We present TISC, a multilingual, language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from raw text corpora, without supervision, and contains word unigrams
Fluhr, C.; Radwan, K.
Many full text databases are available in only one language, or more, they may contain documents in different languages. Even if the user is able to understand the language of the documents in the database, it could be easier for him to express his need in his own language. For the case of databases containing documents in different languages, it is more simple to formulate the query in one language only and to retrieve documents in different languages. This paper present the developments and the first experiments of multilingual search, applied to french-english pair, for text data in nuclear field, based on the system SPIRIT. After reminding the general problems of full text databases search by queries formulated in natural language, we present the methods used to reformulate the queries and show how they can be expanded for multilingual search. The first results on data in nuclear field are presented (AFCEN norms and INIS abstracts). 4 refs
Fluhr, C; Radwan, K [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN), Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
Many full text databases are available in only one language, or more, they may contain documents in different languages. Even if the user is able to understand the language of the documents in the database, it could be easier for him to express his need in his own language. For the case of databases containing documents in different languages, it is more simple to formulate the query in one language only and to retrieve documents in different languages. This paper present the developments and the first experiments of multilingual search, applied to french-english pair, for text data in nuclear field, based on the system SPIRIT. After reminding the general problems of full text databases search by queries formulated in natural language, we present the methods used to reformulate the queries and show how they can be expanded for multilingual search. The first results on data in nuclear field are presented (AFCEN norms and INIS abstracts). 4 refs.
Condon, Bradly J.
Multilingualism is a sensitive and complex subject in a global organisation such as the World Trade Organization (WTO). In the WTO legal texts, there is a need for full concordance, not simply translation. This article begins with an overview of the issues raised by multilingual processes at the WTO in the negotiation, drafting, translation,…
Powell, James; Fox, Edward A.
Describes a scalable system for searching heterogeneous multilingual collections on the World Wide Web. Details Searchable Database Markup Language (SearchDB-ML) for describing the characteristics of a search engine and its interface, and a protocol for requesting word translations between languages. (Author)
Full Text Available This paper introduces a new multilingual text-to-speech system, which we call Speect (Speech synthesis with extensible architecture), aiming to address the shortcomings of using Festival as a research sytem and Flite as a deployment system in a...
Full Text Available Text-based language identification (T-LID) of isolated words has been shown to be useful for various speech processing tasks, including pronunciation modelling and data categorisation. When the words to be categorised are proper names, the task...
Full Text Available Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.
Macedo, Alexandra Lorandi
Full Text Available This article presents the Concepts Network tool, developed using text mining technology. The main objective of this tool is to extract and relate terms of greatest incidence from a text and exhibit the results in the form of a graph. The Network was implemented in the Collective Text Editor (CTE which is an online tool that allows the production of texts in synchronized or non-synchronized forms. This article describes the application of the Network both in texts produced collectively and texts produced in a forum. The purpose of the tool is to offer support to the teacher in managing the high volume of data generated in the process of interaction amongst students and in the construction of the text. Specifically, the aim is to facilitate the teacher’s job by allowing him/her to process data in a shorter time than is currently demanded. The results suggest that the Concepts Network can aid the teacher, as it provides indicators of the quality of the text produced. Moreover, messages posted in forums can be analyzed without their content necessarily having to be pre-read.
Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li
The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait of cognitive empathy among 2158 mono- and multilinguals. Data were collected through an online questionnaire. Statistical analyses revealed that the knowledge of more languages was not linked to cognitive empathy. Bilingual upbringing and the experience of…
Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp.......Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp....
Knowledge of teachers' beliefs is central to understanding teachers' decision-making in the classroom. The present study explores Norwegian language teachers' beliefs about multilingualism and the use of a multilingual pedagogical approach in the third-language (L3) classroom. This study analysed data collected via focus group discussions with 12…
Full Text Available first describe the collection and processing of the text corpus crawled from the World Wide Web using the Rapid Language Adaptation Toolkit. In particular, we highlight the challenges faced when foreign languages are embedded within the matrix language...
Engel de Abreu, Pascale
The multilingual brain. Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? The given lecture will focus on the "cognitive advantages" of multilingualism and illustrate the impact that being multilingual has on the cognitive organisation of the brain. Practical questions regarding multilingual education will also be discussed.
Full Text Available Multilinguality represents an area of significant opportunities for automatic speech-processing systems: whereas multilingual societies are commonplace, the majority of speechprocessing systems are developed with a single language in mind. As a step...
Engel de Abreu, Pascale
The multilingual brain. Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? The given lecture will focus on the "cognitive advantages" of multilingualism and illustrate the impact that being multilingual has on the cognitive organisation of the brain. Practical questions regarding multilingual education will also be discussed. Ass et gutt e Kand méisproocheg ze erzéien? Wat sinn déi optimal Konditio...
Oard, Douglas; Peters, Carol; Ruiz, Miguel; Frederking, Robert; Klavans, Judith; Sheridan, Paraic
Discusses a multidisciplinary workshop that addressed issues concerning internationally distributed information networks. Highlights include multilingual information access in media other than character-coded text; cross-language information retrieval and multilingual metadata; and evaluation of multilingual systems. (LRW)
Full Text Available The paper describes the preparation and development of the text collections within the framework of MorphoRuEval-2017 shared task, an evaluation campaign designed to stimulate development of the automatic morphological processing technologies for Russian. The main challenge for the organizers was to standardize all available Russian corpora with the manually verified high-quality tagging to a single format (Universal Dependencies CONLL-U. The sources of the data were the disambiguated subcorpus of the Russian National Corpus, SynTagRus, OpenCorpora.org data and GICR corpus with the resolved homonymy, all exhibiting different tagsets, rules for lemmatization, pipeline architecture, technical solutions and error systematicity. The collections includes both normative texts (the news and modern literature and more informal discourse (social media and spoken data, the texts are available under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license.
Jens Normann Jørgensen
Full Text Available This introduction reviews some of the major work on bilingual and multilingual children and adolescents in Scandinavia, from Kotsinas (1985 and Boyd (1985 to the present. The introduction was originally published in J. N. Jørgensen (ed. 2001: Multilingual behavior in Youth Groups, Copenhagen Studies in Bilingualism, The Køge Series, Volume K11, Danish University of Education.
Kiramba, Lydiah Kananu
This article discusses the findings of an empirical study that investigated the writing practices in a multilingual, rural, fourth-grade classroom in Kenya. The study was undergirded by Bakhtin's heteroglossia. Analysis of texts indicated that these emergent multilinguals used multiple semiotic resources to maximize the chances of meeting the…
Kim, Suin; Park, Sungjoon; Hale, Scott A; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H
Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.
Full Text Available The concept of affordances originating in Gibson’s work (Gibson, 1977 is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010. Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated aspects of multilingualism. This is despite the fact that the theory of affordances can actually provide a valuable, supplementary, up-to-date framework within which a clearer, sharper description and explication of the intriguing range of attributes of multilingual communities, educational institutions and individuals, as well as teaching practices, become feasible. It is important that not only researchers and practitioners (teachers, educators, parents, community and political actors but also language users and learners themselves should be aware of how to identify or, if necessary, design new affordances for language acquisition and learning. The aim of this article is to adapt the concept of affordances to multilingualism studies and additional language teaching, and in so doing advance theoretical understanding in this context. To this end the article contains a brief summary of the findings so far available. The article also goes further into defining the ways of how affordances work in relation to multilingualism and second language teaching and puts forward an integrated model of affordances.
Full Text Available Linguistic diversity and multilingualism on the part of individuals are aprerequisite and a constitutive condition of enabling people to live togetherin a world of growing heterogeneity. Foreign language teaching plays animportant part in democratic education because it can be seen as a trainingin respecting otherness and developing an intercultural, non-ethnocentricperception and attitude. This is all the more important because of the neces-sity of integrating children from migrant families into school life.My article argues that language education policy has to take this per-spective into account, i.e., of establishing a planned diversification so thatpupils (and their parents will not feel satisfied with learning English only,but also become motivated to learn languages of their own neighbourhood,such as migrant and minority languages. However, in order to make use ofthe linguistic resources in the classroom, relating it to the democratic impetusof foreign language education, it is necessary to revise existing languagepolicies and to develop a multilingual perspective for all educational institutions.
-, č. 1 (2017) E-ISSN 1540-8760 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : Sumerian * Ur III * administrative texts Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) https://cdli.ucla.edu/files/ publications /cdlb2017_001.pdf
Full Text Available Knowledge of teachers’ beliefs is central to understanding teachers’ decision-making in the classroom. The present study explores international language teachers’ beliefs about multilingualism and the use of a multilingual pedagogical approach in the third-language (L3 classroom. This study analyzed data collected with 12 teachers of French (N = 4, German (N = 2 and Spanish (N = 6 using qualitative content analysis. Three main themes emerged from the analysis. (1 The teachers view multilingualism as a potentially positive asset. Although they think that multilingualism has benefited their own language learning, they do not conclude that multilingualism is automatically an asset to students. (2 The teachers claim to make frequent use of their students’ linguistic knowledge of English when teaching the L3. However, the teachers rarely focus on the transfer of learning strategies because they believe that learning an L3 is completely different from learning the second language L2 English. (3 The teachers think that collaboration across languages could enhance students’ language learning; however, no such collaboration currently exists.
Björklund, Mikaela; Björklund, Siv; Sjöholm, Kaj
This article presents some aspects of multilingualism and multilingual education in the Nordic countries, drawing upon experiences from the project "Network for Researchers of Multilingualism and Multilingual Education, RoMME" (2011-2013), where Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are represented. The aim is to briefly present and…
This study examines the literacy practices of two multilingual writers in social networking communities. The findings show that the multilingual writers explored and reappropriated symbolic resources afforded by the social networking site as they aligned themselves with particular collective and personal identities at local and global levels.…
Garcia, Ofelia, Ed.; Fishman, Joshua A., Ed.
This collection of papers tells the story of how languages other than English have contributed to making New York City a culturally vibrant and linguistically diverse city. Part 1, "Introduction to the Multilingual Apple," features "New York's Multilingualism: World Languages and Their Role in a U.S. City" (Ofelia Garcia). Part…
Book Title: Multilingualism online. Book Author: Carmen Lee. 2017. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781138900493. 170 pages. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2017.1373369 · AJOL African Journals Online.
This paper provides an overall analysis of how multi-lingual writer like Amitav Ghosh write about emotion in his literary text, and emphasize on how multilingual authors display emotion/affect through use of literary multilingualism (affective markers) combined with writer style. Through use of multiple strategies, they reduces the limitations of…
I A Korotova
Full Text Available In this article the language policy of the European Union (EU in the field of lobbying the concept of multilingual Europe is considered. In this research the didactic aspects of the policy of multilingualism are accented, and also the results of the approbation of policy of multilingualism in the educational theory and practice of the EU are analyzed.
Marácz, L.; Adamo, S.
This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role in
This book examines the phenomenon of multilingualism in West Africa from a historical, social, and environmental perspective. Chapter 1 explains why the catalogue of African languages established by linguists is not reliable for assessing the linguistic diversity of the region. It also discusses studies that show that the linguistic behavior in…
Engel de Abreu, Pascale
Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...
Okal, Benard Odoyo
The article gives a brief analytical survey of multilingualism practices, its consequences, its benefits in education and discussions on the appropriate ways towards its achievement in education. Multilingualism refers to speaking more than one language competently. Generally there are both the official and unofficial multilingualism practices. A…
(NTIC et aides à la compréhension et à la production de textes explicatifs en langue seconde - Vers une didactique cognitive du texte en contexte plurilingue et pluriculturel (NICT and helps in second language comprehension and production of explicative texts - Towards cognitive textual didactics in multilingual and multicultural contexts
the assistance in mother tongue (L1 for text comprehension and production in L2. The goal is to conceive and validate systems of hypertexts (closed hypertext systems and systems of remote co-training (open-ended Internet environments supported on the same integrating theoretical framework making it possible to account for memory process involved in trainings in multilingual and diglossic contexts. Starting from this common framework it becomes possible to consider from an interdisciplinary perspective a coherent and effective development of the didactics and the assistances systems.
Van Huyssteen, G
Full Text Available Multilingual emerging markets hold many opportunities for the application of spoken language technologies, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) or test-to-speech (TTS) technologies in interactive voice response (IVR) systems. However...
This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role...... in these processes. As a consequence, English as the only global language is spreading around the world, including Europe and the European Union. Social and linguistic inclusion was accounted for in the pre-globalization age by the nation-state ideology implementing the ‘one nation-one people-one language’ doctrine...... in governance and daily life protected by a legal framework. This does not mean that there is full equality of languages. This carries over to the fair and just social inclusion of the speakers of these weaker, dominated languages as well. There is always a power question related to multilingualism. The ten...
Hazel, Spencer; Mortensen, Janus
this linguistic diversity is managed in situ by participants engaged in dialogue with one another, and what it is used for in these transient multilingual communities. This paper presents CA-based micro-ethnographic analyses of language choice in an informal social setting – a kitchen – of an international study...... literature on language choice in interaction, our findings emphasize that analyses of language choice in multilingual settings need to take into account social actions beyond the words that are spoken. We show that facial, spatial and postural configurations, gaze orientation and gestures as well as prosodic...... in the particular community of practice that we are investigating. Reference Hazel, Spencer, and Janus Mortensen. forthcoming. Kitchen talk: Exploring linguistic practices in liminal institutional interactions in a multilingual university setting. in Language Alternation, Language Choice, and Language Encounter...
There has been some emphasis on the practice of multilingualism. It is seen as encouraging children creativity, linguistic sensitivity and openness. In this article, we seek to find out if the different qualities demonstrated in multilingualism can also be developed in a monolingualism context. Despite the fact that it is a single language system - where grammar, accents, the rhythm of the sentence remain unchanged - it will be interesting to draw some parallels with multilingualism. This will lead us to study the processes of oral and written language acquisition in children. The associations with stuttering will also be mentioned.
Full Text Available This paper provides an overall analysis of how multi-lingual writer like Amitav Ghosh write about emotion in his literary text, and emphasize on how multilingual authors display emotion/affect through use of literary multilingualism (affective markers combined with writer style. Through use of multiple strategies, they reduces the limitations of interpretation of their texts. Furthermore, this paper highlighted the centrally sociolinguistic and cognitive dimensions of the relationships between multilingualism and emotion and how this is influenced by assumptions of Relevance Theory i.e. optimal relevance in a literary text. One should expect to find relationships between sociolinguistic diversity and affective expression for most authors in locally specific ways, whether multilingual or not. Such scholarship can then illuminate how the authors by using literary multilingualism through writer style and affective markers can shape emotions across various contexts in a literary text. Future research into multilingualism and emotion should continue to distinguish between how multilingual authors use linguistic forms to show feeling, and how they express about feeling in their created texts. Keywords: Language, Culture, Literary Multilingualism, Style, Affect and Relevance Theory
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Lejeune, Gaël; Brixtel, Romain; Doucet, Antoine; Lucas, Nadine
This paper presents a multilingual news surveillance system applied to tele-epidemiology. It has been shown that multilingual approaches improve timeliness in detection of epidemic events across the globe, eliminating the wait for local news to be translated into major languages. We present here a system to extract epidemic events in potentially any language, provided a Wikipedia seed for common disease names exists. The Daniel system presented herein relies on properties that are common to news writing (the journalistic genre), the most useful being repetition and saliency. Wikipedia is used to screen common disease names to be matched with repeated characters strings. Language variations, such as declensions, are handled by processing text at the character-level, rather than at the word level. This additionally makes it possible to handle various writing systems in a similar fashion. As no multilingual ground truth existed to evaluate the Daniel system, we built a multilingual corpus from the Web, and collected annotations from native speakers of Chinese, English, Greek, Polish and Russian, with no connection or interest in the Daniel system. This data set is available online freely, and can be used for the evaluation of other event extraction systems. Experiments for 5 languages out of 17 tested are detailed in this paper: Chinese, English, Greek, Polish and Russian. The Daniel system achieves an average F-measure of 82% in these 5 languages. It reaches 87% on BEcorpus, the state-of-the-art corpus in English, slightly below top-performing systems, which are tailored with numerous language-specific resources. The consistent performance of Daniel on multiple languages is an important contribution to the reactivity and the coverage of epidemiological event detection systems. Most event extraction systems rely on extensive resources that are language-specific. While their sophistication induces excellent results (over 90% precision and recall), it restricts their
Alex Josef Kasula
Full Text Available With the current trends in our globalized society, there is a clear increase in multilinguals rise; however, the understanding of multilingual identity and policy towards education stays relatively the same. Recent investigation in multilingualism in the US has shed light on the positive impacts of alternating policy in language education with regard to a greater understanding in how translanguaging and identity impact the language learner and language learning policies (Garcia & Wei, 2013. The following article describes the development of an online multilingual literary magazine, Olowalu Review, that aimed to provide English language learners in an English-only language policy a space to translanguage. Thus, having the opportunity to develop and express their multilingual identities. Goals and the development of the magazine are described in terms relating to current multilingual theory. While the outcomes and findings reveal how Olowalu Review enabled multilinguals to foster and exercise multilingual identities and skills, raise multilingual awareness, and act as an important multilingual artifact through an analysis of written submissions and interviews with authors. Pedagogical implications are discussed to empower language teachers, learners, or artists to develop the same or similar project for their own local, national, or global community.
Daniel, Mayra C.; Ball, Alexis
This article discusses the educational system of Morocco and the ways the country's multilingual history has influenced and continues to direct the choice of the languages used in schools. Suggestions that will eliminate cultural mismatch and thus facilitate interactions with Moroccan students and their families are included. The research focuses…
In this paper, the author focuses on educational values and second language learners' experiences from education. She is using a life story approach. Overarching aim of the presentation is to discuss second language teacher students' encountering with Swedish school, mother tongue tuition, second language and multilingualism. The goal was achieved…
Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.
Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…
One aim of the ERASMUS program is the furthering of multilingualism in Europe. This paper examines under what conditions the aim is achieved in the case of non-language exchange students coming to Scandinavia. The paper draws on a longitudinal study involving interviews with, and tests done by, 240...
Full Text Available This paper examines the early language development of children with particular reference to the importance of personal multilingualism and the reasons why this should be promoted in early years education. It is argued that such an objective is best achieved by building multilingual learning environments at the level of nursery and infant schools. The characteristics of such environments are described and ways of evaluating projects designed to build them are presented.
Full Text Available Multilingual society, being a society that has more than one significant lan-guage group is a sociolinguistic phenomenon that arises as a result of language contact but the fundamental problem in this type of society is that to enthrone one of the languages can be accepted conveniently as the National language. Any attempt to enthrone one of the languages at the expense of the other has proven a failure due to the fact that it appears as distinct, which is inherent and regrettably discriminating and domineering on the other languages and this dies in the mine of ethnic bickering. In Nigeria, like many other African nations, multilingualism is a rule, rather than an exemption, the problem of 'forging ahead' is of crucial importance. Among the competing languages that scramble for national recognition or official status, whether indigenous or for-eign, one must emerge as the official language (the language of administration and education at some levels, the language of relevance, from the competition for the purpose of uniting the nation. Fortunately, English has emerged as that privileged language of its kind. The Nigerian society is irretrievably heterogeneous. Students from diverse ethno-linguistic, cultural and economic groups are exposed quite early to several languages, including their mother tongues and English. Nigerian scholars have variously, as have others examined the connection between multilingualism and interference; we avail ourselves of such studies in situating our reflections. This paper thus looks into the importance of language, most especially English language in the multilingual society.
Full Text Available Sample data plays an important role in land cover (LC map validation. Traditionally, they are collected through field survey or image interpretation, either of which is costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming. In recent years, massive geo-tagged texts are emerging on the web and they contain valuable information for LC map validation. However, this kind of special textual data has seldom been analyzed and used for supporting LC map validation. This paper examines the potential of geo-tagged web texts as a new cost-free sample data source to assist LC map validation and proposes an active data collection approach. The proposed approach uses a customized deep web crawler to search for geo-tagged web texts based on land cover-related keywords and string-based rules matching. A data transformation based on buffer analysis is then performed to convert the collected web texts into LC sample data. Using three provinces and three municipalities directly under the Central Government in China as study areas, geo-tagged web texts were collected to validate artificial surface class of China’s 30-meter global land cover datasets (GlobeLand30-2010. A total of 6283 geo-tagged web texts were collected at a speed of 0.58 texts per second. The collected texts about built-up areas were transformed into sample data. User’s accuracy of 82.2% was achieved, which is close to that derived from formal expert validation. The preliminary results show that geo-tagged web texts are valuable ancillary data for LC map validation and the proposed approach can improve the efficiency of sample data collection.
Raymond M. Klein
Full Text Available It has been suggested that the cognitive requirements associated with bi- and multilingual processing provide a form of mental exercise that, through increases in cognitive reserve and brain fitness, may delay the symptoms of cognitive failure associated with Alzheimer′s disease and other forms of dementia. We collected data on a country-by-country basis that might shed light on this suggestion. Using the best available evidence we could find, the somewhat mixed results we obtained provide tentative support for the protective benefits of multilingualism against cognitive decline. But more importantly, this study exposes a critical issue, which is the need for more comprehensive and more appropriate data on the subject. Keywords: Bilingualism, Alzheimer's disease, Dementia, Brain reserve
Van Der Wildt, Anouk; Van Avermaet, Piet; Van Houtte, Mieke
Societies have become super-diverse due to migration and globalization. Many mainstream classroom teachers feel managing the linguistic variety children bring to school is challenging. This often leads to restrictive language policies. Research on multilingualism has given us insight into the multilingual realities of pupils, which allows us to…
Kolehmainen, Leena; Skaffari, Janne
This article serves as an introduction to a collection of four articles on multilingual practices in speech and writing, exploring both contemporary and historical sources. It not only introduces the articles but also discusses the scope and definitions of code-switching, attitudes towards multilingual interaction and, most pertinently, the…
Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah Auleear
This study analyzes the connections among multilingual language practices, multilingual literacy practices, and social identities in two Sunni madrassahs in Mauritius. The study is framed by sociolinguistic and poststructuralist perspectives on language and identity, and social practice views of literacy. Data collection and analysis involved…
Full Text Available This paper reports on a literacy pilot project which investigated the use of multilingual reading books and the pedagogical strategies that were employed by one bilingual teacher and her assistant to teach literacy in a linguistically diverse Grade 1 classroom in a primary school in the Western Cape, South Africa. Data were collected by means of classroom observations and semi-structured interviews to understand the teacher’s literacy instruction, reflecting her understanding of the multilingual pedagogical approach as a means of fostering learners’ biliteracy skills. Through the lens of the social constructivist theory and the notion of biliteracy, this paper argues that bilingual competence does not necessarily translate to biliteracy if the teaching approaches and learning materials are not systematically and adequately used to support learners’ listening, oral, reading and writing skills in different languages in an integrated and holistic manner in multilingual classrooms. It concludes that, despite the progressive South African Language-in-Education Policy which supports additive multilingualism, classroom practices continue to reinforce monolingualism in English, which deprives the majority of learners of meaningful access to literacy in different languages as they do not exploit the socio-cultural and cognitive capital embedded in the learners’ home languages for additive bilingual and biliteracy competence.
A practical book with plenty of screenshots to guide you through the many features of multilingual Drupal. A demo ecommerce site is provided if you want to practice on a sample site, although you can apply the techniques learnt in the book directly to your site too. Any Drupal users who know the basics of building a Drupal site and are familiar with the Drupal UI, will benefit from this book. No previous knowledge of localization or internationalization is required.
Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski
Full Text Available Multilingualism and Dictionaries The Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that we (Wojciech Sosnowski, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Anna Kisiel are currently developing has no precedent as far as its theoretical foundations and its structure are concerned. The dictionary offers a unique combination of three Slavic languages that belong to three different groups: a West Slavic language (Polish, a South Slavic language (Bulgarian and an East Slavic language (Russian. The dictionary describes semantic and syntactic equivalents of words between the languages. When completed, the dictionary will contain around 30,000 entries. The principle we build the dictionary on is that every language should be given equal status. Many of our data come from the Parallel Polish-Bulgarian-Russian corpus developed by us as part of the CLARIN-PL initiative. In the print version, the entries come in the order of the Cyrillic alphabet and they are not numbered (except for homonyms, which are disambiguated with Roman numbers. We selected the lemmas for the dictionary on the basis of their frequency in the corpus. Our dictionary is the first dictionary to include forms of address and most recent neologisms in the three languages. Faithful to the recent developments in contrastive linguistics, we begin with a form from the dictionary’s primary language and we define it in Polish. Subsequently, based on this definition, we try to find an equivalent in the second and the third language. Therefore, the meaning comes first and only then we look for the form (i.e. the equivalent that corresponds to this meaning. This principle, outlined in Gramatyka konfrontatywna języków polskiego i bułgarskiego (GKBP, allows us to treat data from multiple languages as equal. In the dictionary, we draw attention to the correct choice of equivalents in translation; we also provide categorisers that indicate the meaning of verbal tenses and aspects. The definitions of states, events and
Ozarslan, Suleyman; Eren, P. Erhan
Participatory sensing is an approach which allows mobile devices such as mobile phones to be used for data collection, analysis and sharing processes by individuals. Data collection is the first and most important part of a participatory sensing system, but it is time consuming for the participants. In this paper, we discuss automatic data collection approaches for reducing the time required for collection, and increasing the amount of collected data. In this context, we explore automated text recognition on images of store receipts which are captured by mobile phone cameras, and the correction of the recognized text. Accordingly, our first goal is to evaluate the performance of the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) method with respect to data collection from store receipt images. Images captured by mobile phones exhibit some typical problems, and common image processing methods cannot handle some of them. Consequently, the second goal is to address these types of problems through our proposed Knowledge Based Correction (KBC) method used in support of the OCR, and also to evaluate the KBC method with respect to the improvement on the accurate recognition rate. Results of the experiments show that the KBC method improves the accurate data recognition rate noticeably.
Full Text Available The most powerful marketing, service, and information-distribution tool a library has today is its Web site, but providing Web content in many languages is complex. Before allocating scarce technical and financial resources, it is valuable to learn about writing systems, types of writing, how computers render and represent writing systems, and to study potential problem areas and their possible solutions. The accepted Web standard for presenting languages is Unicode and a full understanding of its history and the coding tools it provides is essential to making appropriate decisions for specific multilingual and internationalization projects. Actual coding examples, as well as a sampling of existing multilingual library services, also serve to illuminate the path of implementation.
Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip
Objective To test the effectiveness of multiple interventions on increasing the response rate of text messaging for longitudinal data collection. Methods Our cohort included 283 caregivers of children aged 6–12 months who were participating in an anemia program in rural China. Using text messages to collect data on anemia medication adherence, we conducted a delayed randomized controlled trial to test multiple interventions (an additional four reminders; a ¥5.0 (US$0.79) credit reward for replying; and a feedback text message). After a 6-week pilot study with week 7 as the baseline measurement, we randomly allocated all participants into two groups: group 1 (n = 142) and group 2 (n = 141). During weeks 8–11, we introduced the interventions to group 1, and in weeks 12–15 the intervention was introduced to both groups. We compared the response rates between groups and explored factors affecting the response rate. Results During weeks 8–11, the response rates in group 1 increased and were significantly higher than in group 2 (p0.05) and slightly decreased in group 1. Younger participants or participants who had children with lower hemoglobin concentration were more likely to reply (p = 0.02). Sending four reminders on the second day contributed to only 286 (11.7%) extra text messages. Discussion Our study showed that multiple interventions were effective in increasing response rate of text messaging data collection in rural China. Conclusions Larger multi-site studies are needed to find the most effective way of using these interventions to allow usage of text messaging data collection for health research. PMID:25332355
Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.
EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.
Laursen, Helle Pia
Multilingual school starters: social semiotics perspectives on second language and literacy learning in education Helle Pia Laursen The starting point for this paper is the still increasing role of literacy in educational settings. Often primary education is seen as almost being synonymous...... of globalisation. Furthermore, this perception of literacy entails that the student’s possible insights into other ways of adding signs to language than those we know from a specific version of the Latin alphabet, fall outside the interests of research and teaching. From this perspective and with a social semiotic...
Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W
An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants' acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all questionnaires, and ¥27.1 (US $4.31) versus ¥34
van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W
Background An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Methods Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants’ acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. Results We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all
Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.
This report is a summary of the accomplishments of the 'Scalable Solutions for Processing and Searching Very Large Document Collections' LDRD, which ran from FY08 through FY10. Our goal was to investigate scalable text analysis; specifically, methods for information retrieval and visualization that could scale to extremely large document collections. Towards that end, we designed, implemented, and demonstrated a scalable framework for text analysis - ParaText - as a major project deliverable. Further, we demonstrated the benefits of using visual analysis in text analysis algorithm development, improved performance of heterogeneous ensemble models in data classification problems, and the advantages of information theoretic methods in user analysis and interpretation in cross language information retrieval. The project involved 5 members of the technical staff and 3 summer interns (including one who worked two summers). It resulted in a total of 14 publications, 3 new software libraries (2 open source and 1 internal to Sandia), several new end-user software applications, and over 20 presentations. Several follow-on projects have already begun or will start in FY11, with additional projects currently in proposal.
Rai, Manisha; Moniz, Michelle H; Blaszczak, Julie; Richardson, Caroline R; Chang, Tammy
The use of text messaging is nearly ubiquitous and represents a promising method of collecting data from diverse populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of text message surveys in a clinical setting and to describe key lessons to minimize attrition. We obtained a convenience sample of individuals who entered the waiting room of a low-income, primary care clinic. Participants were asked to answer between 17 and 30 survey questions on a variety of health-related topics, including both open- and closed-ended questions. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the participants and determine the response rates. Bivariate analyses were used to identify predictors of incomplete surveys. Our convenience sample consisted of 461 individuals. Of those who attempted the survey, 80% (370/461) completed it in full. The mean age of respondents was 35.4 years (standard deviation = 12.4). Respondents were predominantly non-Hispanic black (42%) or non-Hispanic white (41%), female (75%), and with at least some college education (70%). Of those who completed the survey, 84% (312/370) reported willingness to do another text message survey. Those with incomplete surveys answered a median of nine questions before stopping. Smartphone users were less likely to leave the survey incomplete compared with non-smartphone users (p = 0.004). Text-message surveys are a feasible and acceptable method to collect real-time data among low-income, clinic-based populations. Offering participants a setting for immediate survey completion, minimizing survey length, simplifying questions, and allowing "free text" responses for all questions may optimize response rates.
