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Sample records for multilayer vls spherical

  1. On the dynamics of relativistic multi-layer spherical shell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Merse E; Racz, Istvan, E-mail: merse@rmki.kfki.hu, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.hu [RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-04-21

    The relativistic time evolution of multi-layer spherically symmetric shell systems-consisting of infinitely thin shells separated by vacuum regions-is examined. Whenever two shells collide the evolution is continued with the assumption that the collision is totally transparent. The time evolution of various multi-layer shell systems-comprising large number of shells thereby mimicking the behavior of a thick shell making it possible to study the formation of acoustic singularities-is analyzed numerically and compared in certain cases to the corresponding Newtonian time evolution. The analytic setup is chosen such that the developed code is capable of following the evolution even inside the black hole region. This, in particular, allowed us to investigate the mass inflation phenomenon in the chosen framework.

  2. Transcriptional regulation of the Borrelia burgdorferi antigenically variable VlsE surface protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Babb, Kelly; von Lackum, Kate; Riley, Sean P; Norris, Steven J; Stevenson, Brian

    2006-07-01

    The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi can persistently infect humans and other animals despite host active immune responses. This is facilitated, in part, by the vls locus, a complex system consisting of the vlsE expression site and an adjacent set of 11 to 15 silent vls cassettes. Segments of nonexpressed cassettes recombine with the vlsE region during infection of mammalian hosts, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation of the VlsE outer surface protein. We now demonstrate that synthesis of VlsE is regulated during the natural mammal-tick infectious cycle, being activated in mammals but repressed during tick colonization. Examination of cultured B. burgdorferi cells indicated that the spirochete controls vlsE transcription levels in response to environmental cues. Analysis of PvlsE::gfp fusions in B. burgdorferi indicated that VlsE production is controlled at the level of transcriptional initiation, and regions of 5' DNA involved in the regulation were identified. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays detected qualitative and quantitative changes in patterns of protein-DNA complexes formed between the vlsE promoter and cytoplasmic proteins, suggesting the involvement of DNA-binding proteins in the regulation of vlsE, with at least one protein acting as a transcriptional activator.

  3. Multilayer mirror and foil filter AXUV diode arrays on CDX-U spherical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Stutman, D.; Iovea, M.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H. W.; Munsat, T.; Jones, B.; Hoffman, D.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent upgrades to CDX-U spherical torus diagnostics include two 10-channel AXUV diode arrays. The multilayer mirror (MLM) array measures the λ150 O VI brightness profile in the poloidal plane using the Mo/B 4 C synthetic multilayer structures as dispersive elements. The foil filter array has a tangential view and is equipped with interchangeable clear aperture, beryllium and titanium filters. This allows measurements of radiated power, O VI or C V radial distributions, respectively. The O VI and C V emissivity and the radiated power profiles are highly peaked. A Neoclassical impurity accumulation mechanism is considered as an explanation. For radiated power measurements in the T e ≤100 eV plasmas, photon energy dependent corrections must be used in order to account for nonlinear AXUV sensitivity in the range E phot ≤20 eV. The arrays are also used for characterization of resistive MHD phenomena, such as the low m modes, saw-tooth oscillations and internal reconnection events. Based on the successful operation of the diagnostics, a new ultra soft x-ray multilayer mirror diode AXUV diode array monitoring the 34 Aa emissivity distribution of C VI will be built and installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

  4. Genetic variation of the Borrelia burgdorferi gene vlsE involves cassette-specific, segmental gene conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J R; Norris, S J

    1998-08-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi possesses 15 silent vls cassettes and a vls expression site (vlsE) encoding a surface-exposed lipoprotein. Segments of the silent vls cassettes have been shown to recombine with the vlsE cassette region in the mammalian host, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation. Despite promiscuous recombination within the vlsE cassette region, the 5' and 3' coding sequences of vlsE that flank the cassette region are not subject to sequence variation during these recombination events. The segments of the silent vls cassettes recombine in the vlsE cassette region through a unidirectional process such that the sequence and organization of the silent vls loci are not affected. As a result of recombination, the previously expressed segments are replaced by incoming segments and apparently degraded. These results provide evidence for a gene conversion mechanism in VlsE antigenic variation.

  5. Unique interconnected graphene/SnO2 nanoparticle spherical multilayers for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingguo; Tang, Jie; Sun, Yige; Li, Jing; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Zhu, Da-Ming; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-03-30

    We have designed and synthesized a unique structured graphene/SnO 2 composite, where SnO 2 nanoparticles are inserted in between interconnected graphene sheets which form hollow spherical multilayers. The hollow spherical multilayered structure provides much flexibility to accommodate the configuration and volume changes of SnO 2 in the material. When it is used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, such a novel nanostructure can not only provide a stable conductive matrix and suppress the mechanical stress, but also eliminate the need of any binders for constructing electrodes. Electrochemical tests show that the unique graphene/SnO 2 composite electrode as designed could exhibit a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g -1 and long cycling life with 88% retention after 100 cycles. These results indicate the great potential of the composite for being used as a high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Modelling migration in multilayer systems by a finite difference method: the spherical symmetry case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojbota, C I; Toşa, V; Mercea, P V

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical model based on finite differences to solve the problem of chemical impurity migration within a multilayer spherical system. Migration here means diffusion of chemical species in conditions of concentration partitioning at layer interfaces due to different solubilities of the migrant in different layers. We detail here the numerical model and discuss the results of its implementation. To validate the method we compare it with cases where an analytic solution exists. We also present an application of our model to a practical problem in which we compute the migration of caprolactam from the packaging multilayer foil into the food

  7. Central role of the Holliday junction helicase RuvAB in vlsE recombination and infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi.

