtDNA transfer, which involves the transfer of mtDNA among extant and sympatric darter species, indeterminate introgression, which involves the transfer of mtDNA from a lineage that cannot be confidently identified because the introgressed haplotypes are not clearly referable to mtDNA haplotypes in any recognized species, and deep introgression, which is characterized by species diversification within a recipient clade subsequent to the transfer of

  12. DNA-based identification and phylogeny of North American Armillaria species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; John W. Hanna; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2011-01-01

    Because Armillaria species display different ecological behaviors across diverse forest ecosystems, it is critical to identify Armillaria species accurately for any assessment of forest health. To further develop DNA-based identification methods, partial sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene were used to examine the phylogenetic...

  13. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Olivier; Ortet, Philippe; Roy, Sylvaine; Maréchal, Eric

    2005-03-10

    Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space) and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP) allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  14. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. Results We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. Conclusion The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  15. Molecular Phylogeny of Triticum and Aegilops Genera Based on ITS and MATK Sequence Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizkirici, A.; Kansu, C.; Onde, S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the phylogenetic relationship between Triticum and Aegilops species, which form a vast gene pool of wheat, is very important for breeding new cultivated wheat varieties. In the present study, phylogenetic relationships between Triticum (12 samples from 4 species) and Aegilops (24 samples from 8 species) were investigated using sequences of the nuclear ITS rDNA gene and partial sequences of the matK gene of chloroplast genome. The phylogenetic relationships among species were reconstructed using Maximum Likelihood method. The constructed tree based on the sequences of the nuclear component (ITS) displayed a close relationship between polyploid wheats and Aegilops speltoides species which provided new evidence for the source of the enigmatic B genome donor as Ae. speltoides. Concurrent clustering of Ae. cylindrica and Ae. tauschii and their close positioning to polyploid wheats pointed the source of the D genome as one of these species. As reported before, diploid Triticum species (i.e. T. urartu) were identified as the A genome donors and the positioning of these diploid wheats on the constructed tree are meaningful. The constructed tree based on the chloroplastic matK sequences displayed same relationship between polyploid wheats and Ae. speltoides species providing evidence for the later species being the chloroplast donors for polyploid wheats. Therefore, our results supported the idea of coinheritance of nuclear and chloroplast genomes where Ae. speltoides was the maternal donor. For both trees the remaining Aegilops species produced a distinct cluster whereas with the exception of T. urartu, diploid Triticum species displayed a monophyletic structure. (author)

  16. [Approach to Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) phylogeny based on the sequence of the cytocrhome oxydase I (COI) mitochondrial gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldamando, Clara Inés; Marquez, Edna Judith

    2012-09-01

    The genus Spodoptera includes 30 species of moths considered important pests worldwide, with a great representation in the Western Hemisphere. In general, Noctuidae species have morphological similarities that have caused some difficulties for assertive species identification by conventional methods. The purpose of this work was to generate an approach to the genus phylogeny from several species of the genus Spodoptera and the species Bombyx mori as an out group, with the use of molecular tools. For this, a total of 102 S. frugiperda larvae were obtained at random in corn, cotton, rice, grass and sorghum, during late 2006 and early 2009, from Colombia. We took ADN samples from the larval posterior part and we analyzed a fragment of 451 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxydase I (COI), to produce a maximum likelihood (ML) tree by using 62 sequences (29 Colombian haplotypes were used). Our results showed a great genetic differentiation (K2 distances) amongst S. frugiperda haplotypes from Colombia and the United States, condition supported by the estimators obtained for haplotype diversity and polymorphism. The obtained ML tree clustered most of the species with bootstrapping values from 73-99% in the interior branches; with low values also observed in some of the branches. In addition, this tree clustered two species of the Eastern hemisphere (S littoralis and S. litura) and eight species of the Western hemisphere (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli and S. pulchella). In Colombia, S. frugiperda, S. ornithogalli and S. albula represent a group of species referred as "the Spodoptera complex" of cotton crops, and our work demonstrated that sequencing a fragment of the COI gene, allows researchers to differentiate the first two species, and thus it can be used as an alternative method to taxonomic keys based on morphology. Finally, the ML tree did not cluster S. frugiperda with S. ornithogalli

  17. An updated 18S rRNA phylogeny of tunicates based on mixture and secondary structure models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenkar Noa

    2009-08-01

    suggest a sister-group relationship between Salpida and Pyrosomatida within Thaliacea. Conclusion An updated phylogenetic framework for tunicates is provided based on phylogenetic analyses using the most realistic evolutionary models currently available for ribosomal molecules and an unprecedented taxonomic sampling. Detailed analyses of the 18S rRNA gene allowed a clear definition of the major tunicate groups and revealed contrasting evolutionary dynamics among major lineages. The resolving power of this gene nevertheless appears limited within the clades composed of Phlebobranchia + Thaliacea + Aplousobranchia and Pyuridae + Styelidae, which were delineated as spots of low resolution. These limitations underline the need to develop new nuclear markers in order to further resolve the phylogeny of this keystone group in chordate evolution.

  18. Multilocus genetics to reconstruct aeromonad evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Frédéric

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aeromonas spp. are versatile bacteria that exhibit a wide variety of lifestyles. In an attempt to improve the understanding of human aeromonosis, we investigated whether clinical isolates displayed specific characteristics in terms of genetic diversity, population structure and mode of evolution among Aeromonas spp. A collection of 195 Aeromonas isolates from human, animal and environmental sources was therefore genotyped using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA based on the dnaK, gltA, gyrB, radA, rpoB, tsf and zipA genes. Results The MLSA showed a high level of genetic diversity among the population, and multilocus-based phylogenetic analysis (MLPA revealed 3 major clades: the A. veronii, A. hydrophila and A. caviae clades, among the eleven clades detected. Lower genetic diversity was observed within the A. caviae clade as well as among clinical isolates compared to environmental isolates. Clonal complexes, each of which included a limited number of strains, mainly corresponded to host-associated subsclusters of strains, i.e., a fish-associated subset within A. salmonicida and 11 human-associated subsets, 9 of which included only disease-associated strains. The population structure was shown to be clonal, with modes of evolution that involved mutations in general and recombination events locally. Recombination was detected in 5 genes in the MLSA scheme and concerned approximately 50% of the STs. Therefore, these recombination events could explain the observed phylogenetic incongruities and low robustness. However, the MLPA globally confirmed the current systematics of the genus Aeromonas. Conclusions Evolution in the genus Aeromonas has resulted in exceptionally high genetic diversity. Emerging from this diversity, subsets of strains appeared to be host adapted and/or “disease specialized” while the A. caviae clade displayed an atypical tempo of evolution among aeromonads. Considering that A. salmonicida has been

  19. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

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    Qiwei Zeng

    Full Text Available Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp and the longest (233 bp ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  20. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus.

  1. Genetics and phylogeny of genus Coilia in China based on AFLP markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaoli; Han, Zhiqiang; Sun, Dianrong; Xie, Songguang; Lin, Longshan; Gao, Tianxiang

    2010-07-01

    The taxonomy of Coilia has been extensively studied in China, and yet phylogenetic relationships among component taxa remain controversial. We used a PCR-based fingerprinting technique, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to characterize and identify all four species of Coilia in China. We examined the genetic relationships of the four species of Coilia and a subspecies of Coilia nasus with AFLP. A total of 180 AFLP loci were generated from six primer combinations, of which 76.11% were polymorphic. The mean genetic distance between pairs of taxa ranged from 0.047 to 0.596. The neighbor-joining tree and UPGMA dendrogram resolved the investigated species into three separate lineages: (1) C. mystus, (2) C. grayii and (3) C. brachygnathus, C. nasus, and C. nasus taihuensis. Phylogenetic analysis of the AFLP data is inconsistent with current morphological taxonomic systems. The AFLP data indicated a close relationship among C. brachygnathus, C. nasus taihuensis, and C. nasus. Therefore, the two species described under Coilia ( C. brachygnathus and C. nasus taihuensis) are treated as synonyms of C. nasus.

  2. Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiwei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Chao; Han, Minjing; Li, Tian; Qi, Xiwu; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2015-01-01

    Mulberry, belonging to the order Rosales, family Moraceae, and genus Morus, has received attention because of both its economic and medicinal value, as well as for its important ecological function. The genus Morus has a worldwide distribution, however, its taxonomy remains complex and disputed. Many studies have attempted to classify Morus species, resulting in varied numbers of designated Morus spp. To address this issue, we used information from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genetic sequences to study the taxonomy of all the members of generally accepted genus Morus. We found that intraspecific 5.8S rRNA sequences were identical but that interspecific 5.8S sequences were diverse. M. alba and M. notabilis showed the shortest (215 bp) and the longest (233 bp) ITS1 sequence length, respectively. With the completion of the mulberry genome, we could identify single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS locus in the M. notabilis genome. From reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree based on the complete ITS data, we propose that the Morus genus should be classified into eight species, including M. alba, M. nigra, M. notabilis, M. serrata, M. celtidifolia, M. insignis, M. rubra, and M. mesozygia. Furthermore, the classification of the ITS sequences of known interspecific hybrid clones into both paternal and maternal clades indicated that ITS variation was sufficient to distinguish interspecific hybrids in the genus Morus. PMID:26266951

  3. Accurate and robust phylogeny estimation based on profile distances: a study of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmann Sven

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In phylogenetic analysis we face the problem that several subclade topologies are known or easily inferred and well supported by bootstrap analysis, but basal branching patterns cannot be unambiguously estimated by the usual methods (maximum parsimony (MP, neighbor-joining (NJ, or maximum likelihood (ML, nor are they well supported. We represent each subclade by a sequence profile and estimate evolutionary distances between profiles to obtain a matrix of distances between subclades. Results Our estimator of profile distances generalizes the maximum likelihood estimator of sequence distances. The basal branching pattern can be estimated by any distance-based method, such as neighbor-joining. Our method (profile neighbor-joining, PNJ then inherits the accuracy and robustness of profiles and the time efficiency of neighbor-joining. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of Chlorophyceae with traditional methods (MP, NJ, ML and MrBayes reveals seven well supported subclades, but the methods disagree on the basal branching pattern. The tree reconstructed by our method is better supported and can be confirmed by known morphological characters. Moreover the accuracy is significantly improved as shown by parametric bootstrap.

  4. Multilocus inference of species trees and DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Diego; Posada, David

    2016-09-05

    The unprecedented amount of data resulting from next-generation sequencing has opened a new era in phylogenetic estimation. Although large datasets should, in theory, increase phylogenetic resolution, massive, multilocus datasets have uncovered a great deal of phylogenetic incongruence among different genomic regions, due both to stochastic error and to the action of different evolutionary process such as incomplete lineage sorting, gene duplication and loss and horizontal gene transfer. This incongruence violates one of the fundamental assumptions of the DNA barcoding approach, which assumes that gene history and species history are identical. In this review, we explain some of the most important challenges we will have to face to reconstruct the history of species, and the advantages and disadvantages of different strategies for the phylogenetic analysis of multilocus data. In particular, we describe the evolutionary events that can generate species tree-gene tree discordance, compare the most popular methods for species tree reconstruction, highlight the challenges we need to face when using them and discuss their potential utility in barcoding. Current barcoding methods sacrifice a great amount of statistical power by only considering one locus, and a transition to multilocus barcodes would not only improve current barcoding methods, but also facilitate an eventual transition to species-tree-based barcoding strategies, which could better accommodate scenarios where the barcode gap is too small or inexistent.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Phylogeny reconstruction and hybrid analysis of populus (Salicaceae) based on nucleotide sequences of multiple single-copy nuclear genes and plastid fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoshan; Du, Shuhui; Dayanandan, Selvadurai; Wang, Dongsheng; Zeng, Yanfei; Zhang, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Populus (Salicaceae) is one of the most economically and ecologically important genera of forest trees. The complex reticulate evolution and lack of highly variable orthologous single-copy DNA markers have posed difficulties in resolving the phylogeny of this genus. Based on a large data set of nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, we reconstructed robust phylogeny of Populus using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed better resolution at both inter- and intra-sectional level than previous studies. The results revealed that (1) the plastid-based phylogenetic tree resulted in two main clades, suggesting an early divergence of the maternal progenitors of Populus; (2) three advanced sections (Populus, Aigeiros and Tacamahaca) are of hybrid origin; (3) species of the section Tacamahaca could be divided into two major groups based on plastid and nuclear DNA data, suggesting a polyphyletic nature of the section; and (4) many species proved to be of hybrid origin based on the incongruence between plastid and nuclear DNA trees. Reticulate evolution may have played a significant role in the evolution history of Populus by facilitating rapid adaptive radiations into different environments.

  6. Phylogeny reconstruction and hybrid analysis of populus (Salicaceae based on nucleotide sequences of multiple single-copy nuclear genes and plastid fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoshan Wang

    Full Text Available Populus (Salicaceae is one of the most economically and ecologically important genera of forest trees. The complex reticulate evolution and lack of highly variable orthologous single-copy DNA markers have posed difficulties in resolving the phylogeny of this genus. Based on a large data set of nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, we reconstructed robust phylogeny of Populus using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed better resolution at both inter- and intra-sectional level than previous studies. The results revealed that (1 the plastid-based phylogenetic tree resulted in two main clades, suggesting an early divergence of the maternal progenitors of Populus; (2 three advanced sections (Populus, Aigeiros and Tacamahaca are of hybrid origin; (3 species of the section Tacamahaca could be divided into two major groups based on plastid and nuclear DNA data, suggesting a polyphyletic nature of the section; and (4 many species proved to be of hybrid origin based on the incongruence between plastid and nuclear DNA trees. Reticulate evolution may have played a significant role in the evolution history of Populus by facilitating rapid adaptive radiations into different environments.

  7. Do ampharetids take sedimented steps between vents and seeps? Phylogeny and habitat-use of Ampharetidae (Annelida, Terebelliformia) in chemosynthesis-based ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilertsen, Mari H; Kongsrud, Jon A; Alvestad, Tom; Stiller, Josefin; Rouse, Greg W; Rapp, Hans T

    2017-10-31

    A range of higher animal taxa are shared across various chemosynthesis-based ecosystems (CBEs), which demonstrates the evolutionary link between these habitats, but on a global scale the number of species inhabiting multiple CBEs is low. The factors shaping the distributions and habitat specificity of animals within CBEs are poorly understood, but geographic proximity of habitats, depth and substratum have been suggested as important. Biogeographic studies have indicated that intermediate habitats such as sedimented vents play an important part in the diversification of taxa within CBEs, but this has not been assessed in a phylogenetic framework. Ampharetid annelids are one of the most commonly encountered animal groups in CBEs, making them a good model taxon to study the evolution of habitat use in heterotrophic animals. Here we present a review of the habitat use of ampharetid species in CBEs, and a multi-gene phylogeny of Ampharetidae, with increased taxon sampling compared to previous studies. The review of microhabitats showed that many ampharetid species have a wide niche in terms of temperature and substratum. Depth may be limiting some species to a certain habitat, and trophic ecology and/or competition are identified as other potentially relevant factors. The phylogeny revealed that ampharetids have adapted into CBEs at least four times independently, with subsequent diversification, and shifts between ecosystems have happened in each of these clades. Evolutionary transitions are found to occur both from seep to vent and vent to seep, and the results indicate a role of sedimented vents in the transition between bare-rock vents and seeps. The high number of ampharetid species recently described from CBEs, and the putative new species included in the present phylogeny, indicates that there is considerable diversity still to be discovered. This study provides a molecular framework for future studies to build upon and identifies some ecological and

  8. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gustavo A Concheiro; Rícan, Oldrich; Ortí, Guillermo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Doadrio, Ignacio; Zardoya, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Heroini constitute the second largest tribe of Neotropical cichlids and show their greatest diversity in Mesoamerica. Although heroine species are morphologically and ecologically very diverse, they were all historically assigned to one single genus, Cichlasoma that was never formally revised from a phylogenetic point of view. Here, we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Heroini to date, based on the complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, and the analysis of 204 individuals representing 91 species. Phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of heroines because the genus Pterophyllum was placed as the sister group of all remaining heroines plus cichlasomatines. However, the recovered relative position of Pterophyllum was without strong statistical support. Within the remaining heroines, Hyspelecara and Hoplarchus are recovered with low support in a basal position with respect to a clade that includes Heros, Uaru, Mesonauta, and Symphysodon, and the circumamazonian (CAM) heroines. The first clade is restricted to South America. The largest clade of heroines, the CAM heroines, include more than 85% of the species within the tribe. This clade is mostly Mesoamerican, but also contains four species found in the Greater Antilles (Nandopsis), and three genera found in South America (the 'Heros' festae group, Australoheros, and Caquetaia). Up to eight major lineages can be recovered within the CAM heroines, but the phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Two large suprageneric groups can be distinguished, the amphilophines and the herichthyines. The amphilophines include Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Hypsophrys, Neetroplus, Parachromis, Petenia, and five additional unnamed genera (the 'Heros' istlanus group, the 'Amphilophus' calobrensis group, the 'Heros' urophthalmus group, the 'Heros' wesseli group, and the 'Heros' sieboldii group). The herichthyines include the crown-group herichthyines

  9. A novel phylogeny of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta) based on five genes including the nuclear CesA, with descriptions of Orthogonacladia gen. nov. and Orthogonacladiaceae fam. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Ga Hun; Le Gall, Line; Miller, Kathy Ann; Freshwater, D Wilson; Wernberg, Thomas; Terada, Ryuta; Yoon, Kyung Ju; Boo, Sung Min

    2016-08-01

    Although the Gelidiales are economically important marine red algae producing agar and agarose, the phylogeny of this order remains poorly resolved. The present study provides a molecular phylogeny based on a novel marker, nuclear-encoded CesA, plus plastid-encoded psaA, psbA, rbcL, and mitochondria-encoded cox1 from subsets of 107 species from all ten genera within the Gelidiales. Analyses of individual and combined datasets support the monophyly of three currently recognized families, and reveal a new clade. On the basis of these results, the new family Orthogonacladiaceae is described to accommodate Aphanta and a new genus Orthogonacladia that includes species previously classified as Gelidium madagascariense and Pterocladia rectangularis. Acanthopeltis is merged with Gelidium, which has nomenclatural priority. Nuclear-encoded CesA was found to be useful for improving the resolution of phylogenetic relationships within the Gelidiales and is likely to be valuable for the inference of phylogenetic relationship among other red algal taxa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MultiLocus Sequence Analysis- and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism-based characterization of xanthomonads associated with bacterial spot of tomato and pepper and their relatedness to Xanthomonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, A A; Robene-Soustrade, I; Jouen, E; Lefeuvre, P; Chiroleu, F; Fisher-Le Saux, M; Gagnevin, L; Pruvost, O

    2012-05-01

    MultiLocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) were used to measure the genetic relatedness of a comprehensive collection of xanthomonads pathogenic to solaneous hosts to Xanthomonas species. The MLSA scheme was based on partial sequences of four housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, efp and gyrB). Globally, MLSA data unambiguously identified strains causing bacterial spot of tomato and pepper at the species level and was consistent with AFLP data. Genetic distances derived from both techniques showed a close relatedness of (i) X. euvesicatoria, X. perforans and X. alfalfae and (ii) X. gardneri and X. cynarae. Maximum likelihood tree topologies derived from each gene portion and the concatenated data set for species in the X. campestris 16S rRNA core (i.e. the species cluster comprising all strains causing bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) were not congruent, consistent with the detection of several putative recombination events in our data sets by several recombination search algorithms. One recombinant region in atpD was identified in most strains of X. euvesicatoria including the type strain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of Cyclophyllidea (Cestoda: Eucestoda): an in-silico analysis based on mtCOI gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Lyngdoh, Damanbha; Roy, Bishnupada; Tandon, Veena

    2016-09-01

    Order Cyclophyllidea (of cestode platyhelminths) has a rich diversity of parasites and includes many families and species that are known to cause serious medical condition in humans and domestic and wild animals. Despite various attempts to resolve phylogenetic relationships at the inter-family level, uncertainty remains. In order to add resolution to the existing phylogeny of the order, we generated partial mtCO1 sequences for some commonly occurring cyclophyllidean cestodes and combined them with available sequences from GenBank. Phylogeny was inferred taking a total 83 representative species spanning 8 families using Bayesian analysis. The phylogenetic tree revealed Dilepididae as the most basal taxon and showed early divergence in the phylogenetic tree. Paruterinidae, Taeniidae and Anoplocephalidae showed non-monophyletic assemblage; our result suggests that the family Paruterinidae may represent a polyphyletic group. The diverse family Taeniidae appeared in two separate clades; while one of them included all the members of the genus Echinococcus and also Versteria, the representatives of the genera Taenia and Hydatigera clubbed in the other clade. A close affinity of Dipylidiidae with Taenia and Hydatigera was seen, whereas existence of a close relationship between Mesocestoididae and Echinococcus (of Taeniidae) is also demonstrated. The crown group comprised the families Anoplocephalidae, Davaineidae, Hymenolepididae and Mesocestoididae, and also all species of the genus Echinococcus and Versteria mustelae; monophyly of these families (excepting Anolplocephalidae) and the genus Echinococcus as well as its sister-taxon relation with V. mustelae is also confirmed. Furthermore, non-monophyly of Anoplocephalidae is suggested to be correlated with divergence in the host selection.

  12. A clade uniting the green algae Mesostigma viride and Chlorokybus atmophyticus represents the deepest branch of the Streptophyta in chloroplast genome-based phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turmel Monique

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Viridiplantae comprise two major phyla: the Streptophyta, containing the charophycean green algae and all land plants, and the Chlorophyta, containing the remaining green algae. Despite recent progress in unravelling phylogenetic relationships among major green plant lineages, problematic nodes still remain in the green tree of life. One of the major issues concerns the scaly biflagellate Mesostigma viride, which is either regarded as representing the earliest divergence of the Streptophyta or a separate lineage that diverged before the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta. Phylogenies based on chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes support the latter view. Because some green plant lineages are not represented in these phylogenies, sparse taxon sampling has been suspected to yield misleading topologies. Here, we describe the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequence of the early-diverging charophycean alga Chlorokybus atmophyticus and present chloroplast genome-based phylogenies with an expanded taxon sampling. Results The 152,254 bp Chlorokybus cpDNA closely resembles its Mesostigma homologue at the gene content and gene order levels. Using various methods of phylogenetic inference, we analyzed amino acid and nucleotide data sets that were derived from 45 protein-coding genes common to the cpDNAs of 37 green algal/land plant taxa and eight non-green algae. Unexpectedly, all best trees recovered a robust clade uniting Chlorokybus and Mesostigma. In protein trees, this clade was sister to all streptophytes and chlorophytes and this placement received moderate support. In contrast, gene trees provided unequivocal support to the notion that the Mesostigma + Chlorokybus clade represents the earliest-diverging branch of the Streptophyta. Independent analyses of structural data (gene content and/or gene order and of subsets of amino acid data progressively enriched in slow-evolving sites led us to conclude that the latter topology

  13. The phylogeny of Arthrotardigrada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Guldberg

    2011-01-01

    The order Arthrotardigrada, or water bears, constitutes a small group of 160 species of marine, microscopical invertebrates, within the phylum Tardigrada. Although the position of tardigrades in the Animal Kingdom has received much attention focusing on the metazoan phylogeny, the phylogenetic...

  14. Fossils and decapod phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Frederick R.; Dixon, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    An expanded series of morphological characters developed for a cladistic analysis of extant decapods has yielded a new hypothesis for the phylogeny of the group. Application of this database to selected fossil genera produces some interesting results and demonstrates the feasibility of treating

  15. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Archaea: A Comparison of the Whole-Genome-Based CVTree Approach with 16S rRNA Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghong Zuo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A tripartite comparison of Archaea phylogeny and taxonomy at and above the rank order is reported: (1 the whole-genome-based and alignment-free CVTree using 179 genomes; (2 the 16S rRNA analysis exemplified by the All-Species Living Tree with 366 archaeal sequences; and (3 the Second Edition of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology complemented by some current literature. A high degree of agreement is reached at these ranks. From the newly proposed archaeal phyla, Korarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota and Aigarchaeota, to the recent suggestion to divide the class Halobacteria into three orders, all gain substantial support from CVTree. In addition, the CVTree helped to determine the taxonomic position of some newly sequenced genomes without proper lineage information. A few discrepancies between the CVTree and the 16S rRNA approaches call for further investigation.

  16. Multilocus sequence analysis of Treponema denticola strains of diverse origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Sisu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral spirochete bacterium Treponema denticola is associated with both the incidence and severity of periodontal disease. Although the biological or phenotypic properties of a significant number of T. denticola isolates have been reported in the literature, their genetic diversity or phylogeny has never been systematically investigated. Here, we describe a multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA of 20 of the most highly studied reference strains and clinical isolates of T. denticola; which were originally isolated from subgingival plaque samples taken from subjects from China, Japan, the Netherlands, Canada and the USA. Results The sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, and 7 conserved protein-encoding genes (flaA, recA, pyrH, ppnK, dnaN, era and radC were successfully determined for each strain. Sequence data was analyzed using a variety of bioinformatic and phylogenetic software tools. We found no evidence of positive selection or DNA recombination within the protein-encoding genes, where levels of intraspecific sequence polymorphism varied from 18.8% (flaA to 8.9% (dnaN. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated protein-encoding gene sequence data (ca. 6,513 nucleotides for each strain using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches indicated that the T. denticola strains were monophyletic, and formed 6 well-defined clades. All analyzed T. denticola strains appeared to have a genetic origin distinct from that of ‘Treponema vincentii’ or Treponema pallidum. No specific geographical relationships could be established; but several strains isolated from different continents appear to be closely related at the genetic level. Conclusions Our analyses indicate that previous biological and biophysical investigations have predominantly focused on a subset of T. denticola strains with a relatively narrow range of genetic diversity. Our methodology and results establish a genetic framework for the discrimination and phylogenetic

  17. [Molecular phylogeny of Turbellaria, based on data from comparing the nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznedelov, K D; Timoshkin, O A

    1995-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the 5'-end region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene were used to infer phylogenetic relationship among turbellarian flatworms from Lake Baikal. Representatives of 5 orders (Tricladida--10 spp., Lecithoepitheliata--5 spp., Prolecithophora--3 spp., Proseriata and Kalyptorhynchia one for each) were studied; nucleotide sequence of more than 340 nucleotides was determined for each species. Consensus sequence for each order having more than one representative species was determined. Distance matrix and maximum parsimony approaches were applied to infer phylogenies. Bootstrap procedure was used to estimate confidence limits, at the 100% level by bootstrapping, the group of three orders: Kalyptorhynchia, Proseriata and Lecithoepitheliata was found to be monophyletic. However, subsets inside the group had no significant support to be preferred or rejected. Our data do not support traditional systematics which joins two suborders Tricladida and Proseriata into the single order Seriata, and also do not support comparative anatomical data which show close relationship of Lecithoepitheliata and lower Prolecithophora.

  18. Transcriptome-based phylogeny of endemic Lake Baikal amphipod species flock: fast speciation accompanied by frequent episodes of positive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Sergey A; Logacheva, Maria D; Popova, Nina V; Klepikova, Anna V; Penin, Aleksey A; Bazykin, Georgii A; Etingova, Anna E; Mugue, Nikolai S; Kondrashov, Alexey S; Yampolsky, Lev Y

    2017-01-01

    Endemic species flocks inhabiting ancient lakes, oceanic islands and other long-lived isolated habitats are often interpreted as adaptive radiations. Yet molecular evidence for directional selection during species flocks radiation is scarce. Using partial transcriptomes of 64 species of Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia) endemic amphipods and two nonendemic outgroups, we report a revised phylogeny of this species flock and analyse evidence for positive selection within the endemic lineages. We confirm two independent invasions of amphipods into Baikal and demonstrate that several morphological features of Baikal amphipods, such as body armour and reduction in appendages and sensory organs, evolved in several lineages in parallel. Radiation of Baikal amphipods has been characterized by short phylogenetic branches and frequent episodes of positive selection which tended to be more frequent in the early phase of the second invasion of amphipods into Baikal when the most intensive diversification occurred. Notably, signatures of positive selection are frequent in genes encoding mitochondrial membrane proteins with electron transfer chain and ATP synthesis functionality. In particular, subunits of both the membrane and substrate-level ATP synthases show evidence of positive selection in the plankton species Macrohectopus branickii, possibly indicating adaptation to active plankton lifestyle and to survival under conditions of low temperature and high hydrostatic pressures known to affect membranes functioning. Other functional categories represented among genes likely to be under positive selection include Ca-binding muscle-related proteins, possibly indicating adaptation to Ca-deficient low mineralization Baikal waters. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Testing mitochondrial sequences and anonymous nuclear markers for phylogeny reconstruction in a rapidly radiating group: molecular systematics of the Delphininae (Cetacea: Odontoceti: Delphinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingston Sarah E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many molecular phylogenetic analyses rely on DNA sequence data obtained from single or multiple loci, particularly mitochondrial DNA loci. However, phylogenies for taxa that have undergone recent, rapid radiation events often remain unresolved. Alternative methodologies for discerning evolutionary relationships under these conditions are desirable. The dolphin subfamily Delphininae is a group that has likely resulted from a recent and rapid radiation. Despite several efforts, the evolutionary relationships among the species in the subfamily remain unclear. Results Here, we compare a phylogeny estimated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region sequences to a multi-locus phylogeny inferred from 418 polymorphic genomic markers obtained from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis. The two sets of phylogenies are largely incongruent, primarily because the mtDNA tree provides very poor resolving power; very few species' nodes in the tree are supported by bootstrap resampling. The AFLP phylogeny is considerably better resolved and more congruent with relationships inferred from morphological data. Both phylogenies support paraphyly for the genera Stenella and Tursiops. The AFLP data indicate a close relationship between the two spotted dolphin species and recent ancestry between Stenella clymene and S. longirostris. The placement of the Lagenodelphis hosei lineage is ambiguous: phenetic analysis of the AFLP data is consistent with morphological expectations but the phylogenetic analysis is not. Conclusion For closely related, recently diverged taxa, a multi-locus genome-wide survey is likely the most comprehensive approach currently available for phylogenetic inference.

  20. Re-Evaluation of Phylogenetic Relationships among Species of the Mangrove Genus Avicennia from Indo-West Pacific Based on Multilocus Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinnian; Duke, Norman C; Yang, Yuchen; Huang, Lishi; Zhu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Zhang; Zhou, Renchao; Zhong, Cairong; Huang, Yelin; Shi, Suhua

    2016-01-01

    Avicennia L. (Avicenniaceae), one of the most diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones worldwide. Five species of Avicennia in the Indo-West Pacific region have been previously described. However, their phylogenetic relationships were determined based on morphological and allozyme data. To enhance our understanding of evolutionary patterns in the clade, we carried out a molecular phylogenetic study using wide sampling and multiple loci. Our results support two monophyletic clades across all species worldwide in Avicennia: an Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP) lineage and an Indo-West Pacific (IWP) lineage. This split is in line with biogeographic distribution of the clade. Focusing on the IWP branch, we reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree based on sequences from 25 nuclear genes. The results identified three distinct subclades, (1) A. rumphiana and A. alba, (2) A. officinalis and A. integra, and (3) the A. marina complex, with high bootstrap support. The results strongly corresponded to two morphological traits in floral structure: stigma position in relation to the anthers and style length. Using Bayesian dating methods we estimated diversification of the IWP lineage was dated to late Miocene (c. 6.0 million years ago) and may have been driven largely by the fluctuating sea levels since that time.

  1. Re-Evaluation of Phylogenetic Relationships among Species of the Mangrove Genus Avicennia from Indo-West Pacific Based on Multilocus Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinnian Li

    Full Text Available Avicennia L. (Avicenniaceae, one of the most diverse mangrove genera, is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical intertidal zones worldwide. Five species of Avicennia in the Indo-West Pacific region have been previously described. However, their phylogenetic relationships were determined based on morphological and allozyme data. To enhance our understanding of evolutionary patterns in the clade, we carried out a molecular phylogenetic study using wide sampling and multiple loci. Our results support two monophyletic clades across all species worldwide in Avicennia: an Atlantic-East Pacific (AEP lineage and an Indo-West Pacific (IWP lineage. This split is in line with biogeographic distribution of the clade. Focusing on the IWP branch, we reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree based on sequences from 25 nuclear genes. The results identified three distinct subclades, (1 A. rumphiana and A. alba, (2 A. officinalis and A. integra, and (3 the A. marina complex, with high bootstrap support. The results strongly corresponded to two morphological traits in floral structure: stigma position in relation to the anthers and style length. Using Bayesian dating methods we estimated diversification of the IWP lineage was dated to late Miocene (c. 6.0 million years ago and may have been driven largely by the fluctuating sea levels since that time.

  2. Evolution of Rosaceae Fruit Types Based on Nuclear Phylogeny in the Context of Geological Times and Genome Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yezi; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Hu, Yi; Wen, Jun; Li, Shisheng; Yi, Tingshuang; Chen, Hongyi; Xiang, Jun; Ma, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Fruits are the defining feature of angiosperms, likely have contributed to angiosperm successes by protecting and dispersing seeds, and provide foods to humans and other animals, with many morphological types and important ecological and agricultural implications. Rosaceae is a family with ∼3000 species and an extraordinary spectrum of distinct fruits, including fleshy peach, apple, and strawberry prized by their consumers, as well as dry achenetum and follicetum with features facilitating seed dispersal, excellent for studying fruit evolution. To address Rosaceae fruit evolution and other questions, we generated 125 new transcriptomic and genomic datasets and identified hundreds of nuclear genes to reconstruct a well-resolved Rosaceae phylogeny with highly supported monophyly of all subfamilies and tribes. Molecular clock analysis revealed an estimated age of ∼101.6 Ma for crown Rosaceae and divergence times of tribes and genera, providing a geological and climate context for fruit evolution. Phylogenomic analysis yielded strong evidence for numerous whole genome duplications (WGDs), supporting the hypothesis that the apple tribe had a WGD and revealing another one shared by fleshy fruit-bearing members of this tribe, with moderate support for WGDs in the peach tribe and other groups. Ancestral character reconstruction for fruit types supports independent origins of fleshy fruits from dry-fruit ancestors, including the evolution of drupes (e.g., peach) and pomes (e.g., apple) from follicetum, and drupetum (raspberry and blackberry) from achenetum. We propose that WGDs and environmental factors, including animals, contributed to the evolution of the many fruits in Rosaceae, which provide a foundation for understanding fruit evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Plastome phylogeny and early diversification of Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyi; Liu, Jianquan; Hao, Guoqian; Zhang, Lei; Mao, Kangshan; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Dan; Ma, Tao; Hu, Quanjun; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A; Koch, Marcus A

    2017-02-16

    The family Brassicaceae encompasses diverse species, many of which have high scientific and economic importance. Early diversifications and phylogenetic relationships between major lineages or clades remain unclear. Here we re-investigate Brassicaceae phylogeny with complete plastomes from 51 species representing all four lineages or 5 of 6 major clades (A, B, C, E and F) as identified in earlier studies. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses using a partitioned supermatrix of 77 protein coding genes resulted in nearly identical tree topologies exemplified by highly supported relationships between clades. All four lineages were well identified and interrelationships between them were resolved. The previously defined Clade C was found to be paraphyletic (the genus Megadenia formed a separate lineage), while the remaining clades were monophyletic. Clade E (lineage III) was sister to clades B + C rather than to all core Brassicaceae (clades A + B + C or lineages I + II), as suggested by a previous transcriptome study. Molecular dating based on plastome phylogeny supported the origin of major lineages or clades between late Oligocene and early Miocene, and the following radiative diversification across the family took place within a short timescale. In addition, gene losses in the plastomes occurred multiple times during the evolutionary diversification of the family. Plastome phylogeny illustrates the early diversification of cruciferous species. This phylogeny will facilitate our further understanding of evolution and adaptation of numerous species in the model family Brassicaceae.

  4. Primate diversification inferred from phylogenies and fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, James P

    2017-12-01

    Biodiversity arises from the balance between speciation and extinction. Fossils record the origins and disappearance of organisms, and the branching patterns of molecular phylogenies allow estimation of speciation and extinction rates, but the patterns of diversification are frequently incongruent between these two data sources. I tested two hypotheses about the diversification of primates based on ∼600 fossil species and 90% complete phylogenies of living species: (1) diversification rates increased through time; (2) a significant extinction event occurred in the Oligocene. Consistent with the first hypothesis, analyses of phylogenies supported increasing speciation rates and negligible extinction rates. In contrast, fossils showed that while speciation rates increased, speciation and extinction rates tended to be nearly equal, resulting in zero net diversification. Partially supporting the second hypothesis, the fossil data recorded a clear pattern of diversity decline in the Oligocene, although diversification rates were near zero. The phylogeny supported increased extinction ∼34 Ma, but also elevated extinction ∼10 Ma, coinciding with diversity declines in some fossil clades. The results demonstrated that estimates of speciation and extinction ignoring fossils are insufficient to infer diversification and information on extinct lineages should be incorporated into phylogenetic analyses. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. A multilocus molecular phylogeny of combtooth blennies (Percomorpha: Blennioidei: Blenniidae): Multiple invasions of intertidal habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Hundt, Peter J.; Iglé sias, Samuel Paco; Hoey, Andrew; Simons, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    and their relationships. Since little is known about the relationships in this group, other aspects of their evolutionary history, such as habitat evolution and remain unexplored. Herein, we use Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of four nuclear loci (ENC1, myh6

  6. Multilocus phylogeny of arvicoline voles (Arvicolini, Rodentia) shows small tree terrace size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Natália; Moravec, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 254-267 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930609 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : divergence * evolutionary history * supertree * supermatrix * phylogenetic tree terrace * Microtus * Arvicolinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  7. Multilocus phylogeny and recent rapid radiation of the viviparous sea snakes (Elipidae: Hydrophiinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate L.; Lee, Michael S.Y.; Mumpuni

    2013-01-01

    The viviparous sea snakes (Hydrophiinae: Hydrophiini) comprise a young but morphologically and ecologically diverse clade distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific. Despite presenting a very promising model for marine diversification studies, many relationships among the 62 species and 16 genera...

  8. Multilocus phylogeny and coalescent species delimitation in Kotschy's gecko, Mediodactylus kotschyi: Hidden diversity and cryptic species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotsakiozi, P.; Jablonski, D.; Ilgaz, Ç.; Kumlutaş, Y.; Avci, A.; Meiri, S.; Itescu, Y.; Kukushkin, O.; Gvoždík, Václav; Scillitani, G.; Roussos, S. A.; Jandzik, D.; Kasapidis, P.; Lymberakis, P.; Poulakakis, N.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 125, August (2018), s. 177-187 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gekkonidae * Divergence times * Species delimitation * Species complex * Systematics * Eastern Mediterranean Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016

  9. Resolving the Mortierellaceae phylogeny through Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and phylogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mortierellaceae (Mortierellomycotina) are a diverse family of fungi that are of evolutionary and ecological relevance. They are the closest lineage to the arbuscular mycorrhizae (Glomeromycotina) and include some of the first species to evolve fruiting body production. The Mortierellaceae are es...

  10. Phylogeny of Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) based on DNA sequence data from ITS, psbB-psbH, and rbcL, with emphasis on taxa of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Bin Wen; Ming-Li Zhang; Ge-Lin Zhu; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2010-01-01

    To reconstruct phylogeny and verify the monophyly of major subgroups, a total of 52 species representing almost all species of Salsoleae s.l. in China were sampled, with analysis based on three molecular markers (nrDNA ITS, cpDNA psbB-psbH and rbcL), using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Our molecular evidence provides strong...

  11. A fast multilocus test with adaptive SNP selection for large-scale genetic-association studies

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Han

    2013-09-11

    As increasing evidence suggests that multiple correlated genetic variants could jointly influence the outcome, a multilocus test that aggregates association evidence across multiple genetic markers in a considered gene or a genomic region may be more powerful than a single-marker test for detecting susceptibility loci. We propose a multilocus test, AdaJoint, which adopts a variable selection procedure to identify a subset of genetic markers that jointly show the strongest association signal, and defines the test statistic based on the selected genetic markers. The P-value from the AdaJoint test is evaluated by a computationally efficient algorithm that effectively adjusts for multiple-comparison, and is hundreds of times faster than the standard permutation method. Simulation studies demonstrate that AdaJoint has the most robust performance among several commonly used multilocus tests. We perform multilocus analysis of over 26,000 genes/regions on two genome-wide association studies of pancreatic cancer. Compared with its competitors, AdaJoint identifies a much stronger association between the gene CLPTM1L and pancreatic cancer risk (6.0 × 10(-8)), with the signal optimally captured by two correlated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Finally, we show AdaJoint as a powerful tool for mapping cis-regulating methylation quantitative trait loci on normal breast tissues, and find many CpG sites whose methylation levels are jointly regulated by multiple SNPs nearby.

  12. Ichthyophonus parasite phylogeny based on ITS rDNA structure prediction and alignment identifies six clades, with a single dominant marine type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jacob; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite their widespread, global impact in both wild and cultured fishes, little is known of the diversity, transmission patterns, and phylogeography of parasites generally identified as Ichthyophonus. This study constructed a phylogeny based on the structural alignment of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences to compare Ichthyophonus isolates from fish hosts in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and several rivers and aquaculture sites in North America, Europe, and Japan. Structure of the Ichthyophonus ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 transcript exhibited several homologies with other eukaryotes, and 6 distinct clades were identified within Ichthyophonus. A single clade contained a majority (71 of 98) of parasite isolations. This ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurred in 13 marine and anadromous hosts and was associated with epizootics in Atlantic herring, Chinook salmon, and American shad. A second clade contained all isolates from aquaculture, despite great geographic separation of the freshwater hosts. Each of the 4 remaining clades contained isolates from single host species. This study is the first to evaluate the genetic relationships among Ichthyophonus species across a significant portion of their host and geographic range. Additionally, parasite infection prevalence is reported in 16 fish species.

  13. Ichthyophonus parasite phylogeny based on ITS rDNA structure prediction and alignment identifies six clades, with a single dominant marine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jacob L; Powers, Rachel L; Purcell, Maureen K; Friedman, Carolyn S; Hershberger, Paul K

    2016-07-07

    Despite their widespread, global impact in both wild and cultured fishes, little is known of the diversity, transmission patterns, and phylogeography of parasites generally identified as Ichthyophonus. This study constructed a phylogeny based on the structural alignment of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences to compare Ichthyophonus isolates from fish hosts in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and several rivers and aquaculture sites in North America, Europe, and Japan. Structure of the Ichthyophonus ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 transcript exhibited several homologies with other eukaryotes, and 6 distinct clades were identified within Ichthyophonus. A single clade contained a majority (71 of 98) of parasite isolations. This ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurred in 13 marine and anadromous hosts and was associated with epizootics in Atlantic herring, Chinook salmon, and American shad. A second clade contained all isolates from aquaculture, despite great geographic separation of the freshwater hosts. Each of the 4 remaining clades contained isolates from single host species. This study is the first to evaluate the genetic relationships among Ichthyophonus species across a significant portion of their host and geographic range. Additionally, parasite infection prevalence is reported in 16 fish species.

  14. Molecular phylogeny of the neritidae (Gastropoda: Neritimorpha) based on the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Galvis, Julian Fernando; Castro, Lyda Raquel

    2013-01-01

    The family Neritidae has representatives in tropical and subtropical regions that occur in a variety of environments, and its known fossil record dates back to the late Cretaceous. However there have been few studies of molecular phylogeny in this family. We performed a phylogenetic reconstruction of the family Neritidae using the COI (722 bp) and the 16S rRNA (559 bp) regions of the mitochondrial genome. Neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference were performed. The best phylogenetic reconstruction was obtained using the COI region, and we consider it an appropriate marker for phylogenetic studies within the group. Consensus analysis (COI +16S rRNA) generally obtained the same tree topologies and confirmed that the genus Nerita is monophyletic. The consensus analysis using parsimony recovered a monophyletic group consisting of the genera Neritina, Septaria, Theodoxus, Puperita, and Clithon, while in the Bayesian analyses Theodoxus is separated from the other genera. The phylogenetic status of the species from the genus Nerita from the Colombian Caribbean generated in this study was consistent with that reported for the genus in previous studies. In the resulting consensus tree obtained using maximum parsimony, we included information on habitat type for each species, to map the evolution by habitat. Species of the family Neritidae possibly have their origin in marine environments, which is consistent with conclusions from previous reports based on anatomical studies.

  15. Phylogeny of the Paracalanidae Giesbrecht, 1888 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornils, Astrid; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio

    2013-12-01

    The Paracalanidae are ecologically-important marine planktonic copepods that occur in the epipelagic zone in temperate and tropical waters. They are often the dominant taxon - in terms of biomass and abundance - in continental shelf regions. As primary consumers, they form a vital link in the pelagic food web between primary producers and higher trophic levels. Despite the ecological importance of the taxon, evolutionary and systematic relationships within the family remain largely unknown. A multigene phylogeny including 24 species, including representatives for all seven genera, was determined based on two nuclear genes, small-subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA and Histone 3 (H3) and one mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). The molecular phylogeny was well supported by Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis; all genera were found to be monophyletic, except for Paracalanus, which was separated into two distinct clades: the Paracalanus aculeatus group and Paracalanus parvus group. The molecular phylogeny also confirmed previous findings that Mecynocera and Calocalanus are genera of the family Paracalanidae. For comparison, a morphological phylogeny was created for 35 paracalanid species based on 54 morphological characters derived from published descriptions. The morphological phylogeny did not resolve all genera as monophyletic and bootstrap support was not strong. Molecular and morphological phylogenies were not congruent in the positioning of Bestiolina and the Paracalanus species groups, possibly due to the lack of sufficient phylogenetically-informative morphological characters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Complete Deletion of the Fucose Operon in Haemophilus influenzae Is Associated with a Cluster in Multilocus Sequence Analysis-Based Phylogenetic Group II Related to Haemophilus haemolyticus: Implications for Identification and Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Camilla; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Nonhemolytic variants of Haemophilus haemolyticus are difficult to differentiate from Haemophilus influenzae despite a wide difference in pathogenic potential. A previous investigation characterized a challenging set of 60 clinical strains using multiple PCRs for marker genes and described strains that could not be unequivocally identified as either species. We have analyzed the same set of strains by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and near-full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. MLSA unambiguously allocated all study strains to either of the two species, while identification by 16S rRNA sequence was inconclusive for three strains. Notably, the two methods yielded conflicting identifications for two strains. Most of the "fuzzy species" strains were identified as H. influenzae that had undergone complete deletion of the fucose operon. Such strains, which are untypeable by the H. influenzae multilocus sequence type (MLST) scheme, have sporadically been reported and predominantly belong to a single branch of H. influenzae MLSA phylogenetic group II. We also found evidence of interspecies recombination between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus within the 16S rRNA genes. Establishing an accurate method for rapid and inexpensive identification of H. influenzae is important for disease surveillance and treatment. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Luzula DC. (Juncaceae, Monocotyledones) based on plastome and nuclear ribosomal regions: A case of incongruence, incomplete lineage sorting and hybridisation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Vlček, Čestmír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2010), s. 536-551 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/07/P147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Luzula * Juncaceae * phylogeny Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.889, year: 2010

  18. The phylogeny of marine and freshwater species of the genus Chloromyxum Mingazzini, 1890 (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, 2/3 (2004), s. 211-214 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Myxosporea * Chloromyxum * phylogeny Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2004

  19. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Waeschenbach, A.; Fisseha, M.; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 500, 27 Apr 2015 (2015), s. 25-59 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Eucestoda * Proteocephalidae * systematics * molecular phylogeny * host-parasite associations * Spasskyellina Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015

  20. Phylogeny of Rhus gall aphids (Hemiptera:Pemphigidae) based on combined molecular analysis of nuclear EF1α and mitochondrial COII genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi-xiang Yang; Xiao-ming Chen; Nathan P. Havill; Ying Feng; Hang. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Rhus gall aphids (Fordinae : Melaphidini) have a disjunct distribution in East Asia and North America and have specific host plant relationships. Some of them are of economic importance and all species form sealed galls which show great variation in shape, size, structure, and galling-site. We present a phylogeny incorporating ten species and four...