In this article, we analyse visual narratives of multilingual children, in order to acknowledge their self-perception as multilingual selves. Through the analysis of drawings produced by children enrolled in Portuguese as heritage language (PHL) classes in Germany, we analyse how bi-/multilingual children perceive their multilingual repertoires…
Full Text Available It is undeniable that the European Union represents the most ambitious legal and linguistic project, integrating 28 Member States and 24 official languages. What we undertook with this study was to explore the importance of multilingualism in the European Union and the problems that unity in diversity involves. This study tried to touch upon both theoretical aspects (i.e., what the multilingualism of EU law implies and practical issues (i.e., the interaction between legal languages at national and at EU level, problems emerging from multilingualism, illustrated by the relevant case law of the European Court of Justice. In many ECJ cases, it was underlined that multilingualism is essential to the EU legal order. The meaning of EU law cannot be derived from one version of the official languages and the ECJ regularly heads for a uniform interpretation of the contradictory versions. The present study is part of a more complex research on this theme and it is meant to approach certain important points of my PhD thesis. A first part of this research on multilingualism has already been published.
This article presents data from a collection of yearlong case studies on resident multilingual writers' college admissions essays. The focal student in this piece revealed the challenges that such writers face in presenting themselves to college admissions officers. Exploring these cultural and linguistic conflicts, this analysis uses Goffman's…
Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried
While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…
Multilingualism in the workplace is different from multilingualism at home or in other domains of social life. It has more direct, yet entangled, economic and social implications and serves interactional purposes which can be at any point on the continuum of goal-orientation and relationship-building. Multilingualism in the workplace is both a…
Comanaru, Ruxandra-S.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc
Multilingualism is a prevalent reality in today's world. From an individual level to a societal one, multilingualism incorporates many aspects that have been studied extensively by diverse social research disciplines. The present article will explore the potential directions which multilingualism research can take, concentrating mainly on the…
Montecuollo, Ferdinando; Schmid, Giovannni; Tagliaferri, Roberto
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms and, more generally, high-throughput technologies are giving rise to an exponential growth in the size of nucleotide sequence databases. Moreover, many emerging applications of nucleotide datasets-as those related to personalized medicine-require the compliance with regulations about the storage and processing of sensitive data. We have designed and carefully engineered E 2 FM -index, a new full-text index in minute space which was optimized for compressing and encrypting nucleotide sequence collections in FASTA format and for performing fast pattern-search queries. E 2 FM -index allows to build self-indexes which occupy till to 1/20 of the storage required by the input FASTA file, thus permitting to save about 95% of storage when indexing collections of highly similar sequences; moreover, it can exactly search the built indexes for patterns in times ranging from few milliseconds to a few hundreds milliseconds, depending on pattern length. Source code is available at https://github.com/montecuollo/E2FM . email@example.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Full Text Available Multilingual emerging markets hold many opportunities for the application of spoken language technologies, such as interactive voice response (IVR) systems. Designing such systems requires an in-depth understanding of the business drivers...
Full Text Available . Mbogho, “Web-based corpus acquisition for Swahili language modelling,” in 3rd workshop on Spoken Languages Technolo- gies for Under-resourced languages, 2012, pp. 42–47.  T. Schlippe, C. Zhu, J. Gebhardt, and T. Schultz, “Text normalization based... multilingual environment and implications for an ASR system Raymond Molapo Human Language Technologies Research Group Meraka Institute CSIR, South Africa Multilingual Speech Technologies Group North-West University Vanderbijlpark South Africa Email: rmolapo...
Full Text Available Terminology and multilingualism have been one of the main focuses of the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a legacy of this project also deals with terminology and bring theory to practice applying the recommendations given in the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a direct follow-up of these recommendations on terminology and multilingualism is currently working on the development of a Terminology Management Platform (TMP. This platform will allow any cultural institution to register, SKOSify and manage its terminology in a collaborative way. This Terminology Management Platform will provide a network of multilingual and cross-domain terminologies.
The modern workplace is international and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees are expected to be mobile, work increasingly in (virtual) teams (Gee et al. 1996) and to address complex organisational issues in a language that, often, is not their first language (L1). This results in a number of languages forming the ecosystem of…
Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Dogruoz, A. Seza
Multilingual speakers switch between languages in online and spoken communication. Analyses of large scale multilingual data require automatic language identification at the word level. For our experiments with multilingual online discussions, we first tag the language of individual words using
Potts, D.; Moran, M. J.
The everyday reality of children's multilingualism is a significant resource for expanding students' perspectives on the world, but many questions remain regarding the negotiation of these resources in mainstream classrooms. Drawing on research from a long-term Canadian study of multiliterate pedagogies, this paper explores mediation of home…
This essay attempts to show the importance of linguistic issues in education for democracy and the close relationship between democracy and multilingualism. Increasingly nation-states are having to adapt to linguistic diversity within their borders and to recognize that democracy requires the participation of all citizens, including those…
Aronin, Larissa; Singleton, David
The concept of affordances originating in Gibson's work (Gibson, 1977) is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010). Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated…
Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Struys, E.; Kim, K.Y.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Mondt, K.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van; Lee, M.Y.; Craen, P. van de
In this paper, in contrast to previous neuroimaging literature reviews on first language (L1) and second language (L2), the focus was only on neuroimaging studies that were directly conducted on multilingual participants. In total, 14 neuroimaging studies were included in our study such as 10
Translanguaging is a new term in bilingual education; it supports a heteroglossic language ideology, which views bilingualism as valuable in its own right. Some translanguaging scholars have questioned the existence of discrete languages, further concluding that multilingualism does not exist. I argue that the political use of language names can…
Full Text Available For the visitor to the ARENA Portal for Archaeological Records of Europe Networked Access, the first option is to choose the language of the interface: Danish, English, Icelandic, Polish, Norwegian or Romanian. These are the languages of the six partners in the European project developed between 2001 and 2004. We expect a significant number of visitors from these countries, which made the choice of each respective mother tongue a natural one. Is the option of several languages just a courtesy for our public? It is more than that - it is a tool to facilitate access to multilingual archaeological information. Before we were ready for visitors to our sites, we had to understand each other, to index our digital resources using common terms, to find the right equivalents for archaeological realities described in several languages, to explain the concepts behind the words. Language is related to culture, identity and memory. There is a growing concern about the dominance of English as a global language of communication, while probably the majority of known languages are in danger of disappearing and cultural diversity is menaced. If we wish to make cultural heritage resources accessible to more people and to share knowledge, language is a key. My article is an attempt to address these issues. I will explore the role of language in scientific communication, multilingualism on the Internet, language policies, and also have a closer look at terminological tools for cultural heritage, especially for archaeology.
Full Text Available The need for an electronic multilingual dictionary The paper analyses the issue of providing adequate equivalents in multilingual dictionaries. If equivalents are adequate, it means that: (1 the scope of meaning of one item is identical to its equivalent (cf. drive: drive a nail vs. drive a car; and (2 the collocations of the equivalents overlap. Two significant problems arise when searching for adequate equivalents: the lack of equivalents whose meanings are identical (narrower/wider meanings, partial overlap of meanings, more than equally good equivalent, and equivalents with homographs in a given language. Because such issues are difficult to resolve in a printed dictionary, we put forward some methods of addressing the problems in an electronic dictionary. The paper offers an example entry from such a dictionary, which presents a suggestion of a layout. We also took into consideration the potential problems which may appear if the entry is presented in this manner: first, one must set a limit for the description (a defined number of lexical units; second, one must avoid circularity, but at the same time also strive for an exhaustive description. Electronic dictionaries offer greater possibilities of presenting modern vocabulary and adding new classifiers (e.g. a classifier of politeness.
Judge Louis Harms
Full Text Available Terence McKenna, in Wild Ducks Flying Backwards, said that he did not believe thatthe world is made of quarks or electro-magnetic waves, or stars, or planets, or of anysuch things. ’I believe’ he said, ‘the world is made of language.’ It would have beenmore correct to have said that the world is made of languages, many of them.The subject, Law and Language in a Multilingual Society, raises critical issues notonly for us in this country but also for others because language is part – the greaterpart – of one's culture. A people without a culture is said to be like a zebra withoutstripes. Culture, and not race, nationality, religion or border (natural or political,determines one's identity. As one of the founding fathers of the Afrikaans language,Rev SJ du Toit, wrote in 1891: language is a portrait of the soul and life of a nation;and it mirrors the character and intellectual development of a people (my translation.Unfortunately language tends to divide, more particularly, a multilingual society. Lawis supposed to close the divide but more often than not widens it and is used todeepen divisions. This is because the ruler determines the law and, consequently,the language of the law, in the belief that the use of language can be enforced fromabove. Law and language, like oil and water, do not mix although the former isdependent on the latter.
Duncan, Janine; Duncan, Daniel
As demographics in the United States shift, family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals must be prepared to foster healthy communities that embrace multilingual families. Because hegemonic language ideologies challenge multilingual families, FCS professionals need to know how to inclusively reframe communities to honor multilingual families.…
Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.
Karina Kh. Rekosh
Full Text Available Since the jurisprudence reflects relations between the institutions, bodies and organizations of the EU and native speakers, the EU Court of Justice plays a huge role in shaping the legal discourse. Relations between the EU and citizens show the effectiveness of the principle of multilingualism, that is apparent before the Court. The enlargement of the Union to 28 member States and, accordingly, the increase of the number of official languages to 24 complicate the implementation of the principle of multilingualism and create many problems for the EU Court of Justice: legal, linguistic, budget, translation. All documents of the Court are not translated into 24 EU official languages completely and often limited to summaries. All documents are translated only into French and proceeding languages, for the scale of the translation work have a direct impact on the timing of legal proceedings. To provide help in written translations, much work is carried out in the Court on drawing up dictionaries, thesauri, where multilingualism is fully manifested. On the use of languages and language regime, There is an extensive legal practice, however, the term «multilingualism» is not used by the Court, despite the recognition of the principle of equality of all official languages, perhaps, due to the fact that the Court itself not always follows it. The article shows that multilingualism as a legal concept and principle opens up, sometimes adjacent to the already distinguished objects of regulation, new areas of legal research. Comparison of legal solutions to the problems of multilingualism in different states with a variety of languages, law and order, or in international organizations, lays basis of "comparative linguistic law" Now in the doctrine of law of the European Union neither the linguistic law, nor the comparative linguistic law do not exist, but to provide cooperation in the field of justice and mutual recognition of judicial decisions on the
Laursen, Helle Pia; Kolstrup, Kirsten Lundgaard
This article analyzes how a group of multilingual children in their early adolescence use various forms of language play and position themselves symbolically through involvement in signifying practices. By developing a conceptual framework that combines insights on language play (Cook 2000......) and the signifying self (Kramsch 2009), it demonstrates how the children as sign makers and symbolic subjects (re)signify their own learning space. The analysis reveals how, during a reading and joint text construction activity in Danish, they explore the symbolic possibilities of signs and subjectivities, while...... moving in and out of the text and back and forth between imagined and real worlds. These findings illustrate how the children’s interest both shapes their playful interaction and takes shape through it. It furthermore shows how language play contributes to paving the way for a resignification...
Port, Dan; Nikora, Allen; Hihn, Jairus; Huang, LiGuo
Often repositories of systems engineering artifacts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are so large and poorly structured that they have outgrown our capability to effectively manually process their contents to extract useful information. Sophisticated text mining methods and tools seem a quick, low-effort approach to automating our limited manual efforts. Our experiences of exploring such methods mainly in three areas including historical risk analysis, defect identification based on requirements analysis, and over-time analysis of system anomalies at JPL, have shown that obtaining useful results requires substantial unanticipated efforts - from preprocessing the data to transforming the output for practical applications. We have not observed any quick 'wins' or realized benefit from short-term effort avoidance through automation in this area. Surprisingly we have realized a number of unexpected long-term benefits from the process of applying text mining to our repositories. This paper elaborates some of these benefits and our important lessons learned from the process of preparing and applying text mining to large unstructured system artifacts at JPL aiming to benefit future TM applications in similar problem domains and also in hope for being extended to broader areas of applications.
Schwintowski, H.P.; Dannischewski, J.; Warg, F.
The author of the book under consideration reports on the energy economy act, energy environment act, nuclear energy act as well as emission commercial law. The basis is the energy environment act from 7th July, 2005, enriched with access regulations and payment regulation in the area of electric current and gas. Furthermore, the reader of the book finds guiding principles according to price determination on the basis of direct costs. The reader also finds the main European guidelines both for electrical current and gas. The book under consideration also contains juristic texts. This book only contains the most important facts, and is written for practicians
This essay attempts to show the importance of linguistic issues in education for democracy and the close relationship between democracy and multilingualism. Increasingly nation-states are having to adapt to linguistic diversity within their borders and to recognize that democracy requires the participation of all citizens, including those belonging to linguistic minorities. Democracy also requires that all linguistic groups share a sense of community. The author argues the need for educational policies that address these challenges.
Researchers in data-rich disciplines-think of computational genomics and observational cosmology-often wish to mine large bodies of [Formula: see text]-values looking for significant effects, while controlling the false discovery rate or family-wise error rate. Increasingly, researchers also wish to prioritize certain hypotheses, for example, those thought to have larger effect sizes, by upweighting, and to impose constraints on the underlying mining, such as monotonicity along a certain sequence. We introduce Princessp , a principled method for performing weighted multiple testing by constrained convex optimization. Our method elegantly allows one to prioritize certain hypotheses through upweighting and to discount others through downweighting, while constraining the underlying weights involved in the mining process. When the [Formula: see text]-values derive from monotone likelihood ratio families such as the Gaussian means model, the new method allows exact solution of an important optimal weighting problem previously thought to be non-convex and computationally infeasible. Our method scales to massive data set sizes. We illustrate the applications of Princessp on a series of standard genomics data sets and offer comparisons with several previous 'standard' methods. Princessp offers both ease of operation and the ability to scale to extremely large problem sizes. The method is available as open-source software from github.com/dobriban/pvalue_weighting_matlab (accessed 11 October 2017).
Kleanthes K. Grohmann
Full Text Available A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli 2014: age of onset of children’s exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children’s performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann 2014b: language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed ‘comparative bilingualism’. The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.
Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore the potential significance of additive multilingualism in South Africa’s multilingual society. Additive multilingualism treasures the principle of equality among all 11 official languages. Therefore, our point of departure is the South African Constitution and various policy provisions that advocate for a multilingual mode of operation. The paper is premised upon the potential value of multilingualism that encompasses indigenous African languages and the view of language as a resource. This concurs with the language policy of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN, which seeks to promote a multilingual society. Perceptions and experiences of a group of part-time LLB students regarding the learning of isiZulu as an additional language at UKZN were solicited in this study. The ‘language as a resource’ framework was employed as the theoretical approach of the study. The study established an acknowledgement of the resourcefulness of isiZulu as instrumental in fostering social cohesion, breaking communication barriers, and dispelling misconceptions about the value of these languages.
In a multilingual community, the multilingual speaker needs to make the right language choice which principally depends on the domain of usage and the linguistic repertoire of speech participants. This paper investigates factors that govern language choices that multilingual speakers make in Larteh, a multilingual ...
Catalano, Theresa; Shende, Madhur; Suh, Emily K.
Globalisation and increased transnational migration underscore the need for educational responses to multilingualism and multilingual discourses. One way to heighten awareness of multilingual pedagogies (while simultaneously providing data for multilingual research) is the use of reflective language study and journaling by language…
de Zarobe, Leyre Ruiz; de Zarobe, Yolanda Ruiz
This article focuses on the description of one of the main features of current multilingualism, complexity, through a selection of issues related to its role in L2 acquisition, as the proper notion of multilingualism, multilingualism as a social phenomenon and multilingualism as a multidimensional phenomenon. We also present several aspects of…
Coleman, J.S.; Dirksen, A.; Hussain, S.; Waals, J.
We give an overview of multilingual speech synthesis using the IPOX system. The first part discusses work in progress for various languages: Tashlhit Berber, Urdu and Dutch. The second part discusses a multilingual phonological grammar, which can be adapted to a particular language by setting
The overall aim of this article is to argue that the functioning of every language system is based on a potential multilingual competence. The empirical basis for this is now broad enough to gain a comprehensive view on the overall competence of a multilingual individual. Moreover, increasing theoretical reflection has conferred an increasingly…
Fürst, Guillaume; Grin, François
This paper proposes a contribution to the investigation of the relation between multilingualism and creativity. Past evidence of a correlation between multilingualism and creativity is reviewed in a generalist perspective, that is, without focusing on a specific population such as migrants or highly proficient bilinguals. This review is also…
This article reflects on Stellenbosch University Writing Lab's pedagogical approach to multilingualism and inclusivity within the complex and political nature of multilingual language policies at a South African university. The Writing Lab has always been promoted as a facility for all students, not just those in need of ...
The author analyses tendencies presented in recently launched EU reports claiming that newly published data reveal a need to rethink approaches to individual and social multilingualism. In the first part of the article approaches to individual as well as to societal multilingualism are discussed from a historical perspective. In the second part…
Nazilyz M. Abduova
Full Text Available The article deals with some actual problems of real bilingualism (polylingualism in modern Kazakhstan.One of the most important aspects of the Kazakhstani society of economic and social modernization is the policy in the field of language. In the modern world, multilingual and multicultural, the problem of language conjugation is more urgent than ever, the search for effective and viable programs in the field of languageson the consolidation of societies. Integration of Kazakhstan into the world community depends today on the realization and realization of a simple truth: the world is open to those who can master new knowledge through mastering the dominant languages. In Kazakhstan the notions of “bilingualism” and “polylingualism” mean the equality of languages.It is quite natural that bilingualism (polylingualism gains more and more importance in our republic.
Full Text Available Affectivity is an important dimension in humans’ social and individual lives. It is either a stimulating or hindering aspect of language learning. This article aims to draw attention to material culture as a powerful, but mostly neglected source of data on the use and acquisition of languages, and demonstrates the close and intricate links between affectivity and material culture. It is hoped that revealing these interrelationships will assist in understanding and managing language diversity. It will allow practitioners and teachers to carry out social and private encounters, events and language teaching with more care, understanding and expertise. Researchers will be encouraged to join the investigation of yet one more important facet of multilingualism – material culture.
Anwar A. H. Al-Athwary
Full Text Available The present paper investigates the multilingual written texts of the signboards in the public space of Yemen. It attempts to apply Reh's (2004 typology of multilingual writing. Reh introduces four strategies of multilingualism: duplicating, fragmentary, overlapping, and complementary. They refer to the arrangement of information in the inscriptions of multilingual signs in a given linguistic landscape (LL. To achieve this purpose, a data corpus of 755 multilingual signs in the LL of Yemen has been used, the majority of which are bilingual in Arabic and English. The analysis showed that all four strategies of duplicating, fragmentary, overlapping, and complementary multilingual writings were generally employed in Sana'a's LL. While overlapping and complementary multilingualism were totally absent in the top-down signs, duplicating and fragmentary multilingualism had much higher frequency over overlapping and complementary ones in bottom-up signs. Keeping in mind that speech community in Yemen is monolingual in Arabic, the absence or low frequency of overlapping, and complementary signs in both top-down and bottom-up levels can be explained by the fact that these two types of texts presuppose multilingual readers since knowledge of all the languages involved is necessary to understand the whole message. The model of writing mimicry system proposed by Sutherland (2015 is also examined. Writing mimicry system was found to be a salient feature of the public space of Yemen performing some specific functions; it is only used for advertising and promotional purposes rather than expressing the identity of ethnolinguistic minorities. The study also revealed that Sana'a multilingual LL is characterized by the use of Arabicised English, glocalisation and multifunctional signs, all of which are employed to serve a general purpose of promoting, and advertising commodities and showing modernity and success. Standard Arabic appears on almost all of both top
Full Text Available In a multilingual country like India, a document may contain text words in more than one language. For a multilingual environment, multi lingual Optical Character Recognition (OCR system is needed to read the multilingual documents. So, it is necessary to identify different language regions of the document before feeding the document to the OCRs of individual language. The objective of this paper is to propose visual clues based procedure to identify Kannada, Hindi and English text portions of the Indian multilingual document.
Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between translation and multilingualism through an examination of Vladimir Nabokov’s works and views on the topic. The main idea of the article is that translation is one of the implications of multi-competence, as defined by Vivian Cook in 1991, and as such is reliant on the translator’s cultural grounding. In Nabokov’s case, multilingualism and multiculturalism resulted in some very specific approaches in his own translation, as well as in his setting of canons for other translators to follow. Advocacy of the literal style in transliteration which remains faithful to the original author constitutes evidence of the utmost appreciation for the broadening of mental horizons that such foreignization may bring. Some rendering of Nabokov’s works into Polish, and the following of his directives in those renditions, were also analyzed by the author of the article.
Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja
Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.
Cho, Jae Min; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Shin, Tae Beom; Chung, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ji Eun; Han, Heon; Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan
To evaluate brain activation areas during the processing of languages in multilingual volunteers by functional MRI and to examine the differences between the mother and foreign languages. Nine multilingual (Korean, French, and English speaking) Korean individuals were enrolled in this study. Functional images were acquired during a lexical decision task (LDT) and picture naming task (PNT) in each of the Korean, French and English languages. The areas activated were analyzed topographically in each language and task, and compared between languages. Activation was noted in Broca's area, supramarginal gyrus, fusiform gyrus during the LDT. During the PNT, activation was noted in Broca's area, left prefrontal area, cerebellum, right extrastriated cortex. While Broca's area activation was observed for all languages during LDT, there was more activation in Broca's area and additional activation in the right prefrontal area with foreign languages. During the PNT, there was more activation in the left prefrontal area with foreign languages. Broca's area, which is known as a major language region, was activated by all languages and tasks. The brain activation areas were largely overlapping with the mother and foreign languages. However, there were wider areas of activation and additional different activation areas with foreign languages. These results suggest more cerebral effort during foreign language processing
A multilingual, multicultural and explanatory music education dictionary for South Africa - using Wiegand's metalexicography to establish its purposes, functions ... dictionary, it will have to contain elements of different types of dictionaries, such as explanatory dictionaries, translation dictionaries, and learner's dictionaries.
Claudia Lacombe Rocha
Full Text Available InterPARES Project (International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems is a multidisciplinary international collaborative endeavor, which involves researchers from many countries. As one of the products of the project's second phase a Terminology Database was presented, containing two main instruments: a glossary and a dictionary. The terms and definitions presented in the glossary are the key to facilitate communication among the investigators as well to support the dissemination of InterPARES theory and methodology. Accordingly, InterPARES 3 investigators are translating the glossary.
Full Text Available The growth and popularity of social media platforms have generated a new social interaction environment thus a new collaboration and communication network among individuals. These platforms own tremendous amount of data about users’ behaviors and sentiments since people create, share or exchange their information, ideas, pictures or video using them. One of these popular platforms is Twitter, which via its voluntary information sharing structure, provides researchers data potential of benefit for their studies. Based on Twitter data, in this study a multilingual sentiment detection framework is proposed to compute European Gross National Happiness (GNH. This framework consists of a novel data collection, filtering and sampling method, and a newly constructed multilingual sentiment detection algorithm for social media big data, and tested with nine European countries (United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Turkey, Portugal, The Netherlands, Italy, France and Spain and their national languages over a six year period. The reliability of the data is checked with peak/troughs comparison for special days from Wikipedia news lists. The validity is checked with a group of correlation analyses with OECD Life Satisfaction survey reports’, Euro-Dollar and other currency exchanges, and national stock market time series data. After validity and reliability confirmations, the European GNH map is drawn for six years. The main problem addressed is to propose a novel multilingual social media sentiment analysis framework for calculating GNH for countries and change the way of OECD type organizations’ survey and interview methodology. Also, it is believed that this framework can serve more detailed results (e.g., daily or hourly sentiments of society in different languages.
Klein, Raymond M; Christie, John; Parkvall, Mikael
It has been suggested that the cognitive requirements associated with bi- and multilingual processing provide a form of mental exercise that, through increases in cognitive reserve and brain fitness, may delay the symptoms of cognitive failure associated with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. We collected data on a country-by-country basis that might shed light on this suggestion. Using the best available evidence we could find, the somewhat mixed results we obtained provide tentative support for the protective benefits of multilingualism against cognitive decline. But more importantly, this study exposes a critical issue, which is the need for more comprehensive and more appropriate data on the subject.
Full Text Available Language is the spirit of nations; the cement of the culture mosaic. Its education has a critical role especially for multi-national societies and states. According to Human Rights, every individual has the right to develop, teach and learn his native language in any setting. But this democratic right is required to be regularized with a healthy, efficient and long term multilingual education policy. As one of the most powerful multi-ethnic empires of history, Ottoman Empire embraced numerous cultures and several unique languages. As a policy, the Empire followed a relatively flexible and irregular language policy which fostered national homogeneity and unity in time. On the other hand, the Empire always kept the gap between Anatolian Turkish language by employing Ottoman language as official language. The imbalanced policies of multilingual education and Porte’s distance to Anatolian Turkish contributed a lot to the disintegration of the Empire. This study focuses on why Ottoman language policies adversely affected the unity of the multilingual Empire, scrutinizes the insufficient multilingual education models among Muslim society with its outcomes and discusses how multilingual education in minority schools contributed the disintegration process.
This paper discusses structural and ideological challenges to mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) which has in recent years been gaining ground in many educational contexts around the world. The paper argues, however, that MTB-MLE is set against these challenges - referred to here as inequalities of multilingualism - which prevent…
de Bres, Julia; Franziskus, Anne
With its own national language, Luxembourgish, and three languages of administration, French, German and Luxembourgish, Luxembourg has long been a very multilingual country. The nature of this multilingualism is now changing, due to the rising proportion of migrants in the country, who now make up 43% of the resident population. The changing…
Full Text Available In this paper, we draw on a study conducted in Grade 11 classrooms to explore how the learners’ home languages can be used for teaching and learning mathematics in multilingual classrooms in South Africa. This report is part of a wider study that is still in progress. Based on an analysis of data collected through lesson observations in a Grade 11 class and learner interviews we argue for the deliberate, proactive and strategic use of the learners’ home languages as a transparent resource in the teaching and learning of mathematics in multilingual classrooms. Such use of the languages will ensure that learners gain access to mathematical knowledge without losing access to English, which many parents, teachers and learners presently see as a necessary condition for gaining access to social goods such as higher education and employment.
Full Text Available The author tells in his introductory article to the publication the history of the emergence of hectography in Russia and touches upon the related questions of describing hectograph texts from the collection of the Russian State Library devoted, among other things, to the «Encyclical» by I. G. Kabanov. At present such editions are bibliographic rarities. The publication of hectograph texts dating to the 19th and 20th centuries, that follows, is dedicated to the polemics between the supporters of the «Encyclical», the champions of the Old Believer I. G. Kabanov — the author of the «Encyclical Letter of 1862» and an advocate of a rapprochement with the Russian Church, and the «non-Encyclicals», his adversaries. Kabanov’s letters reveal his views on the relations between the Russian Orthodox Church and the «Belokrinitsky Agreement» of the Old Believer Church. These texts, written after his death, present a picture of an appreciation of Kabanov’s activities on the part of various ecclesiastical, political and cultural circles of the then Russia. In them Kabanov singles out several key reasons for the ever-deepening schism between the two Churches: he notes an inﬂuence on the Old Believers exercised by a certain semi-legendary personality, Martin the Armenian, as well as previously unheard-of circulation among the Old Believers of apocryphal texts presenting a most hostile view on the Russian Church. The second of the published hectograph texts deals with a later stage of polemics between the «Encyclicals» and the leader of their adversaries, Bishop Iov (Borisov. The author of the text, priest V. Mekhannikov, conducted a most detailed analysis of Bishop John Kartushin’s literary work and singled out his principal mistakes which led to the separation of the «non-Encyclicals».
Full Text Available The study deals with the issue of multilingualism as a particular goal of language education. The author aims to offer an insight into the additional language teaching at primary/secondary schools in the context of multilingualism. The first part of the paper provides a definition of the concept of multilingualism, which forms the theoretical background of our study (i.e. multilingualism as a particular goal of language teaching. As we define multilingualism as pupils’ ability to speak three or more languages, we propose a system for ordering and labelling these languages. The next part of the paper focuses on acquisition of additional (second, third etc. languages and its characteristics. The fourth part of the paper deals with the didactic approach to the concept of multilingualism and its possible implementation into additional language teaching. Finally yet importantly, we focus on teachers and the competencies that they should have in order to meaningfully support multilingualism in instruction.
Full Text Available Existing approaches to support Multilingualism (ML in Business Intelligence (BI create problems for business users, present a number of challenges from the technical perspective, and lead to issues with logical dependence in the star schema. In this paper, we propose MLED_BI (Multilingual Enabled Design for Business Intelligence, a novel BI design approach to support the application of ML in BI Environment, which overcomes the issues and problems found with existing approaches. The approach is based on a revision of the data warehouse dimensional modelling approach and treats the Star Schema as a higher level entity. This paper describes MLED_BI and the validation and evaluation approach used.
Johnson, Fern L.
The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…
DeWaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li
The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA) among 2158 mono-, bi- and multilinguals. Monolinguals and bilinguals scored significantly lower on TA compared to multilinguals. A high level of global proficiency of various languages was linked to higher TA scores. A stay abroad…
Research on individual multilingualism and third language acquisition has expanded greatly in recent years. A theoretical correlate of this is the recognition of the fact that humans are potentially multilingual by nature, that multilingualism is the default state of language competence, and that this in turn has implications for an adequate…
In South Africa, students are multilingual and this is often ignored or perceived as a hindrance to academic success. Conversely, there are studies that have found a positive relationship between bi- and multilingualism and cognitive development during the past 40 years. The aim of this article is to view multilingualism and ...
Full Text Available Backhaus examines urban multilingualism in the linguistic landscape of Tokyo, the capital city of Japan. In this monograph, the linguistic landscape is seen as a sub-discipline of sociolinguistics. The significance of this monograph to linguistic landscape research is that it represents the first comprehensive approach tackling multilingualism in the linguistic landscape and overcoming a range of methodological problems facing former studies. In this sense, Backhaus’s approach in data collection and analysis may help linguistic landscapers and researchers to undertake research in multilingualism in the linguistic landscape. The current work comprises acknowledgements, a foreword by Bernard Spolsky, six chapters, an appendix, references, and an index. While the first three chapters represent an introduction and theoretical background, the fourth chapter in turn paves the way for the application of an empirical study in Tokyo’s linguistic landscape, applied in chapter five. That chapter one discusses the examination of written language in the public space of metropolises is the bulk of Backhaus’s work. In this respect, the author (p.1 refers to previous studies such as Halliday (1972, who considers the city not only a place of talk, but also a place of writing and reading. At the same time, this work focuses on ‘urban language contact in the written medium: the languages of the signs’. Backhaus (p.1 holds: Every urban environment is a myriad of written messages on public display: office and shop signs, billboards, and neon advertisements, traffic signs, topographic information and area maps, emergency guidance and political poster campaigns, stone inscriptions, and enigmatic graffiti discourse. The author maintains that these messages contribute to the making of the linguistic landscape of any given place. In chapter two, Semiotic Background and Terminology, Backhaus gives an introduction to the main features of language use on signs
Full Text Available This paper studies the consequences of European multilingualism and multilingual communication for a common social policy in the Europe Union. In the past fifty years, the main focus of the Europeanization project has been on financial-economic developments and less on a common social policy. Even today, there is no common framework for social protection in the European Union. Common minimum income or wages for European citizens are lacking. In this paper, it will be argued that the lack of social protection has to do with Europe’s linguistic diversity. Language is seen as a building block of national communities and their political cultures. The European integration project can only continue if different European political cultures are shared. However, due to the fact that a neutral lingua franca is lacking, this has been unsuccessful so far. The interaction of social groups that have a different language repertoire with the structures of multilevel governance are responsible for the fact that some of these social groups, including the ‘Eurostars’, and national cosmopolitans benefit from social protection, whereas other groups lacking relevant language skills, such as anti-establishment forces, commoners, and migrants, are excluded from the European power domains. These power configurations can be fruitfully studied in the floral figuration model. Consequently, due to these patterns of inclusion and exclusion, true solidarity among European citizens is not within reach. These claims will be illustrated by a case study on the Netherlands, a country that has been pursuing neoliberal policies counterbalancing Eurozone and economic crises and is trying to assimilate migrants and other newcomers. Apart from assimilatory policies targeting migrants, language games used by competing forces are playing an important role in the discourse in order to set up power structures.