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    Tao Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic variation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many infectious bacteria and protozoa including Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. VlsE, a 35 kDa surface-exposed lipoprotein, undergoes antigenic variation during B. burgdorferi infection of mammalian hosts, and is believed to be a critical mechanism by which the spirochetes evade immune clearance. Random, segmental recombination between the expressed vlsE gene and adjacent vls silent cassettes generates a large number of different VlsE variants within the infected host. Although the occurrence and importance of vlsE sequence variation is well established, little is known about the biological mechanism of vlsE recombination. To identify factors important in antigenic variation and vlsE recombination, we screened transposon mutants of genes known to be involved in DNA recombination and repair for their effects on infectivity and vlsE recombination. Several mutants, including those in BB0023 (ruvA, BB0022 (ruvB, BB0797 (mutS, and BB0098 (mutS-II, showed reduced infectivity in immunocompetent C3H/HeN mice. Mutants in ruvA and ruvB exhibited greatly reduced rates of vlsE recombination in C3H/HeN mice, as determined by restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP screening and DNA sequence analysis. In severe combined immunodeficiency (C3H/scid mice, the ruvA mutant retained full infectivity; however, all recovered clones retained the 'parental' vlsE sequence, consistent with low rates of vlsE recombination. These results suggest that the reduced infectivity of ruvA and ruvB mutants is the result of ineffective vlsE recombination and underscores the important role that vlsE recombination plays in immune evasion. Based on functional studies in other organisms, the RuvAB complex of B. burgdorferi may promote branch migration of Holliday junctions during vlsE recombination. Our findings are consistent with those in the accompanying article by Dresser et al., and together

  8. Detailed analysis of sequence changes occurring during vlsE antigenic variation in the mouse model of Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Coutte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease Borrelia can infect humans and animals for months to years, despite the presence of an active host immune response. The vls antigenic variation system, which expresses the surface-exposed lipoprotein VlsE, plays a major role in B. burgdorferi immune evasion. Gene conversion between vls silent cassettes and the vlsE expression site occurs at high frequency during mammalian infection, resulting in sequence variation in the VlsE product. In this study, we examined vlsE sequence variation in B. burgdorferi B31 during mouse infection by analyzing 1,399 clones isolated from bladder, heart, joint, ear, and skin tissues of mice infected for 4 to 365 days. The median number of codon changes increased progressively in C3H/HeN mice from 4 to 28 days post infection, and no clones retained the parental vlsE sequence at 28 days. In contrast, the decrease in the number of clones with the parental vlsE sequence and the increase in the number of sequence changes occurred more gradually in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. Clones containing a stop codon were isolated, indicating that continuous expression of full-length VlsE is not required for survival in vivo; also, these clones continued to undergo vlsE recombination. Analysis of clones with apparent single recombination events indicated that recombinations into vlsE are nonselective with regard to the silent cassette utilized, as well as the length and location of the recombination event. Sequence changes as small as one base pair were common. Fifteen percent of recovered vlsE variants contained "template-independent" sequence changes, which clustered in the variable regions of vlsE. We hypothesize that the increased frequency and complexity of vlsE sequence changes observed in clones recovered from immunocompetent mice (as compared with SCID mice is due to rapid clearance of relatively invariant clones by variable region-specific anti-VlsE antibody responses.

  9. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of ceria with solid and hollow spherical and multilayered morphologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lei; Li, Junping; Feng, Zhihai; Sun, Dongfeng; Wang, Tingyu; Li, Ruixing; Xu, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various morphologies of CeO 2 are gotten by controlling the solvothermal conditions. • The various morphologies are synthesized without any template or surfactant. • The chemical mechanisms for the formation of the products in the solvothermal process are discussed. • The morphology evolution from solid spheres to multilayered structures is supposed. • The as-synthesized CeO 2 samples possess excellent adsorption capacities. - Abstract: Ceria powders with different morphologies were synthesized using a facile template-free solvothermal process combined with calcination. The influence of solvothermal temperature and time on the powder was studied. Solid spheres, hollow spheres, and multilayered structures were controlled by adjusting the solvothermal conditions. The possible mechanisms for the formation of the precursors under the solvothermal conditions employed and the evolution of the powder from solid spherical to multilayered structures were discussed. Ethylene glycol played a key role in the morphology evolution of the powder. Cerium catalyzed the Guerbet-like reaction and reacted with ethylene glycol to produce ceria (CeO 2 ), Ce(HCOO) 3 , and Ce(OH)CO 3 . The redox-assisted dissolution–recrystallization process significantly contributed to the morphology transformation from solid spheres to multilayered structures. Moreover, the samples synthesized at different temperatures for 24 h possessed excellent adsorption capacities towards the removal of acid orange 7 when compared with commercial ceria

  10. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with spherical multilayer mirrors around 2.5keV photon energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ning; Du, Xuewei; Wang, Qiuping; Cao, Zhurong; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2014-09-01

    A Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) x-ray microscope has been developed for the diagnostics of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The KB microscope system works around 2.5keV with the magnification of 20. It consists of two spherical multilayer mirrors. The grazing angle is 3.575° at 2.5keV. The influence of the slope error of optical components and the alignment errors is simulated by SHADOW software. The mechanical structure which can perform fine tuning is designed. Experiment result with Manson x-ray source shows that the spatial resolution of the system is about 3-4μm over a field of view of 200μm.