  1. Whole genome phylogenies for multiple Drosophila species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetharam Arun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructing the evolutionary history of organisms using traditional phylogenetic methods may suffer from inaccurate sequence alignment. An alternative approach, particularly effective when whole genome sequences are available, is to employ methods that don’t use explicit sequence alignments. We extend a novel phylogenetic method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD to reconstruct the phylogeny of 12 sequenced Drosophila species. SVD analysis provides accurate comparisons for a high fraction of sequences within whole genomes without the prior identification of orthologs or homologous sites. With this method all protein sequences are converted to peptide frequency vectors within a matrix that is decomposed to provide simplified vector representations for each protein of the genome in a reduced dimensional space. These vectors are summed together to provide a vector representation for each species, and the angle between these vectors provides distance measures that are used to construct species trees. Results An unfiltered whole genome analysis (193,622 predicted proteins strongly supports the currently accepted phylogeny for 12 Drosophila species at higher dimensions except for the generally accepted but difficult to discern sister relationship between D. erecta and D. yakuba. Also, in accordance with previous studies, many sequences appear to support alternative phylogenies. In this case, we observed grouping of D. erecta with D. sechellia when approximately 55% to 95% of the proteins were removed using a filter based on projection values or by reducing resolution by using fewer dimensions. Similar results were obtained when just the melanogaster subgroup was analyzed. Conclusions These results indicate that using our novel phylogenetic method, it is possible to consult and interpret all predicted protein sequences within multiple whole genomes to produce accurate phylogenetic estimations of relatedness between

  2. The phylogeny of the family Lacertidae (Reptilia) based on nuclear DNA sequences: convergent adaptations to arid habitats within the subfamily Eremiainae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Werner; Pavlicev, Mihaela

    2007-09-01

    The family Lacertidae encompasses more than 250 species distributed in the Palearctis, Ethiopis and Orientalis. Lacertids have been subjected in the past to several morphological and molecular studies to establish their phylogeny. However, the problems of convergent adaptation in morphology and of excessively variable molecular markers have hampered the establishment of well supported deeper phylogenetic relationships. Particularly the adaptations to xeric environments have often been used to establish a scenario for the origin and radiation of major lineages within lacertids. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic study based on two nuclear marker genes and representatives of 37 lacertid genera and distinct species groups (as in the case of the collective genus Lacerta). Roughly 1600 bp of the nuclear rag1 and c-mos genes were sequenced and analyzed. While the results provide good support to the hitherto suggested main subfamilies of Gallotiinae (Gallotia and Psammodromus), Eremiainae and Lacertinae [Harris, D.J., Arnold, E.N., Thomas, R.H., 1998. Relationships of lacertid lizards (Reptilia: Lacertidae) estimated from mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 265, 1939-1948], they also suggest unexpected relationships. In particular, the oriental genus Takydromus, previously considered the sister-group to the three subfamilies, is nested within Lacertinae. Moreover, the genera within the Eremiainae are further divided into two groups, roughly corresponding to their respective geographical distributions in the Ethiopian and the Saharo-Eurasian ranges. The results support an independent origin of adaptations to xeric conditions in different subfamilies. The relationships within the subfamily Lacertinae could not be resolved with the markers used. The species groups of the collective genus Lacerta show a bush-like topology in the inferred Bayesian tree, suggesting rapid radiation. The composition of the subfamilies Eremiainae and Lacertinae

  3. Phylogeny of the order Phyllachorales (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes): among and within order relationships based on five molecular loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardones, M.; Trampe-Jaschik, T.; Oster, S.; Elliott, M.; Urbina, H.; Schmitt, I.; Piepenbring, M.

    2017-01-01

    The order Phyllachorales (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) is a group of biotrophic, obligate plant parasitic fungi with a tropical distribution and high host specificity. Traditionally two families are recognised within this order: Phyllachoraceae and Phaeochoraceae, based mostly on morphological and

  4. Bacterial whole genome-based phylogeny: construction of a new benchmarking dataset and assessment of some existing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Johanne; Skaarup, Carina; Hasman, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    from sequencing reads. In the present study we describe a new dataset that we have created for the purpose of benchmarking such WGS-based methods for epidemiological data, and also present an analysis where we use the data to compare the performance of some current methods. Results Our aim...

  5. A robust and well-resolved phylogeny of Bactridinae (Arecaceae) based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Asmussen-Lange, Conny

    as well as most of the currently accepted infrageneric taxa and recently proposed informal groups. Analyses are based on five plastid DNA regions (matK, trnQ-rps16, rps16 intron, trnD-trnT, trnL-trnF) and three nuclear markers (PRK, RPB2, ITS). A combined dataset was analysed with likelihood and parsimony...

  6. Armillaria phylogeny based on tef-1α sequences suggests ongoing divergent speciation within the boreal floristic kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned B. Klopfenstein; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Jane E. Stewart; Yuko Ota; Rosario Medel-Ortiz; Miguel Armando Lopez-Ramirez; Ruben Damian Elias-Roman; Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales; Mee-Sook Kim

    2013-01-01

    Armillaria plays diverse ecological roles in forests worldwide, which has inspired interest in understanding phylogenetic relationships within and among species of this genus. Previous rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analyses of Armillaria have shown general relationships among widely divergent taxa, but rDNA sequences were not reliable for separating closely related...

  7. Phylogeny of the New World diploid cottons (Gossypium L., Malvaceae) based on sequences of three low-copy nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Alvarez; R. Cronn; J.F. Wendel

    2005-01-01

    American diploid cottons (Gossypium L., subgenus Houzingenia Fryxell) form a monophyletic group of 13 species distributed mainly in western Mexico, extending into Arizona, Baja California, and with one disjunct species each in the Galapagos Islands and Peru. Prior phylogenetic analyses based on an alcohol dehydrogenase gene (...

  8. Novel intron markers to study the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species

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    Castresana Jose

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilocus phylogenies can be used to infer the species tree of a group of closely related species. In species trees, the nodes represent the actual separation between species, thus providing essential information about their evolutionary history. In addition, multilocus phylogenies can help in analyses of species delimitation, gene flow and genetic differentiation within species. However, few adequate markers are available for such studies. Results In order to develop nuclear markers that can be useful in multilocus studies of mammals, we analyzed the mammalian genomes of human, chimpanzee, macaque, dog and cow. Rodents were excluded due to their unusual genomic features. Introns were extracted from the mammalian genomes because of their greater genetic variability and ease of amplification from the flanking exons. To an initial set of more than 10,000 one-to-one orthologous introns we applied several filters to select introns that belong to single-copy genes, show neutral evolutionary rates and have an adequate length for their amplification. This analysis led to a final list of 224 intron markers randomly distributed along the genome. To experimentally test their validity, we amplified twelve of these introns in a panel of six mammalian species. The result was that seven of these introns gave rise to a PCR band of the expected size in all species. In addition, we sequenced these bands and analyzed the accumulation of substitutions in these introns in five pairs of closely related species. The results showed that the estimated genetic distances in the five species pairs was quite variable among introns and that this divergence cannot be directly predicted from the overall intron divergence in mammals. Conclusions We have designed a new set of 224 nuclear introns with optimal features for the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species. A large proportion of the introns tested experimentally showed a perfect amplification

  9. Differentiation of Xylella fastidiosa Strains via Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Environmentally Mediated Genes (MLSA-E)

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Jennifer K.; Havird, Justin C.; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Isolates of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa are genetically very similar, but studies on their biological traits have indicated differences in virulence and infection symptomatology. Taxonomic analyses have identified several subspecies, and phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes have shown broad host-based genetic differences; however, results are still inconclusive for genetic differentiation of isolates within subspecies. This study employs multilocus sequence analysis of enviro...

  10. An Extended Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) Scheme for Rapid Direct Typing of Leptospira from Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Sabrina; Menezes, Angela; Woods, Kate; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Dittrich, Sabine; Opoku-Boateng, Agatha; Kimuli, Maimuna; Chalker, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid typing of Leptospira is currently impaired by requiring time consuming culture of leptospires. The objective of this study was to develop an assay that provides multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data direct from patient specimens while minimising costs for subsequent sequencing. Methodology and Findings An existing PCR based MLST scheme was modified by designing nested primers including anchors for facilitated subsequent sequencing. The assay was applied to various specimen t...

  11. An empirical test of the treatment of indels during optimization alignment based on the phylogeny of the genus Secale (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole; Aagesen, Lone

    2004-01-01

    The ability of the program POY, implementing optimization alignment, to deal with major indels is explored and discussed in connection with a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Secale based on partial Adhl sequences. The Adhl sequences used span exon 2-4. Nearly all variation is found in intron 2...... recovers both genera as monophyletic when knowledge of the duplication is incorporated in the analysis. The phylogenetic relationships within Secale are not clearly resolved. Subspecific taxa of Secale strictum have identical sequences and they are confined to a monophyletic group. However, the two...

  12. Molecular phylogeny of Edraianthus (Grassy Bells; Campanulaceae) based on non-coding plastid DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovic, Sasa; Lakusic, Dmitar; Kuzmina, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula is known as an ice-age refugium and an area with high rates of speciation and diversification. Only a few genera have their centers of distribution in the Balkans and the endemic genus Edraianthus is one of its most prominent groups. As such, Edraianthus is an excellent model...... divided into three sections: E. sect. Edraianthus, E. sect. Uniflori, and E. sect. Spathulati. We present here the first phylogenetic study of Edraianthus based on multiple plastid DNA sequences (trnL-F region and rbcL-atpB spacer) derived from a wide taxonomic sampling and geographic range. While...

  13. The relationships within the Chaitophorinae and Drepanosiphinae (Hemiptera, Aphididae) inferred from molecular-based phylogeny and comprehensive morphological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Karina; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota; Kajtoch, Łukasz; Kanturski, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The Chaitophorinae is a bionomically diverse Holarctic subfamily of Aphididae. The current classification includes two tribes: the Chaitophorini associated with deciduous trees and shrubs, and Siphini that feed on monocotyledonous plants. We present the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily, based on molecular and morphological datasets. Molecular analyses were based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and the nuclear gene elongation factor-1α (EF-1α). Phylogenetic inferences were obtained individually on each of genes and joined alignments using Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML). In phylogenetic trees reconstructed on the basis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes as well as a morphological dataset, the monophyly of Siphini and the genus Chaitophorus was supported. Periphyllus forms independent lineages from Chaitophorus and Siphini. Within this genus two clades comprising European and Asiatic species, respectively, were indicated. Concerning relationships within the subfamily, EF-1α and joined COI and EF-1α genes analysis strongly supports the hypothesis that Chaitophorini do not form a monophyletic clade. Periphyllus is a sister group to a clade containing Chaitophorus and Siphini. The Asiatic unit of Periphyllus also includes Trichaitophorus koyaensis. The analysis of morphological dataset under equally weighted parsimony also supports the view that Chaitophorini is an artificial taxon, as Lambersaphis pruinosae and Pseudopterocomma hughi, both traditionally included in the Chaitophorini, formed independent lineages. COI analyses support consistent groups within the subfamily, but relationships between groups are poorly resolved. These analyses were extended to include the species of closely related and phylogenetically unstudied subfamily Drepanosiphinae, which produced congruent results. Genera Drepanosiphum and Depanaphis are monophyletic and sister. The position of Yamatocallis tokyoensis differs in the

  14. Phylogeny of Eleusine (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) based on nuclear ITS and plastid trnT-trnF sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Susana S; Swire-Clark, Ginger; Hilu, Khidir W; Baird, Wm Vance

    2005-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Eleusine (Poaceae: Chloridoideae) were investigated using nuclear ITS and plastid trnT-trnF sequences. Separate and combined data sets were analyzed using parsimony, distance, and likelihood based methods, including Bayesian. Data congruence was examined using character and topological measures. Significant data heterogeneity was detected, but there was little conflict in the topological substructure measures for triplets and quartets, and resolution and clade support increased in the combined analysis. Data incongruence may be a result of noise and insufficient information in the slower evolving trnT-trnF. Monophyly of Eleusine is strongly supported in all analyses, but basal relationships in the genus remain uncertain. There is good support for a CAIK clade (E. coracana subsp. coracana and africana, E. indica, and E. kigeziensis), with E. tristachya as its sister group. Two putative ITS homeologues (A and B loci) were identified in the allotetraploid E. coracana; the 'B' locus sequence type was not found in the remaining species. Eleusine coracana and its putative 'A' genome donor, the diploid E. indica, are confirmed close allies, but sequence data contradicts the hypothesis that E. floccifolia is its second genome donor. The 'B' genome donor remains unidentified and may be extinct.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Saguinus (Platyrrhini, Primates based on the ND1 mitochondrial gene and implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Helena Tagliaro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The systematics of the subfamily Callitrichinae (Platyrrhini, Primates, a group of small monkeys from South America and Panama, remains an area of considerable discussion despite many investigations, there being continuing controversy over subgeneric taxonomic classifications based on morphological characters. The purpose of our research was to help elucidate the phylogenetic relationships within the monkey genus Saguinus (Callitrichinae using a molecular approach to discover whether or not the two different sections containing hairy-faced and bare-faced species are monophyletic, whether Saguinus midas midas and Saguinus bicolor are more closely related than are S. midas midas and Saguinus midas niger, and if Saguinus fuscicollis melanoleucus and Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli really are different species. We sequenced the 957 bp ND1 mitochondrial gene of 21 Saguinus monkeys (belonging to six species and nine morphotypes and one Cebus monkey (the outgroup and constructed phylogenetic trees using maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and maximum likelihood methods. The phylogenetic trees obtained divided the genus Saguinus into two groups, one containing the small-bodied species S. fuscicollis and the other, the large-bodied species S. mystax, S. leucopus, S. oedipus, S. midas, S. bicolor. The most derived taxa, S. midas and S. bicolor, grouped together, while S. fuscicollis melanoleucus and S. f. weddelli showed divergence values that did not support the division of these morphotypes into subspecies. On the other hand, S. midas individuals showed divergence compatible with the existence of three subspecies, two of them with the same morphotype as the subspecies S. midas niger. The results of our study suggest that there is at least one Saguinus subspecies that has not yet been described and that the conservation status of Saguinus species and subspecies should be carefully revised using modern molecular approaches.

  16. Functional Annotation, Genome Organization and Phylogeny of the Grapevine (Vitis vinifera Terpene Synthase Gene Family Based on Genome Assembly, FLcDNA Cloning, and Enzyme Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toub Omid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Terpenoids are among the most important constituents of grape flavour and wine bouquet, and serve as useful metabolite markers in viticulture and enology. Based on the initial 8-fold sequencing of a nearly homozygous Pinot noir inbred line, 89 putative terpenoid synthase genes (VvTPS were predicted by in silico analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome assembly 1. The finding of this very large VvTPS family, combined with the importance of terpenoid metabolism for the organoleptic properties of grapevine berries and finished wines, prompted a detailed examination of this gene family at the genomic level as well as an investigation into VvTPS biochemical functions. Results We present findings from the analysis of the up-dated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome that place the number of predicted VvTPS genes at 69 putatively functional VvTPS, 20 partial VvTPS, and 63 VvTPS probable pseudogenes. Gene discovery and annotation included information about gene architecture and chromosomal location. A dense cluster of 45 VvTPS is localized on chromosome 18. Extensive FLcDNA cloning, gene synthesis, and protein expression enabled functional characterization of 39 VvTPS; this is the largest number of functionally characterized TPS for any species reported to date. Of these enzymes, 23 have unique functions and/or phylogenetic locations within the plant TPS gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of the TPS gene family showed that while most VvTPS form species-specific gene clusters, there are several examples of gene orthology with TPS of other plant species, representing perhaps more ancient VvTPS, which have maintained functions independent of speciation. Conclusions The highly expanded VvTPS gene family underpins the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine. We provide a detailed experimental functional annotation of 39 members of this important gene family in grapevine and comprehensive information

  17. Is the extremely rare Iberian endemic plant species Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Compositae, Anthemideae) a 'living fossil'? Evidence from a multi-locus species tree reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Salvatore; Álvarez, Inés; Vargas, Pablo; Oberprieler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides results of multi-species coalescent species tree analyses of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear and plastid regions to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the subtribe Leucanthemopsidinae (Compositae, Anthemideae), to which besides the annual Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Degen, Hervier & É.Rev.) Vogt & Oberp., one of the rarest flowering plant species of the Iberian Peninsula, two other unispecific genera (Hymenostemma, Prolongoa), and the polyploidy complex of the genus Leucanthemopsis belong. Based on sequence information from two single- to low-copy nuclear regions (C16, D35, characterised by Chapman et al. (2007)), the multi-copy region of the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, and two intergenic spacer regions of the cpDNA gene trees were reconstructed using Bayesian inference methods. For the reconstruction of a multi-locus species tree we applied three different methods: (a) analysis of concatenated sequences using Bayesian inference (MrBayes), (b) a tree reconciliation approach by minimizing the number of deep coalescences (PhyloNet), and (c) a coalescent-based species-tree method in a Bayesian framework ((∗)BEAST). All three species tree reconstruction methods unequivocally support the close relationship of the subtribe with the hitherto unclassified genus Phalacrocarpum, the sister-group relationship of Castrilanthemum with the three remaining genera of the subtribe, and the further sister-group relationship of the clade of Hymenostemma+Prolongoa with a monophyletic genus Leucanthemopsis. Dating of the (∗)BEAST phylogeny supports the long-lasting (Early Miocene, 15-22Ma) taxonomical independence and the switch from the plesiomorphic perennial to the apomorphic annual life-form assumed for the Castrilanthemum lineage that may have occurred not earlier than in the Pliocene (3Ma) when the establishment of a Mediterranean climate with summer droughts triggered evolution towards

  18. Multilocus DNA fingerprints in gallinaceous birds: general approach and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanotte, O; Bruford, M W; Burke, T

    1992-06-01

    Multilocus profiles were investigated in five different species of Galliformes (ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus, Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus, Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica, domestic chicken Gallus gallus, and red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus) using two human multilocus probes (33.6 and 33.15) in combination with each of four restriction enzymes (AluI, DdeI, HaeIII or HinfI). All the species show a DNA fingerprint-like pattern using at least one restriction enzyme in combination with each multilocus probe. The number of bands detected and the value of the index of similarity for each species differ significantly between the profiles obtained with each multilocus probe. Some enzyme/probe combinations reveal strong cross-hybridization of the multilocus probes with satellite or satellite-like DNA sequences in pheasant, peacock, quail and chicken, which partially or completely prevented scoring of the profile. The choice of restriction enzyme was found to influence the number of bands, the value of the index of similarity and the probability of obtaining an identical fingerprint between unrelated individuals. The Mendelian inheritance and independent segregation of the fragments detected using AluI was investigated in three species (ring-necked pheasant, Indian peafowl and red grouse). Some bands were shown to be tightly linked. An extreme case was encountered in the red grouse, where 12 of the 15 bands scored in one parent represented only two, apparently allelic, haplotypes and so derived from a single locus. However, fingerprint patterns will often be adequate for use in paternity analyses, such as in behavioural studies, despite the occurrence of haplotypic sets of bands. Identical DNA multilocus profiles were sometimes observed between captive-bred siblings in one species. These results emphasize the desirability of determining, in each new species, the optimal experimental conditions as a preliminary to any behavioural or population

  19. Multilocus sequence typing reveals a novel subspeciation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Kana; Watanabe, Koichi

    2011-03-01

    Currently, the species Lactobacillus delbrueckii is divided into four subspecies, L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii subsp. indicus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. These classifications were based mainly on phenotypic identification methods and few studies have used genotypic identification methods. As a result, these subspecies have not yet been reliably delineated. In this study, the four subspecies of L. delbrueckii were discriminated by phenotype and by genotypic identification [amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)] methods. The MLST method developed here was based on the analysis of seven housekeeping genes (fusA, gyrB, hsp60, ileS, pyrG, recA and recG). The MLST method had good discriminatory ability: the 41 strains of L. delbrueckii examined were divided into 34 sequence types, with 29 sequence types represented by only a single strain. The sequence types were divided into eight groups. These groups could be discriminated as representing different subspecies. The results of the AFLP and MLST analyses were consistent. The type strain of L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, YIT 0080(T), was clearly discriminated from the other strains currently classified as members of this subspecies, which were located close to strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. The MLST scheme developed in this study should be a useful tool for the identification of strains of L. delbrueckii to the subspecies level.

  20. The relation between multilocus population genetics and social evolution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A; Barton, Nicholas H

    2007-02-01

    Evolution at multiple gene positions is complicated. Direct selection on one gene disturbs the evolutionary dynamics of associated genes. Recent years have seen the development of a multilocus methodology for modeling evolution at arbitrary numbers of gene positions with arbitrary dominance and epistatic relations, mode of inheritance, genetic linkage, and recombination. We show that the approach is conceptually analogous to social evolutionary methodology, which focuses on selection acting on associated individuals. In doing so, we (1) make explicit the links between the multilocus methodology and the foundations of social evolution theory, namely, Price's theorem and Hamilton's rule; (2) relate the multilocus approach to levels-of-selection and neighbor-modulated-fitness approaches in social evolution; (3) highlight the equivalence between genetical hitchhiking and kin selection; (4) demonstrate that the multilocus methodology allows for social evolutionary analyses involving coevolution of multiple traits and genetical associations between nonrelatives, including individuals of different species; (5) show that this methodology helps solve problems of dynamic sufficiency in social evolution theory; (6) form links between invasion criteria in multilocus systems and Hamilton's rule of kin selection; (7) illustrate the generality and exactness of Hamilton's rule, which has previously been described as an approximate, heuristic result.

  1. Identification of Coxiella burnetii genotypes in Croatia using multi-locus VNTR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Račić, Ivana; Spičić, Silvio; Galov, Ana; Duvnjak, Sanja; Zdelar-Tuk, Maja; Vujnović, Anja; Habrun, Boris; Cvetnić, Zeljko

    2014-10-10

    Although Q fever affects humans and animals in Croatia, we are unaware of genotyping studies of Croatian strains of the causative pathogen Coxiella burnetii, which would greatly assist monitoring and control efforts. Here 3261 human and animal samples were screened for C. burnetii DNA by conventional PCR, and 335 (10.3%) were positive. Of these positive samples, 82 were genotyped at 17 loci using the relatively new method of multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). We identified 13 C. burnetii genotypes not previously reported anywhere in the world. Two of these 13 genotypes are typical of the continental part of Croatia and share more similarity with genotypes outside Croatia than with genotypes within the country. The remaining 11 novel genotypes are typical of the coastal part of Croatia and show more similarity to one another than to genotypes outside the country. Our findings shed new light on the phylogeny of C. burnetii strains and may help establish MLVA as a standard technique for Coxiella genotyping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multilocus phylogenetic reconstruction of the Clavariaceae (Agaricales) reveals polyphyly of agaricoid members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkebak, Joshua M; Adamčík, Slavomír; Looney, Brian P; Matheny, P Brandon

    2016-09-01

    The genus Camarophyllopsis contains species with lamellate (agaricoid) basidiomes in the family Clavariaceae (Agaricales), a group otherwise dominated by club-like (clavarioid) or branched (coralloid) forms. Previous studies have suggested that species classified in Camarophyllopsis occur in two independent lineages. We reconstructed a multilocus phylogeny of the Clavaria-Camarophyllopsis-Clavicorona clade in the Clavariaceae using RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), nuclear ribosomal 28S, and nuclear ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions data and detected three independent groups of agaricoid fungi, including the genera Camarophyllopsis, Hodophilus, and Lamelloclavaria gen. nov, which distinctly differ in their pileipellis structure. In all, nine major lineages within the Clavaria-Camarophyllopsis-Clavicorona clade were recovered: Clavaria sensu stricto, Camarophyllopsis sensu stricto, Hodophilus, the Clavaria pullei clade, the Clavaria fumosa clade, Lamelloclavaria gen. nov., the Clavaria atrofusca clade, Holocoryne (= Clavaria sect. Holocoryne), and Clavicorona Clavaria is paraphyletic and represented by five clades. Additional gene sampling is necessary to determine and confirm relatedness of these lineages before splitting Clavaria into additional genera. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  3. Recent speciation in three closely related sympatric specialists: inferences using multi-locus sequence, post-mating isolation and endosymbiont data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Jun Xue

    Full Text Available Shifting between unrelated host plants is relatively rare for phytophagous insects, and distinct host specificity may play crucial roles in reproductive isolation. However, the isolation status and the relationship between parental divergence and post-mating isolation among closely related sympatric specialists are still poorly understood. Here, multi-locus sequence were used to estimate the relationship among three host plant-specific closely related flea beetles, Altica cirsicola, A. fragariae and A. viridicyanea (abbreviated as AC, AF and AV respectively. The tree topologies were inconsistent using different gene or different combinations of gene fragments. The relationship of AF+(AC+AV was supported, however, by both gene tree and species tree based on concatenated data. Post-mating reproductive data on the results of crossing these three species are best interpreted in the light of a well established phylogeny. Nuclear-induced but not Wolbachia-induced unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was detected in AC-AF and AF-AV but not in AC-AV, may also suggest more close genetic affinity between AC and AV. Prevalence of Wolbachia in these three beetles, and the endosymbiont in most individuals of AV and AC sharing a same wsp haplotype may give another evidence of AF+(AC+AV. Our study also suggested that these three flea beetles diverged in a relative short time (0.94 My, which may be the result of shifting between unrelated host plants and distinct host specificity. Incomplete post-mating isolation while almost complete lineage sorting indicated that effective pre-mating isolation among these three species should have evolved.

  4. Chromosomal phylogeny of Lagothrix, Brachyteles, and Cacajao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas Péquignot, E; Koiffmann, C P; Dutrillaux, B

    1985-01-01

    Based on a comparison of the karyotypes of two Plathyrrhini species, Cacajao melanocephalus (Pitheciinae) and Brachyteles arachnoides (Atelinae), with those of two previously studied species, Lagothrix lagothrica (Atelinae) and C calvus rubicundus (Pitheciinae), it appears that the two Cacajao species have undergone the same number of chromosome rearrangements since they diverged from their common ancestor and that the karyotype of Brachyteles is ancestral to that of Lagothrix. The chromosomal phylogeny of these four species is proposed. A Y-autosome translocation is present in the karyotypes of the two Cacajao species.

  5. Multilocus sequence typing scheme for the Mycobacterium abscessus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheras, Edouard; Konjek, Julie; Roux, Anne-Laure; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Bastian, Sylvaine; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Palaci, Moises; Sivadon-Tardy, Valérie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Pfyffer, Gaby E; Bodmer, Thomas; Jarlier, Vincent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Brisse, Sylvain; Caro, Valérie; Rastogi, Nalin; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Heym, Beate

    2014-01-01

    We developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Mycobacterium abscessus sensu lato, based on the partial sequencing of seven housekeeping genes: argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pta and purH. This scheme was used to characterize a collection of 227 isolates recovered between 1994 and 2010 in France, Germany, Switzerland and Brazil. We identified 100 different sequence types (STs), which were distributed into three groups on the tree obtained by concatenating the sequences of the seven housekeeping gene fragments (3576bp): the M. abscessus sensu stricto group (44 STs), the "M. massiliense" group (31 STs) and the "M. bolletii" group (25 STs). SplitTree analysis showed a degree of intergroup lateral transfers. There was also evidence of lateral transfer events involving rpoB. The most prevalent STs in our collection were ST1 (CC5; 20 isolates) and ST23 (CC3; 31 isolates). Both STs were found in Europe and Brazil, and the latter was implicated in a large post-surgical procedure outbreak in Brazil. Respiratory isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis belonged to a large variety of STs; however, ST2 was predominant in this group of patients. Our MLST scheme, publicly available at www.pasteur.fr/mlst, offers investigators a valuable typing tool for M. abscessus sensu lato in future epidemiological studies throughout the world. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for Ureaplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Kong, Y; Feng, Y; Huang, J; Song, T; Ruan, Z; Song, J; Jiang, Y; Yu, Y; Xie, X

    2014-04-01

    Ureaplasma is a commensal of the human urogenital tract but is always associated with invasive diseases such as non-gonococcal urethritis and infertility adverse pregnancy outcomes. To better understand the molecular epidemiology and population structure of Ureaplasma, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on four housekeeping genes (ftsH, rpL22, valS, thrS) was developed and validated using 283 isolates, including 14 serovars of reference strains and 269 strains obtained from clinical patients. A total of 99 sequence types (STs) were revealed: the 14 type strains of the Ureaplasma serovars were assigned to 12 STs, and 87 novel and special STs appeared among the clinical isolates. ST1 and ST22 were the predominant STs, which contained 68 and 70 isolates, respectively. Two clonal lineages (CC1 and CC2) were shown by eBURST analysis, and linkage disequilibrium was revealed through a standardized index of association (I A (S)). The neighbor-joining tree results of 14 Ureaplasma serovars showed two genetically significantly distant clusters, which was highly congruent with the species taxonomy of ureaplasmas [Ureaplasma parvum (UPA) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UUR)]. Analysis of the biotypes of 269 clinical isolates revealed that all the isolates of CC1 were UPA and those of CC2 were UUR. Additionally, CC2 was found more often in symptomatic patients with vaginitis, tubal obstruction, and cervicitis. In conclusion, this MLST scheme is adequate for investigations of molecular epidemiology and population structure with highly discriminating capacity.

  7. The shape of mammalian phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purvis, Andy; Fritz, Susanne A; Rodríguez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    an assemblage, ecoregion or larger area always tends to be more unbalanced than expected from the phylogeny of species at the next more inclusive spatial scale. We conclude with a verbal model of mammalian macroevolution, which emphasizes the importance to diversification of accessing new regions...

  8. Explaining evolution via constrained persistent perfect phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The perfect phylogeny is an often used model in phylogenetics since it provides an efficient basic procedure for representing the evolution of genomic binary characters in several frameworks, such as for example in haplotype inference. The model, which is conceptually the simplest, is based on the infinite sites assumption, that is no character can mutate more than once in the whole tree. A main open problem regarding the model is finding generalizations that retain the computational tractability of the original model but are more flexible in modeling biological data when the infinite site assumption is violated because of e.g. back mutations. A special case of back mutations that has been considered in the study of the evolution of protein domains (where a domain is acquired and then lost) is persistency, that is the fact that a character is allowed to return back to the ancestral state. In this model characters can be gained and lost at most once. In this paper we consider the computational problem of explaining binary data by the Persistent Perfect Phylogeny model (referred as PPP) and for this purpose we investigate the problem of reconstructing an evolution where some constraints are imposed on the paths of the tree. Results We define a natural generalization of the PPP problem obtained by requiring that for some pairs (character, species), neither the species nor any of its ancestors can have the character. In other words, some characters cannot be persistent for some species. This new problem is called Constrained PPP (CPPP). Based on a graph formulation of the CPPP problem, we are able to provide a polynomial time solution for the CPPP problem for matrices whose conflict graph has no edges. Using this result, we develop a parameterized algorithm for solving the CPPP problem where the parameter is the number of characters. Conclusions A preliminary experimental analysis shows that the constrained persistent perfect phylogeny model allows to

  9. Molecular phylogeny, morphology, pigment chemistry and ecology in Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean Lodge; Mahajabeen Padamsee; P. Brandon Matheny; M. Catherine Aime; Sharon A. Cantrell; David Boertmann; Alexander Kovalenko; Alfredo Vizzini; Bryn T.M. Dentinger; Paul M. Kirk; A. Martin Ainsworth; Jean-Marc Moncalvo; Rytas Vilgalys; Ellen Larsson; Robert Lucking; Gareth W. Griffith; Matthew E. Smith; Lorilei L. Norvell; Dennis E. Desjardin; Scott A. Redhead; Clark L. Ovrebo; Edgar B. Lickey; Enrico Ercole; Karen W. Hughes; Regis Courtecuisse; Anthony Young; Manfred Binder; Andrew M. Minnis; Daniel L. Lindner; Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; John Haight; Thomas Laessoe; Timothy J. Baroni; Jozsef Geml; Tsutomu Hattori

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogenies using 1–4 gene regions and information on ecology, morphology and pigment chemistry were used in a partial revision of the agaric family Hygrophoraceae. The phylogenetically supported genera we recognize here in the Hygrophoraceae based on these and previous analyses are: Acantholichen, Ampulloclitocybe, Arrhenia, Cantharellula, Cantharocybe,...

  10. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Total-Genome-Sequenced Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore; Rasmussen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Accurate strain identification is essential for anyone working with bacteria. For many species, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is considered the "gold standard" of typing, but it is traditionally performed in an expensive and time-consuming manner. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS...

  11. Multilocus sequence analysis of phytopathogenic species of the genus Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and classification of species within the genus Streptomyces is difficult because there are presently 576 validly described species and this number increases every year. The value of the application of multilocus sequence analysis scheme to the systematics of Streptomyces species h...

  12. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om P Rajora

    Full Text Available Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation.

  13. Phylogeny and species traits predict bird detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymos, Peter; Matsuoka, Steven M.; Stralberg, Diana; Barker, Nicole K. S.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2018-01-01

    Avian acoustic communication has resulted from evolutionary pressures and ecological constraints. We therefore expect that auditory detectability in birds might be predictable by species traits and phylogenetic relatedness. We evaluated the relationship between phylogeny, species traits, and field‐based estimates of the two processes that determine species detectability (singing rate and detection distance) for 141 bird species breeding in boreal North America. We used phylogenetic mixed models and cross‐validation to compare the relative merits of using trait data only, phylogeny only, or the combination of both to predict detectability. We found a strong phylogenetic signal in both singing rates and detection distances; however the strength of phylogenetic effects was less than expected under Brownian motion evolution. The evolution of behavioural traits that determine singing rates was found to be more labile, leaving more room for species to evolve independently, whereas detection distance was mostly determined by anatomy (i.e. body size) and thus the laws of physics. Our findings can help in disentangling how complex ecological and evolutionary mechanisms have shaped different aspects of detectability in boreal birds. Such information can greatly inform single‐ and multi‐species models but more work is required to better understand how to best correct possible biases in phylogenetic diversity and other community metrics.

  14. A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gavin H

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Order Charadriiformes (shorebirds is an ideal model group in which to study a wide range of behavioural, ecological and macroevolutionary processes across species. However, comparative studies depend on phylogeny to control for the effects of shared evolutionary history. Although numerous hypotheses have been presented for subsets of the Charadriiformes none to date include all recognised species. Here we use the matrix representation with parsimony method to produce the first fully inclusive supertree of Charadriiformes. We also provide preliminary estimates of ages for all nodes in the tree. Results Three main lineages are revealed: i the plovers and allies; ii the gulls and allies; and iii the sandpipers and allies. The relative position of these clades is unresolved in the strict consensus tree but a 50% majority-rule consensus tree indicates that the sandpiper clade is sister group to the gulls and allies whilst the plover group is placed at the base of the tree. The overall topology is highly consistent with recent molecular hypotheses of shorebird phylogeny. Conclusion The supertree hypothesis presented herein is (to our knowledge the only complete phylogenetic hypothesis of all extant shorebirds. Despite concerns over the robustness of supertrees (see Discussion, we believe that it provides a valuable framework for testing numerous evolutionary hypotheses relating to the diversity of behaviour, ecology and life-history of the Charadriiformes.

  15. Asian horses deepen the MSY phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkel, S; Vogl, C; Rigler, D; Jagannathan, V; Leeb, T; Fries, R; Neuditschko, M; Rieder, S; Velie, B; Lindgren, G; Rubin, C-J; Schlötterer, C; Rattei, T; Brem, G; Wallner, B

    2018-02-01

    Humans have shaped the population history of the horse ever since domestication about 5500 years ago. Comparative analyses of the Y chromosome can illuminate the paternal origin of modern horse breeds. This may also reveal different breeding strategies that led to the formation of extant breeds. Recently, a horse Y-chromosomal phylogeny of modern horses based on 1.46 Mb of the male-specific Y (MSY) was generated. We extended this dataset with 52 samples from five European, two American and seven Asian breeds. As in the previous study, almost all modern European horses fall into a crown group, connected via a few autochthonous Northern European lineages to the outgroup, the Przewalski's Horse. In total, we now distinguish 42 MSY haplotypes determined by 158 variants within domestic horses. Asian horses show much higher diversity than previously found in European breeds. The Asian breeds also introduce a deep split to the phylogeny, preliminarily dated to 5527 ± 872 years. We conclude that the deep splitting Asian Y haplotypes are remnants of a far more diverse ancient horse population, whose haplotypes were lost in other lineages. © 2018 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. High-Performance Phylogeny Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffani L. Williams

    2004-11-10

    Under the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in Computational Biology, I have been afforded the opportunity to study phylogenetics--one of the most important and exciting disciplines in computational biology. A phylogeny depicts an evolutionary relationship among a set of organisms (or taxa). Typically, a phylogeny is represented by a binary tree, where modern organisms are placed at the leaves and ancestral organisms occupy internal nodes, with the edges of the tree denoting evolutionary relationships. The task of phylogenetics is to infer this tree from observations upon present-day organisms. Reconstructing phylogenies is a major component of modern research programs in many areas of biology and medicine, but it is enormously expensive. The most commonly used techniques attempt to solve NP-hard problems such as maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, typically by bounded searches through an exponentially-sized tree-space. For example, there are over 13 billion possible trees for 13 organisms. Phylogenetic heuristics that quickly analyze large amounts of data accurately will revolutionize the biological field. This final report highlights my activities in phylogenetics during the two-year postdoctoral period at the University of New Mexico under Prof. Bernard Moret. Specifically, this report reports my scientific, community and professional activities as an Alfred P. Sloan Postdoctoral Fellow in Computational Biology.

  17. Genetic relationships between clinical and non-clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A as revealed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and multilocus restriction typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virdi Jugsharan S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic relationships among 81 strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources were discerned by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE and multilocus restriction typing (MLRT using six loci each. Such studies may reveal associations between the genotypes of the strains and their sources of isolation. Results All loci were polymorphic and generated 62 electrophoretic types (ETs and 12 restriction types (RTs. The mean genetic diversity (H of the strains by MLEE and MLRT was 0.566 and 0.441 respectively. MLEE (DI = 0.98 was more discriminatory and clustered Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A strains into four groups, while MLRT (DI = 0.77 identified two distinct groups. BURST (Based Upon Related Sequence Types analysis of the MLRT data suggested aquatic serotype O:6,30-6,31 isolates to be the ancestral strains from which, clinical O:6,30-6,31 strains might have originated by host adaptation and genetic change. Conclusion MLEE revealed greater genetic diversity among strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A and clustered strains in four groups, while MLRT grouped the strains into two groups. BURST analysis of MLRT data nevertheless provided newer insights into the probable evolution of clinical strains from aquatic strains.

  18. MULTILOCUS SEQUENCE TYPING OF BRUCELLA ISOLATES FROM THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawjiraphan, Wireeya; Sonthayanon, Piengchan; Chanket, Phanita; Benjathummarak, Surachet; Kerdsin, Anusak; Kalambhaheti, Thareerat

    2016-11-01

    Although brucellosis outbreaks in Thailand are rare, they cause abortions and infertility in animals, resulting in significant economic loss. Because Brucella spp display > 90% DNA homology, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was employed to categorize local Brucella isolates into sequence types (STs) and to determine their genetic relatedness. Brucella samples were isolated from vaginal secretion of cows and goats, and from blood cultures of infected individuals. Brucella species were determined by multiplex PCR of eight loci, in addition to MLST based on partial DNA sequences of nine house-keeping genes. MLST analysis of 36 isolates revealed 78 distinct novel allele types and 34 novel STs, while two isolates possessed the known ST8. Sequence alignments identified polymorphic sites in each allele, ranging from 2-6%, while overall genetic diversity was 3.6%. MLST analysis of the 36 Brucella isolates classified them into three species, namely, B. melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis, in agreement with multiplex PCR results. Genetic relatedness among ST members of B. melitensis and B. abortus determined by eBURST program revealed ST2 as founder of B. abortus isolates and ST8 the founder of B. melitensis isolates. ST 36, 41 and 50 of Thai Brucella isolates were identified as single locus variants of clonal cluster (CC) 8, while the majority of STs were diverse. The genetic diversity and relatedness identified using MLST revealed hitherto unexpected diversity among Thai Brucella isolates. Genetic classification of isolates could reveal the route of brucellosis transmission among humans and farm animals and also reveal their relationship with other isolates in the region and other parts of the world.

  19. RAD-seq derived genome-wide nuclear markers resolve the phylogeny of tunas

    KAUST Repository

    Dí az-Arce, Natalia; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Murua, Hilario; Irigoien, Xabier; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara

    2016-01-01

    conservation and management strategies for these species. Previous attempts based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers were unsuccessful in inferring a congruent and reliable phylogeny, probably due to mitochondrial introgression events and lack of enough

  20. Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order mucorales.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitale, R.G.; Hoog, G.S. de; Schwarz, P.; Dannaoui, E.; Deng, S.; Machouart, M.; Voigt, K.; Sande, W.W. van de; Dolatabadi, S.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Walther, G.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear

  1. Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order Mucorales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Vitale (Roxana); G.S. de Hoog; P. Schwarz (Peter); E. Dannaoui (Eric); S. Deng (Shuwen); M. Machouart (Marie); K. Voigt (Kerstin); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); S. Dolatabadi (Somayeh); J.F. Meis; G. Walther

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the

  2. Antifungal Susceptibility and Phylogeny of Opportunistic Members of the Order Mucorales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitale, R.G.; de Hoog, G.S.; Schwarz, P.; Dannaoui, E.; Deng, S.; Machouart, M.; Voigt, K.; de Sande, W.W.J.v.; Dolatabadi, S.; Meis, J.F.; Walther, G.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear

  3. Molecular phylogeny and character evolution of the chthamaloid barnacles (Cirripedia:Thoracica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    surrounded by whorls of small imbricating plates; but this hypothesis has never been subjected to a rigorous phylogenetic test. Here we used multilocus sequence data and extensive taxon sampling to build a comprehensive phylogeny of the Chthamaloidea as a basis for understanding their morphological evolution......The Chthamaloidea (Balanomorpha) present the most plesiomorphic characters in shell plates and cirri, mouthparts, and oral cone within the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia). Due to their importance in understanding both the origin and diversification of the Balanomorpha, the evolution...... of the Chthamaloidea has been debated since Darwin's seminal monographs. Theories of morphological and ontogenetic evolution suggest that the group could have evolved multiple times from pedunculated relatives and that shell plate number diminished gradually (8¿6¿4) from an ancestral state with eight wall plates...

  4. Using MOEA with Redistribution and Consensus Branches to Infer Phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiaoping; Zhang, Mouzhao; Yuan, Sisi; Ge, Shengxiang; Liu, Xiangrong; Zeng, Xiangxiang; Xia, Ningshao

    2017-12-26

    In recent years, to infer phylogenies, which are NP-hard problems, more and more research has focused on using metaheuristics. Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood are two effective ways to conduct inference. Based on these methods, which can also be considered as the optimal criteria for phylogenies, various kinds of multi-objective metaheuristics have been used to reconstruct phylogenies. However, combining these two time-consuming methods results in those multi-objective metaheuristics being slower than a single objective. Therefore, we propose a novel, multi-objective optimization algorithm, MOEA-RC, to accelerate the processes of rebuilding phylogenies using structural information of elites in current populations. We compare MOEA-RC with two representative multi-objective algorithms, MOEA/D and NAGA-II, and a non-consensus version of MOEA-RC on three real-world datasets. The result is, within a given number of iterations, MOEA-RC achieves better solutions than the other algorithms.

  5. Incorporating indel information into phylogeny estimation for rapidly emerging pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchard Marc A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenies of rapidly evolving pathogens can be difficult to resolve because of the small number of substitutions that accumulate in the short times since divergence. To improve resolution of such phylogenies we propose using insertion and deletion (indel information in addition to substitution information. We accomplish this through joint estimation of alignment and phylogeny in a Bayesian framework, drawing inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo. Joint estimation of alignment and phylogeny sidesteps biases that stem from conditioning on a single alignment by taking into account the ensemble of near-optimal alignments. Results We introduce a novel Markov chain transition kernel that improves computational efficiency by proposing non-local topology rearrangements and by block sampling alignment and topology parameters. In addition, we extend our previous indel model to increase biological realism by placing indels preferentially on longer branches. We demonstrate the ability of indel information to increase phylogenetic resolution in examples drawn from within-host viral sequence samples. We also demonstrate the importance of taking alignment uncertainty into account when using such information. Finally, we show that codon-based substitution models can significantly affect alignment quality and phylogenetic inference by unrealistically forcing indels to begin and end between codons. Conclusion These results indicate that indel information can improve phylogenetic resolution of recently diverged pathogens and that alignment uncertainty should be considered in such analyses.

  6. A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Holt, Ben G; Borregaard, Michael K; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The Corvides (previously referred to as the core Corvoidea) are a morphologically diverse clade of passerine birds comprising nearly 800 species. The group originated some 30 million years ago in the proto-Papuan archipelago, to the north of Australia, from where lineages have dispersed and colonized all of the world's major continental and insular landmasses (except Antarctica). During the last decade multiple species-level phylogenies have been generated for individual corvoid families and more recently the inter-familial relationships have been resolved, based on phylogenetic analyses using multiple nuclear loci. In the current study we analyse eight nuclear and four mitochondrial loci to generate a dated phylogeny for the majority of corvoid species. This phylogeny includes 667 out of 780 species (85.5%), 141 out of 143 genera (98.6%) and all 31 currently recognized families, thus providing a baseline for comprehensive macroecological, macroevolutionary and biogeographical analyses. Using this phylogeny we assess the temporal consistency of the current taxonomic classification of families and genera. By adopting an approach that enforces temporal consistency by causing the fewest possible taxonomic changes to currently recognized families and genera, we find the current familial classification to be largely temporally consistent, whereas that of genera is not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Deciphering the genomic architecture of the stickleback brain with a novel multilocus gene-mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zitong; Guo, Baocheng; Yang, Jing; Herczeg, Gábor; Gonda, Abigél; Balázs, Gergely; Shikano, Takahito; Calboli, Federico C F; Merilä, Juha

    2017-03-01

    Quantitative traits important to organismal function and fitness, such as brain size, are presumably controlled by many small-effect loci. Deciphering the genetic architecture of such traits with traditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping methods is challenging. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of brain size (and the size of five different brain parts) in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) with the aid of novel multilocus QTL-mapping approaches based on a de-biased LASSO method. Apart from having more statistical power to detect QTL and reduced rate of false positives than conventional QTL-mapping approaches, the developed methods can handle large marker panels and provide estimates of genomic heritability. Single-locus analyses of an F 2 interpopulation cross with 239 individuals and 15 198, fully informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) uncovered 79 QTL associated with variation in stickleback brain size traits. Many of these loci were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other, and consequently, a multilocus mapping of individual SNPs, accounting for LD structure in the data, recovered only four significant QTL. However, a multilocus mapping of SNPs grouped by linkage group (LG) identified 14 LGs (1-6 depending on the trait) that influence variation in brain traits. For instance, 17.6% of the variation in relative brain size was explainable by cumulative effects of SNPs distributed over six LGs, whereas 42% of the variation was accounted for by all 21 LGs. Hence, the results suggest that variation in stickleback brain traits is influenced by many small-effect loci. Apart from suggesting moderately heritable (h 2  ≈ 0.15-0.42) multifactorial genetic architecture of brain traits, the results highlight the challenges in identifying the loci contributing to variation in quantitative traits. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate that the novel QTL-mapping approach developed here has distinctive advantages

  8. Coloration mechanisms and phylogeny of Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M A; Yoshioka, S; Liu, C; Stavenga, D G

    2016-12-15

    Morpho butterflies are universally admired for their iridescent blue coloration, which is due to nanostructured wing scales. We performed a comparative study on the coloration of 16 Morpho species, investigating the morphological, spectral and spatial scattering properties of the differently organized wing scales. In numerous previous studies, the bright blue Morpho coloration has been fully attributed to the multi-layered ridges of the cover scales' upper laminae, but we found that the lower laminae of the cover and ground scales play an important additional role, by acting as optical thin film reflectors. We conclude that Morpho coloration is a subtle combination of overlapping pigmented and/or unpigmented scales, multilayer systems, optical thin films and sometimes undulated scale surfaces. Based on the scales' architecture and their organization, five main groups can be distinguished within the genus Morpho, largely agreeing with the accepted phylogeny. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. The phylogeny of amphibian metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, John O

    2002-01-01

    Frogs have one of the most extreme metamorphoses among vertebrates. How did this metamorphosis evolve? By combining the methods previously proposed by Mabee and Humphries (1993) and Velhagen (1997), I develop a phylogenetic method suited for rigorous analysis of this question. In a preliminary analysis using 12 transformation sequence characters and 36 associated event sequence characters, all drawn from the osteology of the skull, the evolution of metamorphosis is traced on an assumed phylogeny. This phylogeny has lissamphibians (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians) monophyletic, with frogs the sister group of salamanders. Successive outgroups used are temnospondyls and discosauriscids, both of which are fossil groups for which ontogenetic data are available. In the reconstruction of character evolution, an unambiguous change (synapomorphy) along the branch leading to lissamphibians is a delay in the lengthening of the maxilla until metamorphosis, in accordance with my previous suggestion (Reiss, 1996). However, widening of the interpterygoid vacuity does not appear as a synapomophy of lissamphibians, due to variation in the character states in the outgroups. From a more theoretical perspective, the reconstructed evolution of amphibian metamorphosis involves examples of heterochrony, through the shift of ancestral premetamorphic events to the metamorphic period, caenogenesis, through the origin of new larval features, and terminal addition, through the origin of new adult features. Other changes don't readily fit these categories. This preliminary study provides evidence that metamorphic changes in frogs arose as further modifications of changes unique to lissamphibians, as well as a new method by which such questions can be examined.