Full Text Available L’obiettivo di questo contributo è la descrizione di modelli di didattica della grammatica all’interno di un approccio comunicativo all'insegnamento della L2. L’etichetta focus on form raccoglie alcune strategie di interazione che promuovono l’accuratezza linguistica all'interno di un dispositivo che non perde di vista l’aggancio con la dimensione del significato. Per delineare i tratti di questo approccio sono stati proposti degli esempi, tratti da trascrizioni di interventi in classe, che illustrano opzioni diverse di insegnamento della grammatica nella classe multilingue: da un modello deduttivo e decontestualizzato (focus on forms, ad un intervento di riflessione sulla lingua utile a notare delle regolarità linguistiche e una focalizzazione sulla forma basata sul feedback correttivo (focus on form. Per chiarire il ruolo che la focalizzazione sulla forma può avere in un task comunicativo sono state messe a confronto due sequenze di insegnamento, una di L1 e l'altra di L2 nella stessa classe di scuola primaria frequentata dal 50% di bambini non italofoni di cui 5 di livello basico. I due approcci sono stati ricondotti alla distinzione fra focus on meaning (didattica della L1 e focus on form (didattica della L2. Tutti gli esempi sono tratti da tre classi seconde della stessa scuola coinvolte in un esperimento didattico sull’acquisizione di tre forme del presente indicativo italiano. Focusing on the form: the development of expertise in multilingual primary school classesThe paper describes communicative grammar teaching models in L2 teaching. The label “focus on form” collects some interaction strategies that promote linguistic accuracy without losing sight of the link with the dimension of meaning. Examples taken from transcripts of speeches in class outline the features of this approach, showing different options for teaching grammar in the multilingual classroom: from a deductive and decontextualized model (focus on forms
Full Text Available Iran is a multilingual country with linguistic and cultural diversity. Minority languages such as Turkish, Kurdish, Baluchi and Arabic are spoken in Iran which constitutes part of the culture and ethnic identity. Iranian community is dominantly a bilingual community. Persian as an official language used as linguistic and cultural homogenization while minority languages are not used in education system. The controversy bilingual education and programs to serve language minority students is complex and puzzling for education authorities. On the other hand one of the challenges Iranian faces is how to reconcile conflicting perspectives of bilingual education regarding globalizing of English. Currently, most of parents prefer their children to learn English as it is the language of business, aviation and scientific research. In contrast according to Iran’s comprehensive scientific plan, Persian should be scientific language of the world in the near future. In this research, challenges, perspectives and solutions of bilingual education in Iran were analyzed. The results indicate that conflicting of minority, majority and international language is an important challenge and developing, promotion and expansion of Persian is a future outlook. Furthermore some suggestions and solutions to reconcile bilingual education were made.
Bruyèl-Olmedo, Antonio; Juan-Garau, Maria
Linguistic landscape studies increasingly focus on the variables that intertwine to generate the meaning of texts on display. International tourist resorts, largely multilingual, reveal how languages in signage combine and respond to the sociolinguistic profile of their readership. However, these settings have received scant attention in the…
Mehmet Nuri Parmaksiz
Full Text Available The song-text collections have great significance in consequence of their tasks in Turkish Music. The music performers have received support from song-text collections in remembering the modes, rhythms, the composers and especially the lyrics consisting short or long poems related to the each of the songs which they intend to keep in their minds.Today, those collections demonstrate the researchers employing modes, composers, forms and rhythms the musical works recorded in their contents and the transformation which Turkish Music has experienced throughout centuries.In this study, a song-text collection of the 16th century recorded in the Bodleian Library of Oxford University with the number of 127 and 128 was analyzed. The finding which obtain from song-text collection which analyzed with systematic musicology and historical methodology is expected to contribute importantly. Keywords: XVI. century, Turkish Music, song-text collection, Bodleian Library
Full Text Available Most of the successful commercial applications in language processing (text and/or speech dispense with any explicit concern on semantics, with the usual motivations stemming from the computational high costs required for dealing with semantics, in case of large volumes of data. With recent advances in corpus linguistics and statistical-based methods in NLP, revealing useful semantic features of linguistic data is becoming cheaper and cheaper and the accuracy of this process is steadily improving. Lately, there seems to be a growing acceptance of the idea that multilingual lexical ontologisms might be the key towards aligning different views on the semantic atomic units to be used in characterizing the general meaning of various and multilingual documents. Depending on the granularity at which semantic distinctions are necessary, the accuracy of the basic semantic processing (such as word sense disambiguation can be very high with relatively low complexity computing. The paper substantiates this statement by presenting a statistical/based system for word alignment and word sense disambiguation in parallel corpora. We describe a word alignment platform which ensures text pre-processing (tokenization, POS-tagging, lemmatization, chunking, sentence and word alignment as required by an accurate word sense disambiguation.
Korshunova, G.; Marácz, L.; Marácz, L.; Rosello, M.
The chapter discusses multilingualism in the European context and transnational communication strategies in order to accommodate the challenges of multilingualism. In the introduction, concepts defining multilingualism, transnationalism and communication strategies will be discussed and clarified.
Duarte, Joana; Gogolin, Ingrid; Klinger, Thorsten; Schnoor, Birger
In this paper we examine the role of family-induced linguistic input as a predictor for proficiencies in written language production of multilingual children aged 11. Our study considers their proficiencies in majority language (German) as well as in their family languages. Given that in most cases
O'Connor, Meredith; O'Connor, Elodie; Tarasuik, Joanne; Gray, Sarah; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon
The Australian educational system is increasingly challenged to meet the needs of multilingual students, who comprise a fifth of the student population. Within the context of a monolingual English curriculum, multilingual children who enter school not yet English proficient may be at risk of experiencing inequitable educational outcomes. We examined the relationship between the timing of multilingual children's acquisition of receptive English vocabulary skills and subsequent reading and numeracy outcomes, as well as factors associated with earlier versus later timing of acquisition. Data were drawn from the Kindergarten-cohort (n = 4983) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children - a nationally representative, community sample of Australian children. Linear regression analyses revealed that multilingual children who begin school with proficient receptive English vocabulary skills, or who acquire proficiency early in schooling, are indistinguishable from their monolingual peers in literacy and numeracy outcomes by 10-11 years. However, later acquisition of receptive English vocabulary skills (i.e. after 6-7 years) was associated with poorer literacy outcomes. In turn, socioeconomic disadvantage and broader language or learning problems predicted this later acquisition of receptive English vocabulary skills. All children need to be supported during the early years of school to reach their full educational potential.
This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…
In this paper, we describe recent work at Idiap Research Institute in the domain of multilingual speech processing and provide some insights into emerging ... and industry for technologies to help break down domestic and international language barriers, these also being barriers to the expansion of policy and commerce.
Daniel, Mayra C.; Ball, Alexis
This article begins an investigation of the educational system of Morocco and its context of language diversity. It examines the Moroccan cultural environment and the ways the multilingualism and education of its people has been and continues to be influenced by geography, colonization periods, religion, and history. The effects of the Educational…
King, Kendall A.
The study of what has come to be known as family language policy has evolved and expanded significantly over the last hundred years, from its early beginnings in the diary studies of Ronjat and Leopold, to the interdisciplinary and transnational research found in this thematic issue of the "Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural…
Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu
The current study is motivated by the gap in the current literature about foreign language classroom anxiety, namely the underlying construct of FL anxiety with regard to the understudied relationship between anxiety, proficiency, and multilingualism. The evidence for the effect of language anxiety on achievement is well-documented. More recently,…
Remixing multilingualism and hip-hop in times of globalisation ... only the case that “[…] ... The remixing of global hip-hop in Cape Town started in an era defined by apartheid ..... refers to his socio-economic condition and attempts to relate to audience ..... Conversational sampling, race trafficking, and the invocation of the.
This article considers dictionaries as lexical infonnation / knowledge sources to be derived from a deeper, underlying, lexical database. These dictionary-tokens or -instantiations are inter alia specified by the users' needs. As a case in point of such a derivation meeting the needs of a multilingual society, a bidirectional ...
Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep
This study is an examination of language learning motivation and multilingual status in the Turkish English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Using Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) framework, specifically the ideal and ought-to L2 selves, this study examines the relationship between motivation and two operationalizations of…
Full Text Available Language policies in education in multilingual postcolonial contexts are often driven by ideological considerations more veered towards socio-economic and political viability for the country than towards the practicality at implementation level. Centuries after the advent of colonisation, when culturally and linguistically homogenous countries helped to maintain the dominion of colonisers, the English language still has a stronghold in numerous countries due to the material rewards it offers. How then are the diversity of languages – often with different statuses and functions in society – reconciled in the teaching and learning process? How do teachers deal with the intricacies that are generated within a situation where children are taught in a language that is foreign to them? This paper is based on a study involving pre-primary teachers in Mauritius, a developing multilingual African country. The aim was to understand how their approach to the teaching of English was shaped by their biographical experiences of learning the language. The narrative inquiry methodology offered rich possibilities to foray into these experiences, including the manifestations of negotiating their classroom pedagogy in relation to their own personal historical biographies of language teaching and learning, the policy environment, and the pragmatic classroom specificities of diverse, multilingual learners. These insights become resources for early childhood education and teacher development in multilingual contexts caught within the tensions between language policy and pedagogy.
Full Text Available How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013.
Christine I. Ofulue
Full Text Available Literacy is perhaps the most fundamental skill required for effective participation in education (formal and non-formal for national development. At the same time, the choice of language for literacy is a complex issue in multilingual societies like Nigeria. This paper examines the issues involved, namely language policy, language and teacher development, and the role of distance education and information and communication technologies (ICTs, in making literacy accessible in as many languages as possible. Two distance learning literacy projects are presented as case studies and the lessons learned are discussed. The findings of this study suggest that although there is evidence of growing accessibility to ICTs like mobile phones, their use and success to increase access to literacy in the users’ languages are yet to be attained and maximised. The implication of the lessons learned should be relevant to other multilingual nations that seek the goal of increasing access to learning and promoting development so as to harvest economic benefits.
du Buisson Theuns
Full Text Available Conducting undergraduate studies in the English language, while only a small minority of students speak English at home, poses many problems to learning in the South African context. This article explores how restrictive language policies may influence proper learning and impact negatively on the self-understanding of students. It also explores how multilingualism could help to reduce the continued reliance on English, without doing away with English in its entirety. This is especially relevant in light of English and other colonial languages still being perceived as “languages of power” (Stroud & Kerfoot, 2013, p. 403. Therefore, attention is given to the link between language and power, especially in light of languages often being used to implement, display and preserve power. Language use in the classroom, especially with regard to codeswitching (also called translanguaging, is discussed. Finally, it explores the success that was achieved during multilingual tutorial sessions. In the tutorials, students were encouraged to explore the course work in their native languages, thereby internalising it and getting a better understanding thereof.
Patricia A. Duff
Full Text Available Abstract Bilingualism and multiculturalism have for four decades been official ideologies and policies in Canada but, as is often the case, the implementation and outcomes of such government policies nationally are less impressive than the rhetoric would suggest. This article reviews the political, theoretical and demographic contexts justifying support for the learning and use of additional languages in contemporary Canadian society and schools, and summarizes research demonstrating that bilingualism and multilingualism are indeed cognitively, socially, and linguistically advantageous for children (and adults, as well as for society. The five studies in this special issue are then previewed with respect to the following themes that run across them: (1 the potential for bilingual synergies and transformations in language awareness activities and crosslinguistic knowledge construction; (2 the role of multiliteracies and multimodality in mediated learning; and (3 the interplay of positioning, identity, and agency in language learning by immigrant youth. The article concludes that more Canadian schools and educators must, like the researchers in this volume, find ways to embrace and build upon students’ prior knowledge, their creativity, their collaborative problem-solving skills, their potential for mastering and manipulating multiple, multilingual semiotic tools, and their desire for inclusion and integration in productive, engaging learning communities.
Full Text Available This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers’ (HDRs capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic repertoire. This paper contributes to this study’s development of post-monolingual research methodology which provides a theoretic-pedagogical framework for multilingual HDRs (a to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research; (b to develop their capabilities for theorizing and (c to construct potentially valuable theoretical tools using metaphors, images, concepts and modes of critique. This paper is based on a longitudinal program of collaborative research whereby monolingual Anglophone and multilingual HDRs jointly developed their capabilities for theorizing through producing Anglo-Chinese analytical tools, and the associated pedagogies for using their languages in doctoral research. This longitudinal research program has been undertaken in the field of doctoral education to further a defining feature of democracy, namely linguistic diversity. This research has been conducted with the aims of promoting the multilingualism of Australian universities and activating linguistic communities of scholars to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research. The main finding arising from this program of research has been the development of post-monolingual research methodology which (a uses the divergences within and between languages to undertake theorizing and (b in co-existence with the tensions posed by monolingualism, especially the insistence on using extant theories available in only one language. Doctoral pedagogies of intellectual/racial equality provide multilingual HDRs with insights into the debates about the geopolitics governing the use of languages in the production and
Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of a narrative multilingualism approach on in-service primary school teachers who attended the Advanced Certi"cate of Education (ACE Languages course at the University of the Witwatersrand in 2009. The teachers wrote their own language narratives and were required to implement language narrative work in their classrooms. The paper is a case study of three teachers’ implementation of multilingual narrative pedagogy, and explores the ways in which each teacher translates this pedagogy into their specific contexts. Theoretically, the paper attempts to deepen and extend narrative multilingualism as an approach to language teaching. The notions of uptake and pedagogical translation are explored at various levels, namely, the teachers’ uptake of a multilingual narrative approach and the learners’ uptake. The most striking aspect of the data, across all teachers, is the process and dynamics unleashed in the classroom space. The process of sharing language narratives reconfigured dynamics in the classroom and opened up the classroom space for teachers and learners. The interventions that the pedagogy of narrative multilingualism afforded enabled the validation of linguistic diversity. In a society where xenophobia and linguicism is prevalent, such interventions can play a valuable role in changing attitudes and teaching learners to value difference. Furthermore, previously silenced learners found their voices and participated more in class activities.
van Compernolle, Rémi A.
Drawing on data collected via a web-based survey, the study investigates the relationship between preferences for (in)formal language and attitudes toward linguistic variation among a large group of monolingual and multilingual adults (n = 379). Also explored are the links between preferences for (in)formal language and several secondary…
Oliver, Rhonda; Nguyen, Bich
In this study, we explore how Aboriginal multilingual speakers use technology-enhanced environments, specifically Facebook, for their translanguaging practices. Using data collected from Facebook posts written by seven Aboriginal youth over a period of 18 months, we investigate how the participants move between Aboriginal English (AE) and Standard…
Ana Daniela CRISTEA
Full Text Available The integrated platform SAP Netweaver is a platform that offers support in realizing Web bussiness applications that use the Model View Controller (MVC concept. The Multilinguality being a property of this platform. The purpose of this article is to highlight the modality to internationalize a Web Dynpro ABAP project The techniquesused for the internationalization of a Web Dynpro ABAP application are: the OTR [Online Text Repository] translations, the implementation of the assistance class and the technique of information internationalization in a database. The case study has been performed on the trial “SAP Netweaver 7.0 Application Server ABAP” that offered the possibility to log-in in English and German languages.
Full Text Available Face–to–face interviews by trained field workers are commonly used in household surveys. However, this data collection method is labor–intensive, time–consuming, expensive, prone to interviewer and recall bias and not easily scalable to increase sample representativeness. The study explored the feasibility of using text messaging to collect information on infant and young child feeding practice in rural China.
Goral, Mira; Conner, Peggy S.
We review the characteristics of developmental language disorders (primary language impairment, reading disorders, autism, Down syndrome) and acquired language disorders (aphasia, dementia, traumatic brain injury) among multilingual and multicultural individuals. We highlight the unique assessment and treatment considerations pertinent to this population, including, for example, concerns of language choice and availability of measures and of normative data in multiple languages. A summary of relevant, recent research studies is provided for each of the language disorders selected. PMID:26257455
Morrish, Taryn; Nesbitt, Amy; le Roux, Mia; Zsilavecz, Ursula; van der Linde, Jeannie
Research involving stuttering in multilingual individuals is limited. Speech-language therapists face the challenge of treating a diverse client base, which includes multilingual individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the stuttering moments across English, Afrikaans, and German in a multilingual speaker. A single multilingual adult with…
The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…
An area in need of study in child language acquisition is that of complex multilingual contexts in which there is little language separation by interlocutor or domain. Little is known about how multilingual children use language to construct their identities in each language or in both languages. Identity construction in monolingual contexts has…
This book examines the benefits of multilingual education that puts children's needs and interests above the individual languages involved. It advocates flexible multilingual education, which builds upon children's actual home resources and provides access to both the local and global languages that students need for their educational and…
Namazzi, Elizabeth; Kendrick, Maureen E.
This article reports on a study focusing on the use of multilingual cultural resources in child-headed households (CHHs) in Uganda's Rakai District. Using funds of knowledge and sociocultural perspectives on children's learning, we documented through ethnographic observations and interviews how children in four CHHs used multilingual cultural…
Jessner, Ulrike; Allgäuer-Hackl, Elisabeth; Hofer, Barbara
The aim of this article is to stress the importance of a dynamic systems or complexity theory approach as a necessary prerequisite to understanding the development of multi-competence in multilingual learners. Selected results from a study on emergent multilingual awareness in children, carried out in South Tyrol, are outlined and discussed. The…
This book is a guide for parents who wish to raise children with more than one language and literacy. Drawing on interdisciplinary research, as well as the experiences of parents of multilingual children, this book walks parents through the multilingual reading and writing process from infancy to adolescence. It identifies essential literacy…
The paper examines the prospects and problems of theatrical communication in a multilingual and multicultural society like Nigeria. It attempts to identify the historical basis for multilingualism from the global perspective and explores the relative potentials of the literary arts of poetry, prose and drama in responding to the ...
This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…
Daugaard, Line Møller; Johansen, Martin Blok
When teachers and school librarians choose picture books for multilingual children, they often base their choice on an evaluation of linguistic comprehensibility, content familiarity and cultural appropriateness. This means that postmodern picture books may be excluded. This paper presents a case study of multilingual children's encounter with a…
Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Wurr, Adrian J.
In this article, we outline the differences between a monolingual and multilingual orientation to language and language acquisition. The increasing contact between languages in the context of globalization motivates such a shift of paradigms. Multilingual communicative practices have remained vibrant in non-western communities for a long time. We…
discourse about the validity of standardised literacy testing of multilingual students. These findings give reason to question and discuss equality oriented educational programmes and strategies for multilingual students in which standarised literacy testing plays a central role, and to discuss ethical...... issues around the production and use of standarised literacy tests in educational contexts which are characterised by linguistic diversity....
Many contributors to the normative literature on language policy argue that inclusive multilingual regimes are beneficial on several grounds. However, despite the professed advantages of multilingualism, most nation-states have been reluctant to equally recognise minority languages alongside the majority language. This reality raises three…
Liddicoat, Anthony J.; Taylor-Leech, Kerry
This paper overviews issues relating to the role of ideologies and attitudes in multilingual education (MLE). It argues that ideologies and attitudes are constituent parts of the language planning process and shape the possibilities for multilingualism in educational programmes in complex ways, but most frequently work to constrain the ways that…
de la Piedra, Maria Teresa; Guerra, Juan C.
This introduction provides the background for this special issue by first describing the US-Mexico border, a fascinating context in which to research issues related to Spanish-English biliteracy and multilingualism. We present main points in the prevailing discussion within the field of literacy studies about issues of multilingualism and…
Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.
In this conceptual article we invite multilingual researchers to consider the concept of translanguaging through the lens of human capital theory. Our thinking about the interconnections among human capital, multilingualism, and translanguaging is motivated by our research in border "colonias" and other minoritized communities in South…
Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.
Beaton, R. L.; Sokal, K. R.; Liss, S. E.; Johnson, K. E.
Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is an outreach organization at the University of Virginia, focused on enhancing elementary level science education in under-served communities. Early in the program, DSBK volunteers encountered difficulties connecting with English as a second language (ESL) students. To meet that challenge, DSBK volunteers created story-book style art with short descriptions of astronomical objects in both Spanish and English to help communicate basic astronomy concepts to these students. Building on this initial success, our simple project has evolved into a full multilingual children's book targeted at 2nd-5th grade students. Though originally in Spanish and English, a partnership with the University of Alberta (Canada) has produced a French translation of the text, broadening the outreach potential of the book. In this contribution, we describe Snapshots of the Universe (Instantáneas del Universo) and reflect upon the process of creating this unique resource.
Full Text Available This article presents a tool to automatically generate specialised dictionaries of multilingual equivalents in new subject areas. The tool uses resources that are available on the web to search for equivalents and verify their reliability. These resources are, on the one hand, the Wikipedias, which can be freely downloaded and processed, and, on the other, the materials that terminological institutions of reference make available. This tool is of use to teachers producing teaching materials and researchers preparing theses, articles or reference manuals. It is also of use to translators and terminologists working on terminological standardisation in a new subject area in a given language, as it helps them in their work to pinpoint concepts that have yet to receive a standardised denomination.
Full Text Available The acquisition of grammatical gender by multilingual pre-school children (aged six was investigated by observing their narration and discourse. It emerged that only three of the 17 children actually used gender to classify nouns. Grammatical agreement is acknowledged as a key feature of gender acquisition, and it reflects developmental steps. Children growing up with mostly bilingual German input at a low proficiency level had the greatest difficulties in acquiring gender and agreement in the group investigated.
Hambye, Philippe; Richards, Mary
In this article, we will examine some contrasted discourses on multilingualism that circulate nowadays in the field of education. Focusing on the cases of French-speaking Belgium and of the Franco-Ontarian community in Canada, we will show the existence of two discourses on multilingualism: one that insists on the positive value of multilingualism…
Speech-language pathologists play important roles in supporting people to be competent communicators in the languages of their communities. However, with over 7000 languages spoken throughout the world and the majority of the global population being multilingual, there is often a mismatch between the languages spoken by children and families and their speech-language pathologists. This paper provides insights into service provision for multilingual children within an English-dominant country by viewing Australia's multilingual population as a microcosm of ethnolinguistic minorities. Recent population studies of Australian pre-school children show that their most common languages other than English are: Arabic, Cantonese, Vietnamese, Italian, Mandarin, Spanish, and Greek. Although 20.2% of services by Speech Pathology Australia members are offered in languages other than English, there is a mismatch between the language of the services and the languages of children within similar geographical communities. Australian speech-language pathologists typically use informal or English-based assessments and intervention tools with multilingual children. Thus, there is a need for accessible culturally and linguistically appropriate resources for working with multilingual children. Recent international collaborations have resulted in practical strategies to support speech-language pathologists during assessment, intervention, and collaboration with families, communities, and other professionals. The International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech was assembled to prepare a position paper to address issues faced by speech-language pathologists when working with multilingual populations. The Multilingual Children's Speech website ( http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech ) addresses one of the aims of the position paper by providing free resources and information for speech-language pathologists about more than 45 languages. These international
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Investigate the protective effect of multilingualism on cognition in seniors. METHODS: As part of the MemoVie study conducted on 232 non-demented volunteers aged 65 and more, neurogeriatric and neuropsychological evaluations were performed. Participants were classified as presenting either cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND or being free of any cognitive impairment (CIND-free. Language practices, socio-demographic data and lifestyle habits were recorded. In this retrospective nested case-control design, we used as proxies of multilingualism: number of languages practiced, age of acquisition and duration of practice, emphasizing the temporal pattern of acquisition, and the resulting practice of several languages sequentially or concomitantly during various periods of life. This special angle on the matter offered to our work a dimension particularly original and innovative. RESULTS: 44 subjects (19% had CIND, the others were cognitively normal. All practiced from 2 to 7 languages. When compared with bilinguals, participants who practiced more than 2 languages presented a lower risk of CIND, after adjustment for education and age (odds ratio (OR = 0.30, 95% confidence limits (95%CL = [0.10-0.92]. Progressing from 2 to 3 languages, instead of staying bilingual, was associated with a 7-fold protection against CIND (OR = 0.14, 95%CL = [0.04-0.45], p = 0.0010. A one year delay to reach multilingualism (3 languages practiced being the threshold multiplied the risk of CIND by 1.022 (OR = 1.022, 95%CL = [1.01-1.04], p = 0.0044. Also noteworthy, just as for multilingualism, an impact of cognitively stimulating activities on the occurrence of CIND was found as well (OR = 0.979, 95%CL = [0.961-0.998], p = 0.033. CONCLUSION: The study did not show independence of multilingualism and CIND. Rather it seems to show a strong association toward a protection against CIND. Practicing multilingualism
Full Text Available Abstract For several years children at Joyce Public School have been rewriting traditional stories from localized cultural and linguistic perspectives, creating innovative, individualized narrative forms with digital technology. Our experimental multiliteracies research project is a collaboration of school and university teachers and researchers following a guided action research paradigm. The study has as one of its stated objectives the development of multilingual story retelling as a means of inexpensively supporting home language maintenance, fostering language awareness and aiding English as a second language learning in a community of high linguistic diversity. This paper tells our story thus far, focusing on how we have approached the creation of multilingual stories in heterogeneous, urban language classes, discussing stumbling blocks that have forced creative problem-solving and showcasing successes.
Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali
Grâce à Christian Jambet, directeur de cette collection chez l’éditeur Verdier, ce travail décisif de Henry Corbin, devenu progressivement d’accès difficile, est maintenant réédité dans les meilleures conditions (actualisation des références, translittérations des textes arabes et persans, harmonisation des notes, etc.). Rappelons simplement qu’il s’agit de la réédition, en un seul volume, de la Collection du Millénaire d’Avicenne : tome I, Le récit de Hayy ibn Yaqzan, Téhéran, 1952 ; tome II...
Álvaro Antônio Caretta
Full Text Available In every society, the language is manifested through various oral genres, written and also multimodal, with a huge diversity related to the various conditions of production and circulation of statements. It is true that language is shaped according to the various uses citizens make of it in society. Thus, one cannot perpetuate the myth of a uniform language; on the contrary, the study of the varieties that constitute the multilingualism should be emphasized because it contains a multiculturalism and also the identity of the different communities. In this context, it is essential to reflect on the issue of linguistic discrimination, a major drawback in the process of building a more egalitarian society, diverse and democratic, and also on the true role of cultural norms for writing texts teaching in schools and, especially, of orality where multilingualism appears more clearly. From the observation of these language modes, we understand the importance of various forms of linguistic expression in the constitution of social multilingualism, a prerequisite for a society that seeks to enhance the multiple facets of its multiculturalism. --- http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/matraga.2016.20771
Derek F. Wong
Full Text Available Sentence boundary detection (SBD system is normally quite sensitive to genres of data that the system is trained on. The genres of data are often referred to the shifts of text topics and new languages domains. Although new detection models can be retrained for different languages or new text genres, previous model has to be thrown away and the creation process has to be restarted from scratch. In this paper, we present a multilingual sentence boundary detection system (iSentenizer-μ for Danish, German, English, Spanish, Dutch, French, Italian, Portuguese, Greek, Finnish, and Swedish languages. The proposed system is able to detect the sentence boundaries of a mixture of different text genres and languages with high accuracy. We employ i+Learning algorithm, an incremental tree learning architecture, for constructing the system. iSentenizer-μ, under the incremental learning framework, is adaptable to text of different topics and Roman-alphabet languages, by merging new data into existing model to learn the new knowledge incrementally by revision instead of retraining. The system has been extensively evaluated on different languages and text genres and has been compared against two state-of-the-art SBD systems, Punkt and MaxEnt. The experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the other systems on all datasets.
Sherman, Tamah; Strubell, Miquel
This thematic collection of four papers explores a number of perspectives on companies in which multiple languages are used. The "organisational" perspective concerns the question of how the presence of or demand for multiple languages in the company is managed--how companies are guided by national and other policies in regard to the use…
Henriksen, Birgit; Holmen, Anne; Kling, Joyce
’ experiences in the midst of curricular change and presents reflections on ways to professionally navigate in English to meet the demands of the multilingual and multicultural classroom. English Medium Instruction in Multilingual and Multicultural Universities is key reading for university management......English Medium Instruction in Multilingual and Multicultural Universities analyses the issues related to EMI at both a local and international level and provides a broad perspective on this topic. Drawing on field studies from a Northern European context and based primarily on research carried out...
Over the last two decades there has been an expansion of activity and substantial progress in research on dyslexia and research on bilingualism and multilingualism. But the study of dyslexia has generally focused on monolingual learners and the study of bilingualism has tended to focus on speakers who do not have special educational needs. This paper will review the strands of research to date that have a bearing on multilingualism and dyslexia and attempt to identify the major challenges that face researchers and teachers. A satisfactory response cannot be developed without a full understanding of the impact that dyslexia has on language learning and the impact that multilingualism has on literacy learning.
Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S; Zeng, Xiaodong
Sentence boundary detection (SBD) system is normally quite sensitive to genres of data that the system is trained on. The genres of data are often referred to the shifts of text topics and new languages domains. Although new detection models can be retrained for different languages or new text genres, previous model has to be thrown away and the creation process has to be restarted from scratch. In this paper, we present a multilingual sentence boundary detection system (iSentenizer-μ) for Danish, German, English, Spanish, Dutch, French, Italian, Portuguese, Greek, Finnish, and Swedish languages. The proposed system is able to detect the sentence boundaries of a mixture of different text genres and languages with high accuracy. We employ i (+)Learning algorithm, an incremental tree learning architecture, for constructing the system. iSentenizer-μ, under the incremental learning framework, is adaptable to text of different topics and Roman-alphabet languages, by merging new data into existing model to learn the new knowledge incrementally by revision instead of retraining. The system has been extensively evaluated on different languages and text genres and has been compared against two state-of-the-art SBD systems, Punkt and MaxEnt. The experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the other systems on all datasets.
