WorldWideScience

Sample records for multilingual on-line dictionary

  1. IAA Space Terminological Multilingual Data Bank Towards an On- Line Dictionary with Definitions in French and in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaid, R.

    2002-01-01

    It has been emphasized in previous papers that the bilingual "basic list" of the IAA multilingual terminological data bank (MTDB) needed improvement before beginning works on definitions. In this communication, in a first part, we report, on the works (corrections and additions) done to improve the scope of the "basic list" . These works have yet to be done by coordinators for the others twelve languages concerned by the IAA MTBD. In a second part, according to the decision of the IAA MTDB committee to complete the MTDB with definitions in French and in English, we describe the methodology adopted and the problems encountered to elaborate a mock-up of a space dictionary, including in a first step definitions in English and in French, of the English terms and expressions beginning by the letter "A" in the basic list.

  2. Multilingualism and Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilingualism and Dictionaries The Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that we (Wojciech Sosnowski, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Anna Kisiel are currently developing has no precedent as far as its theoretical foundations and its structure are concerned. The dictionary offers a unique combination of three Slavic languages that belong to three different groups: a West Slavic language (Polish, a South Slavic language (Bulgarian and an East Slavic language (Russian. The dictionary describes semantic and syntactic equivalents of words between the languages. When completed, the dictionary will contain around 30,000 entries. The principle we build the dictionary on is that every language should be given equal status. Many of our data come from the Parallel Polish-Bulgarian-Russian corpus developed by us as part of the CLARIN-PL initiative. In the print version, the entries come in the order of the Cyrillic alphabet and they are not numbered (except for homonyms, which are disambiguated with Roman numbers. We selected the lemmas for the dictionary on the basis of their frequency in the corpus. Our dictionary is the first dictionary to include forms of address and most recent neologisms in the three languages. Faithful to the recent developments in contrastive linguistics, we begin with a form from the dictionary’s primary language and we define it in Polish. Subsequently, based on this definition, we try to find an equivalent in the second and the third language. Therefore, the meaning comes first and only then we look for the form (i.e. the equivalent that corresponds to this meaning. This principle, outlined in Gramatyka konfrontatywna języków polskiego i bułgarskiego (GKBP, allows us to treat data from multiple languages as equal. In the dictionary, we draw attention to the correct choice of equivalents in translation; we also provide categorisers that indicate the meaning of verbal tenses and aspects. The definitions of states, events and

  3. Multilingual Aeronautical Dictionary (Dictionnaire Aeronautique Multilingue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    8217See ’aerofoil profile’ DE Bord’Boden-Funkverkehr (ili 20~ AGARD MULTILINGUAL AERONAUTICAL DICTIONARY 10318 air mileage indicator (AMI) ES comunicacion ...Autogenschweissen (nil ES sistema fml autom~tico de comunicacion NE automatische besturing ES soldadura MI autdgena aire-tierra P otooWatmtc FR soudage Wm autogene...AERONAUTICAL DICTIONARY DE Fernmeldesatellit [m) RU 1. maPXWbPOBK& ff1 OTcOKOB RU onPe~ene~me Wn Aesma84HN Komnaca ES satelite Wm do comunicaciones 2

  4. The need for an electronic multilingual dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kisiel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for an electronic multilingual dictionary The paper analyses the issue of providing adequate equivalents in multilingual dictionaries. If equivalents are adequate, it means that: (1 the scope of meaning of one item is identical to its equivalent (cf. drive: drive a nail vs. drive a car; and (2 the collocations of the equivalents overlap. Two significant problems arise when searching for adequate equivalents: the lack of equivalents whose meanings are identical (narrower/wider meanings, partial overlap of meanings, more than equally good equivalent, and equivalents with homographs in a given language. Because such issues are difficult to resolve in a printed dictionary, we put forward some methods of addressing the problems in an electronic dictionary. The paper offers an example entry from such a dictionary, which presents a suggestion of a layout. We also took into consideration the potential problems which may appear if the entry is presented in this manner: first, one must set a limit for the description (a defined number of lexical units; second, one must avoid circularity, but at the same time also strive for an exhaustive description. Electronic dictionaries offer greater possibilities of presenting modern vocabulary and adding new classifiers (e.g. a classifier of politeness.

  5. A critical analysis of multilingual dictionaries | Prinsloo | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the lexicographic value of multilingual dictionaries. Dictionaries covering three or more languages spoken in South Africa are taken as a case in point. An attempt will be made to reflect on their merits and shortcomings as reference works and learning tools but the focus will be on presumed ...

  6. A critical analysis of multilingual dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (ANNA) attempts to make a case for the value of reading a dictionary for recreation ... This assumption, however, should be supported by actual user studies and ...... inexperienced user can incorrectly conclude that ka is the word for power in.

  7. Understanding Cognitive Load Using On-line Dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Robert F. , Dilenschneider

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive Load Theory may useful for language instructors to understand how the look up conditions ofusing an on-line dictionary might influence learning. This paper first reviews previous studies that haveinvestigated dictionary use for vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension Second, it explainsthe various elements of Cognitive Load Theory. Third, it describes how Cognitive Load Theory appliesto language learners' to learn unknown words and comprehend texts Last, it discusses the pe...

  8. From the Problems of Dictionaries and Multi-lingual Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Problems of Dictionaries and Multi-lingual Corpora The article describes the work on a number of dictionaries being developed by the Corpus Linguistics and Semantics Group of the Institute of Slavic PAS. They include “Contemporary Bulgarian-Polish Dictionary”, “Bulgarian-Polish Online Dictionary” and “Russian-Bulgarian-Polish Dictionary”. The dictionaries differ in the numbers of entries, as well as in the different degrees of their connection with parallel corpora being elaborated under the “Clarin” project. All the discussed dictionaries are similar with respect to their use of traditional, syntactic classifiers and of semantic classifiers, introduced for the first time in the existing lexicographical practice. Thanks to the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian Corpus”, the Group has managed to verify the results of contrasting Polish and Bulgarian in the light of scope-based logical quantification. Thanks to the Russian material added to the trilingual corpus, the researchers have managed to confirm the fact that from the viewpoint of “incomplete quantification” Russian and Polish (synthetic languages behave similarly, and are opposed to the analytic Bulgarian.

  9. Automatic creation of specialised multilingual dictionaries in new subject areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Moré

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a tool to automatically generate specialised dictionaries of multilingual equivalents in new subject areas. The tool uses resources that are available on the web to search for equivalents and verify their reliability. These resources are, on the one hand, the Wikipedias, which can be freely downloaded and processed, and, on the other, the materials that terminological institutions of reference make available. This tool is of use to teachers producing teaching materials and researchers preparing theses, articles or reference manuals. It is also of use to translators and terminologists working on terminological standardisation in a new subject area in a given language, as it helps them in their work to pinpoint concepts that have yet to receive a standardised denomination.

  10. A Series of Foundation Phase Dictionaries for a Multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the design and use of the Maskew Miller Longman series of dictionaries published in several different official languages of South Africa and aimed at learners in the foundation phase of primary school. It will be argued that when planning new dictionaries such as these, lexicographers ...

  11. THE LEXICOGRAFIC PRINCIPLES OF WORD MEANINGS IN THE MULTILINGUAL SYNONYMIC DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddikova, I.A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to study of principles of description of the meaning of words in the multilingual synonymic dictionaries. The dictionary of synonyms must have full enough and absolutely explicit description of their semantic similarity and distinctions. The description can be full if it includes all existing features of the words, adequately denote every meaning and help the language learners and speakers in choosing possible meanings of synonyms owing to situation. The synonymic dictionary must include all synonyms, their meanings, lexico-semantic combination, distribution, grammatical constructions and stylistic features showing their usage in certain contexts and situations. In some cases according to their contextual meanings synonyms may be substituted depending on situation. The article is based on examples of English, Uzbek and Russian languages.

  12. Development of the Multilingual Collaboration System for Farmers of Several Counntries (1) : Application of Basic Terminology Translation Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang Oh; Nakaji, Kei; Nada, Yoichi

    2004-01-01

    In order to share agricultural information through the Internet, the multilingual collaboratioin system of agricultural productioni was developed for farmers of many countries. The basic terminology translationi dictionary was developed by using several open source programs and free software to translate the basic terminology of multilingual collaboration system. The basic terminology translationi dictionaru was composed of about 4200 terms in Japanese, Korean and English including 2700 horti...

  13. A multilingual, multicultural and explanatory music education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multilingual, multicultural and explanatory music education dictionary for South Africa - using Wiegand's metalexicography to establish its purposes, functions ... dictionary, it will have to contain elements of different types of dictionaries, such as explanatory dictionaries, translation dictionaries, and learner's dictionaries.

  14. Examining the Conditions of Using an On-Line Dictionary to Learn Words and Comprehend Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilenschneider, Robert Francis

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated three look-up conditions for language learners to learn unknown target words and comprehend a reading passage when their attention is transferred away to an on-line dictionary. The research questions focused on how each look-up condition impacted the recall and recognition of word forms, word meanings, and passage…

  15. A Multilingual, Multicultural and Explanatory Music Education Dictionary for South Africa --- Using Wiegand's Metalexicography to Establish its Purposes, Functions and Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Smit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wiegand's metalexicography is used to establish the purposes, functions and nature of a multilingual, multicultural, and explanatory music education dictionary for South Africa. Specific types of dictionaries have specific purposes. Special-field dictionaries should fulfil the purpose of conveying information on knowledge in special fields. They should also solve communication conflicts. The genuine purposes of special-field dictionaries, according to Wiegand, are to convey either linguistic information on terms, or encyclopedic information, or both. The needs of users should be taken into account when determining the functions of a dictionary. When the functions of a dictionary containing music terms from South Africa is considered, social factors in South African music education also have to be taken into account. The planned dictionary will have a linguistic and a communicative function. It will also have a cognitive and scientific function, fulfilling an educational need. With regard to the nature of the planned dictionary, it will have to contain elements of different types of dictionaries, such as explanatory dictionaries, translation dictionaries, and learner's dictionaries. A thematic arrangement will be followed, supplemented by an alphabetical index. Two versions of the dictionary will have to be published, namely, a more scholarly version for specialists, with more types of information, as well as a more popular version for nonspecialists.

    Keywords: multicultural dictionary; multilingual dictionary; explanatory dictionary; special-field dictionary; wiegand; purposes of dictionaries; functions of dictionaries; encyclopedic information; linguistic information; dictionary use; protocols; learner's lexicography

     

    'n Veeltalige, multikulturele en verklarende opvoedkundige musiekwoordeboek vir Suid-Afrika

    Wiegand se metaleksikografie word gebruik om die doelstellings, funksies en aard van 'n veeltalige, multikulturele

  16. Towards a Multilingual Dictionary of Academic Words Op weg na 'n meertalige woordeboek van akademiese woorde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Read

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Vocabulary is an essential component of study, of reading and writing skills. At present, English is the primary language of tertiary education in South Africa, and this puts students from other language backgrounds at a disadvantage. The proposed dictionary will therefore be aimed at second language English users who are entry level students at university. It will be in four languages: English, Afrikaans, Zulu and Sepedi. I.S.P. Nation and J. Coady have compiled an academic core vocabulary which tertiary students in all subject fields need to master in order to be able to encode and decode tertiary level texts, and this has been the basis for the planned dictionary. However, this list needs to be compared to and updated with material from a South African academic corpus. A preliminary comparative study has been conducted on the basis of authentic South African data, and a revised list has been created. The dictionary will not be subject-specific, but will deal with a general subtechnical vocabulary. Full definitions will be provided in all four languages, as well as translation equivalents, with English as the pivot language. Where a lexical gap occurs, translation equivalents will be coined with the help of the relevant experts. Thus the dictionary will also participate in much-needed corpus development of the African languages. It should become a valuable reference tool for both teacher and student.

     

    Woordeskat vorm 'n essensiële deel van die leerproses, van lees- en skryfvaardighede. Tans is Engels die primêre taal van die tersiêre onderwys in Suid-Afrika, en dit benadeel studente met ander taalagtergronde. Die beplande woordeboek is derhalwe gerig op eerstejaaruniversiteitstudente wat Engels as tweede taal gebruik. Dit sal in vier tale wees: Engels, Afrikaans, Zulu en Sepedi. I.S.P. Nation en J. Coady het 'n akademiese kernwoordeskat saamgestel wat tersiêre studente in alle studierigtings behoort te ken om tekste op

  17. Multilingual Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp.......Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp....

  18. Lexicographical Resources in A Multilingual Environment: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article considers dictionaries as lexical infonnation / knowledge sources to be derived from a deeper, underlying, lexical database. These dictionary-tokens or -instantiations are inter alia specified by the users' needs. As a case in point of such a derivation meeting the needs of a multilingual society, a bidirectional ...

  19. The multilingual brain

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The multilingual brain. Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? The given lecture will focus on the "cognitive advantages" of multilingualism and illustrate the impact that being multilingual has on the cognitive organisation of the brain. Practical questions regarding multilingual education will also be discussed.

  20. Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rehm, Sigmund

    1994-01-01

    ... to the following colleagues who readily screened the vernaculars in their native languages: English: Prof. N.W. Simmonds and Dr. P.M. Smith, both of Edinburgh; French: Dr. M.P. Fauvelle of Toulouse: Spanish: Prof. B. Vall~s and Dr. L. Diaz Lifante, both of Sevilla; Portuguese: Dr. ehr. Diederichs of GOttingen. A special word of thanks is due to Dr. B. Fabig, who assisted in the composition and correction of the main part, and to W. Eisenberg, M.A., who was responsible for alterations and...

  1. The multilingual brain

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The multilingual brain. Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? The given lecture will focus on the "cognitive advantages" of multilingualism and illustrate the impact that being multilingual has on the cognitive organisation of the brain. Practical questions regarding multilingual education will also be discussed. Ass et gutt e Kand méisproocheg ze erzéien? Wat sinn déi optimal Konditio...

  2. Linguistic dictionaries of economics in the German, Russian and Tatar languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaripova A.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available as is known, the degree of one or another professional language research is characterized by the specialized monolingual and multilingual dictionaries. This article describes the existing dictionaries with recorded German, Russian and Tatar economic vocabulary. The Russian and German languages belong to the languages that have well systematized economic vocabulary and it is presented by the large number of the linguistic, encyclopedic and multilingual dictionaries regarding this field. The situation with the dictionaries of economics in the Tatar language looks different. Dictionaries on this subject have been published periodically and economic vocabulary of the modern Tatar language is recorded by the electronic dictionaries in recent times.

  3. Multilingual Policies and Multilingual Education in the Nordic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Mikaela; Björklund, Siv; Sjöholm, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    This article presents some aspects of multilingualism and multilingual education in the Nordic countries, drawing upon experiences from the project "Network for Researchers of Multilingualism and Multilingual Education, RoMME" (2011-2013), where Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are represented. The aim is to briefly present and…

  4. Multilingualism, Empathy and Multicompetence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait of cognitive empathy among 2158 mono- and multilinguals. Data were collected through an online questionnaire. Statistical analyses revealed that the knowledge of more languages was not linked to cognitive empathy. Bilingual upbringing and the experience of…

  5. Multilingualism and social inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Adamo, S.

    2017-01-01

    This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role in

  6. Multilingualism and Nation Building. Multilingual Matters 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Gerda

    This book examines the phenomenon of multilingualism in West Africa from a historical, social, and environmental perspective. Chapter 1 explains why the catalogue of African languages established by linguists is not reliable for assessing the linguistic diversity of the region. It also discusses studies that show that the linguistic behavior in…

  7. A critical analysis of multilingual dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    My home, Our community, Transport, Communication, Economy, Nature and us, Food and ... colour keys for the different languages, how to use this book, know your ... word lists bound into one handy volume, with their inverse juxtapositions .... answer. 183. ✓. ✓. ✓ around. 174. ✓. ✓ attention. 165. ✓ across. 157. ✓. ✓. ✓. ✓.

  8. Multilingualism and Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Is a multilingual education beneficial for children? What are the optimal conditions under which a child can become perfectly multilingual? When should we be concerned about a multilingual child's language skills? What are the signs of Specific Language Impairment in a child who speaks more than one language? Developmental psychologist and Associate Professor in multilingual cognitive development at the University of Luxembourg Pascale Engel de Abreu will address these questions based on what...

  9. Benefits of Multilingualism in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Benard Odoyo

    2014-01-01

    The article gives a brief analytical survey of multilingualism practices, its consequences, its benefits in education and discussions on the appropriate ways towards its achievement in education. Multilingualism refers to speaking more than one language competently. Generally there are both the official and unofficial multilingualism practices. A…

  10. Multilingualism and Social Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role...... in these processes. As a consequence, English as the only global language is spreading around the world, including Europe and the European Union. Social and linguistic inclusion was accounted for in the pre-globalization age by the nation-state ideology implementing the ‘one nation-one people-one language’ doctrine...... in governance and daily life protected by a legal framework. This does not mean that there is full equality of languages. This carries over to the fair and just social inclusion of the speakers of these weaker, dominated languages as well. There is always a power question related to multilingualism. The ten...

  11. Embodying multilingual interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer; Mortensen, Janus

    this linguistic diversity is managed in situ by participants engaged in dialogue with one another, and what it is used for in these transient multilingual communities. This paper presents CA-based micro-ethnographic analyses of language choice in an informal social setting – a kitchen – of an international study...... literature on language choice in interaction, our findings emphasize that analyses of language choice in multilingual settings need to take into account social actions beyond the words that are spoken. We show that facial, spatial and postural configurations, gaze orientation and gestures as well as prosodic...... in the particular community of practice that we are investigating. Reference Hazel, Spencer, and Janus Mortensen. forthcoming. Kitchen talk: Exploring linguistic practices in liminal institutional interactions in a multilingual university setting. in Language Alternation, Language Choice, and Language Encounter...

  12. [Monolingualism, an overlooked multilingual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, E

    There has been some emphasis on the practice of multi­lingualism. It is seen as encouraging children creativity, lin­guis­­tic sensitivity and openness. In this article, we seek to find out if the different qualities demonstrated in multilingualism can also be developed in a monolingualism context. Despite the fact that it is a single language system - where grammar, accents, the rhythm of the sentence remain unchanged - it will be interesting to draw some parallels with multilingualism. This will lead us to study the processes of oral and written language acquisition in children. The associations with stuttering will also be mentioned.

  13. Contextualizing Multilingualism in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mayra C.; Ball, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the educational system of Morocco and the ways the country's multilingual history has influenced and continues to direct the choice of the languages used in schools. Suggestions that will eliminate cultural mismatch and thus facilitate interactions with Moroccan students and their families are included. The research focuses…

  14. Rights and Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpsten, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the author focuses on educational values and second language learners' experiences from education. She is using a life story approach. Overarching aim of the presentation is to discuss second language teacher students' encountering with Swedish school, mother tongue tuition, second language and multilingualism. The goal was achieved…

  15. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  16. Is ERASMUS furthering multilingualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    One aim of the ERASMUS program is the furthering of multilingualism in Europe. This paper examines under what conditions the aim is achieved in the case of non-language exchange students coming to Scandinavia. The paper draws on a longitudinal study involving interviews with, and tests done by, 240...

  17. Teachers' Beliefs about Multilingualism and a Multilingual Pedagogical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukås, Åsta

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of teachers' beliefs is central to understanding teachers' decision-making in the classroom. The present study explores Norwegian language teachers' beliefs about multilingualism and the use of a multilingual pedagogical approach in the third-language (L3) classroom. This study analysed data collected via focus group discussions with 12…

  18. Multilingual School Population: Ensuring School Belonging by Tolerating Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Wildt, Anouk; Van Avermaet, Piet; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Societies have become super-diverse due to migration and globalization. Many mainstream classroom teachers feel managing the linguistic variety children bring to school is challenging. This often leads to restrictive language policies. Research on multilingualism has given us insight into the multilingual realities of pupils, which allows us to…

  19. Drupal 7 Multilingual Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Pol, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A practical book with plenty of screenshots to guide you through the many features of multilingual Drupal. A demo ecommerce site is provided if you want to practice on a sample site, although you can apply the techniques learnt in the book directly to your site too. Any Drupal users who know the basics of building a Drupal site and are familiar with the Drupal UI, will benefit from this book. No previous knowledge of localization or internationalization is required.

  20. Multilingualism as a Principle of the EU Court of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kh. Rekosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the jurisprudence reflects relations between the institutions, bodies and organizations of the EU and native speakers, the EU Court of Justice plays a huge role in shaping the legal discourse. Relations between the EU and citizens show the effectiveness of the principle of multilingualism, that is apparent before the Court. The enlargement of the Union to 28 member States and, accordingly, the increase of the number of official languages to 24 complicate the implementation of the principle of multilingualism and create many problems for the EU Court of Justice: legal, linguistic, budget, translation. All documents of the Court are not translated into 24 EU official languages completely and often limited to summaries. All documents are translated only into French and proceeding languages, for the scale of the translation work have a direct impact on the timing of legal proceedings. To provide help in written translations, much work is carried out in the Court on drawing up dictionaries, thesauri, where multilingualism is fully manifested. On the use of languages and language regime, There is an extensive legal practice, however, the term «multilingualism» is not used by the Court, despite the recognition of the principle of equality of all official languages, perhaps, due to the fact that the Court itself not always follows it. The article shows that multilingualism as a legal concept and principle opens up, sometimes adjacent to the already distinguished objects of regulation, new areas of legal research. Comparison of legal solutions to the problems of multilingualism in different states with a variety of languages, law and order, or in international organizations, lays basis of "comparative linguistic law" Now in the doctrine of law of the European Union neither the linguistic law, nor the comparative linguistic law do not exist, but to provide cooperation in the field of justice and mutual recognition of judicial decisions on the

  1. Multilingual school starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    Multilingual school starters: social semiotics perspectives on second language and literacy learning in education Helle Pia Laursen The starting point for this paper is the still increasing role of literacy in educational settings. Often primary education is seen as almost being synonymous...... of globalisation. Furthermore, this perception of literacy entails that the student’s possible insights into other ways of adding signs to language than those we know from a specific version of the Latin alphabet, fall outside the interests of research and teaching. From this perspective and with a social semiotic...

  2. Culturemes and Non-Equivalent Lexis in Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Paweł Jaskot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Culturemes and Non-Equivalent Lexis in Dictionaries The article raises the question of the need to improve the structural diversity and operational capabilities of the modern dictionary (bi- or multilingual to avoid lacunes in the transmission of culturemes and non-equivalent words into another language. Without it the dictionary is incomplete and languages are unequal. The article deals with various options of asymmetry reflection of the culturemes in the context of social and ethno-psychic reality of a native-speaking community. The specifics of lexicographical transmission is observed in order to emphasize the need of further investigation of the linguistic map of the world.

  3. Heterogeneity: multilingualism and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Krumm

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic diversity and multilingualism on the part of individuals are aprerequisite and a constitutive condition of enabling people to live togetherin a world of growing heterogeneity. Foreign language teaching plays animportant part in democratic education because it can be seen as a trainingin respecting otherness and developing an intercultural, non-ethnocentricperception and attitude. This is all the more important because of the neces-sity of integrating children from migrant families into school life.My article argues that language education policy has to take this per-spective into account, i.e., of establishing a planned diversification so thatpupils (and their parents will not feel satisfied with learning English only,but also become motivated to learn languages of their own neighbourhood,such as migrant and minority languages. However, in order to make use ofthe linguistic resources in the classroom, relating it to the democratic impetusof foreign language education, it is necessary to revise existing languagepolicies and to develop a multilingual perspective for all educational institutions.

  4. Multilingual Awareness and Heritage Language Education: Children's Multimodal Representations of Their Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Pfeifer, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyse visual narratives of multilingual children, in order to acknowledge their self-perception as multilingual selves. Through the analysis of drawings produced by children enrolled in Portuguese as heritage language (PHL) classes in Germany, we analyse how bi-/multilingual children perceive their multilingual repertoires…

  5. German Schools Abroad: Hotspots of Elite Multilingualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Anne E; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    While multilingualism itself is a widely analyzed topic, a study about multilingualism at German schools abroad is so far unique. This quantitative study investigates the differences in the size of German expressive and receptive vocabulary between monolingual and multilingual students, aged between 5 and 11 years. A cohort of 65 multilingual…

  6. Piecing Together the "Workplace Multilingualism" Jigsaw Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Multilingualism in the workplace is different from multilingualism at home or in other domains of social life. It has more direct, yet entangled, economic and social implications and serves interactional purposes which can be at any point on the continuum of goal-orientation and relationship-building. Multilingualism in the workplace is both a…

  7. A Bright Future for Interdisciplinary Multilingualism Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanaru, Ruxandra-S.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Multilingualism is a prevalent reality in today's world. From an individual level to a societal one, multilingualism incorporates many aspects that have been studied extensively by diverse social research disciplines. The present article will explore the potential directions which multilingualism research can take, concentrating mainly on the…

  8. Affordances theory in multilingualism studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Aronin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of affordances originating in Gibson’s work (Gibson, 1977 is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010. Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated aspects of multilingualism. This is despite the fact that the theory of affordances can actually provide a valuable, supplementary, up-to-date framework within which a clearer, sharper description and explication of the intriguing range of attributes of multilingual communities, educational institutions and individuals, as well as teaching practices, become feasible. It is important that not only researchers and practitioners (teachers, educators, parents, community and political actors but also language users and learners themselves should be aware of how to identify or, if necessary, design new affordances for language acquisition and learning. The aim of this article is to adapt the concept of affordances to multilingualism studies and additional language teaching, and in so doing advance theoretical understanding in this context. To this end the article contains a brief summary of the findings so far available. The article also goes further into defining the ways of how affordances work in relation to multilingualism and second language teaching and puts forward an integrated model of affordances.

  9. Interpares 3 multilingual glossary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lacombe Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available InterPARES Project (International Research on Permanent Authentic Records in Electronic Systems is a multidisciplinary international collaborative endeavor, which involves researchers from many countries. As one of the products of the project's second phase a Terminology Database was presented, containing two main instruments: a glossary and a dictionary. The terms and definitions presented in the glossary are the key to facilitate communication among the investigators as well to support the dissemination of InterPARES theory and methodology. Accordingly, InterPARES 3 investigators are translating the glossary.

  10. The Construction of a Term Database to Support the Compilation of Chinese-Slovene Slovene-Chinese Dictionary of Beekeeping Terms

    OpenAIRE

    Anže SOBOČAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the first step of making a multilingual specialized dictionary, which includes a selection of terms, their arrangement according to adequacy and the determination of synonymous relationships between the terms. The research was based of the first phase of compiling a Slovene-Chinese and Chinese-Slovene specialized beekeeping dictionary. The results of the research could, however, be applied to the making of specialized dictionaries for any research field. The focus areas ...

  11. Multilingualism in the Workplace: Language Practices in Multilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angouri, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The modern workplace is international and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees are expected to be mobile, work increasingly in (virtual) teams (Gee et al. 1996) and to address complex organisational issues in a language that, often, is not their first language (L1). This results in a number of languages forming the ecosystem of…

  12. Word level language identification in online multilingual communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Dogruoz, A. Seza

    2013-01-01

    Multilingual speakers switch between languages in online and spoken communication. Analyses of large scale multilingual data require automatic language identification at the word level. For our experiments with multilingual online discussions, we first tag the language of individual words using

  13. Dictionary criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    Dictionary criticism is part of the lexicographical universe and reviewing of electronic and printed dictionaries is not an exercise in linguistics or in subject fields but an exercise in lexicography. It does not follow from this that dictionary reviews should not be based on a linguistic approach......, but that the linguistic approach is only one of several approaches to dictionary reviewing. Similarly, the linguistic and factual competences of reviewers should not be relegated to an insignificant position in the review process. Moreover, reviewers should define the object of their reviews, the dictionary, as a complex...... information tool with several components and in terms of significant lexicographical features: lexicographical functions, data and structures. This emphasises the fact that dictionaries are much more than mere vessels of linguistic categories, namely lexicographical tools that have been developed to fulfil...

  14. Mediating Multilingual Children's Language Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, D.; Moran, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The everyday reality of children's multilingualism is a significant resource for expanding students' perspectives on the world, but many questions remain regarding the negotiation of these resources in mainstream classrooms. Drawing on research from a long-term Canadian study of multiliterate pedagogies, this paper explores mediation of home…

  15. Multilingual text induced spelling correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a multilingual, language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from raw text corpora, without supervision, and contains word unigrams

  16. Multilingualism and Education for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biseth, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to show the importance of linguistic issues in education for democracy and the close relationship between democracy and multilingualism. Increasingly nation-states are having to adapt to linguistic diversity within their borders and to recognize that democracy requires the participation of all citizens, including those…

  17. Affordances Theory in Multilingualism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa; Singleton, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of affordances originating in Gibson's work (Gibson, 1977) is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010). Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated…

  18. Multilingual processing in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Struys, E.; Kim, K.Y.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Mondt, K.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van; Lee, M.Y.; Craen, P. van de

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, in contrast to previous neuroimaging literature reviews on first language (L1) and second language (L2), the focus was only on neuroimaging studies that were directly conducted on multilingual participants. In total, 14 neuroimaging studies were included in our study such as 10

  19. A Multilingual Perspective on Translanguaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSwan, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Translanguaging is a new term in bilingual education; it supports a heteroglossic language ideology, which views bilingualism as valuable in its own right. Some translanguaging scholars have questioned the existence of discrete languages, further concluding that multilingualism does not exist. I argue that the political use of language names can…

  20. EMITEL e-encyclopaedia of medical physics and dictionary of terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakov, Slavik; Tabakova, Vassilka; Smith, Peter; Milano, Franco; Strand, Sven-Erik; Lewis, Cornelius; Stoeva, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    EMITEL, the e-Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics and its Multilingual Translator (dictionary) have been launched at WC2009 (www.emitel2.eu). This international project attracted more than 300 specialists from 36 countries and grew to be the largest international project in the profession. This paper describes the development of EMITEL, its effective use, and its planned future development. (author)

  1. Preparing FCS Professionals for a Multilingual Society: Building Community through the Experiences of Multilingual Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Janine; Duncan, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    As demographics in the United States shift, family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals must be prepared to foster healthy communities that embrace multilingual families. Because hegemonic language ideologies challenge multilingual families, FCS professionals need to know how to inclusively reframe communities to honor multilingual families.…

  2. Insurance dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lutz, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Special technical terms used in the world of insurance can hardly be found in general dictionaries. This is a gap which the 'Insurance dictionary' now presented is designed to fill. In view of its supplementary function, the number of terms covered is limited to 1200. To make this dictionary especially convenient for ready reference, only the most commonly used translations are given for each key word in any of the four languages. This dictionary is subdivided into four parts, each containing the translation of the selected terms in the three other languages. To further facilitate the use of the booklet, paper of different colours was used for the printing of the German, English, French and Greek sections. The present volume was developed from a Swedish insurance dictionary (Fickordbok Foersaekring), published in 1967, which - with Swedish as the key language- offers English, French and German translations of the basic insurance terms. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suin Kim

    Full Text Available Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  4. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suin; Park, Sungjoon; Hale, Scott A; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H

    2016-01-01

    Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  5. Multilingualism and Education for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biseth, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to show the importance of linguistic issues in education for democracy and the close relationship between democracy and multilingualism. Increasingly nation-states are having to adapt to linguistic diversity within their borders and to recognize that democracy requires the participation of all citizens, including those belonging to linguistic minorities. Democracy also requires that all linguistic groups share a sense of community. The author argues the need for educational policies that address these challenges.