  10. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain de Chambrier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes, a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new, including representatives from 54 genera (80% and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained

  11. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new), including representatives from 54 genera (80%) and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera) appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained unresolved and

  12. Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aghová, Tatiana; Šumbera, R.; Piálek, L.; Mikula, Ondřej; McDonough, M. M.; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Meheretu, Y.; Mbau, J. S.; Bryja, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 10 (2017), s. 2295-2307 ISSN 0305-0270 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983; GA ČR GA15-20229S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : biogeography * Gerbillinae * historical DNA * murid rodents * phylogeography * Plio-Pleistocene climate change * pyrosequencing * Rift Valley * species delimitation * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  13. Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aghová, T.; Šumbera, R.; Piálek, L.; Mikula, Ondřej; McDonough, M. M.; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Meheretu, Y.; Mbau, J. S.; Bryja, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 10 (2017), s. 2295-2307 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : biogeography * Gerbillinae * historical DNA * murid rodents * phylogeography Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  14. Multi-locus phylogenies of the genus Barteria (Passifloraceae) portray complex patterns in the evolution of myrmecophytism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoud, Jean; Piatscheck, Finn; Yockteng, Roxana; Garcia, Marjorie; Sauve, Mathieu; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Harris, David J; Wieringa, Jan J; Breteler, Frans J; Born, Céline; McKey, Doyle; Blatrix, Rumsaïs

    2013-03-01

    The four species of the central African genus Barteria show variation in habitat and in degree of association with ants. Whereas B. solida, restricted to submontane forests, attracts opportunistic ants to extrafloral nectar, the three other species, found in lowland rainforests (B. fistulosa, B. dewevrei) and in littoral scrub (B. nigritana), possess stem domatia of varying shapes and degrees of specialisation, hosting either non-specific arboreal ants (B. nigritana, some B. dewevrei) or two large species of ants of the genus Tetraponera Smith, 1852 that are specific to some species of Barteria (B. fistulosa, some B. dewevrei). We aimed to investigate whether this variation represents an evolutionary trend toward increasing specialisation of mutualism or the reduction or loss of myrmecophytic traits. For this, we determined phylogenetic relationships within the genus using DNA sequences (primarily nuclear ITS) and microsatellite genotypes (11 loci) on a large sample of individuals, mostly from Cameroon and Gabon. The two types of markers support an initial dichotomy that groups B. dewevrei with B. nigritana and B. fistulosa with B. solida respectively. Within these pairs, species do not appear reciprocally monophyletic. At microsatellite loci, B. nigritana forms a clade embedded within B. dewevrei; and within both B. solida and B. fistulosa, geographical populations show levels of differentiation similar to that observed between populations of B. solida and B. fistulosa. Geographic distance alone does not account for genetic differentiation between species, which indicates reproductive isolation. Divergence in each of the two pairs implies evolutionary transitions in habitat and in myrmecophytism. Specialised mutualism with specific ant species of the genus Tetraponera has been lost in species found in more marginal habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi-locus phylogenies of the genus Barteria (Passifloraceae) protray complex patterns in the evolution of myrmecophytism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peccoud, J.; Piatscheck, F.; Yockteng, R.; Garcia, M.; Sauve, M.; Djieto-Lordon, C.; Harris, D.J.; Wieringa, J.J.; Breteler, F.J.; Born, C.; McKey, D.; Blatrix, R.

    2013-01-01

    The four species of the central African genus Barteria show variation in habitat and in degree of association with ants. Whereas B. solida, restricted to submontane forests, attracts opportunistic ants to extrafloral nectar, the three other species, found in lowland rainforests (B. fistulosa, B.

  16. Conflicting evolutionary patterns due to mitochondrial introgression and multilocus phylogeography of the Patagonian freshwater crab Aegla neuquensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Barber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple loci and population genetic methods were employed to study the phylogeographic history of the Patagonian freshwater crab Aegla neuquensis (Aeglidae: Decopoda. This taxon occurs in two large river systems in the Patagonian Steppe, from the foothills of the Andes Mountains east to the Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nuclear phylogeny and multilocus nested clade phylogeographic analysis detected a fragmentation event between the Negro and Chico-Chubut river systems. This event occurred approximately 137 thousand years ago. An isolation-with-migration analysis and maximum-likelihood estimates of gene flow showed asymmetrical exchange of genetic material between these two river systems exclusively in their headwaters. We used information theory to determine the best-fit demographic history between these two river systems under an isolation-with-migration model. The best-fit model suggests that the Negro and the ancestral populations have the same effective population sizes; whereas the Chico-Chubut population is smaller and shows that gene flow from the Chico-Chubut into the Negro is four times higher than in the reverse direction. Much of the Chico-Chubut system appears to have only been recently colonized while the Negro populations appear to have been in place for most of the evolutionary history of this taxon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Due to mitochondrial introgression, three nuclear loci provided different phylogeographic resolution than the three mitochondrial genes for an ancient fragmentation event observed in the nuclear phylogeny. However, the mitochondrial locus provided greater resolution on more recent evolutionary events. Our study, therefore, demonstrates the need to include both nuclear and mitochondrial loci for a more complete understanding of evolutionary histories and associated phylogeographic events. Our results suggest that gene flow between these systems, before and after fragmentation

  17. Towards improving searches for optimal phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric; St John, Katherine; Wheeler, Ward C

    2015-01-01

    Finding the optimal evolutionary history for a set of taxa is a challenging computational problem, even when restricting possible solutions to be "tree-like" and focusing on the maximum-parsimony optimality criterion. This has led to much work on using heuristic tree searches to find approximate solutions. We present an approach for finding exact optimal solutions that employs and complements the current heuristic methods for finding optimal trees. Given a set of taxa and a set of aligned sequences of characters, there may be subsets of characters that are compatible, and for each such subset there is an associated (possibly partially resolved) phylogeny with edges corresponding to each character state change. These perfect phylogenies serve as anchor trees for our constrained search space. We show that, for sequences with compatible sites, the parsimony score of any tree [Formula: see text] is at least the parsimony score of the anchor trees plus the number of inferred changes between [Formula: see text] and the anchor trees. As the maximum-parsimony optimality score is additive, the sum of the lower bounds on compatible character partitions provides a lower bound on the complete alignment of characters. This yields a region in the space of trees within which the best tree is guaranteed to be found; limiting the search for the optimal tree to this region can significantly reduce the number of trees that must be examined in a search of the space of trees. We analyze this method empirically using four different biological data sets as well as surveying 400 data sets from the TreeBASE repository, demonstrating the effectiveness of our technique in reducing the number of steps in exact heuristic searches for trees under the maximum-parsimony optimality criterion. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea (Echinodermata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Allison K; Kerr, Alexander M; Paulay, Gustav; Reich, Mike; Wilson, Nerida G; Carvajal, Jose I; Rouse, Greg W

    2017-06-01

    Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) are a morphologically diverse, ecologically important, and economically valued clade of echinoderms; however, the understanding of the overall systematics of the group remains controversial. Here, we present a phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea assessed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches using approximately 4.3kb of mt- (COI, 16S, 12S) and nDNA (H3, 18S, 28S) sequences from 82 holothuroid terminals representing 23 of the 27 widely-accepted family-ranked taxa. Currently five holothuroid taxa of ordinal rank are accepted. We find that three of the five orders are non-monophyletic, and we revise the taxonomy of the groups accordingly. Apodida is sister to the rest of Holothuroidea, here considered Actinopoda. Within Actinopoda, Elasipodida in part is sister to the remaining Actinopoda. This latter clade, comprising holothuroids with respiratory trees, is now called Pneumonophora. The traditional Aspidochirotida is paraphyletic, with representatives from three orders (Molpadida, Dendrochirotida, and Elasipodida in part) nested within. Therefore, we discontinue the use of Aspidochirotida and instead erect Holothuriida as the sister group to the remaining Pneumonophora, here termed Neoholothuriida. We found four well-supported major clades in Neoholothuriida: Dendrochirotida, Molpadida and two new clades, Synallactida and Persiculida. The mapping of traditionally-used morphological characters in holothuroid systematics onto the phylogeny revealed marked homoplasy in most characters demonstrating that further taxonomic revision of Holothuroidea is required. Two time-tree analyses, one based on calibrations for uncontroversial crown group dates for Eleutherozoa, Echinozoa and Holothuroidea and another using these calibrations plus four more from within Holothuroidea, showed major discrepancies, suggesting that fossils of Holothuroidea may need reassessment in terms of placing these forms with existing crown

  19. Archaebacterial phylogeny: perspectives on the urkingdoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, C. R.; Olsen, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Comparisons of complete 16S ribosomal RNA sequences have been used to confirm, refine and extend earlier concepts of archaebacterial phylogeny. The archaebacteria fall naturally into two major branches or divisions, I--the sulfur-dependent thermophilic archaebacteria, and II--the methanogenic archaebacteria and their relatives. Division I comprises a relatively closely related and phenotypically homogeneous collection of thermophilic sulfur-dependent species--encompassing the genera Sulfolobus, Thermoproteus, Pyrodictium and Desulfurococcus. The organisms of Division II, however, form a less compact grouping phylogenetically, and are also more diverse in phenotype. All three of the (major) methanogen groups are found in Division II, as are the extreme halophiles and two types of thermoacidophiles, Thermoplasma acidophilum and Thermococcus celer. This last species branches sufficiently deeply in the Division II line that it might be considered to represent a separate, third Division. However, both the extreme halophiles and Tp. acidophilum branch within the cluster of methanogens. The extreme halophiles are specifically related to the Methanomicrobiales, to the exclusion of both the Methanococcales and the Methanobacteriales. Tp. acidophilum is peripherally related to the halophile-Methanomicrobiales group. By 16S rRNA sequence measure the archaebacteria constitute a phylogenetically coherent grouping (clade), which excludes both the eubacteria and the eukaryotes--a conclusion that is supported by other sequence evidence as well. Alternative proposals for archaebacterial phylogeny, not based upon sequence evidence, are discussed and evaluated. In particular, proposals to rename (reclassify) various subgroups of the archaebacteria as new kingdoms are found wanting, for both their lack of proper experimental support and the taxonomic confusion they introduce.

  20. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in captive non-human primates in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is a common human and animal pathogen. It has been increasingly reported in wild and captive non-human primates (NHPs in recent years. However, multilocus genotyping information for G. duodenalis infecting NHPs in southwestern China is limited. In the present study, the prevalence and multilocus genotypes (MLGs of G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in southwestern China were determined. We examined 207 fecal samples from NHPs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and 16 specimens were positive for G. duodenalis. The overall infection rate was 7.7%, and only assemblage B was identified. G. duodenalis was detect positive in northern white-cheeked gibbon (14/36, 38.9%, crab-eating macaque (1/60, 1.7% and rhesus macaques (1/101, 0.9%. Multilocus sequence typing based on beta-giardin (bg, triose phosphate isomerase (tpi and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh revealed nine different assemblage B MLGs (five known genotypes and four novel genotypes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, one potentially zoonotic genotype of MLG SW7 was identified in a northern white-cheeked gibbon. A high degree of genetic diversity within assemblage B was observed in captive northern white-cheeked gibbons in Southwestern China, including a potentially zoonotic genotype, MLG SW7. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using a MLGs approach to identify G. duodenalis in captive NHPs in Southwestern China.

  1. Genetic diversity analysis of Leuconostoc mesenteroides from Korean vegetables and food products by multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshul; Kaur, Jasmine; Lee, Sulhee; Park, Young-Seo

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, 35 Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from vegetables and food products from South Korea were studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes (atpA, groEL, gyrB, pheS, pyrG, rpoA, and uvrC). The fragment sizes of the seven amplified housekeeping genes ranged in length from 366 to 1414 bp. Sequence analysis indicated 27 different sequence types (STs) with 25 of them being represented by a single strain indicating high genetic diversity, whereas the remaining 2 were characterized by five strains each. In total, 220 polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among seven housekeeping genes. The phylogenetic analysis based on the STs of the seven loci indicated that the 35 strains belonged to two major groups, A (28 strains) and B (7 strains). Split decomposition analysis showed that intraspecies recombination played a role in generating diversity among strains. The minimum spanning tree showed that the evolution of the STs was not correlated with food source. This study signifies that the multilocus sequence typing is a valuable tool to access the genetic diversity among L. mesenteroides strains from South Korea and can be used further to monitor the evolutionary changes.

  2. Bootstrapping phylogenies inferred from rearrangement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale sequencing of genomes has enabled the inference of phylogenies based on the evolution of genomic architecture, under such events as rearrangements, duplications, and losses. Many evolutionary models and associated algorithms have been designed over the last few years and have found use in comparative genomics and phylogenetic inference. However, the assessment of phylogenies built from such data has not been properly addressed to date. The standard method used in sequence-based phylogenetic inference is the bootstrap, but it relies on a large number of homologous characters that can be resampled; yet in the case of rearrangements, the entire genome is a single character. Alternatives such as the jackknife suffer from the same problem, while likelihood tests cannot be applied in the absence of well established probabilistic models. Results We present a new approach to the assessment of distance-based phylogenetic inference from whole-genome data; our approach combines features of the jackknife and the bootstrap and remains nonparametric. For each feature of our method, we give an equivalent feature in the sequence-based framework; we also present the results of extensive experimental testing, in both sequence-based and genome-based frameworks. Through the feature-by-feature comparison and the experimental results, we show that our bootstrapping approach is on par with the classic phylogenetic bootstrap used in sequence-based reconstruction, and we establish the clear superiority of the classic bootstrap for sequence data and of our corresponding new approach for rearrangement data over proposed variants. Finally, we test our approach on a small dataset of mammalian genomes, verifying that the support values match current thinking about the respective branches. Conclusions Our method is the first to provide a standard of assessment to match that of the classic phylogenetic bootstrap for aligned sequences. Its

  3. Bootstrapping phylogenies inferred from rearrangement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Rajan, Vaibhav; Moret, Bernard Me

    2012-08-29

    Large-scale sequencing of genomes has enabled the inference of phylogenies based on the evolution of genomic architecture, under such events as rearrangements, duplications, and losses. Many evolutionary models and associated algorithms have been designed over the last few years and have found use in comparative genomics and phylogenetic inference. However, the assessment of phylogenies built from such data has not been properly addressed to date. The standard method used in sequence-based phylogenetic inference is the bootstrap, but it relies on a large number of homologous characters that can be resampled; yet in the case of rearrangements, the entire genome is a single character. Alternatives such as the jackknife suffer from the same problem, while likelihood tests cannot be applied in the absence of well established probabilistic models. We present a new approach to the assessment of distance-based phylogenetic inference from whole-genome data; our approach combines features of the jackknife and the bootstrap and remains nonparametric. For each feature of our method, we give an equivalent feature in the sequence-based framework; we also present the results of extensive experimental testing, in both sequence-based and genome-based frameworks. Through the feature-by-feature comparison and the experimental results, we show that our bootstrapping approach is on par with the classic phylogenetic bootstrap used in sequence-based reconstruction, and we establish the clear superiority of the classic bootstrap for sequence data and of our corresponding new approach for rearrangement data over proposed variants. Finally, we test our approach on a small dataset of mammalian genomes, verifying that the support values match current thinking about the respective branches. Our method is the first to provide a standard of assessment to match that of the classic phylogenetic bootstrap for aligned sequences. Its support values follow a similar scale and its receiver

  4. A human genome-wide library of local phylogeny predictions for whole-genome inference problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many common inference problems in computational genetics depend on inferring aspects of the evolutionary history of a data set given a set of observed modern sequences. Detailed predictions of the full phylogenies are therefore of value in improving our ability to make further inferences about population history and sources of genetic variation. Making phylogenetic predictions on the scale needed for whole-genome analysis is, however, extremely computationally demanding. Results In order to facilitate phylogeny-based predictions on a genomic scale, we develop a library of maximum parsimony phylogenies within local regions spanning all autosomal human chromosomes based on Haplotype Map variation data. We demonstrate the utility of this library for population genetic inferences by examining a tree statistic we call 'imperfection,' which measures the reuse of variant sites within a phylogeny. This statistic is significantly predictive of recombination rate, shows additional regional and population-specific conservation, and allows us to identify outlier genes likely to have experienced unusual amounts of variation in recent human history. Conclusion Recent theoretical advances in algorithms for phylogenetic tree reconstruction have made it possible to perform large-scale inferences of local maximum parsimony phylogenies from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data. As results from the imperfection statistic demonstrate, phylogeny predictions encode substantial information useful for detecting genomic features and population history. This data set should serve as a platform for many kinds of inferences one may wish to make about human population history and genetic variation.

  5. Comparative evolutionary diversity and phylogenetic structure across multiple forest dynamics plots: a mega-phylogeny approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L.; Jones, Frank A.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Pei, Nancai; Bourg, Norman A.; Chen, Wenna; Davies, Stuart J.; Ge, Xue-jun; Hao, Zhanqing; Howe, Robert W.; Huang, Chun-Lin; Larson, Andrew J.; Lum, Shawn K. Y.; Lutz, James A.; Ma, Keping; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Mi, Xiangcheng; Parker, John D.; Fang-Sun, I.; Wright, S. Joseph; Wolf, Amy T.; Ye, W.; Xing, Dingliang; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Kress, W. John

    2014-01-01

    Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK, and psbA-trnH) and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance (PD) metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot [PD, Mean Phylogenetic Distance (MPD), and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance (MNTD)]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for individual plots, estimates of

  6. Shortest triplet clustering: reconstructing large phylogenies using representative sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy Vinh Le

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolutionary relationships among species based on their genetic information is one of the primary objectives in phylogenetic analysis. Reconstructing phylogenies for large data sets is still a challenging task in Bioinformatics. Results We propose a new distance-based clustering method, the shortest triplet clustering algorithm (STC, to reconstruct phylogenies. The main idea is the introduction of a natural definition of so-called k-representative sets. Based on k-representative sets, shortest triplets are reconstructed and serve as building blocks for the STC algorithm to agglomerate sequences for tree reconstruction in O(n2 time for n sequences. Simulations show that STC gives better topological accuracy than other tested methods that also build a first starting tree. STC appears as a very good method to start the tree reconstruction. However, all tested methods give similar results if balanced nearest neighbor interchange (BNNI is applied as a post-processing step. BNNI leads to an improvement in all instances. The program is available at http://www.bi.uni-duesseldorf.de/software/stc/. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the new approach efficiently reconstructs phylogenies for large data sets. We found that BNNI boosts the topological accuracy of all methods including STC, therefore, one should use BNNI as a post-processing step to get better topological accuracy.

  7. Comparative evolutionary diversity and phylogenetic structure across multiple forest dynamics plots: a mega-phylogeny approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lee Erickson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest dynamics plots, which now span longitudes, latitudes, and habitat types across the globe, offer unparalleled insights into the ecological and evolutionary processes that determine how species are assembled into communities. Understanding phylogenetic relationships among species in a community has become an important component of assessing assembly processes. However, the application of evolutionary information to questions in community ecology has been limited in large part by the lack of accurate estimates of phylogenetic relationships among individual species found within communities, and is particularly limiting in comparisons between communities. Therefore, streamlining and maximizing the information content of these community phylogenies is a priority. To test the viability and advantage of a multi-community phylogeny, we constructed a multi-plot mega-phylogeny of 1,347 species of trees across 15 forest dynamics plots in the ForestGEO network using DNA barcode sequence data (rbcL, matK and psbA-trnH and compared community phylogenies for each individual plot with respect to support for topology and branch lengths, which affect evolutionary inference of community processes. The levels of taxonomic differentiation across the phylogeny were examined by quantifying the frequency of resolved nodes throughout. In addition, three phylogenetic distance metrics that are commonly used to infer assembly processes were estimated for each plot (Phylogenetic Distance [PD], Mean Phylogenetic Distance [MPD], and Mean Nearest Taxon Distance [MNTD]. Lastly, we examine the partitioning of phylogenetic diversity among community plots through quantification of inter-community MPD and MNTD. Overall, evolutionary relationships were highly resolved across the DNA barcode-based mega-phylogeny, and phylogenetic resolution for each community plot was improved when estimated within the context of the mega-phylogeny. Likewise, when compared with phylogenies for

  8. Development of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mostafa; El-Gazzar, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a poultry pathogen with reported increased prevalence and virulence in recent years. MS strain identification is essential for prevention, control efforts and epidemiological outbreak investigations. Multiple multilocus based sequence typing schemes have been developed for MS, yet the resolution of these schemes could be limited for outbreak investigation. The cost of whole genome sequencing became close to that of sequencing the seven MLST targets; however, there is no standardized method for typing MS strains based on whole genome sequences. In this paper, we propose a core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme as a standardized and reproducible method for typing MS based whole genome sequences. A diverse set of 25 MS whole genome sequences were used to identify 302 core genome genes as cgMLST targets (35.5% of MS genome) and 44 whole genome sequences of MS isolates from six countries in four continents were used for typing applying this scheme. cgMLST based phylogenetic trees displayed a high degree of agreement with core genome SNP based analysis and available epidemiological information. cgMLST allowed evaluation of two conventional MLST schemes of MS. The high discriminatory power of cgMLST allowed differentiation between samples of the same conventional MLST type. cgMLST represents a standardized, accurate, highly discriminatory, and reproducible method for differentiation between MS isolates. Like conventional MLST, it provides stable and expandable nomenclature, allowing for comparing and sharing the typing results between different laboratories worldwide. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Taxonomic and phytogeographic implications from ITS phylogeny in Berberis (Berberidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hee; Landrum, Leslie R

    2004-06-01

    A phylogeny based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from 79 taxa representing much of the diversity of Berberis L. (four major groups and 22 sections) was constructed for the first time. The phylogeny was basically congruent with the previous classification schemes at higher taxonomic levels, such as groups and subgroups. A notable exception is the non-monophyly of the group Occidentales of compound-leaved Berberis (previously separated as Mahonia). At lower levels, however, most of previous sections and subsections were not evident especially in simple-leaved Berberis. Possible relationship between section Horridae (group Occidentales) and the simple-leaved Berberis clade implies paraphyly of the compound-leaved Berberis. A well-known South America-Old World (mainly Asia) disjunctive distribution pattern of the simple-leaved Berberis is explained by a vicariance event occurring in the Cretaceous period. The ITS phylogeny also suggests that a possible connection between the Asian and South American groups through the North American species ( Berberis canadensis or B. fendleri) is highly unlikely.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Duvenhage virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis H. Nel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Duvenhage virus (DUVV constitutes one of the 11 species in the Lyssavirus genus and causes fatal rabies encephalitis. The virus is associated with insectivorous bat species and three human cases have been reported, all of which were linked to contact with bats. Few of these isolates have been studied and thus little is known about the phylogeny and epidemiology of this lyssavirus. Until 2007, when an isolate was made from the East African country of Kenya, all isolations of this virus had been from southern Africa. This discovery led to many questions regarding the spread and diversity of this lyssavirus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the DUVV isolates constitute two different lineages, in which the southern African isolates group together to form one lineage and the more recent isolate from Kenya constitutes a new, second lineage. We found that the new isolate has a genetic variation that has not yet been seen for DUVV. Not only is our lack of knowledge regarding the geographical distribution of this uniquely African virus emphasised, but we have also demonstrated the potential diversity within this genotype.

  11. Reliable effective number of breeders/adult census size ratios in seasonal-breeding species: Opportunity for integrative demographic inferences based on capture-mark-recapture data and multilocus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montes, Gregorio; Wang, Jinliang; Ariño, Arturo H; Vizmanos, José Luis; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo

    2017-12-01

    The ratio of the effective number of breeders ( N b ) to the adult census size ( N a ), N b / N a , approximates the departure from the standard capacity of a population to maintain genetic diversity in one reproductive season. This information is relevant for assessing population status, understanding evolutionary processes operating at local scales, and unraveling how life-history traits affect these processes. However, our knowledge on N b / N a ratios in nature is limited because estimation of both parameters is challenging. The sibship frequency (SF) method is adequate for reliable N b estimation because it is based on sibship and parentage reconstruction from genetic marker data, thereby providing demographic inferences that can be compared with field-based information. In addition, capture-mark-recapture (CMR) robust design methods are well suited for N a estimation in seasonal-breeding species. We used tadpole genotypes of three pond-breeding amphibian species ( Epidalea calamita , Hyla molleri, and Pelophylax perezi , n  =   73-96 single-cohort tadpoles/species genotyped at 15-17 microsatellite loci) and candidate parental genotypes ( n  =   94-300 adults/species) to estimate N b by the SF method. To assess the reliability of N b estimates, we compared sibship and parentage inferences with field-based information and checked for the convergence of results in replicated subsampled analyses. Finally, we used CMR data from a 6-year monitoring program to estimate annual N a in the three species and calculate the N b / N a ratio. Reliable ratios were obtained for E. calamita ( N b / N a  = 0.18-0.28) and P. perezi (0.5), but in H. molleri, N a could not be estimated and genetic information proved insufficient for reliable N b estimation. Integrative demographic studies taking full advantage of SF and CMR methods can provide accurate estimates of the N b / N a ratio in seasonal-breeding species. Importantly, the SF method provides results that can be

  12. Exploring multilocus associations of inflammation genes and colorectal cancer risk using hapConstructor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo Ryan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In candidate-gene association studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, multilocus analyses are frequently of high dimensionality when considering haplotypes or haplotype pairs (diplotypes and differing modes of expression. Often, while candidate genes are selected based on their biological involvement in a given pathway, little is known about the functionality of SNPs to guide association studies. Investigators face the challenge of exploring multiple SNP models to elucidate which variants, independently or in combination, might be associated with a disease of interest. A data mining module, hapConstructor (freely-available in Genie software performs systematic construction and association testing of multilocus genotype data in a Monte Carlo framework. Our objective was to assess its utility to guide statistical analyses of haplotypes within a candidate region (or combined genotypes across candidate genes beyond that offered by a standard logistic regression approach. Methods We applied the hapConstructor method to a multilocus investigation of candidate genes involved in pro-inflammatory cytokine IL6 production, IKBKB, IL6, and NFKB1 (16 SNPs total hypothesized to operate together to alter colorectal cancer risk. Data come from two U.S. multicenter studies, one of colon cancer (1,556 cases and 1,956 matched controls and one of rectal cancer (754 cases and 959 matched controls. Results HapConstrcutor enabled us to identify important associations that were further analyzed in logistic regression models to simultaneously adjust for confounders. The most significant finding (nominal P = 0.0004; false discovery rate q = 0.037 was a combined genotype association across IKBKB SNP rs5029748 (1 or 2 variant alleles, IL6 rs1800797 (1 or 2 variant alleles, and NFKB1 rs4648110 (2 variant alleles which conferred an ~80% decreased risk of colon cancer. Conclusions Strengths of hapConstructor were: systematic identification of

  13. In Silico Detection and Typing of Plasmids using PlasmidFinder and Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Zankari, Ea; García-Fernández, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    In the work presented here, we designed and developed two easy-to-use Web tools for in silico detection and characterization of whole-genome sequence (WGS) and whole-plasmid sequence data from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These tools will facilitate bacterial typing based on draft...... genomes of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae species by the rapid detection of known plasmid types. Replicon sequences from 559 fully sequenced plasmids associated with the family Enterobacteriaceae in the NCBI nucleotide database were collected to build a consensus database for integration...... sequences identified in the 559 fully sequenced plasmids. For plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) analysis, a database that is updated weekly was generated from www.pubmlst.org and integrated into a Web tool called pMLST. Both databases were evaluated using draft genomes from a collection...

  14. Empirical Statistical Power for Testing Multilocus Genotypic Effects under Unbalanced Designs Using a Gibbs Sampler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaeyoung Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Epistasis that may explain a large portion of the phenotypic variation for complex economic traits of animals has been ignored in many genetic association studies. A Baysian method was introduced to draw inferences about multilocus genotypic effects based on their marginal posterior distributions by a Gibbs sampler. A simulation study was conducted to provide statistical powers under various unbalanced designs by using this method. Data were simulated by combined designs of number of loci, within genotype variance, and sample size in unbalanced designs with or without null combined genotype cells. Mean empirical statistical power was estimated for testing posterior mean estimate of combined genotype effect. A practical example for obtaining empirical statistical power estimates with a given sample size was provided under unbalanced designs. The empirical statistical powers would be useful for determining an optimal design when interactive associations of multiple loci with complex phenotypes were examined.

  15. A Framework for Studying Emotions Across Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Since the 19th century, there has been disagreement over the fundamental question of whether “emotions” are cause or consequence of their associated behaviors. This question of causation is most directly addressable in genetically tractable model organisms, including invertebrates such as Drosophila. Yet there is ongoing debate about whether such species even have “emotions,” since emotions are typically defined with reference to human behavior and neuroanatomy. Here we argue that emotional behaviors are a class of behaviors that express internal emotion states. These emotion states exhibit certain general functional and adaptive properties that apply across any specific human emotions like fear or anger, as well as across phylogeny. These general properties, which can be thought of as “emotion primitives”, can be modeled and studied in evolutionarily distant model organisms, allowing functional dissection of their mechanistic bases, and tests of their causal relationships to behavior. More generally, our approach aims not only at better integration of such studies in model organisms with studies of emotion in humans, but also suggests a revision of how emotion should be operationalized within psychology and psychiatry. PMID:24679535

  16. RAD-seq derived genome-wide nuclear markers resolve the phylogeny of tunas

    KAUST Repository

    Díaz-Arce, Natalia

    2016-06-07

    Although species from the genus Thunnus include some of the most commercially important and most severely overexploited fishes, the phylogeny of this genus is still unresolved, hampering evolutionary and traceability studies that could help improve conservation and management strategies for these species. Previous attempts based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers were unsuccessful in inferring a congruent and reliable phylogeny, probably due to mitochondrial introgression events and lack of enough phylogenetically informative markers. Here we infer the first genome-wide nuclear marker-based phylogeny of tunas using restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) data. Our results, derived from phylogenomic inferences obtained from 128 nucleotide matrices constructed using alternative data assembly procedures, support a single Thunnus evolutionary history that challenges previous assumptions based on morphological and molecular data.

  17. MCMC multilocus lod scores: application of a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Andrew W; Wijsman, Ellen M; Thompson, Elizabeth A

    2005-01-01

    On extended pedigrees with extensive missing data, the calculation of multilocus likelihoods for linkage analysis is often beyond the computational bounds of exact methods. Growing interest therefore surrounds the implementation of Monte Carlo estimation methods. In this paper, we demonstrate the speed and accuracy of a new Markov chain Monte Carlo method for the estimation of linkage likelihoods through an analysis of real data from a study of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. For those data sets where comparison with exact analysis is possible, we achieved up to a 100-fold increase in speed. Our approach is implemented in the program lm_bayes within the framework of the freely available MORGAN 2.6 package for Monte Carlo genetic analysis (http://www.stat.washington.edu/thompson/Genepi/MORGAN/Morgan.shtml).

  18. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  19. Molecular characterization of Giardia psittaci by multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Niichiro; Makino, Ikuko; Kojima, Atsushi

    2012-12-01

    Multilocus sequence analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), elongation factor 1 alpha (ef1α), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and beta giardin (β-giardin) were performed on Giardia psittaci isolates from three Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates) and four Barred parakeets (Bolborhynchus lineola) kept in individual households or imported from overseas. Nucleotide differences and phylogenetic analyses at four loci indicate the distinction of G. psittaci from the other known Giardia species: Giardia muris, Giardia microti, Giardia ardeae, and Giardia duodenalis assemblages. Furthermore, G. psittaci was related more closely to G. duodenalis than to the other known Giardia species, except for G. microti. Conflicting signals regarded as "double peaks" were found at the same nucleotide positions of the ef1α in all isolates. However, the sequences of the other three loci, including gdh and β-giardin, which are known to be highly variable, from all isolates were also mutually identical at every locus. They showed no double peaks. These results suggest that double peaks found in the ef1α sequences are caused not by mixed infection with genetically different G. psittaci isolates but by allelic sequence heterogeneity (ASH), which is observed in diplomonad lineages including G. duodenalis. No sequence difference was found in any G. psittaci isolates at the gdh and β-giardin, suggesting that G. psittaci is indeed not more diverse genetically than other Giardia species. This report is the first to provide evidence related to the genetic characteristics of G. psittaci obtained using multilocus sequence analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular phylogeny and character evolution in terete-stemmed Andean opuntias (Cactaceae-Opuntioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, C M; Reiker, J; Charles, G; Hoxey, P; Hunt, D; Lowry, M; Stuppy, W; Taylor, N

    2012-11-01

    The cacti of tribe Tephrocacteae (Cactaceae-Opuntioideae) are adapted to diverse climatic conditions over a wide area of the southern Andes and adjacent lowlands. They exhibit a range of life forms from geophytes and cushion-plants to dwarf shrubs, shrubs or small trees. To confirm or challenge previous morphology-based classifications and molecular phylogenies, we sampled DNA sequences from the chloroplast trnK/matK region and the nuclear low copy gene phyC and compared the resulting phylogenies with previous data gathered from nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. The here presented chloroplast and nuclear low copy gene phylogenies were mutually congruent and broadly coincident with the classification based on gross morphology and seed micro-morphology and anatomy. Reconstruction of hypothetical ancestral character states suggested that geophytes and cushion-forming species probably evolved several times from dwarf shrubby precursors. We also traced an increase of embryo size at the expense of the nucellus-derived storage tissue during the evolution of the Tephrocacteae, which is thought to be an evolutionary advantage because nutrients are then more rapidly accessible for the germinating embryo. In contrast to these highly concordant phylogenies, nuclear ribosomal DNA data sampled by a previous study yielded conflicting phylogenetic signals. Secondary structure predictions of ribosomal transcribed spacers suggested that this phylogeny is strongly influenced by the inclusion of paralogous sequence probably arisen by genome duplication during the evolution of this plant group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ribosomal RNA: a key to phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    As molecular phylogeny increasingly shapes our understanding of organismal relationships, no molecule has been applied to more questions than have ribosomal RNAs. We review this role of the rRNAs and some of the insights that have been gained from them. We also offer some of the practical considerations in extracting the phylogenetic information from the sequences. Finally, we stress the importance of comparing results from multiple molecules, both as a method for testing the overall reliability of the organismal phylogeny and as a method for more broadly exploring the history of the genome.

  2. Molecular data and phylogeny of family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Shinwari, S.

    2010-01-01

    Family Smilacaceae's higher order taxonomy remained disputed for many years. It was treated as an order 'Smilacales' and was also placed under Liliales by several taxonomists. Even some considered as part of family Liliacaeae. In present paper, we investigated the family's higher order phylogeny and also compared its rbcL gene sequence data with related taxa to elucidate its phylogeny. The data suggests that its family stature is beyond dispute because of its advanced karyotype, woody climbing habit and DNA sequence data. The data suggest that Smilacaceae may be a sister group of order Liliales and it forms a clear clade with the order. (author)

  3. The phylogeny of Orussidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The phylogeny of the parasitic wasp family Orussidae is analyzed with a slightly expanded version of a previously published data set. The basal splitting events in the family between two fossil taxa and the extant members are not unambiguously resolved. Intergeneric relationships in general...... are poorly supported and change under different analytical conditions. This corroborates earlier fi ndings regarding the phylogeny of the family. A resumé of the evolutionary history of the Orussidae is provided. Leptorussus madagascarensis sp.n. is described. Udgivelsesdato: 7/12...

  4. Molecular characterization of Leptospira sp by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA from clinical samples: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Pailhoriès

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection for which diagnosis is difficult. It has appeared as a global emerging infectious disease over recent years. Genotype determination often requires a Leptospira strain obtained by culture, which is a long and fastidious technique. A method based on multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA to determine the genotype of Leptospira interrogans, performed directly on blood or urine samples, is proposed. This method was applied to a fatal case of leptospirosis for which the geographical origin of infection was unknown. This technique will allow a genotype to be obtained for L. interrogans, even when cultures remain negative.

  5. The use of compensatory base change analysis of ITS2 as a tool in the phylogeny of Mucorales, illustrated by the Mucor circinelloides complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlowska, J.; Walther, G.; Wilk, M.; de Hoog, S.; Wrzosek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Compensatory base changes (CBCs) in helix II of rDNA ITS2, suggested as a molecular classifier for fungi, were analyzed in Mucor circinelloides and its varieties. Only a few CBCs were found in the complex. Three out of the four accepted formae (f. circinelloides, f. lusitanicus, f. janssenii) did

  6. Studies on Dasyaceae. 3. Towards a phylogeny of the Dasyaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta), based on comparative rbcL gene sequences and morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Y.S D M; van der Wurff, A.W G; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    Phylogenetic analyses of the Dasyaceae based on sequence analysis of the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) and 42 morphological characters are presented. Comparative sequence analysis confirms the general view of the Ceramiaceae as a primitive, paraphyletic

  7. A phylogeny-based global nomenclature system and automated annotation tool for H1 hemagglutinin genes from swine influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAV) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from non-swine hosts, swine H1 have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based...

  8. Recapitulating phylogenies using k-mers: from trees to networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Ragan, Mark A; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2016-01-01

    Ernst Haeckel based his landmark Tree of Life on the supposed ontogenic recapitulation of phylogeny, i.e. that successive embryonic stages during the development of an organism re-trace the morphological forms of its ancestors over the course of evolution. Much of this idea has since been discredited. Today, phylogenies are often based on families of molecular sequences. The standard approach starts with a multiple sequence alignment, in which the sequences are arranged relative to each other in a way that maximises a measure of similarity position-by-position along their entire length. A tree (or sometimes a network) is then inferred. Rigorous multiple sequence alignment is computationally demanding, and evolutionary processes that shape the genomes of many microbes (bacteria, archaea and some morphologically simple eukaryotes) can add further complications. In particular, recombination, genome rearrangement and lateral genetic transfer undermine the assumptions that underlie multiple sequence alignment, and imply that a tree-like structure may be too simplistic. Here, using genome sequences of 143 bacterial and archaeal genomes, we construct a network of phylogenetic relatedness based on the number of shared k -mers (subsequences at fixed length k ). Our findings suggest that the network captures not only key aspects of microbial genome evolution as inferred from a tree, but also features that are not treelike. The method is highly scalable, allowing for investigation of genome evolution across a large number of genomes. Instead of using specific regions or sequences from genome sequences, or indeed Haeckel's idea of ontogeny, we argue that genome phylogenies can be inferred using k -mers from whole-genome sequences. Representing these networks dynamically allows biological questions of interest to be formulated and addressed quickly and in a visually intuitive manner.

  9. Can phylogeny predict chemical diversity and potential medicinal activity of plants? A case study of amaryllidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønsted Nina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During evolution, plants and other organisms have developed a diversity of chemical defences, leading to the evolution of various groups of specialized metabolites selected for their endogenous biological function. A correlation between phylogeny and biosynthetic pathways could offer a predictive approach enabling more efficient selection of plants for the development of traditional medicine and lead discovery. However, this relationship has rarely been rigorously tested and the potential predictive power is consequently unknown. Results We produced a phylogenetic hypothesis for the medicinally important plant subfamily Amaryllidoideae (Amaryllidaceae based on parsimony and Bayesian analysis of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA sequences of over 100 species. We tested if alkaloid diversity and activity in bioassays related to the central nervous system are significantly correlated with phylogeny and found evidence for a significant phylogenetic signal in these traits, although the effect is not strong. Conclusions Several genera are non-monophyletic emphasizing the importance of using phylogeny for interpretation of character distribution. Alkaloid diversity and in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and binding to the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT are significantly correlated with phylogeny. This has implications for the use of phylogenies to interpret chemical evolution and biosynthetic pathways, to select candidate taxa for lead discovery, and to make recommendations for policies regarding traditional use and conservation priorities.

  10. Bayesian phylogeny analysis of vertebrate serpins illustrates evolutionary conservation of the intron and indels based six groups classification system from lampreys for ∼500 MY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The serpin superfamily is characterized by proteins that fold into a conserved tertiary structure and exploits a sophisticated and irreversible suicide-mechanism of inhibition. Vertebrate serpins are classified into six groups (V1–V6, based on three independent biological features—genomic organization, diagnostic amino acid sites and rare indels. However, this classification system was based on the limited number of mammalian genomes available. In this study, several non-mammalian genomes are used to validate this classification system using the powerful Bayesian phylogenetic method. This method supports the intron and indel based vertebrate classification and proves that serpins have been maintained from lampreys to humans for about 500 MY. Lampreys have fewer than 10 serpins, which expand into 36 serpins in humans. The two expanding groups V1 and V2 have SERPINB1/SERPINB6 and SERPINA8/SERPIND1 as the ancestral serpins, respectively. Large clusters of serpins are formed by local duplications of these serpins in tetrapod genomes. Interestingly, the ancestral HCII/SERPIND1 locus (nested within PIK4CA possesses group V4 serpin (A2APL1, homolog of α2-AP/SERPINF2 of lampreys; hence, pointing to the fact that group V4 might have originated from group V2. Additionally in this study, details of the phylogenetic history and genomic characteristics of vertebrate serpins are revisited.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of Chrysomya albiceps and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J D; Sperling, F A

    1999-05-01

    Mitochondrial DNA was used to infer the phylogeny and genetic divergences of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and C. rufifacies (Maquart) specimens from widely separated localities in the Old and New World. Analyses based on a 2.3-kb region including the genes for cytochrome oxidase subunits I and II indicated that the 2 species were separate monophyletic lineages that have been separated for > 1 million years. Analysis of DNA, in the form of either sequence or restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) data, will permit the identification of problematic specimens.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of the Oriental butterfly genus Arhopala (Lycaenidae, Theclinae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, H.J.W.C.; Nes, Van W.J.; Moorsel, van C.H.M.; Pierce, N.E.; Jong, de R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a phylogeny for a selection of species of the butterfly genus Arhopala Boisduval, 1832 based on molecular characters. We sequenced 1778 bases of the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase 1 and 2 including tRNALeu, and a 393-bp fragment of the nuclear wingless gene for a total of 42

  13. Book review: Insect morphology and phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Randolf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Beutel RG, Friedrich F, Ge S-Q, Yang X-K (2014 Insect Morphology and Phylogeny: A textbook for students of entomology. De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, 516 pp., softcover. ISBN 978-3-11-026263-6.

  14. Bayesian inference of the metazoan phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenner, Henrik; Hansen, Anders J; Sørensen, Martin V

    2004-01-01

    Metazoan phylogeny remains one of evolutionary biology's major unsolved problems. Molecular and morphological data, as well as different analytical approaches, have produced highly conflicting results due to homoplasy resulting from more than 570 million years of evolution. To date, parsimony has...

  15. Phylogeny of Selaginellaceae: There is value in morphology after all!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weststrand, Stina; Korall, Petra

    2016-12-01

    The cosmopolitan lycophyte family Selaginellaceae, dating back to the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous, is notorious for its many species with a seemingly undifferentiated gross morphology. This morphological stasis has for a long time hampered our understanding of the evolutionary history of the single genus Selaginella. Here we present a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of Selaginella, and based on the resulting phylogeny, we discuss morphological evolution in the group. We sampled about one-third of the approximately 750 recognized Selaginella species. Evolutionary relationships were inferred from both chloroplast (rbcL) and single-copy nuclear gene data (pgiC and SQD1) using a Bayesian inference approach. The morphology of the group was studied and important features mapped onto the phylogeny. We present an overall well-supported phylogeny of Selaginella, and the phylogenetic positions of some previously problematic taxa (i.e., S. sinensis and allies) are now resolved with strong support. We show that even though the evolution of most morphological characters involves reversals and/or parallelisms, several characters are phylogenetically informative. Seven major clades are identified, which each can be uniquely diagnosed by a suite of morphological features. There is value in morphology after all! Our hypothesis of the evolutionary relationships of Selaginella is well founded based on DNA sequence data, as well as morphology, and is in line with previous findings. It will serve as a firm basis for further studies on Selaginella with respect to, e.g., the poorly known alpha taxonomy, as well as evolutionary questions such as historical biogeographic reconstructions. © 2016 Weststrand and Korall. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY 4.0).

  16. Reconstructing the Backbone of the Saccharomycotina Yeast Phylogeny Using Genome-Scale Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Xing Shen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina is a prerequisite for understanding the evolution of their metabolisms and ecological lifestyles. In the last two decades, the use of rDNA and multilocus data sets has greatly advanced our understanding of the yeast phylogeny, but many deep relationships remain unsupported. In contrast, phylogenomic analyses have involved relatively few taxa and lineages that were often selected with limited considerations for covering the breadth of yeast biodiversity. Here we used genome sequence data from 86 publicly available yeast genomes representing nine of the 11 known major lineages and 10 nonyeast fungal outgroups to generate a 1233-gene, 96-taxon data matrix. Species phylogenies reconstructed using two different methods (concatenation and coalescence and two data matrices (amino acids or the first two codon positions yielded identical and highly supported relationships between the nine major lineages. Aside from the lineage comprised by the family Pichiaceae, all other lineages were monophyletic. Most interrelationships among yeast species were robust across the two methods and data matrices. However, eight of the 93 internodes conflicted between analyses or data sets, including the placements of: the clade defined by species that have reassigned the CUG codon to encode serine, instead of leucine; the clade defined by a whole genome duplication; and the species Ascoidea rubescens. These phylogenomic analyses provide a robust roadmap for future comparative work across the yeast subphylum in the disciplines of taxonomy, molecular genetics, evolutionary biology, ecology, and biotechnology. To further this end, we have also provided a BLAST server to query the 86 Saccharomycotina genomes, which can be found at http://y1000plus.org/blast.