Full Text Available Purpose – The shift in the function of English as a medium of instruction together with its use in knowledge construction and dissemination among scholars continue to fuel the global demand for high-level proficiency in the language. These components of the global knowledge economy mean that the ability of nations to produce multilinguals with advanced English proficiency alongside their mastery of other languages has become a key to global competitiveness. That need is helping to drive one of the greatest language learning experiments the world has ever known. It carries significant implications for new research agendas and teacher preparation in applied linguistics. Design/methodology/approach – Evidence-based decision-making, whether it pertains to language policy decisions, instructional practices, teacher professional development or curricula/program building, needs to be based on a rigorous and systematically pursued program of research and assessment. Findings – This paper seeks to advance these objectives by identifying new research foci that underscore a student-centered approach. Originality/value – It introduces a new theoretical construct – multilingual proficiency – to underscore the knowledge that the learner develops in the process of language learning that makes for the surest route to the desired high levels of language proficiency. The paper highlights the advantages of a student-centered approach that focuses on multilingual proficiency for teachers and explores the concomitant conclusions for teacher development.
Full Text Available African multilingualism has always been construed from a monoglossic (i.e., one language at a time lens despite the pretensions of plural language policies in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study reported in this paper explored the efficacy of alternating languages of input and output in the same lessons in order to offset linguistic fixity that is often experienced in monolingual classrooms. I present two case studies of translanguaging practices, one at an institution of higher learning and another in the intermediate phase (primary school. The results from these cases show that the use of more than one language by multilingual learners in classroom settings provides cognitive and social advantages for them. Using what I refer to as the ubuntu translanguaging model, I make a case that fuzziness and blurring of boundaries between languages in the translanguaging classes are (i necessary and relevant features of the 21st century to enhance epistemic access for speakers in complex multilingual spaces, and that they are (ii indexical to the pre-colonial African value system of ubuntu. Useful recommendations for classroom applications and further research are considered at the end of the paper.
Michael T. Putnam
Full Text Available On the surface, bi- and multilingualism would seem to be an ideal context for exploring questions of typological proximity. The obvious intuition is that the more closely related two languages are, the easier it should be to implement the two languages in one mind. This is the starting point adopted here, but we immediately run into the difficulty that the overwhelming majority of cognitive, computational, and linguistic research on bi- and multilingualism exhibits a monolingual bias (i.e., where monolingual grammars are used as the standard of comparison for outputs from bilingual grammars. The primary questions so far have focused on how bilinguals balance and switch between their two languages, but our perspective on typology leads us to consider the nature of bi- and multi-lingual systems as a whole. Following an initial proposal from Hsin (2014, we conjecture that bilingual grammars are neither isolated, nor (completely conjoined with one another in the bilingual mind, but rather exist as integrated source grammars that are further mitigated by a common, combined grammar (Cook, 2016; Goldrick et al., 2016a,b; Putnam and Klosinski, 2017. Here we conceive such a combined grammar in a parallel, distributed, and gradient architecture implemented in a shared vector-space model that employs compression through routinization and dimensionality reduction. We discuss the emergence of such representations and their function in the minds of bilinguals. This architecture aims to be consistent with empirical results on bilingual cognition and memory representations in computational cognitive architectures.
issues of a religious nature are talked about and debated by multilingual speakers. ..... commuters through Bellstar Junction provides important business for the .... movement the Rastafari is guided by the following religious ethical practices ...
Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard; Daugaard, Line Møller; Cox, Robyn
childhoods of young multilingual and multiliterate learners, but explore globalised classrooms from various perspectives: the perspectives of learners, teachers and policymakers. In combination, the papers in the symposium offer a nuanced description of the tensions and dilemmas in contemporary multilingual...... classrooms across the globe and a multifaceted analysis of the multilingual nature of global childhoods. The first paper reports on research study conducted in primary schools in Sydney, Australia which investigated how multilingual children understand their own linguistic practices and how they report...... this practice. The children were asked to consider the role of their mulitingualism in their daily classroom experiences. The second paper, based on a linguistic ethnographic case study in Denmark, explores language ideological aspects of global childhoods as they are negotiated in and around ’mother tongue...
Laursen, Helle Pia
and educational failure. Our study takes place in classrooms where teachers are engaged in developing a literacy pe dagogy which allows space for multilingualism and multimodality. Through intervention studies in these linguistically diverse classrooms, we are also investigating how teachers and students navigate....... The longitudinal study ‘Signs of language’ involves five multilingual classrooms. We are exploring how multilingual children interpret and create signs in order to communicate and perform their social identity in different multilingual and multimodal classroom settings. We are aiming at getting a better...... understanding of the children’s complex uses of the linguistic and semiotic resources available to them by paying close attention to the perspective of the children - as users and nterpreters of literacy (Blackledge & Creeese 2010). In classrooms some identity options are more available to the students than...
Mousten, Birthe; Vandepitte, Sonia; Arnó Macà, Elisabet
Multilingual Writing and Pedagogical Cooperation in Virtual Learning Environments is a critical scholarly resource that examines experiences with virtual networks and their advantages for universities and students in the domains of writing, translation, and usability testing. Featuring coverage o...
Towards a democratisation of new media spaces in multilingual/multicultural Africa: A ... and can lead to misinterpretation and misunderstanding of the messages. ... also demonstrate that language and 'culture' are products of social activities.
Kuo, Eddie C. Y.
Using data from census reports and educational statistics, this paper analyzes the language status and literacy trends in multilingual Singapore, where the four official languages are Malay, Chinese, Tamil and English. (CK)
Keijzer, Merel; de Bot, Kees
Cognitive advantages for bilinguals have inconsistently been observed in different populations, with different operationalisations of bilingualism, cognitive performance, and the process by which language control transfers to cognitive control. This calls for studies investigating which aspects of multilingualism drive a cognitive advantage, in which populations and under which conditions. This study reports on two cognitive tasks coupled with an extensive background questionnaire on health, wellbeing, personality, language knowledge and language use, administered to 387 older adults in the northern Netherlands, a small but highly multilingual area. Using linear mixed effects regression modeling, we find that when different languages are used frequently in different contexts, enhanced attentional control is observed. Subsequently, a PLS regression model targeting also other influential factors yielded a two-component solution whereby only more sensitive measures of language proficiency and language usage in different social contexts were predictive of cognitive performance above and beyond the contribution of age, gender, income and education. We discuss these findings in light of previous studies that try to uncover more about the nature of bilingualism and the cognitive processes that may drive an advantage. With an unusually large sample size our study advocates for a move away from dichotomous, knowledge-based operationalisations of multilingualism and offers new insights for future studies at the individual level. PMID:29783764
Du, Xiaozhen; Wang, Wei; Helena van Velthoven, Michelle; Chen, Li; Scherpbier, Robert W.; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Li, Ye; Rao, Xiuqin; Car, Josip
Background Face–to–face interviews by trained field workers are commonly used in household surveys. However, this data collection method is labor–intensive, time–consuming, expensive, prone to interviewer and recall bias and not easily scalable to increase sample representativeness. Objective To explore the feasibility of using text messaging to collect information on infant and young child feeding practice in rural China. Methods Our study was part of a clustered randomized controlled trial that recruited 591 mothers of children aged 12 to 29 months in rural China. We used the test–retest method: first we collected data through face–to–face interviews and then through text messages. We asked the same five questions on standard infant and young child feeding indicators for both methods and asked caregivers how they fed their children yesterday. We assessed the response rate of the text messaging method and compared data agreement of the two methods. Finding In the text messaging survey, the response rate for the first question and the completion rate were 56.5% and 48.7%, respectively. Data agreement between the two methods was excellent for whether the baby was breastfed yesterday (question 1) (kappa, κ = 0.81), moderate for the times of drinking infant formula, fresh milk or yoghurt yesterday (question 2) (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.46) and whether iron fortified food or iron supplement was consumed (question 3) (κ = 0.44), and poor for 24–hour dietary recall (question 4) (ICC = 0.13) and times of eating solid and semi–solid food yesterday (question 5) (ICC = 0.06). There was no significant difference in data agreement between the two surveys at different time intervals. For infant and young child feeding indicators from both surveys, continued breastfeeding at 1 year (P = 1.000), continued breastfeeding at 2 years (P = 0.688) and minimum meal frequency (P = 0.056) were not significantly
Tonne, Ingebjørg; Pihl, Joron
The topic of this paper is literacy education and reading engagement in multilingual classes. What facilitates reading engagement in the language of instruction in multilingual classes? In this paper, we analyze reading engagement in a literature-based literacy program in Norway (2007–2011). The design was a research and development project in which teachers, researchers, and librarians collaborated within literacy education. We present pedagogical interventions within the project and analyze...
The Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval system (CLIR) or Multilingual Information Retrieval (MIR) has become the key issue in electronic documents management systems in a multinational environment. We propose here a multilingual information retrieval system consisting of a morpho-syntactic analyser, a transfer system from source language to target language and an information retrieval system. A thorough investigation into the system architecture and the transfer mechanisms is proposed in that report, using two different performance evaluation methods. (author) [fr
Full Text Available Different languages imply different visions of space, so that terminologies are different in geographic ontologies. In addition to their geometric shapes, geographic features have names, sometimes different in diverse languages. In addition, the role of gazetteers, as dictionaries of place names (toponyms, is to maintain relations between place names and location. The scope of geographic information retrieval is to search for geographic information not against a database, but against the whole Internet: but the Internet stores information in different languages, and it is of paramount importance not to remain stuck to a unique language. In this paper, our first step is to clarify the links between geographic objects as computer representations of geographic features, ontologies and gazetteers designed in various languages. Then, we propose some inference rules for matching not only types, but also relations in geographic ontologies with the assistance of gazetteers.
Full Text Available Until recently, quality labelling of medical web content has been a pre-dominantly manual activity. However, the advances in automated text processing opened the way to computerised support of this activity. The core enabling technology is information extraction (IE. However, the heterogeneity of websites offering medical content imposes particular requirements on the IE techniques to be applied. In the paper we discuss these requirements and describe a multi-paradigm approach to IE addressing them. Experiments on multi-lingual data are reported. The research has been carried out within the EU MedIEQ project.
Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N
Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.
Lauridsen, Karen M.
. With different language backgrounds come different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds that have wide implications for what happens in the learning space or classroom. Based on the outcomes of the IntlUni Erasmus Academic Network (Lauridsen & Lillemose 2015) and other sources, this keynote will address......Languages+ Internationalisation and the multilingual university The growth in English Medium Instruction (EMI) outside the English speaking countries (Wächter & Maiworm 2014) as well as the increase in non-L1 speakers in English-dominant settings is one of the very conspicuous outcomes of higher...... education internationalisation efforts today. Lecturers and students teach and learn through a language other than their own first language, which has led university leaders and other key actors to believe that issues arising from this situation are a question of language capabilities only. It is not...
Van Der Wildt, Anouk; Van Avermaet, Piet; Van Houtte, Mieke
Mainstream teachers struggle with linguistic diversity, often leading to restricting multilingualism. Scientific research, however, recommends including pupils' home languages in school. Various qualitative studies have evaluated implementations in schools and indicated possibilities for improving teachers' attitudes towards multilingualism. This…
Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Wu, C.; Meer, F.D. van der; Liu, G.
The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a
Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S
Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.
Nuning Catur Sri Wilujeng
Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate 1 the improvement of CFL elementary-school students’ skill in learning Mandarin Chinese (hereafter referred to as Mandarin vocabulary through creating comic without online resources, creating online comics individually and collaboratively, 2 the CFL elementary-school students’ attitude towards the application of comics in learning Mandarin vocabulary, and 3 the CFL elementary-school students’ attitude towards the application of collaborative activities in learning Mandarin vocabulary. The research design was based on a quasi-experiment using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Three classes participated in this study: one class was the control group using text-based instruction without online resources; the other two classes were the experimental groups 1 and 2. In the experimental group 1, students worked individually on online comic whereas in the experimental group 2, students worked collaboratively on online comic. All participants were Grade 5 students of Budi Utama Multilingual School in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The collected and analyzed data included performances on Mandarin vocabulary, in-class observation, questionnaires, and interview. In Mandarin vocabulary performances, the experimental group 2 outperformed the other two groups and the experimental group 1 performed better than the control group. In the students’ attitude, the experimental group 2 behaved more positively than the two other groups, and the control group behaved more positively than the experimental group 1.
Full Text Available The Department of Education in South Africa advocates collaborative and constructivist learning; however, observations indicate that little discussion occurs in most multilingual mathematics classes. In this paper we draw on a pilot study set in the Eastern Cape where teachers were introduced to the theory and practice of exploratory talk, and then tasked to perform an action research project on introducing discussion in their own multilingual mathematics classrooms. The results of the study suggest some successes in terms of teachers initiating exploratory talk and highlight the fact that these successes were only achieved where code switching between English and isiXhosa formed an integral part of the process.
In this article, the author invites teachers of children who are bilingual, multilingual, and at promise for bi-/multilingualism to honor and build on their rich literacy practices. To do so, she challenges ideas and labels that continuously disempower bilingual and multilingual learners. Souto-Manning establishes the understanding that education…
Lee, Carmen K. M.; Barton, David
This article reports on a study of user-generated multilingual writing activities on the photo sharing site, Flickr.com[R]. It discusses how Flickr users deploy their multilingual resources when interacting with international audiences, the factors affecting their language choice, and how new multilingual identities are constructed. An exploratory…
Dagenais, Diane; Toohey, Kelleen; Bennett Fox, Alexa; Singh, Angelpreet
In this article, we explain how recent research on multilingualism, multilingual education, and multimodality informs our thinking about the use of "ScribJab," a multilingual iPad application and website ("ScribJab.com"), which enables users to compose, illustrate, and narrate stories in two languages. Drawing on excerpts from…
The majority of the world is multilingual, but inequitably multilingual, and much of the world is also technologized, but inequitably so. Thus, researchers in the fields of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and second language acquisition (SLA) would profit from considering multilingualism and social justice when envisioning new CALL-SLA…
Full Text Available Text mining deals with complex and unstructured texts. Usually a particular collection of texts that is specified to one or more domains is necessary. We have developed a customizable text classifier for users to mine the collection automatically. It derives from the sentence category of the HNC theory and corresponding techniques. It can start with a few texts, and it can adjust automatically or be adjusted by user. The user can also control the number of domains chosen and decide the standard with which to choose the texts based on demand and abundance of materials. The performance of the classifier varies with the user's choice.
Anthony Pak-Hin Kong
Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1, English (L2, and Mandarin (L3 speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T’s executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers.
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new generation of language trainers: intelligent virtual agents (IVAs with human appearance and the capability to teach foreign language vocabulary. We report results from studies that we have conducted with Billie, an IVA employed as a vocabulary trainer, as well as research findings on the acceptance of the agent as a trainer by adults and children. The results show that Billie can train humans as well as a human teacher can and that both adults and children accept the IVA as a trainer. The advantages of IVAs are multiple. First, their teaching methods can be based on neuropsychological research findings concerning memory and learning practice. Second, virtual teachers can provide individualized training. Third, they coach users during training, are always supportive, and motivate learners to train. Fourth, agents will reside in the user’s mobile devices and thus be at the user’s disposal everywhere and anytime. Agents in apps will make foreign language training accessible to anybody at low cost. This will enable people around the world, including physically, financially and geographically disadvantaged persons, to learn a foreign language and help to facilitate multilingualism.
Full Text Available From the Problems of Dictionaries and Multi-lingual Corpora The article describes the work on a number of dictionaries being developed by the Corpus Linguistics and Semantics Group of the Institute of Slavic PAS. They include “Contemporary Bulgarian-Polish Dictionary”, “Bulgarian-Polish Online Dictionary” and “Russian-Bulgarian-Polish Dictionary”. The dictionaries differ in the numbers of entries, as well as in the different degrees of their connection with parallel corpora being elaborated under the “Clarin” project. All the discussed dictionaries are similar with respect to their use of traditional, syntactic classifiers and of semantic classifiers, introduced for the first time in the existing lexicographical practice. Thanks to the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian Corpus”, the Group has managed to verify the results of contrasting Polish and Bulgarian in the light of scope-based logical quantification. Thanks to the Russian material added to the trilingual corpus, the researchers have managed to confirm the fact that from the viewpoint of “incomplete quantification” Russian and Polish (synthetic languages behave similarly, and are opposed to the analytic Bulgarian.
Full Text Available This paper will describe the results of analyses carried out on multilingual chat sessions that took place in the context of LITERALIA, a 24-months long project funded by the European Union’s Grundtvig initiative to support: “Learning In Tandem to Encourage Reciprocal Autonomous Learning In Adults - LITERALIA”. An online workspace was created for the project that allowed learners to communicate with others in four different countries and to enhance their linguistic and cultural competence in four European languages: English, German, Italian, and Polish. Participation in the chat was voluntary and took place in an integrated Moodle workspace.
Full Text Available La communauté scientifique est internationale. L'industrie du pétrole est internationale. Des problèmes de communication, de langage, de langue y sont rencontrés chaque jour. C'est pourquoi, bien que tranchant assez vigoureusement sur les sujets habituels de la Revue de l'Institut Français du Pétrole, l'article de Magdeleine Moureau et Gerald Brace sur des problèmes de linguistique ne nous a pas paru trop étranger aux préoccupations de nos lecteurs pour leur être présenté. Cet article a pour but de traiter d'abord des impossibilités théoriques de la traduction, d'évoquer ensuite les modalités pratiques de sa réalisation quotidienne et de les appliquer à l'étude des problèmes inhérents à l'élaboration d'un langage documentaire multilinguisme. The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical impossibilities of translation, and then to describe the practical ways of actually translating, and to apply these ways to the task of studying problems inherent in elaborating a multilingual documentary language.
Lauridsen, Karen M.; Cozart, Stacey Marie; Kling, Joyce
Uni project (2012-15) recommends that higher education institutions (HEI) provide ‘the necessary professional development and teacher training programmes that will allow HE teachers to appropriately develop (…) their professional and pedagogical knowledge, skills and competences and thereby empower them...... to ensure the quality of their teaching – and their students’ learning – in the multilingual and multicultural learning space’ (www.intluni.eu; Carroll 2015; Leask 2015). For many universities and other HEIs around the world, the multilingual and multicultural classroom is the new – or no longer quite so...... platform with resources targeted at EDs responsible for advancing faculty development in this area. In this session, the presenters will report on the first outcomes of EQUiiP. Participants will then be invited to interact and explore best practices in the multilingual and multicultural learning space...
Samal Jalal, Rawand
with regard to English proficiency. The current study conducted in Denmark investigated multilingual students’ English proficiency compared to their monolingual peers’, and examined which learning strategies proficient L3 learners utilize. The sample was comprised of 9-graders who are monolinguals (N = 82......) and multilinguals with Turkish L1 (N = 134). The participants provided basic demographic information, and were tested in their general English proficiency. Out of the 70 multilinguals with Turkish L1, 12 participants were selected for further testing; i.e., the four participants who scored the lowest, four...... participants with intermediate scores, and the four who scored the highest, on a test of English proficiency. These participants were tested in their L1 (Turkish) and their L2 (Danish) in order to examine whether their proficiency in their L1 and L2 was associated with English proficiency. Furthermore, the 12...
Laursen, Helle Pia
to the complex processes involved in biliterate meaning making and script learning. Multilingual and social semiotic perspectives on literacy learning and teaching – summaryOn the basis of data from the longitudinal study Signs of Language, I focus on how a social semiotic perspective on literacy learning...... and teaching can contribute to expanding the conceptualization of literacy to be more sensitive to the complex processes involved in biliterate meaning making and script learning.......Multilingual and social semiotic perspectives on literacy learning and teaching – abstract In the context of an increasing multilingualism, literacy teaching has become a central and contested issue in public and political debate. International comparisons of levels of literacy have been...
Full Text Available When multiple legal orders and languages co-exist within a single legal regime, there is potential for divergences between the legal texts. The European Union represents on the international legal stage, the most ambitious linguistic project, integrating 28 Member States and 24 official languages. What we undertook with this study was to discover how the multilingual and multicultural environment of the European Union affects its legislative and judicial processes. We tried to argue the problem of translation divergences between the authentic texts of the European Union. Many questions arise. Is ‘controlled multilingualism’ the key to our problem? Is weak multilingualism the solution - especially that it is not new for the European construction? Should one language be chosen as the original? Of course that we have to see that multilingualism is an advantage, a blessing of the European Union and not an obstacle, a curse. We consider that, despite the various problems with the European multilingualism described in this study, it is unlikely that something would change in the foreseeable future. However, we consider that lawyers should research more in languages and legal interpretation. Interdisciplinary efforts could solve the multilingualism problems of the European Union. The present study is part of a more complex research on this theme and it is meant to approach certain important points of the master thesis prepared in Switzerland for a LL.M. program.
Laursen, Helle Pia
& Leung, 2001). In search of a critical postmodern perspective on classroom studies, as advocated by Lin & Luk (2002), the study 'Signs of language‘ (2008-2014) aims to investigate the possibilities of restructuring the literacy practices in multilingual classrooms by giving attention to the children‘ s......In the context of an increasing multilingualism, literacy teaching has become a central and contested issue in public and political debate. International comparisons of levels of literacy have been interpreted as an indication of a prevailing literacy crisis that demands political actions to avoid...
To date, the relation between multilingualism and the Semantic Web has not yet received enough attention in the research community. One major challenge for the Semantic Web community is to develop architectures, frameworks and systems that can help in overcoming national and language barriers, facilitating equal access to information produced in different cultures and languages. As such, this volume aims at documenting the state-of-the-art with regard to the vision of a Multilingual Semantic Web, in which semantic information will be accessible in and across multiple languages. The Multiling
Singh, Navin Kumar
This book presents evolving language education trends by drawing examples and case studies from around the world. Over the past few decades, significant economic and political changes have taken place around the world which have had a significant impact on language teaching and learning practices across the globe. With globalization, the focus of language education has shifted from monolingualism towards bilingualism and multilingualism, in that multilingual practices have become the norm rather than the exception in most parts of the world. This book brings together some of latest controversi
Trybula, Walter J.
Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated data collection is desirable when monitoring fluctuating conditions. Mobile phones can be used to gather such data from large groups of respondents by sending and receiving frequently repeated short questions and answers as text messages. The analysis of repeated data involves some challenges. Vital issues to consider are the within-subject correlation, the between measurement occasion correlation and the presence of missing values. The overall aim of this commentary is to describe different methods of analyzing repeated data. It is meant to give an overview for the clinical researcher in order for complex outcome measures to be interpreted in a clinically meaningful way. Methods A model data set was formed using data from two clinical studies, where patients with low back pain were followed with weekly text messages for 18 weeks. Different research questions and analytic approaches were illustrated and discussed, as well as the handling of missing data. In the applications the weekly outcome “number of days with pain” was analyzed in relation to the patients’ “previous duration of pain” (categorized as more or less than 30 days in the previous year. Research questions with appropriate analytical methods 1: How many days with pain do patients experience? This question was answered with data summaries. 2: What is the proportion of participants “recovered” at a specific time point? This question was answered using logistic regression analysis. 3: What is the time to recovery? This question was answered using survival analysis, illustrated in Kaplan-Meier curves, Proportional Hazard regression analyses and spline regression analyses. 4: How is the repeatedly measured data associated with baseline (predictor variables? This question was answered using generalized Estimating Equations, Poisson regression and Mixed linear models analyses. 5: Are there subgroups of patients with similar courses of pain
Brebner, Chris; Chandler Yeo, Helen; Goh, Magdeline Meilin; Kam, Karryn Wanlin; Yeo, Wendy Su Fen
Assessment of oral language skills is challenging in multilingual environments. With language policies promoting increased use of English and reduction of dialectal varieties of languages, rapid changes in language further confound assessment. This study explores the currency of normative data on an expressive language screening tool in English for English-Mandarin bilingual Singaporean children. Spoken language samples in English from 101 pre-school children were compared with those from 481 children in the original data collection in 2002. Scores for expressive vocabulary and morphosyntax were compared for the two main language groups. Results indicate that the normative data for English-dominant children are still current. The data for younger Mandarin-dominant children showed improved test scores, indicating improvement in expressive morphosyntax in English. English language competency has changed over time for Mandarin-dominant children in Singapore, likely due to the influence of language policy on language use. This is a particular challenge in multilingual environments. Current literature emphasizes the need to develop language assessments specific to populations and language groups for standardized assessments to be valid and reliable. These results demonstrate the need to monitor normative data and characteristics of language over time and to update standardized language assessments accordingly.
Full Text Available Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to 2 languages simultaneously from birth (SiM were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM. Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower grey matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and influence experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.
Snow, Catherine E.
In this article, I first take on the issue of standards and the degree to which they do or do not contribute to the improvement of language and literacy outcomes for children in multilingual societies. Then I consider the relation of standards to language and, finally, raise the vexed issue of content knowledge and its relation to standards, on…
Bilingualism/multilingualism will be discussed in section four; while section ... In the past, our ancestors moved from one place to the other in search of ... The concept of ethnicity, however, encompasses a lot of meaning so that its definition is.
Küeppers, Almut; Yagmur, K.
Languages are powerful tools for change and have ceased to be only national symbols. In this focus paper, the overall question to be tackled is why and how the multilingual paradigm challenges nation-states and its institutions with a special focus on the domain of state education. While the former
By all standards, Nigeria is a multilingual and Multicultural state parading more than five hundred indigenous languages existing alongside English language as an official language and French language as the defacto second official language. Choosing a national language among the existing indigenous languages has ...
to implement multilingual education for purposes of teaching and learning ... higher education system, very little (excluding a range of stereotypes) is known about the ... learning of one additional or supportive language of tuition (CHE 2001:11). ..... state their gender, age, home language, household economic status and the ...
Marácz, L.; Craze, S.; Lempp, F.
Due to globalisation, and different forms of migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity and multilingual communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and institutional
Stroud, Christopher; Williams, Quentin
The challenge of contemporary South Africa is that of building a (post)nation of postracial equity in a fragmented world of a globalized ethical, economic and ecological meltdown. In this paper, we seek to explore the idea of multilingualism as a technology in the conceptualization of alternative, competing futures. We suggest that multilingualism…
Daugaard, Line Møller; Johansen, Martin Blok
When teachers and school librarians choose picture books for multilingual children, they often base their choice on an evaluation of linguistic comprehensibility, content familiarity and cultural appropriateness. This means that postmodern picture books may be excluded. This paper presents a case...
This article addresses the challenge and process of the curriculum design using the classic ADDIE model. It also documents student reaction to the compulsory module as well as their experience of language learning. Keywords: curriculum + multilingual classrooms, instructional design and development, language learning ...
This article presents and discusses strategies for encouraging the use of all official languages in South Africa from a language management perspective. Although the South African language policy has been commended for its multilingual nature, the implementation of the policy is still problematic. Hence, I argue that we ...
Jones, Sally Ann
This article proposes a pedagogic innovation in teacher education by articulating a method for writing learning outcomes for English language lessons in multilingual school contexts. The argument for this approach is founded on curriculum studies; however, the practice also draws specifically on applied psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic…
By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…
output of this feature fron- tend is a multilingual representation from the bottleneck layer of the second network. In our training framework , we use 40...16] M. Harper, “IARPA Babel Program,” http://www.iarpa.gov/index. php /research-programs/babel, [Online; accessed 2016-03-25].  “Assamese Babel
Although the National Policy on Education stipulates the learning of at least three languages on completion of Junior Secondary School by each learner, the Nigerian linguistic environment which is evidently multilingual poses some challenges and setbacks for language teaching and learning among ethnic minorities.
This paper explores important aspects of teaching Spanish, both spoken and written, to multilingual students, with specific reference to United Sates International University (USIU), a private institution located in Nairobi, Kenya. The beginner students of Spanish at the University speak at least 3 languages, one of which is ...
In order to support concept literacy, especially for students for whom English is not the native language, a number of universities in South Africa are compiling multilingual glossaries through which the use of languages other than English may be employed as auxiliary media. Terminologies in languages other than English ...
Aronin, Larissa; Jessner, Ulrike
Research methodology is determined by theoretical approaches. This article discusses methods of multilingualism research in connection with theoretical developments in linguistics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and education. Taking a brief glance at the past, the article starts with a discussion of an issue underlying the choice of…
Higgins, Christina; Ponte, Eva
This article explores the identities of a group of elementary teachers who participated in a professional development (PD) project on multilingual language learners. We study how the participating teachers drew on different aspects of their identities to respond to encouragement to increase their attention to students' diverse multilingual…
Nicolaou, Anna; Parmaxi, Antigoni; Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi; Boglou, Dimitrios
This paper aims to provide an overview of the current situation of multilingualism and language education in the city of Limassol, Cyprus. The multicultural character of Limassol is reflected in every aspect of city life, and is notably reflected in the sector of education.Therefore,there is a need to delve into the situation of language…
This paper explains the situation of Mandarin, Suzhou dialect and English in Suzhou, the relation between language policy and language use, discusses the positive and negative consequences that multilingualism in Suzhou might have for the society, and focuses on the change of language use in Suzhou and provides suggestions for the maintenance of…
This article illustrates the findings on multilingualism related to the educational sphere in the city of Rome, within the scope and theoretical framework of the international project LUCIDE (Languages in Urban Communities--Integration and Diversity for Europe). Particularly, it describes the type of linguistic and cultural support offered to…
The articles in this thematic issue document studies of grassroots actions in promoting multilingualism across different sectors of society as well as in different social and professional domains. In doing so, the contributors raise issues of the relevance of the notion of community in the age of superdiversity and the researcher's…
Wei, Li; Hua, Zhu
The nature of diaspora is changing in the 21st century. Yet many of the communication issues remain the same. At the heart of it is multilingual and intercultural communication across time and space. There is much that applied linguists can contribute to the understanding of diaspora in the era of globalization. This article discusses some of the…
Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti
High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word…
The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…
Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura; Hesson, Sarah; Menken, Kate
This article explores the critical role of school leaders in language policy change, and specifically in shifting their language education policies and practices from monolingual to multilingual. We examine the process of language policy change in three schools that were involved in a project aimed at increasing the knowledge base of school…
Sanz, Cristina; Cox, Jessica G.
Multilingualism is now seen as the norm rather than the exception in an age of migration and supranational entities, and where minority language rights and the consequent educational policies have become more common. The field of applied linguistics reflects that transition: second language acquisition (sla) research is slowly being replaced by…
account for the multilingual concept literacy glossaries being compiled under the auspices of .... a theory, i.e. the set of premises, arguments and conclusions required for explaining ... fully address cognitive and communicative needs, especially of laypersons. ..... tion at UCT, and in indigenous languages as auxiliary media.