  11. Surface current double-heterogeneous multilayer multicell methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanek, J.; Segev, M.

    1991-01-01

    A surface current methodology is developed to respond to the need for treating the various levels of material heterogeneity in a double-heterogeneous multilayer multicell in processing neutron multigroup cross sections in the resonance as well as thermal energy range. First, the basic surface cosine current transport equations to calculate the energy-dependent neutron flux spatial distribution in the multilayered multicell are formulated. Slab, spherical and cylindrical geometries, as well as square and hexagonal lattices and pebble-bed configurations with white or reflective cell boundary conditions, are considered. Second, starting from the surface cosine-current formulation, a two-zone three-layer multicell formalism for reduction of heterogeneous flux expressions to equivalent homogeneous flux expression for table method was developed. This formalism allows an infinite, as well as a limited, number of second-heterogeneity cells within a partial first-heterogeneity cell layer to be considered. Also, the number of the first-and second-heterogeneity cell types is quite general. The 'outer' (right side) as well as 'inner' (left side) Dancoff probabilities can be calculated for any particular layer. An accurate, efficient, and compact interpolation procedure is developed to calculate the basic collision probabilities. These are transmission and escape probabilities for shells in slab, cylindrical, and spherical geometries, as well as Dancoff probabilities for cylinders in square and hexagonal lattices. The use of the interpolation procedure is exemplified in a multilayer multicell approximation for the Dancoff probability, enabling a routine evaluation of the equivalence-based shielded resonance integral in highly complex lattices of slab, cylindrical, or spherical cells. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 10 refs

  12. Synthesis and growth mechanisms of ZrC whiskers fabricated by a VLS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Materials Development Division; Song, Sung Ho [Kongju National Univ., Chungnam (Korea, Republic of). Division of Advanced Materials Engineering

    2017-08-15

    The mechanisms of nano-sized ZrC whisker formation by a vapor-liquid-solid process (VLS) are investigated, which produces a very high purity, single crystal whisker. Rectangular ZrC whiskers with a cross-sectional diameter of 100-200 nm and lengths up to tens of microns are formed under the catalytic effect of nickel. The ZrC whiskers are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. ZrC whiskers can be used as a potential reinforcing and strengthening phase for ceramic composites.

  13. Multilayer X-ray imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, D. L.; Hoover, R. B.; Gabardi, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment of the imaging properties of multilayer X-ray imaging systems with spherical surfaces has been made. A ray trace analysis was performed to investigate the effects of using spherical substrates (rather than the conventional paraboloidal/hyperboloidal contours) for doubly reflecting Cassegrain telescopes. These investigations were carried out for mirrors designed to operate at selected soft X-ray/XUV wavelengths that are of significance for studies of the solar corona/transition region from the Stanford/MSFC Rocket X-Ray Telescope. The effects of changes in separation of the primary and secondary elements were also investigated. These theoretical results are presented as well as the results of ray trace studies to establish the resolution and vignetting effects as a function of field angle and system parameters.

  14. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of multilayered spherical quantum dots: Effects of geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, M.J.; Rezaei, G.; Nazari, M.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the effective mass and parabolic one band approximations, simultaneous effects of the geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, and temperature on the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in multilayered spherical quantum dots are studied. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The results indicate that the hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and geometrical parameters such as the well and barrier widths have a great influence on the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. -- Highlights: • Hydrogenic impurity effects on the optical properties of a MSQD are investigated. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects are also studied. • Hydrogenic impurity has a great influence on the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature change the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs

  15. Investigation on plasmonic responses in multilayered nanospheres including asymmetry and spatial nonlocal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tianyu; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hui; Chen, Feng; Ma, Xikui; Mittra, Raj

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a rigorous approach for analyzing the optical response of multilayered spherical nano-particles comprised of either plasmonic metal or dielectric, when there is no longer radial symmetry and when nonlocality is included. The Lorenz-Mie theory is applied, and a linearized hydrodynamic Drude model as well as the general nonlocal optical response model for the metals are employed. Additional boundary conditions, viz., the continuity of normal components of polarization current density and the continuity of first-order pressure of free electron density, respectively, are incorporated when handling interfaces involving metals. The application of spherical addition theorems, enables us to express a spherical harmonic about one origin to spherical harmonics about a different origin, and leads to a linear system of equations for the inward- and outward-field modal coefficients for all the layers in the nanoparticle. Scattering matrices at interfaces are obtained and cascaded to obtain the expansion coefficients, to yield the final solution. Through extensive modelling of stratified concentric and eccentric metal-involved spherical nanoshells illuminating by a plane wave, we show that, within a nonlocal description, significant modifications of plasmonic response appear, e.g. a blue-shift in the extinction / scattering spectrum and a broadening spectrum of the resonance. In addition, it has been demonstrated that core-shell nanostructures provide an option for tunable Fano-resonance generators. The proposed method shows its capability and flexibility to analyze the nonlocal response of eccentric hybrid metal-dielectric multilayer structures as well as adjoined metal-involved nanoparticles, even when the number of layers is large.