  17. Reconstructing the Backbone of the Saccharomycotina Yeast Phylogeny Using Genome-Scale Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xing-Xing; Zhou, Xiaofan; Kominek, Jacek; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rokas, Antonis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the yeasts of the subphylum Saccharomycotina is a prerequisite for understanding the evolution of their metabolisms and ecological lifestyles. In the last two decades, the use of rDNA and multilocus data sets has greatly advanced our understanding of the yeast phylogeny, but many deep relationships remain unsupported. In contrast, phylogenomic analyses have involved relatively few taxa and lineages that were often selected with limited considerations for covering the breadth of yeast biodiversity. Here we used genome sequence data from 86 publicly available yeast genomes representing nine of the 11 known major lineages and 10 nonyeast fungal outgroups to generate a 1233-gene, 96-taxon data matrix. Species phylogenies reconstructed using two different methods (concatenation and coalescence) and two data matrices (amino acids or the first two codon positions) yielded identical and highly supported relationships between the nine major lineages. Aside from the lineage comprised by the family Pichiaceae, all other lineages were monophyletic. Most interrelationships among yeast species were robust across the two methods and data matrices. However, eight of the 93 internodes conflicted between analyses or data sets, including the placements of: the clade defined by species that have reassigned the CUG codon to encode serine, instead of leucine; the clade defined by a whole genome duplication; and the species Ascoidea rubescens. These phylogenomic analyses provide a robust roadmap for future comparative work across the yeast subphylum in the disciplines of taxonomy, molecular genetics, evolutionary biology, ecology, and biotechnology. To further this end, we have also provided a BLAST server to query the 86 Saccharomycotina genomes, which can be found at http://y1000plus.org/blast. PMID:27672114

  18. Comprehensive Genome Analysis of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter spp.: New Insights into Phylogeny, Population Structure, and Resistance Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Kalyan D; Chen, Liang; Fouts, Derrick E; Sutton, Granger; Brinkac, Lauren; Jenkins, Stephen G; Bonomo, Robert A; Adams, Mark D; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2016-12-13

    Knowledge regarding the genomic structure of Enterobacter spp., the second most prevalent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, remains limited. Here we sequenced 97 clinical Enterobacter species isolates that were both carbapenem susceptible and resistant from various geographic regions to decipher the molecular origins of carbapenem resistance and to understand the changing phylogeny of these emerging and drug-resistant pathogens. Of the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 30 possessed bla KPC-2 , 40 had bla KPC-3 , 2 had bla KPC-4 , and 2 had bla NDM-1 Twenty-three isolates were carbapenem susceptible. Six genomes were sequenced to completion, and their sizes ranged from 4.6 to 5.1 Mbp. Phylogenomic analysis placed 96 of these genomes, 351 additional Enterobacter genomes downloaded from NCBI GenBank, and six newly sequenced type strains into 19 phylogenomic groups-18 groups (A to R) in the Enterobacter cloacae complex and Enterobacter aerogenes Diverse mechanisms underlying the molecular evolutionary trajectory of these drug-resistant Enterobacter spp. were revealed, including the acquisition of an antibiotic resistance plasmid, followed by clonal spread, horizontal transfer of bla KPC -harboring plasmids between different phylogenomic groups, and repeated transposition of the bla KPC gene among different plasmid backbones. Group A, which comprises multilocus sequence type 171 (ST171), was the most commonly identified (23% of isolates). Genomic analysis showed that ST171 isolates evolved from a common ancestor and formed two different major clusters; each acquiring unique bla KPC -harboring plasmids, followed by clonal expansion. The data presented here represent the first comprehensive study of phylogenomic interrogation and the relationship between antibiotic resistance and plasmid discrimination among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp., demonstrating the genetic diversity and complexity of the molecular mechanisms driving antibiotic resistance in this

  19. A Phylogeny-Based Global Nomenclature System and Automated Annotation Tool for H1 Hemagglutinin Genes from Swine Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Catherine A.; Lewis, Nicola S.; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brown, Ian H.; Swenson, Sabrina L.; Simon, Gaëlle; Saito, Takehiko; Berhane, Yohannes; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice; Pereda, Ariel; Davis, C. Todd; Donis, Ruben O.; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAVs) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from nonswine hosts, swine H1 viruses have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based on colloquial context, leading to a proliferation of inconsistent regional naming conventions. In this study, we propose rigorous phylogenetic criteria to establish a globally consistent nomenclature of swine H1 virus hemagglutinin (HA) evolution. These criteria applied to a data set of 7,070 H1 HA sequences led to 28 distinct clades as the basis for the nomenclature. We developed and implemented a web-accessible annotation tool that can assign these biologically informative categories to new sequence data. The annotation tool assigned the combined data set of 7,070 H1 sequences to the correct clade more than 99% of the time. Our analyses indicated that 87% of the swine H1 viruses from 2010 to the present had HAs that belonged to 7 contemporary cocirculating clades. Our nomenclature and web-accessible classification tool provide an accurate method for researchers, diagnosticians, and health officials to assign clade designations to HA sequences. The tool can be updated readily to track evolving nomenclature as new clades emerge, ensuring continued relevance. A common global nomenclature facilitates comparisons of IAVs infecting humans and pigs, within and between regions, and can provide insight into the diversity of swine H1 influenza virus and its impact on vaccine strain selection, diagnostic reagents, and test performance, thereby simplifying communication of such data. IMPORTANCE A fundamental goal in the biological sciences is the definition of groups of organisms based on evolutionary history and the naming of those groups. For influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine, understanding the hemagglutinin (HA) genetic lineage of a circulating strain aids

  20. From GenBank to GBIF: Phylogeny-Based Predictive Niche Modeling Tests Accuracy of Taxonomic Identifications in Large Occurrence Data Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B Eugene; Johnston, Mark K; Lücking, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Accuracy of taxonomic identifications is crucial to data quality in online repositories of species occurrence data, such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), which have accumulated several hundred million records over the past 15 years. These data serve as basis for large scale analyses of macroecological and biogeographic patterns and to document environmental changes over time. However, taxonomic identifications are often unreliable, especially for non-vascular plants and fungi including lichens, which may lack critical revisions of voucher specimens. Due to the scale of the problem, restudy of millions of collections is unrealistic and other strategies are needed. Here we propose to use verified, georeferenced occurrence data of a given species to apply predictive niche modeling that can then be used to evaluate unverified occurrences of that species. Selecting the charismatic lichen fungus, Usnea longissima, as a case study, we used georeferenced occurrence records based on sequenced specimens to model its predicted niche. Our results suggest that the target species is largely restricted to a narrow range of boreal and temperate forest in the Northern Hemisphere and that occurrence records in GBIF from tropical regions and the Southern Hemisphere do not represent this taxon, a prediction tested by comparison with taxonomic revisions of Usnea for these regions. As a novel approach, we employed Principal Component Analysis on the environmental grid data used for predictive modeling to visualize potential ecogeographical barriers for the target species; we found that tropical regions conform a strong barrier, explaining why potential niches in the Southern Hemisphere were not colonized by Usnea longissima and instead by morphologically similar species. This approach is an example of how data from two of the most important biodiversity repositories, GenBank and GBIF, can be effectively combined to remotely address the problem of inaccuracy of

  1. Genetic Diversity Studies Based on Morphological Variability, Pathogenicity and Molecular Phylogeny of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Population From Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea

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    Pankaj Sharma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available White mold or stem rot disease are ubiquitously distributed throughout the world and the causal organism of this disease Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is known to infect over 400 plant species. Sclerotinia stem rot is one of the most devastating fungal diseases and poses a serious threat to the worldwide cultivation of oilseed Brassica including India. S. sclerotiorum pathogen usually infects the stem but in severe cases leaves and pods also affected at different developmental stages that deteriorate not only the oil quality but also causing the seed and oil yield losses up to 90% depending on the severity of the disease infestation. This study investigated the morphological and molecular characterization of pathogenic S. sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary geographical isolates from oilseed Brassica including Brassica juncea (Indian mustard. The aim of this study was to compare isolates of S. sclerotiorum originated from different agro-climatic conditions and to analyse similarity or differences between them as well as to examine the virulence of this pathogen specifically in Brassica for the first time. The collection of S. sclerotiorum isolates from symptomatic Brassica plants was done and analyzed for morphological features, and molecular characterization. The virulence evaluation test of 65 isolates on four Brassica cultivars has shown 5 of them were highly virulent, 46 were virulent and 14 were moderately virulent. Phylogenetic analysis encompassing all the morphological features, SSR polymorphism, and ITS sequencing has shown the existence of high genetic diversity among the isolates that categorized all the isolates in three evolutionary lineages in the derived dendrogram. Further, genetic variability analysis based on sequences variation in ITS region of all the isolates has shown the existence of either insertions or deletions of the nucleotides in the ITS region has led to the interspecies variability and observed the variation were

  2. Phylogeny and evolutionary history of Leymus (Triticeae; Poaceae based on a single-copy nuclear gene encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase

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    Ding Cun-Bang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single- and low- copy genes are less likely subject to concerted evolution, thus making themselves ideal tools for studying the origin and evolution of polyploid taxa. Leymus is a polyploid genus with a diverse array of morphology, ecology and distribution in Triticeae. The genomic constitution of Leymus was assigned as NsXm, where Ns was presumed to be originated from Psathyrostachys, while Xm represented a genome of unknown origin. In addition, little is known about the evolutionary history of Leymus. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of Leymus based on a single-copy nuclear Acc1 gene. Results Two homoeologues of the Acc1 gene were isolated from nearly all the sampled Leymus species using allele-specific primer and were analyzed with those from 35 diploid taxa representing 18 basic genomes in Triticeae. Sequence diversity patterns and genealogical analysis suggested that (1 Leymus is closely related to Psathyrostachys, Agropyron, and Eremopyrum; (2 Psathyrostachys juncea is an ancestral Ns-genome donor of Leymus species; (3 the Xm genome in Leymus may be originated from an ancestral lineage of Agropyron and Eremopyrum triticeum; (4 the Acc1 sequences of Leymus species from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau are evolutionarily distinct; (5 North America Leymus species might originate from colonization via the Bering land bridge; (6 Leymus originated about 11-12MYA in Eurasia, and adaptive radiation might have occurred in Leymus during the period of 3.7-4.3 MYA and 1.7-2.1 MYA. Conclusion Leymus species have allopolyploid origin. It is hypothesized that the adaptive radiation of Leymus species might have been triggered by the recent upliftings of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and subsequent climatic oscillations. Adaptive radiation may have promoted the rapid speciation, as well as the fixation of unique morphological characters in Leymus. Our results shed new light on our

  3. Phylogeny of the Gondwanan beetle family Ulodidae (Tenebrionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschen, Richard A B; Escalona, Hermes E; Elgueta, Mario

    2016-07-18

    Ulodidae is a small family of saproxylic and fungus feeding beetles restricted to New Zealand, Australia, Chile and New Caledonia. The phylogeny of this family is presented for the first time, based on a cladistic analysis of 53 adult characters from 16 ulodid genera, rooted with Parahelops Waterhouse (Promecheilidae). The topology shows Arthopus Sharp at the base of the tree and confirms the placement of Meryx Latreille as a member of Ulodidae and closely related to the Chilean genus Trachyderas Philippi & Philippi. The extinct New Zealand genus Waitomophylax Leschen & Rhode was placed among a clade consisting of Brouniphylax Strand, Exohadrus Broun, and Pteroderes Germain. Two new genera and two new species are described: Ulobostrichus gen. n. (type species: Ulobostrichus monteithi sp. n.) and Ulocyphaleus gen. n. (type species: Cyphaleus valdivianus Philippi & Philippi, 1864, now U. valdivianus (Philippi & Philippi) n. comb.; U. laetus sp. n.). Dipsaconia pyritosa Pascoe is designated as the type species of Dipsaconia Pascoe and a lectotype was designated for C. valdivianus. A fully illustrated key to the genera and a checklist of the 16 genera and 42 species is included. Based on the phylogeny, the following characters are derived in the family: tuberculate body surface and the presence of scales and /or encrustations. The presence of pore-fields in the abdominal cuticle has evolved at least three times in Meryx Latreille (Australia), Syrphetodes Pascoe (New Zealand) and Trachyderastes Kaszab (New Caledonia).

  4. Multilocus Sequence Typing for Interpreting Blood Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis

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    Prannda Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant isolates, and 25 skin isolates and the ability of sequence typing to differentiate them. Three machine learning algorithms (classification regression tree, support vector machine, and nearest neighbor were employed. Genetic variability was substantial between isolates, with 44 sequence types found in 100 isolates. Sequence types 2 and 5 were most commonly identified. However, among the classification algorithms we employed, none were effective, with CART and SVM both yielding only 73% diagnostic accuracy and nearest neighbor analysis yielding only 53% accuracy. Our data mirror previous studies examining the presence or absence of pathogenic genes in that the overlap between truly significant organisms and contaminants appears to prevent the use of MLST in the clarification of blood cultures recovering S. epidermidis.

  5. Novel Polymorphic Multilocus Microsatellite Markers to Distinguish Candida tropicalis Isolates.

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    Xin Fan

    Full Text Available Candida tropicalis is an important pathogen. Here we developed and evaluated a polymorphic multilocus microsatellite scheme employing novel genetic markers for genotyping of C. tropicalis. Using 10 isolates from 10 unique (separate patients to screen over 4000 tandem repeats from the C. tropicalis genome (strain MYA-3404, six new candidate microsatellite loci (ctm1, ctm3, ctm8, ctm18, ctm24 and ctm26 were selected according to amplification success, observed polymorphisms and stability of flanking regions by preliminary testing. Two known microsatellite loci CT14 and URA3 were also studied. The 6-locus scheme was then tested against a set of 82 different isolates from 32 patients. Microsatellite genotypes of isolates from the same patient (two to five isolates per patient were identical. The six loci produced eight to 17 allele types and identified 11 to 24 genotypes amongst 32 patients' isolates, achieving a discriminatory power (DP of 0.76 to 0.97 (versus 0.78 for both CT14 and URA3 loci, respectively. Testing of a combination of only three loci, ctm1, ctm3 and ctm24, also achieved maximum typing efficiency (DP = 0.99, 29 genotypes. The microsatellite typing scheme had good correlation compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, although was slightly less discriminatory. The new six-locus microsatellite typing scheme is a potentially valuable tool for genotyping and investigating microevolution of C. tropicalis.

  6. Multilocus sequence typing of IncN plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Fernández, Aurora; Villa, Laura; Moodley, Arshnee

    2011-01-01

    that spread and persistence of this particular IncN-carrying blaVIM-1 lineage in Greece. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes the use of pMLST as a suitable and rapid method for identification of IncN epidemic plasmid lineages. The recent spread of blaCTX-M-1 among humans and animals seems to be associated......OBJECTIVES: Incompatibility group N (IncN) plasmids have been associated with the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and are a major vehicle for the spread of blaVIM-1 in humans and blaCTX-M-1 in animals. A plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) scheme was developed for rapid...... in different countries from both animals and humans belonged to ST1, suggesting dissemination of an epidemic plasmid through the food chain. Fifteen of 17 plasmids carrying blaVIM-1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, isolated during a 5year period in Greece were assigned to ST10, suggesting...

  7. Mixed integer linear programming for maximum-parsimony phylogeny inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational biology. While excellent heuristic methods are available for many variants of this problem, new advances in phylogeny inference will be required if we are to be able to continue to make effective use of the rapidly growing stores of variation data now being gathered. In this paper, we present two integer linear programming (ILP) formulations to find the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree from a set of binary variation data. One method uses a flow-based formulation that can produce exponential numbers of variables and constraints in the worst case. The method has, however, proven extremely efficient in practice on datasets that are well beyond the reach of the available provably efficient methods, solving several large mtDNA and Y-chromosome instances within a few seconds and giving provably optimal results in times competitive with fast heuristics than cannot guarantee optimality. An alternative formulation establishes that the problem can be solved with a polynomial-sized ILP. We further present a web server developed based on the exponential-sized ILP that performs fast maximum parsimony inferences and serves as a front end to a database of precomputed phylogenies spanning the human genome.

  8. Phylogeny and Systematics of Leptomyxid Amoebae (Amoebozoa, Tubulinea, Leptomyxida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexey; Nassonova, Elena; Geisen, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael; Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Berney, Cedric; Glotova, Anna; Bondarenko, Natalya; Dyková, Iva; Mrva, Martin; Fahrni, Jose; Pawlowski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    We describe four new species of Flabellula, Leptomyxa and Rhizamoeba and publish new SSU rRNA gene and actin gene sequences of leptomyxids. Using these data we provide the most comprehensive SSU phylogeny of leptomyxids to date. Based on the analyses of morphological data and results of the SSU rRNA gene phylogeny we suggest changes in the systematics of the order Leptomyxida (Amoebozoa: Lobosa: Tubulinea). We propose to merge the genera Flabellula and Paraflabellula (the genus Flabellula remains valid by priority rule). The genus Rhizamoeba is evidently polyphyletic in all phylogenetic trees; we suggest retaining the generic name Rhizamoeba for the group unifying R. saxonica, R.matisi n. sp. and R. polyura, the latter remains the type species of the genus Rhizamoeba. Based on molecular and morphological evidence we move all remaining Rhizamoeba species to the genus Leptomyxa. New family Rhizamoebidae is established here in order to avoid paraphyly of the family Leptomyxidae. With the suggested changes both molecular and morphological systems of the order Leptomyxida are now fully congruent to each other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Phantoms of Gondwana?-phylogeny of the spider subfamily Mynogleninae (Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Holger; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    This is the first genus-level phylogeny of the subfamily Mynogleninae. It is based on 190 morphological characters scored for 44 taxa: 37 mynoglenine taxa (ingroup) representing 15 of the 17 known genera and seven outgroup taxa representing the subfamilies Stemonyphantinae, Linyphiinae (Linyphiin...

  10. Integrative taxonomy by molecular species delimitation: multi-locus data corroborate a new species of Balkan Drusinae micro-endemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitecek, Simon; Kučinić, Mladen; Previšić, Ana; Živić, Ivana; Stojanović, Katarina; Keresztes, Lujza; Bálint, Miklós; Hoppeler, Felicitas; Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Pauls, Steffen U

    2017-06-06

    Taxonomy offers precise species identification and delimitation and thus provides basic information for biological research, e.g. through assessment of species richness. The importance of molecular taxonomy, i.e., the identification and delimitation of taxa based on molecular markers, has increased in the past decade. Recently developed exploratory tools now allow estimating species-level diversity in multi-locus molecular datasets. Here we use molecular species delimitation tools that either quantify differences in intra- and interspecific variability of loci, or divergence times within and between species, or perform coalescent species tree inference to estimate species-level entities in molecular genetic datasets. We benchmark results from these methods against 14 morphologically readily differentiable species of a well-defined subgroup of the diverse Drusinae subfamily (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Using a 3798 bp (6 loci) molecular data set we aim to corroborate a geographically isolated new species by integrating comparative morphological studies and molecular taxonomy. Our results indicate that only multi-locus species delimitation provides taxonomically relevant information. The data further corroborate the new species Drusus zivici sp. nov. We provide differential diagnostic characters and describe the male, female and larva of this new species and discuss diversity patterns of Drusinae in the Balkans. We further discuss potential and significance of molecular species delimitation. Finally we argue that enhancing collaborative integrative taxonomy will accelerate assessment of global diversity and completion of reference libraries for applied fields, e.g., conservation and biomonitoring.

  11. A molecular phylogeny of living primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Polina; Johnson, Warren E; Roos, Christian; Seuánez, Hector N; Horvath, Julie E; Moreira, Miguel A M; Kessing, Bailey; Pontius, Joan; Roelke, Melody; Rumpler, Yves; Schneider, Maria Paula C; Silva, Artur; O'Brien, Stephen J; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-03-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (~8 Mb) from 186 primates representing 61 (~90%) of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species.

  12. A Molecular Phylogeny of Living Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Polina; Johnson, Warren E.; Roos, Christian; Seuánez, Hector N.; Horvath, Julie E.; Moreira, Miguel A. M.; Kessing, Bailey; Pontius, Joan; Roelke, Melody; Rumpler, Yves; Schneider, Maria Paula C.; Silva, Artur; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (∼8 Mb) from 186 primates representing 61 (∼90%) of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species. PMID:21436896

  13. A molecular phylogeny of living primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Perelman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genomic analyses of primates offer considerable potential to define and understand the processes that mold, shape, and transform the human genome. However, primate taxonomy is both complex and controversial, with marginal unifying consensus of the evolutionary hierarchy of extant primate species. Here we provide new genomic sequence (~8 Mb from 186 primates representing 61 (~90% of the described genera, and we include outgroup species from Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Lagomorpha. The resultant phylogeny is exceptionally robust and illuminates events in primate evolution from ancient to recent, clarifying numerous taxonomic controversies and providing new data on human evolution. Ongoing speciation, reticulate evolution, ancient relic lineages, unequal rates of evolution, and disparate distributions of insertions/deletions among the reconstructed primate lineages are uncovered. Our resolution of the primate phylogeny provides an essential evolutionary framework with far-reaching applications including: human selection and adaptation, global emergence of zoonotic diseases, mammalian comparative genomics, primate taxonomy, and conservation of endangered species.

  14. Testing the new animal phylogeny: a phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlat, Sarah J; Nielsen, Claus; Economou, Andrew D; Telford, Maximilian J

    2008-10-01

    The new animal phylogeny inferred from ribosomal genes some years ago has prompted a number of radical rearrangements of the traditional, morphology based metazoan tree. The two main bilaterian clades, Deuterostomia and Protostomia, find strong support, but the protostomes consist of two sister groups, Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa, not seen in morphology based trees. Although widely accepted, not all recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have supported the tripartite structure of the new animal phylogeny. Furthermore, even if the small ribosomal subunit (SSU) based phylogeny is correct, there is a frustrating lack of resolution of relationships between the phyla that make up the three clades of this tree. To address this issue, we have assembled a dataset including a large number of aligned sequence positions as well as a broad sampling of metazoan phyla. Our dataset consists of sequence data from ribosomal and mitochondrial genes combined with new data from protein coding genes (5139 amino acid and 3524 nucleotide positions in total) from 37 representative taxa sampled across the Metazoa. Our data show strong support for the basic structure of the new animal phylogeny as well as for the Mandibulata including Myriapoda. We also provide some resolution within the Lophotrochozoa, where we confirm support for a monophyletic clade of Echiura, Sipuncula and Annelida and surprising evidence of a close relationship between Brachiopoda and Nemertea.

  15. Deep phylogeny and character evolution in thecostraca (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    published since Darwin's seminal monographs, few studies have tested evolutionary hypotheses about Thecostraca within a phylogenetic context. In this review, we combine a Bayesian phylogenetic method and multilocus sequence data to reconstruct the evolutionary history of 12 key thecostracan phenotypic...

  16. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses. PMID:23144967

  17. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  18. A synthetic phylogeny of freshwater crayfish: insights for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Christopher L.; Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Stern, David; Crandall, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic systematics is heading for a renaissance where we shift from considering our phylogenetic estimates as a static image in a published paper and taxonomies as a hardcopy checklist to treating both the phylogenetic estimate and dynamic taxonomies as metadata for further analyses. The Open Tree of Life project (opentreeoflife.org) is developing synthesis tools for harnessing the power of phylogenetic inference and robust taxonomy to develop a synthetic tree of life. We capitalize on this approach to estimate a synthesis tree for the freshwater crayfish. The crayfish make an exceptional group to demonstrate the utility of the synthesis approach, as there recently have been a number of phylogenetic studies on the crayfishes along with a robust underlying taxonomic framework. Importantly, the crayfish have also been extensively assessed by an IUCN Red List team and therefore have accurate and up-to-date area and conservation status data available for analysis within a phylogenetic context. Here, we develop a synthesis phylogeny for the world's freshwater crayfish and examine the phylogenetic distribution of threat. We also estimate a molecular phylogeny based on all available GenBank crayfish sequences and use this tree to estimate divergence times and test for divergence rate variation. Finally, we conduct EDGE and HEDGE analyses and identify a number of species of freshwater crayfish of highest priority in conservation efforts. PMID:25561670

  19. Insights into the emergent bacterial pathogen Cronobacter spp., generated by multilocus sequence typing and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan eJoseph

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii is a bacterial pathogen affecting all age groups, with particularly severe clinical complications in neonates and infants. One recognised route of infection being the consumption of contaminated infant formula. As a recently recognised bacterial pathogen of considerable importance and regulatory control, appropriate detection and identification schemes are required. The application of multilocus sequence typing (MLST and analysis (MLSA of the seven alleles atpD, fusA, glnS, gltB, gyrB, infB and ppsA (concatenated length 3036 base pairs has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the genus. This approach is supported by both the reliability of DNA sequencing over subjective phenotyping and the establishment of a MLST database which has open access and is also curated; http://www.pubMLST.org/cronobacter. MLST has been used to describe the diversity of the newly recognised genus, instrumental in the formal recognition of new Cronobacter species (C. universalis and C. condimenti and revealed the high clonality of strains and the association of clonal complex 4 with neonatal meningitis cases. Clearly the MLST approach has considerable benefits over the use of non-DNA sequence based methods of analysis for newly emergent bacterial pathogens. The application of MLST and MLSA has dramatically enabled us to better understand this opportunistic bacterium which can cause irreparable damage to a newborn baby’s brain, and has contributed to improved control measures to protect neonatal health.

  20. Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Cercospora spp. from Different Host Plant Families

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    Floreta Fiska Yuliarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the genus Cercospora is still complicated due to the host preferences often being used as the main criteria to propose a new name. We determined the relationship between host plants and multilocus sequence variations (ITS rDNA including 5.8S rDNA, elongation factor 1-α, and calmodulin in Cercospora spp. to investigate the host specificity. We used 53 strains of Cercospora spp. infecting 12 plant families for phylogenetic analysis. The sequences of 23 strains of Cercospora spp. infecting the plant families of Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Solanaceae were determined in this study. The sequences of 30 strains of Cercospora spp. infecting the plant families of Fabaceae, Amaranthaceae, Apiaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Malvaceae, Cistaceae, Plantaginaceae, Lamiaceae, and Poaceae were obtained from GenBank. The molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of Cercospora species lack host specificity, and only C. zinniicola, C. zeina, C. zeae-maydis, C. cocciniae, and C. mikaniicola were found to be host-specific. Closely related species of Cercospora could not be distinguished using molecular analyses of ITS, EF, and CAL gene regions. The topology of the phylogenetic tree based on the CAL gene showed a better topology and Cercospora species separation than the trees developed based on the ITS rDNA region or the EF gene.

  1. Large-scale phylogenomic analysis resolves a backbone phylogeny in ferns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Jin, Dongmei; Shu, Jiang-Ping; Zhou, Xi-Le; Lei, Ming; Wei, Ran; Shang, Hui; Wei, Hong-Jin; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Li; Gu, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Chun; Yan, Yue-Hong

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Ferns, originated about 360 million years ago, are the sister group of seed plants. Despite the remarkable progress in our understanding of fern phylogeny, with conflicting molecular evidence and different morphological interpretations, relationships among major fern lineages remain controversial. Results With the aim to obtain a robust fern phylogeny, we carried out a large-scale phylogenomic analysis using high-quality transcriptome sequencing data, which covered 69 fern species from 38 families and 11 orders. Both coalescent-based and concatenation-based methods were applied to both nucleotide and amino acid sequences in species tree estimation. The resulting topologies are largely congruent with each other, except for the placement of Angiopteris fokiensis, Cheiropleuria bicuspis, Diplaziopsis brunoniana, Matteuccia struthiopteris, Elaphoglossum mcclurei, and Tectaria subpedata. Conclusions Our result confirmed that Equisetales is sister to the rest of ferns, and Dennstaedtiaceae is sister to eupolypods. Moreover, our result strongly supported some relationships different from the current view of fern phylogeny, including that Marattiaceae may be sister to the monophyletic clade of Psilotaceae and Ophioglossaceae; that Gleicheniaceae and Hymenophyllaceae form a monophyletic clade sister to Dipteridaceae; and that Aspleniaceae is sister to the rest of the groups in eupolypods II. These results were interpreted with morphological traits, especially sporangia characters, and a new evolutionary route of sporangial annulus in ferns was suggested. This backbone phylogeny in ferns sets a foundation for further studies in biology and evolution in ferns, and therefore in plants. PMID:29186447

  2. Large-scale phylogenomic analysis resolves a backbone phylogeny in ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Jin, Dongmei; Shu, Jiang-Ping; Zhou, Xi-Le; Lei, Ming; Wei, Ran; Shang, Hui; Wei, Hong-Jin; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Li; Gu, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Chun; Yan, Yue-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Ferns, originated about 360 million years ago, are the sister group of seed plants. Despite the remarkable progress in our understanding of fern phylogeny, with conflicting molecular evidence and different morphological interpretations, relationships among major fern lineages remain controversial. With the aim to obtain a robust fern phylogeny, we carried out a large-scale phylogenomic analysis using high-quality transcriptome sequencing data, which covered 69 fern species from 38 families and 11 orders. Both coalescent-based and concatenation-based methods were applied to both nucleotide and amino acid sequences in species tree estimation. The resulting topologies are largely congruent with each other, except for the placement of Angiopteris fokiensis, Cheiropleuria bicuspis, Diplaziopsis brunoniana, Matteuccia struthiopteris, Elaphoglossum mcclurei, and Tectaria subpedata. Our result confirmed that Equisetales is sister to the rest of ferns, and Dennstaedtiaceae is sister to eupolypods. Moreover, our result strongly supported some relationships different from the current view of fern phylogeny, including that Marattiaceae may be sister to the monophyletic clade of Psilotaceae and Ophioglossaceae; that Gleicheniaceae and Hymenophyllaceae form a monophyletic clade sister to Dipteridaceae; and that Aspleniaceae is sister to the rest of the groups in eupolypods II. These results were interpreted with morphological traits, especially sporangia characters, and a new evolutionary route of sporangial annulus in ferns was suggested. This backbone phylogeny in ferns sets a foundation for further studies in biology and evolution in ferns, and therefore in plants. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. T-BAS: Tree-Based Alignment Selector toolkit for phylogenetic-based placement, alignment downloads and metadata visualization: an example with the Pezizomycotina tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Ignazio; White, James B; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Miller, Mark A; Kauff, Frank; U'Ren, Jana M; May, Georgiana; Lutzoni, François

    2017-04-15

    High-quality phylogenetic placement of sequence data has the potential to greatly accelerate studies of the diversity, systematics, ecology and functional biology of diverse groups. We developed the Tree-Based Alignment Selector (T-BAS) toolkit to allow evolutionary placement and visualization of diverse DNA sequences representing unknown taxa within a robust phylogenetic context, and to permit the downloading of highly curated, single- and multi-locus alignments for specific clades. In its initial form, T-BAS v1.0 uses a core phylogeny of 979 taxa (including 23 outgroup taxa, as well as 61 orders, 175 families and 496 genera) representing all 13 classes of largest subphylum of Fungi-Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota)-based on sequence alignments for six loci (nr5.8S, nrLSU, nrSSU, mtSSU, RPB1, RPB2 ). T-BAS v1.0 has three main uses: (i) Users may download alignments and voucher tables for members of the Pezizomycotina directly from the reference tree, facilitating systematics studies of focal clades. (ii) Users may upload sequence files with reads representing unknown taxa and place these on the phylogeny using either BLAST or phylogeny-based approaches, and then use the displayed tree to select reference taxa to include when downloading alignments. The placement of unknowns can be performed for large numbers of Sanger sequences obtained from fungal cultures and for alignable, short reads of environmental amplicons. (iii) User-customizable metadata can be visualized on the tree. T-BAS Version 1.0 is available online at http://tbas.hpc.ncsu.edu . Registration is required to access the CIPRES Science Gateway and NSF XSEDE's large computational resources. icarbon@ncsu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. The phylogeny of the mammalian heme peroxidases and the evolution of their diverse functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ó'Fágáin Ciarán

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian heme peroxidases (MHPs are a medically important group of enzymes. Included in this group are myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase, lactoperoxidase, and thyroid peroxidase. These enzymes are associated with such diverse diseases as asthma, Alzheimer's disease and inflammatory vascular disease. Despite much effort to elucidate a clearer understanding of the function of the 4 major groups of this multigene family, we still do not have a clear understanding of their relationships to each other. Results Sufficient signal exists for the resolution of the evolutionary relationships of this family of enzymes. We demonstrate, using a root mean squared deviation statistic, how the removal of the fastest evolving sites aids in the minimisation of the effect of long branch attraction and the generation of a highly supported phylogeny. Based on this phylogeny we have pinpointed the amino acid positions that have most likely contributed to the diverse functions of these enzymes. Many of these residues are in close proximity to sites implicated in protein misfolding, loss of function or disease. Conclusion Our analysis of all available genomic sequence data for the MHPs from all available completed mammalian genomes, involved sophisticated methods of phylogeny reconstruction and data treatment. Our study has (i fully resolved the phylogeny of the MHPs and the subsequent pattern of gene duplication, and (ii, we have detected amino acids under positive selection that have most likely contributed to the observed functional shifts in each type of MHP.

  5. A six-gene phylogeny provides new insights into choanoflagellate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Martin; Richter, Daniel J; Fozouni, Parinaz; Smith, Timothy J; Jeuck, Alexandra; Leadbeater, Barry S C; Nitsche, Frank

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that molecular phylogenies of the choanoflagellates (Class Choanoflagellatea) are in disagreement with their traditional taxonomy, based on morphology, and that Choanoflagellatea requires considerable taxonomic revision. Furthermore, phylogenies suggest that the morphological and ecological evolution of the group is more complex than has previously been recognized. Here we address the taxonomy of the major choanoflagellate order Craspedida, by erecting four new genera. The new genera are shown to be morphologically, ecologically and phylogenetically distinct from other choanoflagellate taxa. Furthermore, we name five novel craspedid species, as well as formally describe ten species that have been shown to be either misidentified or require taxonomic revision. Our revised phylogeny, including 18 new species and sequence data for two additional genes, provides insights into the morphological and ecological evolution of the choanoflagellates. We examine the distribution within choanoflagellates of these two additional genes, EF-1A and EFL, closely related translation GTPases which are required for protein synthesis. Mapping the presence and absence of these genes onto the phylogeny highlights multiple events of gene loss within the choanoflagellates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytopythium: molecular phylogeny and systematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cock, de A.W.A.M.; Lodhi, A.M.; Rintoul, T.L.; Bala, K.; Robideau, G.P.; Gloria Abad, Z.; Coffey, M.D.; Shahzad, S.; Lévesque, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Phytopythium (Peronosporales) has been described, but a complete circumscription has not yet been presented. In the present paper we provide molecular-based evidence that members of Pythium clade K as described by Lévesque & de Cock (2004) belong to Phytopythium. Maximum likelihood and

  7. Studies in Phylogeny. I. On the relation of Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.

    1938-01-01

    Taxonomy is static, its symbols are therefore two-dimensional, representing 1. differences or resemblances and 2. diversity (eventually are also area). Phylogeny is dynamic and its symbols are three-dimensional, representing 1. Time, 2. differences or resemblances and 3. diversity (eventually also

  8. Integration of least angle regression with empirical Bayes for multi-locus genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-locus genome-wide association studies has become the state-of-the-art procedure to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with traits simultaneously. However, implementation of multi-locus model is still difficult. In this study, we integrated least angle regression with empirical B...

  9. Toward a Novel Multilocus Phylogenetic Taxonomy for the Dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, G Sybren; Dukik, Karolina; Monod, Michel; Packeu, Ann; Stubbe, Dirk; Hendrickx, Marijke; Kupsch, Christiane; Stielow, J Benjamin; Freeke, Joanna; Göker, Markus; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Gräser, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Type and reference strains of members of the onygenalean family Arthrodermataceae have been sequenced for rDNA ITS and partial LSU, the ribosomal 60S protein, and fragments of β-tubulin and translation elongation factor 3. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed a large degree of correspondence, and topologies matched those of earlier published phylogenies demonstrating that the phylogenetic representation of dermatophytes and dermatophyte-like fungi has reached an acceptable level of stability. All trees showed Trichophyton to be polyphyletic. In the present paper, Trichophyton is restricted to mainly the derived clade, resulting in classification of nearly all anthropophilic dermatophytes in Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, along with some zoophilic species that regularly infect humans. Microsporum is restricted to some species around M. canis, while the geophilic species and zoophilic species that are more remote from the human sphere are divided over Arthroderma, Lophophyton and Nannizzia. A new genus Guarromyces is proposed for Keratinomyces ceretanicus. Thirteen new combinations are proposed; in an overview of all described species it is noted that the largest number of novelties was introduced during the decades 1920-1940, when morphological characters were used in addition to clinical features. Species are neo- or epi-typified where necessary, which was the case in Arthroderma curreyi, Epidermophyton floccosum, Lophophyton gallinae, Trichophyton equinum, T. mentagrophytes, T. quinckeanum, T. schoenleinii, T. soudanense, and T. verrucosum. In the newly proposed taxonomy, Trichophyton contains 16 species, Epidermophyton one species, Nannizzia 9 species, Microsporum 3 species, Lophophyton 1 species, Arthroderma 21 species and Ctenomyces 1 species, but more detailed studies remain needed to establish species borderlines. Each species now has a single valid name. Two new genera are introduced: Guarromyces and Paraphyton. The number of genera has increased, but

  10. Algorithms For Phylogeny Reconstruction In a New Mathematical Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Marianelli, Silvia

    1997-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a set of species is represented by a tree called phylogenetic tree or phylogeny. Its structure depends on precise biological assumptions about the evolution of species. Problems related to phylogeny reconstruction (i.e., finding a tree representation of information

  11. Molecular Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Survival Analysis and Algorithms Linking Phylogenies to Transmission Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenah, Eben; Britton, Tom; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has attempted to use whole-genome sequence data from pathogens to reconstruct the transmission trees linking infectors and infectees in outbreaks. However, transmission trees from one outbreak do not generalize to future outbreaks. Reconstruction of transmission trees is most useful to public health if it leads to generalizable scientific insights about disease transmission. In a survival analysis framework, estimation of transmission parameters is based on sums or averages over the possible transmission trees. A phylogeny can increase the precision of these estimates by providing partial information about who infected whom. The leaves of the phylogeny represent sampled pathogens, which have known hosts. The interior nodes represent common ancestors of sampled pathogens, which have unknown hosts. Starting from assumptions about disease biology and epidemiologic study design, we prove that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the possible assignments of interior node hosts and the transmission trees simultaneously consistent with the phylogeny and the epidemiologic data on person, place, and time. We develop algorithms to enumerate these transmission trees and show these can be used to calculate likelihoods that incorporate both epidemiologic data and a phylogeny. A simulation study confirms that this leads to more efficient estimates of hazard ratios for infectiousness and baseline hazards of infectious contact, and we use these methods to analyze data from a foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001. These results demonstrate the importance of data on individuals who escape infection, which is often overlooked. The combination of survival analysis and algorithms linking phylogenies to transmission trees is a rigorous but flexible statistical foundation for molecular infectious disease epidemiology. PMID:27070316

  12. Linguistic Phylogenies Support Back-Migration from Beringia to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicoli, Mark A.; Holton, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Recent arguments connecting Na-Dene languages of North America with Yeniseian languages of Siberia have been used to assert proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia. We apply phylogenetic methods to test support for this hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis that Yeniseian represents a back-migration to Asia from a Beringian ancestral population. We coded a linguistic dataset of typological features and used neighbor-joining network algorithms and Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors to test the fit between the data and the linguistic phylogenies modeling two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support that a Dene-Yeniseian connection more likely represents radiation out of Beringia with back-migration into central Asia than a migration from central or western Asia to North America. PMID:24621925

  13. Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2011-03-14

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

  14. Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT of strains from Turkey and Cyprus reveals a novel monophyletic L. donovani sensu lato group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Gouzelou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New foci of human CL caused by strains of the Leishmania donovani (L. donovani complex have been recently described in Cyprus and the Çukurova region in Turkey (L. infantum situated 150 km north of Cyprus. Cypriot strains were typed by Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis (MLEE using the Montpellier (MON system as L. donovani zymodeme MON-37. However, multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT has shown that this zymodeme is paraphyletic; composed of distantly related genetic subgroups of different geographical origin. Consequently the origin of the Cypriot strains remained enigmatic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Cypriot strains were compared with a set of Turkish isolates obtained from a CL patient and sand fly vectors in south-east Turkey (Çukurova region; CUK strains and from a VL patient in the south-west (Kuşadasi; EP59 strain. These Turkish strains were initially analyzed using the K26-PCR assay that discriminates MON-1 strains by their amplicon size. In line with previous DNA-based data, the strains were inferred to the L. donovani complex and characterized as non MON-1. For these strains MLEE typing revealed two novel zymodemes; L. donovani MON-309 (CUK strains and MON-308 (EP59. A population genetic analysis of the Turkish isolates was performed using 14 hyper-variable microsatellite loci. The genotypic profiles of 68 previously analyzed L. donovani complex strains from major endemic regions were included for comparison. Population structures were inferred by combination of bayesian model-based and distance-based approaches. MLMT placed the Turkish and Cypriot strains in a subclade of a newly discovered, genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group, suggesting that the Cypriot strains may originate from Turkey. CONCLUSION: The discovery of a genetically distinct L. infantum monophyletic group in the south-eastern Mediterranean stresses the importance of species genetic characterization towards better understanding

  15. Chromosome phylogenies of man, great apes, and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grouchy, J

    1987-08-31

    The karyotypes of man and of the closely related Pongidae--chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan--differ by a small number of well known rearrangements, mainly pericentric inversions and one fusion which reduced the chromosome number from 48 in the Pongidae to 46 in man. Dutrillaux et al. (1973, 1975, 1979) reconstructed the chromosomal phylogeny of the entire primate order. More and more distantly related species were compared thus moving backward in evolution to the common ancestors of the Pongidae, of the Cercopithecoidae, the Catarrhini, the Platyrrhini, the Prosimians, and finally the common ancestor of all primates. Descending the pyramid it becomes possible to assign the rearrangements that occurred in each phylum, and the one that led to man in particular. The main conclusions are that this phylogeny is compatible with the occurrence during evolution of simple chromosome rearrangements--inversions, fusions, reciprocal translocation, acquisition or loss of heterochromatin--and that it is entirely consistent with the known primate phylogeny based on physical morphology and molecular evolution. If heterochromatin is not taken into account, man has in common with the other primates practically all of his chromosomal material as determined by chromosome banding. However, it is arranged differently, according to species, on account of chromosome rearrangements. This interpretation has been confirmed by comparative gene mapping, which established that the same chromosome segments, identified by banding, carry the same genes (Finaz et al., 1973; Human Gene Mapping 8, 1985). A remarkable observation made by Dutrillaux is that different primate phyla seem to have adopted different chromosome rearrangements in the course of evolution: inversions for the Pongidae, Robertsonian fusions for the lemurs, etc. This observation may raise many questions, among which is that of an organized evolution. Also, the breakpoints of chromosomal rearrangements observed during evolution

  16. Negative information for building phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairungsee, Supaporn; Crochemore, Maxime

    2013-08-01

    An absent word (also called a forbidden word or an unword in other contexts) in a sequence is a segment that does not appear in the given sequence. It is a minimal absent word if all its proper factors occur in the given sequence. In this article, we review the concept of minimal absent words, which includes the notion of shortest absent words but is much stronger. We present an efficient method for computing the minimal absent words of bounded length for DNA sequence using a Trie of bounded depth, representing bounded length factors. This method outputs the whole set of minimal absent words and furthermore our technique provides a linear-time algorithm with less memory usage than previous solutions. We also present an approach to distinguish sequences of different organisms using their minimal absent words. Our solution applies a length-weighted index to discriminate sequences and the results show that we can build phylogenetic tree based on the patent collected information.

  17. Phylogeny-guided (meta)genome mining approach for the targeted discovery of new microbial natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hahk-Soo

    2017-02-01

    Genomics-based methods are now commonplace in natural products research. A phylogeny-guided mining approach provides a means to quickly screen a large number of microbial genomes or metagenomes in search of new biosynthetic gene clusters of interest. In this approach, biosynthetic genes serve as molecular markers, and phylogenetic trees built with known and unknown marker gene sequences are used to quickly prioritize biosynthetic gene clusters for their metabolites characterization. An increase in the use of this approach has been observed for the last couple of years along with the emergence of low cost sequencing technologies. The aim of this review is to discuss the basic concept of a phylogeny-guided mining approach, and also to provide examples in which this approach was successfully applied to discover new natural products from microbial genomes and metagenomes. I believe that the phylogeny-guided mining approach will continue to play an important role in genomics-based natural products research.

  18. The mitogenomic phylogeny of the Elasmobranchii (Chondrichthyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cesar R L; Pereira, Filipe; Silva, Dayse A; Amorim, António; de Carvalho, Elizeu F

    2017-09-20

    Here we present a mitogenomic perspective on the evolution of sharks and rays, being a first glance on the complete mitochondrial history of such an old and diversified group of vertebrates. The Elasmobranchii is a diverse subclass of Chondrichthyes, or cartilaginous fish, with about 1200 species of ocean- and freshwater-dwelling fishes spread all over the world's seas, including some of the ocean's largest fishes. The group dates back about 400 million years near the Devonian-Silurian boundary, being nowadays represented by several derivative lineages, mainly related to Mesozoic forms. Although considered of ecological, commercial and conservation importance, the phylogeny of this old group is poorly studied and still under debate. Here we apply a molecular systematic approach on 82 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the phylogeny of the Elasmobranchii. By using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses, we found a clear separation within the shark clade between the Galeomorphii and the Squalomorphii, as well as sister taxa relationships between the Carcharhiniformes and the Lamniformes. Moreover, we found that Pristoidei clusters within the Rhinobatoidei, having been recovered as the sister taxon of the Rhinobatos genus in a clade which also includes the basal Zapteryx. Our results also reject the Hypnosqualea hypothesis, which proposes that the Batoidea should be placed within the Selachii.

  19. Rickettsia asembonensis Characterization by Multilocus Sequence Typing of Complete Genes, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Steev; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Torre, Armando; Kocher, Claudine; Melendrez, Melanie; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Maina, Alice N; Richards, Allen L; Leguia, Mariana

    2018-05-01

    While studying rickettsial infections in Peru, we detected Rickettsia asembonensis in fleas from domestic animals. We characterized 5 complete genomic regions (17kDa, gltA, ompA, ompB, and sca4) and conducted multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analyses. The molecular isolate from Peru is distinct from the original R. asembonensis strain from Kenya.

  20. Genetic Relationships among Reptilian and Mammalian Campylobacter fetus Strains Determined by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingle, K.E.; Blaser, M.J.; Tu, Z.C.; Pruckler, J.; Fitzgerald, C.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Lawson, A.J.; Owen, R.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Reptile Campylobacter fetus isolates and closely related strains causing human disease were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. They shared similar to 90% nucleotide sequence identity with classical mammalian C. fetus, and there was evidence of recombination among members of these two

  1. Multilocus Sequence Analysis for Typing Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Albertine; Pronost, Stéphane; Fortier, Guillaume; Andre-Fontaine, Geneviève; Leclercq, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-three strains belonging to the pathogenic species Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri were analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. The species formed two distinct branches. In the L. interrogans branch, the phylogenetic tree clustered the strains into three subgroups. Genogroups and serogroups were superimposed but not strictly. PMID:19955271

  2. Multilocus Sequence Analysis for Typing Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Albertine; Pronost, Stéphane; Fortier, Guillaume; Andre-Fontaine, Geneviève; Leclercq, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-three strains belonging to the pathogenic species Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira kirschneri were analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. The species formed two distinct branches. In the L. interrogans branch, the phylogenetic tree clustered the strains into three subgroups. Genogroups and serogroups were superimposed but not strictly.

  3. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for High-resolution Typing of Enterococcus faecium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Been, Mark; Pinholt, Mette; Top, Janetta

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium, a common inhabitant of the human gut, has emerged as an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen in the last two decades. Since the start of the 21(st) century, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) has been used to study the molecular epidemiology of E. faecium. However...

  4. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as

  5. A single multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for seven pathogenic Leptospira species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonsilp, Siriphan; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Amornchai, Premjit; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Bailey, Mark S.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Zhang, Cuicai; Jiang, Xiugao; Koizumi, Nobuo; Taylor, Kyle; Galloway, Renee; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Craig, Scott; Smythe, Lee D.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Day, Nicholas P.; Chantratita, Narisara; Feil, Edward J.; Aanensen, David M.; Spratt, Brian G.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2013-01-01

    The available Leptospira multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme supported by a MLST website is limited to L. interrogans and L. kirschneri. Our aim was to broaden the utility of this scheme to incorporate a total of seven pathogenic species. We modified the existing scheme by replacing one of the

  6. Application of multi-locus analytical methods to identify interacting loci in case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Sham, P.; Knight, J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify interacting loci in genetic epidemiological studies the application of multi-locus methods of analysis is warranted. Several more advanced classification methods have been developed in the past years, including multiple logistic regression, sum statistics, logic regression, and the

  7. Differentiation of Xylella fastidiosa strains via multilocus sequence analysis of environmentally mediated genes (MLSA-E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer K; Havird, Justin C; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2012-03-01

    Isolates of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa are genetically very similar, but studies on their biological traits have indicated differences in virulence and infection symptomatology. Taxonomic analyses have identified several subspecies, and phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes have shown broad host-based genetic differences; however, results are still inconclusive for genetic differentiation of isolates within subspecies. This study employs multilocus sequence analysis of environmentally mediated genes (MLSA-E; genes influenced by environmental factors) to investigate X. fastidiosa relationships and differentiate isolates with low genetic variability. Potential environmentally mediated genes, including host colonization and survival genes related to infection establishment, were identified a priori. The ratio of the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions to the rate of synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) was calculated to select genes that may be under increased positive selection compared to previously studied housekeeping genes. Nine genes were sequenced from 54 X. fastidiosa isolates infecting different host plants across the United States. Results of maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian phylogenetic (BP) analyses are in agreement with known X. fastidiosa subspecies clades but show novel within-subspecies differentiation, including geographic differentiation, and provide additional information regarding host-based isolate variation and specificity. dN/dS ratios of environmentally mediated genes, though gene dN/dS ratios and correlate with increased sequence variability. MLSA-E can more precisely resolve relationships between closely related bacterial strains with low genetic variability, such as X. fastidiosa isolates. Discovering the genetic relationships between X. fastidiosa isolates will provide new insights into the epidemiology of populations of X. fastidiosa, allowing improved disease management in economically important crops.

  8. Nuclear and original DNA application in Oryza taxonomy and phylogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Gabriel O.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional taxonomy and phylogeny of germplasm are based on the tedious characterization of morphological variation. The ability to assay DNA variation that underlies morphological variation offers great promise as a convenient alternative for the genetic characterization of germplasm. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to survey DNA variation in 22 species of the genus Oryza. At the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) multigene family, 15 rDNA spacer length (sl) variants were identified using restriction enzyme Sst1 and wheatrDNA unit as probe. Particular sl variants predominated in certain isozyme groups of O. sativa, indicating a potential of sl ploymorphism in varietal classification. The distribution of sl variants supports the origin of O. sativa and O. nivara from O. rufipogon, and that O. spontanea arose from introgressions among O. sativa, O. nivara, and O. rufipogon. The distribution also suggests that the CCgenome, of all the genomes in the Officinalis complex, may be closest to the Sativa complex genomes, and it affirms the genetic position of the Officinalis complex intermediate between the Sativa and Ridleyi complexes. Variation at the Oryza organelle genomes was probed with a maize mitochondrial gene, atpA, a wheat chloroplast inverted repeat segment, p6. Results indicated that the complexes can be differentiated by their mitochondrial genome, but not their chloroplast genome when digested by Sst1 or BamH1. Therefore, the natural DNA variation in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes has demonstrated great potential in complementing the conventional basis of taxa classification and phylogeny in the genus Oryza. (Author)

  9. Ribosomal DNA sequence heterogeneity reflects intraspecies phylogenies and predicts genome structure in two contrasting yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Claire; James, Stephen A; Davey, Robert P; Dicks, Jo; Roberts, Ian N

    2014-07-01

    The ribosomal RNA encapsulates a wealth of evolutionary information, including genetic variation that can be used to discriminate between organisms at a wide range of taxonomic levels. For example, the prokaryotic 16S rDNA sequence is very widely used both in phylogenetic studies and as a marker in metagenomic surveys and the internal transcribed spacer region, frequently used in plant phylogenetics, is now recognized as a fungal DNA barcode. However, this widespread use does not escape criticism, principally due to issues such as difficulties in classification of paralogous versus orthologous rDNA units and intragenomic variation, both of which may be significant barriers to accurate phylogenetic inference. We recently analyzed data sets from the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project, characterizing rDNA sequence variation within multiple strains of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its nearest wild relative Saccharomyces paradoxus in unprecedented detail. Notably, both species possess single locus rDNA systems. Here, we use these new variation datasets to assess whether a more detailed characterization of the rDNA locus can alleviate the second of these phylogenetic issues, sequence heterogeneity, while controlling for the first. We demonstrate that a strong phylogenetic signal exists within both datasets and illustrate how they can be used, with existing methodology, to estimate intraspecies phylogenies of yeast strains consistent with those derived from whole-genome approaches. We also describe the use of partial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, a type of sequence variation found only in repetitive genomic regions, in identifying key evolutionary features such as genome hybridization events and show their consistency with whole-genome Structure analyses. We conclude that our approach can transform rDNA sequence heterogeneity from a problem to a useful source of evolutionary information, enabling the estimation of highly accurate phylogenies of

  10. Development and validation of a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method to identify endangered species in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; Staats, Martijn; Hagelaar, Rico; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid; Costessi, Adalberto; Duijsings, Danny; Rechenmann, François; Gaspar, Frédéric B; Barreto Crespo, Maria Teresa; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Birck, Matthew; Burns, Malcolm; Haynes, Edward; Hochegger, Rupert; Klingl, Alexander; Lundberg, Lisa; Natale, Chiara; Niekamp, Hauke; Perri, Elena; Barbante, Alessandra; Rosec, Jean-Philippe; Seyfarth, Ralf; Sovová, Tereza; Van Moorleghem, Christoff; van Ruth, Saskia; Peelen, Tamara; Kok, Esther

    2017-10-01

    DNA metabarcoding provides great potential for species identification in complex samples such as food supplements and traditional medicines. Such a method would aid Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) enforcement officers to combat wildlife crime by preventing illegal trade of endangered plant and animal species. The objective of this research was to develop a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method for forensic wildlife species identification and to evaluate the applicability and reproducibility of this approach across different laboratories. A DNA metabarcoding method was developed that makes use of 12 DNA barcode markers that have demonstrated universal applicability across a wide range of plant and animal taxa and that facilitate the identification of species in samples containing degraded DNA. The DNA metabarcoding method was developed based on Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing of well-defined experimental mixtures, for which a bioinformatics pipeline with user-friendly web-interface was developed. The performance of the DNA metabarcoding method was assessed in an international validation trial by 16 laboratories, in which the method was found to be highly reproducible and sensitive enough to identify species present in a mixture at 1% dry weight content. The advanced multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method assessed in this study provides reliable and detailed data on the composition of complex food products, including information on the presence of CITES-listed species. The method can provide improved resolution for species identification, while verifying species with multiple DNA barcodes contributes to an enhanced quality assurance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Characterization of European Yersinia enterocolitica 1A strains using restriction fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murros, A; Säde, E; Johansson, P; Korkeala, H; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M; Björkroth, J

    2016-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is currently divided into two subspecies: subsp. enterocolitica including highly pathogenic strains of biotype 1B and subsp. palearctica including nonpathogenic strains of biotype 1A and moderately pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-5. In this work, we characterized 162 Y. enterocolitica strains of biotype 1A and 50 strains of biotypes 2-4 isolated from human, animal and food samples by restriction fragment length polymorphism using the HindIII restriction enzyme. Phylogenetic relatedness of 20 representative Y. enterocolitica strains including 15 biotype 1A strains was further studied by the multilocus sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes (glnA, gyrB, recA and HSP60). In all the analyses, biotype 1A strains formed a separate genomic group, which differed from Y. enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica and from the strains of biotypes 2-4 of Y. enterocolitica subsp. palearctica. Based on these results, biotype 1A strains considered nonpathogenic should not be included in subspecies palearctica containing pathogenic strains of biotypes 2-5. Yersinia enterocolitica strains are currently divided into six biotypes and two subspecies. Strains of biotype 1A, which are phenotypically and genotypically very heterogeneous, are classified as subspecies palearctica. In this study, European Y. enterocolitica 1A strains isolated from both human and nonhuman sources were characterized using restriction fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis. The European biotype 1A strains formed a separate group, which differed from strains belonging to subspecies enterocolitica and palearctica. This may indicate that the current division between the two subspecies is not sufficient considering the strain diversity within Y. enterocolitica. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. An Extended Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST Scheme for Rapid Direct Typing of Leptospira from Clinical Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Weiss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid typing of Leptospira is currently impaired by requiring time consuming culture of leptospires. The objective of this study was to develop an assay that provides multilocus sequence typing (MLST data direct from patient specimens while minimising costs for subsequent sequencing.An existing PCR based MLST scheme was modified by designing nested primers including anchors for facilitated subsequent sequencing. The assay was applied to various specimen types from patients diagnosed with leptospirosis between 2014 and 2015 in the United Kingdom (UK and the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (Lao PDR. Of 44 clinical samples (23 serum, 6 whole blood, 3 buffy coat, 12 urine PCR positive for pathogenic Leptospira spp. at least one allele was amplified in 22 samples (50% and used for phylogenetic inference. Full allelic profiles were obtained from ten specimens, representing all sample types (23%. No nonspecific amplicons were observed in any of the samples. Of twelve PCR positive urine specimens three gave full allelic profiles (25% and two a partial profile. Phylogenetic analysis allowed for species assignment. The predominant species detected was L. interrogans (10/14 and 7/8 from UK and Lao PDR, respectively. All other species were detected in samples from only one country (Lao PDR: L. borgpetersenii [1/8]; UK: L. kirschneri [1/14], L. santarosai [1/14], L. weilii [2/14].Typing information of pathogenic Leptospira spp. was obtained directly from a variety of clinical samples using a modified MLST assay. This assay negates the need for time-consuming culture of Leptospira prior to typing and will be of use both in surveillance, as single alleles enable species determination, and outbreaks for the rapid identification of clusters.