Herzog-Punzenberger, Barbara; Le Pichon, E.M.M.; Siarova, Hanna
While multilingualism and diversity have always been an integral part of Europe, they also became important characteristics of many national education systems in the past two decades. The linguistic diversity of modern classrooms is shaped by 1. the presence of historical non-dominant language
Daniel, Shannon M.; Pacheco, Mark B.
Increasingly, educational research suggests that translanguaging pedagogies can provide meaningful supports for English language learners. Yet, few studies examine how multilingual teens in English-dominant settings independently translanguage to make sense of school and achieve their goals. In this study, we review definitions of translanguaging…
Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies, Volume 4, 2015. 1. MULTILINGUALISM AND ..... Tukano of the northwest Amazon because of their customs which forbids marriage among themselves rather they ... everyday life whether it is in the church, meetings, market, family etc. whereas Igala and Igbo languages are also used ...
Bahous, Rima; Bacha, Nahla Nola; Nabhani, Mona
This paper reports on the multilingual background, language education policies and practices in Lebanon. Specifically, it shows how the multilingual make-up in the country is translated into language policies in schools. A survey of 30 private school principals, middle managers and teachers was administered online to obtain their views on school policies, problems, successes, concerns and quality ranking. Results showed that a great deal of work has been done to introduce a language of instruction and a third language as decreed by the Ministry of Education and at the same time keep the national language, Arabic, alive. The main concerns of the participants were the need for teacher training programmes and resources. Although the research implies that the school systems, in keeping up with this multilingual milieu, could be contributing to the death of the national language as well as producing students who are not fluent in any of the languages, there continues to be an attempt to keep alive a quality multilingual educational context which contributes to a cohesive society.
This article explores the language context of Information Technology (IT) classes in the Free State province. An overview of the multilingual context within which the research was done is provided through a brief historical background of language accommodation and recognition in South Africa in general, and then ...
Thompson, Amy S.; Khawaja, Anastasia J.
As part of a larger study on individual differences and language learning in Turkey, this study explores the relationship between foreign language anxiety and two operationalisations of multilingualism: any experience with a third language and Perceived Positive Language Interaction; it also illuminates connections among the aforementioned…
This article investigates the requirements of the newly released Language Policy for Higher Education and provides guidelines for an educational approach that would support multilingual, higher education. In a nutshell, this policy challenges higher education institutions to provide in the linguistic needs of the new, more ...
Some scholars have noted that globalization portends 'a global common language' that offers unprecedented possibilities for mutual understanding and thus enables us to find fresh opportunities for international co-operation. Yet, others have argued in favour of multilingualism, described as an alternative, fundamental ...
After the demise of apartheid it was hoped that a radical shift would give impetus to multilingual education in universities in South Africa. This is predicated on the vigour that South Africa exuded in its endeavour to promote eleven languages to national official status for the country. The question is, will universities ever be ...
This reflective paper reports on the approach taken and the lesson learnt in introducing multilingualism as a Writing-To-Learn (WTL) strategy for active learning, especially for large classes. WTL strategies are well entrenched in social and humanities courses as opposed to 'technical' courses such as Information and ...
This article evaluates the lexicographic value of multilingual dictionaries. Dictionaries covering three or more languages spoken in South Africa are taken as a case in point. An attempt will be made to reflect on their merits and shortcomings as reference works and learning tools but the focus will be on presumed ...
Language affects all aspects of the academy as a platform for the cultivation of critical thinking. The extension of multilingualism (ie "more people using more languages in more registers and in more domains") in higher education would contribute significantly to "improving the quality of the higher education sector".
Meilicke, C.; García-Castro, R.; Freitas, F.; van Hage, W.R.; Montiel-Ponsoda, E.; Ribeiro de Azevedo, R.; Stuckenschmidt, H.; Svab-Zamazal, O.; Svatek, V.; Tamalin, A.; Wang, S.
In this paper we present the MultiFarm dataset, which has been designed as a benchmark for multilingual ontology matching. The MultiFarm dataset is composed of a set of ontologies translated in different languages and the corresponding alignments between these ontologies. It is based on the OntoFarm
Curry, Mary Jane; Lillis, Theresa M.
In the past decade, academic evaluation systems worldwide have markedly increased the use of mechanisms that privilege the use of English in journal publishing. In the context of these trends, this article highlights our findings from more than 12 years of research on the experiences and perspectives of 50 multilingual European scholars with…
Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.
Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and
Oduor, Jane A. N.
This article proposes multilingualism in education, where indigenous languages are used alongside English as the media of instruction in schools to eventually promote their use in Kenya. It begins by stating Kenya's language policy in education. It then states the responses given by some primary and secondary school teachers who were interviewed…
De Angelis, Gessica
The present study adopts a multilingual approach to analysing the standardized test results of primary school immigrant children living in the bi-/multilingual context of South Tyrol, Italy. The standardized test results are from the Invalsi test administered across Italy in 2009/2010. In South Tyrol, several languages are spoken on a daily basis…
This study examined the perceptions of three Muslim families on multilingual development in their children with autism. Findings indicate that the families' goal of maintaining normalcy in their children's life could not be attained without immersion in multiple languages. They believe that immersion in multilingual contexts helped their children…
Full Text Available Arabic script character recognition is challenging task due to complexity of the script and huge number of ligatures. We present a method for the development of multilingual Arabic script OCR (Optical Character Recognition and lexicon reduction for Arabic Script and its derivative languages. The objective of the proposed method is to overcome the large dataset Urdu and similar scripts by using GCT (Ghost Character Theory concept. Arabic and its sibling script languages share the similar character dataset i.e. the character set are difference in diacritic and writing styles like Naskh or Nasta?liq. Based on the proposed method, the lexicon for Arabic and Arabic script based languages can be minimized approximately up to 20 times. The proposed multilingual Arabic script OCR approach have been evaluated for online Arabic and its derivative language like Urdu using BPNN. The result showed that proposed method helps to not only the reduction of lexicon but also helps to develop the Multilanguage character recognition system for Arabic Script.
Full Text Available Professional multilingual environments using English as a lingua franca are prone to imbalances in communication, linguistic insecurity and rising tension. Non-native English speakers develop avoidance strategies in order to lessen their apprehension. To overcome these imbalances, this research aims to understand the relationships formed around languages focusing on the dynamics of integration and the requests for help. Guided by the actantial models of Greimas (1966, this qualitative study employs semiolinguistics and discourse analysis, including 19 narrative interviews with employees of Airbus and UNESCO in Hamburg, Germany in 2013. This methodology draws on actors connected through relationships of power and/or collaboration. The actantial models applied seek linguistic input through designational paradigms, shifters and modal occurrences. The actantial models illustrate how a good language competence provides a better understanding of one’s direct as well as passive environment. The learning process is shown to be a conduit to integration. The actantial model and discourse analysis shed light on the complex situation of multilingual communication settings by highlighting the influence of individuals’ linguistic skills. As a matter of fact, depending on the role of each individual in a given situation, lending a helping hand sometimes equates to upsetting the balance.
Wagner, J C; Solomon, W D; Michel, P A; Juge, C; Baud, R H; Rector, A L; Scherrer, J R
Re-usable and sharable, and therefore language-independent concept models are of increasing importance in the medical domain. The GALEN project (Generalized Architecture for Languages Encyclopedias and Nomenclatures in Medicine) aims at developing language-independent concept representation systems as the foundations for the next generation of multilingual coding systems. For use within clinical applications, the content of the model has to be mapped to natural language. A so-called Multilingual Information Module (MM) establishes the link between the language-independent concept model and different natural languages. This text generation software must be versatile enough to cope at the same time with different languages and with different parts of a compositional model. It has to meet, on the one hand, the properties of the language as used in the medical domain and, on the other hand, the specific characteristics of the underlying model and its representation formalism. We propose a semantic-oriented approach to natural language generation that is based on linguistic annotations to a concept model. This approach is realized as an integral part of a Terminology Server, built around the concept model and offering different terminological services for clinical applications.
Dhiraj Kumar Rai
Full Text Available The multilingual surrounding of Spanish Language Teaching (SLT in India has presented a unique linguistic principle. This principle relies upon the application of English language instructions (as FL1 to combine several methods for teaching-learning Spanish language (as FL2. However, the effectiveness and appropriateness of this linguistic principle, whereby English language instructions are used for SLT, remain undiagnosed. In fact, the technique of SLT in India needs to take into account the local linguistic or dialectical make-up of the actual or potential learners. As such, the process of Spanish Language acquisition in India as inspired by an exposure to local languages/dialects needs to be creatively explored. Furthermore, the recently increasing entries of specific Spanish words/terms in the Indian ‘popular language usage’, and their implications for SLT in India require to be sufficiently investigated. This article aims at filling in the above-mentioned lacunae by conducting a case study of the status of Spanish Language Teaching in Delhi. It draws the conclusion that the maximum flexibility in the process of eclectically mixing various pedagogical methods of SLT could go a long way in motivating and benefitting both the teachers as well as the students, thereby enhancing the overall efficiency of SLT in multilingual India.
Lamothe, Alain R.
This paper presents the results from a quantitative and systematic analysis comparing the online usage of an e-reference and an e-monograph collection. A very strong relationship exists between size and usage: the larger the collection, the greater the usage. An equally strong relationship exists between searches and viewings, meaning that the…
Lamothe, Alain R.
The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a quantitative analysis exploring the interaction and relationship between the online database and electronic journal collections at the J. N. Desmarais Library of Laurentian University. A very strong relationship exists between the number of searches and the size of the online database…
Degand, Liesbeth; Seventh International Workshop on Natural Language Generation
Causation is a very pervasive phenomenom in natural language which can be expressed by numerous linguistic alternatives. Any language user or natural language generation system is thus confronted with the problem of choosing one alternative over another. In this paper, I analyze the semantic constraints deterrnining the selection of analytic causatives in Dutch and how this can be accounted for in a systernic functional generation system.
Ren, Zhaochun; Inel, Oana; Aroyo, Lora; De Rijke, Maarten
A viewpoint is a triple consisting of an entity, a topic related to this entity and sentiment towards this topic. In time-aware multi-viewpoint summarization one monitors viewpoints for a running topic and selects a small set of informative documents. In this paper, we focus on time-aware
Dascalu, Mihai; Gutu, Gabriel; Ruseti, Stefan; Paraschiv, Ionut Cristian; Dessus, Philippe; McNamara, Danielle S.; Crossley, Scott; Trausan-Matu, Stefan
Assessing textual complexity is a difficult, but important endeavor, especially for adapting learning materials to students’ and readers’ levels of understanding. With the continuous growth of information technologies spanning through various research fields, automated assessment tools have
Laursen, Helle Pia; Daugaard, Line Møller
Chapter 4, by Daugaard and Laursen, examines a multilingual classroom in Denmark as a site of negotiations of language and literacy. Classrooms have never been homogeneous, in many senses, but in the present era of global fl ows and new forms of mobility the heterogeneous nature of classrooms...... is more prominent than ever. In this chapter, the classroom is characterized as a messy marketplace, in which language ideologies and identity options are maintained, contested and negotiated. The close examination of literacy practices in the classroom in focus in this chapter shows what transitional...... processes take place when people move across spaces and how the sociolinguistic reality of the classroom clashes with the educational conceptualization of ‘the bilingual student’. The analysis also shows how multilingual children actively claim – and transform – linguistic space in the classroom....
Full Text Available At the confluence of philology and economy, foreign languages for business are a more and more interesting domain for the European economic agents, aware of the value of multilingual competences. Tourism is a priority domain of the economy, and within international tourism, foreign languages are a priority. This paper offers an interpretation of the Master Plan for National Tourism Development 2007-2026 from an applied linguistics point of view, aiming to synthesize the role of the foreign languages in the national strategy for the promotion of tourism. The extensive study developed by the Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism, the beneficiary of a remarkable professional guidance, offers a realistic image of the Romanian tourism at the time of Romania's integration in the EU and it predicts its evolution over a span of 20 years. The recommendations from the Business Forum for Multilingualism and the ELAN study highlight the impact of foreign languages in business, the direct relation between linguistic competence, performance, profit and development. The research methodology consisted in identifying the accommodation units (hotels and guesthouses in Oradea, capital city of Bihor county, and Baile Felix, a famous resort situated at about 10 km from Oradea - both of them are situated in the border region with Hungary - and in analyzing their websites. Their on-line presentations are generally made in Romanian, but there is also a concern for the multilingual presentation. This paper intends to sum up the linguistic scene of these websites from the perspective of the orientation to international tourism. We have observed that, despite their indisputable potential to make profit, foreign languages are almost unanimously ignored by officials and by hotel and guesthouse owners alike. Although they are in the private sector, therefore directly interested in the prosperity of their business, they do not choose to apply a strategy of multilingual
Carneiro, Hugo C C; Pedreira, Carlos E; França, Felipe M G; Lima, Priscila M V
In the last decade, given the availability of corpora in several distinct languages, research on multilingual part-of-speech tagging started to grow. Amongst the novelties there is mWANN-Tagger (multilingual weightless artificial neural network tagger), a weightless neural part-of-speech tagger capable of being used for mostly-suffix-oriented languages. The tagger was subjected to corpora in eight languages of quite distinct natures and had a remarkable accuracy with very low sample deviation in every one of them, indicating the robustness of weightless neural systems for part-of-speech tagging tasks. However, mWANN-Tagger needed to be tuned for every new corpus, since each one required a different parameter configuration. For mWANN-Tagger to be truly multilingual, it should be usable for any new language with no need of parameter tuning. This article proposes a study that aims to find a relation between the lexical diversity of a language and the parameter configuration that would produce the best performing mWANN-Tagger instance. Preliminary analyses suggested that a single parameter configuration may be applied to the eight aforementioned languages. The mWANN-Tagger instance produced by this configuration was as accurate as the language-dependent ones obtained through tuning. Afterwards, the weightless neural tagger was further subjected to new corpora in languages that range from very isolating to polysynthetic ones. The best performing instances of mWANN-Tagger are again the ones produced by the universal parameter configuration. Hence, mWANN-Tagger can be applied to new corpora with no need of parameter tuning, making it a universal multilingual part-of-speech tagger. Further experiments with Universal Dependencies treebanks reveal that mWANN-Tagger may be extended and that it has potential to outperform most state-of-the-art part-of-speech taggers if better word representations are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Broadcast journalists in South Africa are media workers, editors and translators simultaneously producing news for bilingual or multilingual audiences. News texts are translated from English into one or more of the other official languages, depending on the target audience of the broadcaster. This article aims to indicate how ...
As a result of globalisation and mass migration, suburbs and schools around the world are becoming increasingly multiethnic, multilingual places. Yet there is still relatively little linguistic research on how language is used in everyday interaction in these multilingual communities. In this paper, I explore the strengths and limitations of…
Nakamura, Pooja; de Hoop, Thomas
Most of the world is multilingual--multilingual at the national level (policies), at the community and family level (practices), and at the individual level (cognitive)--and each of these has implications for teaching and learning. Yet, at present, most reading decisions are not based on empirical research of how children learn to read in…
This research focused on learning conditions in preschool that support multilingual children's linguistic development. The aim of this paper was to study singing activities through the experiences of ten multilingual children in toddler groups (one to three years of age) in eight Swedish preschools. A sociocultural theoretical approach is used to…
Clarkson, Philip C.
Multilingual classrooms are the normal learning contexts for most children throughout the world. However not all such contexts are identical. This distinction is not always made in the literature. In this paper the multilingual context for classrooms in many urban classrooms in Australia is described before exploring a possible model that might be…
Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna
The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…
Tarasowa, Darya; Auer, Sören; Khalili, Ali; Unbehauen, Jörg
The support of multilingual content becomes crucial for educational platforms due to the benefits it offers. In this paper we propose a concept that allows content authors to use the power of the crowd to create (semantically) structured multilingual educational content out of their material. To enable the collaboration of the crowd, we expand our…
The "multilingual turn" brings questions of language ownership to the forefront of debates about linguistic minority governance. Acadian minority cultural producers construct language ownership using multiple languages and targeting multilingual publics, but use ideologies of monolingualism to situate Acadian authenticity in place and…
van Compernolle, Rémi A.
This article explores the links between multilingualism, the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA), and attitudes toward linguistic variation among 379 mono-, bi-, and multilingual adults who completed an online questionnaire. A self-reported high level of proficiency in multiple languages, short- and long-term residence abroad, and high…
This article explores language ideologies and language uses in a multilingual university in Hong Kong by exploring the voices and experiences of both mainland Chinese and Hong Kong students. Drawing on the notions of language ideologies, separate multilingualism, and translanguaging, the research illustrates how students' linguistic ideologies are…
This paper focuses on the ways an institution of the new economy--a tourism call centre in Switzerland--markets, manages and performs multilingual services. In particular, it explores the ways multilingualism operates as a strategic and managerial tool within tourism call centres and how the institutional regulation of language practices…
Adopting a materialist and processual approach to language and specifically multilingualism, this paper explores what language ideologies a minority, non-educational institution embraced and how this facilitated social inclusion through constructing institutional multilingualism within societal monolingualism. Specifically, I document how a…
This article investigates the educational trajectories of young multilingual learners in Germany. Drawing on previous ethnographic research in a primary bilingual German-Italian Two-Way-Immersion classroom, this study examines the continuity and fragmentation of multilingual learning as they occur in the transition from primary to secondary…
van der Worp, Karin; Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk
In this article we discuss the outcomes of a study into the languages of the workplace of internationally operating companies. Our aim is to contribute to studies of multilingualism in the workplace by adopting a holistic approach that focuses on several languages and relates the competences and attitudes of multilingual professionals to the…
An international interest in multilingualism and multilingual education has burgeoned since the turn of the twenty-first century, accompanying apparently significant changes in the physical and virtual mobilities of people, international frameworks, and commitments and goals for socially just education. It has also accompanied major political…
Ospanova, Bikesh Revovna; Azimbayeva, Zhanat Amantayevna; Timokhina, Tatyana Vladimirovna; Seydakhmetova, Zergul Koblandiyevna
The need of implementing the model of professional development in training an expert in the conditions of multilingualism is considered. The possibility of using the multilingual approach in the context of present day education with the use of innovative technologies of training is substantiated, the definition of "multilingual…
Odugu, Desmond Ikenna
Widespread scholarly and political attention to language-related inequities in the 20th century precipitated a spate of orientations to language planning in multilingual societies. While various orientations indicate a shift from earlier deficit to affirmative views of multilingualism, vigorous debates persist about the logical and pragmatic…
South African universities are required by the Language Policy for Higher Education adopted by the government on 6 November 2002 to implement multilingualism in their learning and teaching programmes. Multilingualism is recommended in this policy as a means to ensure equity of access and success in higher education, in contrast to past colonial…
In this plenary speech I examine multilingual interaction in a number of European regions in which minority languages are being revitalized. Education is a crucial variable, but the wider society is equally significant. The context of revitalization is no longer bilingual but increasingly multilingual. I draw on the results of a long-running…
The South African society can be described as culturally diverse and multilingual. However, despite the advantages of mother-tongue education, English is often chosen as the language of learning and teaching at the cost of the other official languages. This article proposes that multilingualism, through the use of languages other than English in…
Martinis, Anja Iveković
The paper presents a case study of multilingualism in private correspondence in turn-of-the-century Austro-Hungarian Istria. Language attitudes and use of German, Italian and Slovenian are analyzed, with results indicating the compatibility of national feelings with an appreciation of multilingualism, as well as the important role that intimate intercultural relationships play in this regard in a culturally mixed region.
Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie
Background: The speech and language therapy profession is required to provide services to increasingly multilingual caseloads. Much international research has focused on the challenges of speech and language therapists' (SLTs) practice with multilingual children. Aims: To draw on the experience and knowledge of experts in the field to: (1)…
McLeod, Sharynne; Goldstein, Brian
Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into…
Lee, Alice Shu-Ju
This dissertation explores the identity enactments (Bucholtz & Hall, 2005) of 14 multilingual university writing center tutors and multilingual student writers who use English and Putonghua to negotiate their interactions. The study is situated within sociocultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978) and uses ethnographic methods such as observation,…
Hajer, Maaike; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Tytler, Russell
using Clarke & Hollingworth (2002) (referred to as C&H) model for analyzing teacher development as connections between teachers personal domain of knowledge and beliefs, practice domain of experimenting in the classroom, domain of consequence including salient student outcomes and the external domain...... that requires multidisciplinary cooperation. The Swedish Science and Literacy Teaching (SALT)project focuses on the questions How do science teachers address literacy skills in classes with secondary students in a multilingual classroom? and How can an explicit focus on literacy development become an integrated...... part of science teachers’ practice and thinking? The multidisciplinary team includes expertise in applied linguistics (text analysis, second language teaching), science pedagogy and teacher professional development. Having gathered the SALT data, the challenge in this phase is in the analysis. How can...
Full Text Available This article is dedicated to study of principles of description of the meaning of words in the multilingual synonymic dictionaries. The dictionary of synonyms must have full enough and absolutely explicit description of their semantic similarity and distinctions. The description can be full if it includes all existing features of the words, adequately denote every meaning and help the language learners and speakers in choosing possible meanings of synonyms owing to situation. The synonymic dictionary must include all synonyms, their meanings, lexico-semantic combination, distribution, grammatical constructions and stylistic features showing their usage in certain contexts and situations. In some cases according to their contextual meanings synonyms may be substituted depending on situation. The article is based on examples of English, Uzbek and Russian languages.
Lindgrén, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti
High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word retrieval, phonological processing and other cognitive functions relevant for dyslexia. Reading and writing were examined in the two domestic languages, Swedish and Finnish. The most prominent group differences in reading and writing emerged on accuracy measures in both languages (reading text aloud, proofreading, writing to dictation, free writing). The dyslexia group also performed less well on speeded segmentation of written input, complex speeded naming and complex phoneme manipulation. The pattern of results fits the phonological deficit hypothesis of dyslexia and indicates the presence of pervasive underlying defects in compensated dyslexia. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bijan Kumar Roy
Full Text Available The paper discusses the nature of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOSs and shows how these can support digital library users. It demonstrates processes related to integration of KOS like the Dewey Decimal Classification, 22nd edition (DDC22 in DSpace software (http://www.dspace.org/ for organizing and retrieving (browsing and searching scholarly objects. An attempt has been made to use the DDC22 available in Bengali language and highlights the required mechanisms for system-level integration. It may help repository administrator to build IDR (Institutional Digital Repository integrated with SKOS-enabled multilingual subject access systems for supporting subject descriptors based indexing (DC.Subject metadata element, structured navigation (browsing and efficient searching.
Full Text Available Globalisation and rapidly changing economic environment force businesses to look for new survival or development strategies, fight for new markets, and adapt to turbulent circumstances. Access to new countries and expansion to new markets increasingly determine success and affect the overall economic development. Such factors as growing volumes of export and import, increasing tourism flows, and intensifying international territorial mobility increase people‘s motivation to learn foreign languages. Such knowledge not only extends conditions of economic operation, but also increases the efficiency and reliability of communication (for example, facilitates the acquisition of foreign organizational culture. Therefore, it can be concluded that the processes of economic globalisation increases the need for foreign languages as well as the value of linguistic skills. On the other hand, the dominant position of the English language in the world continues to be strengthened; English is widely considered as the international language of communication. However, as English is treated as a norm, other languages become even more significant. This article presents the business survey data from the “Language Rich Europe” project. The data confirm the predominance of the English language in corporate internal and external communication across European countries. However, the collected data show the growing importance of non-EU languages for businesses. The macro-economic context of the use of different languages in the business sector is presented in this paper as well as conclusions on the interconnection between economic trends and the need for language skills in the import-export and tourism-focused businesses. The article is based on the project “Language Rich Europe” data (www.language-rich.eu.
Hirosh, Zoya; Degani, Tamar
Accumulated recent research suggests that prior knowledge of multiple languages leads to advantages in learning additional languages. In the current article, we review studies examining potential differences between monolingual and multilingual speakers in novel language learning in an effort to uncover the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such differences. We examine the multilingual advantage in children and adults, across a wide array of languages and learner populations. The majority of this literature focused on vocabulary learning, but studies that address phonology, grammar, and literacy learning are also discussed to provide a comprehensive picture of the way in which multilingualism affects novel language learning. Our synthesis indicates two avenues to the multilingual advantage including direct transfer of prior knowledge and prior skills as well as indirect influences that result from multilingual background and include more general changes to the cognitive-linguistic system. Finally, we highlight topics that are in need of future systematic research.
Robotin, Monica C; Porwal, Mamta; Hopwood, Max; Nguyen, Debbie; Sze, Minglo; Treloar, Carla; George, Jacob
In Australia, liver cancer incidence is rising, particularly among people born in hepatitis B-endemic countries. We sought to build an understanding of the information needs of people affected by liver cancer, to inform the design of in-language consumer information resources. We searched the World Wide Web for available in-language consumer information and conducted a literature search on consumers' information needs and their preferred means of accessing it. Qualitative data collection involved bilingual researchers conducting focus group discussions (26 participants) and in-depth interviews (22 participants) with people affected by liver cancer in English, Vietnamese, Cantonese and Mandarin. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. The key themes and salient findings informed the development of in-language multimedia information resources. Many consumer resources did not cater for people with low literacy levels. The participants wanted more information on cancer diagnostic and treatment options, nutrition and Chinese Medicine and experienced communication challenges speaking to health professionals. While Vietnamese speakers relied entirely on information provided by their doctors, other participants actively searched for additional treatment information and commonly used the Internet to source it. We developed multilingual, multimedia consumer information resources addressing identified consumer information needs through an iterative process, in collaboration with our multilingual consumer panel. These resources are available in four languages, as separate modules accessible online and in DVD format. This process enabled the development of user-friendly patient resources, which complement health-care provider information and supports informed patient decision making. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thiha, Phyo; Pisani, Anthony R; Gurditta, Kunali; Cherry, Erin; Peterson, Derick R; Kautz, Henry; Wyman, Peter A
Equipping members of a target population to deliver effective public health messaging to peers is an established approach in health promotion. The Sources of Strength program has demonstrated the promise of this approach for "upstream" youth suicide prevention. Text messaging is a well-established medium for promoting behavior change and is the dominant communication medium for youth. In order for peer 'opinion leader' programs like Sources of Strength to use scalable, wide-reaching media such as text messaging to spread peer-to-peer messages, they need techniques for assisting peer opinion leaders in creating effective testimonials to engage peers and match program goals. We developed a Web interface, called Stories of Personal Resilience in Managing Emotions (StoryPRIME), which helps peer opinion leaders write effective, short-form messages that can be delivered to the target population in youth suicide prevention program like Sources of Strength. To determine the efficacy of StoryPRIME, a Web-based interface for remotely eliciting high school peer leaders, and helping them produce high-quality, personal testimonials for use in a text messaging extension of an evidence-based, peer-led suicide prevention program. In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 36 high school students wrote testimonials with or without eliciting from the StoryPRIME interface. The interface was created in the context of Sources of Strength-an evidence-based youth suicide prevention program-and 24 ninth graders rated these testimonials on relatability, usefulness/relevance, intrigue, and likability. Testimonials written with the StoryPRIME interface were rated as more relatable, useful/relevant, intriguing, and likable than testimonials written without StoryPRIME, P=.054. StoryPRIME is a promising way to elicit high-quality, personal testimonials from youth for prevention programs that draw on members of a target population to spread public health messages. ©Phyo Thiha, Anthony
Axén, Iben; Bodin, Lennart; Kongsted, Alice
to recovery? This question was answered using survival analysis, illustrated in Kaplan-Meier curves, Proportional Hazard regression analyses and spline regression analyses. 4: How is the repeatedly measured data associated with baseline (predictor) variables? This question was answered using generalized...... involves some challenges. Vital issues to consider are the within-subject correlation, the between measurement occasion correlation and the presence of missing values. The overall aim of this commentary is to describe different methods of analyzing repeated data. It is meant to give an overview...... for the clinical researcher in order for complex outcome measures to be interpreted in a clinically meaningful way. METHODS: A model data set was formed using data from two clinical studies, where patients with low back pain were followed with weekly text messages for 18 weeks. Different research questions...
Full Text Available The article explores some aspects of a study which investigates translation as academic literacy mediation in South Africa’s multilingual/multicultural contexts. The focus is on learners’ translations of academic texts between the L2 and L1, and vice-versa, as a strategy to cope with ESL academic tasks. Using reflection discourse from one-on-one and focus group interviews as well as study group discussion texts, the study uses the New Literacy Studies model of literacy as social practice and aspects of critical discourse analysis to identify some pedagogical implications. One of the conclusions is that although learners are able to ‘translate’ in the sense of swapping labels between the L2 and L1 for the same concept, they are unable to successfully ‘translate’ in the sense of transfer of knowledge/cognitive skills between the L2 and L1, and the reverse. The need for functional use of the L1 and L2, critical cross-cultural awareness and language socialisation, as well as for trained bilingual teachers and literacy mediators, is explored as a way to promote positive difference, and help learners develop strategies to achieve transform/recontextualise knowledge/cognitive skills between the L2 and L1, and vice-versa, in multilingual/multicul-tural contexts.
Julie Byrd Clark
Full Text Available Abstract What does it mean to be and become a bi/multilingual and multicultural language teacher in today’s plurilingual times? This paper reports on the perspectives of multilingual student teachers as they pertain to the development of multilingual repertoires for the teacher candidates themselves and for these teacher candidates’ future French language learners. Globally, initiatives are often directed at language teachers to contribute to producing effective human capital (Byram, 2010; however, awareness in the field of French language pedagogy (FLP appears relatively unexplored beyond the local contexts. This paper illuminates the significance of developing reflexivity (Aull Davies, 2010; Byrd Clark & Dervin, 2014 for future language teachers and researchers through a multimodal, sociolinguistic approach incorporating new technologies by drawing upon data gathered through online, interactive discussion groups and semistructured interviews. The findings illustrate how certain representations of languages, identities, learning, and teaching are constructed and negotiated in these new spaces, and simultaneously challenge traditional (monolithic ways of teaching and researching in FLP. This work has implications for all those involved in language and multicultural education as it invites researchers to reflect upon their own engagements as well as how to create conditions for the inclusion of multilingual repertoires in Canadian classrooms and beyond. Résumé Qu’est-ce que cela veut dire d’être et de devenir un enseignant bi/plurilingue et pluriethnique dans ce monde marqué par le plurilinguisme ? Le travail présenté dans cet article porte sur les perspectives des enseignants-apprenants plurilingues en ce qui concerne le développement de répertoires linguistiques pour eux-mêmes ainsi que leurs futurs élèves. Cet article souligne aussi l’importance de développer ce que nous appelons la réflexivité (Aull Davies, 2010 ; Byrd
MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.
Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se. PMID:29354017
MacLeod, Andrea A N; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R
Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se.