  6. Language Choice in Multilingual Communities: The Case of Larteh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a multilingual community, the multilingual speaker needs to make the right language choice which principally depends on the domain of usage and the linguistic repertoire of speech participants. This paper investigates factors that govern language choices that multilingual speakers make in Larteh, a multilingual ...

  7. Developing Multilingual Pedagogies and Research through Language Study and Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Theresa; Shende, Madhur; Suh, Emily K.

    2018-01-01

    Globalisation and increased transnational migration underscore the need for educational responses to multilingualism and multilingual discourses. One way to heighten awareness of multilingual pedagogies (while simultaneously providing data for multilingual research) is the use of reflective language study and journaling by language…

  8. New Perspectives on Multilingualism and L2 Acquisition: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zarobe, Leyre Ruiz; de Zarobe, Yolanda Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the description of one of the main features of current multilingualism, complexity, through a selection of issues related to its role in L2 acquisition, as the proper notion of multilingualism, multilingualism as a social phenomenon and multilingualism as a multidimensional phenomenon. We also present several aspects of…

  9. Introduction: Multilingual Behavior in Youth Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Normann Jørgensen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This introduction reviews some of the major work on bilingual and multilingual children and adolescents in Scandinavia, from Kotsinas (1985 and Boyd (1985 to the present. The introduction was originally published in J. N. Jørgensen (ed. 2001: Multilingual behavior in Youth Groups, Copenhagen Studies in Bilingualism, The Køge Series, Volume K11, Danish University of Education.

  10. Multilingual phonological analysis and speech synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, J.S.; Dirksen, A.; Hussain, S.; Waals, J.

    1996-01-01

    We give an overview of multilingual speech synthesis using the IPOX system. The first part discusses work in progress for various languages: Tashlhit Berber, Urdu and Dutch. The second part discusses a multilingual phonological grammar, which can be adapted to a particular language by setting

  11. Multilingualism and Multicompetence: A Conceptual View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Rita

    2011-01-01

    The overall aim of this article is to argue that the functioning of every language system is based on a potential multilingual competence. The empirical basis for this is now broad enough to gain a comprehensive view on the overall competence of a multilingual individual. Moreover, increasing theoretical reflection has conferred an increasingly…

  12. Multilingualism and Creativity: A Multivariate Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Guillaume; Grin, François

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a contribution to the investigation of the relation between multilingualism and creativity. Past evidence of a correlation between multilingualism and creativity is reviewed in a generalist perspective, that is, without focusing on a specific population such as migrants or highly proficient bilinguals. This review is also…

  13. Equitable multilingualism? The case of Stellenbosch University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects on Stellenbosch University Writing Lab's pedagogical approach to multilingualism and inclusivity within the complex and political nature of multilingual language policies at a South African university. The Writing Lab has always been promoted as a facility for all students, not just those in need of ...

  14. Translanguaging in the Writing of Emergent Multilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiramba, Lydiah Kananu

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of an empirical study that investigated the writing practices in a multilingual, rural, fourth-grade classroom in Kenya. The study was undergirded by Bakhtin's heteroglossia. Analysis of texts indicated that these emergent multilinguals used multiple semiotic resources to maximize the chances of meeting the…

  15. Multilingualism: Its Open and Hidden Agendas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowska, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    The author analyses tendencies presented in recently launched EU reports claiming that newly published data reveal a need to rethink approaches to individual and social multilingualism. In the first part of the article approaches to individual as well as to societal multilingualism are discussed from a historical perspective. In the second part…

  16. Issues in the Planning of a Multilingual Explanatory Dictionary of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He advocates a sociolinguistic approach (d. Cluver 1989: 9) .... Mathematics, Engineering, Linguistics, Philosophy, Psychology and the like, is the lack ... Pure and Applied Chemistry), that have to be considered when assigning ter- minological ...

  17. Electrochemical dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Bard, Allen J; Scholz, Fritz 0

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive dictionary includes some 3000 common terms in electrochemistry and energy research, and related fields. Offers clear, precise definitions, references and more than 600 illustrations. The new edition adds more than 300 new and revised terms.

  18. Dictionary Snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2014-01-01

    for image segmentation that operates without training data. Our method is based on a probabilistic dictionary of image patches coupled with a deformable model inspired by snakes and active contours without edges. We separate the image into two classes based on the information provided by the evolving curve......, which moves according to the probabilistic information obtained from the dictionary. Initially, the image patches are assigned to the nearest dictionary element, where the image is sampled at each pixel such that patches overlap. The curve divides the image into an inside and an outside region allowing...... us to estimate the pixel-wise probability of the dictionary elements. In each iteration we evolve the curve and update the probabilities, which merges similar texture patterns and pulls dissimilar patterns apart. We experimentally evaluate our approach, and show how textured objects are precisely...

  19. Online dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a panoramic overview and a preliminary typologization of present and future online dictionaries based upon their application of the available technologies and suggests that the future of lexicography will be the development of highly sophisticated tools which may......, need, consultation, and data. The article then proceeds to the discussion of some advanced information science techniques that may contribute to the desired individualization. Upon this basis, it finally discusses the interaction between online dictionaries and external sources like the Internet...

  20. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  1. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  2. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging, describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively, and discuss how portal imaging has been incorporated into clinical practice. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices include T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and shortly, flat panel systems. The characteristics of these imaging systems will be discussed. In addition, other approaches such as the use of kilovoltage x-ray sources, video monitoring, and ultrasound have been proposed for improving patient positioning. Some of the advantages of these approaches will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. One problem is finding a common frame of reference for the simulator and portal images, since the location of the radiation field within the pixel matrix may differ for the two images. As a result, a common frame of reference has to be established before the anatomic structures in the images can be registered - generally by registering radiation field edges identified in the simulator and portal images. In addition, distortions in patient geometry or rotations out of the image plane can confound the image registration techniques. Despite the

  3. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine geometric errors quantitatively; discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice; describe quality assurance procedures for these devices, and discuss the use of portal imaging devices for dosimetry applications. Discussion: Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same structures on a digitized simulator film. Once the anatomic structures have been registered, any discrepancies in the position of the patient can be identified. However, the task is not nearly as straight-forward as it sounds. One problem

  4. Internet accounting dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Mourier, Lise

    2005-01-01

    An examination of existing accounting dictionaries on the Internet reveals a general need for a new type of dictionary. In contrast to the dictionaries now accessible, the future accounting dictionaries should be designed as proper Internet dictionaries based on a functional approach so they can...

  5. Functional MRI of Multilingual Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Min; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Shin, Tae Beom; Chung, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ji Eun; Han, Heon; Kim, Sam Soo; Jeon, Yong Hwan

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate brain activation areas during the processing of languages in multilingual volunteers by functional MRI and to examine the differences between the mother and foreign languages. Nine multilingual (Korean, French, and English speaking) Korean individuals were enrolled in this study. Functional images were acquired during a lexical decision task (LDT) and picture naming task (PNT) in each of the Korean, French and English languages. The areas activated were analyzed topographically in each language and task, and compared between languages. Activation was noted in Broca's area, supramarginal gyrus, fusiform gyrus during the LDT. During the PNT, activation was noted in Broca's area, left prefrontal area, cerebellum, right extrastriated cortex. While Broca's area activation was observed for all languages during LDT, there was more activation in Broca's area and additional activation in the right prefrontal area with foreign languages. During the PNT, there was more activation in the left prefrontal area with foreign languages. Broca's area, which is known as a major language region, was activated by all languages and tasks. The brain activation areas were largely overlapping with the mother and foreign languages. However, there were wider areas of activation and additional different activation areas with foreign languages. These results suggest more cerebral effort during foreign language processing

  6. Dictionary Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    in different projects. The same steps can be applied to lexicographic projects. In this field, by looking at finished and not finished dictionary projects, we find that: many are started but never finished; and many are planned to be carried out within a certain time frame, but it takes much longer than...... anticipated until the project is completed with the publication of one or more dictionaries. The reason for that is normally an unrealistic and much too optimistic planning. But it is also due to a missing knowledge about management planning according to a relevant overall lexicographic theory....... There is a long tradition of understanding lexicography as the compiling of dictionaries, especially among British scholars. But there is also a tradition of focusing on theoretical lexicography, especially among German scholars. In this contribution, I consider lexicography a discipline with two legs: (1...

  7. On line portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to review the physics of imaging with high energy x-ray beams; examine the various imaging devices that have been developed for portal imaging; describe some of the image registration methods that have been developed to determine errors in patient positioning quantitatively; and discuss some of the ways that portal imaging has been incorporated into routine clinical practice. Verification of patient positioning has always been an important aspect of external beam radiation therapy. Checks of patient positioning have generally been done with film, however, film suffers from a number of drawbacks, such as poor image display and delays due to film development. Over the past decade many portal imaging devices have been developed by individual investigators and most accelerator manufacturers now offer 'on-line' portal imaging systems, which are intended to overcome the limitations of portal films. The commercial devices can be classified into three categories: T.V. camera-based systems, liquid ionisation chamber systems, and amorphous silicon systems. Many factors influence the quality of images generated by these portal imaging systems. These include factors which are unavoidable (e.g., low subject contrast), factors which depend upon the individual imaging device forming the image (e.g., dose utilisation, spatial resolution) as well as factors which depend upon the characteristics of the linear accelerator irradiating the imaging system (x-ray source size, image magnification). The fundamental factors which limit image quality and the characteristics of individual imaging systems, such as spatial resolution, temporal response, and quantum utilisation will be discussed. One of the major advantages of on-line portal imaging is that many quantitative techniques have been developed to detect errors in patient positioning. The general approach is to register anatomic structures on a portal image with the same

  8. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Dictionaries for Text Production are information tools that are designed and constructed for helping users to produce (i.e. encode) texts, both oral and written texts. These can be broadly divided into two groups: (a) specialized text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that only offer...... a small amount of lexicographic data, most or all of which are typically used in a production situation, e.g. synonym dictionaries, grammar and spelling dictionaries, collocation dictionaries, concept dictionaries such as the Longman Language Activator, which is advertised as the World’s First Production...... Dictionary; (b) general text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that offer all or most of the lexicographic data that are typically used in a production situation. A review of existing production dictionaries reveals that there are many specialized text production dictionaries but only a few general...

  9. Inequalities of Multilingualism: Challenges to Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupas, Ruanni

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses structural and ideological challenges to mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) which has in recent years been gaining ground in many educational contexts around the world. The paper argues, however, that MTB-MLE is set against these challenges - referred to here as inequalities of multilingualism - which prevent…

  10. Multilingual Practices of University Students and Changing Forms of Multilingualism in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia; Franziskus, Anne

    2014-01-01

    With its own national language, Luxembourgish, and three languages of administration, French, German and Luxembourgish, Luxembourg has long been a very multilingual country. The nature of this multilingualism is now changing, due to the rising proportion of migrants in the country, who now make up 43% of the resident population. The changing…

  11. Compiling Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    This method results in a classified word list that can be efficiently ... standardized list of domains to classify multiple dictionaries opens up possibilities for cross-lin- .... part of speech, noun class, the plural form of each noun, and a simple gloss. ... But these mental links tend to cluster around a ... group, duet, trio, ensemble.

  12. Using Bilingual Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Geoff

    1987-01-01

    Monolingual dictionaries have serious disadvantages in many language teaching situations; bilingual dictionaries are potentially more efficient and more motivating sources of information for language learners. (Author/CB)

  13. Multilingual speaker age recognition: regression analyses on the Lwazi corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Feld, M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilinguality represents an area of significant opportunities for automatic speech-processing systems: whereas multilingual societies are commonplace, the majority of speechprocessing systems are developed with a single language in mind. As a step...

  14. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  15. Is Multilingualism Linked to a Higher Tolerance of Ambiguity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA) among 2158 mono-, bi- and multilinguals. Monolinguals and bilinguals scored significantly lower on TA compared to multilinguals. A high level of global proficiency of various languages was linked to higher TA scores. A stay abroad…

  16. The Languages of the Multilingual: Some Conceptual and Terminological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Bjorn

    2010-01-01

    Research on individual multilingualism and third language acquisition has expanded greatly in recent years. A theoretical correlate of this is the recognition of the fact that humans are potentially multilingual by nature, that multilingualism is the default state of language competence, and that this in turn has implications for an adequate…

  17. Complex systems, multilingualism and academic success in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, students are multilingual and this is often ignored or perceived as a hindrance to academic success. Conversely, there are studies that have found a positive relationship between bi- and multilingualism and cognitive development during the past 40 years. The aim of this article is to view multilingualism and ...

  18. EMITEL e-encyclopaedia of medical physics and dictionary of terms; Enciclopedia eletronica de fisica medica e dicionario de termos - EMITEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabakov, Slavik; Tabakova, Vassilka [King' s College, London (United Kingdom); Smith, Peter [International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), York (United Kingdom); Milano, Franco [University of Florence (Italy); Strand, Sven-Erik [University of Lund (Sweden); Lewis, Cornelius [King' s College Hospital (United Kingdom); Stoeva, Magdalena [AM Studio, Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    EMITEL, the e-Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics and its Multilingual Translator (dictionary) have been launched at WC2009 (www.emitel2.eu). This international project attracted more than 300 specialists from 36 countries and grew to be the largest international project in the profession. This paper describes the development of EMITEL, its effective use, and its planned future development. (author)

  19. Dictionary of electrical engineering. Power engineering, automation technology, measurement and control technology, mechatronics. German - English; Fachwoerterbuch Elektrotechnik. Energietechnik, Automatisierungstechnik, Mess-, Steuer- und Regelungstechnik, Mechatronik. Deutsch - Englisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckler, H.

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive dictionary contains more than 60,000 electrotechnical and engineering terms - used in textbooks, manuals, data sheets, whitepapers and international standards. British English and American English spelling differences are identified. Terms used in IEC standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission are marked, allowing the reader to have easy access to the multilingual glossary of the IEC. (orig.)

  20. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  1. Correspondence dictionary from free English term to INIS descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This dictionary is intended for the on-line users of INIS database who select controlled terms (INIS descriptors) starting from free terms. The purpose of terminology control is (1) to reduce the ambiguity of the term use among different subject fields, and (2) to improve the recall by coordinating the synonyms. The controlled terms are collected in the thesaurus, but it is not always easy to find suitable descriptors. This dictionary has been compiled by analyzing existing records, and provides the specialists' know-how of converting free terms to descriptors. Besides the compilation of this dictionary, the characteristics of the assigned descriptors were also clarified. (J.P.N.)

  2. Multilingualism and transnational communication strategies in Europe: from Hapsburg to the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korshunova, G.; Marácz, L.; Marácz, L.; Rosello, M.

    2012-01-01

    The chapter discusses multilingualism in the European context and transnational communication strategies in order to accommodate the challenges of multilingualism. In the introduction, concepts defining multilingualism, transnationalism and communication strategies will be discussed and clarified.

  3. Geographic Ontologies, Gazetteers and Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Laurini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different languages imply different visions of space, so that terminologies are different in geographic ontologies. In addition to their geometric shapes, geographic features have names, sometimes different in diverse languages. In addition, the role of gazetteers, as dictionaries of place names (toponyms, is to maintain relations between place names and location. The scope of geographic information retrieval is to search for geographic information not against a database, but against the whole Internet: but the Internet stores information in different languages, and it is of paramount importance not to remain stuck to a unique language. In this paper, our first step is to clarify the links between geographic objects as computer representations of geographic features, ontologies and gazetteers designed in various languages. Then, we propose some inference rules for matching not only types, but also relations in geographic ontologies with the assistance of gazetteers.

  4. Multilingual Competences and Family Language Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Joana; Gogolin, Ingrid; Klinger, Thorsten; Schnoor, Birger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of family-induced linguistic input as a predictor for proficiencies in written language production of multilingual children aged 11. Our study considers their proficiencies in majority language (German) as well as in their family languages. Given that in most cases

  5. Academic outcomes of multilingual children in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Meredith; O'Connor, Elodie; Tarasuik, Joanne; Gray, Sarah; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2017-02-24

    The Australian educational system is increasingly challenged to meet the needs of multilingual students, who comprise a fifth of the student population. Within the context of a monolingual English curriculum, multilingual children who enter school not yet English proficient may be at risk of experiencing inequitable educational outcomes. We examined the relationship between the timing of multilingual children's acquisition of receptive English vocabulary skills and subsequent reading and numeracy outcomes, as well as factors associated with earlier versus later timing of acquisition. Data were drawn from the Kindergarten-cohort (n = 4983) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children - a nationally representative, community sample of Australian children. Linear regression analyses revealed that multilingual children who begin school with proficient receptive English vocabulary skills, or who acquire proficiency early in schooling, are indistinguishable from their monolingual peers in literacy and numeracy outcomes by 10-11 years. However, later acquisition of receptive English vocabulary skills (i.e. after 6-7 years) was associated with poorer literacy outcomes. In turn, socioeconomic disadvantage and broader language or learning problems predicted this later acquisition of receptive English vocabulary skills. All children need to be supported during the early years of school to reach their full educational potential.

  6. Book Review: Multilingualism online | Roux | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Multilingualism online. Book Author: Carmen Lee. 2017. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781138900493. 170 pages. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2017.1373369 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  8. Current trends in multilingual speech processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we describe recent work at Idiap Research Institute in the domain of multilingual speech processing and provide some insights into emerging ... and industry for technologies to help break down domestic and international language barriers, these also being barriers to the expansion of policy and commerce.

  9. The Moroccan Educational Context: Evolving Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mayra C.; Ball, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    This article begins an investigation of the educational system of Morocco and its context of language diversity. It examines the Moroccan cultural environment and the ways the multilingualism and education of its people has been and continues to be influenced by geography, colonization periods, religion, and history. The effects of the Educational…

  10. Language Policy, Multilingual Encounters, and Transnational Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kendall A.

    2016-01-01

    The study of what has come to be known as family language policy has evolved and expanded significantly over the last hundred years, from its early beginnings in the diary studies of Ronjat and Leopold, to the interdisciplinary and transnational research found in this thematic issue of the "Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural…

  11. Anxiety and EFL: Does Multilingualism Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu

    2013-01-01

    The current study is motivated by the gap in the current literature about foreign language classroom anxiety, namely the underlying construct of FL anxiety with regard to the understudied relationship between anxiety, proficiency, and multilingualism. The evidence for the effect of language anxiety on achievement is well-documented. More recently,…

  12. Multilingualism remixed: Sampling, braggadocio and the stylisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remixing multilingualism and hip-hop in times of globalisation ... only the case that “[…] ... The remixing of global hip-hop in Cape Town started in an era defined by apartheid ..... refers to his socio-economic condition and attempts to relate to audience ..... Conversational sampling, race trafficking, and the invocation of the.

  13. Multilingual Federated Searching Across Heterogeneous Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James; Fox, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a scalable system for searching heterogeneous multilingual collections on the World Wide Web. Details Searchable Database Markup Language (SearchDB-ML) for describing the characteristics of a search engine and its interface, and a protocol for requesting word translations between languages. (Author)

  14. Language Contact in Nigerian Multilingual Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Adetuyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual society, being a society that has more than one significant lan-guage group is a sociolinguistic phenomenon that arises as a result of language contact but the fundamental problem in this type of society is that to enthrone one of the languages can be accepted conveniently as the National language. Any attempt to enthrone one of the languages at the expense of the other has proven a failure due to the fact that it appears as distinct, which is inherent and regrettably discriminating and domineering on the other languages and this dies in the mine of ethnic bickering. In Nigeria, like many other African nations, multilingualism is a rule, rather than an exemption, the problem of 'forging ahead' is of crucial importance. Among the competing languages that scramble for national recognition or official status, whether indigenous or for-eign, one must emerge as the official language (the language of administration and education at some levels, the language of relevance, from the competition for the purpose of uniting the nation. Fortunately, English has emerged as that privileged language of its kind. The Nigerian society is irretrievably heterogeneous. Students from diverse ethno-linguistic, cultural and economic groups are exposed quite early to several languages, including their mother tongues and English. Nigerian scholars have variously, as have others examined the connection between multilingualism and interference; we avail ourselves of such studies in situating our reflections. This paper thus looks into the importance of language, most especially English language in the multilingual society.

  15. Operationalizing Multilingualism: Language Learning Motivation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    This study is an examination of language learning motivation and multilingual status in the Turkish English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Using Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) framework, specifically the ideal and ought-to L2 selves, this study examines the relationship between motivation and two operationalizations of…

  16. CERN Video News on line

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The latest CERN video news is on line. In this issue : an interview with the Director General and reports on the new home for the DELPHI barrel and the CERN firemen's spectacular training programme. There's also a vintage video news clip from 1954. See: www.cern.ch/video or Bulletin web page

  17. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  18. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  19. Dictionary Visions, Research and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is about dictionaries and dictionary making. In six thematic sections it presents nineteen contributions covering a wide field within lexicography: Online Lexicography, Dictionary Structure, Phraseology in Dictionaries, LSP Lexicography, Dictionaries and the User, plus Etymology, History...... and Culture in Lexicography. Some chapters focus on theoretical aspects, others report on dictionary work in the making, and still others compare and analyze existing dictionaries. Common to all authors, however, is the concern for the dictionary user. Trivial as it may seem, the fact that dictionaries...

  20. Teaching Dictionary Skills through a Slang Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Stanley M.

    A unit for teaching dictionary skills through the compilation of a slang dictionary was written with the purpose of providing an inductive learning situation. The students are to begin by defining slang usage and bringing in slang words and definitions on cards. Small groups are to be formed to evaluate the definitions and make additions. In…

  1. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  2. Multilingual access to full text databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluhr, C.; Radwan, K.

    1990-05-01

    Many full text databases are available in only one language, or more, they may contain documents in different languages. Even if the user is able to understand the language of the documents in the database, it could be easier for him to express his need in his own language. For the case of databases containing documents in different languages, it is more simple to formulate the query in one language only and to retrieve documents in different languages. This paper present the developments and the first experiments of multilingual search, applied to french-english pair, for text data in nuclear field, based on the system SPIRIT. After reminding the general problems of full text databases search by queries formulated in natural language, we present the methods used to reformulate the queries and show how they can be expanded for multilingual search. The first results on data in nuclear field are presented (AFCEN norms and INIS abstracts). 4 refs

  3. Design Considerations for Multilingual Web Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Starr

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The most powerful marketing, service, and information-distribution tool a library has today is its Web site, but providing Web content in many languages is complex. Before allocating scarce technical and financial resources, it is valuable to learn about writing systems, types of writing, how computers render and represent writing systems, and to study potential problem areas and their possible solutions. The accepted Web standard for presenting languages is Unicode and a full understanding of its history and the coding tools it provides is essential to making appropriate decisions for specific multilingual and internationalization projects. Actual coding examples, as well as a sampling of existing multilingual library services, also serve to illuminate the path of implementation.

  4. INIS: multilingual thesaurus. Arabic-Chinese-English-French-German-Russian-Spanish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This CD is based on the Joint Thesaurus Part I and II of the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series No. 1 (Rev. 2), October 2006. The translations of the terminology from the English version of the INIS Thesaurus into Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Russian and Spanish were performed by specialists from the INIS centres of the Syrian Arab Republic, China, France, Germany, the Russian Federation and Spain, respectively.The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA in Vienna was responsible for coordinating the translations and transferring the machine readable terminology files to the IAEA computer in Vienna, as well as merging and performing numerous tests to ensure correctness and completeness. In addition, the INIS Secretariat was responsible for developing the software necessary for maintaining, updating and printing the multilingual files. The INIS Multilingual Thesaurus is a major tool for describing nuclear information and knowledge in a structured form, which assists in multilingual and semantic searches. The Multilingual Dictionary is intended as a tool to assist indexers, retrievers and other users of the INIS system whose mother tongue is not English. It supports the preparation of input to the system and utilization of its output products. In addition, it also intends to serve those workers in the nuclear field who are not directly connected with INIS, as well as translators, interpreters, authors and others working in the areas of languages, semantics or terminological reference. The domain of knowledge covered by the Joint Thesaurus includes physics (in particular, plasma physics, atomic and molecular physics, and especially nuclear and high-energy physics), chemistry, materials science, earth sciences, radiation biology, radioisotope effects and kinetics, applied life sciences, radiology and nuclear medicine, isotope and radiation source technology, radiation protection, radiation applications, engineering, instrumentation, fossil fuels, synthetic fuels, renewable

  5. From Data to Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Almind, Richard

    2011-01-01

    definitions, thereby creating both monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. Users access the data through online dictionaries that allow them to make structured searches. The dictionaries mainly provide help in communicative situations such as understanding, producing and translating accounting texts, but also......Most online dictionaries are based on printed dictionaries or specially developed databases. However, these dictionaries do not fully satisfy the needs for help and knowledge users have, so a re-assessment of the practical and theoretical foundation is necessary. Based on the work on the Accounting...... help users acquire knowledge about general or specific accounting matters in cognitive user situations. This theoretical foundation allows lexicographers to develop dictionaries that search in structured data sets and then present data types selected because they provide help in specific situations...

  6. Language Disorders in Multilingual and Multicultural Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Mira; Conner, Peggy S.

    2014-01-01

    We review the characteristics of developmental language disorders (primary language impairment, reading disorders, autism, Down syndrome) and acquired language disorders (aphasia, dementia, traumatic brain injury) among multilingual and multicultural individuals. We highlight the unique assessment and treatment considerations pertinent to this population, including, for example, concerns of language choice and availability of measures and of normative data in multiple languages. A summary of relevant, recent research studies is provided for each of the language disorders selected. PMID:26257455

  7. On line ultrasonic integrated backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landini, L.; Picano, E.; Mazzarisi, A.; Santarelli, F.; Benassi, A.; De Pieri, G.

    1988-01-01

    A new equipment for on-line evaluation of index based on two-dimensional integrated backscatter from ultrasonic images is described. The new equipment is fully integrated into a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus which provides a simultaneous display of conventional information together with parameters of tissue characterization. The system has been tested with a backscattering model of microbubbles in polysaccharide solution, characterized by a physiological exponential time decay. An exponential fitting to the experimental data was performed which yielded r=0.95

  8. On-line nuclear orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    This grant has as its overall goal the pursuit of on-line nuclear orientation experiments for the purpose of eliciting details of nuclear structure from the decays of neutron-deficient nuclei, such as those produced by the Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge and extracted by the UNISOR Isotope Separator. This paper discusses: refrigerator development; the decay of 184 Au; the decay of 191 Hg to 191 Au; the decay of 189 Pt to 189 Ir; the decays of 109,111 Pd; the decay of 172 Er; and solid angle corrections

  9. Sounds Affecting the Moments of Stuttering in Multilingualism: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrish, Taryn; Nesbitt, Amy; le Roux, Mia; Zsilavecz, Ursula; van der Linde, Jeannie

    2017-01-01

    Research involving stuttering in multilingual individuals is limited. Speech-language therapists face the challenge of treating a diverse client base, which includes multilingual individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the stuttering moments across English, Afrikaans, and German in a multilingual speaker. A single multilingual adult with…

  10. Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagoury, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…

  11. Multilingual Children Increase Language Differentiation by Indexing Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shannessy, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    An area in need of study in child language acquisition is that of complex multilingual contexts in which there is little language separation by interlocutor or domain. Little is known about how multilingual children use language to construct their identities in each language or in both languages. Identity construction in monolingual contexts has…

  12. Flexible Multilingual Education: Putting Children's Needs First

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the benefits of multilingual education that puts children's needs and interests above the individual languages involved. It advocates flexible multilingual education, which builds upon children's actual home resources and provides access to both the local and global languages that students need for their educational and…

  13. Multilingual Cultural Resources in Child-Headed Families in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazzi, Elizabeth; Kendrick, Maureen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study focusing on the use of multilingual cultural resources in child-headed households (CHHs) in Uganda's Rakai District. Using funds of knowledge and sociocultural perspectives on children's learning, we documented through ethnographic observations and interviews how children in four CHHs used multilingual cultural…

  14. Emerging Multilingual Awareness in Educational Contexts: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessner, Ulrike; Allgäuer-Hackl, Elisabeth; Hofer, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to stress the importance of a dynamic systems or complexity theory approach as a necessary prerequisite to understanding the development of multi-competence in multilingual learners. Selected results from a study on emergent multilingual awareness in children, carried out in South Tyrol, are outlined and discussed. The…

  15. Learning to Read and Write in the Multilingual Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-lei

    2011-01-01

    This book is a guide for parents who wish to raise children with more than one language and literacy. Drawing on interdisciplinary research, as well as the experiences of parents of multilingual children, this book walks parents through the multilingual reading and writing process from infancy to adolescence. It identifies essential literacy…

  16. Nigerian Theatre and the Multilingual Challenge | Umukoro | Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the prospects and problems of theatrical communication in a multilingual and multicultural society like Nigeria. It attempts to identify the historical basis for multilingualism from the global perspective and explores the relative potentials of the literary arts of poetry, prose and drama in responding to the ...

  17. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  18. Identity Practices of Multilingual Writers in Social Networking Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-I

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the literacy practices of two multilingual writers in social networking communities. The findings show that the multilingual writers explored and reappropriated symbolic resources afforded by the social networking site as they aligned themselves with particular collective and personal identities at local and global levels.…

  19. Multilingual Children's Interaction with Metafiction in a Postmodern Picture Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard, Line Møller; Johansen, Martin Blok

    2014-01-01

    When teachers and school librarians choose picture books for multilingual children, they often base their choice on an evaluation of linguistic comprehensibility, content familiarity and cultural appropriateness. This means that postmodern picture books may be excluded. This paper presents a case study of multilingual children's encounter with a…

  20. Multilingual Communication and Language Acquisition: New Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Wurr, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we outline the differences between a monolingual and multilingual orientation to language and language acquisition. The increasing contact between languages in the context of globalization motivates such a shift of paradigms. Multilingual communicative practices have remained vibrant in non-western communities for a long time. We…

  1. Constructions of the literacy competence levels of multilingual students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    discourse about the validity of standardised literacy testing of multilingual students. These findings give reason to question and discuss equality oriented educational programmes and strategies for multilingual students in which standarised literacy testing plays a central role, and to discuss ethical...... issues around the production and use of standarised literacy tests in educational contexts which are characterised by linguistic diversity....