  13. Phylogeny mandalas for illustrating the Tree of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masami

    2017-12-01

    A circular phylogeny with photos or drawings of species is named a phylogeny mandala. This is one of the ways for illustrating the Tree of Life, and is suitable to show visually how the biodiversity has developed in the course of evolution as clarified by the molecular phylogenetics. To demonstrate the recent progress of molecular phylogenetics, six phylogeny mandalas for various taxonomic groups of life were presented; i.e., (1) Eukaryota, (2) Metazoa, (3) Hexapoda, (4) Tetrapoda, (5) Eutheria, and (6) Primates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The extant squamates (>9400 known species of lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse and conspicuous radiations of terrestrial vertebrates, but no studies have attempted to reconstruct a phylogeny for the group with large-scale taxon sampling. Such an estimate is invaluable for comparative evolutionary studies, and to address their classification. Here, we present the first large-scale phylogenetic estimate for Squamata. Results The estimated phylogeny contains 4161 species, representing all currently recognized families and subfamilies. The analysis is based on up to 12896 base pairs of sequence data per species (average = 2497 bp) from 12 genes, including seven nuclear loci (BDNF, c-mos, NT3, PDC, R35, RAG-1, and RAG-2), and five mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, cytochrome b, ND2, and ND4). The tree provides important confirmation for recent estimates of higher-level squamate phylogeny based on molecular data (but with more limited taxon sampling), estimates that are very different from previous morphology-based hypotheses. The tree also includes many relationships that differ from previous molecular estimates and many that differ from traditional taxonomy. Conclusions We present a new large-scale phylogeny of squamate reptiles that should be a valuable resource for future comparative studies. We also present a revised classification of squamates at the family and subfamily level to bring the taxonomy more in line with the new phylogenetic hypothesis. This classification includes new, resurrected, and modified subfamilies within gymnophthalmid and scincid lizards, and boid, colubrid, and lamprophiid snakes. PMID:23627680

  15. Identification and phylogeny of the tomato receptor-like proteins family

    OpenAIRE

    Ermis Yanes-Paz; Gioser María Ramos-Echazábal; Glay Chinea; Yanelis Capdesuñer Ruiz; Ramón Santos Bermúdez

    2017-01-01

    The receptor-like proteins (RLPs) play multiple roles in development and defense. In the current work 75 RLPs were identified in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) using iterative BLAST searches and domain prediction. A phylogenetic tree including all the identified RLPs from tomato and some functionally characterized RLPs from other species was built to identify their putative homologues in tomato. We first tested whether C3-F-based phylogeny was a good indicator of functional relation between...

  16. Genome rearrangements and phylogeny reconstruction in Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkareva, Olga O; Dranenko, Natalia O; Ocheredko, Elena S; Kanevsky, German M; Lozinsky, Yaroslav N; Khalaycheva, Vera A; Artamonova, Irena I; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2018-01-01

    Genome rearrangements have played an important role in the evolution of Yersinia pestis from its progenitor Yersinia pseudotuberculosis . Traditional phylogenetic trees for Y. pestis based on sequence comparison have short internal branches and low bootstrap supports as only a small number of nucleotide substitutions have occurred. On the other hand, even a small number of genome rearrangements may resolve topological ambiguities in a phylogenetic tree. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees based on genome rearrangements using several popular approaches such as Maximum likelihood for Gene Order and the Bayesian model of genome rearrangements by inversions. We also reconciled phylogenetic trees for each of the three CRISPR loci to obtain an integrated scenario of the CRISPR cassette evolution. Analysis of contradictions between the obtained evolutionary trees yielded numerous parallel inversions and gain/loss events. Our data indicate that an integrated analysis of sequence-based and inversion-based trees enhances the resolution of phylogenetic reconstruction. In contrast, reconstructions of strain relationships based on solely CRISPR loci may not be reliable, as the history is obscured by large deletions, obliterating the order of spacer gains. Similarly, numerous parallel gene losses preclude reconstruction of phylogeny based on gene content.

  17. Haemoprotozoa: Making biological sense of molecular phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'Donoghue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of protistan parasites occur in the blood of vertebrates and are transmitted by haematophagous invertebrate vectors. Some 48 genera are recognized in bood primarily on the basis of parasite morphology and host specificity; including extracellular kinetoplastids (trypanosomatids and intracellular apicomplexa (haemogregarines, haemococcidia, haemosporidia and piroplasms. Gene sequences are available for a growing number of species and molecular phylogenies often link parasite and host or vector evolution. This review endeavours to reconcile molecular clades with biological characters. Four major trypanosomatid clades have been associated with site of development in the vector: salivarian or stercorarian for Trypanosoma, and supra- or peri-pylorian for Leishmania. Four haemogregarine clades have been associated with acarine vectors (Hepatozoon A and B, Karyolysus, Hemolivia and another two with leeches (Dactylosoma, Haemogregarina sensu stricto. Two haemococcidian clades (Lankesterella, Schellackia using leeches and mosquitoes (as paratenic hosts! were paraphyletic with monoxenous enteric coccidia. Two major haemosporidian clades have been associated with mosquito vectors (Plasmodium from mammals, Plasmodium from birds and lizards, two with midges (Hepatocystis from bats, Parahaemoproteus from birds and two with louse-flies and black-flies (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon from birds. Three major piroplasm clades were recognized: one associated with transovarian transmission in ticks (Babesia sensu stricto; one with pre-erythrocytic schizogony in vertebrates (Theileria/Cytauxzoon; and one with neither (Babesia sensu lato. Broad comparative studies with allied groups suggest that trypanosomatids and haemogregarines evolved first in aquatic and then terrestrial environments, as evidenced by extant lineages in invertebrates and their radiation in vertebrates. In contrast, haemosporidia and haemococcidia are thought to have evolved first in

  18. Advances in the use of DNA barcodes to build a community phylogeny for tropical trees in a Puerto Rican forest dynamics plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W John Kress

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Species number, functional traits, and phylogenetic history all contribute to characterizing the biological diversity in plant communities. The phylogenetic component of diversity has been particularly difficult to quantify in species-rich tropical tree assemblages. The compilation of previously published (and often incomplete data on evolutionary relationships of species into a composite phylogeny of the taxa in a forest, through such programs as Phylomatic, has proven useful in building community phylogenies although often of limited resolution. Recently, DNA barcodes have been used to construct a robust community phylogeny for nearly 300 tree species in a forest dynamics plot in Panama using a supermatrix method. In that study sequence data from three barcode loci were used to generate a well-resolved species-level phylogeny.Here we expand upon this earlier investigation and present results on the use of a phylogenetic constraint tree to generate a community phylogeny for a diverse, tropical forest dynamics plot in Puerto Rico. This enhanced method of phylogenetic reconstruction insures the congruence of the barcode phylogeny with broadly accepted hypotheses on the phylogeny of flowering plants (i.e., APG III regardless of the number and taxonomic breadth of the taxa sampled. We also compare maximum parsimony versus maximum likelihood estimates of community phylogenetic relationships as well as evaluate the effectiveness of one- versus two- versus three-gene barcodes in resolving community evolutionary history.As first demonstrated in the Panamanian forest dynamics plot, the results for the Puerto Rican plot illustrate that highly resolved phylogenies derived from DNA barcode sequence data combined with a constraint tree based on APG III are particularly useful in comparative analysis of phylogenetic diversity and will enhance research on the interface between community ecology and evolution.

  19. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Inonotus linteus complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tian, X.-M.; Yu, H.-Y.; Zhou, L.-W.; Decock, C.; Vlasák, Josef; Dai, Y.C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2013), s. 159-169 ISSN 1560-2745 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hymenochaetaceae * Phellinus * Phylogeny * ITS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.938, year: 2013

  20. Phylogeny and Species Diversity of Gulf of California Oysters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial loci (COI and 16S) used to infer the phylogeny of oysters in the genus Ostrea along the Pacific coast of North...

  1. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in .... 24, 701–713. Bate N. and Twell D. 1998 Functional architecture of a late pollen .... Manzara T. and Gruissem W. 1988 Organization and expression.

  2. Bayesian phylogeny analysis via stochastic approximation Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Cheon, Sooyoung; Liang, Faming

    2009-01-01

    in simulating from the posterior distribution of phylogenetic trees, rendering the inference ineffective. In this paper, we apply an advanced Monte Carlo algorithm, the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm, to Bayesian phylogeny analysis. Our method

  3. A multilocus phylogeny of Podoctidae (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores) and parametric shape analysis reveal the disutility of subfamilial nomenclature in armored harvestman systematics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharma, P. P.; Santiago, M. A.; Kriebel, R.; Lipps, S. M.; Buenavente, P. A. C.; Diesmos, A. C.; Janda, Milan; Boyer, S. L.; Clouse, R. M.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, JAN 01 (2017), s. 164-173 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : grassatores * morphology * comparative methods Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790316302445

  4. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  5. Molecular phylogeny and morphological change in the Psittacula parakeets

    OpenAIRE

    Groombridge, Jim J.; Jones, Carl G.; Nichols, Richard A.; Carlton, Mark; Bruford, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstruct a phylogeny of the African and Asian Psittacula parakeets using approximately 800 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence to examine their evolutionary relationships in reference to their head plumage and major morphological tail innovations. Our phylogeny identifies three groups, whose distinctiveness is also apparent from their possession of three different head plumage characters: a neck ring, a distinctive colouration of the head, and a 'moustache'-shaped pattern that ext...

  6. Using genomic data to unravel the root of the placental mammal phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J; Pringle, Thomas H; Crider, Tess A; Springer, Mark S; Miller, Webb

    2007-04-01

    The phylogeny of placental mammals is a critical framework for choosing future genome sequencing targets and for resolving the ancestral mammalian genome at the nucleotide level. Despite considerable recent progress defining superordinal relationships, several branches remain poorly resolved, including the root of the placental tree. Here we analyzed the genome sequence assemblies of human, armadillo, elephant, and opossum to identify informative coding indels that would serve as rare genomic changes to infer early events in placental mammal phylogeny. We also expanded our species sampling by including sequence data from >30 ongoing genome projects, followed by PCR and sequencing validation of each indel in additional taxa. Our data provide support for a sister-group relationship between Afrotheria and Xenarthra (the Atlantogenata hypothesis), which is in turn the sister-taxon to Boreoeutheria. We failed to recover any indels in support of a basal position for Xenarthra (Epitheria), which is suggested by morphology and a recent retroposon analysis, or a hypothesis with Afrotheria basal (Exafricoplacentalia), which is favored by phylogenetic analysis of large nuclear gene data sets. In addition, we identified two retroposon insertions that also support Atlantogenata and none for the alternative hypotheses. A revised molecular timescale based on these phylogenetic inferences suggests Afrotheria and Xenarthra diverged from other placental mammals approximately 103 (95-114) million years ago. We discuss the impacts of this topology on earlier phylogenetic reconstructions and repeat-based inferences of phylogeny.

  7. Complex phylogenetic placement of ilex species (aquifoliaceae): a case study of molecular phylogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, F.; Sun, L.; Xiao, P.G.; Hao, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the phylogenetic relationships among Ilex species distributed in China, we analyzed two alignments including 4,698 characters corresponding to six plastid sequences (matK, rbcL, atpB-rbcL, trnL-F, psbA-trnH, and rpl32-trnL) and 1,748 characters corresponding to two nuclear sequences (ITS and nepGS). Using different partitioning strategies and approaches (i.e., Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony) for phylogeny reconstruction, different topologies and clade supports were determined. A total of 18 Ilex species was divided into two major groups (group I and II) in both plastid and nuclear phylogenies with some incongruences. Potential hybridization events may account, in part, for those phylogenetic uncertainties. The analyses, together with previously identified sequences, indicated that all 18 species were recovered within Eurasia or Asia/North America groups based on plastid data. Meanwhile, the species in group II in the nuclear phylogeny were placed in the Aquifolium clade, as inferred from traditional classification, whereas the species in group I belonged to several other clades. The divergence time of most of the 18 Ilex species was estimated to be not more than 10 million years ago. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that paleogeographical events and past climate changes during the same period might have played important roles in these diversifications. (author)

  8. From gene trees to organismal phylogeny in prokaryotes: the case of the gamma-Proteobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Lerat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in published genomic sequences for bacteria presents the first opportunity to reconstruct evolutionary events on the scale of entire genomes. However, extensive lateral gene transfer (LGT may thwart this goal by preventing the establishment of organismal relationships based on individual gene phylogenies. The group for which cases of LGT are most frequently documented and for which the greatest density of complete genome sequences is available is the gamma-Proteobacteria, an ecologically diverse and ancient group including free-living species as well as pathogens and intracellular symbionts of plants and animals. We propose an approach to multigene phylogeny using complete genomes and apply it to the case of the gamma-Proteobacteria. We first applied stringent criteria to identify a set of likely gene orthologs and then tested the compatibilities of the resulting protein alignments with several phylogenetic hypotheses. Our results demonstrate phylogenetic concordance among virtually all (203 of 205 of the selected gene families, with each of the exceptions consistent with a single LGT event. The concatenated sequences of the concordant families yield a fully resolved phylogeny. This topology also received strong support in analyses aimed at excluding effects of heterogeneity in nucleotide base composition across lineages. Our analysis indicates that single-copy orthologous genes are resistant to horizontal transfer, even in ancient bacterial groups subject to high rates of LGT. This gene set can be identified and used to yield robust hypotheses for organismal phylogenies, thus establishing a foundation for reconstructing the evolutionary transitions, such as gene transfer, that underlie diversity in genome content and organization.

  9. Direct maximum parsimony phylogeny reconstruction from genotype data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell

    2007-12-05

    Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree reconstruction from genetic variation data is a fundamental problem in computational genetics with many practical applications in population genetics, whole genome analysis, and the search for genetic predictors of disease. Efficient methods are available for reconstruction of maximum parsimony trees from haplotype data, but such data are difficult to determine directly for autosomal DNA. Data more commonly is available in the form of genotypes, which consist of conflated combinations of pairs of haplotypes from homologous chromosomes. Currently, there are no general algorithms for the direct reconstruction of maximum parsimony phylogenies from genotype data. Hence phylogenetic applications for autosomal data must therefore rely on other methods for first computationally inferring haplotypes from genotypes. In this work, we develop the first practical method for computing maximum parsimony phylogenies directly from genotype data. We show that the standard practice of first inferring haplotypes from genotypes and then reconstructing a phylogeny on the haplotypes often substantially overestimates phylogeny size. As an immediate application, our method can be used to determine the minimum number of mutations required to explain a given set of observed genotypes. Phylogeny reconstruction directly from unphased data is computationally feasible for moderate-sized problem instances and can lead to substantially more accurate tree size inferences than the standard practice of treating phasing and phylogeny construction as two separate analysis stages. The difference between the approaches is particularly important for downstream applications that require a lower-bound on the number of mutations that the genetic region has undergone.

  10. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Adam L

    2017-08-02

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s. l.) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes and novel bioinformatic workflows to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic traits (i.e., "pan-GWAS" analysis), and quantify the degree to which taxa sharing common attributes are phylogenetically clustered. A rapid k-mer based approach (Mash) was used to create reduced representations of selected Bacillus genomes, and a fast distance-based phylogenetic analysis of this data (FastME) was performed to determine which species should be included in B. cereus s. l. The complete genomes of eight B. cereus s. l. species were annotated de novo with Prokka, and these annotations were used by Roary to produce the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome. Scoary was used to associate gene presence and absence patterns with various phenotypes. The orthologous protein sequence clusters produced by Roary were filtered and used to build HaMStR databases of gene models that were used in turn to construct phylogenetic data matrices. Phylogenetic analyses used RAxML, DendroPy, ClonalFrameML, PAUP*, and SplitsTree. Bayesian model-based population genetic analysis assigned taxa to clusters using hierBAPS. The genealogical sorting index was used to quantify the phylogenetic clustering of taxa sharing common attributes. The B. cereus s. l. pan-genome currently consists of ≈60,000 genes, ≈600 of which are "core" (common to at least 99% of taxa sampled). Pan-GWAS analysis revealed genes associated with phenotypes such as isolation source, oxygen requirement, and ability to cause diseases such as anthrax or food poisoning. Extensive phylogenetic analyses using an unprecedented amount of data

  11. Improving Phylogeny Reconstruction at the Strain Level Using Peptidome Datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Blanco-Míguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical bacterial strain differentiation methods are often challenged by high genetic similarity between strains. To address this problem, we introduce a novel in silico peptide fingerprinting method based on conventional wet-lab protocols that enables the identification of potential strain-specific peptides. These can be further investigated using in vitro approaches, laying a foundation for the development of biomarker detection and application-specific methods. This novel method aims at reducing large amounts of comparative peptide data to binary matrices while maintaining a high phylogenetic resolution. The underlying case study concerns the Bacillus cereus group, namely the differentiation of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus strains. Results show that trees based on cytoplasmic and extracellular peptidomes are only marginally in conflict with those based on whole proteomes, as inferred by the established Genome-BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP method. Hence, these results indicate that the two approaches can most likely be used complementarily even in other organismal groups. The obtained results confirm previous reports about the misclassification of many strains within the B. cereus group. Moreover, our method was able to separate the B. anthracis strains with high resolution, similarly to the GBDP results as benchmarked via Bayesian inference and both Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony. In addition to the presented phylogenomic applications, whole-peptide fingerprinting might also become a valuable complementary technique to digital DNA-DNA hybridization, notably for bacterial classification at the species and subspecies level in the future.

  12. Improving Phylogeny Reconstruction at the Strain Level Using Peptidome Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Míguez, Aitor; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Gutiérrez-Jácome, Alberto; Göker, Markus; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Sánchez, Borja; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-12-01

    Typical bacterial strain differentiation methods are often challenged by high genetic similarity between strains. To address this problem, we introduce a novel in silico peptide fingerprinting method based on conventional wet-lab protocols that enables the identification of potential strain-specific peptides. These can be further investigated using in vitro approaches, laying a foundation for the development of biomarker detection and application-specific methods. This novel method aims at reducing large amounts of comparative peptide data to binary matrices while maintaining a high phylogenetic resolution. The underlying case study concerns the Bacillus cereus group, namely the differentiation of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus strains. Results show that trees based on cytoplasmic and extracellular peptidomes are only marginally in conflict with those based on whole proteomes, as inferred by the established Genome-BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) method. Hence, these results indicate that the two approaches can most likely be used complementarily even in other organismal groups. The obtained results confirm previous reports about the misclassification of many strains within the B. cereus group. Moreover, our method was able to separate the B. anthracis strains with high resolution, similarly to the GBDP results as benchmarked via Bayesian inference and both Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony. In addition to the presented phylogenomic applications, whole-peptide fingerprinting might also become a valuable complementary technique to digital DNA-DNA hybridization, notably for bacterial classification at the species and subspecies level in the future.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of diplomonads and enteromonads based on SSU rRNA, alpha-tubulin and HSP90 genes: Implications for the evolutionary history of the double karyomastigont of diplomonads

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    Roger Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fornicata is a relatively recently established group of protists that includes the diplokaryotic diplomonads (which have two similar nuclei per cell, and the monokaryotic enteromonads, retortamonads and Carpediemonas, with the more typical one nucleus per cell. The monophyly of the group was confirmed by molecular phylogenetic studies, but neither the internal phylogeny nor its position on the eukaryotic tree has been clearly resolved. Results Here we have introduced data for three genes (SSU rRNA, α-tubulin and HSP90 with a wide taxonomic sampling of Fornicata, including ten isolates of enteromonads, representing the genera Trimitus and Enteromonas, and a new undescribed enteromonad genus. The diplomonad sequences formed two main clades in individual gene and combined gene analyses, with Giardia (and Octomitus on one side of the basal divergence and Spironucleus, Hexamita and Trepomonas on the other. Contrary to earlier evolutionary scenarios, none of the studied enteromonads appeared basal to diplokaryotic diplomonads. Instead, the enteromonad isolates were all robustly situated within the second of the two diplomonad clades. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that enteromonads do not constitute a monophyletic group, and enteromonad monophyly was statistically rejected in 'approximately unbiased' tests of the combined gene data. Conclusion We suggest that all higher taxa intended to unite multiple enteromonad genera be abandoned, that Trimitus and Enteromonas be considered as part of Hexamitinae, and that the term 'enteromonads' be used in a strictly utilitarian sense. Our result suggests either that the diplokaryotic condition characteristic of diplomonads arose several times independently, or that the monokaryotic cell of enteromonads originated several times independently by secondary reduction from the diplokaryotic state. Both scenarios are evolutionarily complex. More comparative data on the similarity of the

  14. Molecular phylogeny of the highly diversified catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) reveals incongruences with morphological classification.

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    Covain, Raphaël; Fisch-Muller, Sonia; Oliveira, Claudio; Mol, Jan H; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I; Dray, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The Loricariinae belong to the Neotropical mailed catfish family Loricariidae, the most species-rich catfish family. Among loricariids, members of the Loricariinae are united by a long and flattened caudal peduncle and the absence of an adipose fin. Despite numerous studies of the Loricariidae, there is no comprehensive phylogeny of this morphologically highly diversified subfamily. To fill this gap, we present a molecular phylogeny of this group, including 350 representatives, based on the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes (8426 positions). The resulting phylogeny indicates that Loricariinae are distributed into two sister tribes: Harttiini and Loricariini. The Harttiini tribe, as classically defined, constitutes a paraphyletic assemblage and is here restricted to the three genera Harttia, Cteniloricaria, and Harttiella. Two subtribes are distinguished within Loricariini: Farlowellina and Loricariina. Within Farlowellina, the nominal genus formed a paraphyletic group, as did Sturisoma and Sturisomatichthys. Within Loricariina, Loricaria, Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria are also paraphyletic. To solve these issues, and given the lack of clear morphological diagnostic features, we propose here to synonymize several genera (Quiritixys with Harttia; East Andean members of Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria with Rhadinoloricaria; Ixinandria, Hemiloricaria, Fonchiiichthys, and Leliella with Rineloricaria), to restrict others (Crossoloricaria, and Sturisomatichthys to the West Andean members, and Sturisoma to the East Andean species), and to revalidate the genus Proloricaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia

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    Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

    2014-09-01

    This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

  16. Identification of evolutionarily conserved Momordica charantia microRNAs using computational approach and its utility in phylogeny analysis.

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    Thirugnanasambantham, Krishnaraj; Saravanan, Subramanian; Karikalan, Kulandaivelu; Bharanidharan, Rajaraman; Lalitha, Perumal; Ilango, S; HairulIslam, Villianur Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd, bitter melon) is a monoecious Cucurbitaceae with anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-viral and anti-diabetic potential. Molecular studies on this economically valuable plant are very essential to understand its phylogeny and evolution. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved, small, non-coding RNA with ability to regulate gene expression by bind the 3' UTR region of target mRNA and are evolved at different rates in different plant species. In this study we have utilized homology based computational approach and identified 27 mature miRNAs for the first time from this bio-medically important plant. The phylogenetic tree developed from binary data derived from the data on presence/absence of the identified miRNAs were noticed to be uncertain and biased. Most of the identified miRNAs were highly conserved among the plant species and sequence based phylogeny analysis of miRNAs resolved the above difficulties in phylogeny approach using miRNA. Predicted gene targets of the identified miRNAs revealed their importance in regulation of plant developmental process. Reported miRNAs held sequence conservation in mature miRNAs and the detailed phylogeny analysis of pre-miRNA sequences revealed genus specific segregation of clusters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny for the hornbills (Aves: Bucerotidae).

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    Gonzalez, Juan-Carlos T; Sheldon, Ben C; Collar, Nigel J; Tobias, Joseph A

    2013-05-01

    The hornbills comprise a group of morphologically and behaviorally distinct Palaeotropical bird species that feature prominently in studies of ecology and conservation biology. Although the monophyly of hornbills is well established, previous phylogenetic hypotheses were based solely on mtDNA and limited sampling of species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all 61 extant hornbill species, based on nuclear and mtDNA gene sequences extracted largely from historical samples. The resulting phylogenetic trees closely match vocal variation across the family but conflict with current taxonomic treatments. In particular, they highlight a new arrangement for the six major clades of hornbills and reveal that three groups traditionally treated as genera (Tockus, Aceros, Penelopides) are non-monophyletic. In addition, two other genera (Anthracoceros, Ocyceros) were non-monophyletic in the mtDNA gene tree. Our findings resolve some longstanding problems in hornbill systematics, including the placement of 'Penelopides exharatus' (embedded in Aceros) and 'Tockus hartlaubi' (sister to Tropicranus albocristatus). We also confirm that an Asiatic lineage (Berenicornis) is sister to a trio of Afrotropical genera (Tropicranus [including 'Tockus hartlaubi'], Ceratogymna, Bycanistes). We present a summary phylogeny as a robust basis for further studies of hornbill ecology, evolution and historical biogeography. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Phylogeny and evolutionary history of the silkworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yu, Hongsong; Shen, Yihong; Banno, Yutaka; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhang, Ze

    2012-06-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, played an important role in the old Silk Road that connected ancient Asia and Europe. However, to date, there have been few studies of the origins and domestication of this species using molecular methods. In this study, DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used to infer the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the domesticated silkworm and its relatives. All of the phylogenetic analyses indicated a close relationship between the domesticated silkworm and the Chinese wild silkworm. Domestication was estimated to have occurred about 4100 years ago (ya), and the radiation of the different geographic strains of B. mori about 2000 ya. The Chinese wild silkworm and the Japanese wild silkworm split about 23600 ya. These estimates are in good agreement with the fossil evidence and historical records. In addition, we show that the domesticated silkworm experienced a population expansion around 1000 ya. The divergence times and the population dynamics of silkworms presented in this study will be useful for studies of lepidopteran phylogenetics, in the genetic analysis of domestic animals, and for understanding the spread of human civilizations.

  19. Bacterial phylogeny structures soil resistomes across habitats

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    Forsberg, Kevin J.; Patel, Sanket; Gibson, Molly K.; Lauber, Christian L.; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah; Dantas, Gautam

    2014-05-01

    Ancient and diverse antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have previously been identified from soil, including genes identical to those in human pathogens. Despite the apparent overlap between soil and clinical resistomes, factors influencing ARG composition in soil and their movement between genomes and habitats remain largely unknown. General metagenome functions often correlate with the underlying structure of bacterial communities. However, ARGs are proposed to be highly mobile, prompting speculation that resistomes may not correlate with phylogenetic signatures or ecological divisions. To investigate these relationships, we performed functional metagenomic selections for resistance to 18 antibiotics from 18 agricultural and grassland soils. The 2,895 ARGs we discovered were mostly new, and represent all major resistance mechanisms. We demonstrate that distinct soil types harbour distinct resistomes, and that the addition of nitrogen fertilizer strongly influenced soil ARG content. Resistome composition also correlated with microbial phylogenetic and taxonomic structure, both across and within soil types. Consistent with this strong correlation, mobility elements (genes responsible for horizontal gene transfer between bacteria such as transposases and integrases) syntenic with ARGs were rare in soil by comparison with sequenced pathogens, suggesting that ARGs may not transfer between soil bacteria as readily as is observed between human pathogens. Together, our results indicate that bacterial community composition is the primary determinant of soil ARG content, challenging previous hypotheses that horizontal gene transfer effectively decouples resistomes from phylogeny.

  20. A transcriptome approach to ecdysozoan phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Janus; Rehm, Peter; Schill, Ralph O; Ebersberger, Ingo; Burmester, Thorsten

    2014-11-01

    The monophyly of Ecdysozoa, which comprise molting phyla, has received strong support from several lines of evidence. However, the internal relationships of Ecdysozoa are still contended. We generated expressed sequence tags from a priapulid (penis worm), a kinorhynch (mud dragon), a tardigrade (water bear) and five chelicerate taxa by 454 transcriptome sequencing. A multigene alignment was assembled from 63 taxa, which comprised after matrix optimization 24,249 amino acid positions with high data density (2.6% gaps, 19.1% missing data). Phylogenetic analyses employing various models support the monophyly of Ecdysozoa. A clade combining Priapulida and Kinorhyncha (i.e. Scalidophora) was recovered as the earliest branch among Ecdysozoa. We conclude that Cycloneuralia, a taxon erected to combine Priapulida, Kinorhyncha and Nematoda (and others), are paraphyletic. Rather Arthropoda (including Onychophora) are allied with Nematoda and Tardigrada. Within Arthropoda, we found strong support for most clades, including monophyletic Mandibulata and Pancrustacea. The phylogeny within the Euchelicerata remained largely unresolved. There is conflicting evidence on the position of tardigrades: While Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of only slowly evolving genes recovered Tardigrada as a sister group to Arthropoda, analyses of the full data set, and of subsets containing genes evolving at fast and intermediate rates identified a clade of Tardigrada and Nematoda. Notably, the latter topology is also supported by the analyses of indel patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A multi-locus molecular timescale for the origin and diversification of eels (Order: Anguilliformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Francesco; Kong, Xianghui; Sorenson, Laurie; Carnevale, Giorgio; Mehta, Rita S; Alfaro, Michael E

    2013-12-01

    Anguilliformes are an ecologically diverse group of predominantly marine fishes whose members are easily recognized by their extremely elongate bodies, and universal lack of pelvic fins. Recent studies based on mitochondrial loci, including full mitogenomes, have called into question the monophyly of both the Anguilliformes, which appear to be paraphyletic without the inclusion of the Saccopharyngiformes (gulper eels and allies), as well as other more commonly known eel families (e.g., Congridae, Serrivomeridae). However, no study to date has investigated anguilliform interrelationships using nuclear loci. Here we present a new phylogenetic hypothesis for the Anguilliformes based on five markers (the nuclear loci Early Growth Hormone 3, Myosin Heavy Polypeptide 6 and Recombinase Activating Gene 1, as well as the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome b and Cytochrome Oxidase I). Our sampling spans 148 species and includes 19 of the 20 extant families of anguilliforms and saccopharyngiforms. Maximum likelihood analysis reveals that saccopharyngiform eels are deeply nested within the anguilliforms, and supports the non-monophyly of Congridae and Nettastomatidae, as well as that of Derichthyidae and Chlopsidae. Our analyses suggest that Protanguilla may be the sister group of the Synaphobranchidae, though the recent hypothesis that this species is the sister group to all other anguilliforms cannot be rejected. The molecular phylogeny, time-calibrated using a Bayesian relaxed clock approach and seven fossil calibration points, reveals a Late Cretaceous origin of this expanded anguilliform clade (stem age ~116 Ma, crown age ~99 Ma). Most major (family level) lineages originated between the end of the Cretaceous and Early Eocene, suggesting that anguilliform radiation may have been facilitated by the recovery of marine ecosystems following the KP extinction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phylogeny of Cirsium spp. in North America: Host Specificity Does Not Follow Phylogeny

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    Tracey A. Bodo Slotta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Weedy invasive Cirsium spp. are widespread in temperate regions of North America and some of their biological control agents have attacked native Cirsium spp. A phylogenetic tree was developed from DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacer and external transcribed spacer regions from native and non-native Great Plains Cirsium spp. and other thistles to determine if host specificity follows phylogeny. The monophyly of Cirsium spp. and Carduus within the tribe Cardinae was confirmed with native North American and European lineages of the Cirsium spp. examined. We did not detect interspecific hybridization between the introduced invasive and the native North American Cirsium spp. Selected host-biological control agent interactions were mapped onto the phylogenic tree derived by maximum likelihood analysis to examine the co-occurrence of known hosts with biological control agents. Within Cirsium-Cardueae, the insect biological control agents do not associate with host phylogenetic lines. Thus, more comprehensive testing of species in host-specificity trials, rather than relying on a single representative of a given clade may be necessary; because the assumption that host-specificity follows phylogeny does not necessarily hold. Since the assumption does not always hold, it will also be important to evaluate ecological factors to provide better cues for host specificity.

  3. Genome BLAST distance phylogenies inferred from whole plastid and whole mitochondrion genome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holland Barbara R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic methods which do not rely on multiple sequence alignments are important tools in inferring trees directly from completely sequenced genomes. Here, we extend the recently described Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP strategy to compute phylogenetic trees from all completely sequenced plastid genomes currently available and from a selection of mitochondrial genomes representing the major eukaryotic lineages. BLASTN, TBLASTX, or combinations of both are used to locate high-scoring segment pairs (HSPs between two sequences from which pairwise similarities and distances are computed in different ways resulting in a total of 96 GBDP variants. The suitability of these distance formulae for phylogeny reconstruction is directly estimated by computing a recently described measure of "treelikeness", the so-called δ value, from the respective distance matrices. Additionally, we compare the trees inferred from these matrices using UPGMA, NJ, BIONJ, FastME, or STC, respectively, with the NCBI taxonomy tree of the taxa under study. Results Our results indicate that, at this taxonomic level, plastid genomes are much more valuable for inferring phylogenies than are mitochondrial genomes, and that distances based on breakpoints are of little use. Distances based on the proportion of "matched" HSP length to average genome length were best for tree estimation. Additionally we found that using TBLASTX instead of BLASTN and, particularly, combining TBLASTX and BLASTN leads to a small but significant increase in accuracy. Other factors do not significantly affect the phylogenetic outcome. The BIONJ algorithm results in phylogenies most in accordance with the current NCBI taxonomy, with NJ and FastME performing insignificantly worse, and STC performing as well if applied to high quality distance matrices. δ values are found to be a reliable predictor of phylogenetic accuracy. Conclusion Using the most treelike distance matrices, as

  4. Phylogeny and revision of Erpobdelliformes (Annelida, Arhynchobdellida from Mexico based on nuclear and mithochondrial gene sequences. Filogenia y revisión de los Erpobdelliformes (Annelida, Arhynchobdellida de México, con base en secuencias de ADN nuclear y mitocondrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships of the suborder Erpobdelliformes, a group of non-sanguivorous leeches, were investigated with the use of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, mitochondrial 12S rDNA and nuclear 18S rDNA. The resulting hypothesis indicates that Erpobdellidae and Salifidae are monophyletic and each other closest relatives. We detect, for first time in leeches, intra-specific variation of similar amount than inter-specific variation. We formally resurrect the name Erpobdella mexicana, proposed by Dugès for Mexican specimens, and recommend the use of the name Erpobdella ochoterenai rather than Erpobdella microstoma for Mexican specimens. We record an invasive species of the family Salifidae: Barbronia arcana in Mexico, representing the first record of the species outside Australia, first record of the family in Mexico and third in the New World.Se estudian las relaciones filogenéticas del suborden Erpobdelliformes, un grupo de sanguijuelas no hematófagas de vertebrados, con base en secuencias de la subunidad I del citocromo c oxidasa del ADN mitocondrial, 12S ADNr del ADN mitocondrial y 18S ADNr del ADN nuclear. La hipótesis resultante señala que las familias Salifidae y Erpobdellidae son monofiléticas y hermanas entre sí. Se detecta por primera vez en sanguijuelas variación interespecífica de magnitud similar a la variación interespecífica. Formalmente se reslece el nombre empleado por Dugès: Erpobdella mexicana para las formas mexicanas, así como se argumenta sobre el uso del nombre Erpobdella ochoterenai en lugar de Erpobdella microstoma para las formas mexicanas. Se registra a una especie invasora de la familia Salifidae en México: Barbronia arcana, el cual constituye el primer registro de la especie fuera de Australia, primer registro de la familia en México y tercero en el continente americano.

  5. Effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants on herbivore assemblages on congeneric Acer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Murakami, Masashi; Hirao, Toshihide

    2014-08-01

    Historical, niche-based, and stochastic processes have been proposed as the mechanisms that drive community assembly. In plant-herbivore systems, these processes can correspond to phylogeny, leaf traits, and the distribution of host plants, respectively. Although patterns of herbivore assemblages among plant species have been repeatedly examined, the effects of these factors among co-occurring congeneric host plant species have rarely been studied. Our aim was to reveal the process of community assembly for herbivores by investigating the effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of closely related host plants of the genus Acer. We sampled leaf functional traits for 30 Acer species in Japan. Using a newly constructed phylogeny, we determined that three of the six measured leaf traits (leaf thickness, C/N ratio, and condensed tannin content) showed a phylogenetic signal. In a field study, we sampled herbivore communities on 14 Acer species within an elevation gradient and examined relationships between herbivore assemblages and host plants. We found that herbivore assemblages were significantly correlated with phylogeny, leaf traits, phylogenetic signals, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants. Our results indicate that the interaction between historical and current ecological processes shapes herbivore community assemblages.

  6. On simulated annealing phase transitions in phylogeny reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Maximilian A R; Barker, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Phylogeny reconstruction with global criteria is NP-complete or NP-hard, hence in general requires a heuristic search. We investigate the powerful, physically inspired, general-purpose heuristic simulated annealing, applied to phylogeny reconstruction. Simulated annealing mimics the physical process of annealing, where a liquid is gently cooled to form a crystal. During the search, periods of elevated specific heat occur, analogous to physical phase transitions. These simulated annealing phase transitions play a crucial role in the outcome of the search. Nevertheless, they have received comparably little attention, for phylogeny or other optimisation problems. We analyse simulated annealing phase transitions during searches for the optimal phylogenetic tree for 34 real-world multiple alignments. In the same way in which melting temperatures differ between materials, we observe distinct specific heat profiles for each input file. We propose this reflects differences in the search landscape and can serve as a measure for problem difficulty and for suitability of the algorithm's parameters. We discuss application in algorithmic optimisation and as a diagnostic to assess parameterisation before computationally costly, large phylogeny reconstructions are launched. Whilst the focus here lies on phylogeny reconstruction under maximum parsimony, it is plausible that our results are more widely applicable to optimisation procedures in science and industry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative mitogenomics, phylogeny and evolutionary history of Leptogorgia (Gorgoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliseno, Angelo; Feregrino, Christian; Sartoretto, Stéphane; Aurelle, Didier; Wörheide, Gert; McFadden, Catherine S; Vargas, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    Molecular analyses of the ecologically important gorgonian octocoral genus Leptogorgia are scant and mostly deal with few species from restricted geographical regions. Here we explore the phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of Leptogorgia using the complete mitochondrial genomes of six Leptogorgia species from different localities in the Atlantic, Mediterranean and eastern Pacific as well as four other genera of Gorgoniidae and Plexauridae. Our mitogenomic analyses showed high inter-specific diversity, variable nucleotide substitution rates and, for some species, novel genomic features such as ORFs of unknown function. The phylogenetic analyses using complete mitogenomes and an extended mtMutS dataset recovered Leptogorgia as polyphyletic, and the species considered in the analyses were split into two defined groups corresponding to different geographic regions, namely the eastern Pacific and the Atlantic-Mediterranean. Our phylogenetic analysis based on mtMutS also showed a clear separation between the eastern Atlantic and South African Leptogorgia, suggesting the need of a taxonomic revision for these forms. A time-calibrated phylogeny showed that the separation of eastern Pacific and western Atlantic species started ca. 20Mya and suggested a recent divergence for eastern Pacific species and for L. sarmentosa-L. capverdensis. Our results also revealed high inter-specific diversity among eastern Atlantic and South African species, highlighting a potential role of the geographical diversification processes and geological events occurring during the last 30Ma in the Atlantic on the evolutionary history of these organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of camel spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddahi, Hassan; Khazanehdari, Mahsa; Aliabadian, Mansour; Kami, Haji Gholi; Mirshamsi, Amin; Mirshamsi, Omid

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of five solifuge families of Iran is presented using phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 1 (COI) sequence data. Moreover, we included available representatives from seven families from GenBank to examine the genetic distance between Old and New World taxa and test the phylogenetic relationships among more solifuge families. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on the two most probabilistic methods, Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) approaches. Resulting topologies demonstrated the monophyly of the families Daesiidae, Eremobatidae, Galeodidae, Karschiidae and Rhagodidae, whereas the monophyly of the families Ammotrechidae and Gylippidae was not supported. Also, within the family Eremobatidae, the subfamilies Eremobatinae and Therobatinae and the genus Hemerotrecha were paraphyletic or polyphyletic. According to the resulted topologies, the taxonomic placements of Trichotoma michaelseni (Gylippidae) and Nothopuga sp. 1 (Ammotrechidae) are still remain under question and their revision might be appropriate. According to the results of this study, within the family Galeodidae, the validity of the genus Galeodopsis is supported, while the validity of the genus Paragaleodes still remains uncertain. Moreover, our results revealed that the species Galeodes bacillatus, and Rhagodes melanochaetus are junior synonyms of G. caspius, and R. eylandti, respectively.

  9. Phylogeny of marine Bacillus isolates from the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, J. L.; Larios-Sanz, M.; Nakamura, L. K.; Slepecky, R. A.; Paul, J. H.; Moore, E. R.; Fox, G. E.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr

    2000-01-01

    The phylogeny of 11 pigmented, aerobic, spore-forming isolates from marine sources was studied. Forty-two biochemical characteristics were examined, and a 16S rDNA sequence was obtained for each isolate. In a phylogenetic tree based on 16S sequencing, four isolates (NRRL B-14850, NRRL B-14904, NRRL B-14907, and NRRL B-14908) clustered with B. subtilis and related organisms; NRRL B-14907 was closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens. NRRL B-14907 and NRRL B-14908 were phenotypically similar to B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus, respectively. Three strains (NRRL B-14906, NRRL B-14910, and NRRL B-14911) clustered in a clade that included B. firmus, B. lentus, and B. megaterium. NRRL B-14910 was closely related phenotypically and phylogenetically to B. megaterium. NRRL B-14905 clustered with the mesophilic round spore-producing species, B. fusiformis and B. sphaericus; the isolate was more closely related to B. fusiformis. NRRL B-14905 displayed characteristics typical of the B. sphaericus-like organisms. NRRL B-14909 and NRRL B-14912 clustered with the Paenibacillus species and displayed characteristics typical of the genus. Only NRRL B-14851, an unusually thin rod that forms very small spores, may represent a new Bacillus species.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the Echinostomatoidea Looss, 1899 (Platyhelminthes: Digenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Kudlai, Olena; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2016-03-01

    The Echinostomatoidea is a large, cosmopolitan group of digeneans currently including nine families and 105 genera, the vast majority parasitic, as adults, in birds with relatively few taxa parasitising mammals, reptiles and, exceptionally, fish. Despite the complex structure, diverse content and substantial species richness of the group, almost no attempt has been made to elucidate its phylogenetic relationships at the suprageneric level based on molecules due to the lack of data. Herein, we evaluate the consistency of the present morphology-based classification system of the Echinostomatoidea with the phylogenetic relationships of its members based on partial sequences of the nuclear lsrRNA gene for a broad diversity of taxa (80 species, representing eight families and 40 genera), including representatives of five subfamilies of the Echinostomatidae, which currently exhibits the most complex taxonomic structure within the superfamily. This first comprehensive phylogeny for the Echinostomatoidea challenged the current systematic framework based on comparative morphology. A morphology-based evaluation of this new molecular framework resulted in a number of systematic and nomenclatural changes consistent with the phylogenetic estimates of the generic and suprageneric boundaries and a new phylogeny-based classification of the Echinostomatoidea. In the current systematic treatment: (i) the rank of two family level lineages, the former Himasthlinae and Echinochasminae, is elevated to full family status; (ii) Caballerotrema is distinguished at the family level; (iii) the content and diagnosis of the Echinostomatidae (sensu stricto) (s. str.) are revised to reflect its phylogeny, resulting in the abolition of the Nephrostominae and Chaunocephalinae as synonyms of the Echinostomatidae (s. str.); (iv) Artyfechinostomum, Cathaemasia, Rhopalias and Ribeiroia are re-allocated within the Echinostomatidae (s. str.), resulting in the abolition of the Cathaemasiidae, Rhopaliidae

  11. Phylogeny of culturable cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Caroline Souza Pamplona; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2014-03-01

    The cyanobacterial community from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems was examined using a culture-dependent method. Fifty cyanobacterial strains were isolated from soil, water and periphytic samples collected from Cardoso Island and Bertioga mangroves using specific cyanobacterial culture media. Unicellular, homocytous and heterocytous morphotypes were recovered, representing five orders, seven families and eight genera (Synechococcus, Cyanobium, Cyanobacterium, Chlorogloea, Leptolyngbya, Phormidium, Nostoc and Microchaete). All of these novel mangrove strains had their 16S rRNA gene sequenced and BLAST analysis revealed sequence identities ranging from 92.5 to 99.7% when they were compared with other strains available in GenBank. The results showed a high variability of the 16S rRNA gene sequences among the genotypes that was not associated with the morphologies observed. Phylogenetic analyses showed several branches formed exclusively by some of these novel 16S rRNA gene sequences. BLAST and phylogeny analyses allowed for the identification of Nodosilinea and Oxynema strains, genera already known to exhibit poor morphological diacritic traits. In addition, several Nostoc and Leptolyngbya morphotypes of the mangrove strains may represent new generic entities, as they were distantly affiliated with true genera clades. The presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, polyketide synthase, microcystin and saxitoxin genes were detected in 20.5%, 100%, 37.5% and 33.3%, respectively, of the 44 tested isolates. A total of 134 organic extracts obtained from 44 strains were tested against microorganisms, and 26% of the extracts showed some antimicrobial activity. This is the first polyphasic study of cultured cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems using morphological, genetic and biological approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The reticulating phylogeny of island biogeography theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomolino, Mark V; Brown, James H

    2009-12-01

    Biogeographers study all patterns in the geographic variation of life, from the spatial variation in genetic and physiological characteristics of cells and individuals, to the diversity and dynamics of biological communities among continental biotas or across oceanic archipelagoes. The field of island biogeography, in particular, has provided some genuinely transformative insights for the biological sciences, especially ecology and evolutionary biology. Our purpose here is to review the historical development of island biogeography theory during the 20th century by identifying the common threads that run through four sets of contributions made during this period, including those by Eugene Gordon Munroe (1948, 1953), Edward O. Wilson (1959, 1961), Frank W. Preston (1962a,b), and the seminal collaborations between Wilson and Robert H. MacArthur (1963, 1967), which revolutionized the field and served as its paradigm for nearly four decades. This epistemological account not only reviews the intriguing history of island theory, but it also includes fundamental lessons for advancing science through transformative integrations. Indeed, as is likely the case with many disciplines, island theory advanced not as a simple accumulation of facts and an orderly succession of theories and paradigms, but rather in fits and starts through a reticulating phylogeny of ideas and alternating periods of specialization and reintegration. We conclude this review with a summary of the salient features of this scientific revolution in the contest of Kuhn's structure, which strongly influenced theoretical advances during this period, and we then describe some of the fundamental assumptions and tenets of an emerging reintegration of island biogeography theory.