  16. Effective Interactions between Multilayered Ionic Microgels

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    Clemens Hanel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a one-component reduction formalism, we calculate the effective interactions and the counterion density profiles for microgels that feature a multilayered shell structure. We follow a strategy that involves second order perturbation theory and obtain analytical expressions for the effective interactions by modeling the layers of the particles as linear superpostion of homogeneously charged spheres. The general method is applied to the important case of core–shell microgels and compared with the well-known results for a microgel that can be approximated by a macroscopic, and homogeneously charged, spherical macroion.

  17. Multilayer Films and Capsules of Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose and Polyhexamethylenguanidine Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzenko, Nataliia; Gabchak, Oleksandra; Pakhlov, Evgenij

    The complexation of polyhexamethylenguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was investigated for different conditions. Mixing of equiconcentrated aqueous solutions of the polyelectrolytes was found to result in the formation of an insoluble interpolyelectrolyte complex with an overweight of carboxymethylcellulose. A step-by-step formation of stable, irreversibly adsorbed multilayer film of the polymers was demonstrated using the quartz crystal microbalance method. Unusually thick polymer shells with a large number of loops and tails of the polyanion were formed by the method of layer-by-layer self-assembly of PHMG and CMC on spherical CaCO3 particles. Hollow multilayer capsules stable in neutral media were obtained by dissolution of the inorganic matrix in EDTA solution.

  18. 2-tiered antibody testing for early and late Lyme disease using only an immunoglobulin G blot with the addition of a VlsE band as the second-tier test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branda, John A; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Johnson, Barbara J B; Wormser, Gary P; Steere, Allen C

    2010-01-01

    Standard 2-tiered immunoglobulin G (IgG) testing has performed well in late Lyme disease (LD), but IgM testing early in the illness has been problematic. IgG VlsE antibody testing, by itself, improves early sensitivity, but may lower specificity. We studied whether elements of the 2 approaches could be combined to produce a second-tier IgG blot that performs well throughout the infection. Separate serum sets from LD patients and control subjects were tested independently at 2 medical centers using whole-cell enzyme immunoassays and IgM and IgG immunoblots, with recombinant VlsE added to the IgG blots. The results from both centers were combined, and a new second-tier IgG algorithm was developed. With standard 2-tiered IgM and IgG testing, 31% of patients with active erythema migrans (stage 1), 63% of those with acute neuroborreliosis or carditis (stage 2), and 100% of those with arthritis or late neurologic involvement (stage 3) had positive results. Using new IgG criteria, in which only the VlsE band was scored as a second-tier test among patients with early LD (stage 1 or 2) and 5 of 11 IgG bands were required in those with stage 3 LD, 34% of patients with stage 1, 96% of those with stage 2, and 100% of those with stage 3 infection had positive responses. Both new and standard testing achieved 100% specificity. Compared with standard IgM and IgG testing, the new IgG algorithm (with VlsE band) eliminates the need for IgM testing; it provides comparable or better sensitivity, and it maintains high specificity.

  19. Defect-induced polytype transformations in LPE grown SiC epilayers on (1 1 1) 3C-SiC seeds grown by VLS on 6H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, Maya; Zoulis, Georgios; Robert, Teddy; Mercier, Frederic; Mantzari, Alkioni; Galben, Irina; Kim-Hak, Olivier; Lorenzzi, Jean; Juillaguet, Sandrine; Chaussende, Didier; Ferro, Gabriel; Camassel, Jean; Polychroniadis, Efstathios K.

    2009-01-01

    The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with low-temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) and Raman studies of liquid phase grown epilayers on top of a vapor liquid solid (VLS) grown 3C-SiC buffer layer are compared. While the 6H-SiC substrate was completely covered by the 3C-SiC seed after the first VLS process, degradation occurred during the early stage of the liquid phase epitaxy process. This resulted in polytype instabilities, such that several rhombohedral forms stabilized one after the other. These (21R-SiC, 57R-SiC) eventually led after few microns to a final transition back to 6H-SiC. This interplay of polytypes resulted in a complex optical signature, with specific LTPL and Raman features.