  2. Beyond Identity: The Desirability and Possibility of Policies of Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Aviad

    2017-01-01

    Many contributors to the normative literature on language policy argue that inclusive multilingual regimes are beneficial on several grounds. However, despite the professed advantages of multilingualism, most nation-states have been reluctant to equally recognise minority languages alongside the majority language. This reality raises three…

  3. Multilingual Education: The Role of Language Ideologies and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.; Taylor-Leech, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    This paper overviews issues relating to the role of ideologies and attitudes in multilingual education (MLE). It argues that ideologies and attitudes are constituent parts of the language planning process and shape the possibilities for multilingualism in educational programmes in complex ways, but most frequently work to constrain the ways that…

  4. The Literacy Practices of "Transfronterizos" in a Multilingual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa; Guerra, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    This introduction provides the background for this special issue by first describing the US-Mexico border, a fascinating context in which to research issues related to Spanish-English biliteracy and multilingualism. We present main points in the prevailing discussion within the field of literacy studies about issues of multilingualism and…

  5. Theorizing Translanguaging and Multilingual Literacies through Human Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2015-01-01

    In this conceptual article we invite multilingual researchers to consider the concept of translanguaging through the lens of human capital theory. Our thinking about the interconnections among human capital, multilingualism, and translanguaging is motivated by our research in border "colonias" and other minoritized communities in South…

  6. The Concordance of Multilingual Legal Texts at the WTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Bradly J.

    2012-01-01

    Multilingualism is a sensitive and complex subject in a global organisation such as the World Trade Organization (WTO). In the WTO legal texts, there is a need for full concordance, not simply translation. This article begins with an overview of the issues raised by multilingual processes at the WTO in the negotiation, drafting, translation,…

  7. The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ofelia, Ed.; Fishman, Joshua A., Ed.

    This collection of papers tells the story of how languages other than English have contributed to making New York City a culturally vibrant and linguistically diverse city. Part 1, "Introduction to the Multilingual Apple," features "New York's Multilingualism: World Languages and Their Role in a U.S. City" (Ofelia Garcia). Part…

  8. The Paradoxical Visions of Multilingualism in Education: The Ideological Dimension of Discourses on Multilingualism in Belgium and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambye, Philippe; Richards, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we will examine some contrasted discourses on multilingualism that circulate nowadays in the field of education. Focusing on the cases of French-speaking Belgium and of the Franco-Ontarian community in Canada, we will show the existence of two discourses on multilingualism: one that insists on the positive value of multilingualism…

  9. The SMAP Dictionary Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin A.; Swan, Christoper A.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Dictionary Management System is a web-based tool to develop and store a mission dictionary. A mission dictionary defines the interface between a ground system and a spacecraft. In recent years, mission dictionaries have grown in size and scope, making it difficult for engineers across multiple disciplines to coordinate the dictionary development effort. The Dictionary Management Systemaddresses these issues by placing all dictionary information in one place, taking advantage of the efficiencies inherent in co-locating what were once disparate dictionary development efforts.

  10. Resourcing speech-language pathologists to work with multilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-06-01

    Speech-language pathologists play important roles in supporting people to be competent communicators in the languages of their communities. However, with over 7000 languages spoken throughout the world and the majority of the global population being multilingual, there is often a mismatch between the languages spoken by children and families and their speech-language pathologists. This paper provides insights into service provision for multilingual children within an English-dominant country by viewing Australia's multilingual population as a microcosm of ethnolinguistic minorities. Recent population studies of Australian pre-school children show that their most common languages other than English are: Arabic, Cantonese, Vietnamese, Italian, Mandarin, Spanish, and Greek. Although 20.2% of services by Speech Pathology Australia members are offered in languages other than English, there is a mismatch between the language of the services and the languages of children within similar geographical communities. Australian speech-language pathologists typically use informal or English-based assessments and intervention tools with multilingual children. Thus, there is a need for accessible culturally and linguistically appropriate resources for working with multilingual children. Recent international collaborations have resulted in practical strategies to support speech-language pathologists during assessment, intervention, and collaboration with families, communities, and other professionals. The International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech was assembled to prepare a position paper to address issues faced by speech-language pathologists when working with multilingual populations. The Multilingual Children's Speech website ( http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech ) addresses one of the aims of the position paper by providing free resources and information for speech-language pathologists about more than 45 languages. These international

  11. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  12. On-line data display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sherman Y. T.; Brooks, Martin; Gauthier, Marc; Wein, Marceli

    1993-05-01

    A data display system for embedded realtime systems has been developed for use as an operator's user interface and debugging tool. The motivation for development of the On-Line Data Display (ODD) have come from several sources. In particular the design reflects the needs of researchers developing an experimental mobile robot within our laboratory. A proliferation of specialized user interfaces revealed a need for a flexible communications and graphical data display system. At the same time the system had to be readily extensible for arbitrary graphical display formats which would be required for data visualization needs of the researchers. The system defines a communication protocol transmitting 'datagrams' between tasks executing on the realtime system and virtual devices displaying the data in a meaningful way on a graphical workstation. The communication protocol multiplexes logical channels on a single data stream. The current implementation consists of a server for the Harmony realtime operating system and an application written for the Macintosh computer. Flexibility requirements resulted in a highly modular server design, and a layered modular object- oriented design for the Macintosh part of the system. Users assign data types to specific channels at run time. Then devices are instantiated by the user and connected to channels to receive datagrams. The current suite of device types do not provide enough functionality for most users' specialized needs. Instead the system design allows the creation of new device types with modest programming effort. The protocol, design and use of the system are discussed.

  13. Which Dictionary? A Review of the Leading Learners' Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Hilary

    Three major dictionaries designed for learners of English as a second language are reviewed, their elements and approaches compared and evaluated, their usefulness for different learners discussed, and recommendations for future dictionary improvement made. The dictionaries in question are the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary," the…

  14. The Construction of a Term Database to Support the Compilation of Chinese-Slovene Slovene-Chinese Dictionary of Beekeeping Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anže SOBOČAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the first step of making a multilingual specialized dictionary, which includes a selection of terms, their arrangement according to adequacy and the determination of synonymous relationships between the terms. The research was based of the first phase of compiling a Slovene-Chinese and Chinese-Slovene specialized beekeeping dictionary. The results of the research could, however, be applied to the making of specialized dictionaries for any research field. The focus areas of the paper are: the partial overlapping of everyday language and specialized terminology; the different arrangement approaches of existing dictionaries; the many synonyms that are often wrongly understood to denote different things; the coining of new terms when needed; the traps of literal translation.

  15. Multilingual Information Discovery and AccesS (MIDAS): A Joint ACM DL'99/ ACM SIGIR'99 Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oard, Douglas; Peters, Carol; Ruiz, Miguel; Frederking, Robert; Klavans, Judith; Sheridan, Paraic

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a multidisciplinary workshop that addressed issues concerning internationally distributed information networks. Highlights include multilingual information access in media other than character-coded text; cross-language information retrieval and multilingual metadata; and evaluation of multilingual systems. (LRW)

  16. Do Dictionaries Help Students Write?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Hilary

    Examples are given of real lexical errors made by learner writers, and consideration is given to the way in which three learners' dictionaries could deal with the lexical items that were misused. The dictionaries were the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary," the "Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English," and the "Chambers Universal Learners'…

  17. The ABCs of Data Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Tate; Nicholas, Amy; Blandford, William; Ruggiero, Tony; Peters, Mary; Thayer, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This overview of the basic components of a data dictionary is designed to educate and inform IDEA Part C and Part B 619 state staff about the purpose and benefits of having up-to-date data dictionaries for their data systems. This report discusses the following topics: (1) What Is a Data Dictionary?; (2) Why Is a Data Dictionary Needed and How Can…

  18. English Medium Instruction in Multilingual and Multicultural Universities:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Birgit; Holmen, Anne; Kling, Joyce

    ’ experiences in the midst of curricular change and presents reflections on ways to professionally navigate in English to meet the demands of the multilingual and multicultural classroom. English Medium Instruction in Multilingual and Multicultural Universities is key reading for university management......English Medium Instruction in Multilingual and Multicultural Universities analyses the issues related to EMI at both a local and international level and provides a broad perspective on this topic. Drawing on field studies from a Northern European context and based primarily on research carried out...

  19. Multilingualism and dyslexia: challenges for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T

    2000-01-01

    Over the last two decades there has been an expansion of activity and substantial progress in research on dyslexia and research on bilingualism and multilingualism. But the study of dyslexia has generally focused on monolingual learners and the study of bilingualism has tended to focus on speakers who do not have special educational needs. This paper will review the strands of research to date that have a bearing on multilingualism and dyslexia and attempt to identify the major challenges that face researchers and teachers. A satisfactory response cannot be developed without a full understanding of the impact that dyslexia has on language learning and the impact that multilingualism has on literacy learning.

  20. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-04-01

    The actualized version (April 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear facilities, and radiation protection.

  1. Dictionary as Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Derrick

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of dictionaries as databases focuses on the digitizing of The Oxford English dictionary (OED) and the use of Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language (SGML). Topics include the creation of a consortium to digitize the OED, document structure, relational databases, text forms, sequence, and discourse. (LRW)

  2. Dictionary of Multicultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A., Ed.; Ladson-Billings, Gloria, Ed.

    The focus of this dictionary is the meanings and perspectives of various terms that are used in multicultural education. Contributors have often addressed the literal meanings of words and terms as well as contextual meanings and examples that helped create those meanings. Like other dictionaries, this one is arranged alphabetically, but it goes…

  3. Dictionary of Marketing Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    A listing of words and definitions compiled from more than 10 college and high school textbooks are presented in this dictionary of marketing terms. Over 1,200 entries of terms used in retailing, wholesaling, economics, and investments are included. This dictionary was designed to aid both instructors and students to better understand the…

  4. Multilingual Access to Cultural Heritage Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Oberländer-Târnoveanu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available For the visitor to the ARENA Portal for Archaeological Records of Europe Networked Access, the first option is to choose the language of the interface: Danish, English, Icelandic, Polish, Norwegian or Romanian. These are the languages of the six partners in the European project developed between 2001 and 2004. We expect a significant number of visitors from these countries, which made the choice of each respective mother tongue a natural one. Is the option of several languages just a courtesy for our public? It is more than that - it is a tool to facilitate access to multilingual archaeological information. Before we were ready for visitors to our sites, we had to understand each other, to index our digital resources using common terms, to find the right equivalents for archaeological realities described in several languages, to explain the concepts behind the words. Language is related to culture, identity and memory. There is a growing concern about the dominance of English as a global language of communication, while probably the majority of known languages are in danger of disappearing and cultural diversity is menaced. If we wish to make cultural heritage resources accessible to more people and to share knowledge, language is a key. My article is an attempt to address these issues. I will explore the role of language in scientific communication, multilingualism on the Internet, language policies, and also have a closer look at terminological tools for cultural heritage, especially for archaeology.

  5. Law and Language in a Multilingual Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judge Louis Harms

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Terence McKenna, in Wild Ducks Flying Backwards, said that he did not believe thatthe world is made of quarks or electro-magnetic waves, or stars, or planets, or of anysuch things. ’I believe’ he said, ‘the world is made of language.’ It would have beenmore correct to have said that the world is made of languages, many of them.The subject, Law and Language in a Multilingual Society, raises critical issues notonly for us in this country but also for others because language is part – the greaterpart – of one's culture. A people without a culture is said to be like a zebra withoutstripes. Culture, and not race, nationality, religion or border (natural or political,determines one's identity. As one of the founding fathers of the Afrikaans language,Rev SJ du Toit, wrote in 1891: language is a portrait of the soul and life of a nation;and it mirrors the character and intellectual development of a people (my translation.Unfortunately language tends to divide, more particularly, a multilingual society. Lawis supposed to close the divide but more often than not widens it and is used todeepen divisions. This is because the ruler determines the law and, consequently,the language of the law, in the belief that the use of language can be enforced fromabove. Law and language, like oil and water, do not mix although the former isdependent on the latter.

  6. Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674

  7. Dictionary of radiation protection, radiobiology and nuclear medicine. English-German-French-Russian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    This multilingual dictionary covers the subject fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, and nuclear medicine with about 12,000 terms in each language. All terms are supplemented by one or more abbreviations of 22 special branches to assure the use of the very relevant terms. Special branches listed are for instance decontamination, dosimetry, atomic legislation, radiation detectors, radiography (medical), radiotherapy, safeguards, shielding, tansportation and storage. The terminology used in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA has been completely taken into account

  8. Multilingual access to full text databases; Acces multilingue aux bases de donnees en texte integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluhr, C; Radwan, K [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN), Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1990-05-01

    Many full text databases are available in only one language, or more, they may contain documents in different languages. Even if the user is able to understand the language of the documents in the database, it could be easier for him to express his need in his own language. For the case of databases containing documents in different languages, it is more simple to formulate the query in one language only and to retrieve documents in different languages. This paper present the developments and the first experiments of multilingual search, applied to french-english pair, for text data in nuclear field, based on the system SPIRIT. After reminding the general problems of full text databases search by queries formulated in natural language, we present the methods used to reformulate the queries and show how they can be expanded for multilingual search. The first results on data in nuclear field are presented (AFCEN norms and INIS abstracts). 4 refs.

  9. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  10. Rastafarian-herbalists' enregisterment of multilingual voices in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    issues of a religious nature are talked about and debated by multilingual speakers. ..... commuters through Bellstar Junction provides important business for the .... movement the Rastafari is guided by the following religious ethical practices ...

  11. Multilingual classrooms, language and literacy learners: Global childhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard; Daugaard, Line Møller; Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    childhoods of young multilingual and multiliterate learners, but explore globalised classrooms from various perspectives: the perspectives of learners, teachers and policymakers. In combination, the papers in the symposium offer a nuanced description of the tensions and dilemmas in contemporary multilingual...... classrooms across the globe and a multifaceted analysis of the multilingual nature of global childhoods. The first paper reports on research study conducted in primary schools in Sydney, Australia which investigated how multilingual children understand their own linguistic practices and how they report...... this practice. The children were asked to consider the role of their mulitingualism in their daily classroom experiences. The second paper, based on a linguistic ethnographic case study in Denmark, explores language ideological aspects of global childhoods as they are negotiated in and around ’mother tongue...

  12. Literacy and linguistic diversity in the multilingual classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    and educational failure. Our study takes place in classrooms where teachers are engaged in developing a literacy pe dagogy which allows space for multilingualism and multimodality. Through intervention studies in these linguistically diverse classrooms, we are also investigating how teachers and students navigate....... The longitudinal study ‘Signs of language’ involves five multilingual classrooms. We are exploring how multilingual children interpret and create signs in order to communicate and perform their social identity in different multilingual and multimodal classroom settings. We are aiming at getting a better...... understanding of the children’s complex uses of the linguistic and semiotic resources available to them by paying close attention to the perspective of the children - as users and nterpreters of literacy (Blackledge & Creeese 2010). In classrooms some identity options are more available to the students than...

  13. Multilingual Writing and Pedagogical Cooperation in Virtual Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Vandepitte, Sonia; Arnó Macà, Elisabet

    Multilingual Writing and Pedagogical Cooperation in Virtual Learning Environments is a critical scholarly resource that examines experiences with virtual networks and their advantages for universities and students in the domains of writing, translation, and usability testing. Featuring coverage o...

  14. Voice user interface design for emerging multilingual markets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual emerging markets hold many opportunities for the application of spoken language technologies, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) or test-to-speech (TTS) technologies in interactive voice response (IVR) systems. However...

  15. Towards a democratisation of new media spaces in multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a democratisation of new media spaces in multilingual/multicultural Africa: A ... and can lead to misinterpretation and misunderstanding of the messages. ... also demonstrate that language and 'culture' are products of social activities.

  16. Language Status and Literacy Trend in a Multilingual Society - Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eddie C. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Using data from census reports and educational statistics, this paper analyzes the language status and literacy trends in multilingual Singapore, where the four official languages are Malay, Chinese, Tamil and English. (CK)

  17. Intensity of Multilingual Language Use Predicts Cognitive Performance in Some Multilingual Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzer, Merel; de Bot, Kees

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive advantages for bilinguals have inconsistently been observed in different populations, with different operationalisations of bilingualism, cognitive performance, and the process by which language control transfers to cognitive control. This calls for studies investigating which aspects of multilingualism drive a cognitive advantage, in which populations and under which conditions. This study reports on two cognitive tasks coupled with an extensive background questionnaire on health, wellbeing, personality, language knowledge and language use, administered to 387 older adults in the northern Netherlands, a small but highly multilingual area. Using linear mixed effects regression modeling, we find that when different languages are used frequently in different contexts, enhanced attentional control is observed. Subsequently, a PLS regression model targeting also other influential factors yielded a two-component solution whereby only more sensitive measures of language proficiency and language usage in different social contexts were predictive of cognitive performance above and beyond the contribution of age, gender, income and education. We discuss these findings in light of previous studies that try to uncover more about the nature of bilingualism and the cognitive processes that may drive an advantage. With an unusually large sample size our study advocates for a move away from dichotomous, knowledge-based operationalisations of multilingualism and offers new insights for future studies at the individual level. PMID:29783764

  18. Building multilingual learning environments in early years education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dodman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the early language development of children with particular reference to the importance of personal multilingualism and the reasons why this should be promoted in early years education. It is argued that such an objective is best achieved by building multilingual learning environments at the level of nursery and infant schools. The characteristics of such environments are described and ways of evaluating projects designed to build them are presented.

  19. Literacy education, reading engagement, and library use in multilingual classes

    OpenAIRE

    Tonne, Ingebjørg; Pihl, Joron

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this paper is literacy education and reading engagement in multilingual classes. What facilitates reading engagement in the language of instruction in multilingual classes? In this paper, we analyze reading engagement in a literature-based literacy program in Norway (2007–2011). The design was a research and development project in which teachers, researchers, and librarians collaborated within literacy education. We present pedagogical interventions within the project and analyze...

  20. Towards multilingual access to textual databases in natural language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, Khaled

    1994-01-01

    The Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval system (CLIR) or Multilingual Information Retrieval (MIR) has become the key issue in electronic documents management systems in a multinational environment. We propose here a multilingual information retrieval system consisting of a morpho-syntactic analyser, a transfer system from source language to target language and an information retrieval system. A thorough investigation into the system architecture and the transfer mechanisms is proposed in that report, using two different performance evaluation methods. (author) [fr

  1. Dictionaries: British and American. The Language Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, James Root

    An account of the dictionaries, great and small, of the English-speaking world is given in this book. Subjects covered include the origin of English dictionaries, early dictionaries, Noah Webster and his successors to the present, abridged dictionaries, "The Oxford English Dictionary" and later dictionaries patterned after it, the…

  2. Planning and Macrostructural Elements for a Multilingual Culinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an account of an ongoing dictionary project. It aims to outline the main features of the planned dictionary. The project is a first of its kind in Gabonese lexicography. The current paper gives a description of the data collection and sources as well as the macrostructural issues of the forthcoming dictionary.

  3. RUNTIME DICTIONARIES FOR ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Wind, David Kofoed

    2013-01-01

    ROOT is the LHC physicists' common tool for data analysis; almost all data is stored using ROOT's I/O system. This system benefits from a custom description of types (a so-called dictionary) that is optimised for the I/O. Until now, the dictionary cannot be provided at run-time; it needs to be prepared in a separate prerequisite step. This project will move the generation of the dictionary to run-time, making use of ROOT 6's new just-in-time compiler. It allows a more dynamic and natural access to ROOT's I/O features especially for user code.

  4. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  5. Multilingual event extraction for epidemic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Gaël; Brixtel, Romain; Doucet, Antoine; Lucas, Nadine

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a multilingual news surveillance system applied to tele-epidemiology. It has been shown that multilingual approaches improve timeliness in detection of epidemic events across the globe, eliminating the wait for local news to be translated into major languages. We present here a system to extract epidemic events in potentially any language, provided a Wikipedia seed for common disease names exists. The Daniel system presented herein relies on properties that are common to news writing (the journalistic genre), the most useful being repetition and saliency. Wikipedia is used to screen common disease names to be matched with repeated characters strings. Language variations, such as declensions, are handled by processing text at the character-level, rather than at the word level. This additionally makes it possible to handle various writing systems in a similar fashion. As no multilingual ground truth existed to evaluate the Daniel system, we built a multilingual corpus from the Web, and collected annotations from native speakers of Chinese, English, Greek, Polish and Russian, with no connection or interest in the Daniel system. This data set is available online freely, and can be used for the evaluation of other event extraction systems. Experiments for 5 languages out of 17 tested are detailed in this paper: Chinese, English, Greek, Polish and Russian. The Daniel system achieves an average F-measure of 82% in these 5 languages. It reaches 87% on BEcorpus, the state-of-the-art corpus in English, slightly below top-performing systems, which are tailored with numerous language-specific resources. The consistent performance of Daniel on multiple languages is an important contribution to the reactivity and the coverage of epidemiological event detection systems. Most event extraction systems rely on extensive resources that are language-specific. While their sophistication induces excellent results (over 90% precision and recall), it restricts their

  6. The State Language of Kazakhstan and Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazilyz M. Abduova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some actual problems of real bilingualism (polylingualism in modern Kazakhstan.One of the most important aspects of the Kazakhstani society of economic and social modernization is the policy in the field of language. In the modern world, multilingual and multicultural, the problem of language conjugation is more urgent than ever, the search for effective and viable programs in the field of languageson the consolidation of societies. Integration of Kazakhstan into the world community depends today on the realization and realization of a simple truth: the world is open to those who can master new knowledge through mastering the dominant languages. In Kazakhstan the notions of “bilingualism” and “polylingualism” mean the equality of languages.It is quite natural that bilingualism (polylingualism gains more and more importance in our republic.

  7. Material culture of multilingualism and affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Aronin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Affectivity is an important dimension in humans’ social and individual lives. It is either a stimulating or hindering aspect of language learning. This article aims to draw attention to material culture as a powerful, but mostly neglected source of data on the use and acquisition of languages, and demonstrates the close and intricate links between affectivity and material culture. It is hoped that revealing these interrelationships will assist in understanding and managing language diversity. It will allow practitioners and teachers to carry out social and private encounters, events and language teaching with more care, understanding and expertise. Researchers will be encouraged to join the investigation of yet one more important facet of multilingualism – material culture.

  8. Languages+ Internationalisation and the multilingual university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    . With different language backgrounds come different ethnic, cultural and educational backgrounds that have wide implications for what happens in the learning space or classroom. Based on the outcomes of the IntlUni Erasmus Academic Network (Lauridsen & Lillemose 2015) and other sources, this keynote will address......Languages+ Internationalisation and the multilingual university The growth in English Medium Instruction (EMI) outside the English speaking countries (Wächter & Maiworm 2014) as well as the increase in non-L1 speakers in English-dominant settings is one of the very conspicuous outcomes of higher...... education internationalisation efforts today. Lecturers and students teach and learn through a language other than their own first language, which has led university leaders and other key actors to believe that issues arising from this situation are a question of language capabilities only. It is not...

  9. Multilingual children between real and imaginary worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Kolstrup, Kirsten Lundgaard

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes how a group of multilingual children in their early adolescence use various forms of language play and position themselves symbolically through involvement in signifying practices. By developing a conceptual framework that combines insights on language play (Cook 2000......) and the signifying self (Kramsch 2009), it demonstrates how the children as sign makers and symbolic subjects (re)signify their own learning space. The analysis reveals how, during a reading and joint text construction activity in Danish, they explore the symbolic possibilities of signs and subjectivities, while...... moving in and out of the text and back and forth between imagined and real worlds. These findings illustrate how the children’s interest both shapes their playful interaction and takes shape through it. It furthermore shows how language play contributes to paving the way for a resignification...

  10. Opening up towards Children's Languages: Enhancing Teachers' Tolerant Practices towards Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Wildt, Anouk; Van Avermaet, Piet; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Mainstream teachers struggle with linguistic diversity, often leading to restricting multilingualism. Scientific research, however, recommends including pupils' home languages in school. Various qualitative studies have evaluated implementations in schools and indicated possibilities for improving teachers' attitudes towards multilingualism. This…

  11. A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus of geological time scale for interopability of online geological maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Carranza, E.J.M.; Wu, C.; Meer, F.D. van der; Liu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of online geological maps is hindered by linguistic barriers. Multilingual geoscience thesauri alleviate linguistic barriers of geological maps. However, the benefits of multilingual geoscience thesauri for online geological maps are less studied. In this regard, we developed a

  12. Asymmetric inhibitory treatment effects in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Mira; Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Conner, Peggy S

    2013-01-01

    Findings from recent psycholinguistic studies of bilingual processing support the hypothesis that both languages of a bilingual are always active and that bilinguals continually engage in processes of language selection. This view aligns with the convergence hypothesis of bilingual language representation. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that when bilinguals perform a task in one language they need to inhibit their other, nontarget language(s) and that stronger inhibition is required when the task is performed in the weaker language than in the stronger one. The study of multilingual individuals who acquire aphasia resulting from a focal brain lesion offers a unique opportunity to test the convergence hypothesis and the inhibition asymmetry. We report on a trilingual person with chronic nonfluent aphasia who at the time of testing demonstrated greater impairment in her first acquired language (Persian) than in her third, later learned language (English). She received treatment in English followed by treatment in Persian. An examination of her connected language production revealed improvement in her grammatical skills in each language following intervention in that language, but decreased grammatical accuracy in English following treatment in Persian. The increased error rate was evident in structures that are used differently in the two languages (e.g., auxiliary verbs). The results support the prediction that greater inhibition is applied to the stronger language than to the weaker language, regardless of their age of acquisition. We interpret the findings as consistent with convergence theories that posit overlapping neuronal representation and simultaneous activation of multiple languages and with proficiency-dependent asymmetric inhibition in multilinguals.

  13. Correspondence dictionary from free English term to INIS descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This dictionary is intended for the on-line users of INIS database who select controlled terms (INIS descriptors) starting from free terms. The purpose of terminology control is (1) to reduce the ambiguity of the term use among different subject fields, and (2) to improve the recall by coordinating the synonyms. The controlled terms are collected in the thesaurus, but it is not always easy to find suitable descriptors. This dictionary has been compiled by analyzing existing records, and provides the specialists' know-how of converting free terms to descriptors. The 5,000 records in the physics field were selected, and analyzed by the physicists from the Department of Physics, Ibaraki University. Besides the compilation of this dictionary, the characteristics of the assigned descriptors were also clarified. (J.P.N.)

  14. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Resensies / Reviews. 309 ... and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers from the International ... "Cambridge, Trinity College Library MS 0.5.4: A Fifteenth-century ... There are among others ten types of manuscript collections that need attention, ..... The collection is rounded off by a selective index, supplementing the Table.

  15. Navajo-English Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Leon; Morgan, William

    A brief summary of the sound system of the Navajo language introduces this Navajo-English dictionary. Diacritical markings and an English definition are given for each Navajo word. Words are listed alphabetically by Navajo sound. (VM)

  16. Online Law Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Online dictionaries that assist users in writing legal texts in English as a foreign language are important lexicographic tools. They can help law students bridge the factual and linguistic gaps between the two legal universes involved. However, existing online law dictionaries with English...... as the target language primarily focus on terms, but students also need to write the remainder of the texts in factually and linguistically correct English. It is therefore important to have a sound theoretical foundation before embarking on a dictionary project that aims to help law students communicate...... in English as a foreign language. The function theory of lexicography offers an appropriate basis as it focuses on three key concepts: user needs, user competences, and user situations. It is proposed that online dictionaries should be designed to satisfy the lexicographically relevant user needs...

  17. A timeless music dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: A music dictionary for the Internet fulfils the same functions as printed .... This does not mean that there cannot be a cognitive gain through a communi- ... 2006, and has, since its completion in August 2006, been accessible free of.

  18. Wine and Words: A Trilingual Wine Dictionary for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. van der Merwe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The South African wine industry identified the need for a special-field on-line dictionary on viticulture and oenology in Afrikaans, English and isi-Xhosa. The dictionary provides information on wine terminology as well as linguistic information on the use of such terminology. The purpose of this article is to give a description of the project. The process of compiling the dictionary is described, from the co-operation between the wine industry and lexicographers to the intended target users and the choice of languages of the dictionary. Functions of the dictionary are discussed, with reference to specific user situations, namely text production, text reception and translation. A system of labels has been designed for the dictionary and its benefit for the user is explained. In assisting the user to make an informed choice of a term, the notion of proscriptiveness has been followed in the presentation of information in the wine dictionary.

    Keywords: TRILINGUAL WINE DICTIONARY, SPECIALISED LEXICOGRAPHY, VITICULTUREAND OENOLOGY TERMS, ON-LINE DICTIONARY, TARGET USERS, USER SITUATIONS,FUNCTIONS, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUCTION, TRANSLATION, LABELS, ENCYCLOPEDICKNOWLEDGE, LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE, PROSCRIPTION

    Opsomming: Wyn en woorde: 'n Drietalige Wynwoordeboek vir Suid-Afrika. Die Suid-Afrikaanse wynbedryf het die behoefte aan 'n aanlynvakwoordeboek oor wynenwingerdkunde in Afrikaans, Engels en isiXhosa geïdentifiseer. Die woordeboek verskaf inligtingoor wynterminologie, sowel as taalkundige inligting oor die gebruik van sulke terminologie. Diedoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n beskrywing van die projek te gee. Die samestellingsproses van diewoordeboek word beskryf, vanaf die samewerking tussen die wynbedryf en die leksikograwe, totdie voorgestelde teikengebruikers en die keuse van die tale van die woordeboek. Funksies van diewoordeboek word bespreek, met verwysing na spesifieke gebruikersituasies, naamlik teksproduksie

  19. Honoring and Building on the Rich Literacy Practices of Young Bilingual and Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author invites teachers of children who are bilingual, multilingual, and at promise for bi-/multilingualism to honor and build on their rich literacy practices. To do so, she challenges ideas and labels that continuously disempower bilingual and multilingual learners. Souto-Manning establishes the understanding that education…

  20. Constructing Glocal Identities through Multilingual Writing Practices on Flickr.com[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carmen K. M.; Barton, David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of user-generated multilingual writing activities on the photo sharing site, Flickr.com[R]. It discusses how Flickr users deploy their multilingual resources when interacting with international audiences, the factors affecting their language choice, and how new multilingual identities are constructed. An exploratory…

  1. Stylistic Performance through Affective Marking: A Case of Multilingual Literary Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Urjani

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overall analysis of how multi-lingual writer like Amitav Ghosh write about emotion in his literary text, and emphasize on how multilingual authors display emotion/affect through use of literary multilingualism (affective markers) combined with writer style. Through use of multiple strategies, they reduces the limitations of…

  2. Multilingual and Multimodal Composition at School: "ScribJab" in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Diane; Toohey, Kelleen; Bennett Fox, Alexa; Singh, Angelpreet

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we explain how recent research on multilingualism, multilingual education, and multimodality informs our thinking about the use of "ScribJab," a multilingual iPad application and website ("ScribJab.com"), which enables users to compose, illustrate, and narrate stories in two languages. Drawing on excerpts from…

  3. New CALL-SLA Research Interfaces for the 21st Century: Towards Equitable Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the world is multilingual, but inequitably multilingual, and much of the world is also technologized, but inequitably so. Thus, researchers in the fields of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and second language acquisition (SLA) would profit from considering multilingualism and social justice when envisioning new CALL-SLA…

  4. Concept of Multilingualism as Strategy of Language Policy and Foreign-Language Education in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Korotova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the language policy of the European Union (EU in the field of lobbying the concept of multilingual Europe is considered. In this research the didactic aspects of the policy of multilingualism are accented, and also the results of the approbation of policy of multilingualism in the educational theory and practice of the EU are analyzed.