As cities around the world grow more and more diverse, we must take this diversity into account in developing outreach activities and materials. The International Year of Astronomy in 2009 brought a lot of attention to the needs of underserved communities and developing countries, emphasizing the ideal of widespread access to astronomy outreach. Increasingly, however, we find that some of the same challenges facing underserved communities and developing countries are also present in modern metropolises. Conveniently, the linguistic and cultural diversity of our cities is more and more accurately reflected among the astronomy community. The diversity of the astronomical community itself creates opportunities for effective multicultural, multilingual outreach.
Rada, Gabriel; Pérez, Daniel; Capurro, Daniel
Epistemonikos (www.epistemonikos.org) is a free, multilingual database of the best available health evidence. This paper describes the design, development and implementation of the Epistemonikos project. Using several web technologies to store systematic reviews, their included articles, overviews of reviews and structured summaries, Epistemonikos is able to provide a simple and powerful search tool to access health evidence for sound decision making. Currently, Epistemonikos stores more than 115,000 unique documents and more than 100,000 relationships between documents. In addition, since its database is translated into 9 different languages, Epistemonikos ensures that non-English speaking decision-makers can access the best available evidence without language barriers.
Leroyer, Patrick; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Robichaud, Benoît
This paper describes new functionalities implemented in a terminological database (TDB) in order to allow efficient editing of and access to multilingual data. The functionalities are original in the sense that they allow users of the database to retrieve the equivalents not only of headwords...... between equivalents can be established automatically. Examples are taken from the fields of computing and the Internet and focus on English and French. However, the model can easily be extended to other fields and languages provided that the data is available and encoded properly....
Hwa, Rebecca; Resnik, Philip; Weinberg, Amy
...-quality English resources. We present a large-scale experiment showing that Chinese dependency trees can be induced by using an English parser, a word alignment package, and a large corpus of sentence-aligned bilingual text...
Full Text Available Il presente studio affronta il problema della valutazione diagnostica delle competenze linguistiche in contesti educativi multilingui, con particolare attenzione ai bisogni dei bambini e degli adolescenti immigrati. Vengono brevemente esposti gli obiettivi, le funzioni e i principi della valutazione diagnostica e della valutazione formativa considerate parte integrante di una educazione linguistica continua che prevede un insegnamento-apprendimento individualizzato. Sul piano teorico le procedure della valutazione diagnostica delle competenze linguistiche in contesti multilingui fanno riferimento all’apprendimento delle lingue inteso come attività socio-culturale. Language diagnostics in multilingual settings with respect to continuous procedures as accompaniment of individualized learning and teaching This study provides an introduction to language diagnostics in multilingual educational settings, with particular reference to the needs of children and adolescents from migrant backgrounds. It summarises the objectives and functions of language diagnostics and the principles that govern diagnostics including formative assessment, considered to be an integral part of continuous language education that emphasises individualised teaching and learning. From a theoretical perspective, diagnostic procedures in multilingual settings treat language learning as a socio-cultural activity.
Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013 PMID:24098338
Kavé, Gitit; Eyal, Nitza; Shorek, Aviva; Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska
In this study, the authors examined whether the number of languages a person speaks predicts performance on 2 cognitive-screening tests. Data were drawn from a representative sample of the oldest Israeli Jewish population (N = 814, M age = 83.0 years; SD = 5.4) that was interviewed first in 1989 and then twice more within the following 12 years. Cognitive state differed significantly among groups of self-reported bilingual, trilingual, and multilingual individuals at each of the 3 interview waves. Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken contributed to the prediction of cognitive test scores beyond the effect of other demographic variables, such as age, gender, place of birth, age at immigration, or education. Multilingualism was also found to be a significant predictor of cognitive state in a group of individuals who acquired no formal education at all. Those who reported being most fluent in a language other than their mother tongue scored higher on average than did those whose mother tongue was their best language, but the effect of number of languages on cognitive state was significant in both groups, with no significant interaction. Results are discussed in the context of theories of cognitive reserve. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Pérez, María; Berlanga, Rafael
Biomedical knowledge resources (KRs) are mainly expressed in English, and many applications using them suffer from the scarcity of knowledge in non-English languages. The goal of the present work is to take maximum profit from existing multilingual biomedical KRs lexicons to enrich their non-English counterparts. We propose to combine different automatic methods to generate pair-wise language alignments. More specifically, we use two well-known translation methods (GIZA++ and Moses), and we propose a new ad hoc method specially devised for multilingual KRs. Then, resulting alignments are used to transfer semantics between KRs across their languages. Transference quality is ensured by checking the semantic coherence of the generated alignments. Experiments have been carried out over the Spanish, French and German UMLS Metathesaurus counterparts. As a result, the enriched Spanish KR can grow up to 1,514,217 concepts (originally 286,659), the French KR up to 1,104,968 concepts (originally 83,119), and the German KR up to 1,136,020 concepts (originally 86,842). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available , with no liftering applied to the resulting coefficients. The filter bank used in deriving the cepstral coefficients con- sisted of 20 triangular filters and was constrained to a fre- quency band of 300-3400 Hz. No linear or non-linear channel compensation...
Full Text Available In this article I will focus on how the situation of storytelling influences the nature of stories based on memories. More precisely, I will look at the texts that have been collected at the initiative of the researchers and stored in the archive. These are partly written life story accounts and partly oral recollections that have been written down. How do we define their genre? To what extent is it possible to study the interpretations of history from the folk--or any other perspective--through these texts? To what extent is it possible to explore the aspects of these texts that relate to reminiscing and storytelling? The research is based on material collected by the members or grant-aided students or scholars of three academic societies (The 1905 Society, Academic Historical Society and Estonian Literary Society in the 1920s and 1930s, which are now stored in two collections of the cultural historical archives of the Estonian Literary Museum: the collection of the 1905 Society (f 172 and the collection of Historical Tradition (f 199 and 200. The texts under discussion have a common theme, the 1905 events in tsarist Russia on the Estonian territory, and are based on memories. When the collected materials were compared it became clear that the collectors of the stories had posed their questions in a similar way (how the events were remembered. But the general context of the interviews highlighted other aspects. In the first case, the emphasis was on the events in 1905, in the second case it was just one of many events to have happened over a couple of centuries. The roles that the interviewers assumed were also different: the collectors of historical tradition listened to what the storytellers themselves wanted to talk about on a given topic; those collecting memories on behalf of the 1905 Society presented a clear plan to their interviewees, telling them about what events they wanted to get information. The result was that the storytellers
Full Text Available Bi- and multilingualism has been shown to have positive effects on the attainment of third and additional lan-guages. These effects, however, depend on the type of bi- and multilingualism and the status of the languages involved (Cenoz 2003; Jessner 2006. In this explorative trend study, we revisit Cummins’ Threshold Hypothesis (1979, claiming that bilingual children must reach certain levels of attainment in order to a avoid academic deficits and b allow bilingualism to have a positive effect on their cognitive development and academic attain-ment. To this end, we examine the attainment of English as an academic language of 16-year-old school children from Hamburg (n=52. Our findings support the existence of thresholds for literacy attainment. We argue that language external factors may override positive effects of bilingualism. In addition, these factors may compensate negative effects attributable to low literacy attainment in German and the heritage languages. We also show that low attainment levels in migrant children’s heritage languages preempt high literacy attainment in additional languages.
Full Text Available This paper discusses a project with a small group of children learning English as an a language (EAL at a pre-school in Scotland. The project however could be replicated across the globe, in any classroom with a diverse range of learners, with particular benefit to minority and newly arrived migrant children. At the project’s core was the aim to bring the children’s first language and culture into the classroom, drawing in particular on Cummin’s (1984 Common Underlying Proficiency model, which asserts that knowledge of one language can assist learners in their acquisition of another. The project used multicultural picturebooks to validate the learner’s experiences and culture, and then called on parents’ funds of knowledge to make the children’s first language visible in the classroom. This joint working between the children, parents and the pre-school culminated in the production of a multilingual collage – a prominent display that recognises the value of the children’s first language in the classroom, builds bridges between home and school and is reflective, and proud, of an increasingly multilingual Scotland.
Vuorikari, Riina Hannuli
Vuorikari, R. (2009). Tags and self-organisation: a metadata ecology for learning resources in a multilingual context. Doctoral thesis. November, 13, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, CELSTEC.
Vuorikari, R. (2009). Tags and self-organisation: a metadata ecology for learning resources in a multilingual context. Doctoral thesis. November, 13, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, CELSTEC.
Uljarević, Mirko; Katsos, Napoleon; Hudry, Kristelle; Gibson, Jenny L
Language and communication skills are essential aspects of child development, which are often disrupted in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cutting edge research in psycholinguistics suggests that multilingualism has potential to influence social, linguistic and cognitive development. Thus, multilingualism has implications for clinical assessment, diagnostic formulation, intervention and support offered to families. We present a systematic review and synthesis of the effects of multilingualism for children with neurodevelopmental disorders and discuss clinical implications. We conducted systematic searches for studies on multilingualism in neurodevelopmental disorders. Keywords for neurodevelopmental disorders were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition categories as follows; Intellectual Disabilities, Communication Disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder, Motor Disorders, Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders. We included only studies based on empirical research and published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifty studies met inclusion criteria. Thirty-eight studies explored multilingualism in Communication Disorders, 10 in ASD and two in Intellectual Disability. No studies on multilingualism in Specific Learning Disorder or Motor Disorders were identified. Studies which found a disadvantage for multilingual children with neurodevelopmental disorders were rare, and there appears little reason to assume that multilingualism has negative effects on various aspects of functioning across a range of conditions. In fact, when considering only those studies which have compared a multilingual group with developmental disorders to a monolingual group with similar disorders, the findings consistently show no adverse effects on language development or other aspects of functioning. In the case of ASD, a positive effect on communication and social functioning has
Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M
Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.
MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.
Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, mult...
Collection of regulatory texts relative to radiation protection. Part 2: orders and decisions taken in application of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations
This collection of texts includes the general measures of population protection, exposure to natural radiations, general system of authorizations and statements, protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations for medical purpose, situations of radiological emergency and long exposure to ionizing radiations, penal dispositions, application of the Public Health code and application of the Labour code. Chronological contents by date of publication is given. (N.C.)
Full Text Available The notion of linguistic justice should be related to the concept of linguistic ease, by which we mean the full social and communicative freedom of concern of the speaker in a given social interaction involving the use of language(s present in the society, according to the social norms of use. To acquire an acceptable degree of linguistic ease, the knowledge of at least one L2 is considered important. But the acquisition of a L2 is interfered by the previous linguistic skills of the learner/speaker who, in many cases, does not have a suitable competence even of the languages of the society in which he/she lives.
Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria
A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli, 2014): age of onset of children's exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children's performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann, 2014b): language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed "comparative bilingualism." The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i) the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii) the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii) the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.
Full Text Available Linguicism, the domination of one language at the expense of others, is a reflection of an ideology, associated with racismo. The majority of almost 200 states of the world are officially monolingual, yet, these states contain speakers of sorne 4,000 to 5,000 languages. A comparative analysis of the success of educational programs in different countries in reaching the goals of bilingualism, shows that most European and europeanized countries do not organize the education of minory children so that they will succeed in becoming bilingual. Instead, the ohildrem themselves, their parents, their group and their culture are blamed for the failure. In the author's opinion, it should be the duty of the educational systems globally to help these children to become bilingual. To counteract linguicism, a dec:laration of children' s linguistic human rights is proposed. The autor concludes that it is not a question of information but one of power structure. Thus, it is the job of linguists to produce information, but unless the right questions are asked in their research and why, their arguments might be supporting linguicism and racismoA linguistic science wich is aware of these political involvements can only be militant. And it is the tudy of linguists in their respective countries and regions to assume responsability for this task, this struggle for the defense and development of their own language and cultures. (posúace to L-J. Calvet, Linguistique et Colonialisme.
This monograph presents in great detail a large number of both unpublished and previously published Babylonian mathematical texts in the cuneiform script. It is a continuation of the work A Remarkable Collection of Babylonian Mathematical Texts (Springer 2007) written by Jöran Friberg, the leading expert on Babylonian mathematics. Focussing on the big picture, Friberg explores in this book several Late Babylonian arithmetical and metro-mathematical table texts from the sites of Babylon, Uruk and Sippar, collections of mathematical exercises from four Old Babylonian sites, as well as a new text from Early Dynastic/Early Sargonic Umma, which is the oldest known collection of mathematical exercises. A table of reciprocals from the end of the third millennium BC, differing radically from well-documented but younger tables of reciprocals from the Neo-Sumerian and Old-Babylonian periods, as well as a fragment of a Neo-Sumerian clay tablet showing a new type of a labyrinth are also discussed. The material is presen...
A key assumption in linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics has traditionally been that interaction within communities tends to proceed on the basis of some degree of shared understanding of social and linguistic norms. However, in transient multilingual communities, defined here as social...... configurations where people from diverse sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds come together (physically or otherwise) for a limited period of time around a shared activity, such shared assumptions cannot be assumed to be in place a priori. By examining the social and linguistic processes that characterize...... transient communities, researchers are invited to analyze and theorize meaning-making in ways that hold the potential to enrich current work at the interface between sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology. The article aims to take a first step in this direction by offering a definition...
Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Lassen, Tine
In theory, multilingual terminology work is done by creating concept diagrams in each of the languages and comparing them to establish equivalences between concepts in the two languages. In practice, however, various terminology management systems (TMS) are used, end these systems hardly ever...... support the ideal working method. First of all, only very few integrate adequate tools for modelling concept systems. Second, the data structure and the user interface do not support the process of linking entries in two languages. Concerning the data structure, the understanding of “concept oriented......” plays a major role. In many cases the concept is perceived as a unit at the interlingual level, and in the data structure an entry corresponds to one concept with terms from several languages connected. In other cases, the concept is seen as language-specific, and in the data structure an entry contains...
Brejon Teitler, N
Stuttering is a communication disorder affecting speech which is then considered disfluent. What happens when a person who stutters speaks several languages? There will be constant interactions between multilinguism and stuttering. The disorder will generally appear differently according to the spoken language. Linguistic factors have an impact on stuttering, with disfluencies appearing differently according to the speaker’s proficiency in using each language. Emotional factors related to the choice of the spoken language can exaggerate the disorder, hence influencing the speaker’s choice of a language, even choices in life. These factors are to be taken into consideration when assessing stuttering, with a particular attention to cultural aspects. Finally, stuttering variability according to the spoken language will also have an impact on therapeutic decisions.
Lauridsen, Karen M.; Cozart, Stacey Marie; Kling, Joyce
Uni project (2012-15) recommends that higher education institutions (HEI) provide ‘the necessary professional development and teacher training programmes that will allow HE teachers to appropriately develop (…) their professional and pedagogical knowledge, skills and competences and thereby empower them...... platform with resources targeted at EDs responsible for advancing faculty development in this area. In this session, the presenters will report on the first outcomes of EQUiiP. Participants will then be invited to interact and explore best practices in the multilingual and multicultural learning space......Internationalization of higher education, and the often accompanying shift from what previously were relatively homogenous national student populations, to more blended, culturally and linguistically heterogeneous group of students, impacts teaching and learning in a number of ways. The Intl...
Kaal, A.R.; Maks, I.; van Elfrinkhof, A.M.E.
ABSTRACT From Text to Political Positions addresses cross-disciplinary innovation in political text analysis for party positioning. Drawing on political science, computational methods and discourse analysis, it presents a diverse collection of analytical models including pure quantitative and
Antoniou, Kyriakos; Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria; Katsos, Napoleon
Several investigations report a positive effect of childhood bilingualism on executive control (EC). An issue that has remained largely unexamined is the role of the typological distance between the languages spoken by bilinguals. In the present study we focus on children who grow up with Cypriot Greek and Standard Modern Greek, two closely related varieties that differ from each other on all levels of language analysis (vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar). We compare the EC performance of such bilectal children to that of English-Greek multilingual children in Cyprus and Standard Modern Greek-speaking monolingual children in Greece. A principal component analysis on six indicators of EC revealed two distinct factors, which we interpreted as representing working memory and inhibition. Multilingual and bilectal children exhibited an advantage over monolinguals that was evident across EC factors and emerged only after statistically controlling for their lower language proficiency. These results demonstrate that similar EC advantages as previously reported for 'true' bilingual speakers can be found in bilectal children, which suggests that minimal typological distance between the varieties spoken by a child suffices to give rise to advantages in EC. They further indicate that the effect of speaking more than one language or dialect on EC performance is located across the EC system without a particular component being selectively affected. This has implications for models of the locus of the bilingual advantage in EC performance. Finally, they show that the emergence of EC advantages in bilinguals is moderated by the level of their language proficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kors, Jan A; Clematide, Simon; Akhondi, Saber A; van Mulligen, Erik M; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich
To create a multilingual gold-standard corpus for biomedical concept recognition. We selected text units from different parallel corpora (Medline abstract titles, drug labels, biomedical patent claims) in English, French, German, Spanish, and Dutch. Three annotators per language independently annotated the biomedical concepts, based on a subset of the Unified Medical Language System and covering a wide range of semantic groups. To reduce the annotation workload, automatically generated preannotations were provided. Individual annotations were automatically harmonized and then adjudicated, and cross-language consistency checks were carried out to arrive at the final annotations. The number of final annotations was 5530. Inter-annotator agreement scores indicate good agreement (median F-score 0.79), and are similar to those between individual annotators and the gold standard. The automatically generated harmonized annotation set for each language performed equally well as the best annotator for that language. The use of automatic preannotations, harmonized annotations, and parallel corpora helped to keep the manual annotation efforts manageable. The inter-annotator agreement scores provide a reference standard for gauging the performance of automatic annotation techniques. To our knowledge, this is the first gold-standard corpus for biomedical concept recognition in languages other than English. Other distinguishing features are the wide variety of semantic groups that are being covered, and the diversity of text genres that were annotated. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.
Liu, L.; Kager, R.W.J.
Language input is a key factor in bi-/multilingual research. It roots in the definition of bi-/multilingualism and influences infant cognitive development since and even before birth. The methods used to assess language exposure among bi-/multilingual infants vary across studies. This paper
Liu, Liquan; Kager, René
Language input is a key factor in bi-/multilingual research. It roots in the definition of bi-/multilingualism and influences infant cognitive development since and even before birth. The methods used to assess language exposure among bi-/multilingual infants vary across studies. This paper discusses the parental report patterns of the…
Full Text Available In a multilingual society such as ours, all teachers play an integral part in the language acquisition of the learners from pre-school level right up to matric. Teaching content subjects in the mother tongue of the learner is of great importance in his/her acquisition of other languages, especially majority or high-status languages. In the wider society, there is a need for language workers, particularly in urban areas where there is a great diversity of languages. The implication is that changes will have to take place in the curricula of schools and tertiary education institutions. The starting point, however, should be the early years of schooling. More people should be enabled to speak indigenous languages and all people should be able to pursue education in their Ll. Teachers who are currently employed could do in-service training to cope with new demands and to enable them to understand the importance of multilingualism. Parallel medium schools and language centres, such as Australia is using, would go a long way towards giving all language groups equal opportunities.In 'n veeltalige samelewing soos ons s'n speel alle onderwysers 'n integrale deel in leerders se taalverwerwing, van die voorskoolse vlak tot by matriek Die onderrig van inhoudsvakke in die leerder se moedertaal is van groot belang in sylhaar aanleer van ander tale, vera/ die hooftale of tale met 'n hoe status. Daar bestaan 'n behoefte aan taalwerkers in die breer samelewing, vera/ in stedelike gebiede waar groot taaldiversiteit bestaan. Die implikasie is dat daar veranderinge in die kurrikula van skole en inrigtings vir tersiere opvoeding moet kom. Die beginpunt moet egter die vroee skooljare wees. Meer mense moet in staat gestel word om inheemse tale te praat, en alle mense moet daartoe in staat wees om hulle opvoeding in hul moedertaal voort te sit. Opvoeders wat tans in diens is, kan indiens-opleiding ontvang ten einde die nuwe eise die hoof te bied en om hulle in staat te
Klapwijk, Nanda; Van der Walt, Christa
This article investigates university students' attitudes and perceptions about language in a multilingual country where most instruction is in English and annual national literacy results have been declining for at least 15 years. Despite this decline, English seems to be entrenched as the language of instruction, and at university it seems a…
Full Text Available This article draws attention to language choice and language use of Austrian bi- and multilingual school children. We explore some implications of their linguistic practices with regard to social inclusion in an Austrian educational school setting. Pursuing a Dynamic Systems and Complexity Theory approach, we hypothesise that before language users actually use a language within a certain context, they have to evaluate the respective communicative situation by taking multiple contextual factors into consideration, meaning language users choose to use, or not to use, a language based on the socio-contextual information at hand. We consider these contextual factors to be most relevant as they provide the basis on which speakers can actually make use of a certain language within a given context. By drawing on examples of empirical data obtained through a language background survey, we examine some of the complex and dynamic interactions of contextual parameters influencing language choice and language use in the formal educational setting of classroom instruction. Based on the results of this study, we display a selection of the dynamic and complex interactions of pupils’ language use in one specific context as well as their language preferences and how these relate to social inclusion.
Full Text Available Since its launch, Esperanto has attracted people involved in language politics. For them Esperanto provides an equitable solution when international problems are discussed, overcoming the barrier posed by the use of national languages and identities. However, its relation with the nation-state is far from being straightforward. Although a significant majority of the Movement claims Esperanto to be a neŭtrala lingvo, a neutral language, this has been fiercely contested by Esperanto activists committed to advancing particular programs for changing the world. From a sociolinguistic point of view, all Esperanto speakers are at least bilingual and quite often multilingual, without exception, so they always belong at least to one speech community in some way connected with a nation-state. This article illustrates the different facets of the Esperanto Movement from its beginning in 1887. Particular attention is paid to the concept of neutralism and how it has evolved in time. From the belle époque, Esperanto has been forced to re-define its position according to changes in sociopolitical contexts. In the current era of ‘glocalization’, where the spread of English worldwide is counterbalanced with old and new forms of local identities often linked with minority languages, Esperanto represents an alternative to the idea that global English leads to more social inclusion.
T. I. Neprytska
Full Text Available The article studies the position of the Polish language in the multilingual space of the European Union and determines the key factors which facilitate its gaining popularity and spreading in Europe. A large territory and population determine the significant presence of Polish in the European Union. Intense economic development facilitates popularization of learning and using Polish in the business medium, however, English was and still remains the dominating language of business. Active work of the state on improving the reputation of the country abroad, civilizational (valuebased unity with other nations of the EU, favorable geographical position, common IndoEuropean roots of Germanic, Romanic and Slavonic languages as well as usage of the Latin type create favorable conditions for the development and popularization of Polish on the territory of the EU. The article also mentions a number of concerns, which are rooted in the historical past of a dependent or semidependent existence of the Polish people, namely, the existence of the Polish and culture in the shade of German and Russian culture space, the negative international image of modern Poland, which was formed at the beginning of the 1990s, the low level of Europeans’ familiarization with the Polish culture, absence of popularity and economic necessity of learning Polish abroad.
Isabela Barbosa do Rêgo Barros
Full Text Available Associated often in autism by virtue of the similarity of symptoms (SCHWARTZMAN et al., 1995; DIAMENT; CYPEL, 1996, Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is characterized mainly by cognitive impairment accompanied by behavioral changes and sensorimotor, learning disability, physical impairment and language. This is marked by delay in its acquisition, omissions, substitutions and phonetic distortion, echolalia, holophrase, short sentences, pauses and hesitations, interjections and frequent monologues. This article aims to discuss the contemporary character of the Portuguese language and the identification process in the language in a multilingual context as key to the appropriation of a language by a subject diagnosed with FXS. We base our discussions on Enunciation theory of Emile Benveniste (2005, 2006 and studies of Silva (2009 which analyzes for a stated perspective regarding the language, language and subject. We realized that the Portuguese language was used on specific occasions, marking unique productions in Portuguese, classical German and German dialect Schwäbisch as effects of the operations of subject, indicating that education and ownership of a language is established in an identification relationship to the subject that makes use of it.
Full Text Available Drawing on the example of Multilingual Manchester, we show how a university research unit can support work toward a more inclusive society by raising awareness of language diversity and thereby helping to facilitate access to services, raise confidence among disadvantaged groups, sensitise young people to the challenges of diversity, and remove barriers. The setting (Manchester, UK is one in which globalisation and increased mobility have created a diverse civic community; where austerity measures in the wake of the financial crisis a decade ago continue to put pressure on public services affecting the most vulnerable population sectors; and where higher education is embracing a neo-liberal agenda with growing emphasis on the economisation of research, commodification of teaching, and a need to demonstrate a ‘return on investment’ to clients and sponsors. Unexpectedly, perhaps, this environment creates favourable conditions for a model of participatory research that involves co-production with students and local stakeholders and seeks to shape public discourses around language diversity as a way of promoting values and strategies of inclusion.
Schaefer, Blanca; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Herrmann, Frank; Fricke, Silke
For professionals working with multilingual children, detecting language deficits in a child's home language can present a challenge. This is largely due to the scarcity of standardized assessments in many children's home languages and missing normative data on multilingual language acquisition. A common approach is to translate existing English…
Pietikäinen, Sari; Pitkänen-Huhta, Anne
This article explores multimodal literacy practices in a transforming multilingual context of an indigenous and endangered Sámi language classroom. Looking at literacy practices as embedded in a complex and shifting terrain of language ideologies, language norms, and individual experiences and attitudes, we examined how multilingual Sámi children…
Lim, Hui W; Wells, Bill; Howard, Sara
Early child multilingual acquisition is under-explored. Using a cross-sectional study approach, the present research investigates the rate of multilingual phonological acquisition of English-Mandarin-Malay by 64 ethnic Chinese children aged 2;06-4;05 in Malaysia--a multiracial-multilingual country of Asia. The aims of the study are to provide clinical norms for speech development in the multilingual children and to compare multilingual acquisition with monolingual and bilingual acquisition. An innovative multilingual phonological test which adopts well-defined scoring criteria drawing upon local accents of English, Mandarin and Malay is proposed and described in this article. This procedure has been neglected in the few existing Chinese bilingual phonological acquisition studies resulting in peculiar findings. The multilingual children show comparable phonological acquisition milestones to that of monolingual and bilingual peers acquiring the same languages. The implications of the present results are discussed. The present findings contribute to the development of models and theories of child multilingual acquisition.
Videsott, Gerda; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Wiater, Werner; Franceschini, Rita; Abutalebi, Jubin
The aim of the present study was to investigate the attentional mechanisms of multilingual children with differential degrees of language competence. For this purpose, 118 children (61 female/57 male; mean age 10.9 years (SD = 0.29); early acquisition multilinguals) from the Ladin valleys in South Tyrol, Italy, performed the Attentional Network…
Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth
This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…
Catalano, Theresa; Reeves, Jenelle R.; Wessels, Stephanie
In today's globalized world, superdiversity and global migration have led to an increased focus on emergent multilingual students and how schools can best serve them. The authors explore how teacher learners in an undergraduate course on emergent multilinguals in a mid-sized university in the Midwest critically reflect on their learning in a…
This article explores the language use and language attitudes as reported by a number of multilingual teenagers with a Swedish background in European Schools and international schools in Europe. Special attention is given to the concepts of Third Culture Kids and elite bilingualism in relation to teenagers' multilingualism. This study is based on…
Rosiers, Kirsten; Willaert, Evita; Van Avermaet, Piet; Slembrouck, Stef
This study focuses on how teachers construe and give meaning to a pedagogical experiment in which the use of the home language in a primary school in Flanders was permitted in order to acknowledge the urban multilingual realities and resources of the pupils and to turn them into didactic capital (functional multilingual learning, FML). Using…
Nicholls, Ruth J; Eadie, Patricia A; Reilly, Sheena
At least two-thirds of the world's children grow up in environments where more than one language is spoken. Despite the global predominance of multilingualism, much remains unknown regarding the language acquisition of children acquiring multiple languages compared with monolingual children. A greater understanding of multilingualism is crucial for speech-language pathologists given the increasing number of children being raised in linguistically diverse environments. To investigate the expressive morphological abilities of multilingual children acquiring English, compared with monolingual children, at 3 years of age. Participants were 148 children (74 multilingual children; 74 matched monolingual children; mean age of 3 years 4 months) already participating in a larger prospective longitudinal cohort study of language development in Melbourne, Australia. Thirty-one languages in addition to English were represented within the embedded cohort. All participants completed a direct language assessment to measure their expressive abilities across a range of English morphemes. The parents of the multilingual participants completed an interview regarding the children's language backgrounds and experiences. The Multilingual Group typically performed below the Monolingual Group in terms of their accurate use and mastery of English morphemes at 3 years of age, although variable expressive abilities were indicated within each group. The same morphemes were shown to be mastered by relatively higher proportions of each group. Likewise, the same forms were mastered by relatively lower proportions of each group. The results indicated similarities between the children's acquisition of English morphology, regardless of whether they were acquiring English only or in combination with another language(s) at 3 years of age. This study found a range of similarities and differences between multilingual compared with monolingual children's acquisition of English morphology at 3 years of
Davies, Florence; Greene, Terry
This paper describes Directed Activities Related to Text (DART), procedures that were developed and are used in the Reading for Learning Project at the University of Nottingham (England) to enhance learning from texts and that fall into two broad categories: (1) text analysis procedures, which require students to engage in some form of analysis of…
Multilingualism in education is a conceptual as well as a pedagogical challenge of the 21st century. Luxembourg, with its three statutory official languages (Luxembourgish, French and German), is an especially complex setting. The gap between traditional principles of language education on the one hand and the challenging impacts of today's multilingualisms on the other led the University of Luxembourg (founded in 2003) to set up a developmentally-driven Master's programme in 2007, entitled "Learning and Development in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts". After a presentation of the general multilingual settings in Luxembourg, this paper discusses the constellation of the multilingual University's staff and students and provides an analysis of the concept of the course by outlining its innovative approach, its principles and lessons learned with regard to running a trilingual higher education programme.