  20. Comparative genome analysis: selection pressure on the Borrelia vls cassettes is essential for infectivity

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    Wilske Bettina

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least three species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl cause tick-borne Lyme disease. Previous work including the genome analysis of B. burgdorferi B31 and B. garinii PBi suggested a highly variable plasmid part. The frequent occurrence of duplicated sequence stretches, the observed plasmid redundancy, as well as the mainly unknown function and variability of plasmid encoded genes rendered the relationships between plasmids within and between species largely unresolvable. Results To gain further insight into Borreliae genome properties we completed the plasmid sequences of B. garinii PBi, added the genome of a further species, B. afzelii PKo, to our analysis, and compared for both species the genomes of pathogenic and apathogenic strains. The core of all Bbsl genomes consists of the chromosome and two plasmids collinear between all species. We also found additional groups of plasmids, which share large parts of their sequences. This makes it very likely that these plasmids are relatively stable and share common ancestors before the diversification of Borrelia species. The analysis of the differences between B. garinii PBi and B. afzelii PKo genomes of low and high passages revealed that the loss of infectivity is accompanied in both species by a loss of similar genetic material. Whereas B. garinii PBi suffered only from the break-off of a plasmid end, B. afzelii PKo lost more material, probably an entire plasmid. In both cases the vls gene locus encoding for variable surface proteins is affected. Conclusion The complete genome sequences of a B. garinii and a B. afzelii strain facilitate further comparative studies within the genus Borrellia. Our study shows that loss of infectivity can be traced back to only one single event in B. garinii PBi: the loss of the vls cassettes possibly due to error prone gene conversion. Similar albeit extended losses in B. afzelii PKo support the hypothesis that infectivity of Borrelia

  1. Magneto-optical transitions in multilayer semiconductor nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Climente, J; Jaskolski, W; Aliaga, J I

    2003-01-01

    Absorption spectra of chemically synthesized uniform and multilayer semiconductor nanocrystals in a magnetic field are investigated theoretically. The nanocrystals are modelled by spherical barrier/well potentials. The electron states are calculated within the effective mass model. A four-band k centre dot p Hamiltonian, accounting for the valence subband mixing, is used to obtain the hole states. The magneto-optical transition spectrum depends strongly on the size and composition of the nanocrystals. In the case of small uniform quantum dots, only the linear Zeeman splitting of the electron and hole energy levels is observed even for very strong magnetic fields. In larger nanocrystals, the quadratic magnetic interaction turns out to be important and the transition spectrum becomes complicated. The most complicated influence of the magnetic field is found in quantum dot-quantum well systems in which the lowest electron and hole states are localized in a thin spherical layer. It is shown that transitions that ...

  2. Nano selenium as antioxidant agent in a multilayer food packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Paula; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina; Palomo, María; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were incorporated in a flexible multilayer plastic material using a water-base adhesive as vehicle for SeNPs. The antioxidant performance of the original solutions containing spherical SeNPs of 50-60 nm diameter, the adhesive containing these SeNPs, and the final multilayer plastic material to be used as food packaging were quantitatively measured. The radical scavenging capacity due to SeNPs was quantified by a free radical assay developed in the laboratory and by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. DPPH was not efficient to measure the scavenging capacity in the multilayer when the free radical scavenger is not in the surface in contact with it. Several multilayer laminated structures composed by [PET (20 m)-adhesive-LDPE (with variable thickness from 35 to 90 μm)] were prepared and measured, demonstrating for the first time that free radicals derived from oxygen (OH·, O2·, and O2H) cross the PE layer and arrive at the adhesive. SeNPs remain as such after manufacture and the final laminate is stable after 3 months of storage. The antioxidant multilayer is a non-migrating efficient free radical scavenger, able to protect the packaged product versus oxidation and extending the shelf life without being in direct contact with the product. Migration tests of both Se and SeNPs to simulants and hazelnuts demonstrated the non-migrating performance of this new active packaging. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  3. Diameter optimization of VLS-synthesized ZnO nanowires, using statistical design of experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, Sepideh; Nourbakhsh, Amirhasan; Ganjipour, Bahram; Zahedifar, Mostafa; Vakili-Nezhaad, Gholamreza

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of diameter optimization of ZnO nanowires by using statistical design of experiment (DoE) is investigated. In this study, nanowires were synthesized using a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth method in a horizontal reactor. The effects of six synthesis parameters (synthesis time, synthesis temperature, thickness of gold layer, distance between ZnO holder and substrate, mass of ZnO and Ar flow rate) on the average diameter of a ZnO nanowire were examined using the fractional factorial design (FFD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). Using a 2 III 6-3 FFD, the main effects of the thickness of the gold layer, synthesis temperature and synthesis time were concluded to be the key factors influencing the diameter. Then Box-Behnken design (BBD) was exploited to create a response surface from the main factors. The total number of required runs for the DoE process is 25, 8 runs for FFD parameter screening and 17 runs for the response surface obtained by BBD. Three extra runs are done to confirm the predicted results

  4. Enhanced optical fields in a multilayered microsphere with a quasiperiodic spherical stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlak, Gennadiy N

    2007-01-01

    Radiation of a nanosource placed in a microsphere with a quasiperiodic subwavelength spherical stack is studied. The spectral evolution of transmittance at the change of the thickness of two-layer blocks constructed following the Fibonacci sequence is investigated. When the number of layers (Fibonacci order) increases the structure of the spectrum acquires a fractal form. Our calculations show a rising strong field peak, when the ratio of width of layers in two-layer blocks of the stack is close to the golden mean value