  5. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-06-01

    The actualized version (June 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, nuclear physics, reactor physics, isotope production, biological radiation effects, and radiation protection.

  6. Dictionary descent in optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Temlyakov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The problem of convex optimization is studied. Usually in convex optimization the minimization is over a d-dimensional domain. Very often the convergence rate of an optimization algorithm depends on the dimension d. The algorithms studied in this paper utilize dictionaries instead of a canonical basis used in the coordinate descent algorithms. We show how this approach allows us to reduce dimensionality of the problem. Also, we investigate which properties of a dictionary are beneficial for t...

  7. Weakly Supervised Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zeyu; Raich, Raviv; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Kim, Jinsub

    2018-05-01

    We present a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for discriminative analysis dictionary learning under a weak supervision setting. Dictionary learning approaches have been widely used for tasks such as low-level signal denoising and restoration as well as high-level classification tasks, which can be applied to audio and image analysis. Synthesis dictionary learning aims at jointly learning a dictionary and corresponding sparse coefficients to provide accurate data representation. This approach is useful for denoising and signal restoration, but may lead to sub-optimal classification performance. By contrast, analysis dictionary learning provides a transform that maps data to a sparse discriminative representation suitable for classification. We consider the problem of analysis dictionary learning for time-series data under a weak supervision setting in which signals are assigned with a global label instead of an instantaneous label signal. We propose a discriminative probabilistic model that incorporates both label information and sparsity constraints on the underlying latent instantaneous label signal using cardinality control. We present the expectation maximization (EM) procedure for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the proposed model. To facilitate a computationally efficient E-step, we propose both a chain and a novel tree graph reformulation of the graphical model. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated on both synthetic and real-world data.

  8. Dictionary quality and dictionary design: a methodology for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although recent dictionaries for the ESL market have been praised for their innovative design features, the prime concern of users, lexicographers and metalexicographers is the functional quality of the dictionary products provided for the market. The functional quality of dictionaries and the scientific assessment thereof ...

  9. Reviewing printed and electronic dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Dictionary reviewing is an integral part of the lexicographic universe. However, lexicographers have called for generally applicable principles embracing both printed and electronic dictionaries. I propose that scholarly reviews contain information that is useful to their intended audiences...

  10. PHRASEOLOGY IN CHAKAVIAN DIALECTOLOGICAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Bogović

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the presentation and processing of idioms in eight dictionaries of chakavian organic language systems. According to the systematicality of their presentation and elaboration, the dictionaries are divided into three groups: systematic, partially systematic and non-systematic. Their analysis has shown the prevalence of dictionaries with partially systematic presentation and processing of idioms. Based on the results of the analysis, the paper presents procedures for a systematic presentation of idioms in organic language dictionaries.

  11. The concept of 'dictionary usage'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Tarp, Sven

    2004-01-01

    that users that might have a bad dictionary culture feel that the dictionaries meet their needs. In doing so, you generate inbreeding and block the necessary innovation. This is the unavoidable result of a practice that pays excessive attention to the study of existing dictionaries and doesn't endeavour...... to produce new concepts and to introduce a new dictionary culture. It is, in other words, a poor lexicography....

  12. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Considine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The lexicographical record of English in Canada began with wordlists of the late eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. From the beginning of the twentieth century onwards, the general vocabulary of English in Canada has been represented in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries, often adapted from American or British dictionaries. In the 1950s, several important projects were initiated, resulting in the publication of general dictionaries of English in Canada, and of dictionaries of Canadianisms and of the vocabulary of particular regions of Can-ada. This article gives an overview of these dictionaries and of their reception, contextualizing them in the larger picture of the lexicography of Canada's other official language, French, and of a number of its non-official languages. It concludes by looking at the future of English-language lexicography in Canada, and by observing that although it has, at its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken.

    Keywords: DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHY, CANADIAN ENGLISH, CANADIANISMS, NATIONAL DICTIONARIES, CANADIAN FRENCH, CANADIAN FIRST NATIONS LAN-GUAGES, BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, REGIONAL DICTIONARIES, UNFINISHED DICTIONARY PROJECTS

    Opsomming: Woordeboeke van Kanadese Engels. Die leksikografiese optekening van Engels in Kanada begin met woordelyste van die laat agtiende, neëntiende en vroeë twintigste eeue. Van die begin van die twintigste eeu af en verder, is die algemene woordeskat van Engels weergegee in tweetalige en eentalige woordeboeke, dikwels met wysiginge ontleen aan Ameri-kaanse en Britse woordeboeke. In die 1950's is verskeie belangrike projekte onderneem wat gelei het tot die publikasie van algemene woordeboeke van Engels in Kanada, en van woordeboeke van Kanadeïsmes en van die woordeskat van bepaalde streke van Kanada. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van dié woordeboeke, en van hul ontvangs, deur

  13. EXPANDING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY WITH AN INTERACTIVE ON-LINE DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Horst

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available University students used a set of existing and purpose-built on-line tools for vocabulary learning in an experimental ESL course. The resources included concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with interactive self-quizzing feature (all freely available at www.lextutor.ca. The vocabulary targeted for learning consisted of (a Coxhead's (2000 Academic Word List, a list of items that occur frequently in university textbooks, and (b unfamiliar words students had met in academic texts and selected for entry into the class database. The suite of tools were designed to foster retention by engaging learners in deep processing, an aspect that is often described as missing in computer exercises for vocabulary learning. Database entries were examined to determine whether context sentences supported word meanings adequately and whether entered words reflected the unavailability of cognates in the various first languages of the participants. Pre- and post-treatment performance on tests of knowledge of words targeted for learning in the course were compared to establish learning gains. Regression analyses investigated connections between use of specific computer tools and gains.

  14. EMITEL: E-Encyclopaedia and E-Dictionary of Medical Imaging Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedec, M.; Kovacevic, N.; Magjarevic, R.

    2011-01-01

    EMITEL (European Medical Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning) is an electronic encyclopaedia and multilingual dictionary related to medical imaging technologies. It is a result of the multi-annual international project which involved more than 250 contributors from 35 countries, aiming to foster development of medical physics and biomedical/clinical engineering by a lifelong e-learning web tool for all interested individuals or groups. Currently, the encyclopaedia is equivalent to about 2100 hard copy pages and includes about 3300 terms with an explanatory article for each term. The dictionary provides bidirectional cross-translation of terms between any two among 28 languages from its current database. Dictionary entries are divided into seven groups: diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, radiation protection and general terms. Croatian language was implemented in EMITEL dictionary in April 2010. There were 17 Croatian translators and reviewers from 8 institutions and 3 cities, ranging from medical physics experts to linguist. The basic terminological principles of translation were final intelligibility of terms, desirable Croatian origin and linguistic appropriateness. Croatian contribution in the actual phase of EMITEL project attempted to improve the quality and efficiency of the specific professional, scientific and teaching terminology. A sort of novel, consistent and verified pool of terms of emerging medical imaging technologies was built up, as a one small part of the process of developing information technologies and socio-cultural transition from the industrial society into the society of knowledge. (author)

  15. UNITY IN DIVERSITY. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S MULTILINGUALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is undeniable that the European Union represents the most ambitious legal and linguistic project, integrating 28 Member States and 24 official languages. What we undertook with this study was to explore the importance of multilingualism in the European Union and the problems that unity in diversity involves. This study tried to touch upon both theoretical aspects (i.e., what the multilingualism of EU law implies and practical issues (i.e., the interaction between legal languages at national and at EU level, problems emerging from multilingualism, illustrated by the relevant case law of the European Court of Justice. In many ECJ cases, it was underlined that multilingualism is essential to the EU legal order. The meaning of EU law cannot be derived from one version of the official languages and the ECJ regularly heads for a uniform interpretation of the contradictory versions. The present study is part of a more complex research on this theme and it is meant to approach certain important points of my PhD thesis. A first part of this research on multilingualism has already been published.

  16. Kirkeby's English–Swahili Dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    largest Swahili dictionary is the Swahili–French dictionary of Sacleux (1939) with 1 112 pages. Kirkeby ... An entry in this dictionary could be a basic form, a derived or inflectional form of the ...... Cf. cook, boil, fry, roast, bake, etc. (cookery); ugali ...

  17. LZ-Compressed String Dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Arz, Julian; Fischer, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    We show how to compress string dictionaries using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ78) data compression algorithm. Our approach is validated experimentally on dictionaries of up to 1.5 GB of uncompressed text. We achieve compression ratios often outperforming the existing alternatives, especially on dictionaries containing many repeated substrings. Our query times remain competitive.

  18. Improving Dictionary Skills in Ndebele

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: This article proposes ways of improving dictionary skills amongst the Ndebele. One way of accomplishing this is incorporating the teaching of dictionary skills into teacher training syllabi. Teachers can impart their knowledge to students and a dictionary culture can develop for enhancing effective use of current ...

  19. Shawnee Mission's On-Line Cataloging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wasby Miller

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available An on-line cataloging pilot project for two elementary schools is discussed. The system components are 2740 terminals, upper-lower-case input, IBM's FASTER generalized software package, and usual cards/labels output. Reasons for choosing FASTER, software and hardware features, operating procedures, system performance and costs are detailed. Future expansion to cataloging 100,000 annual K-12 acquisitions, on-line circulation, retrospective conversion, and union book catalogs is set forth.

  20. INIS retrieval service, towards on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio; Komatsubara, Yasutoshi

    1983-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute executes the retrieval service of INIS atomic energy information by batch system in cooperation with Genshiryoku Kozaikai. This service is very popular to the users in whole Japan, but the demand of on-line service has increased recently. Therefore, it was decided to begin the INIS on-line service from January, 1984, through the on-line information retrieval system of the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology. It is expected that when the operation will be started, the utilization of INIS atomic energy information in Japan will drastically increase. Also Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has carried out the retrieval service by on-line system for those in the institute besides the batch system, accordingly, at this opportunity, the state of utilization of both systems and their distinction to use effectively, and the operation and the method of utilization of the on-line information retrieval system of JICST are explained. In the on-line system, the users are accessible to the data base themselves, and immediate information retrieval is possible, while in the batch system, the related information can be retrieved without fail, and the troublesome operation of equipment is not necessary. (Kako, I.)

  1. Developments in the Multilingual and Multicultural Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Cozart, Stacey Marie; Kling, Joyce

    Uni project (2012-15) recommends that higher education institutions (HEI) provide ‘the necessary professional development and teacher training programmes that will allow HE teachers to appropriately develop (…) their professional and pedagogical knowledge, skills and competences and thereby empower them...... to ensure the quality of their teaching – and their students’ learning – in the multilingual and multicultural learning space’ (www.intluni.eu; Carroll 2015; Leask 2015). For many universities and other HEIs around the world, the multilingual and multicultural classroom is the new – or no longer quite so...... platform with resources targeted at EDs responsible for advancing faculty development in this area. In this session, the presenters will report on the first outcomes of EQUiiP. Participants will then be invited to interact and explore best practices in the multilingual and multicultural learning space...

  2. Multilingual students' acquisition of English as their L3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samal Jalal, Rawand

    with regard to English proficiency. The current study conducted in Denmark investigated multilingual students’ English proficiency compared to their monolingual peers’, and examined which learning strategies proficient L3 learners utilize. The sample was comprised of 9-graders who are monolinguals (N = 82......) and multilinguals with Turkish L1 (N = 134). The participants provided basic demographic information, and were tested in their general English proficiency. Out of the 70 multilinguals with Turkish L1, 12 participants were selected for further testing; i.e., the four participants who scored the lowest, four...... participants with intermediate scores, and the four who scored the highest, on a test of English proficiency. These participants were tested in their L1 (Turkish) and their L2 (Danish) in order to examine whether their proficiency in their L1 and L2 was associated with English proficiency. Furthermore, the 12...

  3. Multilingual and social semiotic perspectives on literacy learning and teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    to the complex processes involved in biliterate meaning making and script learning. Multilingual and social semiotic perspectives on literacy learning and teaching – summaryOn the basis of data from the longitudinal study Signs of Language, I focus on how a social semiotic perspective on literacy learning...... and teaching can contribute to expanding the conceptualization of literacy to be more sensitive to the complex processes involved in biliterate meaning making and script learning.......Multilingual and social semiotic perspectives on literacy learning and teaching – abstract In the context of an increasing multilingualism, literacy teaching has become a central and contested issue in public and political debate. International comparisons of levels of literacy have been...

  4. DO WE REALLY NEED FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN THE ROMANIAN TOURISM? SOME CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE LEGITIMACY OF MULTILINGUAL COMPETENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constatin Felicia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available At the confluence of philology and economy, foreign languages for business are a more and more interesting domain for the European economic agents, aware of the value of multilingual competences. Tourism is a priority domain of the economy, and within international tourism, foreign languages are a priority. This paper offers an interpretation of the Master Plan for National Tourism Development 2007-2026 from an applied linguistics point of view, aiming to synthesize the role of the foreign languages in the national strategy for the promotion of tourism. The extensive study developed by the Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism, the beneficiary of a remarkable professional guidance, offers a realistic image of the Romanian tourism at the time of Romania's integration in the EU and it predicts its evolution over a span of 20 years. The recommendations from the Business Forum for Multilingualism and the ELAN study highlight the impact of foreign languages in business, the direct relation between linguistic competence, performance, profit and development. The research methodology consisted in identifying the accommodation units (hotels and guesthouses in Oradea, capital city of Bihor county, and Baile Felix, a famous resort situated at about 10 km from Oradea - both of them are situated in the border region with Hungary - and in analyzing their websites. Their on-line presentations are generally made in Romanian, but there is also a concern for the multilingual presentation. This paper intends to sum up the linguistic scene of these websites from the perspective of the orientation to international tourism. We have observed that, despite their indisputable potential to make profit, foreign languages are almost unanimously ignored by officials and by hotel and guesthouse owners alike. Although they are in the private sector, therefore directly interested in the prosperity of their business, they do not choose to apply a strategy of multilingual

  5. On the Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Leksykon odpowiedniości semantycznych w języku polskim, bułgarskim i rosyjskim [The Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian] is the first Polish dictionary which compares semantic equivalents in the largest languages of each Slavic subgroup: The West Slavic group (Polish, the South Slavic group (Bulgarian and the East Slavic group (Russian. The content of the dictionary reflects the social processes, changes and trends which have taken place over recent years. The dictionary consists of 5 volumes, with approximately 5000 entries for each language. What sets it apart from other dictionaries is that it ventures beyond the standard vocabulary one might expect from a dictionary of this sort. Leksykon also contains neologisms as well as realogisms - words which do not often have perfect equivalents in other languages because they are so deeply embedded in a nation’s culture. Each entry in the dictionary offers state-of-the-art semantic and syntactic categorisers, developed by Polish experts in Slavic semantics and aspectology. We consider the dictionary to be an innovation in lexicography, because its open structure enables more languages to be added in the future, including non-Slavic languages. Developed with the use of the most recent methodologies available, the dictionary will constitute a sound basis for lexicographic research in the future, in particular for the development of multilingual electronic dictionaries. In the 21st century, we face two great challenges: to make academic research more interdisciplinary and to build an integrated multinational European community. We hope that our dictionary will help address these challenges by promoting multilingualism and facilitating intercultural communication.The primary language of the dictionary is Polish - the largest Slavic language in the European Union. During the Polish

  6. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries...... the needs of learners, it is proposed that specialised translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. It is argued that electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative documents...

  7. The Role of Dictionaries in Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines assumptions about dictionaries, especially the bilingual dictionary, and suggests ways of integrating the monolingual dictionary into the second-language instructional process. Findings indicate that the monolingual dictionary can coexist with bilingual dictionaries within a foreign-language course if the latter are appropriately used as…

  8. Dictionaries of Canadian English | Considine | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken. keywords: dictionary, lexicography, canadian english, canadianisms, national dictionaries, canadian french, canadian first nations lan-guages, bilingual dictionaries, regional dictionaries, unfinished diction-ary projects ...

  9. THE DILEMMA OF MULTILINGUALISM IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kalantari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a multilingual country with linguistic and cultural diversity. Minority languages such as Turkish, Kurdish, Baluchi and Arabic are spoken in Iran which constitutes part of the culture and ethnic identity. Iranian community is dominantly a bilingual community. Persian as an official language used as linguistic and cultural homogenization while minority languages are not used in education system. The controversy bilingual education and programs to serve language minority students is complex and puzzling for education authorities. On the other hand one of the challenges Iranian faces is how to reconcile conflicting perspectives of bilingual education regarding globalizing of English. Currently, most of parents prefer their children to learn English as it is the language of business, aviation and scientific research. In contrast according to Iran’s comprehensive scientific plan, Persian should be scientific language of the world in the near future. In this research, challenges, perspectives and solutions of bilingual education in Iran were analyzed. The results indicate that conflicting of minority, majority and international language is an important challenge and developing, promotion and expansion of Persian is a future outlook. Furthermore some suggestions and solutions to reconcile bilingual education were made.

  10. Linguistic diversity and literacy practices in multilingual classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    & Leung, 2001). In search of a critical postmodern perspective on classroom studies, as advocated by Lin & Luk (2002), the study 'Signs of language‘ (2008-2014) aims to investigate the possibilities of restructuring the literacy practices in multilingual classrooms by giving attention to the children‘ s......In the context of an increasing multilingualism, literacy teaching has become a central and contested issue in public and political debate. International comparisons of levels of literacy have been interpreted as an indication of a prevailing literacy crisis that demands political actions to avoid...

  11. Towards the multilingual semantic web principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buitelaar, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To date, the relation between multilingualism and the Semantic Web has not yet received enough attention in the research community. One major challenge for the Semantic Web community is to develop architectures, frameworks and systems that can help in overcoming national and language barriers, facilitating equal access to information produced in different cultures and languages. As such, this volume aims at documenting the state-of-the-art with regard to the vision of a Multilingual Semantic Web, in which semantic information will be accessible in and across multiple languages. The Multiling

  12. Multilingual trends in a globalized world prospects and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Navin Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This book presents evolving language education trends by drawing examples and case studies from around the world. Over the past few decades, significant economic and political changes have taken place around the world which have had a significant impact on language teaching and learning practices across the globe. With globalization, the focus of language education has shifted from monolingualism towards bilingualism and multilingualism, in that multilingual practices have become the norm rather than the exception in most parts of the world. This book brings together some of latest controversi

  13. Rock Art Glossary: A Multilingual Dictionary, Expanded Second Edition (First Edition 2001. Edited by Robert G. Bednarik, Ahmed Achrati, Tang Huisheng, Alfred Muzzolini, George Dimitriadis, Dario Seglie, Fernando Coimbra, Yakov A. Sher and Mario Consens. Australian Rock Art Research Association, Inc., Melbourne, 2010; 274 Pages, in English, Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish, with Translation Tables. Price $A 38.00, ISBN 978-0-646-53471-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first dictionary compiled specifically for rock art research. It follows the publication of an English rock art glossary in the journal Rock Art Research in November 2000. To be adopted by the International Federation of Rock Art Organisations (IFRAO, it has been translated by some of the world’s foremost scholars in the field into Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Russian. In a discipline that has hitherto been without an agreed terminology, even communication within a single language has been difficult. The proliferation of idiosyncratic terminologies of often academically isolated researchers, many of which have been used by only one scholar, has not only retarded progress and the transference of knowledge, it has led to countless misunderstandings and even personal feuds. The purpose of this dictionary is to create a single terminological standard as well as a cross-lingual uniformity of usage. It focuses particularly on scientific aspects, technical applications and epistemological rigour. It does not set out to create a terminological straitjacket for the discipline, but a common standard of reference, particularly in areas that have in the past been susceptible to greatly differing interpretations. This dictionary comprises sections in ten languages, each listing the same terms alphabetically. It also contains a table interlinking all of these languages, listing all terms explained. This translation table is organised alphabetically according to the English terms. The volume is indispensable for scientific translators, rock art scholars, archaeologists and others concerned with aspects of pre-Historic rock art, and is also intended for the guidance of students and authors working in this field.

  14. Oxford dictionary of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Alan

    The dictionary is derived from the Concise Science Dictionary, first published by Oxford University Press in 1984 (third edition, 1996). It consists of all the entries relating to physics in that dictionary, together with some of those entries relating to astronomy that are required for an understanding of astrophysics and many entries that relate to physical chemistry. It also contains a selection of the words used in mathematics that are relevant to physics, as well as the key words in metal science, computing, and electronics. For this third edition a number of words from quantum field physics and statistical mechanics have been added. Cosmology and particle physics have been updated and a number of general entries have been expanded.

  15. Comparative Nivkh Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortescue, Michael David

    This dictionary undertakes to reconstruct the lexis and morphology of the Nivkh proto-language by marshaling and organizing all the data available in published form on the contemporary dialects. It builds upon a considerable body of descriptive and comparative work carried out by scholars who have...... World is a subject of continuing interest to both linguists and anthropologists. The dictionary does not address this question directly. Reconstructing the proto-language is an essential step, however, to any further comparative work – in particular to sorting out the relationship between Nivkh...

  16. Clinical dictionary of MRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herborn, C.U.; Zink, C.

    2007-01-01

    MRT is the method of choice in many clinical problems. It is also one of the most complex imaging procedures, requiring much technical and physical knowledge and also detailed knowledge of the signal response of physiological and pathological tissues in the many variants of contrast enhancement, image reconstruction and image processing. In 2006, the pocket dictionary of MRT was published by the same publisher. It met with much positive response, which induced the publication of this new dictionary. With more than 3000 terms and definitions elaborated in cooperation with an excellent practician, the clinical applications of MRT are illustrated by typical findings and examples. (orig.)

  17. Radiological sciences dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Dowsett, David

    2009-01-01

    The Radiological Sciences Dictionary is a rapid reference guide for all hospital staff employed in diagnostic imaging, providing definitions of over 3000 keywords as applied to the technology of diagnostic radiology.Written in a concise and easy to digest form, the dictionary covers a wide variety of subject matter, including:· radiation legislation and measurement · computing and digital imaging terminology· nuclear medicine radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals· radiographic contrast agents (x-ray, MRI and ultrasound)· definitions used in ultrasound and MRI technology· statistical exp

  18. A dictionary of astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This revised edition contains 4,000 up-to-date entries written by an expert team of contributors, under the editorship of Ian Ridpath, renowned author and broadcaster. Covering the most recent space exploration missions and latest technological development, this authoritative dictionary covers everything from astrophysics to galaxies and time. World-wide coverage of observatories and telescopes, and major entries on supernova, Big Bang theory, and stellar evolution, make this an invaluable reference source for students, professionals, and amateur astronomers. Appendices include tables of Apollo lunar landing missions and the constellations. The entries are supported by numerous tables and diagrams, and the dictionary also features biographical entries on eminent astronomers.

  19. On-line monitoring for calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    2005-09-01

    On-Line Monitoring evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Elimination or reduction of unnecessary field calibrations can reduce associated labour costs, reduce personnel radiation exposure, and reduce the potential for calibration errors. On-line calibration monitoring is an important technique to implement a state-based maintenance approach and reduce unnecessary field calibrations. In this report we will look at how the concept is currently applied in the industry and what the arising needs are as it becomes more commonplace. We will also look at the PEANO System, a tool developed by the Halden Project to perform signal validation and on-line calibration monitoring. Some issues will be identified that are being addressed in the further development of these tools to better serve the future needs of the industry in this area. An outline for how to improve these points and which aspects should be taken into account is described in detail. (Author)

  20. The Making of the "Oxford English Dictionary."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes remarks made to open the Gallaudet University conference on Dictionaries and the Standardization of languages. It concerns the making of what is arguably the world's greatest dictionary, "The Oxford English Dictionary." (VWL)

  1. Example sentences in bilingual specialised dictionaries assisting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Specialised lexicography, online dictionaries, printed dictionaries, technical dictionaries, specialised communication, examples, lexicographical functions, text production, user needs, writing, translation. Voorbeeldsinne in tweetalige vakwoordeboeke help met kommunikasie in 'n vreemde taal. Praktisyns ...

  2. On-line signal trend identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambouratzis, T.; Antonopoulos-Domis, M.

    2004-01-01

    An artificial neural network, based on the self-organizing map, is proposed for on-line signal trend identification. Trends are categorized at each incoming signal as steady-state, increasing and decreasing, while they are further classified according to characteristics such signal shape and rate of change. Tests with model-generated signals illustrate the ability of the self-organizing map to accurately and reliably perform on-line trend identification in terms of both detection and classification. The proposed methodology has been found robust to the presence of white noise

  3. On line routing per mobile phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieding, Thomas; Görtz, Simon; Klose, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    On-line routing is concerned with building vehicle routes in an ongoing fashion in such a way that customer requests arriving dynamically in time are efficiently and effectively served. An indispensable prerequisite for applying on-line routing methods is mobile communication technology....... Additionally it is of utmost importance that the employed communication system is suitable integrated with the firm’s enterprise application system and business processes. On basis of a case study, we describe in this paper a system that is cheap and easy to implement due to the use of simple mobile phones...

  4. On-line atomic data access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Nash, J.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser- produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology nables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users of the Internet. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

  5. Olowalu Review: Developing identity through translanguaging in a multilingual literary magazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Josef Kasula

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the current trends in our globalized society, there is a clear increase in multilinguals rise; however, the understanding of multilingual identity and policy towards education stays relatively the same. Recent investigation in multilingualism in the US has shed light on the positive impacts of alternating policy in language education with regard to a greater understanding in how translanguaging and identity impact the language learner and language learning policies (Garcia & Wei, 2013. The following article describes the development of an online multilingual literary magazine, Olowalu Review, that aimed to provide English language learners in an English-only language policy a space to translanguage. Thus, having the opportunity to develop and express their multilingual identities. Goals and the development of the magazine are described in terms relating to current multilingual theory. While the outcomes and findings reveal how Olowalu Review enabled multilinguals to foster and exercise multilingual identities and skills, raise multilingual awareness, and act as an important multilingual artifact through an analysis of written submissions and interviews with authors. Pedagogical implications are discussed to empower language teachers, learners, or artists to develop the same or similar project for their own local, national, or global community.

  6. Dr.Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature

    OpenAIRE

    Imazato, Chiaki

    1988-01-01

    More than hundred 'Johnson's' dictionaries have so far been published not only in English but in other countries, and there are numerous books and articles on Johnson's Dictionary. But few have referred to Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature; nor were there any books or articles on it. Fortunately, however, I've got one copy of Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature, which was published in 1806. Johnson's Dictionary (1755) has 41,677 entries, whereas Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature 23,439 entr...

  7. Language, Literacy, and the Needs of the Multilingual Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I first take on the issue of standards and the degree to which they do or do not contribute to the improvement of language and literacy outcomes for children in multilingual societies. Then I consider the relation of standards to language and, finally, raise the vexed issue of content knowledge and its relation to standards, on…

  8. multilingualism and the ethnic identity of the ette people

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chy

    Bilingualism/multilingualism will be discussed in section four; while section ... In the past, our ancestors moved from one place to the other in search of ... The concept of ethnicity, however, encompasses a lot of meaning so that its definition is.

  9. Why Multilingual Matters : Alternative Change Agents in Language Education Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küeppers, Almut; Yagmur, K.

    Languages are powerful tools for change and have ceased to be only national symbols. In this focus paper, the overall question to be tackled is why and how the multilingual paradigm challenges nation-states and its institutions with a special focus on the domain of state education. While the former

  10. Language policy implementation in multilingual Nigeria: French and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By all standards, Nigeria is a multilingual and Multicultural state parading more than five hundred indigenous languages existing alongside English language as an official language and French language as the defacto second official language. Choosing a national language among the existing indigenous languages has ...

  11. Speect: a multilingual text-to-speech system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, JA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new multilingual text-to-speech system, which we call Speect (Speech synthesis with extensible architecture), aiming to address the shortcomings of using Festival as a research sytem and Flite as a deployment system in a...

  12. University students' perceptions of multilingual education: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to implement multilingual education for purposes of teaching and learning ... higher education system, very little (excluding a range of stereotypes) is known about the ... learning of one additional or supportive language of tuition (CHE 2001:11). ..... state their gender, age, home language, household economic status and the ...

  13. The Politics of Multilingual Communication: Case Studies and Research Agendas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Craze, S.; Lempp, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to globalisation, and different forms of migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity and multilingual communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and institutional

  14. Multilingualism as Utopia: Fashioning Non-Racial Selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Christopher; Williams, Quentin

    2017-01-01

    The challenge of contemporary South Africa is that of building a (post)nation of postracial equity in a fragmented world of a globalized ethical, economic and ecological meltdown. In this paper, we seek to explore the idea of multilingualism as a technology in the conceptualization of alternative, competing futures. We suggest that multilingualism…

  15. Multilingual children's interaction with metafiction in a postmodern picture book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Line Møller; Johansen, Martin Blok

    2014-01-01

    When teachers and school librarians choose picture books for multilingual children, they often base their choice on an evaluation of linguistic comprehensibility, content familiarity and cultural appropriateness. This means that postmodern picture books may be excluded. This paper presents a case...