  13. A Mitogenomic Phylogeny of Living Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstermeier, Knut; Zinner, Dietmar; Brameier, Markus; Meyer, Matthias; Kreuz, Eva; Hofreiter, Michael; Roos, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Primates, the mammalian order including our own species, comprise 480 species in 78 genera. Thus, they represent the third largest of the 18 orders of eutherian mammals. Although recent phylogenetic studies on primates are increasingly built on molecular datasets, most of these studies have focused on taxonomic subgroups within the order. Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes have proven to be extremely useful in deciphering within-order relationships even up to deep nodes. Using 454 sequencing, we sequenced 32 new complete mt genomes adding 20 previously not represented genera to the phylogenetic reconstruction of the primate tree. With 13 new sequences, the number of complete mt genomes within the parvorder Platyrrhini was widely extended, resulting in a largely resolved branching pattern among New World monkey families. We added 10 new Strepsirrhini mt genomes to the 15 previously available ones, thus almost doubling the number of mt genomes within this clade. Our data allow precise date estimates of all nodes and offer new insights into primate evolution. One major result is a relatively young date for the most recent common ancestor of all living primates which was estimated to 66-69 million years ago, suggesting that the divergence of extant primates started close to the K/T-boundary. Although some relationships remain unclear, the large number of mt genomes used allowed us to reconstruct a robust primate phylogeny which is largely in agreement with previous publications. Finally, we show that mt genomes are a useful tool for resolving primate phylogenetic relationships on various taxonomic levels. PMID:23874967

  14. Phylogenetic Trees and Networks Reduce to Phylogenies on Binary States: Does It Furnish an Explanation to the Robustness of Phylogenetic Trees against Lateral Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillard, Marc; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative approach to phylogenies based on the reduction of multistate characters to binary-state characters. We show that the reduction to binary characters' approach can be applied to both character- and distance-based phylogenies and provides a unifying framework to explain simply and intuitively the similarities and differences between distance- and character-based phylogenies. Building on these results, this article gives a possible explanation on why phylogenetic trees obtained from a distance matrix or a set of characters are often quite reasonable despite lateral transfers of genetic material between taxa. In the presence of lateral transfers, outer planar networks furnish a better description of evolution than phylogenetic trees. We present a polynomial-time reconstruction algorithm for perfect outer planar networks with a fixed number of states, characters, and lateral transfers.

  15. Phylogenetic Trees and Networks Reduce to Phylogenies on Binary States: Does It Furnish an Explanation to the Robustness of Phylogenetic Trees against Lateral Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillard, Marc; Fraix-Burnet, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative approach to phylogenies based on the reduction of multistate characters to binary-state characters. We show that the reduction to binary characters’ approach can be applied to both character- and distance-based phylogenies and provides a unifying framework to explain simply and intuitively the similarities and differences between distance- and character-based phylogenies. Building on these results, this article gives a possible explanation on why phylogenetic trees obtained from a distance matrix or a set of characters are often quite reasonable despite lateral transfers of genetic material between taxa. In the presence of lateral transfers, outer planar networks furnish a better description of evolution than phylogenetic trees. We present a polynomial-time reconstruction algorithm for perfect outer planar networks with a fixed number of states, characters, and lateral transfers. PMID:26508826

  16. Multilocus sequence typing of Xylella fastidiosa causing Pierce's disease and oleander leaf scorch in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoli; Morano, Lisa; Bromley, Robin; Spring-Pearson, Senanu; Stouthamer, Richard; Nunney, Leonard

    2010-06-01

    Using a modified multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa based on the same seven housekeeping genes employed in a previously published MLST, we studied the genetic diversity of two subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, which cause Pierce's disease and oleander leaf scorch, respectively. Typing of 85 U.S. isolates (plus one from northern Mexico) of X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa from 15 different plant hosts and 21 isolates of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi from 4 different hosts in California and Texas supported their subspecific status. Analysis using the MLST genes plus one cell-surface gene showed no significant genetic differentiation based on geography or host plant within either subspecies. Two cases of homologous recombination (with X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, the third U.S. subspecies) were detected in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. Excluding recombination, MLST site polymorphism in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (0.048%) and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi (0.000%) was substantially lower than in X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (0.240%), consistent with the hypothesis that X. fastidiosa subspp. fastidiosa and sandyi were introduced into the United States (probably just prior to 1880 and 1980, respectively). Using whole-genome analysis, we showed that MLST is more effective at genetic discrimination at the specific and subspecific level than other typing methods applied to X. fastidiosa. Moreover, MLST is the only technique effective in detecting recombination.

  17. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Pathogenic Candida albicans Isolates Collected from a Teaching Hospital in Shanghai, China: A Molecular Epidemiology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Junhao; Gao, Qian; Chen, Min; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Molecular typing of Candida albicans is important for studying the population structure and epidemiology of this opportunistic yeast, such as population dynamics, nosocomial infections, multiple infections and microevolution. The genetic diversity of C. albicans has been rarely studied in China. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of 62 C. albicans isolates collected from 40 patients from Huashan Hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 50 diploid sequence types (DSTs) were identified in the 62 C. albicans isolates, with 41 newly identified DSTs. Based on cluster analysis, the 62 isolates were classified into nine existing clades and two new clades (namely clades New 1 and New 2). The majority of the isolates were clustered into three clades, clade 6 (37.5%), clade 1 (15.0%) and clade 17 (15.0%). Isolates of clade New 2 were specifically identified in East Asia. We identified three cases of potential nosocomial transmission based on association analysis between patients’ clinical data and the genotypes of corresponding isolates. Finally, by analyzing the genotypes of serial isolates we further demonstrated that the microevolution of C. albicans was due to loss of heterozygosity. Our study represents the first molecular typing of C. albicans in eastern China, and we confirmed that MLST is a useful tool for studying the epidemiology and evolution of C. albicans. PMID:25919124

  18. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F Patrick; Suaya, Jose A; Ray, G Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L; Mera, Robertino M; Close, Nicole M; Thomas, Elizabeth; Amrine-Madsen, Heather

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants.

  19. The evolution and population structure of Lactobacillus fermentum from different naturally fermented products as determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Tong; Liu, Wenjun; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-05-20

    Lactobacillus fermentum is economically important in the production and preservation of fermented foods. A repeatable and discriminative typing method was devised to characterize L. fermentum at the molecular level. The multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme developed was based on analysis of the internal sequence of 11 housekeeping gene fragments (clpX, dnaA, dnaK, groEL, murC, murE, pepX, pyrG, recA, rpoB, and uvrC). MLST analysis of 203 isolates of L. fermentum from Mongolia and seven provinces/ autonomous regions in China identified 57 sequence types (ST), 27 of which were represented by only a single isolate, indicating high genetic diversity. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequence of the 11 housekeeping gene fragments indicated that the L. fermentum isolates analyzed belonged to two major groups. A standardized index of association (I A (S)) indicated a weak clonal population structure in L. fermentum. Split decomposition analysis indicated that recombination played an important role in generating the genetic diversity observed in L. fermentum. The results from the minimum spanning tree strongly suggested that evolution of L. fermentum STs was not correlated with geography or food-type. The MLST scheme developed will be valuable for further studies on the evolution and population structure of L. fermentum isolates used in food products.

  20. Inference of Large Phylogenies Using Neighbour-Joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Martin; Mailund, Thomas; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2011-01-01

    The neighbour-joining method is a widely used method for phylogenetic reconstruction which scales to thousands of taxa. However, advances in sequencing technology have made data sets with more than 10,000 related taxa widely available. Inference of such large phylogenies takes hours or days using...... the Neighbour-Joining method on a normal desktop computer because of the O(n^3) running time. RapidNJ is a search heuristic which reduce the running time of the Neighbour-Joining method significantly but at the cost of an increased memory consumption making inference of large phylogenies infeasible. We present...... two extensions for RapidNJ which reduce the memory requirements and \\makebox{allows} phylogenies with more than 50,000 taxa to be inferred efficiently on a desktop computer. Furthermore, an improved version of the search heuristic is presented which reduces the running time of RapidNJ on many data...

  1. Bayesian phylogeny analysis via stochastic approximation Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Cheon, Sooyoung

    2009-11-01

    Monte Carlo methods have received much attention in the recent literature of phylogeny analysis. However, the conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, such as the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, tend to get trapped in a local mode in simulating from the posterior distribution of phylogenetic trees, rendering the inference ineffective. In this paper, we apply an advanced Monte Carlo algorithm, the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm, to Bayesian phylogeny analysis. Our method is compared with two popular Bayesian phylogeny software, BAMBE and MrBayes, on simulated and real datasets. The numerical results indicate that our method outperforms BAMBE and MrBayes. Among the three methods, SAMC produces the consensus trees which have the highest similarity to the true trees, and the model parameter estimates which have the smallest mean square errors, but costs the least CPU time. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DNA barcoding and phylogeny of Calidris and Tringa (Aves: Scolopacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zuhao; Tu, Feiyun

    2017-07-01

    The avian genera Calidris and Tringa are the largest of the widespread family of Scolopacidae. The phylogeny of members of the two genera is still a matter of controversial. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification and phylogeny of animal species. In this study, we analyzed the COI barcodes of thirty-one species of the two genera. All the species had distinct COI sequences. Two hundred and twenty-one variable sites were identified. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated between barcodes. Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees. All the species could be discriminated by their distinct clades in the phylogenetic trees. The phylogenetic trees grouped all the species of Calidris and Tringa into different monophyletic clade, respectively. COI data showed a well-supported phylogeny for Calidris and Tringa species.

  3. Blastocystis phylogeny among various isolates from humans to insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Koyama, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Erika; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2016-12-01

    Blastocystis is a common unicellular eukaryotic parasite found not only in humans, but also in various kinds of animal species worldwide. Since Blastocystis isolates are morphologically indistinguishable, many molecular biological approaches have been applied to classify these isolates. The complete or partial sequences of the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) are mainly used for comparisons and phylogenetic analyses among Blastocystis isolates. However, various lengths of the partial SSU rDNA sequence have been used for phylogenetic inference among genetically different isolates. Based on the complete SSU rDNA sequences, consensus terminology of nine subtypes (STs) of Blastocystis sp. that were supported by phylogenetically monophyletic nine clades was proposed in 2007. Thereafter, eight additional kinds of STs comprising non-human mammalian Blastocystis isolates have been reported based on the phylogeny of SSU rDNA sequences, while STs 11 and 12 were only proposed on the base of partial sequences. Although many sequence data from mammalian and avian Blastocystis are registered in GenBank, only limited data on SSU rDNA are available for poikilotherm-derived Blastocystis isolates. Therefore, the phylogenetic positions of the reptilian/amphibian Blastocystis clades are unstable. The phylogenetic inference of various STs comprising mammalian and/or avian Blastocystis isolates was verified herein based on comparisons between partial and complete SSU rDNA sequences, and the phylogenetic positions of reptilian and amphibian Blastocystis isolates were also investigated using 14 new Blastocystis isolates from reptiles with all known isolates from other reptilians, amphibians, and insects registered in GenBank. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Direct maximum parsimony phylogeny reconstruction from genotype data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximum parsimony phylogenetic tree reconstruction from genetic variation data is a fundamental problem in computational genetics with many practical applications in population genetics, whole genome analysis, and the search for genetic predictors of disease. Efficient methods are available for reconstruction of maximum parsimony trees from haplotype data, but such data are difficult to determine directly for autosomal DNA. Data more commonly is available in the form of genotypes, which consist of conflated combinations of pairs of haplotypes from homologous chromosomes. Currently, there are no general algorithms for the direct reconstruction of maximum parsimony phylogenies from genotype data. Hence phylogenetic applications for autosomal data must therefore rely on other methods for first computationally inferring haplotypes from genotypes. Results In this work, we develop the first practical method for computing maximum parsimony phylogenies directly from genotype data. We show that the standard practice of first inferring haplotypes from genotypes and then reconstructing a phylogeny on the haplotypes often substantially overestimates phylogeny size. As an immediate application, our method can be used to determine the minimum number of mutations required to explain a given set of observed genotypes. Conclusion Phylogeny reconstruction directly from unphased data is computationally feasible for moderate-sized problem instances and can lead to substantially more accurate tree size inferences than the standard practice of treating phasing and phylogeny construction as two separate analysis stages. The difference between the approaches is particularly important for downstream applications that require a lower-bound on the number of mutations that the genetic region has undergone.

  5. Estimating Age-Dependent Extinction: Contrasting Evidence from Fossils and Phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Oskar; Andermann, Tobias; Quental, Tiago B; Antonelli, Alexandre; Silvestro, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    The estimation of diversification rates is one of the most vividly debated topics in modern systematics, with considerable controversy surrounding the power of phylogenetic and fossil-based approaches in estimating extinction. Van Valen's seminal work from 1973 proposed the "Law of constant extinction," which states that the probability of extinction of taxa is not dependent on their age. This assumption of age-independent extinction has prevailed for decades with its assessment based on survivorship curves, which, however, do not directly account for the incompleteness of the fossil record, and have rarely been applied at the species level. Here, we present a Bayesian framework to estimate extinction rates from the fossil record accounting for age-dependent extinction (ADE). Our approach, unlike previous implementations, explicitly models unobserved species and accounts for the effects of fossil preservation on the observed longevity of sampled lineages. We assess the performance and robustness of our method through extensive simulations and apply it to a fossil data set of terrestrial Carnivora spanning the past 40 myr. We find strong evidence of ADE, as we detect the extinction rate to be highest in young species and declining with increasing species age. For comparison, we apply a recently developed analogous ADE model to a dated phylogeny of extant Carnivora. Although the phylogeny-based analysis also infers ADE, it indicates that the extinction rate, instead, increases with increasing taxon age. The estimated mean species longevity also differs substantially, with the fossil-based analyses estimating 2.0 myr, in contrast to 9.8 myr derived from the phylogeny-based inference. Scrutinizing these discrepancies, we find that both fossil and phylogeny-based ADE models are prone to high error rates when speciation and extinction rates increase or decrease through time. However, analyses of simulated and empirical data show that fossil-based inferences are more

  6. Multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analysis of Propionibacterium acnes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Scholz, Christian F. P.; Lomholt, Hans B.

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal of human skin but is also implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, in biofilm-associated infections of medical devices and endophthalmitis, and in infections of bone and dental root canals. Recent studies associate P. acnes with prostate cancer...... schemes were compared with reference to a phylogenetic tree based on 78 P. acnes genomes and their gene contents. Further support for a basically clonal population structure of P. acnes and a scenario of the global spread of epidemic clones of P. acnes was obtained. Compared to the Belfast scheme...

  7. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Propionibacterium acnes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Scholz, Christian; Lomholt, Hans B

    2011-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal of human skin but is also implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris and in biofilm-associated infections of medical devices and endophthalmitis, and in infections of bone and dental root canals. Recent studies associate P. acnes with prostate cancer...... with reference to a phylogenetic tree based on 78 P. acnes genomes and their gene contents. Further support for a basically clonal population structure of P. acnes and a scenario of global spread of epidemic clones of P. acnes was obtained. Compared with the Belfast scheme, the Aarhus MLST scheme (http...

  8. Phylogeny and species delineation in European species of the genus Steganacarus (Acari, Oribatida) using mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipe, Victoria; Corral-Hernández, Elena; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Species of the genus Steganacarus are soil-living oribatid mites (Acari, Phthiracaridae) with a ptychoid body. The phylogeny and species status of the species of Steganacarus are not resolved, some authors group all ten German species of Steganacarus within the genus Steganacarus whereas others split them into three subgenera, Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus. Additionally, two species, S. magnus and T. carinatus, comprise morphotypes of questionable species status. We investigated the phylogeny and species status of ten European Steganacarus species, i.e. S. applicatus, S. herculeanus, S. magnus forma magna, S. magnus forma anomala, S. spinosus, Tropacarus brevipilus, T. carinatus forma carinata, T. carinatus forma pulcherrima, Atropacarus striculus and Rhacaplacarus ortizi. We used two molecular markers, a 251 bp fragment of the nuclear gene 28S rDNA (D3) and a 477 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI region. The phylogeny based on a combined analysis of D3 and COI separated four subgenera (Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus) indicating that they form monophyletic groups. The COI region separated all ten species of the genus Steganacarus and showed variation within some species often correlating with the geographic origin of the species. Resolution of the more conserved D3 region was limited, indicating that radiation events are rather recent. Overall, our results indicate that both genes alone cannot be used for phylogeny and barcoding since variation is too low in D3 and too high in COI. However, when used in combination these genes provide reliable insight into the phylogeny, radiation and species status of taxa of the genus Steganacarus.

  9. Skipper genome sheds light on unique phenotypic traits and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-08-27

    Butterflies and moths are emerging as model organisms in genetics and evolutionary studies. The family Hesperiidae (skippers) was traditionally viewed as a sister to other butterflies based on its moth-like morphology and darting flight habits with fast wing beats. However, DNA studies suggest that the family Papilionidae (swallowtails) may be the sister to other butterflies including skippers. The moth-like features and the controversial position of skippers in Lepidoptera phylogeny make them valuable targets for comparative genomics. We obtained the 310 Mb draft genome of the Clouded Skipper (Lerema accius) from a wild-caught specimen using a cost-effective strategy that overcomes the high (1.6 %) heterozygosity problem. Comparative analysis of Lerema accius and the highly heterozygous genome of Papilio glaucus revealed differences in patterns of SNP distribution, but similarities in functions of genes that are enriched in non-synonymous SNPs. Comparison of Lepidoptera genomes revealed possible molecular bases for unique traits of skippers: a duplication of electron transport chain components could result in efficient energy supply for their rapid flight; a diversified family of predicted cellulases might allow them to feed on cellulose-enriched grasses; an expansion of pheromone-binding proteins and enzymes for pheromone synthesis implies a more efficient mate-recognition system, which compensates for the lack of clear visual cues due to the similarities in wing colors and patterns of many species of skippers. Phylogenetic analysis of several Lepidoptera genomes suggested that the position of Hesperiidae remains uncertain as the tree topology varied depending on the evolutionary model. Completion of the first genome from the family Hesperiidae allowed comparative analyses with other Lepidoptera that revealed potential genetic bases for the unique phenotypic traits of skippers. This work lays the foundation for future experimental studies of skippers and

  10. The family structure of the Mucorales: a synoptic revision based on comprehensive multigene-genealogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K; Pawłowska, J; Walther, G; Wrzosek, M; de Hoog, G S; Benny, G L; Kirk, P M; Voigt, K

    2013-06-01

    The Mucorales (Mucoromycotina) are one of the most ancient groups of fungi comprising ubiquitous, mostly saprotrophic organisms. The first comprehensive molecular studies 11 yr ago revealed the traditional classification scheme, mainly based on morphology, as highly artificial. Since then only single clades have been investigated in detail but a robust classification of the higher levels based on DNA data has not been published yet. Therefore we provide a classification based on a phylogenetic analysis of four molecular markers including the large and the small subunit of the ribosomal DNA, the partial actin gene and the partial gene for the translation elongation factor 1-alpha. The dataset comprises 201 isolates in 103 species and represents about one half of the currently accepted species in this order. Previous family concepts are reviewed and the family structure inferred from the multilocus phylogeny is introduced and discussed. Main differences between the current classification and preceding concepts affects the existing families Lichtheimiaceae and Cunninghamellaceae, as well as the genera Backusella and Lentamyces which recently obtained the status of families along with the Rhizopodaceae comprising Rhizopus, Sporodiniella and Syzygites. Compensatory base change analyses in the Lichtheimiaceae confirmed the lower level classification of Lichtheimia and Rhizomucor while genera such as Circinella or Syncephalastrum completely lacked compensatory base changes.

  11. Molecular epidemiology and multilocus sequence analysis of potentially zoonotic Giardia spp. from humans and dogs in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mellesia F; Cadogan, Paul; Eytle, Sarah; Copeland, Sonia; Walochnik, Julia; Lindo, John F

    2017-01-01

    Giardia spp. are the causative agents of intestinal infections in a wide variety of mammals including humans and companion animals. Dogs may be reservoirs of zoonotic Giardia spp.; however, the potential for transmission between dogs and humans in Jamaica has not been studied. Conventional PCR was used to screen 285 human and 225 dog stool samples for Giardia targeting the SSU rDNA gene followed by multilocus sequencing of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) genes. Prevalence of human infections based on PCR was 6.7 % (19/285) and canine infections 19.6 % (44/225). Nested PCR conducted on all 63 positive samples revealed the exclusive presence of assemblage A in both humans and dogs. Sub-assemblage A-II was responsible for 79.0 % (15/19) and 70.5 % (31/44) of the infections in humans and dogs, respectively, while sub-assemblage A-I was identified at a rate of 15.8 % (3/19) and 29.5 % (13/44) in humans and dogs, respectively. The predominance of a single circulating assemblage among both humans and dogs in Jamaica suggests possible zoonotic transmission of Giardia infections.

  12. Multilocus DNA fingerprinting in paternity analysis: a Chilean experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes O. Lucía

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA polymorphism is very useful in paternity analysis. The present paper describes paternity studies done using DNA profiles obtained with the (CAC5 probe. All of the subjects studied were involved in nonjudicial cases of paternity. Genomic DNA digested with HaeIII was run on agarose gels and hybridized in the gel with the (CAC5 probe labeled with 32P. The mean number of bands larger than the 4.3 kb per individual was 16.1. The mean proportion of bands shared among unrelated individuals was 0.08 and the mean number of test bands was 7.1. This corresponded to an exclusion probability greater than 0.999999. Paternity was excluded in 34.5% of the cases. The mutation frequency estimated from non-excluded cases was 0.01143 bands per child. In these cases, the paternity was confirmed by a locus-specific analysis of eight independent PCR-based loci. The paternity index was computed in all non-excluded cases. It can be concluded that this method is a powerful and inexpensive alternative to solve paternity doubts.

  13. DISTRIBUTION, MORPHOLOGY, AND PHYLOGENY OF KLEBSORMIDIUM (KLEBSORMIDIALES, CHAROPHYCEAE) IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS IN EUROPE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindi, Fabio; Guiry, Michael D; López-Bautista, Juan M

    2008-12-01

    Klebsormidium is a cosmopolitan genus of green algae, widespread in terrestrial and freshwater habitats. The classification of Klebsormidium is entirely based on morphological characters, and very little is understood about its phylogeny at the species level. We investigated the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Klebsormidium in urban habitats in Europe by a combination of approaches including examination of field-collected material, culture experiments conducted in many different combinations of factors, and phylogenetic analyses of the rbcL gene. Klebsormidium in European cities mainly occurs at the base of old walls, where it may produce green belts up to several meters in extent. Specimens from different cities showed a great morphological uniformity, consisting of long filaments 6-9 μm in width, with thin-walled cylindrical cells and smooth wall, devoid of false branches, H-shaped pieces, and biseriate parts. Conversely, the rbcL phylogeny showed a higher genetic diversity than expected from morphology. The strains were separated in four different clades supported by high bootstrap values and posterior probabilities. In culture, these clades differed in several characters, such as production of a superficial hydro-repellent layer, tendency to break into short fragments, and inducibility of zoosporulation. On the basis of the taxonomic information available in the literature, most strains could not be identified unambiguously at the species level. The rbcL phylogeny showed no correspondence with classification based on morphology and suggested that the identity of many species, in particular the type species K. flaccidum (kütz.) P.C. Silva, Mattox et W. H. Blackw., needs critical reassessment. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Ontogeny and Phylogeny from an Epigenetic Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovtrup, Soren

    1984-01-01

    The correlation between ontogeny and phylogeny is analyzed through the discussion of four theories on the reality, history, epigenetic, and ecological aspects of the mechanism of evolution. Also discussed are historical and creative aspects of evolution and three epigenetic mechanisms instantiated in the case of the amphibian embryo. (Author/RH)

  15. A large phylogeny of turtles (Testudines) using molecular data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillon, J.-M.; Guéry, L.; Hulin, V.; Girondot, M.

    2012-01-01

    Turtles (Testudines) form a monophyletic group with a highly distinctive body plan. The taxonomy and phylogeny of turtles are still under discussion, at least for some clades. Whereas in most previous studies, only a few species or genera were considered, we here use an extensive compilation of DNA

  16. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical monogeneans (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from catfishes (Siluriformes)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos Alonso; Blasco-Costa, I.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, MAR 18 2015 (2015), s. 164 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Phylogeny * Monogenea * Dactylogyridae * Neotropical region * Diversity * Siluriformes * 28S rRNA Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  17. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Syn. Prunus amygdalus) and Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex. Royle) Steudel. These are indigenous to Pakistan. In the ITS strict consensus results for example, the clade consisting of Laurocerasus, Padus and Cerasus subgenera are sister to the rest of the clades in the phylogenetic tree. Key words: Phylogeny, Prunus, Pakistan, ...

  18. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of mosquito parasitic Microsporidia (Microsporidia: Amblyosporidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vossbrinck, C. R.; Andreadis, T.; Vávra, Jiří; Becnel, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2004), s. 88-95 ISSN 1066-5234 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Microsporidia * molecular phylogeny * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.403, year: 2004

  19. Mitogenomic phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography of South American spiny rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.

    2017-01-01

    Echimyidae is one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse rodent families in the world, occupying a wide range of habitats in the Neotropics. However, a resolved phylogeny at the genus-level is still lacking for these 22 genera of South American spiny rats, including the coypu (Myocastorina...... Atlantic and Amazonian Forests and (2) the Northern uplift of the Andes....

  20. The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of

  1. Ethnobotany, Phylogeny, and 'Omics' for Human Health and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnatje, Teresa; Peñuelas, Josep; Vallès, Joan

    2017-03-01

    Here, we propose a new term, 'ethnobotanical convergence', to refer to the similar uses for plants included in the same node of a phylogeny. This phylogenetic approach, together with the 'omics' revolution, shows how combining modern technologies with traditional ethnobotanical knowledge could be used to identify potential new applications of plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phylogeny and adaptation shape the teeth of insular mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledevin, Ronan; Chevret, Pascale; Ganem, Guila; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Hardouin, Emilie A; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Pisanu, Benoit; da Luz Mathias, Maria; Schlager, Stefan; Auffray, Jean-Christophe; Renaud, Sabrina

    2016-02-10

    By accompanying human travels since prehistorical times, the house mouse dispersed widely throughout the world, and colonized many islands. The origin of the travellers determined the phylogenetic source of the insular mice, which encountered diverse ecological and environmental conditions on the various islands. Insular mice are thus an exceptional model to disentangle the relative role of phylogeny, ecology and climate in evolution. Molar shape is known to vary according to phylogeny and to respond to adaptation. Using for the first time a three-dimensional geometric morphometric approach, compared with a classical two-dimensional quantification, the relative effects of size variation, phylogeny, climate and ecology were investigated on molar shape diversity across a variety of islands. Phylogeny emerged as the factor of prime importance in shaping the molar. Changes in competition level, mostly driven by the presence or absence of the wood mouse on the different islands, appeared as the second most important effect. Climate and size differences accounted for slight shape variation. This evidences a balanced role of random differentiation related to history of colonization, and of adaptation possibly related to resource exploitation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Phylogeny of not-yet-cultured spirochetes from termite guts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, B.J.; Dewhirst, F.E.; Cooke, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Comparisons of 16S rDNA sequences were used to determine the phylogeny of not-yet-cultured spirochetes from hindguts of the African higher termite, Nasutitermes lujae (Wasmann). The 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from spirochete-rich hindguts by using universal primers, and the amplified...

  4. A molecular approach to arthrotardigrade phylogeny (Heterotardigrada, Tardigrada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujimoto, Shinta; Jørgensen, Aslak; Hansen, Jesper Guldberg

    2017-01-01

    The marine order Arthrotardigrada (class Heterotardigrada, phylum Tardigrada) is known for its conspicuously high morphological diversity and has been traditionally recognized as the most ancestral group within the phylum. Despite its potential importance in understanding the evolution of the phy...... of the inferred phylogeny....

  5. Spiroides shrubs on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Multilocus phylogeography and palaeodistributional reconstruction of Spiraea alpina and S. Mongolica (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gulzar; Zhang, Faqi; Gao, Qingbo; Fu, Pengcheng; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shilong

    2018-06-01

    A common hypothesis for the rich biodiversity found in mountains is uplift-driven diversification. Using a multilocus approach, here we assessed the influence of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) uplift and fluctuating regional climate on genetic diversity of two sister spiroides shrubs, Spiraea alpina and S. mongolica. Combined with palaeodistributional reconstruction modelling, we investigated the current and past-predicted distribution of these species under different climatic episodes. The study demonstrated that continuous pulses of retreat and expansion during last glacial-interglacial episodes, combined with the uplifting of QTP shaped the current distribution of these species. All the populations showed high level of genetic diversity based on both cpDNA and SSR markers. The average gene diversity within populations based on cpDNA markers was 0.383 ± 0.052 for S. alpina and 0.477 ± 0.048 for S. mongolica. The observed and expected heterozygosities based on SSR for both Spiraea alpina and S. mongolicawere H E (0.72-0.90)/H O (0.35-0.78) and H E (0.77-0.92)/H O (0.47-0.77) respectively. Palaeodistributional reconstruction indicated species' preferences at southeastern edge of the plateau during last glacial maximum, at higher altitude areas of QTP and range expansion to central plateau during the interglacial episodes. Assignment tests in STRUCTURE, discriminant analysis of principal coordinates and Immigrants analysis in GENECLASS based on nuclear SSR markers did not support the hypothesis of gene flow between both the species. However, maximum likelihood approach based on cpDNA showed sharing of haplotypes between both species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole-genome phylogeny of Escherichia coli/Shigella group by feature frequency profiles (FFPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Gregory E.; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2011-01-01

    A whole-genome phylogeny of the Escherichia coli/Shigella group was constructed by using the feature frequency profile (FFP) method. This alignment-free approach uses the frequencies of l-mer features of whole genomes to infer phylogenic distances. We present two phylogenies that accentuate different aspects of E. coli/Shigella genomic evolution: (i) one based on the compositions of all possible features of length l = 24 (∼8.4 million features), which are likely to reveal the phenetic grouping and relationship among the organisms and (ii) the other based on the compositions of core features with low frequency and low variability (∼0.56 million features), which account for ∼69% of all commonly shared features among 38 taxa examined and are likely to have genome-wide lineal evolutionary signal. Shigella appears as a single clade when all possible features are used without filtering of noncore features. However, results using core features show that Shigella consists of at least two distantly related subclades, implying that the subclades evolved into a single clade because of a high degree of convergence influenced by mobile genetic elements and niche adaptation. In both FFP trees, the basal group of the E. coli/Shigella phylogeny is the B2 phylogroup, which contains primarily uropathogenic strains, suggesting that the E. coli/Shigella ancestor was likely a facultative or opportunistic pathogen. The extant commensal strains diverged relatively late and appear to be the result of reductive evolution of genomes. We also identify clade distinguishing features and their associated genomic regions within each phylogroup. Such features may provide useful information for understanding evolution of the groups and for quick diagnostic identification of each phylogroup. PMID:21536867

  7. Clonal diversity and population genetic structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus spp.) studied by multilocus genotyping of single spores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva; Rosendahl, Søren

    2005-01-01

    A nested multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) approach was used for multilocus genotyping of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal populations. This method allowed us to amplify multiple loci from Glomus single spores in a single PCR amplification. Variable introns in the two protein coding genes Gm......FOX2 and GmTOR2 were applied as codominant genetic markers together with the LSU rDNA.   Genetic structure of Glomus spp. populations from an organically and a conventionally cultured field were compared by hierarchical sampling of spores from four plots in each field. Multilocus genotypes were...

  8. Multilocus sequence typing of commensal and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from domestic and wild lagomorphs in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Dotto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the multilocus sequence types of Escherichia coli from diseased farm rabbits and apparently healthy wild lagomorphs, and the genetic relatedness among them. Fifty-five enteropathogenic E. coli from reared rabbits and 32 from wild rabbits and hares were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST according to the Michigan State University EcMLST scheme. Isolates were differentiated into 37 sequence types (STs, which were grouped into 8 clonal complexes (CCs. The most common ST was ST140 (CC31, followed by ST238 and ST119 (CC17. MLST analysis revealed 22 novel STs. Phylogenetic analyses showed a heterogeneous distribution of STs into 3 clusters of genetically related strains. The genetic relationship among STs of different origin and the detection of new, as well as previously described STs as human pathogens, indicate a widespread distribution and adaptability of particular lineages to different hosts. These findings highlight the need for further research to improve the knowledge about E. coli populations colonising the gut of lagomorphs and their zoonotic potential.

  9. Visualization of pairwise and multilocus linkage disequilibrium structure using latent forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Mourad

    Full Text Available Linkage disequilibrium study represents a major issue in statistical genetics as it plays a fundamental role in gene mapping and helps us to learn more about human history. The linkage disequilibrium complex structure makes its exploratory data analysis essential yet challenging. Visualization methods, such as the triangular heat map implemented in Haploview, provide simple and useful tools to help understand complex genetic patterns, but remain insufficient to fully describe them. Probabilistic graphical models have been widely recognized as a powerful formalism allowing a concise and accurate modeling of dependences between variables. In this paper, we propose a method for short-range, long-range and chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium visualization using forests of hierarchical latent class models. Thanks to its hierarchical nature, our method is shown to provide a compact view of both pairwise and multilocus linkage disequilibrium spatial structures for the geneticist. Besides, a multilocus linkage disequilibrium measure has been designed to evaluate linkage disequilibrium in hierarchy clusters. To learn the proposed model, a new scalable algorithm is presented. It constrains the dependence scope, relying on physical positions, and is able to deal with more than one hundred thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms. The proposed algorithm is fast and does not require phase genotypic data.

  10. [Phylogeny and divergence time estimation of Schizothoracinae fishes in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelhan, Haysa; Guo, Yan; Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Ma, Yanwu

    2014-10-01

    Based on combined data of mitochondrial COI, ND4 and 16S RNA genes, molecular phylogeny of 4 genera, 10 species or subspecies of Schizothoracinae fishes distributed in Xinjiang were analyzed. The molecular clock was calibrated by divergence time of Cyprininae and geological segregation event between the upper Yellow River and Qinghai Lake. Divergence time of Schizothoracinae fishes was calculated, and its relationship with the major geological events and the climate changes in surrounding areas of Tarim Basin was discussed. The results showed that genus Aspiorhynchus did not form an independent clade, but clustered with Schizothorax biddulphi and S. irregularis. Kimura 2-parameter model was used to calculate the genetic distance of COI gene, the genetic distance between genus Aspiorhynchus and Schizothorax did not reach genus level, and Aspiorhynchus laticeps might be a specialized species of genus Schizothorax. Cluster analysis showed a different result with morphological classification method, and it did not support the subgenus division of Schizothorax fishes. Divergence of two groups of primitive Schizothoracinae (8.18Ma) and divergence of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii and Diptychus maculates (7.67Ma) occurred in late Miocene, which might be related with the separation of Kunlun Mountain and north Tianshan Mountain River system that was caused by the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Tianshan Mountain, and the aridification of Tarim Basin. The terrain of Tarim Basin that was affected by Quaternary Himalayan movement was high in west but low in east, as a result, Lop Nor became the center of surrounding mountain rivers in Tarim Basin, which shaped the distribution pattern of genus Schizothorax.

  11. Comparative genomic assessment of Multi-Locus Sequence Typing: rapid accumulation of genomic heterogeneity among clonal isolates of Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nash John HE

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST has emerged as a leading molecular typing method owing to its high ability to discriminate among bacterial isolates, the relative ease with which data acquisition and analysis can be standardized, and the high portability of the resulting sequence data. While MLST has been successfully applied to the study of the population structure for a number of different bacterial species, it has also provided compelling evidence for high rates of recombination in some species. We have analyzed a set of Campylobacter jejuni strains using MLST and Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH on a full-genome microarray in order to determine whether recombination and high levels of genomic mosaicism adversely affect the inference of strain relationships based on the analysis of a restricted number of genetic loci. Results Our results indicate that, in general, there is significant concordance between strain relationships established by MLST and those based on shared gene content as established by CGH. While MLST has significant predictive power with respect to overall genome similarity of isolates, we also found evidence for significant differences in genomic content among strains that would otherwise appear to be highly related based on their MLST profiles. Conclusion The extensive genomic mosaicism between closely related strains has important implications in the context of establishing strain to strain relationships because it suggests that the exact gene content of strains, and by extension their phenotype, is less likely to be "predicted" based on a small number of typing loci. This in turn suggests that a greater emphasis should be placed on analyzing genes of clinical interest as we forge ahead with the next generation of molecular typing methods.

  12. Diversification of Angraecum (Orchidaceae, Vandeae) in Madagascar: Revised Phylogeny Reveals Species Accumulation through Time Rather than Rapid Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriananjamanantsoa, Herinandrianina N; Engberg, Shannon; Louis, Edward E; Brouillet, Luc

    Angraecum is the largest genus of subtribe Angraecinae (Orchidaceae) with about 221 species. Madagascar is the center of the diversity for the genus with ca. 142 species, of which 90% are endemic. The great morphological diversity associated with species diversification in the genus on the island of Madagascar offers valuable insights for macroevolutionary studies. Phylogenies of the Angraecinae have been published but a lack of taxon and character sampling and their limited taxonomic resolution limit their uses for macroevolutionary studies. We present a new phylogeny of Angraecum based on chloroplast sequence data (matk, rps16, trnL), nuclear ribosomal (ITS2) and 39 morphological characters from 194 Angraecinae species of which 69 were newly sampled. Using this phylogeny, we evaluated the monophyly of the sections of Angraecum as defined by Garay and investigated the patterns of species diversification within the genus. We used maximum parsimony and bayesian analyses to generate phylogenetic trees and dated divergence times of the phylogeny. We analyzed diversification patterns within Angraecinae and Angraecum with an emphasis on four floral characters (flower color, flower size, labellum position, spur length) using macroevolutionary models to evaluate which characters or character states are associated with speciation rates, and inferred ancestral states of these characters. The phylogenetic analysis showed the polyphyly of Angraecum sensu lato and of all Angraecum sections except sect. Hadrangis, and that morphology can be consistent with the phylogeny. It appeared that the characters (flower color, flower size, spur length) formerly used by many authors to delineate Angraecum groups were insufficient to do so. However, the newly described character, position of the labellum (uppermost and lowermost), was the main character delimiting clades within a monophyletic Angraecum sensu stricto. This character also appeared to be associated with speciation rates in

  13. Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C Bagley

    Full Text Available Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including 'non-adaptive radiations' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the

  14. Multilocus Sequence Analysis and rpoB Sequencing of Mycobacterium abscessus (Sensu Lato) Strains▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheras, Edouard; Roux, Anne-Laure; Bastian, Sylvaine; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Palaci, Moises; Sivadon-Tardy, Valérie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Pfyffer, Gaby; Bodmer, Thomas; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Heym, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium bolletii, and Mycobacterium massiliense (Mycobacterium abscessus sensu lato) are closely related species that currently are identified by the sequencing of the rpoB gene. However, recent studies show that rpoB sequencing alone is insufficient to discriminate between these species, and some authors have questioned their current taxonomic classification. We studied here a large collection of M. abscessus (sensu lato) strains by partial rpoB sequencing (752 bp) and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The final MLSA scheme developed was based on the partial sequences of eight housekeeping genes: argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pgm, pta, and purH. The strains studied included the three type strains (M. abscessus CIP 104536T, M. massiliense CIP 108297T, and M. bolletii CIP 108541T) and 120 isolates recovered between 1997 and 2007 in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Brazil. The rpoB phylogenetic tree confirmed the existence of three main clusters, each comprising the type strain of one species. However, divergence values between the M. massiliense and M. bolletii clusters all were below 3% and between the M. abscessus and M. massiliense clusters were from 2.66 to 3.59%. The tree produced using the concatenated MLSA gene sequences (4,071 bp) also showed three main clusters, each comprising the type strain of one species. The M. abscessus cluster had a bootstrap value of 100% and was mostly compact. Bootstrap values for the M. massiliense and M. bolletii branches were much lower (71 and 61%, respectively), with the M. massiliense cluster having a fuzzy aspect. Mean (range) divergence values were 2.17% (1.13 to 2.58%) between the M. abscessus and M. massiliense clusters, 2.37% (1.5 to 2.85%) between the M. abscessus and M. bolletii clusters, and 2.28% (0.86 to 2.68%) between the M. massiliense and M. bolletii clusters. Adding the rpoB sequence to the MLSA-concatenated sequence (total sequence, 4,823 bp) had little effect on the clustering

  15. Multilocus sequence analysis and rpoB sequencing of Mycobacterium abscessus (sensu lato) strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheras, Edouard; Roux, Anne-Laure; Bastian, Sylvaine; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Palaci, Moises; Sivadon-Tardy, Valérie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Pfyffer, Gaby; Bodmer, Thomas; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Heym, Beate

    2011-02-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium bolletii, and Mycobacterium massiliense (Mycobacterium abscessus sensu lato) are closely related species that currently are identified by the sequencing of the rpoB gene. However, recent studies show that rpoB sequencing alone is insufficient to discriminate between these species, and some authors have questioned their current taxonomic classification. We studied here a large collection of M. abscessus (sensu lato) strains by partial rpoB sequencing (752 bp) and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The final MLSA scheme developed was based on the partial sequences of eight housekeeping genes: argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pgm, pta, and purH. The strains studied included the three type strains (M. abscessus CIP 104536(T), M. massiliense CIP 108297(T), and M. bolletii CIP 108541(T)) and 120 isolates recovered between 1997 and 2007 in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Brazil. The rpoB phylogenetic tree confirmed the existence of three main clusters, each comprising the type strain of one species. However, divergence values between the M. massiliense and M. bolletii clusters all were below 3% and between the M. abscessus and M. massiliense clusters were from 2.66 to 3.59%. The tree produced using the concatenated MLSA gene sequences (4,071 bp) also showed three main clusters, each comprising the type strain of one species. The M. abscessus cluster had a bootstrap value of 100% and was mostly compact. Bootstrap values for the M. massiliense and M. bolletii branches were much lower (71 and 61%, respectively), with the M. massiliense cluster having a fuzzy aspect. Mean (range) divergence values were 2.17% (1.13 to 2.58%) between the M. abscessus and M. massiliense clusters, 2.37% (1.5 to 2.85%) between the M. abscessus and M. bolletii clusters, and 2.28% (0.86 to 2.68%) between the M. massiliense and M. bolletii clusters. Adding the rpoB sequence to the MLSA-concatenated sequence (total sequence, 4,823 bp) had little effect on the

  16. Apical groove type and molecular phylogeny suggests reclassification of Cochlodinium geminatum as Polykrikos geminatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Dajun; Huang, Liangmin; Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally Cocholodinium and Gymnodinium sensu lato clade are distinguished based on the cingulum turn number, which has been increasingly recognized to be inadequate for Gymnodiniales genus classification. This has been improved by the combination of the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny, which has led to the erection of several new genera (Takayama, Akashiwo, Karenia, and Karlodinium). Taking the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny combined approach, we reexamined the historically taxonomically uncertain species Cochlodinium geminatum that formed massive blooms in Pearl River Estuary, China, in recent years. Samples were collected from a bloom in 2011 for morphological, characteristic pigment, and molecular analyses. We found that the cingulum in this species wraps around the cell body about 1.2 turns on average but can appear under the light microscopy to be >1.5 turns after the cells have been preserved. The shape of its apical groove, however, was stably an open-ended anticlockwise loop of kidney bean shape, similar to that of Polykrikos. Furthermore, the molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA gene cistron we obtained in this study also consistently placed this species closest to Polykrikos within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade and set it far separated from the clade of Cochlodinium. These results suggest that this species should be transferred to Polykrikos as Polykrikos geminatum. Our results reiterate the need to use the combination of apical groove morphology and molecular phylogeny for the classification of species within the genus of Cochlodinium and other Gymnodiniales lineages.

  17. Apical groove type and molecular phylogeny suggests reclassification of Cochlodinium geminatum as Polykrikos geminatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajun Qiu

    Full Text Available Traditionally Cocholodinium and Gymnodinium sensu lato clade are distinguished based on the cingulum turn number, which has been increasingly recognized to be inadequate for Gymnodiniales genus classification. This has been improved by the combination of the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny, which has led to the erection of several new genera (Takayama, Akashiwo, Karenia, and Karlodinium. Taking the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny combined approach, we reexamined the historically taxonomically uncertain species Cochlodinium geminatum that formed massive blooms in Pearl River Estuary, China, in recent years. Samples were collected from a bloom in 2011 for morphological, characteristic pigment, and molecular analyses. We found that the cingulum in this species wraps around the cell body about 1.2 turns on average but can appear under the light microscopy to be >1.5 turns after the cells have been preserved. The shape of its apical groove, however, was stably an open-ended anticlockwise loop of kidney bean shape, similar to that of Polykrikos. Furthermore, the molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA gene cistron we obtained in this study also consistently placed this species closest to Polykrikos within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade and set it far separated from the clade of Cochlodinium. These results suggest that this species should be transferred to Polykrikos as Polykrikos geminatum. Our results reiterate the need to use the combination of apical groove morphology and molecular phylogeny for the classification of species within the genus of Cochlodinium and other Gymnodiniales lineages.

  18. Taxonomy, phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus multilocularis: From fundamental knowledge to health ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Gottstein, Bruno; Saarma, Urmas; Millon, Laurence

    2015-10-30

    Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the most severe parasitic diseases in humans and represents one of the 17 neglected diseases prioritised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2012. Considering the major medical and veterinary importance of this parasite, the phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus is of considerable importance; yet, despite numerous efforts with both mitochondrial and nuclear data, it has remained unresolved. The genus is clearly complex, and this is one of the reasons for the incomplete understanding of its taxonomy. Although taxonomic studies have recognised E. multilocularis as a separate entity from the Echinococcus granulosus complex and other members of the genus, it would be premature to draw firm conclusions about the taxonomy of the genus before the phylogeny of the whole genus is fully resolved. The recent sequencing of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus genomes opens new possibilities for performing in-depth phylogenetic analyses. In addition, whole genome data provide the possibility of inferring phylogenies based on a large number of functional genes, i.e. genes that trace the evolutionary history of adaptation in E. multilocularis and other members of the genus. Moreover, genomic data open new avenues for studying the molecular epidemiology of E. multilocularis: genotyping studies with larger panels of genetic markers allow the genetic diversity and spatial dynamics of parasites to be evaluated with greater precision. There is an urgent need for international coordination of genotyping of E. multilocularis isolates from animals and human patients. This could be fundamental for a better understanding of the transmission of alveolar echinococcosis and for designing efficient healthcare strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. ITS2 sequence-structure phylogeny reveals diverse endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi on poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong-Hui; Gao, Qian; Sun, Xiaoming; Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Hongchang

    2018-04-01

    For matching the new fungal nomenclature to abolish pleomorphic names for a fungus, a genus Pseudocercospora s. str. was suggested to host holomorphic Pseudocercosproa fungi. But the Pseudocercosproa fungi need extra phylogenetic loci to clarify their taxonomy and diversity for their existing and coming species. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) secondary structures have been promising in charactering species phylogeny in plants, animals and fungi. In present study, a conserved model of ITS2 secondary structures was confirmed on fungi in Pseudocercospora s. str. genus using RNAshape program. The model has a typical eukaryotic four-helix ITS2 secondary structure. But a single U base occurred in conserved motif of U-U mismatch in Helix 2, and a UG emerged in UGGU motif in Helix 3 to Pseudocercospora fungi. The phylogeny analyses based on the ITS2 sequence-secondary structures with compensatory base change characterizations are able to delimit more species for Pseudocercospora s. str. than phylogenic inferences of traditional multi-loci alignments do. The model was employed to explore the diversity of endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi in poplar trees. The analysis results also showed that endophytic Pseudocercospora fungi were diverse in species and evolved a specific lineage in poplar trees. This work suggested that ITS2 sequence-structures could become as additionally significant loci for species phylogenetic and taxonomic studies on Pseudocerospora fungi, and that Pseudocercospora endophytes could be important roles to Pseudocercospora fungi's evolution and function in ecology.

  20. A Molecular Phylogeny of the Lichen Genus Lecidella Focusing on Species from Mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    Full Text Available The phylogeny of Lecidella species is studied, based on a 7-locus data set using ML and Bayesian analyses. Phylogenetic relationships among 43 individuals representing 11 Lecidella species, mainly from mainland China, were included in the analyses and phenotypical characters studied and mapped onto the phylogeny. The Lecidella species fall into three major clades, which are proposed here as three informal groups-Lecidella stigmatea group, L. elaeochroma group and L. enteroleucella group, each of them strongly supported. Our phylogenetic analyses support traditional species delimitation based on morphological and chemical traits in most but not all cases. Individuals considered as belonging to the same species based on phenotypic characters were found to be paraphyletic, indicating that cryptic species might be hidden under these names (e.g. L. carpathica and L. effugiens. Potentially undescribed species were found within the phenotypically circumscribed species L. elaeochroma and L. stigmatea. Additional sampling across a broader taxonomic and geographic scale will be crucial to fully resolving the taxonomy in this cosmopolitan genus.

  1. Morphological characters are compatible with mitogenomic data in resolving the phylogeny of nymphalid butterflies (lepidoptera: papilionoidea: nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yun-Liang; Hao, Jia-Sheng; Yang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Nymphalidae is the largest family of butterflies with their phylogenetic relationships not adequately approached to date. The mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of 11 new nymphalid species were reported and a comparative mitogenomic analysis was conducted together with other 22 available nymphalid mitogenomes. A phylogenetic analysis of the 33 species from all 13 currently recognized nymphalid subfamilies was done based on the mitogenomic data set with three Lycaenidae species as the outgroups. The mitogenome comparison showed that the eleven new mitogenomes were similar with those of other butterflies in gene content and order. The reconstructed phylogenetic trees reveal that the nymphalids are made up of five major clades (the nymphaline, heliconiine, satyrine, danaine and libytheine clades), with sister relationship between subfamilies Cyrestinae and Biblidinae, and most likely between subfamilies Morphinae and Satyrinae. This whole mitogenome-based phylogeny is generally congruent with those of former studies based on nuclear-gene and mitogenomic analyses, but differs considerably from the result of morphological cladistic analysis, such as the basal position of Libytheinae in morpho-phylogeny is not confirmed in molecular studies. However, we found that the mitogenomic phylogeny established herein is compatible with selected morphological characters (including developmental and adult morpho-characters).