  5. Preparation of multi-layer film consisting of hydrogen-free DLC and nitrogen-containing DLC for conductive hard coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yushi; Harigai, Toru; Isono, Ryo; Degai, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Yasui, Haruyuki; Kaneko, Satoru; Kunitsugu, Shinsuke; Kamiya, Masao; Taki, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Conductive hard-coating films have potential application as protective films for contact pins used in the electrical inspection process for integrated circuit chips. In this study, multi-layer diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared as conductive hard-coating films. The multi-layer DLC films consisting of DLC and nitrogen-containing DLC (N-DLC) film were prepared using a T-shape filtered arc deposition method. Periodic DLC/N-DLC four-layer and eight-layer films had the same film thickness by changing the thickness of each layer. In the ball-on-disk test, the N-DLC mono-layer film showed the highest wear resistance; however, in the spherical polishing method, the eight-layer film showed the highest polishing resistance. The wear and polishing resistance and the aggressiveness against an opponent material of the multi-layer DLC films improved by reducing the thickness of a layer. In multi-layer films, the soft N-DLC layer between hard DLC layers is believed to function as a cushion. Thus, the tribological properties of the DLC films were improved by a multi-layered structure. The electrical resistivity of multi-layer DLC films was approximately half that of the DLC mono-layer film. Therefore, the periodic DLC/N-DLC eight-layer film is a good conductive hard-coating film.

  6. VLS-grown diffusion doped ZnO nanowires and their luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Pushan Guha; Dutta, Amartya; Das, Arpita; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Sen, Sayantani; Pramanik, Pallabi

    2015-01-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowires were deposited by vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) method on to aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) thin films grown by sol-gel technique. For various device applications, current injection into such nanowires is critical. This is expected to be more efficient for ZnO nanowires deposited on to AZO compared to those deposited on to a foreign substrate such as silicon. In this work we compare the morphological and optical properties of nanowires grown on AZO with those grown under similar conditions on silicon (Si) wafers. For nanowires grown on silicon, diameters around 44 nm with heights around 2.2 μm were obtained. For the growth on to AZO, the diameters were around 90 nm while the heights were around 520 nm. Room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) measurements show improved near band-edge emission for nanowires grown on to AZO, indicating higher material quality. This is further established by low temperature photoluminescence (LT-PL) measurements where excitonic transitions with width as small as 14 meV have been obtained at 4 K for such structures. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies indicate the presence of Al in the nanowires, indicating a new technique for introduction of dopants into these structures. These results indicate that ZnO nanowires on sol-gel grown AZO thin films show promise in the development of various optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  7. Modelling mass diffusion for a multi-layer sphere immersed in a semi-infinite medium: application to drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Elliot J; Pontrelli, Giuseppe

    2018-04-12

    We present a general mechanistic model of mass diffusion for a composite sphere placed in a large ambient medium. The multi-layer problem is described by a system of diffusion equations coupled via interlayer boundary conditions such as those imposing a finite mass resistance at the external surface of the sphere. While the work is applicable to the generic problem of heat or mass transfer in a multi-layer sphere, the analysis and results are presented in the context of drug kinetics for desorbing and absorbing spherical microcapsules. We derive an analytical solution for the concentration in the sphere and in the surrounding medium that avoids any artificial truncation at a finite distance. The closed-form solution in each concentric layer is expressed in terms of a suitably-defined inverse Laplace transform that can be evaluated numerically. Concentration profiles and drug mass curves in the spherical layers and in the external environment are presented and the dependency of the solution on the mass transfer coefficient at the surface of the sphere analyzed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of a high-efficiency grazing incidence monochromator with multilayer-coated laminar gratings for the 1-6 keV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masato; Ishino, Masahiko; Sasai, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    A grazing incidence objective monochromator consisting of a spherical mirror, a varied-line-spacing plane grating with multilayered coating, a movable plane multilayered mirror, and a fixed exit slit for the 1-6 keV region has been designed. The included angle at the grating was chosen to satisfy the grating equation and extended Bragg condition simultaneously. The aberration was corrected by means of a hybrid design method. A spectral resolving power of ∼600-∼6000 and a throughput of ∼2%-∼40% is expected for the monochromator when used in an undulator beamline

  9. Curvature-insensitive methodology for thermal-wave depth-profilometry in multi-layered curvilinear solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liwang; Wang Chinhua; Yuan Xiao; Mandelis, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A generalized similarity normalization (SN) methodology for characterizing depth profiles of continuously varying thermophysical properties in curvilinear (cylindrical and spherical) solids is presented. Specifically, the principle and the physical mechanism of the elimination of the surface curvature effect from the overall photothermal signal is introduced based on theoretical models of cylindrical, spherical and flat solids with multi-layer structures. The effects of the relative values of radii of curvature of the curvilinear solid, the thickness of the inhomogeneous surface layer and the measurement azimuthal angle on the validity of the technique are discussed in detail. Experimental reconstructions of thermophysical depth profiles of hardened cylindrical steel rods of various diameters are performed based on both curvilinear theory and the equivalent flat surface theory. The reconstructed results are compared and validated.

  10. Magnetic multilayer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Philipp; O'Sullivan, Eugene J.; Romankiw, Lubomyr T.; Wang, Naigang; Webb, Bucknell C.