  16. Preparing pre-service teachers for multilingual classrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the challenge and process of the curriculum design using the classic ADDIE model. It also documents student reaction to the compulsory module as well as their experience of language learning. Keywords: curriculum + multilingual classrooms, instructional design and development, language learning ...

  17. A strategic promotion of language use in multilingual South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents and discusses strategies for encouraging the use of all official languages in South Africa from a language management perspective. Although the South African language policy has been commended for its multilingual nature, the implementation of the policy is still problematic. Hence, I argue that we ...

  18. Writing Learning Outcomes for English Language Lessons in Multilingual Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a pedagogic innovation in teacher education by articulating a method for writing learning outcomes for English language lessons in multilingual school contexts. The argument for this approach is founded on curriculum studies; however, the practice also draws specifically on applied psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic…

  19. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  20. Multilingual Data Selection for Low Resource Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    output of this feature fron- tend is a multilingual representation from the bottleneck layer of the second network. In our training framework , we use 40...16] M. Harper, “IARPA Babel Program,” http://www.iarpa.gov/index. php /research-programs/babel, [Online; accessed 2016-03-25]. [17] “Assamese Babel

  1. Multilingualism and Teacher Preparation for the Universal Basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the National Policy on Education stipulates the learning of at least three languages on completion of Junior Secondary School by each learner, the Nigerian linguistic environment which is evidently multilingual poses some challenges and setbacks for language teaching and learning among ethnic minorities.

  2. The importance of oral Spanish teaching to multilingual students: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores important aspects of teaching Spanish, both spoken and written, to multilingual students, with specific reference to United Sates International University (USIU), a private institution located in Nairobi, Kenya. The beginner students of Spanish at the University speak at least 3 languages, one of which is ...

  3. The Compilation of Multilingual Concept Literacy Glossaries at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to support concept literacy, especially for students for whom English is not the native language, a number of universities in South Africa are compiling multilingual glossaries through which the use of languages other than English may be employed as auxiliary media. Terminologies in languages other than English ...

  4. Methodology in Bi- and Multilingual Studies: From Simplification to Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa; Jessner, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Research methodology is determined by theoretical approaches. This article discusses methods of multilingualism research in connection with theoretical developments in linguistics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and education. Taking a brief glance at the past, the article starts with a discussion of an issue underlying the choice of…

  5. Legitimating Multilingual Teacher Identities in the Mainstream Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Christina; Ponte, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the identities of a group of elementary teachers who participated in a professional development (PD) project on multilingual language learners. We study how the participating teachers drew on different aspects of their identities to respond to encouragement to increase their attention to students' diverse multilingual…

  6. Language Education in a Multilingual City: The Case of Limassol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Anna; Parmaxi, Antigoni; Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi; Boglou, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the current situation of multilingualism and language education in the city of Limassol, Cyprus. The multicultural character of Limassol is reflected in every aspect of city life, and is notably reflected in the sector of education.Therefore,there is a need to delve into the situation of language…

  7. Mandarin, Suzhou Dialect and English: Multilingualism in Suzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sibing

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains the situation of Mandarin, Suzhou dialect and English in Suzhou, the relation between language policy and language use, discusses the positive and negative consequences that multilingualism in Suzhou might have for the society, and focuses on the change of language use in Suzhou and provides suggestions for the maintenance of…

  8. Multilingualism and Language Learning: The Rome City Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, Michela

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates the findings on multilingualism related to the educational sphere in the city of Rome, within the scope and theoretical framework of the international project LUCIDE (Languages in Urban Communities--Integration and Diversity for Europe). Particularly, it describes the type of linguistic and cultural support offered to…

  9. Researching Multilingualism and Superdiversity: Grassroots Actions and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li

    2014-01-01

    The articles in this thematic issue document studies of grassroots actions in promoting multilingualism across different sectors of society as well as in different social and professional domains. In doing so, the contributors raise issues of the relevance of the notion of community in the age of superdiversity and the researcher's…

  10. Diaspora: Multilingual and Intercultural Communication across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Hua, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The nature of diaspora is changing in the 21st century. Yet many of the communication issues remain the same. At the heart of it is multilingual and intercultural communication across time and space. There is much that applied linguists can contribute to the understanding of diaspora in the era of globalization. This article discusses some of the…

  11. Cognitive Linguistic Performances of Multilingual University Students Suspected of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word…

  12. Language Learning Strategies of Multilingual Adults Learning Additional Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrenko, Violetta

    2017-01-01

    The main goal consisted in identifying and bringing together strategies of multilinguals as a particular learner group. Therefore, research was placed in the intersection of the three fields: language learning strategies (LLS), third language acquisition (TLA), and the didactics of plurilingualism. First, the paper synthesises the major findings…

  13. School Leadership along the Trajectory from Monolingual to Multilingual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura; Hesson, Sarah; Menken, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the critical role of school leaders in language policy change, and specifically in shifting their language education policies and practices from monolingual to multilingual. We examine the process of language policy change in three schools that were involved in a project aimed at increasing the knowledge base of school…

  14. Laboratory Studies on Multilingual Cognition and Further Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Cristina; Cox, Jessica G.

    2017-01-01

    Multilingualism is now seen as the norm rather than the exception in an age of migration and supranational entities, and where minority language rights and the consequent educational policies have become more common. The field of applied linguistics reflects that transition: second language acquisition (sla) research is slowly being replaced by…

  15. The Compilation of Multilingual Concept Literacy Glossaries at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    account for the multilingual concept literacy glossaries being compiled under the auspices of .... a theory, i.e. the set of premises, arguments and conclusions required for explaining ... fully address cognitive and communicative needs, especially of laypersons. ..... tion at UCT, and in indigenous languages as auxiliary media.

  16. Multilingual education in the light of diversity : Lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzog-Punzenberger, Barbara; Le Pichon, E.M.M.; Siarova, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    While multilingualism and diversity have always been an integral part of Europe, they also became important characteristics of many national education systems in the past two decades. The linguistic diversity of modern classrooms is shaped by 1. the presence of historical non-dominant language

  17. Translanguaging Practices and Perspectives of Four Multilingual Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Shannon M.; Pacheco, Mark B.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, educational research suggests that translanguaging pedagogies can provide meaningful supports for English language learners. Yet, few studies examine how multilingual teens in English-dominant settings independently translanguage to make sense of school and achieve their goals. In this study, we review definitions of translanguaging…

  18. multilingualism and the ethnic identity of the ette people

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chy

    Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies, Volume 4, 2015. 1. MULTILINGUALISM AND ..... Tukano of the northwest Amazon because of their customs which forbids marriage among themselves rather they ... everyday life whether it is in the church, meetings, market, family etc. whereas Igala and Igbo languages are also used ...

  19. Multilingual educational trends and practices in Lebanon: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahous, Rima; Bacha, Nahla Nola; Nabhani, Mona

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports on the multilingual background, language education policies and practices in Lebanon. Specifically, it shows how the multilingual make-up in the country is translated into language policies in schools. A survey of 30 private school principals, middle managers and teachers was administered online to obtain their views on school policies, problems, successes, concerns and quality ranking. Results showed that a great deal of work has been done to introduce a language of instruction and a third language as decreed by the Ministry of Education and at the same time keep the national language, Arabic, alive. The main concerns of the participants were the need for teacher training programmes and resources. Although the research implies that the school systems, in keeping up with this multilingual milieu, could be contributing to the death of the national language as well as producing students who are not fluent in any of the languages, there continues to be an attempt to keep alive a quality multilingual educational context which contributes to a cohesive society.

  20. Accommodating multilingualism in IT classrooms in the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the language context of Information Technology (IT) classes in the Free State province. An overview of the multilingual context within which the research was done is provided through a brief historical background of language accommodation and recognition in South Africa in general, and then ...

  1. Foreign Language Anxiety in Turkey: The Role of Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Khawaja, Anastasia J.

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger study on individual differences and language learning in Turkey, this study explores the relationship between foreign language anxiety and two operationalisations of multilingualism: any experience with a third language and Perceived Positive Language Interaction; it also illuminates connections among the aforementioned…

  2. The challenge of multilingualism: in response to the language policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the requirements of the newly released Language Policy for Higher Education and provides guidelines for an educational approach that would support multilingual, higher education. In a nutshell, this policy challenges higher education institutions to provide in the linguistic needs of the new, more ...

  3. A network of tongues: African languages, multilingualism and global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some scholars have noted that globalization portends 'a global common language' that offers unprecedented possibilities for mutual understanding and thus enables us to find fresh opportunities for international co-operation. Yet, others have argued in favour of multilingualism, described as an alternative, fundamental ...

  4. Multilingual education in South African universities: A possibility or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the demise of apartheid it was hoped that a radical shift would give impetus to multilingual education in universities in South Africa. This is predicated on the vigour that South Africa exuded in its endeavour to promote eleven languages to national official status for the country. The question is, will universities ever be ...

  5. Multilingualism as a learning scaffolding element: Reflection on first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This reflective paper reports on the approach taken and the lesson learnt in introducing multilingualism as a Writing-To-Learn (WTL) strategy for active learning, especially for large classes. WTL strategies are well entrenched in social and humanities courses as opposed to 'technical' courses such as Information and ...

  6. Imagining a multilingual academy: rethinking language in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language affects all aspects of the academy as a platform for the cultivation of critical thinking. The extension of multilingualism (ie "more people using more languages in more registers and in more domains") in higher education would contribute significantly to "improving the quality of the higher education sector".

  7. MultiFarm: A Benchmark for Multilingual Ontology Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilicke, C.; García-Castro, R.; Freitas, F.; van Hage, W.R.; Montiel-Ponsoda, E.; Ribeiro de Azevedo, R.; Stuckenschmidt, H.; Svab-Zamazal, O.; Svatek, V.; Tamalin, A.; Wang, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the MultiFarm dataset, which has been designed as a benchmark for multilingual ontology matching. The MultiFarm dataset is composed of a set of ontologies translated in different languages and the corresponding alignments between these ontologies. It is based on the OntoFarm

  8. Admitted or Denied: Multilingual Writers Negotiate Admissions Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Shauna

    2017-01-01

    This article presents data from a collection of yearlong case studies on resident multilingual writers' college admissions essays. The focal student in this piece revealed the challenges that such writers face in presenting themselves to college admissions officers. Exploring these cultural and linguistic conflicts, this analysis uses Goffman's…

  9. Strategies and Tactics in Academic Knowledge Production by Multilingual Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Mary Jane; Lillis, Theresa M.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, academic evaluation systems worldwide have markedly increased the use of mechanisms that privilege the use of English in journal publishing. In the context of these trends, this article highlights our findings from more than 12 years of research on the experiences and perspectives of 50 multilingual European scholars with…

  10. EuroGOV: Engineering a Multilingual Web Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.

  11. Language, Power, Multilingual and Non-Verbal Multicultural Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and

  12. Towards a Practical Proposal for Multilingualism in Education in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Jane A. N.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes multilingualism in education, where indigenous languages are used alongside English as the media of instruction in schools to eventually promote their use in Kenya. It begins by stating Kenya's language policy in education. It then states the responses given by some primary and secondary school teachers who were interviewed…

  13. Translation Dictionaries and Bilingual Dictionaries. Two Different Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2002-01-01

    of dictionaries - and in some cases even not the best ones - to assist the translator who runs into problems in the translation process. In my paper, I will argue that monolingual dictionaries - together with bilingual dictionaries «the other way around«, e.g. L2-L1 dictionaries when translating from L1 into L2...... in relation to translation and what types of problems pop up during the translation process in order to clarify up to which point lexicography can assist translator. Finally, I will discuss in which types of dictionary (monolingual or bilingual) the assistance to the translator should be provided and......The starting point in any scientific process is always the formulation of the problem and then the search for a solution. In my opinion the question on the relaton between lexicography and translation should be put in this way: How can dictionaries assist translators in finding solutions...

  14. Why Multilingualism and Multilingual Communication Jeopardize a Common Social Policy for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marácz László

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the consequences of European multilingualism and multilingual communication for a common social policy in the Europe Union. In the past fifty years, the main focus of the Europeanization project has been on financial-economic developments and less on a common social policy. Even today, there is no common framework for social protection in the European Union. Common minimum income or wages for European citizens are lacking. In this paper, it will be argued that the lack of social protection has to do with Europe’s linguistic diversity. Language is seen as a building block of national communities and their political cultures. The European integration project can only continue if different European political cultures are shared. However, due to the fact that a neutral lingua franca is lacking, this has been unsuccessful so far. The interaction of social groups that have a different language repertoire with the structures of multilevel governance are responsible for the fact that some of these social groups, including the ‘Eurostars’, and national cosmopolitans benefit from social protection, whereas other groups lacking relevant language skills, such as anti-establishment forces, commoners, and migrants, are excluded from the European power domains. These power configurations can be fruitfully studied in the floral figuration model. Consequently, due to these patterns of inclusion and exclusion, true solidarity among European citizens is not within reach. These claims will be illustrated by a case study on the Netherlands, a country that has been pursuing neoliberal policies counterbalancing Eurozone and economic crises and is trying to assimilate migrants and other newcomers. Apart from assimilatory policies targeting migrants, language games used by competing forces are playing an important role in the discourse in order to set up power structures.

  15. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  16. Dictionary of machine terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This book has introduction of dictionary of machine terms, and a compilation committee and introductory remarks. It gives descriptions of the machine terms in alphabetical order from a to Z and also includes abbreviation of machine terms and symbol table, way to read mathematical symbols and abbreviation and terms of drawings.

  17. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  18. Hashing, Randomness and Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    to the similarity to a bookshelf dictionary, which contains a set of words and has an explanation associated with each word. In the static version of the problem the set is fixed, whereas in the dynamic version, insertions and deletions of elements are possible. The approach taken is that of the theoretical...

  19. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  20. Accessing the ANW dictionary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk, F.; Tiberius, C.; Niestadt, J.; Zock, M.; Huang, C.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the functional design of an interface for an online scholarly dictionary of contemporary standard Dutch, the ANW. One of the main innovations of the ANW is a twofold meaning description: definitions are accompanied by ‘semagrams’. In this paper we focus on the strategies that

  1. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  2. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  3. Dictionary of Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, R. A.

    A wide range of terms used in the telecommunications industry are defined in this dictionary. Many of the terms and definitions are either reproduced from, or based on, the "Glossary of Terms Used in Telecommunications (including Radio) and Electronics" prepared by the British Standards Institute. The principal entry for each term is found under…

  4. On-line monitoring for calibration reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Mario; Gran, Frauke Schmitt; Thunem, Harald P-J.

    2004-04-01

    On-Line Monitoring (OLM) of a channel's calibration state evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Industry and experience at several plants has shown this overall approach to be very effective in identifying instrument channels that are exhibiting degrading or inconsistent performance characteristics. The Halden Reactor Project has developed the signal validation system PEANO, which can be used to assist with the tasks of OLM. To further enhance the PEANO System for use as a calibration reduction tool, the following two additional modules have been developed; HRP Prox, which performs pre-processing and statistical analysis of signal data, Batch Monitoring Module (BMM), which is an off-line batch monitoring and reporting suite. The purpose and functionality of the HRP Prox and BMM modules are discussed in this report, as well as the improvements made to the PEANO Server to support these new modules. The Halden Reactor Project has established a Halden On-Line Monitoring User Group (HOLMUG), devoted to the discussion and implementation of on-line monitoring techniques in power plants. It is formed by utilities, vendors, regulatory bodies and research institutes that meet regularly to discuss implementation aspects of on-line monitoring, technical specification changes, cost-benefit analysis and regulatory issues. (Author)

  5. SPIRES I: on-line search guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addis, L.

    1975-06-01

    SPIRES I is the first generation of the on-line Stanford Public Information Retrieval System. Designed as a prototype system, SPIRES I was later moved to the SLAC computing facility where it has been routinely available to SLAC users in the field of high-energy physics. The scope and use of the SPIRES I system are described in this manual

  6. HOPI: on-line injection optimization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMaire, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of matching the beam from the 200 MeV linac to the AGS without the necessity of making emittance measurements is presented. An on-line computer program written on the PDP10 computer performs the matching by modifying independently the horizontal and vertical emittance. Experimental results show success with this method, which can be applied to any matching section

  7. Lexicography in a Multilingual South Africa Leksikografie in 'n meertalige Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Various

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    On 12 April 1996 the State Language Services organized a language planning seminar, Lexicography as a Financial Asset in a Multilingual South Africa, held at the Bureau of the Woordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal in Stellenbosch. A special feature of this workshop was the active participation not only of linguists and lexicographers involved in the academic and practical side of producing dictionaries, but also of those with commercial interests in this area, viz. publishers and marketers of dictionaries. An important part of the seminar was the contributions on the lexicographic needs of each of the eleven official languages of the Republic of South Africa.

    This seminar was followed by a consultative meeting for stakeholders arranged by the Pan South African Language Board (PANSALB on 31 October 1997 in Johannesburg. The purpose of the meeting was to explain to participants the state of the legislation concerning lexicography units, to inform participants of the language plan for the Republic of South Africa and the role of lexicography in it, to make participants aware of the preparation needed to establish a lexicography unit, and to obtain the view of participants regarding important lexicographic matters by means of a questionnaire and discussions.

    This meeting was an important precursor to two further meetings which PANSALB arranged in the Johannesburg Civic Centre, namely the Lexicographic Meeting of the Existing Lexicographic Units of South Africa on 19 and 20 March 1998 and the Lexicographic Meeting of the Languages which do not already have a Lexicographic Unit on 14 and 15 May 1998. The delegates participated in establishing norms for the recognition of existing and new lexicography units, and for the provision of personnel to, and for the state subsidisation of lexicography units. Regulations for the lexicography units were also discussed.

    The papers presented at these two meetings provide a synopsis of the

  8. A Multilingual Approach to Analysing Standardized Test Results: Immigrant Primary School Children and the Role of Languages Spoken in a Bi-/Multilingual Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Gessica

    2014-01-01

    The present study adopts a multilingual approach to analysing the standardized test results of primary school immigrant children living in the bi-/multilingual context of South Tyrol, Italy. The standardized test results are from the Invalsi test administered across Italy in 2009/2010. In South Tyrol, several languages are spoken on a daily basis…

  9. Multilingual Development in Children with Autism: Perspectives of South Asian Muslim Immigrant Parents on Raising a Child with a Communicative Disorder in Multilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Brinda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of three Muslim families on multilingual development in their children with autism. Findings indicate that the families' goal of maintaining normalcy in their children's life could not be attained without immersion in multiple languages. They believe that immersion in multilingual contexts helped their children…

  10. Making a dictionary without words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses some of the particular problems connected with lemma representation and lemmatization in a sign language dictionary. The paper is mainly based on the authors' work experience from the Danish Sign Language Dictionary project. In a sign language dictionary sign representation...... constitutes a problem. as there is - at least for Danish Sign Language - no conventional notation used by native signers and the various other sign user groups. We look into the different possibilities of representing signs and present the solution that we chose for the Danish Sign Language Dictionary....... Defining the criteria for lernmatization is another area where sign language dictionaries differ from written language dictionaries. The criteria should obviously include the manual expression of the signs, but a sign's manual expression has features from several categories (e.g. handshape, place...

  11. Data-Dictionary-Editing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Access to data-dictionary relations and attributes made more convenient. Data Dictionary Editor (DDE) application program provides more convenient read/write access to data-dictionary table ("descriptions table") via data screen using SMARTQUERY function keys. Provides three main advantages: (1) User works with table names and field names rather than with table numbers and field numbers, (2) Provides online access to definitions of data-dictionary keys, and (3) Provides displayed summary list that shows, for each datum, which data-dictionary entries currently exist for any specific relation or attribute. Computer program developed to give developers of data bases more convenient access to the OMNIBASE VAX/IDM data-dictionary relations and attributes.

  12. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....

  13. Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa Leboa Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Mojapelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural sci-ence and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called, which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolin-gual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicogra-phy Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolin-gual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation defini-tion' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.

    Keywords: TRANSLITERATION, COINAGE, COINED LEXICAL ITEM, LOAN WORD, ADOPTIVE, FOREIGN WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SOTHOIZED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, NATURAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, COMPOUND WORD, AMBIGUITY

    Opsomming: Natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie in die Sesotho sa Leboa eentalige woordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n ver-gelykende ontleding te maak van die strukturele en die leksikale verskille tussen nuutskepping en transliterasie as metodes vir die verwerwing van vreemde natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese leksikale items wat bedoel is vir insluiting in die Sesotho sa Leboa omvattende eentalige woorde-boek Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Met die uitsondering van die meertalige woordelyste ("woordeboeke" soos hulle genoem word wat deur die Nasionale Taaldiens van die

  14. Dictionary learning in visual computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed fast development on dictionary learning approaches for a set of visual computing tasks, largely due to their utilization in developing new techniques based on sparse representation. Compared with conventional techniques employing manually defined dictionaries, such as Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform, dictionary learning aims at obtaining a dictionary adaptively from the data so as to support optimal sparse representation of the data. In contrast to conventional clustering algorithms like K-means, where a data point is associated with only one cluster c

  15. The INL Dictionary Writing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The INL-DWS is a Dictionary Writing System (DWS for compiling monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. It has been developed at the Institute of Dutch Lexicology (INL since 2007 and is now being used for the production of a monolingual dictionary at INL and a bilingual dictionary at the Fryske Akademy. This paper describes the functionalities of the system, on the one hand, from a lexicographical point of view, and on the other hand, from a more technical perspective. The paper concludes with a short evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of in-house systems versus off-the-shelf systems.

  16. Dictionary of nuclear sciences and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, B.; Santarini, G.

    2008-01-01

    This reference book has been totally reworked in its fourth edition, in order to answer the needs of the numerous sectors of activity concerned by nuclear sciences and technologies: radiation protection, cancerology, neurology and pharmacology in the medical sector, power generation and more generally energy production, micro-electronics, quality control and on-line analysis in many industrial sectors, patrimony preservation, food safety, environmental and paleo-climate studies in relation with climate prospective, etc. This complete overview of the nuclear world integrates the regulatory aspects, necessary to shade light on it, and many other technological innovations. Elaborated with harmonization, clarification and exhaustiveness concerns, this dictionary is the result of a large consensus among the French-speaking nuclear community. It includes some 4800 entries with more than 250 color illustrations and an English-French glossary. Its aim is to offer to everyone a precise vocabulary, fully shared by everybody and necessary for exchanges and debates clarity. (J.S.)

  17. Educational On-Line Gaming Propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Educational on-line games are promising for new generations of students who are grown up digital. Th e new generations of students are technology savvy and spend lots of time on the web and on social networks. Based on an exploratory study, this article investigates the factors that infl uence...... students’ willingness to participate in serious games for teaching/learning. Th is study investigates the relationship between students’ behavior on Facebook, Facebook games, and their attitude toward educational on-line games. Th e results of the study reveal that the early adopters of educational games...... are likely to be students, who are young, have only a few Facebook connections, who currently play Facebook game(s). Furthermore, the study emphasizes that there may be differences between students coming from various countries....

  18. Trends in on-line data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetti, M.

    1981-01-01

    The developement of integrated circuits has been characterized by an exponential growth of gates on a single chip that will still continue in the coming years. In parallel the price per bit is dropping down with more or less the same law. As a consequence of this a few statements can be made: The present 16-bit minicomputer in a small configuration is going to be substituted by a 16-bit microcomputer, and the 16-bit microcomputer in a powerful configuration by a 32-bit midi having also a virtual memory facility. Fully programmable or microcoded powerful devices like the LASS hardware processor or MICE, will allow an efficient on-line filter. Higher computing speed can be achieved by a multiprocessor configuration which can be insensitive to hardware failures. Therefore we are moving towards an integrated on-line computing system with much higher computing power than now and the present distinction between on-line and off-line will no longer be so sharp. As more processing can be performed on-line, fast high quality feed-back can be provided for the experiment. In the years to come the trend towards more processing power, at a lower price, and assembled in the same hardware volume will continue for at least five years; at the same time the future large high-energy physics experiments at LEP will be carried out within a wide international collaboration. In this environment methods must be found for a large fraction of the work to be distributed amongst the collaborators. To accomplish this aim it is necessary to introduce common standard practices concerning both hardware and software, in such a way that the seperate parts, developed by the collaborators, will be plug-compatible. (orig.)

  19. New Trends in on-line Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Palkovič, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with new trend of internet marketing, it focuses especially on viral marketing. The theoretical part charasterizes the process of viral campaigns, furthermore deals with the components and aspects of on-line environment. Another separated chapter presents social networks, their place in viral marketing and at last but not least the viral video making process. The practical part contains different analyses of specific viral campaigns. The next and equally the last pa...

  20. On-Line Maintenance Methodology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Won; Kim, Jae Ho; Jae, Moo Sung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Most of domestic maintenance activities for nuclear power plants are performed while overhaul. Therefore, On-Line Maintenance (OLM) is one of the proper risks informed application techniques for diffusing maintenance burden during overhaul with safety of the plant is secured. The NUMARC 93-01 (Rev.3) presents the OLM state of the art and it provides methodology. This study adopts NUMARC 93-01 (Rev.3) and present OLM. The reference component is Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) of Ulchin 3, 4

  1. Stylistic Performance through Affective Marking: A Case of Multilingual Literary Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjani Chakravarty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overall analysis of how multi-lingual writer like Amitav Ghosh write about emotion in his literary text, and emphasize on how multilingual authors display emotion/affect through use of literary multilingualism (affective markers combined with writer style. Through use of multiple strategies, they reduces the limitations of interpretation of their texts. Furthermore, this paper highlighted the centrally sociolinguistic and cognitive dimensions of the relationships between multilingualism and emotion and how this is influenced by assumptions of Relevance Theory i.e. optimal relevance in a literary text. One should expect to find relationships between sociolinguistic diversity and affective expression for most authors in locally specific ways, whether multilingual or not. Such scholarship can then illuminate how the authors by using literary multilingualism through writer style and affective markers can shape emotions across various contexts in a literary text. Future research into multilingualism and emotion should continue to distinguish between how multilingual authors use linguistic forms to show feeling, and how they express about feeling in their created texts. Keywords: Language, Culture, Literary Multilingualism, Style, Affect and Relevance Theory

  2. How Dictionary Users Choose Senses in Bilingual Dictionary Entries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advanced Polish learners of English, consulted 26 Polish-to-English dictionary pages prompted with a sentence translation task. ... structural involvedness of dictionaries themselves, the quality of the data returned is questionable. In contrast ...... scans patterned differently. They tended to be more rapid and the landing.

  3. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  4. Energy dictionary. 1992 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This dictionary seeks to link the definitions of the various forms of energy in the different languages but makes no effort to be exhaustive, notably in the field of economics where only concepts related to energy have been included. This edition contains nearly 2000 defined concepts and an index of several thousands keywords selected from the concept definitions. Either as a dictionary or a glossary, it is given in four languages: English, French, German and Spanish. This new edition is based on the one published in 1986 which has been considerably expanded by including observations and suggestions received since 1986. Two sections have been added: one section dealing with ''district heating'' and one on ''units''. Internationally recognized, officially adopted and accepted definitions have been used in this edition. A short introduction to each section specifies the scope of its contents

  5. Improving dictionary skills in Ndebele | Hadebe | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article proposes ways of improving dictionary skills amongst the Ndebele. One way of accomplishing this is incorporating the teaching of dictionary skills into teacher trainingsyllabi. Teachers can impart their knowledge to students and a dictionary culture can develop for enhancing effective use of current dictionaries ...

  6. Many general language dictionaries contain specialized terms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Lexikos 25 (AFRILEX-reeks/series 25: 2015): 246-261 ... attention to the link between dictionary functions, corpora and the data presented in dictionaries, ... technical words) in general language dictionaries is sparse and concerns terms .... civil procedure terms to focus on and in which dictionaries to look, I will go on.

  7. Nuclear energy dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-15

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  8. Nuclear energy dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  9. Nuclear operations dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In less than fifty years, a sophisticated technical language has developed worldwide around broad-ranging operations in the field of nuclear technology. In South Africa the need to adapt this new technical language in an orderly and acceptable manner for common use was identified. The aim of this dictionary is to promote the use of correct nuclear technology in both English and Afrikaans, and to aid in the translation of nuclear terms from English into Afrikaans

  10. Nuclear operations dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In less than fifty years, a sophisticated technical language has developed worldwide around broad-ranging operations in the field of nuclear technology. In South Africa the need to adapt this new technical language in an orderly and acceptable manner for common use was identified. The aim of this dictionary is to promote the use of correct nuclear terminology in both Afrikaans and English, and to aid in the translation of nuclear terms from Afrikaans into English

  11. Dictionary of materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedecke, W.

    1992-01-01

    This trilingual dictionary contains about 12000 terms from the field of non-destructive and destructive materials testing; the English and French terms can be looked up in two separate, alphabetical indexes. The compilation also presents terms from related fields such as quality control, production control, environmental protection and radiological protection, and wherever appropriate in the context from the fields of physics, chemistry, mathematics and electronic data processing. (HP) [de

  12. Dictionary of Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Julian

    2005-10-01

    The past decade has seen huge advances in the application of microscopy in all areas of science. This welcome development in microscopy has been paralleled by an expansion of the vocabulary of technical terms used in microscopy: terms have been coined for new instruments and techniques and, as microscopes reach even higher resolution, the use of terms that relate to the optical and physical principles underpinning microscopy is now commonplace. The Dictionary of Microscopy was compiled to meet this challenge and provides concise definitions of over 2,500 terms used in the fields of light microscopy, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, x-ray microscopy and related techniques. Written by Dr Julian P. Heath, Editor of Microscopy and Analysis, the dictionary is intended to provide easy navigation through the microscopy terminology and to be a first point of reference for definitions of new and established terms. The Dictionary of Microscopy is an essential, accessible resource for: students who are new to the field and are learning about microscopes equipment purchasers who want an explanation of the terms used in manufacturers' literature scientists who are considering using a new microscopical technique experienced microscopists as an aide mémoire or quick source of reference librarians, the press and marketing personnel who require definitions for technical reports.

  13. Sparse decompositions in 'incoherent' dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, R.; Nielsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    a unique sparse representation in such a dictionary. In particular, it is proved that the result of Donoho and Huo, concerning the replacement of a combinatorial optimization problem with a linear programming problem when searching for sparse representations, has an analog for dictionaries that may...