Bello, Lorenzo; Acerbi, Francesco; Giussani, Carlo; Baratta, Pietro; Taccone, Paolo; Songa, Valeria; Fava, Marica; Stocchetti, Nino; Papagno, Costanza; Gaini, Sergio M
Intraoperative localization of speech is problematic in patients who are fluent in different languages. Previous studies have generated various results depending on the series of patients studied, the type of language, and the sensitivity of the tasks applied. It is not clear whether languages are mediated by multiple and separate cortical areas or shared by common areas. Globally considered, previous studies recommended performing a multiple intraoperative mapping for all the languages in which the patient is fluent. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of performing an intraoperative multiple language mapping in a group of multilingual patients with a glioma undergoing awake craniotomy for tumor removal and to describe the intraoperative cortical and subcortical findings in the area of craniotomy, with the final goal to maximally preserve patients' functional language. Seven late, highly proficient multilingual patients with a left frontal glioma were submitted preoperatively to a battery of tests to evaluate oral language production, comprehension, and repetition. Each language was tested serially starting from the first acquired language. Items that were correctly named during these tests were used to build personalized blocks to be used intraoperatively. Language mapping was undertaken during awake craniotomies by the use of an Ojemann cortical stimulator during counting and oral naming tasks. Subcortical stimulation by using the same current threshold was applied during tumor resection, in a back and forth fashion, and the same tests. Cortical sites essential for oral naming were found in 87.5% of patients, those for the first acquired language in one to four sites, those for the other languages in one to three sites. Sites for each language were distinct and separate. Number and location of sites were not predictable, being randomly and widely distributed in the cortex around or less frequently over the tumor area. Subcortical stimulations found
Fan, Samantha P; Liberman, Zoe; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D
Early language exposure is essential to developing a formal language system, but may not be sufficient for communicating effectively. To understand a speaker's intention, one must take the speaker's perspective. Multilingual exposure may promote effective communication by enhancing perspective taking. We tested children on a task that required perspective taking to interpret a speaker's intended meaning. Monolingual children failed to interpret the speaker's meaning dramatically more often than both bilingual children and children who were exposed to a multilingual environment but were not bilingual themselves. Children who were merely exposed to a second language performed as well as bilingual children, despite having lower executive-function scores. Thus, the communicative advantages demonstrated by the bilinguals may be social in origin, and not due to enhanced executive control. For millennia, multilingual exposure has been the norm. Our study shows that such an environment may facilitate the development of perspective-taking tools that are critical for effective communication. © The Author(s) 2015.
Quinteros Baumgart, Cibel; Billick, Stephen Bates
A review of the current literature regarding bilingualism demonstrates that bilingualism is linked to higher levels of controlled attention and inhibition in executive control and can protect against the decline of executive control in aging by contributing to cognitive reserve. Bilinguals may also have smaller vocabulary size and slower lexical retrieval for each language. The joint activation theory is proposed to explain these results. Older trilingual adults experience more protection against cognitive decline and children and young adults showed similar cognitive advantages to bilinguals in inhibitory control. Second language learners do not yet show cognitive changes associated with multilingualism. The Specificity Principle states that the acquisition of multiple languages is moderated by multiple factors and varies between experiences. Bilingualism and multilingualism are both associated with immigration but different types of multilingualism can develop depending on the situation. Cultural cues and language similarity also play a role in language switching and multiple language acquisition.
Shadiev, Rustam; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ai; Huang, Yueh-Min
In this study, 21 university students, who represented thirteen nationalities, participated in an online cross-cultural learning activity. The participants were engaged in interactions and exchanges carried out on Facebook® and Skype® platforms, and their multilingual communications were supported by speech-to-text recognition (STR) and…
Chew, Peter A.; Bader, Brett William
Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of a term-by-document matrix for identifying relationships among terms and documents from co-occurrence patterns. Among the multiple ways of computing the SVD of a rectangular matrix X, one approach is to compute the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of a square 2 x 2 composite matrix consisting of four blocks with X and XT in the off-diagonal blocks and zero matrices in the diagonal blocks. We point out that significant value can be added to LSA by filling in some of the values in the diagonal blocks (corresponding to explicit term-to-term or document-to-document associations) and computing a term-by-concept matrix from the EVD. For the case of multilingual LSA, we incorporate information on cross-language term alignments of the same sort used in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). Since all elements of the proposed EVD-based approach can rely entirely on lexical statistics, hardly any price is paid for the improved empirical results. In particular, the approach, like LSA or SMT, can still be generalized to virtually any language(s); computation of the EVD takes similar resources to that of the SVD since all the blocks are sparse; and the results of EVD are just as economical as those of SVD.
Parra, Aldo; Trinick, Tony
An investigation into an aspect of indigenous education provides the opportunity to forefront an epistemological discussion about mathematical knowledge. This paper analyses indigenous peoples' educational experiences in Colombia and Aotearoa/New Zealand of mathematics education, focusing on, among other things, sociolinguistic issues such as language planning. In these experiences, researchers, teachers and local communities, working together, elaborated their respective languages to create a corpus of lexicon that has enabled the teaching of Western mathematics. An analysis using decolonial theory is made, showing how this corpus development works to enable the teaching of [Western] mathematics resulted in investigations into culture, language and mathematics that revealed an interplay among knowledge and power. Such analysis raises issues about the epistemology of mathematics and the politics of knowledge, analogous with current discussions on multilingualism in mathematics education and in ethnomathematics. The paper concludes that mathematics educators can explore and take advantage of the sociolinguistic and epistemological issues that arise when an indigenous language is elaborated in a short period of time in comparison to other languages which have been developed incrementally over hundreds of years and thus much more difficult to critique.
Macedonia, Manuela; Groher, Iris; Roithmayr, Friedrich
intelligent virtual agents (IVAs) with human appearance and the capability to teach foreign language vocabulary. We report results from studies that we have conducted with Billie, an IVA employed as a vocabulary trainer, as well as research findings on the acceptance of the agent as a trainer by adults and children. The results show that Billie can train humans as well as a human teacher can and that both adults and children accept the IVA as a trainer. The advantages of IVAs are multiple. First, their teaching methods can be based on neuropsychological research findings concerning memory and learning practice. Second, virtual teachers can provide individualized training. Third, they coach users during training, are always supportive, and motivate learners to train. Fourth, agents will reside in the user's mobile devices and thus be at the user's disposal everywhere and anytime. Agents in apps will make foreign language training accessible to anybody at low cost. This will enable people around the world, including physically, financially, and geographically disadvantaged persons, to learn a foreign language and help to facilitate multilingualism.
Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Abutalebi, Jubin; Lam, Karen Sze-Yan; Weekes, Brendan
Neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural network involved in language control may not be specific to bi-/multilingualism but is part of a domain-general executive control system. We report a trilingual case of a Cantonese (L1), English (L2), and Mandarin (L3) speaker, Dr. T, who sustained a brain injury at the age of 77 causing lesions in the left frontal lobe and in the left temporo-parietal areas resulting in fluent aphasia. Dr. T's executive functions were impaired according to a modified version of the Stroop color-word test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance was characterized by frequent perseveration errors. Dr. T demonstrated pathological language switching and mixing across her three languages. Code switching in Cantonese was more prominent in discourse production than confrontation naming. Our case suggests that voluntary control of spoken word production in trilingual speakers shares neural substrata in the frontobasal ganglia system with domain-general executive control mechanisms. One prediction is that lesions to such a system would give rise to both pathological switching and impairments of executive functions in trilingual speakers.
Antia, Bassey E; Bertin, Fankep D A
Nigeria has a healthcare system that has been described as defective even by its managers. A year 2000 study by the World Health Organization (WHO) of health systems in 191 member countries ranked Nigeria 187th. These several evaluations consistently point to inadequate managerial skills. Regrettably, very little is known of the import of language and communication as management issues in healthcare delivery in this country of 400 languages. This article therefore proposes a language-driven audit of health management in Borno State (northeast Nigeria) as a means of sensitizing policy makers and implementers. Based largely on data from questionnaires completed by 129 health professionals belonging to various professional categories (physicians, nurses, pharmacy staff, laboratory staff, and medical and health workers) and drawn from four hospitals, the study explores the relationship between multilingualism and the following: (a) patients' rights; (b) staff recruitment, deployment and commitment; (c) human asset accounting; (d) physician-population ratio. This language-driven audit reveals a number of points, including: ethically questionable practices; distributional imbalance in personnel; commendable cases of employee commitment; and inequity in renumeration.
Liu, Yi-Chien; Liu, Yen-Ying; Yip, Ping-Keung; Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi
Background Language impairment and behavioral symptoms are both common phenomena in dementia patients. In this study, we investigated the behavioral symptoms in dementia patients with different language backgrounds. Through this, we aimed to propose a possible connection between language and delusion. Methods We recruited 21 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), according to the DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, from the memory clinic of the Cardinal Tien Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. They were classified into two groups: 11 multilinguals who could speak Japanese, Taiwanese and Mandarin Chinese, and 10 bilinguals who only spoke Taiwanese and Mandarin Chinese. There were no differences between age, education, disease duration, disease severity, environment and medical care between these two groups. Comprehensive neuropsychological examinations, including Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), Verbal fluency, Chinese version of the Boston naming test (BNT) and the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD), were administered. Results The multilingual group showed worse results on the Boston naming test. Other neuropsychological tests, including the MMSE, CASI and Verbal fluency, were not significantly different. More delusions were noted in the multilingual group. Three pairs of subjects were identified for further examination of their differences. These three cases presented the typical scenario of how language misunderstanding may cause delusions in multilingual dementia patients. Consequently, more emotion and distorted ideas may be induced in the multilinguals compared with the MMSE-matched controls. Conclusion Inappropriate mixing of language or conflict between cognition and emotion may cause more delusions in these multilingual patients. This reminds us that delusion is not a pure biological outcome of brain degeneration. Although the cognitive
Liu, Yi-Chien; Liu, Yen-Ying; Yip, Ping-Keung; Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi
Language impairment and behavioral symptoms are both common phenomena in dementia patients. In this study, we investigated the behavioral symptoms in dementia patients with different language backgrounds. Through this, we aimed to propose a possible connection between language and delusion. We recruited 21 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to the DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, from the memory clinic of the Cardinal Tien Hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. They were classified into two groups: 11 multilinguals who could speak Japanese, Taiwanese and Mandarin Chinese, and 10 bilinguals who only spoke Taiwanese and Mandarin Chinese. There were no differences between age, education, disease duration, disease severity, environment and medical care between these two groups. Comprehensive neuropsychological examinations, including Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), Verbal fluency, Chinese version of the Boston naming test (BNT) and the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD), were administered. The multilingual group showed worse results on the Boston naming test. Other neuropsychological tests, including the MMSE, CASI and Verbal fluency, were not significantly different. More delusions were noted in the multilingual group. Three pairs of subjects were identified for further examination of their differences. These three cases presented the typical scenario of how language misunderstanding may cause delusions in multilingual dementia patients. Consequently, more emotion and distorted ideas may be induced in the multilinguals compared with the MMSE-matched controls. Inappropriate mixing of language or conflict between cognition and emotion may cause more delusions in these multilingual patients. This reminds us that delusion is not a pure biological outcome of brain degeneration. Although the cognitive performance was not significantly different
Lauridsen, Karen M.
IntlUni: The challenges of the multilingual and multicultural learning space in the international university The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented increase in the internationalisation of higher education. This means that more people in higher education than ever before are teaching...... education adds value – or has the potential to add value – to the programmes offered and the learning outcomes achieved by students, the overarching aim of IntlUni is to identify the quality criteria that characterize or should characterize teaching and learning in the multilingual and multicultural...
Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhokhov, A; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S
The decays [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8[Formula: see text]. The branching fractions relative to that of [Formula: see text] are measured to be [Formula: see text]where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.
Duncan, Hilary D; Nikelski, Jim; Pilon, Randi; Steffener, Jason; Chertkow, Howard; Phillips, Natalie A
Two independent lines of research provide evidence that speaking more than one language may 1) contribute to increased grey matter in healthy younger and older adults and 2) delay cognitive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined cortical thickness and tissue density in monolingual and multilingual MCI and AD patients matched (within Diagnosis Groups) on demographic and cognitive variables. In medial temporal disease-related (DR) areas, we found higher tissue density in multilingual MCIs versus monolingual MCIs, but similar or lower tissue density in multilingual AD versus monolingual AD, a pattern consistent with cognitive reserve in AD. In areas related to language and cognitive control (LCC), both multilingual MCI and AD patients had thicker cortex than the monolinguals. Results were largely replicated in our native-born Canadian MCI participants, ruling out immigration as a potential confound. Finally, multilingual patients showed a correlation between cortical thickness in LCC regions and performance on episodic memory tasks. Given that multilinguals and monolinguals were matched on memory functioning, this suggests that increased gray matter in these regions may provide support to memory functioning. Our results suggest that being multilingual may contribute to increased gray matter in LCC areas and may also delay the cognitive effects of disease-related atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper presents a document representation strategy and a bio-inspired algorithm to cluster multilingual collections of documents in the field of economics and business. The proposed approach allows the user to identify groups of related economics documents written in Spanish and English using techniques inspired on clustering and sorting behaviours observed in some types of ants. In order to obtain a language independent vector representation of each document two multilingual resources are used: an economic glossary and a thesaurus. Each document is represented using four feature vectors: words, proper names, economic terms in the glossary and thesaurus descriptors. The proper name identification, word extraction and lemmatization are performed using specific tools. The tf-idf scheme is used to measure the importance of each feature in the document, and a convex linear combination of angular separations between feature vectors is used as similarity measure of documents. The paper shows experimental results of the application of the proposed algorithm in a Spanish-English corpus of research papers in economics and management areas. The results demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the ant clustering algorithm and the proposed representation scheme.Este artículo presenta una estrategia de representación documental y un algoritmo bioinspirado para realizar procesos de agrupamiento en colecciones multilingües de documentos en las áreas de la economía y la empresa. El enfoque propuesto permite al usuario identificar grupos de documentos económicos relacionados escritos en español o inglés usando técnicas inspiradas en comportamientos de organización y agrupamiento de objetos observados en algunos tipos de hormigas. Para conseguir una representación vectorial de cada documento independiente del idioma, se han utilizado dos recursos lingüísticos: un glosario económico y un tesauro. Cada documento es representado usando
Burcu eYaman Ntelioglou
Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a collaborative inquiry project that explored teaching approaches that highlight the significance of multilingualism, multimodality and multiliteracies in classrooms with high numbers of English language learners (ELLs. The research took place in an inner city elementary school with a large population of recently arrived and Canadian-born linguistically and culturally diverse students from Gambian, Indian, Mexican, Sri Lankan, Tibetan and Vietnamese backgrounds, as well as a recent wave of Roma students from Hungary. A high number of these students were from families with low-SES. The collaboration between two Grade 3 teachers and university-based researchers sought to create instructional approaches that would support students’ academic engagement and literacy learning. In this paper, we described one of the projects that took place in this class, exploring how a descriptive writing unit could be implemented in a way that connected with students’ lives and enabled them to use their home languages, through the creation of multiple texts, using creative writing, digital technologies and drama pedagogy. This kind of multilingual and multimodal classroom practice changed the classroom dynamics and allowed the students access to identity positions of expertise, increasing their literacy investment, literacy engagement and learning.
Full Text Available One of the recommendations of the ELAN study (2007, which developed a pertinent analysis of the impact of linguistic incompetence on the economic performance, was to devote more extensive research on the impact of the language skills on other sectors of economy. We chose tourism, which is, according to the World Tourism Organization, one of the most important and dynamic sectors in the world, an engine for development, prosperity and welfare. Romanian tourism should follow the general tendency of Tourism Towards 2030; this perspective projects that the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide will increase by 3.3% per year between 2010 and 2030, reaching 1.8 milliards in 2030. Our study is structured in two parts, developed in two distinct articles. In the first part (I, a careful reading of the official documents that note the strategic directions in Romanian tourism for periods between 5 and 20 years confirm the openness of the Romanian tourism towards the international. However, we were surprised to notice the fact that, in these reference documents, the issue of foreign languages, vehicles for international communication, is ignored, if not completely obscure. Despite its strategic role, multilingual communication is mentioned only sporadically and is not granted a focused attention at any level - national, regional or local; it is not included in a detailed strategic program that could generate an added value indisputable in promoting tourism. In the second part of our study (II, we tried to capture the effects of this inconsistency on the practical aspects of tourism, specifically the virtual multilingual presentations of the hotels in Oradea, a municipality located close to the border with Hungary and therefore a multilingual and multicultural space par excellence. The comparison with a similar survey conducted in 2011 confirmed the same lack of interest for a simple, quick, sustainable and very profitable decision: that of
Spencer, Brenda H.
Notes that a text map is an instructional approach designed to help students gain fluency in reading content area materials. Discusses how the goal is to teach students about the important features of the material and how the maps can be used to build new understandings. Presents the procedures for preparing and using a text map. (SG)
Full Text Available The centrality of language in any education system cannot be overemphasised. Wolff (2006: 50 sums this up by stating that “language is not everything in education, but without language everything is nothing in education”. As such, language mediates knowledge acquisition even when the content of education is not language. The question then arises as to which language is best to use in education. There are no straight answers to this, as education in most countries of the world takes place in multilingual contexts. In Kenya, the language-in-education policy supports the use of the learner’s first language as the language of instruction in the first three years of school. The policy, however, remains largely unimplemented for various reasons, among them the multiplicity of first languages that may be represented in one classroom. This article reports on some outcomes of a recently completed doctoral study that investigated teachers’ attitudes, skills and strategies in their management of linguistic diversity in multilingual classrooms. Specifically, the article reports on what informs teachers’ language choices and prioritisations beyond the policy rhetoric. The study disclosed that the language of examinations and textbooks, the pressure to cover the syllabus, and individual teachers’ language repertoires primarily determine which languages are prioritised and how they are used. The findings suggest that quality education for all may remain elusive in multilingual contexts until the language question has been adequately addressed.
Pizzo, Lianna; Chilvers, Amanda
The authors address considerations and promising practices relating to assessment of d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners. DMLs' unique culture(s), language(s), and learning needs must be considered when assessments of this population are being planned, conducted, and interpreted. The authors address theory and research on (a) general…
The author examines the theory and research relevant to educating d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners (DMLs). There is minimal research on this population, yet a synthesis of related theory, research, and practice on spoken-language bilinguals can be used to add to the body of knowledge on these learners. Specifically, the author…
Wang, Qiuying; Andrews, Jean; Liu, Hsiu Tan; Liu, Chun Jung
Case studies of adult d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners (DMLs) are few, especially studies of DMLs who learn more than one sign language and read logographic and alphabetic scripts. To reduce this paucity, two descriptive case studies are presented. Written questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, and self-appraisals of language-use…
Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Michaelides, Michalis; Theodorou, Elena
Against the background of the increasing number of multilingual children with atypical language development around the world, this study reports research results on grammatical word class processing involving children with specific language impairment (SLI). The study investigates lexical retrieval of verbs (through picture-naming actions) and…
This study examines the challenges of minority language transmission in exogamous families in a society where linguistic and cultural homogeneity still prevails. Specifically, it investigates the macro and micro ideological influences that lead multilingual migrant mothers in Japan to speak Japanese to their children. Interview data with six Thai…
This article examines the multilingual and multimodal practices of British Chinese children in complementary school classes from a multicompetence perspective. Using classroom interaction data from a number of Chinese complementary schools in 3 different cities in England, the article argues that the multicompetence perspective enables a holistic…
Le Pichon Vorstman, E.; de Swart, H.; Ceginskas, V.; van den Bergh, H.
What is the influence of a language learning experience (LLE) in a school context on the metacognitive development of children? To answer that question, we presented 54 multilingual preschoolers with two movie clips and examined their reactions to an exolingual situation of communication. These
Mirza, Amna; Gottardo, Alexandra; Chen, Xi
The present study examined the language and literacy skills and their relations to each other in multilingual children, who have a broad range of oral and written language proficiency in each language that they "know". Reading and vocabulary skills were tested in 50 Canadian children (ages 6-10 years) who were Urdu-English speakers,…
This article focuses on multilingual primary-aged children and their families in a post-industrial city in England. Such pupils, sometimes identified in education policy as "underachieving," often have rich experiences of learning that are hidden from their mainstream teachers and unrecognised in national assessment regimes. The article…
This contribution reports on a qualitative study conducted with 14 young Chinese children enrolled in French immersion in Canada, to explore their multilingual practices, and their simultaneous acquisition of three writing systems. Drawings and in-depth interviews constituted creative and age appropriate narratives to understand children's…
Ivanova, Alena V.; Filippova, Nina I.; Vinokourov?, Ekaterina I.
The article is devoted to the formation of linguocultural identity among indigenous children in a multilingual context that is of particular relevance in connection with the linguistic and cultural problems of minority peoples of the North. The aim of this work is to reveal the contents of textbooks on the subjects "Culture of indigenous…
Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
This article reports on an ethnographic study involving the literacy practices of two multilingual Chinese children from two similar yet different cultural and linguistic contexts: Montreal and Singapore. Using syncretism as a theoretical tool, this inquiry examines how family environment and support facilitate children's process of becoming…
Gross, Barbara; Dewaele, Jean-Marc
Cook argued that the learning of a new language leads to a state of multi-competence, with the learner's mind changing in ways that go beyond the linguistic realm. The present study follows Dewaele's suggestion that multilingualism is linked to both cognitive and psychological changes. It explores one particular under-researched relationship,…
Loizides, Fernando; Kartapanis, Iosif; Sella, Francesca; Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi
In this paper we present the initial stages of a project entitled Minority Language Applications (Mi.L.A) which aims to facilitate material for children with autism in a multilingual setting using interactive multimedia that increase both the awareness as well as the access to information for patients who need it. Pilot testing the applications…
This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers' (HDRs) capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic…
Drawing from a sociocultural perspective of literacy, with the goal to promote the use of African Native Languages (ANL) in schools, I conducted a Participatory Action Research in one multilingual primary school community in North West Tanzania. For three weeks, 19 teachers, 19 parents and 119 6th grade students collaborated with each other in a…
This article contextualises and presents to the academic community the full dataset of the Isan Culture Maintenance and Revitalisation Programme's (ICMRP) multilingual signage survey. The ICMRP is a four-year European Union co-sponsored project in Northeast Thailand. This article focuses on one aspect of the project, four surveys each of 1,500…
In this study, empirical and conceptual scholarship (approximately 100 studies) regarding the education of secondary multilingual learners and their teachers are analyzed through the lens of critical race theory (CRT). Specifically, four common majoritarian stories are identified that are both challenged and endorsed in the research literature:…
Bonnichon, M.; Lebowitz, A.I.; Portegies Zwart, R.; Schmid, H.
In the field of agriculture, experience with AGRIS has shown that the language barrier is among thr greatest obstacles to preparing input to the database as well as to using its output products. The implementation of the multilingual thesaurus AGROVOC in AGRIS is described in this paper
Caffery, Jo; Coronado, Gabriela; Hodge, Bob
This article looks at multilingual, mother-tongue-based language policies influenced by colonial and postcolonial histories and globalization processes. We use multiscalar analysis to show these policies as creative responses to problems affected by national and international forces. Our study focuses on Timor-Leste, specifically a pilot…
Dafouz, Emma; Smit, Ute
At a time of increasing internationalization in tertiary education, English-Medium Education in Multilingual University Settings (EMEMUS) has become a common practice. While there is already ample research describing this phenomenon at a local level (Smit and Dafouz 2012a), the theoretical side needs to be elaborated. This article thus aims to…
Black, Stephen R.; Thorp, Kay
The report describes a study of a multilingual group of six adult literacy students, five women and one man, enrolled in an English literacy class at an Australian college. Subjects' countries of origin include Afghanistan, Indonesia/China, Lebanon, Iran, and China. The study examined factors affecting subjects' daily literacy practices and…
Álvarez, Inma; Pérez-Cavana, María Luisa
In this article we report on the results of a pilot study on the use of task-based multilingual and multicultural professional scenarios for higher education teachers and learners at BA and MA level. The scenarios reflect new learning outcomes and assessment criteria for the presently under-conceptualised domain of communication in multilingual…
Guo, Xiaoyan; Gu, Mingyue
This article explores how a cohort of tertiary-level Uyghur students contested and negotiated their identities through multilingual practices in the receiving community. Drawing upon interview data from fieldwork, this study indicates that these students experienced essentialist understandings and negative views in the host society. Participants…
Informed by linguistic ecological theory and the notion of identity, this study investigates language uses and identity construction in interactions among students with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds in a multilingual university. Individual and focus-group interviews were conducted with two groups of students: Hong Kong (HK) and…
Hazel, Spencer; Mortensen, Janus
This chapter reports on a small-scale investigation of how linguistic diversity is managed and turned into a resource for social meaning making in an informal, multilingual setting at Danish university. Although firmly located within the institution of the university, the particular setting (know...
Hansen Edwards, Jette G.
The current study examines how and why speakers of English from multilingual contexts in Asia are identifying as native speakers of English. Eighteen participants from different contexts in Asia, including Singapore, Malaysia, India, Taiwan, and The Philippines, who self-identified as native speakers of English participated in hour-long interviews…
Bonnichon, M; Lebowitz, A I; Portegies Zwart, R; Schmid, H
In the field of agriculture, experience with AGRIS has shown that the language barrier is among thr greatest obstacles to preparing input to the database as well as to using its output products. The implementation of the multilingual thesaurus AGROVOC in AGRIS is described in this paper.
This paper examines linguistic diversity among minority ethnic undergraduate students categorised as from widening participation backgrounds in a new university in London. All students are British born and educated and from working-class families. The paper considers how the students negotiate multilingual and bidialectal identities within the…
Rai, Dhiraj Kumar
The multilingual surrounding of Spanish Language Teaching (SLT) in India has presented a unique linguistic principle. This principle relies upon the application of English language instructions (as FL1) to combine several methods for teaching-learning Spanish language (as FL2). However, the effectiveness and appropriateness of this linguistic…
Explores how Cantonese-speaking math students and their teacher use different languages to achieve academic and social success in their multilingual classroom in Toronto. The article discusses inter-ethnic tensions related to the use of languages other than English and raises questions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of multilingual…
Halai, Anjum; Muzafar, I.; Valero, Paola
the achievement gap and help the multilingual learner assimilate with the culture and language of the dominant group. We conclude that research rationality cannot be seen without a deeper questioning of the philosophical, ontological, and epistemological assumptions that underpin the traditional views of what...
Williams, Ashley M.
This paper examines how the interconnected aspects of the stance triangle (Du Bois 2007) allow speakers to tap into multiple ideological layers as they take a stance and reveal intra-ethnic group tensions. Using a detailed interaction analysis of a Chinese American family's multilingual interaction, the paper explores how such ideological dynamics…
Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti
We investigated reading and writing in two domestic languages (Swedish and Finnish) and one foreign language (English) among multilingual university students with (n = 20) versus without dyslexia (n = 20). Our analyses encompassed overall speed and accuracy measures and an in-depth analysis of grapheme-phoneme-grapheme errors and inflectional…
In many language policy and political theory discussions, there is an overt skepticism, and at times outright hostility, towards the ongoing maintenance of private and, especially, public multilingualism, particularly when these include/incorporate the languages of linguistic minorities. For linguistic minority individuals, ongoing multilingualism…
Dorner, Lisa M.
While much research has demonstrated that English-only rhetoric negatively affects bilingual education for the children of US immigrants, few studies have examined the local negotiations and discourses that shape the development of multilingual programming for English-speaking students. Across the USA, educational leaders and policy-makers today…
This exploration of the languages of contact in the North American British-US borderlands in the period between 1783 and 1860 provides insights into the types of extended contact that occurred in the areas north of 42[degrees] and south of 50[degrees]. Although multilingualism was the norm in the Old Northwest and the old Oregon Territory during…
Krizsán, Attila; Erkkilä, Tero
This article explores the multilingual and multicultural aspects of community-building, networking and communication in the European Union's (EU) political and administrative system. We investigated the networking and communicative preferences of EU civil servants and lobbyists using survey data and thematic interviews. Our aim was to gain a…
Thompson, Amy S.; Aslan, Erhan
This study explores the interface between learner beliefs and multilingualism in the under-researched English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context of Turkey. The study investigates the underlying constructs of a modified Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) completed by 168 EFL learners in Turkey using an exploratory factor analysis…
In Spain, more than 40% of the population lives in officially bilingual regions in which the minority language is used as a means of instruction at school and university. In addition, the increasing importance attached to learning English has led to the proliferation of multilingual school programs in which different languages are used to teach…
Kroll, Judith F.; Dussias, Paola E.
In the past two decades, new research on multilingualism has changed our understanding of the consequences of learning and using two or more languages for cognition, for the brain, and for success and well-being across the entire lifespan. Far from the stereotype that exposure to multiple languages in infancy complicates language and cognitive…
The cultural values of multilingual students are sometimes at variance with Western academic practice, in matters such as plagiarism. In accepting this, however, it is important to avoid stereotyping. Instead we should respect and make use of the students' own traditions of study. It is also time to acknowledge that ideas and language are…
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; McKinnon, David H.; Ching, Teresa Y. C.
Purpose: The authors sought to investigate the influence of a comprehensive range of factors on the decision making of caregivers of children with hearing loss regarding the use of speech, the use of sign, spoken language multilingualism, and spoken language choice. This is a companion article to the qualitative investigation described in Crowe,…
The Transleithanian part, i.e. the Hungarian kingdom of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy recognized a multilingual language regime in which fourteen language were used. The Law on the Equality of the Nationalities XLIV/1868 guaranteed that all the nationality languages had a formal status,
Tollefson, James W.
In some settings, medium of instruction (MOI) policies in multilingual education break out into public debates in mass media involving politicians, business leaders, government officials, parents, and school children. These public discussions of MOI often index struggles over the distribution of political power and economic resources, and issues…
This study investigated how immigrants from Latin America who speak indigenous languages perceive and respond to social, racial, linguistic, and cultural factors in the United States. It examined the multicultural and multilingual experiences of six participants, five of whom speak an indigenous language. There were three interviews conducted with…
In response to the increasing linguistic and cultural diversity in US schools, in-service teachers are faced with the significant challenge of addressing both the linguistic and instructional needs of their multilingual learners (MLLs). This study provides evidence of the linguistic obstacles faced in the academic mathematics classroom and how…
In the context of increasing linguistic and cultural diversity in Australian schools, it is important to consider the value of students' multilingual resources for learning. This paper reports on an ethnographic case study conducted in an Australian metropolitan secondary school where the student body represented more than 40 cultures and…
Shafer Willner, Lynn; Mokhtari, Kouider
For more than two decades, accommodations have served as the primary strategy for ensuring the valid participation of multilingual learners (MLLs) in high-stakes summative assessments. Using historical analyses of the evolution of testing accommodation guidelines and related instructional practices, the authors explain how the application of…
Hollywood movies have been a prime site for the representation of intercultural and multilingual encounters for decades. As such, they are not only of interest to everyday cinemagoers or home viewers, but have increasingly attracted the attention of scholars from various disciplines, including socio-linguistics. A main focus of much previous work,…
Menken, Kate; Shohamy, Elana
The invited colloquium on New Directions in Language Assessment held at the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) annual meeting in Portland, Oregon on March 22, 2014 brought together an international panel of scholars to together explore the possibilities and challenges of translanguaging and bi/multilingual approaches in…
This article examines multilingual interactions in the complementary school classroom for ethnic Chinese children in the UK. Through a detailed analysis of classroom exchanges amongst the children and their teachers, the study aims to demonstrate how they alternate between different varieties of Chinese and English and different modes of…
This paper argues that in order to gain a more informed perspective on emotions and HIV/AIDS, crosslinguistic differences in emotion language need to be taken into account, particularly in a multilingual context. The paper reviews four published academic articles with the aim of illustrating how more consideration of the ...
Thompson, Amy S.