  2. Signatures of seaway closures and founder dispersal in the phylogeny of a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Peter R; Hamilton, Healy; Matthee, Conrad A; Barker, Nigel P

    2007-08-15

    cladogenesis was associated with the final closure of this seaway. Although two other divergence events in the phylogeny could potentially have arisen as a result of the closures of the Indonesian and Tethyan seaways, respectively, the timing of the majority of bifurcations in the phylogeny differed significantly from the dates of vicariance events suggested in the literature. Moreover, several divergence events that resulted in the same distribution patterns of lineages at different positions in the phylogeny did not occur contemporaneously. For that reason, they cannot be the result of the same vicariance events, a result that is independent of molecular dating. Interpretations of the cladogenetic events in the seahorse phylogeny based purely on vicariance biogeographic hypotheses are problematic. We conclude that the evolution of the circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage was strongly influenced by founder dispersal, and suggest that this mode of speciation may be particularly important in marine organisms that lack a pelagic dispersal phase and instead disperse by means of rafting.

  3. Signatures of seaway closures and founder dispersal in the phylogeny of a circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage

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    Matthee Conrad A

    2007-08-01

    diverge. This suggests that their cladogenesis was associated with the final closure of this seaway. Although two other divergence events in the phylogeny could potentially have arisen as a result of the closures of the Indonesian and Tethyan seaways, respectively, the timing of the majority of bifurcations in the phylogeny differed significantly from the dates of vicariance events suggested in the literature. Moreover, several divergence events that resulted in the same distribution patterns of lineages at different positions in the phylogeny did not occur contemporaneously. For that reason, they cannot be the result of the same vicariance events, a result that is independent of molecular dating. Conclusion Interpretations of the cladogenetic events in the seahorse phylogeny based purely on vicariance biogeographic hypotheses are problematic. We conclude that the evolution of the circumglobally distributed seahorse lineage was strongly influenced by founder dispersal, and suggest that this mode of speciation may be particularly important in marine organisms that lack a pelagic dispersal phase and instead disperse by means of rafting.

  4. Taxonomic evaluation of putative Streptomyces scabiei strains held in the ARS (NRRL) Culture Collection using multi-locus sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-locus sequence analysis has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for identification of Streptomyces species and was previously applied to phylogenetically differentiate the type strains of species pathogenic on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). The ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) contains 43 str...

  5. Genotypic characterization of Salmonella by multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torpdahl, Mia; Skov, Marianne N.; Sandvang, Dorthe

    2005-01-01

    subspecies enterica isolates. A total of 25 serotypes were investigated that had been isolated from humans or veterinary sources in Denmark between 1995 and 2001. All isolates were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and amplified fragment length...

  6. Bayesian methods outperform parsimony but at the expense of precision in the estimation of phylogeny from discrete morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Joseph E; Puttick, Mark N; Parry, Luke; Tanner, Alastair R; Tarver, James E; Fleming, James; Pisani, Davide; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2016-04-01

    Different analytical methods can yield competing interpretations of evolutionary history and, currently, there is no definitive method for phylogenetic reconstruction using morphological data. Parsimony has been the primary method for analysing morphological data, but there has been a resurgence of interest in the likelihood-based Mk-model. Here, we test the performance of the Bayesian implementation of the Mk-model relative to both equal and implied-weight implementations of parsimony. Using simulated morphological data, we demonstrate that the Mk-model outperforms equal-weights parsimony in terms of topological accuracy, and implied-weights performs the most poorly. However, the Mk-model produces phylogenies that have less resolution than parsimony methods. This difference in the accuracy and precision of parsimony and Bayesian approaches to topology estimation needs to be considered when selecting a method for phylogeny reconstruction. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. 18S rDNA phylogeny of lamproderma and allied genera (Stemonitales, Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa.

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    Anna Maria Fiore-Donno

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of the slime-mould genus Lamproderma (Myxomycetes, Amoebozoa challenges traditional taxonomy: although it displays the typical characters of the order Stemonitales, it appears to be sister to Physarales. This study provides a small subunit (18S or SSU ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogeny of Lamproderma and its allies, with new sequences from 49 specimens in 12 genera. We found that the order Stemonitales and Lamproderma were both ancestral to Physarales and that Lamproderma constitutes several clades intermingled with species of Diacheopsis, Colloderma and Elaeomyxa. We suggest that these genera may have evolved from Lamproderma by multiple losses of fruiting body stalks and that many taxonomic revisions are needed. We found such high genetic diversity within three Lamproderma species that they probably consist of clusters of sibling species. We discuss the contrasts between genetic and morphological divergence and implications for the morphospecies concept, highlighting the phylogenetically most reliable morphological characters and pointing to others that have been overestimated. In addition, we showed that the first part (~600 bases of the SSU rDNA gene is a valuable tool for phylogeny in Myxomycetes, since it displayed sufficient variability to distinguish closely related taxa and never failed to cluster together specimens considered of the same species.

  8. Phylogeny of Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta): evidence from plastid and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Goia de M; Costa, Emmanuelle da S; de Jesus, Priscila B; de Matos, João Carlos G; Caires, Taiara A; Oliveira, Mariana C; Oliveira, Eurico C; Xi, Zhenxiang; Nunes, José Marcos de C; Davis, Charles C

    2015-04-01

    Gracilariaceae are mostly pantropical red algae and include ~230 species in seven genera. Infrafamilial classification of the group has long been based on reproductive characters, but previous phylogenies have shown that traditionally circumscribed groups are not monophyletic. We performed phylogenetic analyses using two plastid (universal plastid amplicon and rbcL) and one mitochondrial (cox1) loci from a greatly expanded number of taxa to better assess generic relationships and understand patterns of character distributions. Our analyses produce the most well-supported phylogeny of the family to date, and indicate that key characteristics of spermatangia and cystocarp type do not delineate genera as commonly suggested. Our results further indicate that Hydropuntia is not monophyletic. Given their morphological overlap with closely related members of Gracilaria, we propose that Hydropuntia be synonymized with the former. Our results additionally expand the known ranges of several Gracilariaceae species to include Brazil. Lastly, we demonstrate that the recently described Gracilaria yoneshigueana should be synonymized as G. domingensis based on morphological and molecular characters. These results demonstrate the utility of DNA barcoding for understanding poorly known and fragmentary materials of cryptic red algae. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Phylogenomics resolves a spider backbone phylogeny and rejects a prevailing paradigm for orb web evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jason E; Garrison, Nicole L; Hamilton, Chris A; Godwin, Rebecca L; Hedin, Marshal; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2014-08-04

    Spiders represent an ancient predatory lineage known for their extraordinary biomaterials, including venoms and silks. These adaptations make spiders key arthropod predators in most terrestrial ecosystems. Despite ecological, biomedical, and biomaterial importance, relationships among major spider lineages remain unresolved or poorly supported. Current working hypotheses for a spider "backbone" phylogeny are largely based on morphological evidence, as most molecular markers currently employed are generally inadequate for resolving deeper-level relationships. We present here a phylogenomic analysis of spiders including taxa representing all major spider lineages. Our robust phylogenetic hypothesis recovers some fundamental and uncontroversial spider clades, but rejects the prevailing paradigm of a monophyletic Orbiculariae, the most diverse lineage, containing orb-weaving spiders. Based on our results, the orb web either evolved much earlier than previously hypothesized and is ancestral for a majority of spiders or else it has multiple independent origins, as hypothesized by precladistic authors. Cribellate deinopoid orb weavers that use mechanically adhesive silk are more closely related to a diverse clade of mostly webless spiders than to the araneoid orb-weaving spiders that use adhesive droplet silks. The fundamental shift in our understanding of spider phylogeny proposed here has broad implications for interpreting the evolution of spiders, their remarkable biomaterials, and a key extended phenotype--the spider web. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phylogeny with introgression in Habronattus jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc-Robert, Geneviève; Maddison, Wayne P

    2018-02-22

    Habronattus is a diverse clade of jumping spiders with complex courtship displays and repeated evolution of Y chromosomes. A well-resolved species phylogeny would provide an important framework to study these traits, but has not yet been achieved, in part because the few genes available in past studies gave conflicting signals. Such discordant gene trees could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) in recently diverged parts of the phylogeny, but there are indications that introgression could be a source of conflict. To infer Habronattus phylogeny and investigate the cause of gene tree discordance, we assembled transcriptomes for 34 Habronattus species and 2 outgroups. The concatenated 2.41 Mb of nuclear data (1877 loci) resolved phylogeny by Maximum Likelihood (ML) with high bootstrap support (95-100%) at most nodes, with some uncertainty surrounding the relationships of H. icenoglei, H. cambridgei, H. oregonensis, and Pellenes canadensis. Species tree analyses by ASTRAL and SVDQuartets gave almost completely congruent results. Several nodes in the ML phylogeny from 12.33 kb of mitochondrial data are incongruent with the nuclear phylogeny and indicate possible mitochondrial introgression: the internal relationships of the americanus and the coecatus groups, the relationship between the altanus, decorus, banksi, and americanus group, and between H. clypeatus and the coecatus group. To determine the relative contributions of ILS and introgression, we analyzed gene tree discordance for nuclear loci longer than 1 kb using Bayesian Concordance Analysis (BCA) for the americanus group (679 loci) and the VCCR clade (viridipes/clypeatus/coecatus/roberti groups) (517 loci) and found signals of introgression in both. Finally, we tested specifically for introgression in the concatenated nuclear matrix with Patterson's D statistics and D FOIL . We found nuclear introgression resulting in substantial admixture between americanus group species, between H. roberti

  11. Defining and Evaluating a Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Genome-Wide Typing of Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletz, Stefan; Janezic, Sandra; Harmsen, Dag; Rupnik, Maja; Mellmann, Alexander

    2018-06-01

    Clostridium difficile , recently renamed Clostridioides difficile , is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated nosocomial gastrointestinal infections worldwide. To differentiate endogenous infections and transmission events, highly discriminatory subtyping is necessary. Today, methods based on whole-genome sequencing data are increasingly used to subtype bacterial pathogens; however, frequently a standardized methodology and typing nomenclature are missing. Here we report a core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) approach developed for C. difficile Initially, we determined the breadth of the C. difficile population based on all available MLST sequence types with Bayesian inference (BAPS). The resulting BAPS partitions were used in combination with C. difficile clade information to select representative isolates that were subsequently used to define cgMLST target genes. Finally, we evaluated the novel cgMLST scheme with genomes from 3,025 isolates. BAPS grouping ( n = 6 groups) together with the clade information led to a total of 11 representative isolates that were included for cgMLST definition and resulted in 2,270 cgMLST genes that were present in all isolates. Overall, 2,184 to 2,268 cgMLST targets were detected in the genome sequences of 70 outbreak-associated and reference strains, and on average 99.3% cgMLST targets (1,116 to 2,270 targets) were present in 2,954 genomes downloaded from the NCBI database, underlining the representativeness of the cgMLST scheme. Moreover, reanalyzing different cluster scenarios with cgMLST were concordant to published single nucleotide variant analyses. In conclusion, the novel cgMLST is representative for the whole C. difficile population, is highly discriminatory in outbreak situations, and provides a unique nomenclature facilitating interlaboratory exchange. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Integration of Multilocus Genetic Risk into the Default Mode Network Longitudinal Trajectory during the Alzheimer's Disease Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fan; Shu, Hao; Ye, Qing; Xie, Chunming; Yuan, Baoyu; Zhang, Zhijun; Bai, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the cognitive significance of the changes in default mode network (DMN) during the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the genetic basis that drives the alteration. Eighty-seven subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 131 healthy controls (HC) were employed at baseline, and they had the genetic risk scores (GRS) based on the GWAS-validated AD-related top loci. Eleven MCIs who converted to AD (c-MCIs), 32 subjects who remained stable (nc-MCIs), and 56 HCs participated in the follow-up analyses after an average of 35 months. Decreased functional connectivity (FC) within temporal cortex was identified for MCIs at baseline, which was partially determined by the GRS; moreover, compensations may occur within the frontal-parietal brain to maintain relatively intact cognition. During the follow-ups, c-MCIs exhibited more FC declines within the prefrontal-parietal lobes and parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampus than the HCs and nc-MCIs. The GRS did not significantly vary among the three groups, whereas associations were identified at risky alleles and FC declines in all AD spectra. Interestingly, the influence of APOEɛ4 varied as the disease progressed; APOEɛ4 was associated with longitudinal FC decreases only for HCs in the single variance-based analyses and deteriorated DMN integration in nc-MCIs by combining the effects of other loci. However, the GRS without APOEɛ4 predicted FC decline for converters. It is suggested that the integration of multilocus genetic risk predicted the longitudinal trajectory of DMN and may be used as a clinical strategy to track AD progression.

  13. Re-appraisal of the phylogeny and fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for the analysis of the Competibacteraceae in wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Nittami, Tadashi; Kanai, Eri

    2015-01-01

    to be of potential commercial interest for bioplastic production. In this study we have updated the 16S rRNA based phylogeny of the Competibacter- and the Plasticicumulans-lineages. The former is delineated by 13 clades including 2 described genera; “Ca. Competibacter” and “Ca. Contendobacter”. The oligonucleotide...

  14. Selecting Question-Specific Genes to Reduce Incongruence in Phylogenomics: A Case Study of Jawed Vertebrate Backbone Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Yun; Liang, Dan; Zhang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Incongruence between different phylogenomic analyses is the main challenge faced by phylogeneticists in the genomic era. To reduce incongruence, phylogenomic studies normally adopt some data filtering approaches, such as reducing missing data or using slowly evolving genes, to improve the signal quality of data. Here, we assembled a phylogenomic data set of 58 jawed vertebrate taxa and 4682 genes to investigate the backbone phylogeny of jawed vertebrates under both concatenation and coalescent-based frameworks. To evaluate the efficiency of extracting phylogenetic signals among different data filtering methods, we chose six highly intractable internodes within the backbone phylogeny of jawed vertebrates as our test questions. We found that our phylogenomic data set exhibits substantial conflicting signal among genes for these questions. Our analyses showed that non-specific data sets that are generated without bias toward specific questions are not sufficient to produce consistent results when there are several difficult nodes within a phylogeny. Moreover, phylogenetic accuracy based on non-specific data is considerably influenced by the size of data and the choice of tree inference methods. To address such incongruences, we selected genes that resolve a given internode but not the entire phylogeny. Notably, not only can this strategy yield correct relationships for the question, but it also reduces inconsistency associated with data sizes and inference methods. Our study highlights the importance of gene selection in phylogenomic analyses, suggesting that simply using a large amount of data cannot guarantee correct results. Constructing question-specific data sets may be more powerful for resolving problematic nodes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Data partitions, Bayesian analysis and phylogeny of the zygomycetous fungal family Mortierellaceae, inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

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    Tamás Petkovits

    Full Text Available Although the fungal order Mortierellales constitutes one of the largest classical groups of Zygomycota, its phylogeny is poorly understood and no modern taxonomic revision is currently available. In the present study, 90 type and reference strains were used to infer a comprehensive phylogeny of Mortierellales from the sequence data of the complete ITS region and the LSU and SSU genes with a special attention to the monophyly of the genus Mortierella. Out of 15 alternative partitioning strategies compared on the basis of Bayes factors, the one with the highest number of partitions was found optimal (with mixture models yielding the best likelihood and tree length values, implying a higher complexity of evolutionary patterns in the ribosomal genes than generally recognized. Modeling the ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2, loci separately improved model fit significantly as compared to treating all as one and the same partition. Further, within-partition mixture models suggests that not only the SSU, LSU and ITS regions evolve under qualitatively and/or quantitatively different constraints, but that significant heterogeneity can be found within these loci also. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genus Mortierella is paraphyletic with respect to the genera Dissophora, Gamsiella and Lobosporangium and the resulting phylogeny contradict previous, morphology-based sectional classification of Mortierella. Based on tree structure and phenotypic traits, we recognize 12 major clades, for which we attempt to summarize phenotypic similarities. M. longicollis is closely related to the outgroup taxon Rhizopus oryzae, suggesting that it belongs to the Mucorales. Our results demonstrate that traits used in previous classifications of the Mortierellales are highly homoplastic and that the Mortierellales is in a need of a reclassification, where new, phylogenetically informative phenotypic traits should be identified, with molecular phylogenies playing a decisive role.

  16. Addictive behaviors and addiction-prone personality traits: associations with a dopamine multilocus genetic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline; Loxton, Natalie J

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reward-related genetic risk for addictive behaviors in a healthy community sample (n=217) of men and women. We tested a mediation model predicting that a quantitative multilocus genetic profile score - reflecting the additive effects of alleles known to confer relatively increased dopamine signaling in the ventral striatum - would relate positively to a composite measure of addictive behaviors, and that this association would be mediated by personality traits consistently associated with addiction disorders. Our model was strongly supported by the data, and accounted for 24% of the variance in addictive behaviors. These data suggest that brain reward processes tend to exert their influence on addiction risk by their role in the development of relatively stable personality traits associated with addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Comparison of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Fish and Bovine using Multilocus Sequence Typing

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    ANGELA MARIANA LUSIASTUTI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing (MLST has greater utility for determining the recent ancestral lineage and the relatedness of individual strains. Group B streptococci (GBS is one of the major causes of subclinical mastitis of dairy cattle in several countries. GBS also sporadically causes epizootic infections in fish. The aim of this study was to compare the evolutionary lineage of fish and bovine isolates in relation to the S. agalactiae global population as a whole by comparing the MLST profiles. Twenty S. agalactiae isolates were obtained from dairy cattle and fish. PCR products were amplified with seven different oligonucleotide primer pairs designed from the NEM316 GBS genome sequence. Clone complexes demonstrated that bovine and fish isolates were separate populations. These findings lead us to conclude that fish S. agalactiae is not a zoonotic agent for bovine. MLST could help clarify the emergence of pathogenic clones and to decide whether the host acts as a reservoir for another pathogenic lineage.

  18. A novel HURRAH protocol reveals high numbers of monomorphic MHC class II loci and two asymmetric multi-locus haplotypes in the Père David's deer.

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    Qiu-Hong Wan

    Full Text Available The Père David's deer is a highly inbred, but recovered, species, making it interesting to consider their adaptive molecular evolution from an immunological perspective. Prior to this study, genomic sequencing was the only method for isolating all functional MHC genes within a certain species. Here, we report a novel protocol for isolating MHC class II loci from a species, and its use to investigate the adaptive evolution of this endangered deer at the level of multi-locus haplotypes. This protocol was designated "HURRAH" based on its various steps and used to estimate the total number of MHC class II loci. We confirmed the validity of this novel protocol in the giant panda and then used it to examine the Père David's deer. Our results revealed that the Père David's deer possesses nine MHC class II loci and therefore has more functional MHC class II loci than the eight genome-sequenced mammals for which full MHC data are currently available. This could potentially account at least in part for the strong survival ability of this species in the face of severe bottlenecking. The results from the HURRAH protocol also revealed that: (1 All of the identified MHC class II loci were monomorphic at their antigen-binding regions, although DRA was dimorphic at its cytoplasmic tail; and (2 these genes constituted two asymmetric functional MHC class II multi-locus haplotypes: DRA1*01 ∼ DRB1 ∼ DRB3 ∼ DQA1 ∼ DQB2 (H1 and DRA1*02 ∼ DRB2 ∼ DRB4 ∼ DQA2 ∼ DQB1 (H2. The latter finding indicates that the current members of the deer species have lost the powerful ancestral MHC class II haplotypes of nine or more loci, and have instead fixed two relatively weak haplotypes containing five genes. As a result, the Père David's deer are currently at risk for increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens.

  19. Phylogenies support out-of-equilibrium models of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceau, Marc; Lambert, Amaury; Morlon, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    There is a long tradition in ecology of studying models of biodiversity at equilibrium. These models, including the influential Neutral Theory of Biodiversity, have been successful at predicting major macroecological patterns, such as species abundance distributions. But they have failed to predict macroevolutionary patterns, such as those captured in phylogenetic trees. Here, we develop a model of biodiversity in which all individuals have identical demographic rates, metacommunity size is allowed to vary stochastically according to population dynamics, and speciation arises naturally from the accumulation of point mutations. We show that this model generates phylogenies matching those observed in nature if the metacommunity is out of equilibrium. We develop a likelihood inference framework that allows fitting our model to empirical phylogenies, and apply this framework to various mammalian families. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that biodiversity dynamics are out of equilibrium. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Whole genome association mapping by incompatibilities and local perfect phylogenies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas; Besenbacher, Søren; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    2006-01-01

    around each marker that is compatible with a single phylogenetic tree. This perfect phylogenetic tree is treated as a decision tree for determining disease status, and scored by its accuracy as a decision tree. The rationale for this is that the perfect phylogeny near a disease affecting mutation should...... a fast method for accurate localisation of disease causing variants in high density case-control association mapping experiments with large numbers of cases and controls. The method searches for significant clustering of case chromosomes in the "perfect" phylogenetic tree defined by the largest region...... provide more information about the affected/unaffected classification than random trees. If regions of compatibility contain few markers, due to e.g. large marker spacing, the algorithm can allow the inclusion of incompatibility markers in order to enlarge the regions prior to estimating their phylogeny...

  1. Live phylogeny with polytomies: Finding the most compact parsimonious trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamichail, D; Huang, A; Kennedy, E; Ott, J-L; Miller, A; Papamichail, G

    2017-08-01

    Construction of phylogenetic trees has traditionally focused on binary trees where all species appear on leaves, a problem for which numerous efficient solutions have been developed. Certain application domains though, such as viral evolution and transmission, paleontology, linguistics, and phylogenetic stemmatics, often require phylogeny inference that involves placing input species on ancestral tree nodes (live phylogeny), and polytomies. These requirements, despite their prevalence, lead to computationally harder algorithmic solutions and have been sparsely examined in the literature to date. In this article we prove some unique properties of most parsimonious live phylogenetic trees with polytomies, and their mapping to traditional binary phylogenetic trees. We show that our problem reduces to finding the most compact parsimonious tree for n species, and describe a novel efficient algorithm to find such trees without resorting to exhaustive enumeration of all possible tree topologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution and polymorphism in the multilocus Levene model with no or weak epistasis.

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    Bürger, Reinhard

    2010-09-01

    Evolution and the maintenance of polymorphism under the multilocus Levene model with soft selection are studied. The number of loci and alleles, the number of demes, the linkage map, and the degree of dominance are arbitrary, but epistasis is absent or weak. We prove that, without epistasis and under mild, generic conditions, every trajectory converges to a stationary point in linkage equilibrium. Consequently, the equilibrium and stability structure can be determined by investigating the much simpler gene-frequency dynamics on the linkage-equilibrium manifold. For a haploid species an analogous result is shown. For weak epistasis, global convergence to quasi-linkage equilibrium is established. As an application, the maintenance of multilocus polymorphism is explored if the degree of dominance is intermediate at every locus and epistasis is absent or weak. If there are at least two demes, then arbitrarily many multiallelic loci can be maintained polymorphic at a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium. Because this holds for an open set of parameters, such equilibria are structurally stable. If the degree of dominance is not only intermediate but also deme independent, and loci are diallelic, an open set of parameters yielding an internal equilibrium exists only if the number of loci is strictly less than the number of demes. Otherwise, a fully polymorphic equilibrium exists only nongenerically, and if it exists, it consists of a manifold of equilibria. Its dimension is determined. In the absence of genotype-by-environment interaction, however, a manifold of equilibria occurs for an open set of parameters. In this case, the equilibrium structure is not robust to small deviations from no genotype-by-environment interaction. In a quantitative-genetic setting, the assumptions of no epistasis and intermediate dominance are equivalent to assuming that in every deme directional selection acts on a trait that is determined additively, i.e., by nonepistatic loci with

  3. Multi-locus estimates of population structure and migration in a fence lizard hybrid zone.

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    Adam D Leaché

    Full Text Available A hybrid zone between two species of lizards in the genus Sceloporus (S. cowlesi and S. tristichus on the Mogollon Rim in Arizona provides a unique opportunity to study the processes of lineage divergence and merging. This hybrid zone involves complex interactions between 2 morphologically and ecologically divergent subspecies, 3 chromosomal groups, and 4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA clades. The spatial patterns of divergence between morphology, chromosomes and mtDNA are discordant, and determining which of these character types (if any reflects the underlying population-level lineages that are of interest has remained impeded by character conflict. The focus of this study is to estimate the number of populations interacting in the hybrid zone using multi-locus nuclear data, and to then estimate the migration rates and divergence time between the inferred populations. Multi-locus estimates of population structure and gene flow were obtained from 12 anonymous nuclear loci sequenced for 93 specimens of Sceloporus. Population structure estimates support two populations, and this result is robust to changes to the prior probability distribution used in the Bayesian analysis and the use of spatially-explicit or non-spatial models. A coalescent analysis of population divergence suggests that gene flow is high between the two populations, and that the timing of divergence is restricted to the Pleistocene. The hybrid zone is more accurately described as involving two populations belonging to S. tristichus, and the presence of S. cowlesi mtDNA haplotypes in the hybrid zone is an anomaly resulting from mitochondrial introgression.

  4. Molecular phylogeny and morphological change in the Psittacula parakeets.

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    Groombridge, Jim J; Jones, Carl G; Nichols, Richard A; Carlton, Mark; Bruford, Michael W

    2004-04-01

    We reconstruct a phylogeny of the African and Asian Psittacula parakeets using approximately 800bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence to examine their evolutionary relationships in reference to their head plumage and major morphological tail innovations. Our phylogeny identifies three groups, whose distinctiveness is also apparent from their possession of three different head plumage characters: a neck ring, a distinctive colouration of the head, and a 'moustache'-shaped pattern that extends from the chin to the cheek. We examine the extent of sexual dimorphism in tail length across the phylogeny and reveal large differences between closely related forms. We apply a range of published avian cytochrome b substitution rates to our data, as an alternative to internal calibration of a molecular clock arising from incomplete paleontological information. An ancestral Psittacula form appears to have evolved during the late Miocene-early Pliocene (3.4-9.7MYA), a time when regional geological processes on the Asian continent may have promoted subsequent diversity at the species level, and many forms diverged relatively early on in the evolutionary history of Psittacula (between 2.5 and 7.7MYA). However, others, such as the derbyan and moustached parakeets, diverged as recently as 0.2MYA. Our phylogeny also suggests that the echo parakeet from Mauritius diverged from the Indian ringneck parakeet as opposed to the African ringneck, and may have done so relatively recently. The molecular results indicate support for a southwards radiation from India across the Indian Ocean to Mauritius, where the arrival-date of the echo parakeet appears consistent with the island's volcanic formation.

  5. Multilocus Bayesian Estimates of Intra-Oceanic Genetic Differentiation, Connectivity, and Admixture in Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L..

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    Brad L Smith

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius L. revealed significant differentiation among Mediterranean, North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. However, limitations in geographic sampling coverage, and the use of single loci, precluded an accurate placement of boundaries and of estimates of admixture. In this study, we present multilocus analyses of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within 10 nuclear genes to estimate population differentiation and admixture based on the characterization of 774 individuals representing North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Mediterranean swordfish populations. Pairwise FST values, AMOVA, PCoA, and Bayesian individual assignments support the differentiation of swordfish inhabiting these three basins, but not the current placement of the boundaries that separate them. Specifically, the range of the South Atlantic population extends beyond 5°N management boundary to 20°N-25°N from 45°W. Likewise the Mediterranean population extends beyond the current management boundary at the Strait of Gibraltar to approximately 10°W. Further, admixture zones, characterized by asymmetric contributions of adjacent populations within samples, are confined to the Northeast Atlantic. While South Atlantic and Mediterranean migrants were identified within these Northeast Atlantic admixture zones no North Atlantic migrants were identified respectively in these two neighboring basins. Owing to both, the characterization of larger number of loci and a more ample spatial sampling coverage, it was possible to provide a finer resolution of the boundaries separating Atlantic swordfish populations than previous studies. Finally, the patterns of population structure and admixture are discussed in the light of the reproductive biology, the known patterns of dispersal, and oceanographic features that may act as barriers to gene flow to Atlantic swordfish.

  6. Genetic Dissection of Maize Embryonic Callus Regenerative Capacity Using Multi-Locus Genome-Wide Association Studies

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    Langlang Ma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative capacity of the embryonic callus, a complex quantitative trait, is one of the main limiting factors for maize transformation. This trait was decomposed into five traits, namely, green callus rate (GCR, callus differentiating rate (CDR, callus plantlet number (CPN, callus rooting rate (CRR, and callus browning rate (CBR. To dissect the genetic foundation of maize transformation, in this study multi-locus genome-wide association studies (GWAS for the five traits were performed in a population of 144 inbred lines genotyped with 43,427 SNPs. Using the phenotypic values in three environments and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP values, as a result, a total of 127, 56, 160, and 130 significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs were identified by mrMLM, FASTmrEMMA, ISIS EM-BLASSO, and pLARmEB, respectively. Of these QTNs, 63 QTNs were commonly detected, including 15 across multiple environments and 58 across multiple methods. Allele distribution analysis showed that the proportion of superior alleles for 36 QTNs was <50% in 31 elite inbred lines. Meanwhile, these superior alleles had obviously additive effect on the regenerative capacity. This indicates that the regenerative capacity-related traits can be improved by proper integration of the superior alleles using marker-assisted selection. Moreover, a total of 40 candidate genes were found based on these common QTNs. Some annotated genes were previously reported to relate with auxin transport, cell fate, seed germination, or embryo development, especially, GRMZM2G108933 (WOX2 was found to promote maize transgenic embryonic callus regeneration. These identified candidate genes will contribute to a further understanding of the genetic foundation of maize embryonic callus regeneration.

  7. Molecular characterization and multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from captive red kangaroos (Macropus Rufus in Jiangsu province, China.

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    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common pathogen of microsporidian species infecting humans worldwide. Although E. bieneusi has been found in a variety of animal hosts, information on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos in China is limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos. A total of 61 fecal specimens (38 from red kangaroos and 23 from grey kangaroos were collected from Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo and Hongshan Kangaroo Breeding Research Base, Jiangsu province, China. Using the nested PCR amplification ITS gene of rRNA of E. bieneusi, totally 23.0% (14/61 of tested samples were PCR-positive with three genotypes (i.e. one known genotype, CHK1, and two novel genotypes, CSK1 and CSK2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7 and one minisatellite (MS4 revealed one, five, two, and one types at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, the two genotypes, CHK1 and CSK1, were clustered into a new group of unknown zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype CSK2 was clustered into a separate clade with PtEb and PtEbIX. To date, this is the first report on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive red kangaroos in Jiangsu province, China. Furthermore, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed in the E. bieneusi genotype and seven MLGs (MLG1-7 were found in red kangaroos. Our findings suggest that infected kangaroo may act as potential reservoirs of E. bieneusi and be source to transmit infections to other animal.

  8. Abundance and Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Vibrio Bacteria Associated with Diseased Elkhorn Coral (Acropora palmata) of the Florida Keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Keri M; Westrich, Jason R; Alabady, Magdy S; Edwards, Martinique L; Lipp, Erin K

    2018-01-15

    The critically endangered elkhorn coral ( Acropora palmata ) is affected by white pox disease (WPX) throughout the Florida Reef Tract and wider Caribbean. The bacterium Serratia marcescens was previously identified as one etiologic agent of WPX but is no longer consistently detected in contemporary outbreaks. It is now believed that multiple etiologic agents cause WPX; however, to date, no other potential pathogens have been thoroughly investigated. This study examined the association of Vibrio bacteria with WPX occurrence from August 2012 to 2014 at Looe Key Reef in the Florida Keys, USA. The concentration of cultivable Vibrio was consistently greater in WPX samples than in healthy samples. The abundance of Vibrio bacteria relative to total bacteria was four times higher in samples from WPX lesions than in adjacent apparently healthy regions of diseased corals based on quantitative PCR (qPCR). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was used to assess the diversity of 69 Vibrio isolates collected from diseased and apparently healthy A. palmata colonies and the surrounding seawater. Vibrio species with known pathogenicity to corals were detected in both apparently healthy and diseased samples. While the causative agent(s) of contemporary WPX outbreaks remains elusive, our results suggest that Vibrio spp. may be part of a nonspecific heterotrophic bacterial bloom rather than acting as primary pathogens. This study highlights the need for highly resolved temporal sampling in situ to further elucidate the role of Vibrio during WPX onset and progression. IMPORTANCE Coral diseases are increasing worldwide and are now considered a major contributor to coral reef decline. In particular, the Caribbean has been noted as a coral disease hot spot, owing to the dramatic loss of framework-building acroporid corals due to tissue loss diseases. The pathogenesis of contemporary white pox disease (WPX) outbreaks in Acropora palmata remains poorly understood. This study investigates the

  9. Comparison of multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella spp. identification in surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun Wei; Hao Huang, Kuan; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsien Lung; Tseng, Shao Feng; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chou Chiu, Yi; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important pathogens of waterborne diseases with outbreaks from contaminated water reported worldwide. In addition, Salmonella spp. can survive for long periods in aquatic environments. To realize genotypes and serovars of Salmonella in aquatic environments, we isolated the Salmonella strains by selective culture plates to identify the serovars of Salmonella by serological assay, and identify the genotypes by Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on the sequence data from University College Cork (UCC), respectively. The results show that 36 stream water samples (30.1%) and 18 drinking water samples (23.3%) were confirmed the existence of Salmonella using culture method combined PCR specific invA gene amplification. In this study, 24 cultured isolates of Salmonella from water samples were classified to fifteen Salmonella enterica serovars. In addition, we construct phylogenetic analysis using phylogenetic tree and Minimum spanning tree (MST) method to analyze the relationship of clinical, environmental, and geographical data. Phylogenetic tree showed that four main clusters and our strains can be distributed in all. The genotypes of isolates from stream water are more biodiversity while comparing the Salmonella strains genotypes from drinking water sources. According to MST data, we can found the positive correlation between serovars and genotypes of Salmonella. Previous studies revealed that the result of Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method can predict the serovars of Salmonella strain. Hence, we used the MLST data combined phylogenetic analysis to identify the serovars of Salmonella strain and achieved effectiveness. While using the geographical data combined phylogenetic analysis, the result showed that the dominant strains were existed in whole stream area in rainy season. Keywords: Salmonella spp., MLST, phylogenetic analysis, PFGE

  10. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Stable, Comparative Analyses of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Human Disease Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Alison J; Bray, James E; Jolley, Keith A; McCarthy, Noel D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2017-07-01

    Human campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli , remains a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in many countries, but the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis outbreaks remains poorly defined, largely due to limitations in the resolution and comparability of isolate characterization methods. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data enable the improvement of sequence-based typing approaches, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), by substantially increasing the number of loci examined. A core genome MLST (cgMLST) scheme defines a comprehensive set of those loci present in most members of a bacterial group, balancing very high resolution with comparability across the diversity of the group. Here we propose a set of 1,343 loci as a human campylobacteriosis cgMLST scheme (v1.0), the allelic profiles of which can be assigned to core genome sequence types. The 1,343 loci chosen were a subset of the 1,643 loci identified in the reannotation of the genome sequence of C. jejuni isolate NCTC 11168, chosen as being present in >95% of draft genomes of 2,472 representative United Kingdom campylobacteriosis isolates, comprising 2,207 (89.3%) C. jejuni isolates and 265 (10.7%) C. coli isolates. Validation of the cgMLST scheme was undertaken with 1,478 further high-quality draft genomes, containing 150 or fewer contiguous sequences, from disease isolate collections: 99.5% of these isolates contained ≥95% of the 1,343 cgMLST loci. In addition to the rapid and effective high-resolution analysis of large numbers of diverse isolates, the cgMLST scheme enabled the efficient identification of very closely related isolates from a well-defined single-source campylobacteriosis outbreak. Copyright © 2017 Cody et al.

  11. Correlating molecular phylogeny with venom apparatus occurrence in Panamic auger snails (Terebridae.

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    Mandë Holford

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Central to the discovery of neuroactive compounds produced by predatory marine snails of the superfamily Conoidea (cone snails, terebrids, and turrids is identifying those species with a venom apparatus. Previous analyses of western Pacific terebrid specimens has shown that some Terebridae groups have secondarily lost their venom apparatus. In order to efficiently characterize terebrid toxins, it is essential to devise a key for identifying which species have a venom apparatus. The findings presented here integrate molecular phylogeny and the evolution of character traits to infer the presence or absence of the venom apparatus in the Terebridae. Using a combined dataset of 156 western and 33 eastern Pacific terebrid samples, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on analyses of 16S, COI and 12S mitochondrial genes. The 33 eastern Pacific specimens analyzed represent four different species: Acus strigatus, Terebra argyosia, T. ornata, and T. cf. formosa. Anatomical analysis was congruent with molecular characters, confirming that species included in the clade Acus do not have a venom apparatus, while those in the clade Terebra do. Discovery of the association between terebrid molecular phylogeny and the occurrence of a venom apparatus provides a useful tool for effectively identifying the terebrid lineages that may be investigated for novel pharmacological active neurotoxins, enhancing conservation of this important resource, while providing supplementary information towards understanding terebrid evolutionary diversification.

  12. Biodiversity, Phylogeny, and Antifungal Functions of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Zanthoxylum bungeanum

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    Peiqin Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum. A total of 940 isolates obtained were grouped into 93 morphotypes, 43 species, and 23 genera, which were authenticated by molecular identification based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequence analysis. A high diversity of endophytic fungi from Z. bungeanum are observed with high species richness S (43, Margalef index D′ (6.1351, Shannon–Wiener index H′ (3.2743, Simpson diversity index Ds (0.9476, PIE index (0.9486, and evenness Pielou index J (0.8705 but a low dominant index λ (0.0524. Significant tissue specificity of the endophytic fungi was observed in Z. bungeanum, and the highest species richness and diversity indexes were obtained in the stem. Phylogenetic analyses of the 93 endophytic isolates were carried out by the neighbor-joining (NJ method to demonstrate their evolutionary processes. Antifungal activities of endophytic fungi were assayed and eight endophytic isolates showed strong and long-lasting inhibition against host pathogenic fungi Fusarium sambucinum and Pseudocercospora zanthoxyli. Here, for the first time, we systematically demonstrate the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi associated with Z. bungeanum and reveal the value of sampling different tissues of a given plant to obtain the greatest endophyte species diversity, which might offer a framework for further investigation and utilization of endophytic fungi as aunique source of interesting and useful bioactive compounds.

  13. When naked became armored: an eight-gene phylogeny reveals monophyletic origin of theca in dinoflagellates.

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    Russell J S Orr

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellates are a diverse lineage of microbial eukaryotes. Dinoflagellate monophyly and their position within the group Alveolata are well established. However, phylogenetic relationships between dinoflagellate orders remain unresolved. To date, only a limited number of dinoflagellate studies have used a broad taxon sample with more than two concatenated markers. This lack of resolution makes it difficult to determine the evolution of major phenotypic characters such as morphological features or toxin production e.g. saxitoxin. Here we present an improved dinoflagellate phylogeny, based on eight genes, with the broadest taxon sampling to date. Fifty-five sequences for eight phylogenetic markers from nuclear and mitochondrial regions were amplified from 13 species, four orders, and concatenated phylogenetic inferences were conducted with orthologous sequences. Phylogenetic resolution is increased with addition of support for the deepest branches, though can be improved yet further. We show for the first time that the characteristic dinoflagellate thecal plates, cellulosic material that is present within the sub-cuticular alveoli, appears to have had a single origin. In addition, the monophyly of most dinoflagellate orders is confirmed: the Dinophysiales, the Gonyaulacales, the Prorocentrales, the Suessiales, and the Syndiniales. Our improved phylogeny, along with results of PCR to detect the sxtA gene in various lineages, allows us to suggest that this gene was probably acquired separately in Gymnodinium and the common ancestor of Alexandrium and Pyrodinium and subsequently lost in some descendent species of Alexandrium.

  14. When Naked Became Armored: An Eight-Gene Phylogeny Reveals Monophyletic Origin of Theca in Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Murray, Shauna A.; Stüken, Anke; Rhodes, Lesley; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are a diverse lineage of microbial eukaryotes. Dinoflagellate monophyly and their position within the group Alveolata are well established. However, phylogenetic relationships between dinoflagellate orders remain unresolved. To date, only a limited number of dinoflagellate studies have used a broad taxon sample with more than two concatenated markers. This lack of resolution makes it difficult to determine the evolution of major phenotypic characters such as morphological features or toxin production e.g. saxitoxin. Here we present an improved dinoflagellate phylogeny, based on eight genes, with the broadest taxon sampling to date. Fifty-five sequences for eight phylogenetic markers from nuclear and mitochondrial regions were amplified from 13 species, four orders, and concatenated phylogenetic inferences were conducted with orthologous sequences. Phylogenetic resolution is increased with addition of support for the deepest branches, though can be improved yet further. We show for the first time that the characteristic dinoflagellate thecal plates, cellulosic material that is present within the sub-cuticular alveoli, appears to have had a single origin. In addition, the monophyly of most dinoflagellate orders is confirmed: the Dinophysiales, the Gonyaulacales, the Prorocentrales, the Suessiales, and the Syndiniales. Our improved phylogeny, along with results of PCR to detect the sxtA gene in various lineages, allows us to suggest that this gene was probably acquired separately in Gymnodinium and the common ancestor of Alexandrium and Pyrodinium and subsequently lost in some descendent species of Alexandrium. PMID:23185516

  15. A mitogenomic re-evaluation of the bdelloid phylogeny and relationships among the Syndermata.

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    Erica Lasek-Nesselquist

    Full Text Available Molecular and morphological data regarding the relationships among the three classes of Rotifera (Bdelloidea, Seisonidea, and Monogononta and the phylum Acanthocephala are inconclusive. In particular, Bdelloidea lacks molecular-based phylogenetic appraisal. I obtained coding sequences from the mitochondrial genomes of twelve bdelloids and two monogononts to explore the molecular phylogeny of Bdelloidea and provide insight into the relationships among lineages of Syndermata (Rotifera + Acanthocephala. With additional sequences taken from previously published mitochondrial genomes, the total dataset included nine species of bdelloids, three species of monogononts, and two species of acanthocephalans. A supermatrix of these 10-12 mitochondrial proteins consistently recovered a bdelloid phylogeny that questions the validity of a generally accepted classification scheme despite different methods of inference and various parameter adjustments. Specifically, results showed that neither the family Philodinidae nor the order Philodinida are monophyletic as currently defined. The application of a similar analytical strategy to assess syndermate relationships recovered either a tree with Bdelloidea and Monogononta as sister taxa (Eurotatoria or Bdelloidea and Acanthocephala as sister taxa (Lemniscea. Both outgroup choice and method of inference affected the topological outcome emphasizing the need for sequences from more closely related outgroups and more sophisticated methods of analysis that can account for the complexity of the data.

  16. Total evidence phylogeny and the evolution of adult bioluminescence in fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gavin J; Branham, Marc A; Whiting, Michael F; Bybee, Seth M

    2017-02-01

    Fireflies are some of the most captivating organisms on the planet. They have a rich history as subjects of scientific study, especially in relation to their bioluminescent behavior. Yet, the phylogenetic relationships of fireflies are still poorly understood. Here, we present the first total evidence approach to reconstruct lampyrid phylogeny using both a molecular matrix from six loci and an extensive morphological matrix. Using this phylogeny we test the hypothesis that adult bioluminescence evolved after the origin of the firefly clade. The ancestral state of adult bioluminescence is recovered as non-bioluminescent with one to six gains and five to ten subsequent losses. The monophyly of the family, as well as the subfamilies is also tested. Ototretinae, Cyphonocerinae, Luciolinae (incl. Pristolycus), Amydetinae, "cheguevarinae" sensu Jeng 2008, and Photurinae are highly supported as monophyletic. With the exception of four taxa, Lampyrinae is also recovered as monophyletic with high support. Based on phylogenetic and morphological data Lamprohiza, Phausis, and Lamprigera are transferred to Lampyridae incertae sedis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and phylogeny of the tomato receptor-like proteins family

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    Ermis Yanes-Paz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The receptor-like proteins (RLPs play multiple roles in development and defense. In the current work 75 RLPs were identified in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. using iterative BLAST searches and domain prediction. A phylogenetic tree including all the identified RLPs from tomato and some functionally characterized RLPs from other species was built to identify their putative homologues in tomato. We first tested whether C3-F-based phylogeny was a good indicator of functional relation between related proteins of different species. Indeed, the functionally characterized CLAVATA2 (CLV2, the maize ortholog FASCIATED EAR2 (FEA2 and a putative tomato CLV2 described in Uniprot clustered together, which validates the approach. Using this approach Solyc12g042760.1.1 was identified as the putative tomato homologue of TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM. It was shown that proteins in the same cluster of the phylogenetic tree share functional relations since several clusters of functionally related proteins i.e. the Ve cluster, the Cf cluster, and the Eix clade were formed.   Keywords: phylogeny, receptors, RLP, tomato

  18. Mitogenomic perspectives on the origin and phylogeny of living amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hui; Chen, Yue-Qin; Liu, Yi-Fei; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2005-06-01

    Establishing the relationships among modern amphibians (lissamphibians) and their ancient relatives is necessary for our understanding of early tetrapod evolution. However, the phylogeny is still intractable because of the highly specialized anatomy and poor fossil record of lissamphibians. Paleobiologists are still not sure whether lissamphibians are monophyletic or polyphyletic, and which ancient group (temnospondyls or lepospondyls) is most closely related to them. In an attempt to address these problems, eight mitochondrial genomes of living amphibians were determined and compared with previously published amphibian sequences. A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences yields a highly resolved tree congruent with the traditional hypotheses (Batrachia). By using a molecular clock-independent approach for inferring dating information from molecular phylogenies, we present here the first molecular timescale for lissamphibian evolution, which suggests that lissamphibians first emerged about 330 million years ago. By observing the fit between molecular and fossil times, we suggest that the temnospondyl-origin hypothesis for lissamphibians is more credible than other hypotheses. Moreover, under this timescale, the potential geographic origins of the main living amphibian groups are discussed: (i) advanced frogs (neobatrachians) may possess an Africa-India origin; (ii) salamanders may have originated in east Asia; (iii) the tropic forest of the Triassic Pangaea may be the place of origin for the ancient caecilians. An accurate phylogeny with divergence times can be also helpful to direct the search for "missing" fossils, and can benefit comparative studies of amphibian evolution.

  19. Host phylogeny determines viral persistence and replication in novel hosts.

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    Ben Longdon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens switching to new hosts can result in the emergence of new infectious diseases, and determining which species are likely to be sources of such host shifts is essential to understanding disease threats to both humans and wildlife. However, the factors that determine whether a pathogen can infect a novel host are poorly understood. We have examined the ability of three host-specific RNA-viruses (Drosophila sigma viruses from the family Rhabdoviridae to persist and replicate in 51 different species of Drosophilidae. Using a novel analytical approach we found that the host phylogeny could explain most of the variation in viral replication and persistence between different host species. This effect is partly driven by viruses reaching a higher titre in those novel hosts most closely related to the original host. However, there is also a strong effect of host phylogeny that is independent of the distance from the original host, with viral titres being similar in groups of related hosts. Most of this effect could be explained by variation in general susceptibility to all three sigma viruses, as there is a strong phylogenetic correlation in the titres of the three viruses. These results suggest that the source of new emerging diseases may often be predictable from the host phylogeny, but that the effect may be more complex than simply causing most host shifts to occur between closely related hosts.

  20. Phylogeny, diet, and cranial integration in australodelphian marsupials.

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    Anjali Goswami

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of morphological integration provide valuable information on the correlated evolution of traits and its relationship to long-term patterns of morphological evolution. Thus far, studies of morphological integration in mammals have focused on placentals and have demonstrated that similarity in integration is broadly correlated with phylogenetic distance and dietary similarity. Detailed studies have also demonstrated a significant correlation between developmental relationships among structures and adult morphological integration. However, these studies have not yet been applied to marsupial taxa, which differ greatly from placentals in reproductive strategy and cranial development and could provide the diversity necessary to assess the relationships among phylogeny, ecology, development, and cranial integration. This study presents analyses of morphological integration in 20 species of australodelphian marsupials, and shows that phylogeny is significantly correlated with similarity of morphological integration in most clades. Size-related correlations have a significant affect on results, particularly in Peramelia, which shows a striking decrease in similarity of integration among species when size is removed. Diet is not significantly correlated with similarity of integration in any marsupial clade. These results show that marsupials differ markedly from placental mammals in the relationships of cranial integration, phylogeny, and diet, which may be related to the accelerated development of the masticatory apparatus in marsupials.