  14. Trying Out a New Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Morton; Benson, Evelyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes the BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English and demonstrates its usefulness for advanced learners of English by administering a monolingual completion test, first without a dictionary and then with the BBI, to Hungarian and Russian English teachers. Both groups' scores improved dramatically on the posttest. (LMO)

  15. Multilingual classrooms as sites of negotiations of language and literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Daugaard, Line Møller

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 4, by Daugaard and Laursen, examines a multilingual classroom in Denmark as a site of negotiations of language and literacy. Classrooms have never been homogeneous, in many senses, but in the present era of global fl ows and new forms of mobility the heterogeneous nature of classrooms...... is more prominent than ever. In this chapter, the classroom is characterized as a messy marketplace, in which language ideologies and identity options are maintained, contested and negotiated. The close examination of literacy practices in the classroom in focus in this chapter shows what transitional...... processes take place when people move across spaces and how the sociolinguistic reality of the classroom clashes with the educational conceptualization of ‘the bilingual student’. The analysis also shows how multilingual children actively claim – and transform – linguistic space in the classroom....

  16. Vladimir Nabokov: A Case Study of Multilingualism and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Rothermel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between translation and multilingualism through an examination of Vladimir Nabokov’s works and views on the topic. The main idea of the article is that translation is one of the implications of multi-competence, as defined by Vivian Cook in 1991, and as such is reliant on the translator’s cultural grounding. In Nabokov’s case, multilingualism and multiculturalism resulted in some very specific approaches in his own translation, as well as in his setting of canons for other translators to follow. Advocacy of the literal style in transliteration which remains faithful to the original author constitutes evidence of the utmost appreciation for the broadening of mental horizons that such foreignization may bring. Some rendering of Nabokov’s works into Polish, and the following of his directives in those renditions, were also analyzed by the author of the article.

  17. Mediostructures in bilingual LSP dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that the lexicographic mediostructure is a network structure that deals with a set or sets of relations that exist between different parts of data by way of cross-referencing, dictionary-internal as well as dictionary, external. The abstract mediostructure consists of all...... the possible sets of cross-referential relations, whether realised by concrete sets or not in the dictionary. The actual realisation of these referential networks may be function-related and the primary function of the dictionary may then be given priority. The actual cross-references at this level...... are then the concrete sets of relations depending on the function of the dictionary, the distribution structure and the search path involved in retrieving the information. The paper introduces a distinction between use-related and funtion-related corss-references and focuses on cross-references supporting...

  18. A universal multilingual weightless neural network tagger via quantitative linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Hugo C C; Pedreira, Carlos E; França, Felipe M G; Lima, Priscila M V

    2017-07-01

    In the last decade, given the availability of corpora in several distinct languages, research on multilingual part-of-speech tagging started to grow. Amongst the novelties there is mWANN-Tagger (multilingual weightless artificial neural network tagger), a weightless neural part-of-speech tagger capable of being used for mostly-suffix-oriented languages. The tagger was subjected to corpora in eight languages of quite distinct natures and had a remarkable accuracy with very low sample deviation in every one of them, indicating the robustness of weightless neural systems for part-of-speech tagging tasks. However, mWANN-Tagger needed to be tuned for every new corpus, since each one required a different parameter configuration. For mWANN-Tagger to be truly multilingual, it should be usable for any new language with no need of parameter tuning. This article proposes a study that aims to find a relation between the lexical diversity of a language and the parameter configuration that would produce the best performing mWANN-Tagger instance. Preliminary analyses suggested that a single parameter configuration may be applied to the eight aforementioned languages. The mWANN-Tagger instance produced by this configuration was as accurate as the language-dependent ones obtained through tuning. Afterwards, the weightless neural tagger was further subjected to new corpora in languages that range from very isolating to polysynthetic ones. The best performing instances of mWANN-Tagger are again the ones produced by the universal parameter configuration. Hence, mWANN-Tagger can be applied to new corpora with no need of parameter tuning, making it a universal multilingual part-of-speech tagger. Further experiments with Universal Dependencies treebanks reveal that mWANN-Tagger may be extended and that it has potential to outperform most state-of-the-art part-of-speech taggers if better word representations are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dictionary of radiation protection, radiobiology and nuclear medicine. English-German-French-Russian. Strahlenschutz, Strahlenbiologie, Nuklearmedizin. Englisch-Deutsch-Franzoesisch-Russisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R

    1985-01-01

    This multilingual dictionary covers the subject fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, and nuclear medicine with about 12,000 terms in each language. All terms are supplemented by one or more abbreviations of 22 special branches to assure the use of the very relevant terms. Special branches listed are for instance decontamination, dosimetry, atomic legislation, radiation detectors, radiography (medical), radiotherapy, safeguards, shielding, tansportation and storage. The terminology used in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA has been completely taken into account.

  20. On-line neutron activation analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flahaut, V.; Colmon, A.

    1999-01-01

    A neutronic analyser has been designed to determine the composition of the flow of raw materials entering a cement factory on the conveyor belt. This new system gives a reliable analysis of the whole cargo that outdates the sampling or the usual surface analysis based on fluorescence spectrometry. The accuracy is about 1%.The neutrons interact with the materials on an average depth of 25 cm and are absorbed by nuclei, these nuclei produce photons whose energy is characteristic of the chemical element itself. The composition can be deduced by measuring the number of photons emitted and their energy. The analysis is made on-line and can concern the search for about 10 compounds. In the case of cement the list of compounds is: SiO 2 , CaO, Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, Na 2 O, TiO 2 , S, Mn 2 O 3 , K 2 O, and H 2 O. The neutron generator involves a deuterium ion source whose deuterium ions are accelerated by means of an electrical field and impinge on a tritiated target, the nuclear reactions between deuterium and tritium produce 14 MeV neutrons. This neutron analysing technique can be adapted to any need of on-line composition determination. (A.C.)

  1. PURE OR HYBRID? THE DEVELOPMENT OF MIXED DICTIONARY GENRES

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard R. K. Hartmann

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores 'hybrid' genres of dictionaries and other reference works. Against the tradition of general dictionaries becoming ever more specialised, there has also been a growing trend of mixing two or more 'pure' dictionary types for achieving specific purposes, e.g. the combination of alphabetic and thematic dictionary,general dictionary and technical glossary, dictionary and thesaurus, dictionary and encyclopedia, monolingual and bilingual dictionary, etc. Examples of these various...

  2. Language Practices in Multilingual Communities: Insights from a Suburban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2013-01-01

    As a result of globalisation and mass migration, suburbs and schools around the world are becoming increasingly multiethnic, multilingual places. Yet there is still relatively little linguistic research on how language is used in everyday interaction in these multilingual communities. In this paper, I explore the strengths and limitations of…

  3. Facilitating Reading Acquisition in Multilingual Environments in India (FRAME-India). Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Pooja; de Hoop, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Most of the world is multilingual--multilingual at the national level (policies), at the community and family level (practices), and at the individual level (cognitive)--and each of these has implications for teaching and learning. Yet, at present, most reading decisions are not based on empirical research of how children learn to read in…

  4. Singing as Language Learning Activity in Multilingual Toddler Groups in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultti, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on learning conditions in preschool that support multilingual children's linguistic development. The aim of this paper was to study singing activities through the experiences of ten multilingual children in toddler groups (one to three years of age) in eight Swedish preschools. A sociocultural theoretical approach is used to…

  5. Potential Lessons for Teaching in Multilingual Mathematics Classrooms in Australia and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    Multilingual classrooms are the normal learning contexts for most children throughout the world. However not all such contexts are identical. This distinction is not always made in the literature. In this paper the multilingual context for classrooms in many urban classrooms in Australia is described before exploring a possible model that might be…

  6. Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

  7. Crowd-Sourcing (Semantically) Structured Multilingual Educational Content (CoSMEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasowa, Darya; Auer, Sören; Khalili, Ali; Unbehauen, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The support of multilingual content becomes crucial for educational platforms due to the benefits it offers. In this paper we propose a concept that allows content authors to use the power of the crowd to create (semantically) structured multilingual educational content out of their material. To enable the collaboration of the crowd, we expand our…

  8. Linguistic Minorities and the Multilingual Turn: Constructing Language Ownership through Affect in Cultural Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    The "multilingual turn" brings questions of language ownership to the forefront of debates about linguistic minority governance. Acadian minority cultural producers construct language ownership using multiple languages and targeting multilingual publics, but use ideologies of monolingualism to situate Acadian authenticity in place and…

  9. Multilingual Practices in Contemporary and Historical Contexts: Interfaces between Code-Switching and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Leena; Skaffari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as an introduction to a collection of four articles on multilingual practices in speech and writing, exploring both contemporary and historical sources. It not only introduces the articles but also discusses the scope and definitions of code-switching, attitudes towards multilingual interaction and, most pertinently, the…

  10. Are Multilingualism, Tolerance of Ambiguity, and Attitudes toward Linguistic Variation Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the links between multilingualism, the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA), and attitudes toward linguistic variation among 379 mono-, bi-, and multilingual adults who completed an online questionnaire. A self-reported high level of proficiency in multiple languages, short- and long-term residence abroad, and high…

  11. From Opposition to Transcendence: The Language Practices and Ideologies of Students in a Multilingual University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingyue

    2014-01-01

    This article explores language ideologies and language uses in a multilingual university in Hong Kong by exploring the voices and experiences of both mainland Chinese and Hong Kong students. Drawing on the notions of language ideologies, separate multilingualism, and translanguaging, the research illustrates how students' linguistic ideologies are…

  12. Multilingual Language and Literacy Practices and Social Identities in Sunni Madrassahs in Mauritius: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owodally, Ambarin Mooznah Auleear

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the connections among multilingual language practices, multilingual literacy practices, and social identities in two Sunni madrassahs in Mauritius. The study is framed by sociolinguistic and poststructuralist perspectives on language and identity, and social practice views of literacy. Data collection and analysis involved…

  13. Marketing, Management and Performance: Multilingualism as Commodity in a Tourism Call Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchene, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the ways an institution of the new economy--a tourism call centre in Switzerland--markets, manages and performs multilingual services. In particular, it explores the ways multilingualism operates as a strategic and managerial tool within tourism call centres and how the institutional regulation of language practices…

  14. Social Inclusion through Multilingual Ideologies, Policies and Practices: A Case Study of a Minority Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huamei

    2011-01-01

    Adopting a materialist and processual approach to language and specifically multilingualism, this paper explores what language ideologies a minority, non-educational institution embraced and how this facilitated social inclusion through constructing institutional multilingualism within societal monolingualism. Specifically, I document how a…

  15. Educational Trajectories at the Crossroads: The Making and Unmaking of Multilingual Communities of Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budach, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the educational trajectories of young multilingual learners in Germany. Drawing on previous ethnographic research in a primary bilingual German-Italian Two-Way-Immersion classroom, this study examines the continuity and fragmentation of multilingual learning as they occur in the transition from primary to secondary…

  16. From Bilingualism to Multilingualism in the Workplace: The Case of the Basque Autonomous Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, Karin; Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss the outcomes of a study into the languages of the workplace of internationally operating companies. Our aim is to contribute to studies of multilingualism in the workplace by adopting a holistic approach that focuses on several languages and relates the competences and attitudes of multilingual professionals to the…

  17. Turbulence and Dilemma: Implications of Diversity and Multilingualism in Australian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heugh, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    An international interest in multilingualism and multilingual education has burgeoned since the turn of the twenty-first century, accompanying apparently significant changes in the physical and virtual mobilities of people, international frameworks, and commitments and goals for socially just education. It has also accompanied major political…

  18. Theoretical-and-Methodological Substantiation of Multilingual Model Activity in Kazakhstan Higher School Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospanova, Bikesh Revovna; Azimbayeva, Zhanat Amantayevna; Timokhina, Tatyana Vladimirovna; Seydakhmetova, Zergul Koblandiyevna

    2016-01-01

    The need of implementing the model of professional development in training an expert in the conditions of multilingualism is considered. The possibility of using the multilingual approach in the context of present day education with the use of innovative technologies of training is substantiated, the definition of "multilingual…

  19. Antinomies of Ideologies and Situationality of Education Language Politics in Multilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odugu, Desmond Ikenna

    2015-01-01

    Widespread scholarly and political attention to language-related inequities in the 20th century precipitated a spate of orientations to language planning in multilingual societies. While various orientations indicate a shift from earlier deficit to affirmative views of multilingualism, vigorous debates persist about the logical and pragmatic…

  20. Towards Multilingual Higher Education in South Africa: The University of Cape Town's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiba, Mbulungeni

    2010-01-01

    South African universities are required by the Language Policy for Higher Education adopted by the government on 6 November 2002 to implement multilingualism in their learning and teaching programmes. Multilingualism is recommended in this policy as a means to ensure equity of access and success in higher education, in contrast to past colonial…

  1. Multilingual Interaction and Minority Languages: Proficiency and Language Practices in Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk

    2015-01-01

    In this plenary speech I examine multilingual interaction in a number of European regions in which minority languages are being revitalized. Education is a crucial variable, but the wider society is equally significant. The context of revitalization is no longer bilingual but increasingly multilingual. I draw on the results of a long-running…

  2. The Accommodation of Multilingualism through Blended Learning in Two Information Technology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jako

    2013-01-01

    The South African society can be described as culturally diverse and multilingual. However, despite the advantages of mother-tongue education, English is often chosen as the language of learning and teaching at the cost of the other official languages. This article proposes that multilingualism, through the use of languages other than English in…

  3. Intercultural Contact and Multilingualism in an Intimate Relationship in the Austro-Hungarian Littoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Anja Iveković

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a case study of multilingualism in private correspondence in turn-of-the-century Austro-Hungarian Istria. Language attitudes and use of German, Italian and Slovenian are analyzed, with results indicating the compatibility of national feelings with an appreciation of multilingualism, as well as the important role that intimate intercultural relationships play in this regard in a culturally mixed region.

  4. Reconceptualizing Practice with Multilingual Children with Speech Sound Disorders: People, Practicalities and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The speech and language therapy profession is required to provide services to increasingly multilingual caseloads. Much international research has focused on the challenges of speech and language therapists' (SLTs) practice with multilingual children. Aims: To draw on the experience and knowledge of experts in the field to: (1)…

  5. Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Communication Disorders across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into…

  6. Multilingual Institutional Discourses of Negotiation and Intertextuality in Writing Center Interactions in Macao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice Shu-Ju

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores the identity enactments (Bucholtz & Hall, 2005) of 14 multilingual university writing center tutors and multilingual student writers who use English and Putonghua to negotiate their interactions. The study is situated within sociocultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978) and uses ethnographic methods such as observation,…

  7. Direct and indirect effects of multilingualism on novel language learning: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosh, Zoya; Degani, Tamar

    2017-05-25

    Accumulated recent research suggests that prior knowledge of multiple languages leads to advantages in learning additional languages. In the current article, we review studies examining potential differences between monolingual and multilingual speakers in novel language learning in an effort to uncover the cognitive mechanisms that underlie such differences. We examine the multilingual advantage in children and adults, across a wide array of languages and learner populations. The majority of this literature focused on vocabulary learning, but studies that address phonology, grammar, and literacy learning are also discussed to provide a comprehensive picture of the way in which multilingualism affects novel language learning. Our synthesis indicates two avenues to the multilingual advantage including direct transfer of prior knowledge and prior skills as well as indirect influences that result from multilingual background and include more general changes to the cognitive-linguistic system. Finally, we highlight topics that are in need of future systematic research.

  8. On line nuclear orientation: opportunity and challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the on-line nuclear orientation (OLNO) technique is reviewed. The present potential of the technique is discussed in the light of the attainable temperatures, the use of ion implantation and the required isotope flux. Limitations associated with spin-lattice relaxation are considered in some detail and a survey of accessible nuclei is presented. An outline comparison is given between OLNO and other methods for producing orientation of nuclei, for measuring nuclear spins and static moments and for the study of level structure and transition probabilities. The conclusion is drawn that the method in its present form has extensive potential over a wide range of nuclei. Future prospects for in-beam polarisation giving access to nuclei of shorter half lives are referred to briefly. (Auth.)

  9. An on-line diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felkel, L.

    1987-01-01

    As experience with on-line information systems, experts systems and artificial intelligence tools grows, the authors retreat from the first euphoria that AI could help them solve the problem they were unable to solve with conventional programming. The major effort of the development time goes into building the knowledge-base. There is no such thing as a generic knowledge-base for nuclear power plants as there is, for example, for the diagnosis of a Boeing 747 aircraft. AI-methods, tools and hardware are still in a state which does not optimally lend itself to real-time application. The ability of developing prototype systems to investigate variants otherwise too costly to justify is one advantage that the authors gladly accept. Last, but no least the tools provide a flexible and adaptable user interface (desktop window systems) etc. The development of such tools in a project would be prohibitive and room for experimentation would be limited

  10. On-Line Algorithms and Reverse Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Seth

    In this thesis, we classify the reverse-mathematical strength of sequential problems. If we are given a problem P of the form ∀X(alpha(X) → ∃Zbeta(X,Z)) then the corresponding sequential problem, SeqP, asserts the existence of infinitely many solutions to P: ∀X(∀nalpha(Xn) → ∃Z∀nbeta(X n,Zn)). P is typically provable in RCA0 if all objects involved are finite. SeqP, however, is only guaranteed to be provable in ACA0. In this thesis we exactly characterize which sequential problems are equivalent to RCA0, WKL0, or ACA0.. We say that a problem P is solvable by an on-line algorithm if P can be solved according to a two-player game, played by Alice and Bob, in which Bob has a winning strategy. Bob wins the game if Alice's sequence of plays 〈a0, ..., ak〉 and Bob's sequence of responses 〈 b0, ..., bk〉 constitute a solution to P. Formally, an on-line algorithm A is a function that inputs an admissible sequence of plays 〈a 0, b0, ..., aj〉 and outputs a new play bj for Bob. (This differs from the typical definition of "algorithm", though quite often a concrete set of instructions can be easily deduced from A.). We show that SeqP is provable in RCA0 precisely when P is solvable by an on-line algorithm. Schmerl proved this result specifically for the graph coloring problem; we generalize Schmerl's result to any problem that is on-line solvable. To prove our separation, we introduce a principle called Predictk(r) that is equivalent to -WKL0 for standard k, r.. We show that WKL0 is sufficient to prove SeqP precisely when P has a solvable closed kernel. This means that a solution exists, and each initial segment of this solution is a solution to the corresponding initial segment of the problem. (Certain bounding conditions are necessary as well.) If no such solution exists, then SeqP is equivalent to ACA0 over RCA 0 + ISigma02; RCA0 alone suffices if only sequences of standard length are considered. We use different techniques from Schmerl to prove

  11. Software for on-line experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanchenko, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review of nowadays development state of software of on-line electron experiments is presented. The principles of organization of real time systems on second generation computer base are considered. The following methods for projections search are considered: combinator methods, global methods, methods of tracking, methods of a supporting band. The following methods for determining parameter estimates based on the Lorentz equation are analysed: analytical simulation of trajectories, determination of parameters by the iterative method using the technique of calculation of recycled integrals, multidimensional statistical analysis. For the purpose of successful usage and development of software the technique of selfdocumented programs is created and the computer is applied for preparing, revising and circulation of external descriptions which as program complexes are constructed according to the hierarchical principle [ru

  12. On line protection systems for induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, I.; Celik, H.; Sefa, I.; Demirbas, S.

    2005-01-01

    Protection of induction motors is very important since they are widely used in industry for many applications due to their high robustness, reliability, low cost and maintenance, high efficiency and long service life. So, protecting these motors is crucial for operations. This paper presents a combined protection approach for induction motors. To achieve this, the electrical values of the induction motor were measured with sensitivity ±1% through a data acquisition card and processed with software developed in Visual C++. An on line protection system for induction motors was achieved easily and effectively. The experimental results have shown that the induction motor was protected against the possible problems faced during the operation. The software developed for this protection provides flexible and reliable media for operators and their motors. It is expected that the motor protection achieved in this study might be faster than the classical techniques and also may be applied to larger motors easily after small modifications of the software

  13. Dictionary of dissuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodka-Gallien, P.

    2011-09-01

    With more than 300 head words, this dictionary covers, at the worldwide scale, the history of men (from Curie and Einstein to Barack Obama), the issues (secrecy and information, weapons rush, proliferation and counter-proliferation..), the strategies (massive or gradual counter-attacks), the organisations (IAEA, CEA, Greenpeace etc.) and the equipments in relation with nuclear dissuasion. If the main part of the book is devoted to military equipments and topics, some other aspects of the nuclear domain are also presented, like radioactivity, civil nuclear accidents, thermonuclear fusion, laboratory equipments, disarmament and others. (J.S.)

  14. Dictionary of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel-Marie

    2006-01-01

    This book comes out of need and urgency (expressed especially in areas of Information Retrieval with respect to Image, Audio, Internet and Biology) to have a working tool to compare data.The book will provide powerful resource for all researchers using Mathematics as well as for mathematicians themselves. In the time when over-specialization and terminology fences isolate researchers, this Dictionary try to be ""centripedal"" and ""oikoumeni"", providing some access and altitude of vision but without taking the route of scientific vulgarisation. This attempted balance is the main philosophy

  15. Modern dictionary of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1999-01-01

    Included in this fully revised classic are well over 28,000 terms, phrases, acronyms, and abbreviations from the ever-expanding worlds of consumer electronics, optics, microelectronics, computers, communications, and medical electronics. From the basic elements of theory to the most cutting-edge circuit technology, this book explains it all in both words and pictures.For easy reference, the author has provided definitions for standard abbreviations and equations as well as tables of SI (International System of Units) units, measurements, and schematic symbolsModern Dictionary of Electronics is

  16. Aprender a innovar: una experiencia on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín MORENO MARCHAL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La creatividad y la innovación se han convertido en recursos clave en la denominada sociedad del conocimiento, que bien podría ser también llamada sociedad de la innovación. Pero innovar es una actividad compleja, que integra la aplicación de múltiples capacidades, el pensamiento divergente y convergente, la gestión de equipos humanos, la comunicación. Ahora bien, a innovar se puede, y se debe, aprender. Aprender a innovar es un reto y también una obligación para el conjunto del sistema educativo en todos sus niveles. Partiendo de estas consideraciones este trabajo expone una experiencia de aprendizaje de la creatividad y de la innovación a través de un curso totalmente on line basado en la plataforma MOODLE, en el marco del Programa de Formación Permanente de la Universidad de Cádiz. Se presenta un modelo del proceso de innovación, denominado CREALAB, de elaboración propia. Este modelo se ha utilizado como base del proceso de aprendizaje de la creatividad y de la innovación y en el diseño del curso, está organizado en torno a actividades y tiene un carácter iterativo y realimentado. Se presentan además el conjunto del diseño metodológico y los resultados obtenidos en las dos ediciones celebradas hasta el momento. El diseño del curso totalmente on line y los resultados alcanzados permiten estimar un alto potencial de aplicación, tanto a nivel personal como a nivel organizacional.

  17. Dictionary of electrical engineering. Power engineering, automation technology, measurement and control technology, mechatronics. English - German; Fachwoerterbuch Elektrotechnik. Energietechnik, Automatisierungstechnik, Mess-, Steuer- und Regelungstechnik, Mechatronik. Englisch - Deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckler, H.

    2007-07-01

    The foreign-language vocabulary taught at school usually does not cover terms needed during professional life in electrical engineering. This comprehensive dictionary contains more than 60,000 electrotechnical and engineering terms - used in textbooks, manuals, data sheets, whitepapers and international standards. British English and American English spelling differences are identified. Terms used in IEC standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission are marked, allowing the reader to have easy access to the multilingual glossary of the IEC. This book contains the in-house dictionaries of the internationally operating companies Festo, KEB, Phoenix Contact, and Rittal. Topics: - Basic of electrical engineering, - Electrical power engineering, - Mechatronics, - Electrical drive engineering, - Electrical connection technology, - Automation technology, - Safety-related technology, - Information technology, - Measurement and control technology, - Explosion protection - Power plant technology, - Lightning and overvoltage protection. (orig.)

  18. The Implications of Culture for Dictionaries of the African Languages*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Nkabinde

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article attempts to show how culture or aspects thereof can be used to comple-ment linguistic and other information in the compilation of dictionaries of African languages. Some obstacles in the way of achieving this goal are identified and proposals made on how to deal with them. Although only some cultural aspects of a single language are examined, the conclusions are valid for cultural aspects of all African languages.

    Keywords: CONTEXT, CULTURE, CORPUS, EUPHEMISM, FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE, HLONIPHA, KINSHIP TERMS, LEXICAL BORROWING, MULTILINGUALISM, SPEECH COM-MUNITY, STANDARD ZULU, TABOO

    Opsomming: Die implikasies van kultuur vir woordeboeke van die Afri-katale. Hierdie artikel probeer om aan te toon hoe kultuur of aspekte daarvan gebruik kan word om taalkundige en ander inligting aan te vul by die samestelling van woordeboeke van die Afrika-tale. 'n Aantal struikelblokke op die weg om hierdie doel te bereik, word geïdentifiseer en voor-stelle gemaak oor hoe om hulle te hanteer. Alhoewel slegs sommige kulturele aspekte van 'n enkele taal ondersoek word, is die gevolgtrekkings geldig vir kulturele aspekte van alle Afrikatale.

    Sleutelwoorde: EUFEMISME, FIGUURLIKE TAAL, HLONIPHA, KONTEKS, KORPUS, KULTUUR, LEKSIKALE ONTLENING, TAALGEMEENSKAP, TABOE, STANDAARDZOELOE, VEELTALIGHEID, VERWANTSKAPSTERME

  19. System semantics of explanatory dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available System semantics of explanatory dictionaries Some semantic properties of the language to be followed from the structure of lexicographical systems of big explanatory dictionaries are considered. The hyperchains and hypercycles are determined as the definite kind of automorphisms of the lexicographical system of explanatory dictionary. Some semantic consequencies following from the principles of lexicographic closure and lexicographic completeness are investigated using the hyperchains and hypercycles formalism. The connection between the hypercyle properties of the lexicographical system semantics and Goedel’s incompleteness theorem is discussed.

  20. Seismic classification through sparse filter dictionaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickmann, Kyle Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Srinivasan, Gowri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-13

    We tackle a multi-label classi cation problem involving the relation between acoustic- pro le features and the measured seismogram. To isolate components of the seismo- grams unique to each class of acoustic pro le we build dictionaries of convolutional lters. The convolutional- lter dictionaries for the individual classes are then combined into a large dictionary for the entire seismogram set. A given seismogram is classi ed by computing its representation in the large dictionary and then comparing reconstruction accuracy with this representation using each of the sub-dictionaries. The sub-dictionary with the minimal reconstruction error identi es the seismogram class.

  1. Bootstrapping pronunciation dictionaries: practical issues

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Bootstrapping techniques are an efficient way to develop electronic pronunciation dictionaries, but require fast system response to be practical for medium-to-large lexicons. In addition, user errors are inevitable during this process...

  2. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  3. A Dictionary of Disaster Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier; Dahlberg, Rasmus

    A Dictionary of Disaster Management offers over 200 terms covering different disasters from a social science perspective, brining together insights from many different disciplines including sociology, political science, history, anthropology, and natural science. It also features practical terms...

  4. NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dictionary of more than 150 genetics-related terms written for healthcare professionals. This resource was developed to support the comprehensive, evidence-based, peer-reviewed PDQ cancer genetics information summaries.

  5. Kirkeby's English?Swahili Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Mdee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Kirkeby's English–Swahili Dictionary is a bilingual dictionary of more than 50 000entries. The most laudable feature of the dictionary is its attempt to be user-friendly especially inthe way the entry words have been arranged and the amount of information given. However, aclear objective for the compilation of the ditionary is lacking. The compilers do not seem to knowthe lexicographical gap they want to fill, the users they are targeting, and their dictionary-usingskills. In discussing the strong and weak points of the dictionary, the article will refer to theories ofdictionary criticism. Three criteria set by McMillan (1949 will guide this review article: (1 thequantity of the information in the dictionary; (2 the quality of the information presented; and (3the effectiveness of the presentation of the information. Questions posed in the course of this articlewill include: Does the dictionary give the information required by the user? Is the informationtransparently accessible? How is the information presented?

    Keywords: DICTIONARY EVALUATION, USER-FRIENDLY, DICTIONARY-USINGSKILLS, LEXICOGRAPHICAL ENTRIES, GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES, SUBGRAMMATICALCATEGORIES, WORD COMBINATIONS, COLLOCATIONS, TRANSLATION EQUIVALENTS

    Opsomming: Kirkeby se English–Swahili Dictionary. Kirkeby se English–SwahiliDictionary is 'n tweetalige woordeboek met meer as 50 000 inskrywings. Die mees prysenswaardigekenmerk van die woordeboek is sy poging om gebruikersvriendelik te wees, veral deur die manierwaarop die trefwoorde gerangskik is en die hoeveelheid inligting wat verskaf word. 'n Duidelikedoelwit vir die samestelling van die woordeboek ontbreek egter. Die samestellers is skynbaaronseker oor die leksikografiese leemte wat hulle wil vul, en die gebruikers vir wie dit bedoel is enhul woordeboekgebruikersvaardighede. In die bespreking van die sterk en die swak eienskappevan die woordeboek sal die artikel verwys na teorieë van

  6. On-line maintenance at Cofrentes NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan Vilches, J.; Moreno Matarranz, M. A.; Hermana Mendioroz, I.

    1998-01-01

    Cofrentes NPP has begun in 1997 activities related to At Power Preventive Maintenance over trains or systems which lead to a voluntary entry in a Limitative Condition of Operation (LCO) of the Technical Specifications. From others benefits, this program ha improved the risk management and the staff's knowledge over the functions and safety implications of the different systems, the better exploit of the resources, the co-ordination of the different organisations involved (Maintenance an Operation) and the reductions of works during shutdowns. Previous to each work, a feasibility study analyzes qualitative and quantitative (PSA), using the Risk Monitor, the implications on safety of all the tasks, assuring that the global safety of the Plant is always maintained. Tech. Spec. are analyzed in detail and also are analyzed situations of simultaneous unavailabilities of systems which could lead to a high risk situation. Two different risk controls are defined (punctual and accumulated) to assure that high risk situations will not be given. Finally, historical risk profile is analyzed to assure that the accumulated risk increase is not significant. Risk Monitor helps staff in the schedule and follow-up of the activities of On-Line Maintenance. Each one of the tasks are deeply planned and harshly analyzed and are carried out by high qualified workers. By the moment, this program is running with fully satisfaction on the Plant. (Author)

  7. SOL: INNOVACIÓN ON-LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Faúndez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Las aplicaciones de simulación tienden a ser cada vez más cercanas a usuarios e industrias. Sin embargo, muchas de ellas no poseen ni la capacidad ni el conocimiento como para desarrollar internamente sus modelos de simulación. Por este motivo, y como una forma de apoyar la toma de decisiones basándose en modelos de simulación, se presenta la plataforma SOL (Simulación On Line. La metodología completa de trabajo, así como la interacción entre SOL, Empresa y Asesor, son presentadas. Su base de datos, los niveles de usuarios, sus funcionalidades, y la creación automatizada de información grafica y visual, también son explicadas. En el caso de aplicación, el uso de SOL para apoyar la toma de decisiones en una operación de movimiento de material, permite a los tomadores de decisión acceder a análisis robustos basados en información extraída de los modelos de simulación. SOL, al almacenar información, funcionar vía web, generar análisis automatizados y crear visualizaciones, permite cumplir con las expectativas de los usuarios respecto a una solución integral en simulación.