    2016-07-05

    A mechanism is provided for an integrated laminated magnetic device. A substrate and a multilayer stack structure form the device. The multilayer stack structure includes alternating magnetic layers and diode structures formed on the substrate. Each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by a diode structure.

  11. The Subwavelength Optical Field Confinement in a Multilayered Microsphere with Quasiperiodic Spherical Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy N. Burlak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the frequency spectrum of nanoemitters placed in a microsphere with a quasiperiodic subwavelength spherical stack. The spectral evolution of transmittancy at the change of thickness of two-layer blocks, constructed following the Fibonacci sequence, is investigated. When the number of layers (Fibonacci order increases, the structure of spectrum acquires a fractal form. Our calculations show the radiation confinement and gigantic field enhancement, when the ratio of layers’ widths in twolayer blocks of the stack is close to the golden mean value.

  12. Multilayer Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiana, Michael; Muldoon, Sarah Feldt

    2018-01-01

    The field of neuroscience is facing an unprecedented expanse in the volume and diversity of available data. Traditionally, network models have provided key insights into the structure and function of the brain. With the advent of big data in neuroscience, both more sophisticated models capable of characterizing the increasing complexity of the data and novel methods of quantitative analysis are needed. Recently, multilayer networks, a mathematical extension of traditional networks, have gained increasing popularity in neuroscience due to their ability to capture the full information of multi-model, multi-scale, spatiotemporal data sets. Here, we review multilayer networks and their applications in neuroscience, showing how incorporating the multilayer framework into network neuroscience analysis has uncovered previously hidden features of brain networks. We specifically highlight the use of multilayer networks to model disease, structure-function relationships, network evolution, and link multi-scale data. Finally, we close with a discussion of promising new directions of multilayer network neuroscience research and propose a modified definition of multilayer networks designed to unite and clarify the use of the multilayer formalism in describing real-world systems.

  13. Analytical solutions of electric potential and impedance for a multilayered spherical volume conductor excited by time-harmonic electric current source: application in brain EIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chunyan; Lei Yinzhao

    2005-01-01

    A model of a multilayered spherical volume conductor with four electrodes is built. In this model, a time-harmonic electric current is injected into the sphere through a pair of drive electrodes, and electric potential is measured by the other pair of measurement electrodes. By solving the boundary value problem of the electromagnetic field, the analytical solutions of electric potential and impedance in the whole conduction region are derived. The theoretical values of electric potential on the surface of the sphere are in good accordance with the experimental results. The analytical solutions are then applied to the simulation of the forward problem of brain electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The results show that, for a real human head, the imaginary part of the electric potential is not small enough to be ignored at above 20 kHz, and there exists an approximate linear relationship between the real and imaginary parts of the electric potential when the electromagnetic parameters of the innermost layer keep unchanged. Increase in the conductivity of the innermost layer leads to a decrease of the magnitude of both real and imaginary parts of the electric potential on the scalp. However, the increase of permittivity makes the magnitude of the imaginary part of the electric potential increase while that of the real part decreases, and vice versa

  14. Plastic deformation in nano-scale multilayer materials — A biomimetic approach based on nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Juergen M., E-mail: juergen.lackner@joanneum.at [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsges.m.b.H., Institute for Surface Technologies and Photonics, Functional Surfaces, Leobner Strasse 94, A-8712 Niklasdorf (Austria); Waldhauser, Wolfgang [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsges.m.b.H., Institute for Surface Technologies and Photonics, Functional Surfaces, Leobner Strasse 94, A-8712 Niklasdorf (Austria); Major, Boguslaw; Major, Lukasz [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences, IMIM-PAN, ul. Reymonta 25, PL-30059 Krakow (Poland); Kot, Marcin [University of Science and Technology, AGH, Aleja Adama Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-05-01

    The paper reports about a biomimetic based comparison of deformation in magnetron sputtered multilayer coatings based on titanium (Ti), titanium nitride (TiN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers and the deformation mechanisms in nacre of mollusc shells. Nacre as highly mineralized tissue combines high stiffness and hardness with high toughness, enabling resistance to fracture and crack propagation during tensile loading. Such behaviour is based on a combination of load transmission by tensile stressed aragonite tablets and shearing in layers between the tablets. Shearing in these polysaccharide and protein interlayers demands hydrated conditions. Otherwise, nacre has similar brittle behaviour to aragonite. To prevent shear failure, shear hardening occurs by progressive tablet locking due to wavy dovetail-like surface geometry of the tablets. Similar effects by shearing and strain hardening mechanisms were found for Ti interlayers between TiN and DLC layers in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies, performed in deformed zones beneath spherical indentations. 7 nm thin Ti films are sufficient for strong toughening of the whole multi-layered coating structure, providing a barrier for propagation of cracks, starting from tensile-stressed, hard, brittle TiN or DLC layers. - Highlights: • Biomimetic approach to TiN-diamond-like carbon (DLC) multilayers by sputtering • Investigation of deformation in/around hardness indents by HR-TEM • Plastic deformation with shearing in 7-nm thick Ti interlayers in TiN–DLC multilayers • Biomimetically comparable to nacre deformation.