  1. Host Phylogeny Determines Viral Persistence and Replication in Novel Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Ben; Hadfield, Jarrod D.; Webster, Claire L.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogens switching to new hosts can result in the emergence of new infectious diseases, and determining which species are likely to be sources of such host shifts is essential to understanding disease threats to both humans and wildlife. However, the factors that determine whether a pathogen can infect a novel host are poorly understood. We have examined the ability of three host-specific RNA-viruses (Drosophila sigma viruses from the family Rhabdoviridae) to persist and replicate in 51 different species of Drosophilidae. Using a novel analytical approach we found that the host phylogeny could explain most of the variation in viral replication and persistence between different host species. This effect is partly driven by viruses reaching a higher titre in those novel hosts most closely related to the original host. However, there is also a strong effect of host phylogeny that is independent of the distance from the original host, with viral titres being similar in groups of related hosts. Most of this effect could be explained by variation in general susceptibility to all three sigma viruses, as there is a strong phylogenetic correlation in the titres of the three viruses. These results suggest that the source of new emerging diseases may often be predictable from the host phylogeny, but that the effect may be more complex than simply causing most host shifts to occur between closely related hosts. PMID:21966271

  2. Mammals from ‘down under’: a multi-gene species-level phylogeny of marsupial mammals (Mammalia, Metatheria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. May-Collado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marsupials or metatherians are a group of mammals that are distinct in giving birth to young at early stages of development and in having a prolonged investment in lactation. The group consists of nearly 350 extant species, including kangaroos, koala, possums, and their relatives. Marsupials are an old lineage thought to have diverged from early therian mammals some 160 million years ago in the Jurassic, and have a remarkable evolutionary and biogeographical history, with extant species restricted to the Americas, mostly South America, and to Australasia. Although the group has been the subject of decades of phylogenetic research, the marsupial tree of life remains controversial, with most studies focusing on only a fraction of the species diversity within the infraclass. Here we present the first Methaterian species-level phylogeny to include 80% of the extant marsupial species and five nuclear and five mitochondrial markers obtained from Genbank and a recently published retroposon matrix. Our primary goal is to provide a summary phylogeny that will serve as a tool for comparative research. We evaluate the extent to which the phylogeny recovers current phylogenetic knowledge based on the recovery of “benchmark clades” from prior studies—unambiguously supported key clades and undisputed traditional taxonomic groups. The Bayesian phylogenetic analyses recovered nearly all benchmark clades but failed to find support for the suborder Phalagiformes. The most significant difference with previous published topologies is the support for Australidelphia as a group containing Microbiotheriidae, nested within American marsupials. However, a likelihood ratio test shows that alternative topologies with monophyletic Australidelphia and Ameridelphia are not significantly different than the preferred tree. Although further data are needed to solidify understanding of Methateria phylogeny, the new phylogenetic hypothesis provided here offers a well

  3. Evidence for a Higher Number of Species of Odontotermes (Isoptera) than Currently Known from Peninsular Malaysia from Mitochondrial DNA Phylogenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shawn; Kirton, Laurence G.; Panandam, Jothi M.; Siraj, Siti S.; Ng, Kevin Kit-Siong; Tan, Soon-Guan

    2011-01-01

    Termites of the genus Odontotermes are important decomposers in the Old World tropics and are sometimes important pests of crops, timber and trees. The species within the genus often have overlapping size ranges and are difficult to differentiate based on morphology. As a result, the taxonomy of Odontotermes in Peninsular Malaysia has not been adequately worked out. In this study, we examined the phylogeny of 40 samples of Odontotermes from Peninsular Malaysia using two mitochondrial DNA regions, that is, the 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I genes, to aid in elucidating the number of species in the peninsula. Phylogenies were reconstructed from the individual gene and combined gene data sets using parsimony and likelihood criteria. The phylogenies supported the presence of up to eleven species in Peninsular Malaysia, which were identified as O. escherichi, O. hainanensis, O. javanicus, O. longignathus, O. malaccensis, O. oblongatus, O. paraoblongatus, O. sarawakensis, and three possibly new species. Additionally, some of our taxa are thought to comprise a complex of two or more species. The number of species found in this study using DNA methods was more than the initial nine species thought to occur in Peninsular Malaysia. The support values for the clades and morphology of the soldiers provided further evidence for the existence of eleven or more species. Higher resolution genetic markers such as microsatellites would be required to confirm the presence of cryptic species in some taxa. PMID:21687629

  4. Molecular phylogenetic reconstruction and taxonomic investigation of eelpouts (Cottoidei: Zoarcales) based on Co-1 and Cyt-b mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turanov, S V; Kartavtsev, Yu Ph; Lee, Y H; Jeong, D

    2017-07-01

    The infraorder Zoarcales (Cottoidei), or eelpouts, includes about 400 species of coldwater fishes concentrated mainly in the North Pacific. To date, the molecular phylogenetic methods in combination with morphological data have significantly contributed to understanding the taxonomic composition of this group and made it possible to confirm/refute validity of some families of obscure origin. In spite of the growing amount of new data on taxonomy and evolution of eelpouts, a consideration of the original and independent data is obviously needed to verify the existing knowledge of this taxon. In this study, which is based on concatenated matrix of Co-1 and Cyt-b mitochondrial genes, as well as relying on the samples from seven families and 45 species of eelpouts, we have reconstructed the phylogeny, which is generally consistent with previous inferences. Despite the resolution of the original data matrix is low, we have demonstrated the monophyletic origin of the families Zoarcidae and Anarhichadidae, as well as Neozoarcidae, previously related to Stichaeidae and recently revised Eulophiidae. The polyphyletic patterns amongst some subfamilies in Stichaeidae have been confirmed, whereas Opisthocentrinae and Pholidae seem to constitute a valid family-level taxon. Our results provide new opportunities with respect to taxonomic relationships in the complex and diverse group of eelpouts , whose part in the tree of life is not covered by recently flourishing multilocus phylogeny of teleost fishes. In light of the data obtained, the necessity of more unified and reproducible approaches to resolve the issues of evolution and taxonomy of such a complex group as Zoarcales becomes more evident.

  5. Towards a consensus Y-chromosomal phylogeny and Y-SNP set in forensics in the next-generation sequencing era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Kayser, Manfred; van Oven, Mannis; Decorte, Ronny

    2015-03-01

    Currently, several different Y-chromosomal phylogenies and haplogroup nomenclatures are presented in scientific literature and at conferences demonstrating the present diversity in Y-chromosomal phylogenetic trees and Y-SNP sets used within forensic and anthropological research. This situation can be ascribed to the exponential growth of the number of Y-SNPs discovered due to mostly next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies. As Y-SNPs and their respective phylogenetic positions are important in forensics, such as for male lineage characterization and paternal bio-geographic ancestry inference, there is a need for forensic geneticists to know how to deal with these newly identified Y-SNPs and phylogenies, especially since these phylogenies are often created with other aims than to carry out forensic genetic research. Therefore, we give here an overview of four categories of currently used Y-chromosomal phylogenies and the associated Y-SNP sets in scientific research in the current NGS era. We compare these categories based on the construction method, their advantages and disadvantages, the disciplines wherein the phylogenetic tree can be used, and their specific relevance for forensic geneticists. Based on this overview, it is clear that an up-to-date reduced tree with a consensus Y-SNP set and a stable nomenclature will be the most appropriate reference resource for forensic research. Initiatives to reach such an international consensus are therefore highly recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phylogeny, biogeography and ecological diversification of Sarcocornia (Salicornioideae, Amaranthaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Simone; Ball, Peter; Mucina, Ladislav; Kadereit, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Sarcocornia comprises about 28 species of perennial succulent halophytes distributed worldwide, mainly in saline environments of warm-temperate and subtropical regions. The genus is characterized by strongly reduced leaves and flowers, which cause taxonomic difficulties; however, species in the genus show high diversity in growth form, with a mat-forming habit found in coastal salt marshes of all continents. Sarcocornia forms a monophyletic lineage with Salicornia whose species are all annual, yet the relationship between the two genera is poorly understood. This study is aimed at clarifying the phylogenetic relationship between Sarcocornia and Salicornia, interpreting biogeographical and ecological patterns in Sarcocornia, and gaining insights into putative parallel evolution of habit as an adaptation to environmental factors. Methods A comprehensively sampled and dated phylogeny of Sarcocornia is presented based on nuclear ribosomal DNA (external transcribed spacer) and chloroplast DNA (atpB-rbcL, rpl32-trnL) sequences; representative samples of Salicornia were also included in the analyses. To infer biogeographical patterns, an ancestral area reconstruction was conducted. Key Results The Sarcocornia/Salicornia lineage arose during the Mid-Miocene from Eurasian ancestors and diversified into four subclades: the Salicornia clade, the American Sarcocornia clade, the Eurasian Sarcocornia clade and the South African/Australian Sarcocornia clade. Sarcocornia is supported as paraphyletic, with Salicornia nested within Sarcocornia being sister to the American/Eurasian Sarcocornia clade. The American and the South African/Australian Sarcocornia clade as well as the Salicornia clade were reconstructed to be of Eurasian origin. The prostrate, mat-forming habit arose multiple times in Sarcocornia. Conclusions Sarcocornia diversified in salt-laden environments worldwide, repeatedly evolving superficially similar prostrate, mat-forming habits that seem

  7. Targeted amplicon sequencing (TAS): a scalable next-gen approach to multilocus, multitaxa phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Seth M; Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Haynes, Benjamin D; Hermansen, Russell A; Byers, Robert L; Clement, Mark J; Udall, Joshua A; Wilcox, Edward R; Crandall, Keith A

    2011-01-01

    Next-gen sequencing technologies have revolutionized data collection in genetic studies and advanced genome biology to novel frontiers. However, to date, next-gen technologies have been used principally for whole genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing. Yet many questions in population genetics and systematics rely on sequencing specific genes of known function or diversity levels. Here, we describe a targeted amplicon sequencing (TAS) approach capitalizing on next-gen capacity to sequence large numbers of targeted gene regions from a large number of samples. Our TAS approach is easily scalable, simple in execution, neither time-nor labor-intensive, relatively inexpensive, and can be applied to a broad diversity of organisms and/or genes. Our TAS approach includes a bioinformatic application, BarcodeCrucher, to take raw next-gen sequence reads and perform quality control checks and convert the data into FASTA format organized by gene and sample, ready for phylogenetic analyses. We demonstrate our approach by sequencing targeted genes of known phylogenetic utility to estimate a phylogeny for the Pancrustacea. We generated data from 44 taxa using 68 different 10-bp multiplexing identifiers. The overall quality of data produced was robust and was informative for phylogeny estimation. The potential for this method to produce copious amounts of data from a single 454 plate (e.g., 325 taxa for 24 loci) significantly reduces sequencing expenses incurred from traditional Sanger sequencing. We further discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this method, while offering suggestions to enhance the approach.

  8. Autecology and phylogeny of Coolia tropicalis and Coolia malayensis (Dinophyceae), with emphasis on taxonomy of C. tropicalis based on light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and LSU rDNA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-Noor, Normawaty; Moestrup, Øjvind; Lundholm, Nina; Fraga, Santiago; Adam, Aimimualiani; Holmes, Michael J; Saleh, Ejria

    2013-06-01

    Coolia is a widespread and ecologically important genus of benthic marine dinoflagellates found in tropical regions. Historically, there has been taxonomic confusion about the taxonomy and toxicity of this group. The goal of this study was to resolve morphological questions concerning Coolia tropicalis and determine the taxonomic identity of the Australian Coolia isolate which has been reported to produce cooliatoxins. To accomplish this, the morphology of tropical strains from Belize (the type locality of C. tropicalis), Malaysia, Indonesia, and Australia were examined and compared to published reports. The morphological analysis showed that C. tropicalis differs from the original description in that it has a slightly larger size (35-47 μm long by 30-45 μm wide versus 23-40 μm long by 25-39 μm wide), and the shape of fourth apical plate, and the length of Po plate (7.4-12 μm versus 7 μm). Based on both morphology and phylogenetic analysis using LSU D1- D3 rDNA sequences, the clones of C. tropicalis from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Belize were found to form a monophyletic clade within the genus. The strain producing cooliatoxin was found to be C. tropicalis, not Coolia monotis as originally assumed. To explore the factors influencing the growth of Coolia species, the growth rates of C. tropicalis and Coolia malayensis were determined at different temperatures and salinities. Both species tolerated a wide range of temperatures, but cannot survive at temperatures 35°C. C. monotis, the dominant species reported in the literature, probably does not produce toxins. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  9. A plastid phylogeny and character evolution of the Old World fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae) with the description of a new genus: Hovenkampia (Polypodiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin-Mao; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Cheng-Wei; Li, Chun-Xiang; Huang, Yao-Moan; Chen, De-Kui; Lu, Ngan Thi; Cicuzza, Daniele; Knapp, Ralf; Luong, Thien Tam; Nitta, Joel H; Gao, Xin-Fen; Zhang, Li-Bing

    2017-09-01

    The Old World fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae) offers a rare system in ferns to study morphological evolution because almost all species of this genus are well studied for their morphology, anatomy, and spore features, and various hypotheses have been proposed in terms of the phylogeny and evolution in this genus. However, the molecular phylogeny of the genus lags behind. The monophyly of the genus has been uncertain and a modern phylogenetic study of the genus based on molecular data has been lacking. In the present study, DNA sequences of five plastid markers of 220 accessions of Polypodiaceae representing two species of Drymoglossum, 14 species of Platycerium, 50 species of Pyrrosia, and the only species of Saxiglossum (subfamily Platycerioideae), and 12 species of other Polypodiaceae representing the remaining four subfamilies are used to infer a phylogeny of the genus. Major results and conclusions of this study include: (1) Pyrrosia as currently circumscribed is paraphyletic in relation to Platycerium and can be divided into two genera: Pyrrosia s.s. and Hovenkampia (gen. nov.), with Hovenkampia and Platycerium forming a strongly supported clade sister to Pyrrosia s.s.; (2) Subfamily Platycerioideae should contain three genera only, Hovenkampia, Platycerium, and Pyrrosia s.s.; (3) Based on the molecular phylogeny, macromorphology, anatomical features, and spore morphology, four major clades in the genus are identified and three of the four are further resolved into four, four, and six subclades, respectively; (4) Three species, P. angustissima, P. foveolata, and P. mannii, not assigned to any groups by Hovenkamp (1986) because of their unusual morphology, each form monospecific clades; (5) Drymoglossum is not monophyletic and those species previously assigned to this genus are resolved in two different subclades; (6) Saxiglossum is resolved as the first lineage in the Niphopsis clade; and (7) The evolution of ten major morphological characters in the

  10. Multilocus Patterns of Nucleotide Diversity, Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in Boechera stricta, a Wild Relative of Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bao-Hua; Windsor, Aaron J.; Schmid, Karl J.; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastian; Schranz, M. Eric; Heidel, Andrew J.; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Information about polymorphism, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is crucial for association studies of complex trait variation. However, most genomewide studies have focused on model systems, with very few analyses of undisturbed natural populations. Here, we sequenced 86 mapped nuclear loci for a sample of 46 genotypes of Boechera stricta and two individuals of B. holboellii, both wild relatives of Arabidopsis. Isolation by distance was significant across the species range of B. stricta, and three geographic groups were identified by structure analysis, principal coordinates analysis, and distance-based phylogeny analyses. The allele frequency spectrum indicated a genomewide deviation from an equilibrium neutral model, with silent nucleotide diversity averaging 0.004. LD decayed rapidly, declining to background levels in ∼10 kb or less. For tightly linked SNPs separated by <1 kb, LD was dependent on the reference population. LD was lower in the specieswide sample than within populations, suggesting that low levels of LD found in inbreeding species such as B. stricta, Arabidopsis thaliana, and barley may result from broad geographic sampling that spans heterogeneous genetic groups. Finally, analyses also showed that inbreeding B. stricta and A. thaliana have ∼45% higher recombination per kilobase than outcrossing A. lyrata. PMID:19104077

  11. Divergence time, historical biogeography and evolutionary rate estimation of the order Bangiales (Rhodophyta) inferred from multilocus data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuipeng; Tang, Xianghai; Wang, Lu; Yu, Xinzi; Sun, Peipei; Mao, Yunxiang

    2017-08-01

    Bangiales is the only order of the Bangiophyceae and has been suggested to be monophyletic. This order contains approximately 190 species and is distributed worldwide. Previous molecular studies have produced robust phylogenies among the red algae, but the divergence times, historical biogeography and evolutionary rates of Bangiales have rarely been studied. Phylogenetic relationships within the Bangiales were examined using the concatenated gene sets from all available organellar genomes. This analysis has revealed the topology ((( Bangia, Porphyra ) Pyropia ) Wildemania ). Molecular dating indicates that Bangiales diversified approximately 246.40 million years ago (95% highest posterior density (HPD)= 194.78u2013318.24 Ma, posterior probability (PP)=0.99) in the Late Permian and Early Triassic, and that the ancestral species most likely originated from eastern Gondwanaland (currently New Zealand and Australia) and subsequently began to spread and evolve worldwide. Based on pairwise comparisons, we found a slower rate of nucleotide substitutions and lower rates of diversification in Bangiales relative to Florideophyceae. Compared with Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants), the evolutionary rates of Bangiales and other Rhodophyte groups were found to be dramatically faster, by more than 3-fold for plastid genome (ptDNA) and 15-fold for mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). In addition, an average 2.5-fold lower dN/dS was found for the algae than for the land plants, which indicates purifying selection of the algae.

  12. Phylogenetic diversity of insecticolous fusaria inferred from multilocus DNA sequence data and their molecular identification via FUSARIUM-ID and Fusarium MLST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donnell, K.; Humber, R.A.; Geiser, D.M.; Kang, S.; Robert, V.; Park, B.; Crous, P.W.; Johnston, P.; Aoki, T.; Rooney, A.P.; Rehner, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    We constructed several multilocus DNA sequence datasets to assess the phylogenetic diversity of insecticolous fusaria, especially focusing on those housed at the Agricultural Research Service Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungi (ARSEF), and to aid molecular identifications of unknowns via the

  13. Estimating variation within the genes and inferring the phylogeny of 186 sequenced diverse Escherichia coli genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Ussery, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli exists in commensal and pathogenic forms. By measuring the variation of individual genes across more than a hundred sequenced genomes, gene variation can be studied in detail, including the number of mutations found for any given gene. This knowledge will be useful...... for creating better phylogenies, for determination of molecular clocks and for improved typing techniques. Results We find 3,051 gene clusters/families present in at least 95% of the genomes and 1,702 gene clusters present in 100% of the genomes. The former 'soft core' of about 3,000 gene families is perhaps...... more biologically relevant, especially considering that many of these genome sequences are draft quality. The E. coli pan-genome for this set of isolates contains 16,373 gene clusters. A core-gene tree, based on alignment and a pan-genome tree based on gene presence/absence, maps the relatedness...

  14. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurby, Søren; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-03-01

    Across large clades, two problems are generally encountered in the estimation of species-level phylogenies: (a) the number of taxa involved is generally so high that computation-intensive approaches cannot readily be utilized and (b) even for clades that have received intense study (e.g., mammals), attention has been centered on relatively few selected species, and most taxa must therefore be positioned on the basis of very limited genetic data. Here, we describe a new heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach and use it to construct a species-level phylogeny for all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals. In this approach, species with large quantities of genetic data are placed nearly freely in the mammalian phylogeny according to these data, whereas the placement of species with lower quantities of data is performed with steadily stricter restrictions for decreasing data quantities. The advantages of the proposed method include (a) an improved ability to incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty in downstream analyses based on the resulting phylogeny, (b) a reduced potential for long-branch attraction or other types of errors that place low-data taxa far from their true position, while maintaining minimal restrictions for better-studied taxa, and (c) likely improved placement of low-data taxa due to the use of closer outgroups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brucella 'HOOF-Prints': strain typing by multi-locus analysis of variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halling Shirley M

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there are very few tools available for subtyping Brucella isolates for epidemiological trace-back. Subtyping is difficult because of the genetic homogeneity within the genus. Sequencing of the genomes from three Brucella species has facilitated the search for DNA sequence variability. Recently, hypervariability among short tandem repeat sequences has been exploited for strain-typing of several bacterial pathogens. Results An eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence was discovered in nine genomic loci of the B. abortus genome. Eight loci were hypervariable among the three Brucella species. A PCR-based method was developed to identify the number of repeat units (alleles at each locus, generating strain-specific fingerprints. None of the loci exhibited species- or biovar-specific alleles. Sometimes, a species or biovar contained a specific allele at one or more loci, but the allele also occurred in other species or biovars. The technique successfully differentiated the type strains for all Brucella species and biovars, among unrelated B. abortus biovar 1 field isolates in cattle, and among B. abortus strains isolated from bison and elk. Isolates from the same herd or from short-term in vitro passage exhibited little or no variability in fingerprint pattern. Sometimes, isolates from an animal would have multiple alleles at a locus, possibly from mixed infections in enzootic areas, residual disease from incomplete depopulation of an infected herd or molecular evolution within the strain. Therefore, a mixed population or a pool of colonies from each animal and/or tissue was tested. Conclusion This paper describes a new method for fingerprinting Brucella isolates based on multi-locus characterization of a variable number, eight-base pair, tandem repeat. We have named this technique "HOOF-Prints" for Hypervariable Octameric Oligonucleotide Finger-Prints. The technique is highly discriminatory among Brucella species, among

  16. Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaulieu Jeremy M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biology has increasingly recognized the necessity to build and utilize larger phylogenies to address broad evolutionary questions. Large phylogenies have facilitated the discovery of differential rates of molecular evolution between trees and herbs. They have helped us understand the diversification patterns of mammals as well as the patterns of seed evolution. In addition to these broad evolutionary questions there is increasing awareness of the importance of large phylogenies for addressing conservation issues such as biodiversity hotspots and response to global change. Two major classes of methods have been employed to accomplish the large tree-building task: supertrees and supermatrices. Although these methods are continually being developed, they have yet to be made fully accessible to comparative biologists making extremely large trees rare. Results Here we describe and demonstrate a modified supermatrix method termed mega-phylogeny that uses databased sequences as well as taxonomic hierarchies to make extremely large trees with denser matrices than supermatrices. The two major challenges facing large-scale supermatrix phylogenetics are assembling large data matrices from databases and reconstructing trees from those datasets. The mega-phylogeny approach addresses the former as the latter is accomplished by employing recently developed methods that have greatly reduced the run time of large phylogeny construction. We present an algorithm that requires relatively little human intervention. The implemented algorithm is demonstrated with a dataset and phylogeny for Asterales (within Campanulidae containing 4954 species and 12,033 sites and an rbcL matrix for green plants (Viridiplantae with 13,533 species and 1,401 sites. Conclusion By examining much larger phylogenies, patterns emerge that were otherwise unseen. The phylogeny of Viridiplantae successfully reconstructs major relationships of vascular plants that previously

  17. Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen A; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2009-02-11

    Biology has increasingly recognized the necessity to build and utilize larger phylogenies to address broad evolutionary questions. Large phylogenies have facilitated the discovery of differential rates of molecular evolution between trees and herbs. They have helped us understand the diversification patterns of mammals as well as the patterns of seed evolution. In addition to these broad evolutionary questions there is increasing awareness of the importance of large phylogenies for addressing conservation issues such as biodiversity hotspots and response to global change. Two major classes of methods have been employed to accomplish the large tree-building task: supertrees and supermatrices. Although these methods are continually being developed, they have yet to be made fully accessible to comparative biologists making extremely large trees rare. Here we describe and demonstrate a modified supermatrix method termed mega-phylogeny that uses databased sequences as well as taxonomic hierarchies to make extremely large trees with denser matrices than supermatrices. The two major challenges facing large-scale supermatrix phylogenetics are assembling large data matrices from databases and reconstructing trees from those datasets. The mega-phylogeny approach addresses the former as the latter is accomplished by employing recently developed methods that have greatly reduced the run time of large phylogeny construction. We present an algorithm that requires relatively little human intervention. The implemented algorithm is demonstrated with a dataset and phylogeny for Asterales (within Campanulidae) containing 4954 species and 12,033 sites and an rbcL matrix for green plants (Viridiplantae) with 13,533 species and 1,401 sites. By examining much larger phylogenies, patterns emerge that were otherwise unseen. The phylogeny of Viridiplantae successfully reconstructs major relationships of vascular plants that previously required many more genes. These demonstrations

  18. Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, Gabriel E.A.; Hicks, James W.; Manzani, Paulo R.

    2010-01-01

    both conventional and phylogenetically based statistical methods. General linear models regressing log10 snout‐heart position on log10 snout‐vent length (SVL), as well as dummy variables coding for habitat and/or clade, were compared using likelihood ratio tests and the Akaike Information Criterion...

  19. Phylogeny of Fomitopsis pinicola: A species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Haight; Gary A. Laursen; Jessie A. Glaeser; D. Lee. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Fungal species with a broad distribution may exhibit considerable genetic variation over their geographic ranges. Variation may develop among populations based on geographic isolation, lack of migration, and genetic drift, though this genetic variation may not always be evident when examining phenotypic characters. Fomitopsis pinicola is an...

  20. Molecular characterization and multilocus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi among horses in southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Deng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most prevalent causative species of diarrhea and enteric diseases in various hosts. E. bieneusi has been identified in humans, mammals, birds, rodents and reptiles in China, but few studies have reported E. bieneusi in horses. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, molecular characteristics and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi among horses in southwestern China. Findings Three hundred and thirty-three fecal specimens were collected from horses on five farms in the Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of southwestern China. The prevalence of E. bieneusi was 22.5 % (75/333, as determined by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene of E. bieneusi. Altogether, 10 genotypes were identified among the 75 E. bieneusi-positive samples: four of these genotypes were known (horse1, horse2, SC02 and D and six were novel (SCH1-4 and YNH1-2. Multilocus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3 and MS7 and one minisatellite (MS4 revealed three, two, three and three genotypes at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, all the genotypes of E. bieneusi obtained in this study were clustered into three distinct groups: D, SC02 and SCH1-3 were clustered into group 1 (zoonotic potential; SCH4 was clustered into group 2 (cattle-hosted; whereas horse2, YNH1 and YNH2 were clustered into group 6 (unclear zoonotic potential. Conclusions This is the first report of E. bieneusi among horses in southwestern China. This is also the first multilocus genotyping analysis using microsatellite and minisatellite markers of E. bieneusi in horses. The presence of genotype D, which was previously identified in humans, and genotypes SC02 and SCH1-3, which belong to potential zoonotic group 1, these results indicate that horses are a potential source of human E. bieneusi infections in China.

  1. Molecular Epidemiologic Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis Isolates in Cuba by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Nagashima, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    We carried out the first study of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates in Cuba by multilocus sequence typing linking the molecular typing data with the presence of virulence determinants and the antibiotic resistance genes. A total of 23 E. faecalis isolates recovered from several clinic sources and geographic areas of Cuba during a period between 2000 and 2005 were typed by multilocus sequence typing. Thirteen sequence types (STs) including five novel STs were identified, and the ST 64 (clonal complex [CC] 8), ST 6 (CC2), ST 21(CC21), and ST 16 (CC58) were found in more than one strain. Sixty-seven percent of STs corresponded to STs reported previously in Spain, Poland, and The Netherlands, and other STs (ST115, ST64, ST6, and ST40) were genetically close to those detected in the United States. Prevalence of both antimicrobial resistance genes [aac(6′)-aph(2″), aph(3′), ant(6), ant(3″)(9), aph(2″)-Id, aph(2″)-Ic, erm(B), erm(A), erm(C), mef(A), tet(M), and tet(L)] and virulence genes (agg, gelE, cylA, esp, ccf, and efaAfs) were examined by polymerase chain reaction. Aminoglycoside resistance genes aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, aph(3′), ant(6), ant(3″)(9) were more frequently detected in ST6, ST16, ST23, ST64, and ST115. The multidrug resistance was distributed to all STs detected, except for ST117 and singleton ST225. The presence of cyl gene was specifically linked to the ST64 and ST16. Presence of the esp, gel, and agg genes was not specific to any particular ST. This research provided the first insight into the population structure of E. faecalis in Cuba, that is, most Cuban strains were related to European strains, whereas others to U.S. strains. The CC2, CC21, and CC8, three of the biggest CCs in the world, were evidently circulating in Cuba, associated with multidrug resistance and virulence traits. PMID:19857135

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata: phylogenetic position of Bryozoa and phylogeny of lophophorates within the Lophotrochozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Kuem

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic position of Bryozoa is one of the most controversial issues in metazoan phylogeny. In an attempt to address this issue, the first bryozoan mitochondrial genome from Flustrellidra hispida (Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata was recently sequenced and characterized. Unfortunately, it has extensive gene translocation and extremely reduced size. In addition, the phylogenies obtained from the result were conflicting, so they failed to assign a reliable phylogenetic position to Bryozoa or to clarify lophophorate phylogeny. Thus, it is necessary to characterize further mitochondrial genomes from slowly-evolving bryozoans to obtain a more credible lophophorate phylogeny. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (15,433 bp of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata, one of the most widely distributed cheliostome bryozoans, is sequenced. This second bryozoan mitochondrial genome contains the set of 37 components generally observed in other metazoans, differing from that of F. hispida (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata, which has only 36 components with loss of tRNAser(ucn genes. The B. neritina mitochondrial genome possesses 27 multiple noncoding regions. The gene order is more similar to those of the two remaining lophophorate phyla (Brachiopoda and Phoronida and a chiton Katharina tunicate than to that of F. hispida. Phylogenetic analyses based on the nucleotide sequences or amino acid residues of 12 protein-coding genes showed consistently that, within the Lophotrochozoa, the monophyly of the bryozoan class Gymnolaemata (B. neritina and F. hispida was strongly supported and the bryozoan clade was grouped with brachiopods. Echiura appeared as a subtaxon of Annelida, and Entoprocta as a sister taxon of Phoronida. The clade of Bryozoa + Brachiopoda was clustered with either the clade of Annelida-Echiura or that of Phoronida + Entoprocta. Conclusion This study presents the complete mitochondrial genome of a

  3. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing for Identification of Globally Distributed Clonal Groups and Differentiation of Outbreak Strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Hammack, Thomas S.; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol A.; Brown, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many listeriosis outbreaks are caused by a few globally distributed clonal groups, designated clonal complexes or epidemic clones, of Listeria monocytogenes, several of which have been defined by classic multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes targeting 6 to 8 housekeeping or virulence genes. We have developed and evaluated core genome MLST (cgMLST) schemes and applied them to isolates from multiple clonal groups, including those associated with 39 listeriosis outbreaks. The cgMLST...

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Trametes and related genera based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some species of Trametes and their related genera are so similar in microstructure characteristics that it is difficult to identify and separate them by traditional taxonomy. In this study, we elucidated relationships among Trametes through comparison of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the nearly complete ...

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Trametes and related genera based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Some species of Trametes and their related genera are so similar in microstructure characteristics that it is ... We found that both the conserved domains and the variable domains all ..... closely-related species was similar.

  6. Phylogeny of Korean Hornbeam (Carpinus turczaninovii) based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... According to the result of phylogenetic tree, all se- quences amplified in this experiment were divided into two clades, with 98% identity between them (Figure 1). Among them, GHGS2, HNSS2 and JSHA formed one clade, the other isolates formed another clade, composed by BABS1 and GHPY group, ...

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Trametes and related genera based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... In this study, we elucidated relationships among Trametes through comparison of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the nearly complete mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (mt SSU rDNA) sequences. Finally, phylogenetic trees were built. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and mt SSU ...

  8. The ITS-based phylogeny of fungi associated with tarballs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanyal, O.; Shinde, V.L.; Meena, R.M.; Damare, S.R.; Shenoy, B.D.

      using  ZR  Fungal/  Bacterial  DNA  MiniPrep  kit  (Zymo  Research,  catalogue  number  D6005)  following  the manufacturer's protocol.  The  ITS  region was amplified by polymerase chain  reaction  (PCR).  The  reactions were  carried out  in  a  50µl... minutes,  denaturation  at  95oC  for  1  minute, annealing at 52oC for 30 seconds, extension at 72oC for 1 minute and final extension at 72o  for 10 minutes. The denaturation, annealing and extensions steps were repeated 35 times (White  et al. 1990). The PCR products...

  9. Phylogeny and biogeography of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The genus Alyssum consists of about 195 species native to Europe, Asia and northern ... In this study, the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Alyssum were studied ... Journal of Genetics, Vol. ...... Academic Press, New York, USA.

  10. PTree: pattern-based, stochastic search for maximum parsimony phylogenies

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Ivan; Steinbr?ck, Lars; McHardy, Alice C.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction is vital to analyzing the evolutionary relationship of genes within and across populations of different species. Nowadays, with next generation sequencing technologies producing sets comprising thousands of sequences, robust identification of the tree topology, which is optimal according to standard criteria such as maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood or posterior probability, with phylogenetic inference methods is a computationally very demanding task. Here, we ...

  11. Phylogeny of Bembidion and related ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Trechinae: Bembidiini: Bembidiina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, David R

    2012-06-01

    The phylogeny of the large genus Bembidion and related genera is inferred from four nuclear protein-coding genes (CAD, wingless, arginine kinase, and topoisomerase I), ribosomal DNA (28S and 18S), and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI). 230 of the more than 1200 species of Bembidion are sampled, as well as 26 species of five related genera, and 14 outgroups. Nuclear copies (numts) of COI were found sparsely scattered through sampled species. The resulting phylogeny, based upon individual gene analyses and combined analyses using maximum likelihood and parsimony, is very well supported at most nodes. Additional analyses explored the evidence, and corroborate the phylogeny. Seven analyses, each with one of the seven genes removed from the combined matrix, were also conducted, and yielded maximum likelihood bootstrap trees sharing over 92% of their nodes with the original, well-resolved bootstrap trees based on the complete set of seven genes. All key nodes were present in all seven analyses missing a single gene, indicating that support for these nodes comes from at least two genes. In addition, the inferred maximum likelihood tree based on the combined matrix is well-behaved and self-predicting, in that simulated evolution of sequences on the inferred tree under the inferred model of evolution yields a matrix from which all but one of the model tree's clades are recovered with bootstrap value >50, suggesting that internal branches in the tree may be of a length to yield sequences sufficient to allow their inference. All likelihood analyses were conducted under both a proportion-invariable plus gamma site-to-site rate variation model, as well as a simpler gamma model. The choice of model did not have a major effect on inferred phylogenies or their bootstrap values. The inferred phylogeny shows that Bembidarenas is not closely related to Bembidiina, and Phrypeus is likely distant as well; the remaining genera of Bembidiina form a monophyletic group

  12. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  13. Phylogeny, rate variation, and genome size evolution of Pelargonium (Geraniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Mao-Lun; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Gibby, Mary; Jansen, Robert K

    2012-09-01

    The phylogeny of 58 Pelargonium species was estimated using five plastid markers (rbcL, matK, ndhF, rpoC1, trnL-F) and one mitochondrial gene (nad5). The results confirmed the monophyly of three major clades and four subclades within Pelargonium but also indicate the need to revise some sectional classifications. This phylogeny was used to examine karyotype evolution in the genus: plotting chromosome sizes, numbers and 2C-values indicates that genome size is significantly correlated with chromosome size but not number. Accelerated rates of nucleotide substitution have been previously detected in both plastid and mitochondrial genes in Pelargonium, but sparse taxon sampling did not enable identification of the phylogenetic distribution of these elevated rates. Using the multigene phylogeny as a constraint, we investigated lineage- and locus-specific heterogeneity of substitution rates in Pelargonium for an expanded number of taxa and demonstrated that both plastid and mitochondrial genes have had accelerated substitution rates but with markedly disparate patterns. In the plastid, the exons of rpoC1 have significantly accelerated substitution rates compared to its intron and the acceleration was mainly due to nonsynonymous substitutions. In contrast, the mitochondrial gene, nad5, experienced substantial acceleration of synonymous substitution rates in three internal branches of Pelargonium, but this acceleration ceased in all terminal branches. Several lineages also have dN/dS ratios significantly greater than one for rpoC1, indicating that positive selection is acting on this gene, whereas the accelerated synonymous substitutions in the mitochondrial gene are the result of elevated mutation rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Molecular phylogeny and timing of diversification in Alpine Rhithrogena (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuataz, Laurent; Rutschmann, Sereina; Monaghan, Michael T; Sartori, Michel

    2016-09-21

    Larvae of the Holarctic mayfly genus Rhithrogena Eaton, 1881 (Ephemeroptera, Heptageniidae) are a diverse and abundant member of stream and river communities and are routinely used as bio-indicators of water quality. Rhithrogena is well diversified in the European Alps, with a number of locally endemic species, and several cryptic species have been recently detected. While several informal species groups are morphologically well defined, a lack of reliable characters for species identification considerably hampers their study. Their relationships, origin, timing of speciation and mechanisms promoting their diversification in the Alps are unknown. Here we present a species-level phylogeny of Rhithrogena in Europe using two mitochondrial and three nuclear gene regions. To improve sampling in a genus with many cryptic species, individuals were selected for analysis according to a recent DNA-based taxonomy rather than traditional nomenclature. A coalescent-based species tree and a reconstruction based on a supermatrix approach supported five of the species groups as monophyletic. A molecular clock, mapped on the most resolved phylogeny and calibrated using published mitochondrial evolution rates for insects, suggested an origin of Alpine Rhithrogena in the Oligocene/Miocene boundary. A diversification analysis that included simulation of missing species indicated a constant speciation rate over time, rather than any pronounced periods of rapid speciation. Ancestral state reconstructions provided evidence for downstream diversification in at least two species groups. Our species-level analyses of five gene regions provide clearer definitions of species groups within European Rhithrogena. A constant speciation rate over time suggests that the paleoclimatic fluctuations, including the Pleistocene glaciations, did not significantly influence the tempo of diversification of Alpine species. A downstream diversification trend in the hybrida and alpestris species groups

  15. Detection, phylogeny and population dynamics of syntrophic propionate - oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The research described this thesis concerns the diversity and phylogeny of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria and their ecology in granular sludge, from which they were obtained. 16S rRNA was used as a molecular marker to study both the phylogeny and the ecology of these bacteria.

  16. The co phylogeny reconstruction problem is NP-complete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Y; Fielder, D; Conow, C; Libeskind-Hadas, R

    2011-01-01

    The co phylogeny reconstruction problem is that of finding minimum cost explanations of differences between historical associations. The problem arises in parasitology, molecular systematics, and biogeography. Existing software tools for this problem either have worst-case exponential time or use heuristics that do not guarantee optimal solutions. To date, no polynomial time optimal algorithms have been found for this problem. In this article, we prove that the problem is NP-complete, suggesting that future research on algorithms for this problem should seek better polynomial-time approximation algorithms and heuristics rather than optimal solutions.

  17. Adipokinetic hormones provide inference for the phylogeny of Odonata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Fescemyer, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2011), s. 174-178 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/2014 Grant - others:University of Cape Town for a Block grant(ZA) IFR 2008071500048; National Research Foundation, Pretoria(ZA) FA 2007021300002; USDA, ARS Specific Cooperative Agreement(US) 58-6402-5-066; US National Science Foundation(US) EF-0412651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : phylogeny of Odonata * Libellulidae * Corduliidae Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.236, year: 2011

  18. A detailed phylogeny for the Methanomicrobiales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouviere, P.; Mandelco, L.; Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA sequence of twenty archaea, members of the Methanomicrobiales, permits a detailed phylogenetic tree to be inferred for the group. The tree confirms earlier studies, based on far fewer sequences, in showing the group to be divided into two major clusters, temporarily designated the "methanosarcina" group and the "methanogenium" group. The tree also defines phylogenetic relationships within these two groups, which in some cases do not agree with the phylogenetic relationships implied by current taxonomic names--a problem most acute for the genus Methanogenium and its relatives. The present phylogenetic characterization provides the basis for a consistent taxonomic restructuring of this major methanogenic taxon.

  19. Internalin profiling and multilocus sequence typing suggest four Listeria innocua subgroups with different evolutionary distances from Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshun; Chen, Qiaomiao; Jiang, Lingli; Cheng, Changyong; Bai, Fan; Wang, Jun; Mo, Fan; Fang, Weihuan

    2010-03-31

    Ecological, biochemical and genetic resemblance as well as clear differences of virulence between L. monocytogenes and L. innocua make this bacterial clade attractive as a model to examine evolution of pathogenicity. This study was attempted to examine the population structure of L. innocua and the microevolution in the L. innocua-L. monocytogenes clade via profiling of 37 internalin genes and multilocus sequence typing based on the sequences of 9 unlinked genes gyrB, sigB, dapE, hisJ, ribC, purM, gap, tuf and betL. L. innocua was genetically monophyletic compared to L. monocytogenes, and comprised four subgroups. Subgroups A and B correlated with internalin types 1 and 3 (except the strain 0063 belonging to subgroup C) and internalin types 2 and 4 respectively. The majority of L. innocua strains belonged to these two subgroups. Subgroup A harbored a whole set of L. monocytogenes-L. innocua common and L. innocua-specific internalin genes, and displayed higher recombination rates than those of subgroup B, including the relative frequency of occurrence of recombination versus mutation (rho/theta) and the relative effect of recombination versus point mutation (r/m). Subgroup A also exhibited a significantly smaller exterior/interior branch length ratio than expected under the coalescent model, suggesting a recent expansion of its population size. The phylogram based on the analysis with correction for recombination revealed that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of L. innocua subgroups A and B were similar. Additionally, subgroup D, which correlated with internalin type 5, branched off from the other three subgroups. All L. innocua strains lacked seventeen virulence genes found in L. monocytogenes (except for the subgroup D strain L43 harboring inlJ and two subgroup B strains bearing bsh) and were nonpathogenic to mice. L. innocua represents a young species descending from L. monocytogenes and comprises four subgroups: two major subgroups A and B

  20. Internalin profiling and multilocus sequence typing suggest four Listeria innocua subgroups with different evolutionary distances from Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Ecological, biochemical and genetic resemblance as well as clear differences of virulence between L. monocytogenes and L. innocua make this bacterial clade attractive as a model to examine evolution of pathogenicity. This study was attempted to examine the population structure of L. innocua and the microevolution in the L. innocua-L. monocytogenes clade via profiling of 37 internalin genes and multilocus sequence typing based on the sequences of 9 unlinked genes gyrB, sigB, dapE, hisJ, ribC, purM, gap, tuf and betL. Results L. innocua was genetically monophyletic compared to L. monocytogenes, and comprised four subgroups. Subgroups A and B correlated with internalin types 1 and 3 (except the strain 0063 belonging to subgroup C) and internalin types 2 and 4 respectively. The majority of L. innocua strains belonged to these two subgroups. Subgroup A harbored a whole set of L. monocytogenes-L. innocua common and L. innocua-specific internalin genes, and displayed higher recombination rates than those of subgroup B, including the relative frequency of occurrence of recombination versus mutation (ρ/θ) and the relative effect of recombination versus point mutation (r/m). Subgroup A also exhibited a significantly smaller exterior/interior branch length ratio than expected under the coalescent model, suggesting a recent expansion of its population size. The phylogram based on the analysis with correction for recombination revealed that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of L. innocua subgroups A and B were similar. Additionally, subgroup D, which correlated with internalin type 5, branched off from the other three subgroups. All L. innocua strains lacked seventeen virulence genes found in L. monocytogenes (except for the subgroup D strain L43 harboring inlJ and two subgroup B strains bearing bsh) and were nonpathogenic to mice. Conclusions L. innocua represents a young species descending from L. monocytogenes and comprises four subgroups: two

  1. Internalin profiling and multilocus sequence typing suggest four Listeria innocua subgroups with different evolutionary distances from Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological, biochemical and genetic resemblance as well as clear differences of virulence between L. monocytogenes and L. innocua make this bacterial clade attractive as a model to examine evolution of pathogenicity. This study was attempted to examine the population structure of L. innocua and the microevolution in the L. innocua-L. monocytogenes clade via profiling of 37 internalin genes and multilocus sequence typing based on the sequences of 9 unlinked genes gyrB, sigB, dapE, hisJ, ribC, purM, gap, tuf and betL. Results L. innocua was genetically monophyletic compared to L. monocytogenes, and comprised four subgroups. Subgroups A and B correlated with internalin types 1 and 3 (except the strain 0063 belonging to subgroup C and internalin types 2 and 4 respectively. The majority of L. innocua strains belonged to these two subgroups. Subgroup A harbored a whole set of L. monocytogenes-L. innocua common and L. innocua-specific internalin genes, and displayed higher recombination rates than those of subgroup B, including the relative frequency of occurrence of recombination versus mutation (ρ/θ and the relative effect of recombination versus point mutation (r/m. Subgroup A also exhibited a significantly smaller exterior/interior branch length ratio than expected under the coalescent model, suggesting a recent expansion of its population size. The phylogram based on the analysis with correction for recombination revealed that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA of L. innocua subgroups A and B were similar. Additionally, subgroup D, which correlated with internalin type 5, branched off from the other three subgroups. All L. innocua strains lacked seventeen virulence genes found in L. monocytogenes (except for the subgroup D strain L43 harboring inlJ and two subgroup B strains bearing bsh and were nonpathogenic to mice. Conclusions L. innocua represents a young species descending from L. monocytogenes and

  2. Assessment of MultiLocus Sequence Analysis As a Valuable Tool for the Classification of the Genus Salinivibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara López-Hermoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salinivibrio includes obligatory halophilic bacteria and is commonly isolated from hypersaline habitats and salted food products. They grow optimally between 7.5 and 10% salts and are facultative anaerobes. Currently, this genus comprises four species, one of them, S. costicola, with three subspecies. In this study we isolated and characterized an additional 70 strains from solar salterns located in different locations. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified these strains as belonging to the genus Salinivibrio but could not differentiate strains into species-like groups. To achieve finer phylogenetic resolution, we carried out a MultiLocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA of the new isolates and the type strains of the species of Salinivibrio based on the individual as well as concatenated sequences of four housekeeping genes: gyrB, recA, rpoA, and rpoD. The strains formed four clearly differentiated species-like clusters called phylogroups. All of the known type and subspecies strains were associated with one of these clusters except S. sharmensis. One phylogroup had no previously described species coupled to it. Further DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH experiments with selected representative strains from these phylogroups permitted us to validate the MLSA study, correlating the species level defined by the DDH (70% with a 97% cut-off for the concatenated MLSA gene sequences. Based on these criteria, the novel strains forming phylogroup 1 could constitute a new species while strains constructing the other three phylogroups are members of previously recognized Salinivibrio species. S. costicola subsp. vallismortis co-occurs with S. proteolyticus in phylogroup 4, and separately from other S. costicola strains, indicating its need for reclassification. On the other hand, genome fingerprinting analysis showed that the environmental strains do not form clonal populations and did not cluster according to their site of cultivation. In

  3. Multilocus Species Trees Show the Recent Adaptive Radiation of the Mimetic Heliconius Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Krzysztof M.; Wahlberg, Niklas; Neild, Andrew F. E.; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Mallet, James; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2015-01-01

    Müllerian mimicry among Neotropical Heliconiini butterflies is an excellent example of natural selection, associated with the diversification of a large continental-scale radiation. Some of the processes driving the evolution of mimicry rings are likely to generate incongruent phylogenetic signals across the assemblage, and thus pose a challenge for systematics. We use a data set of 22 mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 92% of species in the tribe, obtained by Sanger sequencing and de novo assembly of short read data, to re-examine the phylogeny of Heliconiini with both supermatrix and multispecies coalescent approaches, characterize the patterns of conflicting signal, and compare the performance of various methodological approaches to reflect the heterogeneity across the data. Despite the large extent of reticulate signal and strong conflict between markers, nearly identical topologies are consistently recovered by most of the analyses, although the supermatrix approach failed to reflect the underlying variation in the history of individual loci. However, the supermatrix represents a useful approximation where multiple rare species represented by short sequences can be incorporated easily. The first comprehensive, time-calibrated phylogeny of this group is used to test the hypotheses of a diversification rate increase driven by the dramatic environmental changes in the Neotropics over the past 23 myr, or changes caused by diversity-dependent effects on the rate of diversification. We find that the rate of diversification has increased on the branch leading to the presently most species-rich genus Heliconius, but the change occurred gradually and cannot be unequivocally attributed to a specific environmental driver. Our study provides comprehensive comparison of philosophically distinct species tree reconstruction methods and provides insights into the diversification of an important insect radiation in the most biodiverse region of the planet. PMID:25634098

  4. The Applied Development of a Tiered Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) Scheme for Dichelobacter nodosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Adam M; Jolley, Keith A; Maiden, Martin C J; Coffey, Tracey J; Maboni, Grazieli; Staley, Ceri E; Bollard, Nicola J; Warry, Andrew; Emes, Richard D; Davies, Peers L; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Dichelobacter nodosus ( D. nodosus ) is the causative pathogen of ovine footrot, a disease that has a significant welfare and financial impact on the global sheep industry. Previous studies into the phylogenetics of D. nodosus have focused on Australia and Scandinavia, meaning the current diversity in the United Kingdom (U.K.) population and its relationship globally, is poorly understood. Numerous epidemiological methods are available for bacterial typing; however, few account for whole genome diversity or provide the opportunity for future application of new computational techniques. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) measures nucleotide variations within several loci with slow accumulation of variation to enable the designation of allele numbers to determine a sequence type. The usage of whole genome sequence data enables the application of MLST, but also core and whole genome MLST for higher levels of strain discrimination with a negligible increase in experimental cost. An MLST database was developed alongside a seven loci scheme using publically available whole genome data from the sequence read archive. Sequence type designation and strain discrimination was compared to previously published data to ensure reproducibility. Multiple D. nodosus isolates from U.K. farms were directly compared to populations from other countries. The U.K. isolates define new clades within the global population of D. nodosus and predominantly consist of serogroups A, B and H, however serogroups C, D, E, and I were also found. The scheme is publically available at https://pubmlst.org/dnodosus/.

  5. Multilocus analysis of introgression between two sympatric sister species of Drosophila: Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopart, Ana; Lachaise, Daniel; Coyne, Jerry A

    2005-09-01

    Drosophila yakuba is widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, while D. santomea is endemic to the volcanic island of São Tomé in the Atlantic Ocean, 280 km west of Gabon. On São Tomé, D. yakuba is found mainly in open lowland forests, and D. santomea is restricted to the wet misty forests at higher elevations. At intermediate elevations, the species form a hybrid zone where hybrids occur at a frequency of approximately 1%. To determine the extent of gene flow between these species we studied polymorphism and divergence patterns in 29 regions distributed throughout the genome, including mtDNA and three genes on the Y chromosome. This multilocus approach, together with the comparison to the two allopatric species D. mauritiana and D. sechellia, allowed us to distinguish between forces that should affect all genes and forces that should act on some genes (e.g.,