  8. Simplified automatic on-line document searching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    1983-01-01

    The author proposed searching method for users who need not-comprehensive retrieval. That is to provide flexible number of related documents for the users automatically. A group of technical terms are used as search terms to express an inquiry. Logical sums of the terms in the ascending order of frequency of the usage are prepared sequentially and automatically, and then the search formulas, qsub(m) and qsub(m-1) which meet certain threshold values are selected automatically also. Users justify precision of the search output up to 20 items retrieved by the formula qsub(m). If a user wishes more than 30% of recall ratio, the serach result should be output by qsub(m), and if he wishes less than 30% of it, it should be output by qsub(m-1). The search by this method using one year volume of INIS Database (76,600 items) and five inquiries resulted in 32% of recall ratio and 36% of precision ratio on the average in the case of qsub(m). The connecting time of a terminal was within 15 minutes per an inquiry. It showed more efficiency than that of an inexperienced searcher. The method can be applied to on-line searching system for database in which natural language only or natural language and controlled vocabulary are used. (author)

  9. On-Line Impact Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sekuła

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Adaptive Impact Absorption (AIA is a research area of safety engineering devoted to problems of shock absorption in various unpredictable scenarios of collisions. It makes use of smart technologies (systems equipped with sensors, controllable dissipaters and specialised tools for signal processing. Examples of engineering applications for AIA systems are protective road barriers, automotive bumpers or adaptive landing gears. One of the most challenging problems for AIA systems is on-line identification of impact loads, which is crucial for introducing the optimum real-time strategy of adaptive impact absorption. This paper presents the concept of an impactometer and develops the methodology able to perform real-time impact load identification. Considered dynamic excitation is generated by a mass M1 impacting with initial velocity V0. An analytical formulation of the problem, supported with numerical simulations and experimental verifications is presented. Two identification algorithms based on measured response of the impacted structure are proposed and discussed. Finally, a concept of the AIA device utilizing the idea of impactometer is briefly presented.

  10. Application of on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Dong; Li Weimin; He Duohui; Liu Gongfa; Xuan Ke

    2005-01-01

    A method of application of the on-line analytical processing technique in accelerator is described, which includes data pre-processing, the process of constructing of data warehouse and on-line analytical processing. (authors)

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Palladium and Platinum by On-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with an on-line enrichment technique. Prior to ... The on-line enrichment system (Waters Corporation, USA) that was ... Using an appropriate volume (industrial plant effluents 20 mL,.

  12. Influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hictaler, Urška

    2013-01-01

    This diploma work studies the influence of visualization on consumption during on-line shopping. The first part of the thesis starts with key areas of visualization, consumption and on-line shopping. Visualization, areas of use, human perception and ways of product presentation in on-line shops are defined discussed first. Next, consumption, consumers and factors that influence their decisions and satisfaction are defined. The last topic in the first part of the thesis discusses on-line shopp...

  13. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se. PMID:29354017

  14. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R

    2018-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se.

  15. One World, One Sky: Outreach in a Multicultural, Multilingual Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M.

    2015-03-01

    As cities around the world grow more and more diverse, we must take this diversity into account in developing outreach activities and materials. The International Year of Astronomy in 2009 brought a lot of attention to the needs of underserved communities and developing countries, emphasizing the ideal of widespread access to astronomy outreach. Increasingly, however, we find that some of the same challenges facing underserved communities and developing countries are also present in modern metropolises. Conveniently, the linguistic and cultural diversity of our cities is more and more accurately reflected among the astronomy community. The diversity of the astronomical community itself creates opportunities for effective multicultural, multilingual outreach.

  16. Epistemonikos: a free, relational, collaborative, multilingual database of health evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Gabriel; Pérez, Daniel; Capurro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Epistemonikos (www.epistemonikos.org) is a free, multilingual database of the best available health evidence. This paper describes the design, development and implementation of the Epistemonikos project. Using several web technologies to store systematic reviews, their included articles, overviews of reviews and structured summaries, Epistemonikos is able to provide a simple and powerful search tool to access health evidence for sound decision making. Currently, Epistemonikos stores more than 115,000 unique documents and more than 100,000 relationships between documents. In addition, since its database is translated into 9 different languages, Epistemonikos ensures that non-English speaking decision-makers can access the best available evidence without language barriers.

  17. Advanced Encoding for Multilingual Access in a Terminological Data Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Robichaud, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new functionalities implemented in a terminological database (TDB) in order to allow efficient editing of and access to multilingual data. The functionalities are original in the sense that they allow users of the database to retrieve the equivalents not only of headwords...... between equivalents can be established automatically. Examples are taken from the fields of computing and the Internet and focus on English and French. However, the model can easily be extended to other fields and languages provided that the data is available and encoded properly....

  18. A Distributed System for Learning Programming On-Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing…

  19. The concept of a bilingual dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2005-01-01

    The term bilingual dictionary is widely used, not only by librarians and dictionary users en general but also by professional lexicographers dedicated to the theory and practice of dictionary making. For this reason it should be expected that there were a common and well-established definition...... of the concept of a bilingual dictionary. It is evident that most people has an intuitive idea of what is meant by «bilingual dictionary». But science-based lexicographic theory - at least if it wants to be considered as such - must go beyond intuition and furnish precise definitions of the concepts used...... chapters, various definitions will be discussed and related to dictionary practice and, subsequently, the very concept of a bilingual dictionary will be examined in the light of a dictionary typology based upon the modern theory of lexicographic functions....

  20. The Pocket Dictionary: A Textbook for Spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Maran

    1982-01-01

    Reports on a productive approach to secondary-school spelling instruction--one that emphasizes how and when to use the dictionary. Describes two of the many class activities that cultivate student use of the dictionary. (RL)

  1. Cheap Words: A Paperback Dictionary Roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kister, Ken

    1979-01-01

    Surveys currently available paperback editions in three classes of dictionaries: collegiate, abridged, and pocket. A general discussion distinguishes among the classes and offers seven consumer tips, followed by an annotated listing of dictionaries now available. (SW)

  2. Namibian University Entrants' Concepts of 'a Dictionary'*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    , nor is it ..... Rather, it indicates the effect of OUP's marketing efforts ..... tionary pedagogy it might not be sufficient to merely state that a dictionary ... To determine if the variables of exposure to dictionary pedagogy at school, fre-.

  3. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  4. Dictionary of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Counihan, M

    1981-01-01

    Every aspect of energy - production, conversion and use - is discussed and explained. Comprehensive and well-illustrated entries cover fossil and other types of chemical fuel; hydroelectric and nuclear power; energy conservation; solar energy of every kind; wind, wave and tidal power. Every type of nuclear reactor is described, with emphasis on the energy technologies that have the greatest present relevance and future promise. The first section is devoted to an explanation of the units used, with conversion tables; key concepts are defined. The closing sections comprise tables of international energy statistics and a short bibliography. This dictionary is an introduction and reference book for general readers, students and all workers in energy and energy-related fields. It is fully metricated.

  5. Dictionary of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    This dictionary covers nuclear engineering defined in its general sense as applied nuclear physics: industrial and other applications of nuclear power, isotopes and ionizing radiation, nuclear materials, nuclear facilities and nuclear weapons together with their scientific and technological fundamentals. During the compilation of terms, great attention was only given to generally valid basic expressions and to special terms where these occurred in all four languages. A great number of textbooks and monographs, as well as specialist journals covering many years, have been evaluated. Detailed attention has been paid to standards. Of importance in nuclear engineering are the international standards of the International Atomic Energy Organization (including the terminology employed by the International Nuclear Information System INIS), the International Organization of Standardization, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, the World Energy Conference, the International Electrical Engineering Commission, and also a great many national standards which, unfortunately, frequently deviate from one another as regards definition and, in particular, designation. (orig.)

  6. Linked Heritage: a collaborative terminology management platform for a network of multilingual thesauri and controlled vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Veronique Leroi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminology and multilingualism have been one of the main focuses of the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a legacy of this project also deals with terminology and bring theory to practice applying the recommendations given in the Athena Project. Linked Heritage as a direct follow-up of these recommendations on terminology and multilingualism is currently working on the development of a Terminology Management Platform (TMP. This platform will allow any cultural institution to register, SKOSify and manage its terminology in a collaborative way. This Terminology Management Platform will provide a network of multilingual and cross-domain terminologies.

  7. Uma investigação dos sentidos de um phrasal verb por meio dos corpora e dicionários on-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Fernandes Bonalumi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa analisamos o uso do phrasal verbs throw up encontrado em dois corpora on-line originalmente escritos em língua inglesa, a saber: British National Corpus (BNC e Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA, bem como no livro didático adotado em sala de aula New English File Upper-Intermediate, com o suporte dos dicionários on-line Cambridge Online Dictionary e Macmillan Dictionary. Objetivamos identificar, classificar e generalizar o uso e significados do phrasal verb selecionado para a análise nos respectivos corpora on-line em relação ao seu uso e significado no livro didático anteriormente mencionado. Por meio dos corpora e dicionários on-line, o aluno expandirá seu conhecimento acerca do uso e significados de um determinado phrasal verb, como o analisado nesta investigação. Palavras-chave: linguística de corpus; ensino movido por dados; phrasal verbs.

  8. Web Resources and Tools for Slovenian with a Focus on the Slovenian-English Language Infrastructure: Dictionaries in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šorli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a presentation of a selection of electronic monolingual and bi/multilingual lexicographic resources and corpora available today to contemporary users of Slovene. The focus is on works combined with English and designed for translation purposes which provide information on the meaning of words and wider lexical units, i.e., e-dictionaries, lexical databases, web translation tools and various corpora. In a separate sub-section the most common translation technologies are presented, together with an evaluation of their role in the modern translation process. Sections 2 and 3 provide a brief outline of the changes that have affected classical dictionary planning, compilation and use in the new digital environment, as well as of the relationship between dictionaries and related resources, such as lexical databases. Some stereotypes regarding dictionary use are identified and, in conclusion, the existing corpus-based databases for the Slovenian-English pair are presented, with a view to determining priorities for the future interlingual infrastructure action plans in Slovenia.

  9. The Oxford English Dictionary: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Ronald H.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the development of English dictionaries in general and the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) in particular. The discussion covers the decision by the Philological Society to create the dictionary, the principles that guided its development, the involvement of James Augustus Henry Murray, the magnitude and progress of the project, and the…

  10. THE PROPOSED NDEBELE-SHONA DICTIONARY: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Ndebele and Shona reflect the intentions of Zimbabwean language planners from different periods. .... The inclusion of the bilingual dictionary in the ALLEX master plan for dictionaries implies that the importance of the dictionary was already felt at that very early .... among others, patriotism, moral values and national unity.

  11. Elaboration of a dictionary for radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Roberto A.; Huff, Stanley M.; Haug, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    The process for creating a dictionary to represent chest radiologic findings is summarized. The dictionary is built from different sources of terms, including medical vocabularies and chest X-ray reports. The relevance of each source is estimated using the proportions with which they can be found in the final edition of the dictionary

  12. The New Unabridged English-Persian Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpur, Abbas; Saleh, Jahan Shah

    This five-volume English-Persian dictionary is based on Webster's International Dictionary (1960 and 1961) and The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1959); it attempts to provide Persian equivalents of all the words of Oxford and all the key-words of Webster. Pronunciation keys for the English phonetic transcription and for the difficult Persian…

  13. Methods in Lexicography and Dictionary Research | Schierholz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods are used in every stage of dictionary-making and in every scientific analysis which is carried out in the field of dictionary research. This article presents some general considerations on methods in philosophy of science, gives an overview of many methods used in linguistics, in lexicography, dictionary research as ...

  14. Expectation Levels in Dictionary Consultation and Compilation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionary consultation and compilation is a two-way engagement between two parties, namely a dictionary user and a lexicographer. How well users cope with looking up words in a Bantu language dictionary and to what extent their expectations are met, depends on their consultation skills, their knowledge of the structure ...

  15. Klein Woordeboek / Little Dictionary | Louw | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilingual translation dictionaries play an important part in modern user orientated lexicography in South Africa. An affordable bidirectional pocket translation dictionary, such as Klein Woordeboek/Little Dictionary, with English and Afrikaans as language pair, is growing in value as a carrier of necessary everyday linguistic ...

  16. Expectation Levels in Dictionary Consultation and Compilation*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Dictionary consultation and compilation is a two-way engagement between two par- ties, namely a dictionary user and a lexicographer. How well users cope with looking up words in a Bantu language dictionary and to what extent their expectations are met, depends on their con- sultation skills, their knowledge of ...

  17. Highlighting Entanglement of Cultures via Ranking of Multilingual Wikipedia Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-01-01

    How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013 PMID:24098338

  18. Highlighting entanglement of cultures via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Eom

    Full Text Available How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013.

  19. Literacy at a Distance in Multilingual Contexts: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine I. Ofulue

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Literacy is perhaps the most fundamental skill required for effective participation in education (formal and non-formal for national development. At the same time, the choice of language for literacy is a complex issue in multilingual societies like Nigeria. This paper examines the issues involved, namely language policy, language and teacher development, and the role of distance education and information and communication technologies (ICTs, in making literacy accessible in as many languages as possible. Two distance learning literacy projects are presented as case studies and the lessons learned are discussed. The findings of this study suggest that although there is evidence of growing accessibility to ICTs like mobile phones, their use and success to increase access to literacy in the users’ languages are yet to be attained and maximised. The implication of the lessons learned should be relevant to other multilingual nations that seek the goal of increasing access to learning and promoting development so as to harvest economic benefits.

  20. Facilitating Multilingual Tutorials at the University of the Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Buisson Theuns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting undergraduate studies in the English language, while only a small minority of students speak English at home, poses many problems to learning in the South African context. This article explores how restrictive language policies may influence proper learning and impact negatively on the self-understanding of students. It also explores how multilingualism could help to reduce the continued reliance on English, without doing away with English in its entirety. This is especially relevant in light of English and other colonial languages still being perceived as “languages of power” (Stroud & Kerfoot, 2013, p. 403. Therefore, attention is given to the link between language and power, especially in light of languages often being used to implement, display and preserve power. Language use in the classroom, especially with regard to codeswitching (also called translanguaging, is discussed. Finally, it explores the success that was achieved during multilingual tutorial sessions. In the tutorials, students were encouraged to explore the course work in their native languages, thereby internalising it and getting a better understanding thereof.

  1. From Word Alignment to Word Senses, via Multilingual Wordnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the successful commercial applications in language processing (text and/or speech dispense with any explicit concern on semantics, with the usual motivations stemming from the computational high costs required for dealing with semantics, in case of large volumes of data. With recent advances in corpus linguistics and statistical-based methods in NLP, revealing useful semantic features of linguistic data is becoming cheaper and cheaper and the accuracy of this process is steadily improving. Lately, there seems to be a growing acceptance of the idea that multilingual lexical ontologisms might be the key towards aligning different views on the semantic atomic units to be used in characterizing the general meaning of various and multilingual documents. Depending on the granularity at which semantic distinctions are necessary, the accuracy of the basic semantic processing (such as word sense disambiguation can be very high with relatively low complexity computing. The paper substantiates this statement by presenting a statistical/based system for word alignment and word sense disambiguation in parallel corpora. We describe a word alignment platform which ensures text pre-processing (tokenization, POS-tagging, lemmatization, chunking, sentence and word alignment as required by an accurate word sense disambiguation.

  2. Multilingualism and cognitive state in the oldest old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Eyal, Nitza; Shorek, Aviva; Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the authors examined whether the number of languages a person speaks predicts performance on 2 cognitive-screening tests. Data were drawn from a representative sample of the oldest Israeli Jewish population (N = 814, M age = 83.0 years; SD = 5.4) that was interviewed first in 1989 and then twice more within the following 12 years. Cognitive state differed significantly among groups of self-reported bilingual, trilingual, and multilingual individuals at each of the 3 interview waves. Regression analyses showed that the number of languages spoken contributed to the prediction of cognitive test scores beyond the effect of other demographic variables, such as age, gender, place of birth, age at immigration, or education. Multilingualism was also found to be a significant predictor of cognitive state in a group of individuals who acquired no formal education at all. Those who reported being most fluent in a language other than their mother tongue scored higher on average than did those whose mother tongue was their best language, but the effect of number of languages on cognitive state was significant in both groups, with no significant interaction. Results are discussed in the context of theories of cognitive reserve. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Semantic transference for enriching multilingual biomedical knowledge resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María; Berlanga, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Biomedical knowledge resources (KRs) are mainly expressed in English, and many applications using them suffer from the scarcity of knowledge in non-English languages. The goal of the present work is to take maximum profit from existing multilingual biomedical KRs lexicons to enrich their non-English counterparts. We propose to combine different automatic methods to generate pair-wise language alignments. More specifically, we use two well-known translation methods (GIZA++ and Moses), and we propose a new ad hoc method specially devised for multilingual KRs. Then, resulting alignments are used to transfer semantics between KRs across their languages. Transference quality is ensured by checking the semantic coherence of the generated alignments. Experiments have been carried out over the Spanish, French and German UMLS Metathesaurus counterparts. As a result, the enriched Spanish KR can grow up to 1,514,217 concepts (originally 286,659), the French KR up to 1,104,968 concepts (originally 83,119), and the German KR up to 1,136,020 concepts (originally 86,842). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multilingualism in Canadian schools: Myths, realities and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Duff

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bilingualism and multiculturalism have for four decades been official ideologies and policies in Canada but, as is often the case, the implementation and outcomes of such government policies nationally are less impressive than the rhetoric would suggest. This article reviews the political, theoretical and demographic contexts justifying support for the learning and use of additional languages in contemporary Canadian society and schools, and summarizes research demonstrating that bilingualism and multilingualism are indeed cognitively, socially, and linguistically advantageous for children (and adults, as well as for society. The five studies in this special issue are then previewed with respect to the following themes that run across them: (1 the potential for bilingual synergies and transformations in language awareness activities and crosslinguistic knowledge construction; (2 the role of multiliteracies and multimodality in mediated learning; and (3 the interplay of positioning, identity, and agency in language learning by immigrant youth. The article concludes that more Canadian schools and educators must, like the researchers in this volume, find ways to embrace and build upon students’ prior knowledge, their creativity, their collaborative problem-solving skills, their potential for mastering and manipulating multiple, multilingual semiotic tools, and their desire for inclusion and integration in productive, engaging learning communities.

  5. PURE OR HYBRID? THE DEVELOPMENT OF MIXED DICTIONARY GENRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard R. K. Hartmann

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores 'hybrid' genres of dictionaries and other reference works. Against the tradition of general dictionaries becoming ever more specialised, there has also been a growing trend of mixing two or more 'pure' dictionary types for achieving specific purposes, e.g. the combination of alphabetic and thematic dictionary,general dictionary and technical glossary, dictionary and thesaurus, dictionary and encyclopedia, monolingual and bilingual dictionary, etc. Examples of these various sub-types are discussed (admitting that dictionary research has neglected their study,with the aim of determining overall trends and implications, particularly with regard to the possibility of their further development with the means of information technology.

  6. Robust on-line monitoring of biogas processes; Robusta maettekniker on-line foer optimerad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aake; Hansson, Mikael; Kanerot, Mija; Krozer, Anatol; Loefving, Bjoern; Sahlin, Eskil

    2010-03-15

    Although demand for biomethane in Sweden is higher than ever, many Swedish codigestion plants are presently operated below their designed capacity. Efforts must be taken to increase the loading rate and guarantee stable operation and high availability of the plants. There are currently no commercial systems for on-line monitoring, and due to the characteristics of the material, including corrosion and tearing, robust applications have to be developed. The objective of this project was to identify and study different monitoring technologies with potential for on-line monitoring of both substrate mixtures and anaerobic digester content. Based on the prerequisites and demands at Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB's (BEMAB, the municipal energy and waste utility in the city of Boraas, Sweden) biogas plant, the extent of the problems, measurement variables and possible ways of managing these issues have been identified and prioritized. The substrate mixtures in question have a high viscosity and are inhomogeneous with variation in composition, which calls for further homogenization, dilution and filtration to achieve high precision in the necessary analyses. Studies of using different mixers and mills showed that the particle size (800 mum) needed for on-line COD measurement could not be achieved. The problem of homogenization can be avoided if indirect measurement methods are used. Laboratory tests with NIR (near-infra red spectroscopy) showed that VS can be predicted (R2=0,78) in the interval of 2-9% VS. Furthermore, impedance can give a measurement of soluble components. However, impedance is not sensitive enough to give a good measurement of total TS. Microwave technology was installed at the production plant and showed a faster response to changes in TS than the existing TS-sensor. However, due to technical problems, the evaluation only could be done during a limited period of ten days. BEMAB will continue the measurements and evaluation of the instrument. The

  7. Learning Category-Specific Dictionary and Shared Dictionary for Fine-Grained Image Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Ma, Yi

    2014-02-01

    This paper targets fine-grained image categorization by learning a category-specific dictionary for each category and a shared dictionary for all the categories. Such category-specific dictionaries encode subtle visual differences among different categories, while the shared dictionary encodes common visual patterns among all the categories. To this end, we impose incoherence constraints among the different dictionaries in the objective of feature coding. In addition, to make the learnt dictionary stable, we also impose the constraint that each dictionary should be self-incoherent. Our proposed dictionary learning formulation not only applies to fine-grained classification, but also improves conventional basic-level object categorization and other tasks such as event recognition. Experimental results on five data sets show that our method can outperform the state-of-the-art fine-grained image categorization frameworks as well as sparse coding based dictionary learning frameworks. All these results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  8. On the timelessness of music dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bergenholtz, Inger

    2007-01-01

    A music dictionary for the Internet serves the same functions as printed music dictionaries. An old music dictionary is as useful as a new one if its information is correct. But the fact that an Internet dictionary can at any time be corrected according to modern practices makes it, if not timeless...... reception rather than translation or text production. It is described what was the starting point of the dictionary and in what way the possibilities of the Internet has influenced the concept and the content of the articles and the outer texts....

  9. Compressed Sensing with Rank Deficient Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Lundgaard; Johansen, Daniel Højrup; Jørgensen, Peter Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    In compressed sensing it is generally assumed that the dictionary matrix constitutes a (possibly overcomplete) basis of the signal space. In this paper we consider dictionaries that do not span the signal space, i.e. rank deficient dictionaries. We show that in this case the signal-to-noise ratio...... (SNR) in the compressed samples can be increased by selecting the rows of the measurement matrix from the column space of the dictionary. As an example application of compressed sensing with a rank deficient dictionary, we present a case study of compressed sensing applied to the Coarse Acquisition (C...

  10. On the timelessness of music dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bergenholtz, Inger

    2007-01-01

    A music dictionary for the Internet serves the same functions as printed music dictionaries. An old music dictionary is as useful as a new one if its information is correct. But the fact that an Internet dictionary can at any time be corrected according to modern practices makes it, if not timeless......, at any rate more up to date. Besides, the possibilities of illustrating with picture and sound open a wide field of usefulness. Nevertheless the lexicographer has to be aware of the different needs for different user types in different user situations. The dictionary in question is made for text...

  11. Bilingualized Dictionaries with Special Reference to the Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a type of dictionary with huge popularity among EFL learners in China, the bilingualized dictionary (BLD) deserves more academic and pedagogical attention than it receives nowadays. This article gives an overview of the BLD within the framework of dictionary research, including dictionary history, dictionary typology, ...

  12. Business drivers and design choices for multilingual IVRs : A government service delivery case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Calteaux, K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual emerging markets hold many opportunities for the application of spoken language technologies, such as interactive voice response (IVR) systems. Designing such systems requires an in-depth understanding of the business drivers...

  13. Tags and self-organisation: a metadata ecology for learning resources in a multilingual context

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorikari, Riina Hannuli

    2010-01-01

    Vuorikari, R. (2009). Tags and self-organisation: a metadata ecology for learning resources in a multilingual context. Doctoral thesis. November, 13, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, CELSTEC.

  14. Tags and self-organisation: a metadata ecology for learning resources in a multilingual context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuorikari, Riina

    2009-01-01

    Vuorikari, R. (2009). Tags and self-organisation: a metadata ecology for learning resources in a multilingual context. Doctoral thesis. November, 13, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, CELSTEC.

  15. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.

  16. Practitioner Review: Multilingualism and neurodevelopmental disorders - an overview of recent research and discussion of clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljarević, Mirko; Katsos, Napoleon; Hudry, Kristelle; Gibson, Jenny L

    2016-11-01

    Language and communication skills are essential aspects of child development, which are often disrupted in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cutting edge research in psycholinguistics suggests that multilingualism has potential to influence social, linguistic and cognitive development. Thus, multilingualism has implications for clinical assessment, diagnostic formulation, intervention and support offered to families. We present a systematic review and synthesis of the effects of multilingualism for children with neurodevelopmental disorders and discuss clinical implications. We conducted systematic searches for studies on multilingualism in neurodevelopmental disorders. Keywords for neurodevelopmental disorders were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition categories as follows; Intellectual Disabilities, Communication Disorders, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder, Motor Disorders, Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders. We included only studies based on empirical research and published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifty studies met inclusion criteria. Thirty-eight studies explored multilingualism in Communication Disorders, 10 in ASD and two in Intellectual Disability. No studies on multilingualism in Specific Learning Disorder or Motor Disorders were identified. Studies which found a disadvantage for multilingual children with neurodevelopmental disorders were rare, and there appears little reason to assume that multilingualism has negative effects on various aspects of functioning across a range of conditions. In fact, when considering only those studies which have compared a multilingual group with developmental disorders to a monolingual group with similar disorders, the findings consistently show no adverse effects on language development or other aspects of functioning. In the case of ASD, a positive effect on communication and social functioning has

  17. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, mult...

  18. Number pronunciation in a multilingual environment and implications for an ASR system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molapo, R

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available . Mbogho, “Web-based corpus acquisition for Swahili language modelling,” in 3rd workshop on Spoken Languages Technolo- gies for Under-resourced languages, 2012, pp. 42–47. [8] T. Schlippe, C. Zhu, J. Gebhardt, and T. Schultz, “Text normalization based... multilingual environment and implications for an ASR system Raymond Molapo Human Language Technologies Research Group Meraka Institute CSIR, South Africa Multilingual Speech Technologies Group North-West University Vanderbijlpark South Africa Email: rmolapo...

  19. Dictionary criticism and lexicographical function theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses dictionary criticism in the light of the function theory. It starts analyzing the objective of dictionary criticism and lists eight of the most important purposes with which criticism has been made by supporters of the function theory. It then discusses the two main...... types of dictionary criticism, namely criticism of other authors’ dictionaries and self-criticism of one’s own dictionaries. Based on this discussion, it proceeds to a definition of the concept of dictionary criticism which is above all considered a theory-based activity, the outcome of which may...... by the supporters of the function theory, and the way it could be presented in order to create debate. Finally, the contribution indicates the important role dictionary criticism has had in the development of the function theory and endorses an open and critical discussion culture within lexicography....

  20. Sentiment Polarity Analysis based multi-dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Zhou, Yanquan

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for Chinese online reviews, which identifies sentiment polarity. To determine the sentence is negative or positive, we extracted opinion words and identified their opinion targets by CRFs and establish the absolute emotional dictionary (AbED), the relative emotional dictionary (ReED), the field of emotional dictionary (FiED) and the field of targets and opinion words dictionary (TfED). With those emotional dictionary, negative dictionary and modified dictionary, we achieved an effective algorithm to discriminate sentiment polarity by multi-string pattern matching algorithm. For evaluation, we used car online reviews, hotel online reviews and computer online reviews which annotated positive or negative. Experimental results show that our proposed method has made a higher precision and recall rate.

  1. The Danish Sign Language Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The entries of the The Danish Sign Language Dictionary have four sections:  Entry header: In this section the sign headword is shown as a photo and a gloss. The first occurring location and handshape of the sign are shown as icons.  Video window: By default the base form of the sign headword...... forms of the sign (only for classifier entries). In addition to this, frequent co-occurrences with the sign are shown in this section. The signs in the The Danish Sign Language Dictionary can be looked up through:  Handshape: Particular handshapes for the active and the passive hand can be specified...... to find signs that are not themselves lemmas in the dictionary, but appear in example sentences.  Topic: Topics can be chosen as search criteria from a list of 70 topics....

  2. The gradience of multilingualism in typical and impaired language development: Positioning bilectalism within comparative bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleanthes K. Grohmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli 2014: age of onset of children’s exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children’s performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann 2014b: language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed ‘comparative bilingualism’. The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.

  3. Embracing African languages as indispensable resources through the promotion of multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndimande-Hlongwa, Nobuhle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore the potential significance of additive multilingualism in South Africa’s multilingual society. Additive multilingualism treasures the principle of equality among all 11 official languages. Therefore, our point of departure is the South African Constitution and various policy provisions that advocate for a multilingual mode of operation. The paper is premised upon the potential value of multilingualism that encompasses indigenous African languages and the view of language as a resource. This concurs with the language policy of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN, which seeks to promote a multilingual society. Perceptions and experiences of a group of part-time LLB students regarding the learning of isiZulu as an additional language at UKZN were solicited in this study. The ‘language as a resource’ framework was employed as the theoretical approach of the study. The study established an acknowledgement of the resourcefulness of isiZulu as instrumental in fostering social cohesion, breaking communication barriers, and dispelling misconceptions about the value of these languages.

  4. The Gradience of Multilingualism in Typical and Impaired Language Development: Positioning Bilectalism within Comparative Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A multitude of factors characterizes bi- and multilingual compared to monolingual language acquisition. Two of the most prominent viewpoints have recently been put in perspective and enriched by a third (Tsimpli, 2014): age of onset of children's exposure to their native languages, the role of the input they receive, and the timing in monolingual first language development of the phenomena examined in bi- and multilingual children's performance. This article picks up a fourth potential factor (Grohmann, 2014b): language proximity, that is, the closeness between the two or more grammars a multilingual child acquires. It is a first attempt to flesh out the proposed gradient scale of multilingualism within the approach dubbed "comparative bilingualism." The empirical part of this project comes from three types of research: (i) the acquisition and subsequent development of pronominal object clitic placement in two closely related varieties of Greek by bilectal, binational, bilingual, and multilingual children; (ii) the performance on executive control tasks by monolingual, bilectal, and bi- or multilingual children; and (iii) the role of comparative bilingualism in children with a developmental language impairment for both the diagnosis and subsequent treatment as well as the possible avoidance or weakening of how language impairment presents.