With the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) as a framework, this study is an investigation of the relationships among motivation, language choice, and multilingualism using data from 195 undergraduate learners of languages other than English (LOTEs) in the context of the United States. Motivation is operationalized by the three aspects of self…
Angouri, Jo; Miglbauer, Marlene
In multinational corporate companies, multilingualism is often a daily reality for employees and the negotiation of language practices for work and social purposes, a routine. Despite the role of English as a lingua franca, the linguistic ecology of modern workplaces is dynamic, rich and diverse. While English is often used for communication…
Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne
The purpose of this research was to investigate factors that influence professionals' guidance of parents of children with hearing loss regarding spoken language multilingualism and spoken language choice. Sixteen professionals who provide services to children and young people with hearing loss completed an online survey, rating the importance of…
Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
Informed by family language policy (FLP) as the theoretical framework, I illustrate in this paper how language ideologies can be incongruous and language policies can be conflicting through three multilingual families in Singapore representing three major ethnic groups--Chinese, Malay and Indian. By studying their family language audits, observing…
Anderson, Jim; Macleroy, Vicky
Based on findings from a 5-year research project called "Critical Connections", this article sets out an integrated framework for language learning in the context of multilingual digital storytelling. Following an explanation of the theoretical approach, four vignettes are presented which illustrate the principles in practice.…
Dewaele, Jean-Marc; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter
The present study investigates the link between multilingualism/multiculturalism, acculturation and the personality profile (as measured by the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire) of 79 young London teenagers, half of whom were born abroad and had settled down in London during their childhood "Third Culture Kids" (TCKs; Pollock…
Kasmer, Lisa Anne; Billings, Esther
This study investigated how a study abroad experience teaching mathematics in Tanzania, Africa impacted a group of secondary education pre-service teachers (PSTs) from the United States. In particular we discuss their ability to facilitate the learning of students in multilingual mathematics classrooms while personally developing intercultural…
South Africa is currently occupying a precarious position within a framework of globalization and internationalization where cultural and linguistic pluralism prevail. There is divergence between South Africa's multilingual language policy on the one hand, and its language practices on the other. Although South Africa is in its ...
Angay-Crowder, Tuba; Choi, Jayoung; Yi, Youngjoo
In this article we demonstrate how we created a context in which digital storytelling was designed and implemented to teach multilingual middle school students in the summer program sponsored by a local nonprofit organization, the Latin American Association, in a city in the southeastern United States. While implementing the notion of…
Hasty, Michelle Medlin; Fain, Jeanne Gilliam
In this paper, the authors present findings from a yearlong ethnographic research study that examines the development of critical literacy within two urban fourth grade classrooms in Tennessee. This study examines how young second language learners in English-dominant classrooms learn to read critically, write, and construct multimodal…
Henrike K. Blumenfeld
Full Text Available Understanding language learning in later life can elucidate how linguistic experiences and age-specific cognitive skills can be leveraged for language acquisition, providing insight into how lifelong experiences configure our learning capacity. In this study, we examined to what extent acquisition and maintenance of a non-native language (English is scaffolded by cognitive skills and previous linguistic experiences in older adults; and to what extent these cognitive/linguistic factors predict older learners’ success in acquiring novel functional language. We recruited 53 participants who were native speakers of Mandarin, Spanish, Tagalog, and Somali, had continued to learn English as adults, and were currently exposed to majority-English contexts. To identify contributors to participants’ English skills, we administered a language history and self-reported proficiency interview, brief cognitive testing, and verbal fluency tasks in L1 and English. We found that digit span and orientation measures were cognitive predictors of English proficiency, while similarity of known languages to English, L1 skills, and English language exposure were linguistic predictors of English skills. To examine participants’ ability to maintain language knowledge and to learn new functional English, we also conducted a preliminary longitudinal service-based study in a subset of 19 participants using our Specific-Purpose English Communication System for Seniors (SPECSS curriculum. In this subset of SPECSS learners, we identified digit span and orientation, but not age, as cognitive predictors of short-term language maintenance. Further, better novel English learning as a result of our curriculum was observed in learners whose other known languages were less similar to English. Findings inform best practices in developing language curricula for older adults, and help generate new hypotheses on preparedness for language learning across the adult lifespan with a
Full Text Available BOLD fMRI is often used for the study of human language. However, there are still very few attempts to conduct longitudinal fMRI studies in the study of language acquisition by measuring auditory comprehension and reading. The following paper is the first in a series concerning a unique longitudinal study devoted to the analysis of bi- and multilingual subjects who are: (1 already proficient in at least two languages; or (2 are acquiring Russian as a second/third language. The focus of the current analysis is to present data from the auditory sections of a set of three scans acquired from April, 2011 through April, 2012 on a five-person subject pool who are learning Russian during the study. All subjects were scanned using the same protocol for auditory comprehension on the same General Electric LX 3T Signa scanner in Duke University Hospital. Using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA for statistical analysis, proficiency measurements are shown to correlate significantly with scan results in the Russian conditions over time. The importance of both the left and right hemispheres in language processing is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the importance of contextualizing imaging data with corresponding behavioral and empirical testing data using a multivariate analysis of variance. This is the only study to date that includes: (1 longitudinal fMRI data with subject-based proficiency and behavioral data acquired in the same time frame; and (2 statistical modeling that demonstrates the importance of covariate language proficiency data for understanding imaging results of language acquisition.
Full Text Available In una società globalizzata come quella odierna vi è una forte necessità, nell’accademia, nella professione legale, nel mondo degli affari ed in quello dei servizi della pubblica amministrazione, di una comune comprensione dei concetti giuridici dei diversi ordinamenti. Allo stesso tempo si assiste ad una forte pressione verso la conservazione del loro senso e valore. È difficile soddisfare entrambi i requisiti a causa della complessità del linguaggio giuridico e delle diverse modalità utilizzate per esprimere il diritto nei vari sistemi giuridici. A differenza di altre discipline, in cui esiste una corrispondenza tra i concetti espressi nelle varie lingue, nel diritto insorgono serie difficoltà di interpretazione dovute alla natura della terminologia giuridica, intimamente legata al sistema giuridico di riferimento. L'articolo offre alcuni spunti di riflessione sui requisiti dei sistemi di ricerca multilingue dell'informazione giuridica, esaminando gli aspetti linguistici e concettuali che devono essere presi in considerazione nello sviluppo di tali sistemi e soffermandosi sulle problematiche della traduzione giuridica, del diritto comparato e delle tecniche di elaborazione del linguaggio naturale ai fini dell’accesso e recupero dell'informazione in un contesto distribuito. Le raccomandazioni riguardano da un lato le metodologie per stabilire equivalenze funzionali fra concetti giuridici, dall'altro possibili forme di cooperazione fra istituzioni responsabili dell'indicizzazione e distribuzione di informazioni giuridiche. Tutto ciò per garantire ad ogni cittadino di accedere all’informazione nella molteplicità di lingue in cui si manifesta e allo stesso tempo di ricercarla nella lingua preferita.
Ntelioglou, Burcu Yaman; Fannin, Jennifer; Montanera, Mike; Cummins, Jim
This paper presents findings from a collaborative inquiry project that explored teaching approaches that highlight the significance of multilingualism, multimodality, and multiliteracies in classrooms with high numbers of English language learners (ELLs). The research took place in an inner city elementary school with a large population of recently arrived and Canadian-born linguistically and culturally diverse students from Gambian, Indian, Mexican, Sri Lankan, Tibetan and Vietnamese backgrounds, as well as a recent wave of Roma students from Hungary. A high number of these students were from families with low-SES. The collaboration between two Grade 3 teachers and university-based researchers sought to create instructional approaches that would support students' academic engagement and literacy learning. In this paper, we described one of the projects that took place in this class, exploring how a descriptive writing unit could be implemented in a way that connected with students' lives and enabled them to use their home languages, through the creation of multiple texts, using creative writing, digital technologies, and drama pedagogy. This kind of multilingual and multimodal classroom practice changed the classroom dynamics and allowed the students access to identity positions of expertise, increasing their literacy investment, literacy engagement and learning.
Tourte, Gregory J L
Text mining tools and technologies have long been a part of the repository world, where they have been applied to a variety of purposes, from pragmatic aims to support tools. Research areas as diverse as biology, chemistry, sociology and criminology have seen effective use made of text mining technologies. Working With Text collects a subset of the best contributions from the 'Working with text: Tools, techniques and approaches for text mining' workshop, alongside contributions from experts in the area. Text mining tools and technologies in support of academic research include supporting research on the basis of a large body of documents, facilitating access to and reuse of extant work, and bridging between the formal academic world and areas such as traditional and social media. Jisc have funded a number of projects, including NaCTem (the National Centre for Text Mining) and the ResDis programme. Contents are developed from workshop submissions and invited contributions, including: Legal considerations in te...
This study examines the motivational development of Japanese language learners in Australia and South Korea and their future self-images as bilingual or multilingual individuals. Initial motivation to study Japanese was generally linked to an interest in Japanese language and culture. However, visions of possible future careers became a more significant motivational factor as the students progressed in their studies. The study explores the impact of the students’ multilingual competencies, ...
Lee, Kang Oh; Nakaji, Kei; Nada, Yoichi
In order to share agricultural information through the Internet, the multilingual collaboratioin system of agricultural productioni was developed for farmers of many countries. The basic terminology translationi dictionary was developed by using several open source programs and free software to translate the basic terminology of multilingual collaboration system. The basic terminology translationi dictionaru was composed of about 4200 terms in Japanese, Korean and English including 2700 horti...
Full Text Available In this research, two estimation algorithms for extracting cross-lingual news pairs based on machine learning from financial news articles have been proposed. Every second, innumerable text data, including all kinds news, reports, messages, reviews, comments, and tweets are generated on the Internet, and these are written not only in English but also in other languages such as Chinese, Japanese, French, etc. By taking advantage of multi-lingual text resources provided by Thomson Reuters News, we developed two estimation algorithms for extracting cross-lingual news pairs from multilingual text resources. In our first method, we propose a novel structure that uses the word information and the machine learning method effectively in this task. Simultaneously, we developed a bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM based method to calculate cross-lingual semantic text similarity for long text and short text, respectively. Thus, when an important news article is published, users can read similar news articles that are written in their native language using our method.
Perquin, Magali; Vaillant, Michel; Schuller, Anne-Marie; Pastore, Jessica; Dartigues, Jean-François; Lair, Marie-Lise; Diederich, Nico
Investigate the protective effect of multilingualism on cognition in seniors. As part of the MemoVie study conducted on 232 non-demented volunteers aged 65 and more, neurogeriatric and neuropsychological evaluations were performed. Participants were classified as presenting either cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) or being free of any cognitive impairment (CIND-free). Language practices, socio-demographic data and lifestyle habits were recorded. In this retrospective nested case-control design, we used as proxies of multilingualism: number of languages practiced, age of acquisition and duration of practice, emphasizing the temporal pattern of acquisition, and the resulting practice of several languages sequentially or concomitantly during various periods of life. This special angle on the matter offered to our work a dimension particularly original and innovative. 44 subjects (19%) had CIND, the others were cognitively normal. All practiced from 2 to 7 languages. When compared with bilinguals, participants who practiced more than 2 languages presented a lower risk of CIND, after adjustment for education and age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.30, 95% confidence limits (95%CL) = [0.10-0.92]). Progressing from 2 to 3 languages, instead of staying bilingual, was associated with a 7-fold protection against CIND (OR = 0.14, 95%CL = [0.04-0.45], p = 0.0010). A one year delay to reach multilingualism (3 languages practiced being the threshold) multiplied the risk of CIND by 1.022 (OR = 1.022, 95%CL = [1.01-1.04], p = 0.0044). Also noteworthy, just as for multilingualism, an impact of cognitively stimulating activities on the occurrence of CIND was found as well (OR = 0.979, 95%CL = [0.961-0.998], p = 0.033). The study did not show independence of multilingualism and CIND. Rather it seems to show a strong association toward a protection against CIND. Practicing multilingualism from early life on, and/or learning it at a fast pace
M. Gomes da Torre
Full Text Available William Shakespeare used as subjects for some of his plays episodes of the political history of England which occurred, mainly, in the periods traditionally designed as the Hundred Years’ War (1337- 1453 and the Wars of the Two Roses (1455-85. The former was characterized by great oscillations between military success and failure and was caused by the desire of some English kings who wanted to occupy the French throne, but it was equally desired by the common English people themselves, who already had a developing sense of nationalism, but, in addition, considered the French wars good opportunities to reduce the hardships of their daily living through the products of plundering and ransom usually associated with such wars. The initially surprisingly successful English invasions of France and the resounding victories in the battles of Crécy (1346, Poitiers (1356 and Azincourt (1415 filled the collective English soul with pride and survived in the memory of the people throughout the centuries. When Shakespeare used such historical matters in his plays, he did not but give voice to that national pride and offer his countrymen the flavour of glorious past times. The Wars of the Two Roses, on the contrary, also survived in the people’s memory, but as tragic episodes of a civil war in which two families—the House of York (symbolized by the white rose and the House of Lancaster (symbolized by the red rose—involved themselves in bloody fights for the English throne. William Shakespeare used as subjects for some of his plays episodes of the political history of England which occurred, mainly, in the periods traditionally designed as the Hundred Years’ War (1337- 1453 and the Wars of the Two Roses (1455-85. The former was characterized by great oscillations between military success and failure and was caused by the desire of some English kings who wanted to occupy the French throne, but it was equally desired by the common English people
Environmental law in Thuringia. Text collection with introduction. Pt. 1. Waste law, nuclear, radiation and energy law, soil protection law and land reparcelling, forestry law, fishing and hunting law
Schneider, Matthias Werner
The volume 1 of the collection on the Thuringian Environmental Law contains additional to a detailed introduction: - Waste management - Nuclear, radiation and energy law - Soil protection law and land reparcelling - Forestry, fishery and hunting law. [de
Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that
With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…
Riggs, Ken Roger
Discusses problems with marking free text, text that is either natural language or semigrammatical but unstructured, that prevent well-formed XML from marking text for readily available meaning. Proposes a solution to mark meaning in free text that is consistent with the intended simplicity of XML versus SGML. (Author/LRW)
Full Text Available In this paper we develop a system for writer identification which involves four processing steps like preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and writer identification using neural network. In the preprocessing phase the handwritten text is subjected to slant removal process for segmentation and feature extraction. After this step the text image enters into the process of noise removal and gray level conversion. The preprocessed image is further segmented by using morphological watershed algorithm, where the text lines are segmented into single words and then into single letters. The segmented image is feature extracted by Daubechies’5/3 integer wavelet transform to reduce training complexity [1, 6]. This process is lossless and reversible , . These extracted features are given as input to our neural network for writer identification process and a target image is selected for each training process in the 2-layer neural network. With the several trained output data obtained from different target help in text identification. It is a multilingual text analysis which provides simple and efficient text segmentation.
Finnemann, Niels Ole
text can be defined by taking as point of departure the digital format in which everything is represented in the binary alphabet. While the notion of text, in most cases, lends itself to be independent of medium and embodiment, it is also often tacitly assumed that it is, in fact, modeled around...... the print medium, rather than written text or speech. In late 20th century, the notion of text was subject to increasing criticism as in the question raised within literary text theory: is there a text in this class? At the same time, the notion was expanded by including extra linguistic sign modalities...
Toit, Jacqueline du; Hattingh, Retha; Pitcher, Richard
Speech recognition (SR) technology, the process whereby spoken words are converted to digital text, has been used in radiology reporting since 1981. It was initially anticipated that SR would dominate radiology reporting, with claims of up to 99% accuracy, reduced turnaround times and significant cost savings. However, expectations have not yet been realised. The limited data available suggest SR reports have significantly higher levels of inaccuracy than traditional dictation transcription (DT) reports, as well as incurring greater aggregate costs. There has been little work on the clinical significance of such errors, however, and little is known of the impact of reporter seniority on the generation of errors, or the influence of system familiarity on reducing error rates. Furthermore, there have been conflicting findings on the accuracy of SR amongst users with English as first- and second-language respectively. The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of SR and DT reports in a resource-limited setting. The first 300 SR and the first 300 DT reports generated during March 2010 were retrieved from the hospital’s PACS, and reviewed by a single observer. Text errors were identified, and then classified as either clinically significant or insignificant based on their potential impact on patient management. In addition, a follow-up analysis was conducted exactly 4 years later. Of the original 300 SR reports analysed, 25.6% contained errors, with 9.6% being clinically significant. Only 9.3% of the DT reports contained errors, 2.3% having potential clinical impact. Both the overall difference in SR and DT error rates, and the difference in ‘clinically significant’ error rates (9.6% vs. 2.3%) were statistically significant. In the follow-up study, the overall SR error rate was strikingly similar at 24.3%, 6% being clinically significant. Radiologists with second-language English were more likely to generate reports containing errors, but level of seniority
Rassinoux, A M; Lovis, C; Baud, R H; Scherrer, J R
At the dawn of the 21st century, we are experiencing an exponential growth of online information that is mostly textual, and that benefits from new electronic media, such as the World Wide Web (WWW), to be broadly diffused across borders. However, there is a gap to bridge between holding information and accessing in a relevant way the deep underlying knowledge. Multilingual natural language processing (NLP), once tuned, is certainly the best solution to cope with this era of textual information. This paper focuses on the lesson learned through the joint development of an analyzer and a generator of medical language, within a multilingual context. Concrete examples, derived from the efforts under way in the European GALEN-IN-USE project, illustrate the use of these linguistic tools for the handling of surgical procedures.
and revenue (Phillipson, 2010). This issue forms the background of the presentation, in which it will be discussed how the extended use of English at Danish Universities contributes to linguistic poverty and lack of other foreign languages. The presentation will be centered around the study of language......Language policy and the economics of the workplace, Language policy and globalization Keywords: Key words: Danish Universities, multilingualism, language policy, foreign languages, globalization, Multilingualism at Danish universities equal to English? The Implications for other foreign languages...... and linguistic poverty. Since 2003, with the new Danish University Act and the strengthening of internationalisation, Danish Universities have changed rapidly with a massive transition to English as language of instruction in many study programmes. Studies taught in English attract a large amount of both Danish...
Multilingualism poses unique psychiatric problems, especially in the field of child psychiatry. The author discusses several linguistic and transcultural issues in relation to Language Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder and Selective Mutism. Linguistic characteristics of multiple language development, including so-called profile effects and code-switching, need to be understood for differential diagnosis. It is also emphasized that Language Disorder in a bilingual person is not different or worse than that in a monolingual person. Second language proficiency, cultural background and transfer from the first language all need to be considered in an evaluation for Specific Learning Disorder. Selective Mutism has to be differentiated from the silent period observed in the normal successive bilingual development. The author concludes the review by remarking on some caveats around methods of language evaluation in a multilingual person.
... text. What's the Big Deal? The problem is multitasking. No matter how young and agile we are, ... on something other than the road. In fact, driving while texting (DWT) can be more dangerous than ...
In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…
Clare M. Cooper
Full Text Available Collective improvisation as a creative practice is intensely social, trusting, unpopular, anti-hierarchical and, for these reasons, political. Cooper describes the risks and rich rewards of improvising with fellow artists and identifies the parallels between improvising ensembles of musicians in Australia with the collectively painted protest banners of the Taring Padi Collective in Indonesia after a brief visit to Jogjakarta.
In this paper, I contribute to subjective accounts of aging by focusing on a population that has been largely overlooked in social gerontology: individuals in later life who are multilingual. How do such individuals experience and make sense of their multilingualism? What role does language play in the way they experience and make sense of their lives? To answer these questions I take a life story approach to three women who experienced similar sociohistorical circumstances but arrived at different linguistic outcomes: born in Spain around the time of the civil war (1936-1939), they migrated to Paris in the 1960s to pursue social and economic mobility. Although they arrived in France as monolingual Spanish speakers, they have since acquired French and now practice their multilingualism in distinct ways. I juxtapose their life stories to illustrate how the acquisition and use of language are informed by a confluence of personal, social, and historical factors. Focusing on the linguistic dimension of the life course I thus introduce a new perspective on the heterogeneity obtained among individuals at this stage of their biographical trajectories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Collection of regulatory texts relative to radiation protection. Part 2: orders and decisions taken in application of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations; Recueil de textes reglementaires relatifs a la radioprotection. Partie 2: arretes et decisions pris en application du Code de Sante Publique et du Code du Travail concernant la protection de la population, des patients et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants
This collection of texts includes the general measures of population protection, exposure to natural radiations, general system of authorizations and statements, protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations for medical purpose, situations of radiological emergency and long exposure to ionizing radiations, penal dispositions, application of the Public Health code and application of the Labour code. Chronological contents by date of publication is given. (N.C.)
Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.Â It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.
Multilingualism and Hip Hop Consumption in Nigeria: Accounting for the Local Acceptance of a Global Phenomenon Hip-Hop und Mehrsprachigkeit in Nigeria: Zur Erklärung der lokalen Akzeptanz eines globalen Phänomens
Olusegun Fariudeen Liadi
Full Text Available Hip hop music has enjoyed global popularity and patronage on a level that has transcended that of most other music genres. It is perhaps due to the genre’s worldwide popularity that many forms of hip hop have sprung up across the globe. The Nigerian version of the music has been overwhelmingly accepted by a good number of youths in the country irrespective of class, religion and social status. However, there is some speculation as to what factors are responsible for the recent sudden boom in the popular consumption of this genre among the youth, since hip hop has been a feature of the Nigerian musical landscape since the 1980s. With the aid of qualitative data collection instruments – thirty in-depth interviews and six key informant interviews among hip hop fans and club DJs, respectively – the study establishes the centrality of multilingualism as a primary reason for the acceptance of hip hop among Nigerian youth.Hip-Hop-Musik ist weltweit in einem Maße populär, das die meisten anderen Musikrichtungen übertrifft. Vielleicht hat diese weltweite Beliebtheit dazu geführt, dass rund um den Globus unterschiedliche Formen des Hip-Hop aus dem Boden geschossen sind. Die nigerianische Version dieser Musikrichtung wird von einer überwältigenden Zahl Jugendlicher im Land angenommen, unabhängig von sozialem Status und Religionszugehörigkeit. Es wird jedoch darüber spekuliert, welche Faktoren den jüngsten plötzlichen Boom in dieser Musikrichtung erklären, denn Hip-Hop ist schon seit den 1980er Jahren Teil der nigerianischen Musiklandschaft. Mit Hilfe einer qualitativen Datenerhebung – 30 detaillierte Interviews sowie sechs Interviews mit Schlüsselpersonen unter Hip-Hop-Fans und Club-DJs – kann der Autor die Mehrsprachigkeit als wichtigsten Grund für die Akzeptanz des Hip-Hop unter nigerianischen Jugendlichen ermitteln.
Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning
Dictionaries for Text Production are information tools that are designed and constructed for helping users to produce (i.e. encode) texts, both oral and written texts. These can be broadly divided into two groups: (a) specialized text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that only offer...... a small amount of lexicographic data, most or all of which are typically used in a production situation, e.g. synonym dictionaries, grammar and spelling dictionaries, collocation dictionaries, concept dictionaries such as the Longman Language Activator, which is advertised as the World’s First Production...... Dictionary; (b) general text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that offer all or most of the lexicographic data that are typically used in a production situation. A review of existing production dictionaries reveals that there are many specialized text production dictionaries but only a few general...
A. P. Beketova
Full Text Available Introduction. Higher education involves a complex process for the development of cognitive, social, emotional and cultural characteristics of the individual of future specialists; including forming special behavior patterns that in the future will provide competitiveness and success of employment of the university graduates. Intercultural communicative tolerance is considered to be one of the individual’s significant social and professional qualities which are in demand of the modern society. The importance of intercultural communicative tolerance formation is caused not only by the processes of globalization of professional mobility in the modern world, but also the need to create comfortable coexistence of students in the university multilingual educational environment, to reduce conflicts and to prevent the clash of cultures – bearers of various systems of values and standards.The aim of the research is to reveal the role of intercultural communicative tolerance in the formation of the individual as well as to present a specially designed technology as part of “Foreign Language” learning. The relevance of this research highlights the necessity to shift the emphasis in the foreign language learning process towards practical-oriented learning targeting the development of personal qualities.Methodology and research methods. Methodological framework of the publication is based on the key conceptions of communication-oriented learning. In the process of designing and application of the authors’ technology, experimental methods and the method of comparative analysis were used.Results and scientific novelty.The authors’ definition to intercultural communicative tolerance is given. The urgency of formation of values and semantic attitudes towards improvement of communicative skills and corresponding world outlook objectives among students is proved. The authors described own technology of development of intercultural communicative
A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of
Full Text Available With the development and implementation of a multilingual interactive communication system the e-health project ENN-ICS, funded by the European Union, aims at the improvement of health care in Europe. The field of application is sleep physiology and sleep medicine. ENN-ICS Centre offers direct access to medical information for multiple users, i.e. health authorities, health care professionals, patients and citizen. Using XML technologies the new web based network integrates advanced e-learning and e-publishing methods for the training of healthcare professionals. Editorial and distributive processes are supported by customized central editorial, content management and learning management systems (CMS, LMS. ENN-ICS e-health services are evaluated by selected user groups in North, Middle and Southern Europe using reliable and scientifically accepted validation instruments. The compliance with essential quality requirements and criteria is tested and verified by using adapted online questionnaires based on the DISCERN questionnaire for evaluating patient information, on the HON principles for evaluating health-related websites and on the GMDS catalogue of quality criteria for electronic publications in medicine. The system architecture and its exemplary applications can be used as a model for future e-health services dealing with neurological and other medical topics.
The present research explored bilingual/multilingual students' willingness to communicate in Chinese (WTCC) and foreign language anxiety (FLA) when speaking Chinese and their associations with self-rated proficiency in Chinese in a university in Beijing. The study recruited 167 bilingual and multilingual learners of Chinese to fill in a battery of…
This paper documents the new trend towards a first-language-first multilingual model in formal education in three former French colonies of West Africa, namely Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. It compares the sociolinguistic situations, the conditions of the development of multilingual education and the achievements of mother-tongue-medium education…
McLeod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Bowen, Caroline
A major challenge for the speech-language pathology profession in many cultures is to address the mismatch between the "linguistic homogeneity of the speech-language pathology profession and the linguistic diversity of its clientele" (Caesar & Kohler, 2007, p. 198). This paper outlines the development of the Multilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Position Paper created to guide speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') facilitation of multilingual children's speech. An international expert panel was assembled comprising 57 researchers (SLPs, linguists, phoneticians, and speech scientists) with knowledge about multilingual children's speech, or children with speech sound disorders. Combined, they had worked in 33 countries and used 26 languages in professional practice. Fourteen panel members met for a one-day workshop to identify key points for inclusion in the position paper. Subsequently, 42 additional panel members participated online to contribute to drafts of the position paper. A thematic analysis was undertaken of the major areas of discussion using two data sources: (a) face-to-face workshop transcript (133 pages) and (b) online discussion artifacts (104 pages). Finally, a moderator with international expertise in working with children with speech sound disorders facilitated the incorporation of the panel's recommendations. The following themes were identified: definitions, scope, framework, evidence, challenges, practices, and consideration of a multilingual audience. The resulting position paper contains guidelines for providing services to multilingual children with speech sound disorders (http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech/position-paper). The paper is structured using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Children and Youth Version (World Health Organization, 2007) and incorporates recommendations for (a) children and families, (b) SLPs' assessment and intervention, (c) SLPs' professional
Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew
Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male
Malin, Maili; Raisamo, Susanna Ulrika; Lindfors, Pirjo Liisa; Pere, Lasse Antero; Rimpelä, Arja Hannele
Background Monolingual Web survey is a common tool for studying adolescent health. However, national languages may cause difficulties for some immigrant-origin youths, which lower their participation rate. In national surveys, the number of ethnic minority groups is often too small to assess their well-being. Objective We studied the feasibility of a multilingual Web survey targeted at immigrant-origin youths by selection of response language, and compared participation in different language groups with a monolingual survey. Methods The Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey (AHLS), Finland, with national languages (Finnish/Swedish) was modified into a multilingual Web survey targeted at a representative sample of 14- and 16-year olds (N=639) whose registry-based mother tongue was other than the national languages. The survey was conducted in 2010 (16-year olds) and 2011 (14-year olds). The response rate of the multilingual survey in 2011 is compared with the AHLS of 2011. We also describe the translation process and the e-form modification. Results Of the respondents, 57.6% answered in Finnish, whereas the remaining 42.4% used their mother tongue (P=.002). A majority of youth speaking Somali, Middle Eastern, Albanian, and Southeast Asian languages chose Finnish. The overall response rate was 48.7% with some nonsignificant variation between the language groups. The response rate in the multilingual Web survey was higher (51.6%, 163/316) than the survey with national languages (46.5%, 40/86) in the same age group; however, the difference was not significant (P=.47). The adolescents who had lived in Finland for 5 years or less (58.0%, 102/176) had a higher response rate than those having lived in Finland for more than 5 years (45.1%, 209/463; P=.005). Respondents and nonrespondents did not differ according to place of birth (Finland/other) or residential area (capital city area/other). The difference in the response rates of girls and boys was nearly significant (P
A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....
Cejuela, Juan Miguel; Vinchurkar, Shrikant; Goldberg, Tatyana
trees and was trained and evaluated on a newly improved LocTextCorpus. Combined with an automatic named-entity recognizer, LocText achieved high precision (P = 86%±4). After completing development, we mined the latest research publications for three organisms: human (Homo sapiens), budding yeast...
To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....
A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…
This is a review of the web resource 'Text 2 Mind Map' www.Text2MindMap.com. It covers what the resource is, and how it might be used in Library and education context, in particular for School Librarians.
Kotler, R. S.
File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.
Full Text Available Biblical education as a holistic process goes far beyond biblical learning. It must be understood as a lifelong process, in which both biblical texts and their understanders operate appropriating their counterpart in a dialogical way. – Neither does the recipient’s horizon of understanding appear as an empty room, which had to be filled with the text only, nor is the latter a dead material one could only examine cognitively. The recipient discovers the meaning of the biblical text recomposing it by existential appropriation. So the text is brought to live in each individual reality. Both scientific insights and subjective structures as well as the understanders’ community must be included to avoid potential one-sidednesses. Unfortunately, a special negative association obscures the approach of the bible very often: Still biblical work as part of religious education appears in a cognitively oriented habit, which is neither regarding the vitality and sovereignty of the biblical texts nor the students’ desire for meaning. Moreover, the bible is getting misused for teaching moral terms or pontifications. Such downfalls can be disrupted by biblical didactics which are empowerment didactics. Regarding the sovereignty of biblical texts, these didactics assist the understander with his/her individuation by opening the texts with focus on the understander’s otherness. Thus each the text and the recipient become subjects in a dialogue. The approach of the Biblical-Enabling-Didactics leads the Bible to become always new a book of life. Understanding them from within their hermeneutics, empowerment didactics could be raised to the principle of biblical didactics in general and grow into an essential element of holistic education.