  5. DOE-EPRI On-Line Monitoring Implementation Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Davis, R. Bickford

    2003-01-01

    Industry and EPRI experience at several plants has shown on-line monitoring to be very effective in identifying out-of-calibration instrument channels or indications of equipment-degradation problems. The EPRI implementation project for on-line monitoring has demonstrated the feasibility of on-line monitoring at several participating nuclear plants. The results have been very encouraging, and substantial progress is anticipated in the coming years

  6. The Latent Structure of Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Lamarre, Philippe; Massé, Alexandre Blondin; Lopes, Marcos; Lord, Mélanie; Marcotte, Odile; Harnad, Stevan

    2016-07-01

    How many words-and which ones-are sufficient to define all other words? When dictionaries are analyzed as directed graphs with links from defining words to defined words, they reveal a latent structure. Recursively removing all words that are reachable by definition but that do not define any further words reduces the dictionary to a Kernel of about 10% of its size. This is still not the smallest number of words that can define all the rest. About 75% of the Kernel turns out to be its Core, a "Strongly Connected Subset" of words with a definitional path to and from any pair of its words and no word's definition depending on a word outside the set. But the Core cannot define all the rest of the dictionary. The 25% of the Kernel surrounding the Core consists of small strongly connected subsets of words: the Satellites. The size of the smallest set of words that can define all the rest-the graph's "minimum feedback vertex set" or MinSet-is about 1% of the dictionary, about 15% of the Kernel, and part-Core/part-Satellite. But every dictionary has a huge number of MinSets. The Core words are learned earlier, more frequent, and less concrete than the Satellites, which are in turn learned earlier, more frequent, but more concrete than the rest of the Dictionary. In principle, only one MinSet's words would need to be grounded through the sensorimotor capacity to recognize and categorize their referents. In a dual-code sensorimotor/symbolic model of the mental lexicon, the symbolic code could do all the rest through recombinatory definition. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Learning multimodal dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaci, Gianluca; Jost, Philippe; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Mailhé, Boris; Lesage, Sylvain; Gribonval, Rémi

    2007-09-01

    Real-world phenomena involve complex interactions between multiple signal modalities. As a consequence, humans are used to integrate at each instant perceptions from all their senses in order to enrich their understanding of the surrounding world. This paradigm can be also extremely useful in many signal processing and computer vision problems involving mutually related signals. The simultaneous processing of multimodal data can, in fact, reveal information that is otherwise hidden when considering the signals independently. However, in natural multimodal signals, the statistical dependencies between modalities are in general not obvious. Learning fundamental multimodal patterns could offer deep insight into the structure of such signals. In this paper, we present a novel model of multimodal signals based on their sparse decomposition over a dictionary of multimodal structures. An algorithm for iteratively learning multimodal generating functions that can be shifted at all positions in the signal is proposed, as well. The learning is defined in such a way that it can be accomplished by iteratively solving a generalized eigenvector problem, which makes the algorithm fast, flexible, and free of user-defined parameters. The proposed algorithm is applied to audiovisual sequences and it is able to discover underlying structures in the data. The detection of such audio-video patterns in audiovisual clips allows to effectively localize the sound source on the video in presence of substantial acoustic and visual distractors, outperforming state-of-the-art audiovisual localization algorithms.

  8. Monolingual and Bilingual Learners' Dictionaries*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus H. Gouws

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specificsituation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners'dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in moderndaylexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingualand bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a newlanguage, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especiallyin closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionarycould assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevantlexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function mergingare introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-basedapproach to dictionary usage.

    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, FALSE FRIENDS, FUNCTION CONDENSATION,FUNCTION MERGING, GENUINE PURPOSE, LEARNERS' DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, TEXT PRODUCTION, TEXT RECEPTION,TYPOLOGICAL HYBRID, TYPOLOGY.

    Opsomming: Eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke. Wanneerbesluit moet word oor die beste aanleerderwoordeboek vir 'n spesifieke gebruiker en 'n spesifiekegebruiksituasie moet daar dikwels gekies word tussen 'n eentalige en 'n tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboek.Hierdie artikel bespreek bepaalde aspekte van die gebruikersgedrewe benaderingwat kenmerkend is van die moderne leksikografiese denke, fokus breedweg op woordeboektipologieen gee in meer besonderhede aandag aan sekere aspekte van eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke.Bepaalde probleme wat gebruikers ervaar by die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal,bv. taalversteuring en probleme verwant aan die verskynsel van valse vriende, veral in nou verwantetale, kry aandag

  9. Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Kreines, David

    2003-01-01

    If you work with Oracle, then you don't need to be told that the data dictionary is large and complex, and grows larger with each new Oracle release. It's one of the basic elements of the Oracle database you interact with regularly, but the sheer number of tables and views makes it difficult to remember which view you need, much less the name of the specific column. Want to make it simpler? The Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference puts all the information you need right at your fingertips. Its handy and compact format lets you locate the table and view you need effortlessly without stoppin

  10. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    in conditional clauses. When translating into languages not allowing such structures, for instance, English and French, learners need their legal translation dictionaries to help them with both the legal terms and the syntactic structures. The uses of textual conventions that characterise the legal genre vary....... Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...

  11. A Translation Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs: An Ongoing Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Translation Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs: An Ongoing Project. ... Abstract. The paper centres on a plan for an English-Arabic phrasal verb dictionary for Arab trainee translators. Such a dictionary ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  12. South Africa's new African language dictionaries and their use for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    printed dictionaries, electronic dictionaries, online and cell phone ... which "25 are living languages, 3 are second languages without mother-tongue speakers ..... planners to distribute dictionaries easily, as they could, like ring tones or games.

  13. South Africa's new African language dictionaries and their use for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    Having dictionaries, and especially technical, online or cell phone dic- ..... guage. Nevertheless, this can be a disadvantage as well, if the dictionary con- ... planners to distribute dictionaries easily, as they could, like ring tones or games.

  14. The dictionary of lexicography and dictionary research | Gouws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents a brief explanation of the current state of the work on the Wörterbuch zur Lexikographie und Wörterbuchforschung. It is done in a way that gives a general impression of the structure of this multivolume specialised dictionary. Keywords: alphabetical equivalent index, functional cross-reference article ...

  15. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  16. Snapshots of the Universe: A Multilingual Astronomy Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, R. L.; Sokal, K. R.; Liss, S. E.; Johnson, K. E.

    2015-11-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is an outreach organization at the University of Virginia, focused on enhancing elementary level science education in under-served communities. Early in the program, DSBK volunteers encountered difficulties connecting with English as a second language (ESL) students. To meet that challenge, DSBK volunteers created story-book style art with short descriptions of astronomical objects in both Spanish and English to help communicate basic astronomy concepts to these students. Building on this initial success, our simple project has evolved into a full multilingual children's book targeted at 2nd-5th grade students. Though originally in Spanish and English, a partnership with the University of Alberta (Canada) has produced a French translation of the text, broadening the outreach potential of the book. In this contribution, we describe Snapshots of the Universe (Instantáneas del Universo) and reflect upon the process of creating this unique resource.

  17. Modalities to Implement the Multilinguality in Web DYNPRO ABAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela CRISTEA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The integrated platform SAP Netweaver is a platform that offers support in realizing Web bussiness applications that use the Model View Controller (MVC concept. The Multilinguality being a property of this platform. The purpose of this article is to highlight the modality to internationalize a Web Dynpro ABAP project The techniquesused for the internationalization of a Web Dynpro ABAP application are: the OTR [Online Text Repository] translations, the implementation of the assistance class and the technique of information internationalization in a database. The case study has been performed on the trial “SAP Netweaver 7.0 Application Server ABAP” that offered the possibility to log-in in English and German languages.

  18. Transient multilingual communities as a field of investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janus

    2017-01-01

    A key assumption in linguistic anthropology and sociolinguistics has traditionally been that interaction within communities tends to proceed on the basis of some degree of shared understanding of social and linguistic norms. However, in transient multilingual communities, defined here as social...... configurations where people from diverse sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds come together (physically or otherwise) for a limited period of time around a shared activity, such shared assumptions cannot be assumed to be in place a priori. By examining the social and linguistic processes that characterize...... transient communities, researchers are invited to analyze and theorize meaning-making in ways that hold the potential to enrich current work at the interface between sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology. The article aims to take a first step in this direction by offering a definition...

  19. Multilingual Terminology Work in Theory – and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Lassen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    In theory, multilingual terminology work is done by creating concept diagrams in each of the languages and comparing them to establish equivalences between concepts in the two languages. In practice, however, various terminology management systems (TMS) are used, end these systems hardly ever...... support the ideal working method. First of all, only very few integrate adequate tools for modelling concept systems. Second, the data structure and the user interface do not support the process of linking entries in two languages. Concerning the data structure, the understanding of “concept oriented......” plays a major role. In many cases the concept is perceived as a unit at the interlingual level, and in the data structure an entry corresponds to one concept with terms from several languages connected. In other cases, the concept is seen as language-specific, and in the data structure an entry contains...

  20. [Implications of multilingualism in the manifestations of stuttering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejon Teitler, N

    Stuttering is a communication disorder affecting speech which is then considered disfluent. What happens when a person who stutters speaks several languages? There will be constant interactions between multilinguism and stuttering. The disorder will generally appear differently according to the spoken language. Linguistic factors have an impact on stutte­ring, with disfluencies appearing differently according to the speaker’s proficiency in using each language. Emotional factors related to the choice of the spoken language can exag­ge­rate the disorder, hence influencing the speaker’s choice of a language, even choices in life. These factors are to be taken into consideration when assessing stuttering, with a particular attention to cultural aspects. Finally, stuttering variability according to the spoken language will also have an impact on therapeutic decisions.

  1. Developments in the Multilingual and Multicultural Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Cozart, Stacey Marie; Kling, Joyce

    Uni project (2012-15) recommends that higher education institutions (HEI) provide ‘the necessary professional development and teacher training programmes that will allow HE teachers to appropriately develop (…) their professional and pedagogical knowledge, skills and competences and thereby empower them...... platform with resources targeted at EDs responsible for advancing faculty development in this area. In this session, the presenters will report on the first outcomes of EQUiiP. Participants will then be invited to interact and explore best practices in the multilingual and multicultural learning space......Internationalization of higher education, and the often accompanying shift from what previously were relatively homogenous national student populations, to more blended, culturally and linguistically heterogeneous group of students, impacts teaching and learning in a number of ways. The Intl...

  2. The effect of childhood bilectalism and multilingualism on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Kyriakos; Grohmann, Kleanthes K; Kambanaros, Maria; Katsos, Napoleon

    2016-04-01

    Several investigations report a positive effect of childhood bilingualism on executive control (EC). An issue that has remained largely unexamined is the role of the typological distance between the languages spoken by bilinguals. In the present study we focus on children who grow up with Cypriot Greek and Standard Modern Greek, two closely related varieties that differ from each other on all levels of language analysis (vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar). We compare the EC performance of such bilectal children to that of English-Greek multilingual children in Cyprus and Standard Modern Greek-speaking monolingual children in Greece. A principal component analysis on six indicators of EC revealed two distinct factors, which we interpreted as representing working memory and inhibition. Multilingual and bilectal children exhibited an advantage over monolinguals that was evident across EC factors and emerged only after statistically controlling for their lower language proficiency. These results demonstrate that similar EC advantages as previously reported for 'true' bilingual speakers can be found in bilectal children, which suggests that minimal typological distance between the varieties spoken by a child suffices to give rise to advantages in EC. They further indicate that the effect of speaking more than one language or dialect on EC performance is located across the EC system without a particular component being selectively affected. This has implications for models of the locus of the bilingual advantage in EC performance. Finally, they show that the emergence of EC advantages in bilinguals is moderated by the level of their language proficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. English and Arabic Inscriptions in the Linguistic Landscape of Yemen: A Multilingual Writing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. H. Al-Athwary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the multilingual written texts of the signboards in the public space of Yemen. It attempts to apply Reh's (2004 typology of multilingual writing. Reh introduces four strategies of multilingualism: duplicating, fragmentary, overlapping, and complementary. They refer to the arrangement of information in the inscriptions of multilingual signs in a given linguistic landscape (LL. To achieve this purpose, a data corpus of 755 multilingual signs in the LL of Yemen has been used, the majority of which are bilingual in Arabic and English. The analysis showed that all four strategies of duplicating, fragmentary, overlapping, and complementary multilingual writings were generally employed in Sana'a's LL. While overlapping and complementary multilingualism were totally absent in the top-down signs, duplicating and fragmentary multilingualism had much higher frequency over overlapping and complementary ones in bottom-up signs. Keeping in mind that speech community in Yemen is monolingual in Arabic, the absence or low frequency of overlapping, and complementary signs in both top-down and bottom-up levels can be explained by the fact that these two types of texts presuppose multilingual readers since knowledge of all the languages involved is necessary to understand the whole message. The model of writing mimicry system proposed by Sutherland (2015 is also examined. Writing mimicry system was found to be a salient feature of the public space of Yemen performing some specific functions; it is only used for advertising and promotional purposes rather than expressing the identity of ethnolinguistic minorities. The study also revealed that Sana'a multilingual LL is characterized by the use of Arabicised English, glocalisation and multifunctional signs, all of which are employed to serve a general purpose of promoting, and advertising commodities and showing modernity and success. Standard Arabic appears on almost all of both top

  4. A Weighted Block Dictionary Learning Algorithm for Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zhongrong

    2016-01-01

    Discriminative dictionary learning, playing a critical role in sparse representation based classification, has led to state-of-the-art classification results. Among the existing discriminative dictionary learning methods, two different approaches, shared dictionary and class-specific dictionary, which associate each dictionary atom to all classes or a single class, have been studied. The shared dictionary is a compact method but with lack of discriminative information; the class-specific dict...

  5. Lexicographic Approaches to Sense Disambiguation in Monolingual Dictionaries and Equivalent Differentiation in Bilingual Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Vrbinc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses methods of sense disambiguation in monolingual dictionaries and equivalent differentiation in bilingual dictionaries. In current dictionaries, sense disambiguation and equivalent differentiation is presented in the form of specifiers or glosses, collocators or indications of context, (domain labels, metalinguistic and encyclopaedic information. Each method is presented and illustrated by actual samples of dictionary articles taken from mono and bilingual dictionaries. The last part of the article is devoted to equivalent differentiation in bilingual decoding dictionaries. In bilingual dictionaries, equivalent differentiation is often needed to describe the lack of agreement between the source language (SL and target language (TL. The article concludes by stating that equivalent differentiation should be written in the native language of the target audience and sense indicators in a monolingual learner’s dictionary should be words that the users are most familiar with.

  6. Algorithms for the on-line travelling salesman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ausiello, G.; Feuerstein, E.; Leonardi, S.; Stougie, L.; Talamo, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the problem of efficiently serving a sequence of requests presented in an on-line fashion located at points of a metric space is considered. We call this problem the On-Line Travelling Salesman Problem (OLTSP). It has a variety of relevant applications in logistics and robotics. We

  7. An algorithm for on-line price discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D.B. van Bragt; D.J.A. Somefun (Koye); E. Kutschinski; J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe combination of on-line dynamic pricing with price discrimination can be very beneficial for firms operating on the Internet. We therefore develop an on-line dynamic pricing algorithm that can adjust the price schedule for a good or service on behalf of a firm. This algorithm (a

  8. On-Line Voltage Stability Assessment based on PMU Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; P. Da Silva, Luiz C.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for on-line monitoring of risk voltage collapse based on synchronised phasor measurement. As there is no room for intensive computation and analysis in real-time, the method is based on the combination of off-line computation and on-line monitoring, which are correlat...

  9. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been

  10. On-line Learning of Prototypes and Principal Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biehl, M.; Freking, A.; Hölzer, M.; Reents, G.; Schlösser, E.; Saad, David

    1998-01-01

    We review our recent investigation of on-line unsupervised learning from high-dimensional structured data. First, on-line competitive learning is studied as a method for the identification of prototype vectors from overlapping clusters of examples. Specifically, we analyse the dynamics of the

  11. Concepts for monofunctional accounting dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2012-01-01

    up to now. They are normally constructed as polyfunctional tools trying to give help by different kind of cognitive and communicative problems. Outgoing from one database I discuss the conception for this database and for 22 different accounting dictionaries with the languages Danish, English...

  12. Comprehensive dictionary of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Philip A

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Dictionary of Electrical Engineering is a complete lexicon covering all the fields of electrical engineering.Areas examined include:applied electrical engineeringmicrowave engineeringcontrol engineeringpower engineeringdigital systems engineeringdevice electronicsand much more! The book provides workable definitions for practicing engineers, serves as a reference and research tool for students, and offers practical information for scientists and engineers in other disciplines.

  13. Dictionary of the fuel trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A dictionary of liquid and solid fuels and applications for thermal engineering and heating, in understandable terms and explanations with a broad range of terminology, special aspects and definitions Annex: 1. International trade conditions, 2. tables of conversion relations, not calorific value, division of solids fuels etc.

  14. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  15. Pocket dictionary of laboratory equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junge, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    This pocket dictionary contains the 2500 most common terms for scientific and technical equipment in chemical laboratories. It is a useful tool for those who are used to communicating in German and English, but have to learn the special terminology in this field. (orig.) [de

  16. English-French Cognate Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Petra; Monod, Madeleine

    This dictionary contains a word list of 10,993 English-French cognates (words with the same or similar spelling and meaning in both languages), including some loan words from other languages. A systematic review of the Larousse "Dictionnaire Moderne Francais--Anglais" (1960) provided this list of cognates. Deceptive cognates, or words…

  17. Marketing and Communications Media Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigrolio, Tom; Zahler, Jack

    The authors have compiled a dictionary of terms used in marketing, advertising, public relations, and radio/television, photography/filmmaking, and graphics. Included in the volume are articles of a general and historical interest regarding the various media covered in the definitions. A list of trade publications is appended. (JY)

  18. Kokugo Dictionaries as Tools for Learners: Problems and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom GALLY

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For second-language learners, monolingual dictionaries can be useful tools because they often provide more detailed explanations of meanings and more extensive vocabulary coverage than bilingual dictionaries do. While learners of English have access to many monolingual dictionaries designed specifically to meet their needs, learners of Japanese must make do with Kokugo dictionaries, that is, monolingual dictionaries intended for native Japanese speakers. This paper, after briefly describing Kokugo dictionaries in general, analyzes a typical entry from such a dictionary to illustrate the advantages and challenges of the use of Kokugo dictionaries by learners of Japanese.

  19. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML): dictionaries and conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The semantic architecture of CML consists of conventions, dictionaries and units. The conventions conform to a top-level specification and each convention can constrain compliant documents through machine-processing (validation). Dictionaries conform to a dictionary specification which also imposes machine validation on the dictionaries. Each dictionary can also be used to validate data in a CML document, and provide human-readable descriptions. An additional set of conventions and dictionaries are used to support scientific units. All conventions, dictionaries and dictionary elements are identifiable and addressable through unique URIs. PMID:21999509

  20. The semantics of Chemical Markup Language (CML): dictionaries and conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Townsend, Joe A; Adams, Sam E; Phadungsukanan, Weerapong; Thomas, Jens

    2011-10-14

    The semantic architecture of CML consists of conventions, dictionaries and units. The conventions conform to a top-level specification and each convention can constrain compliant documents through machine-processing (validation). Dictionaries conform to a dictionary specification which also imposes machine validation on the dictionaries. Each dictionary can also be used to validate data in a CML document, and provide human-readable descriptions. An additional set of conventions and dictionaries are used to support scientific units. All conventions, dictionaries and dictionary elements are identifiable and addressable through unique URIs.

  1. On-line and bulk analysis for the resource industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.S.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.; Madsen, I.C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are the basis of many CSIRO on-line and bulk analysis systems that are now widely used in the mineral and energy industries. The continuous analysis and rapid response of these systems have led to improved control of mining, processing and blending operations. This paper reviews recent developments in neutron, gamma-ray and X-ray techniques for on-line and bulk analysis by CSIRO Minerals including neutron techniques for the on-conveyor belt determination of the composition of cement raw meal, the on-line analysis of composition in pyrometallurgical applications, the on-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal, and the rapid and accurate determination of gold in bulk laboratory samples. The paper also discusses a new gamma-ray technique for the on-line determination of ash in coal and the application of X-ray diffraction techniques for the on-line determination of mineralogy in the cement industry

  2. Is mommy talking to daddy or to me? Exploring parental estimates of child language exposure using the Multilingual Infant Language Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Kager, R.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Language input is a key factor in bi-/multilingual research. It roots in the definition of bi-/multilingualism and influences infant cognitive development since and even before birth. The methods used to assess language exposure among bi-/multilingual infants vary across studies. This paper

  3. Is Mommy Talking to Daddy or to Me? Exploring Parental Estimates of Child Language Exposure Using the Multilingual Infant Language Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liquan; Kager, René

    2017-01-01

    Language input is a key factor in bi-/multilingual research. It roots in the definition of bi-/multilingualism and influences infant cognitive development since and even before birth. The methods used to assess language exposure among bi-/multilingual infants vary across studies. This paper discusses the parental report patterns of the…

  4. Students' Understanding of Dictionary Entries: A Study with Respect to Four Learners' Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Abhra; Amritavalli, Vijaya; Amritavalli, R.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of definitional information in the form of dictionary entries, on second language learners' vocabulary learning in an instructed setting. Indian students (Native Hindi speakers) of English received monolingual English dictionary entries of five previously unknown words from four different learner's dictionaries. Results…

  5. Dictionary Networking in an LSP Learning Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    text production, but discusses an individual dictionary for a particular function. It is shown that in a general context of learning accounting and its relevant LSP with a view to writing or translating financial reporting texts, the modern theory of dictionary functions provides a good theoretical...... and usage of a subject-field, particularly when they have to read, write or translate domain-specific texts. The modern theory of dictionary functions presented in Bergenholtz and Tarp (2002) opens up exciting new possibilities for theoretical and practical lexicography and encourages lexicographers......-lexicographic environment, i.e. what happens outside the dictionary when users write or translate texts, and relate these findings to the lexicographic environment represented by the theoretical basis and the dictionary itself. Nielsen (2006) gives a preliminary discussion of monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL...

  6. Dictionary Approaches to Image Compression and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyad, Nigel A.; Gilmore, Erwin T.; Chouikha, Mohamed F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes using a collection of parameterized waveforms, known as a dictionary, for the purpose of medical image compression. These waveforms, denoted as phi(sub gamma), are discrete time signals, where gamma represents the dictionary index. A dictionary with a collection of these waveforms is typically complete or overcomplete. Given such a dictionary, the goal is to obtain a representation image based on the dictionary. We examine the effectiveness of applying Basis Pursuit (BP), Best Orthogonal Basis (BOB), Matching Pursuits (MP), and the Method of Frames (MOF) methods for the compression of digitized radiological images with a wavelet-packet dictionary. The performance of these algorithms is studied for medical images with and without additive noise.

  7. Cultural notions in Spanish Dictionaries for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pablo-Núñez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although later than in English, Linguistics applied to the teaching of Spanish language has produced several didactic dictionaries for foreigners in the last two decades. This dictionaries include grammatical information in order to facilitate pronunciation, and morphological or syntactical comprehension; cultural notions, however, are more difficult to include because they go beyond the scope of the lexicon. Through the analysis of some terms related to folk music and gastronomy, we analyse the inclusion of Spanish and Latin American cultural notions in the three main dictionaries of Spanish for foreigners: the dictionary for the teaching of the Spanish language published by Vox-Alcalá University (Diccionario para la enseñanza de la lengua española, the Salamanca Dictionary (Diccionario Salamanca de la lengua española and the Spanish dictionary for foreigners of SM publishing house (Diccionario de español para extranjeros.

  8. Booksearch: What Dictionary (General or Specialized) Do You Find Useful or Interesting for Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents classroom teachers' recommendations for a variety of dictionaries that may heighten students' interest in language: a reverse dictionary, a visual dictionary, WEIGHTY WORD BOOK, a collegiate desk dictionary, OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY, DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN REGIONAL ENGLISH, and a dictionary of idioms. (ARH)

  9. English-lus Multilingualism as the New Linguistic Capital? Implications of University Students' Attitudes towards Languages of Instruction in a Multilingual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapwijk, Nanda; Van der Walt, Christa

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates university students' attitudes and perceptions about language in a multilingual country where most instruction is in English and annual national literacy results have been declining for at least 15 years. Despite this decline, English seems to be entrenched as the language of instruction, and at university it seems a…

  10. JaSlo: Integration of a Japanese-Slovene Bilingual Dictionary with a Corpus Search System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a set of integrated on-line language resources targeted at Japanese language learners, primarily those whose mother tongue is Slovene. The resources consist of the on-line Japanese-Slovene learners’ dictionary jaSlo and two corpora, a 1 million word Japanese-Slovene parallel corpus and a 300 million word corpus of web pages, where each word and sentence is marked by its difficulty level; this corpus is furthermore available as a set of five distinct corpora, each one containing sentences of the particular level. The corpora are available for exploration through NoSketch Engine, the open source version of the commercial state-of-the-art corpus analysis software Sketch Engine. The dictionary is available for Web searching, and dictionary entries have direct links to examples from the corpora, thus offering a wider picture of a possible translations in concrete contextualised examples, and b monolingual Japanese usage examples of different difficulty levels to support language learning.

  11. Development of a Tablet Application for the Screening of Receptive Vocabulary Skills in Multilingual Children: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Blanca; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Herrmann, Frank; Fricke, Silke

    2016-01-01

    For professionals working with multilingual children, detecting language deficits in a child's home language can present a challenge. This is largely due to the scarcity of standardized assessments in many children's home languages and missing normative data on multilingual language acquisition. A common approach is to translate existing English…

  12. Multimodal Literacy Practices in the Indigenous Sámi Classroom: Children Navigating in a Complex Multilingual Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietikäinen, Sari; Pitkänen-Huhta, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This article explores multimodal literacy practices in a transforming multilingual context of an indigenous and endangered Sámi language classroom. Looking at literacy practices as embedded in a complex and shifting terrain of language ideologies, language norms, and individual experiences and attitudes, we examined how multilingual Sámi children…

  13. Rate of multilingual phonological acquisition: Evidence from a cross-sectional study of English-Mandarin-Malay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui W; Wells, Bill; Howard, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Early child multilingual acquisition is under-explored. Using a cross-sectional study approach, the present research investigates the rate of multilingual phonological acquisition of English-Mandarin-Malay by 64 ethnic Chinese children aged 2;06-4;05 in Malaysia--a multiracial-multilingual country of Asia. The aims of the study are to provide clinical norms for speech development in the multilingual children and to compare multilingual acquisition with monolingual and bilingual acquisition. An innovative multilingual phonological test which adopts well-defined scoring criteria drawing upon local accents of English, Mandarin and Malay is proposed and described in this article. This procedure has been neglected in the few existing Chinese bilingual phonological acquisition studies resulting in peculiar findings. The multilingual children show comparable phonological acquisition milestones to that of monolingual and bilingual peers acquiring the same languages. The implications of the present results are discussed. The present findings contribute to the development of models and theories of child multilingual acquisition.

  14. How Does Linguistic Competence Enhance Cognitive Functions in Children? A Study in Multilingual Children with Different Linguistic Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videsott, Gerda; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Wiater, Werner; Franceschini, Rita; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the attentional mechanisms of multilingual children with differential degrees of language competence. For this purpose, 118 children (61 female/57 male; mean age 10.9 years (SD = 0.29); early acquisition multilinguals) from the Ladin valleys in South Tyrol, Italy, performed the Attentional Network…

  15. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  16. "The Soccer Field, It Has Dirt": A Critical Analysis of Teacher Learners in Contact with Emergent Multilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Theresa; Reeves, Jenelle R.; Wessels, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    In today's globalized world, superdiversity and global migration have led to an increased focus on emergent multilingual students and how schools can best serve them. The authors explore how teacher learners in an undergraduate course on emergent multilinguals in a mid-sized university in the Midwest critically reflect on their learning in a…

  17. Elite Bilingualism? Language Use among Multilingual Teenagers of Swedish Background in European Schools and International Schools in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydenvald, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the language use and language attitudes as reported by a number of multilingual teenagers with a Swedish background in European Schools and international schools in Europe. Special attention is given to the concepts of Third Culture Kids and elite bilingualism in relation to teenagers' multilingualism. This study is based on…

  18. Interaction for Transfer: Flexible Approaches to Multilingualism and Their Pedagogical Implications for Classroom Interaction in Linguistically Diverse Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiers, Kirsten; Willaert, Evita; Van Avermaet, Piet; Slembrouck, Stef

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on how teachers construe and give meaning to a pedagogical experiment in which the use of the home language in a primary school in Flanders was permitted in order to acknowledge the urban multilingual realities and resources of the pupils and to turn them into didactic capital (functional multilingual learning, FML). Using…

  19. Dictionary-Based Tensor Canonical Polyadic Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy Emile; Gillis, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    To ensure interpretability of extracted sources in tensor decomposition, we introduce in this paper a dictionary-based tensor canonical polyadic decomposition which enforces one factor to belong exactly to a known dictionary. A new formulation of sparse coding is proposed which enables high dimensional tensors dictionary-based canonical polyadic decomposition. The benefits of using a dictionary in tensor decomposition models are explored both in terms of parameter identifiability and estimation accuracy. Performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated on the decomposition of simulated data and the unmixing of hyperspectral images.

  20. Tensor Dictionary Learning for Positive Definite Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Ravishankar; Boley, Daniel; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Sparse models have proven to be extremely successful in image processing and computer vision. However, a majority of the effort has been focused on sparse representation of vectors and low-rank models for general matrices. The success of sparse modeling, along with popularity of region covariances, has inspired the development of sparse coding approaches for these positive definite descriptors. While in earlier work, the dictionary was formed from all, or a random subset of, the training signals, it is clearly advantageous to learn a concise dictionary from the entire training set. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for dictionary learning over positive definite matrices. The dictionary is learned by alternating minimization between sparse coding and dictionary update stages, and different atom update methods are described. A discriminative version of the dictionary learning approach is also proposed, which simultaneously learns dictionaries for different classes in classification or clustering. Experimental results demonstrate the advantage of learning dictionaries from data both from reconstruction and classification viewpoints. Finally, a software library is presented comprising C++ binaries for all the positive definite sparse coding and dictionary learning approaches presented here.