  15. Acoustic radiation force on a multilayered sphere in a Gaussian standing field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Liu, Xiaozhou; Gao, Sha; Cui, Jun; Liu, Jiehui; He, Aijun; Zhang, Gutian

    2018-03-01

    We develop a model for calculating the radiation force on spherically symmetric multilayered particles based on the acoustic scattering approach. An expression is derived for the radiation force on a multilayered sphere centered on the axis of a Gaussian standing wave propagating in an ideal fluid. The effects of the sound absorption of the materials and sound wave on acoustic radiation force of a multilayered sphere immersed in water are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the shell thickness of every layer, and the width of the Gaussian beam. The results reveal that the existence of particle trapping behavior depends on the choice of the non-dimensional frequency ka, as well as the shell thickness of each layer. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of acoustical tweezers in a Gaussian standing wave, which may benefit the improvement and development of acoustic control technology, such as trapping, sorting, and assembling a cell, and drug delivery applications. Project supported by National Key R&D Program (Grant No. 2016YFF0203000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11774167 and 61571222), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 020414380001), the Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Environment, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SSHJ-KFKT-1701), and the AQSIQ Technology R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2017QK125).

  16. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jasveer, E-mail: kaurjasveer89@gmail.com; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India); Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder, E-mail: raminder-k-saini@yahoo.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  17. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  18. Spin coating and plasma process for 2.5D and hybrid 3D micro-resonators on multilayer polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bêche, B.; Gaviot, E.; Godet, C.; Zebda, A.; Potel, A.; Barbe, J.; Camberlein, L.; Vié, V.; Panizza, P.; Loas, G.; Hamel, C.; Zyss, J.; Huby, N.

    2009-05-01

    We have designed and realized three integrated photonic families of micro-resonators (MR) on multilayer organic materials. Such so-called 2.5D-MR and 3D-MR structures show off radius values ranging from 40 to 200μm. Both first and second families are especially designed on organic multilayer materials and shaped as ring- and disk-MR organics structures arranged upon (and coupled with) a pair of SU8-organic waveguides. The third family is related to hybrid 3D-MR structures composed of spherical glass-MR coupled to organic waveguides by a Langmuir-Blodgett lipid film about three nanometers in thickness. At first, polymer spin coating, surface plasma treatment and selective UV-lithography processes have been developed to realize 2.5D photonic micro-resonators. Secondly, we have designed and characterized photonic-quadripoles made of 3D-glass-MR arranged upon a pair of SU8 waveguides. Such structures are defined by a 4-ports or 4-waveguides coupled by the spherical glass-MR. We have achieved an evanescent photonic coupling between the 3D-MR and the 4-ports structure. Spectral resonances have been measured for 4-whispering gallery-modes (WGM) into such 3D-structures respectively characterized by a 0.97 nm free spectral range (FSR) and a high quality Q-factor up to 4.104.

  19. High-precision MoSi multilayer coatings for radial and 2D designs on curved optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriese, Michael D.; Li, Yang; Platonov, Yuriy Y.

    2017-10-01

    The development of industrial infrastructure for EUV lithography requires a wide array of optics beyond the mask and the scanner optics, which include optics for critical instruments such as exposure testing and actinic inspection. This paper will detail recent results in the production of a variety of high-precision multilayer coatings achieved to support this development. It is critical that the optical designs factor in the capabilities of the achievable multilayer gradients and the associated achievable precision, including impact to surface distortion from the added figure error of the multilayer coating, which adds additional requirements of a specific shape to the period distribution. For example, two different coatings may achieve a ±0.2% variation in multilayer period, but have considerably different added figure error. Part I of the paper will focus on radially-symmetric spherical and aspherical optics. Typical azimuthal uniformity (variation at a fixed radius) achieved is less than ±0.005nm total variation, including measurement precision, on concave optics up to 200mm diameter. For highly curved convex optics (radius of curvature less than 50mm), precision is more challenging and the total variation increases to ±0.01nm total variation for optics 10-30mm in diameter. Total added figure error achieved has been as low as 0.05nm. Part II of the paper will focus on multilayer designs graded in two directions, rather than radially, in order to accommodate the increased complexity of elliptical, toroidal and hyperbolic surfaces. In most cases, the symmetry of the required multilayer gradient does not match the symmetry of the optical surface, and this interaction must be countered via the process design. Achieving such results requires additional flexibility in the design of the deposition equipment, and will be discussed with several examples in the paper, such as the use of variable velocity of an inline substrate carrier in conjunction with a shaped

  20. Spherical neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2006-11-21

    A spherical neutron generator is formed with a small spherical target and a spherical shell RF-driven plasma ion source surrounding the target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) ion plasma is produced by RF excitation in the plasma ion source using an RF antenna. The plasma generation region is a spherical shell between an outer chamber and an inner extraction electrode. A spherical neutron generating target is at the center of the chamber and is biased negatively with respect to the extraction electrode which contains many holes. Ions passing through the holes in the extraction electrode are focused onto the target which produces neutrons by D-D or D-T reactions.

  1. A new treatment of focusing by varied-line-spacing gratings with application to the Peterson PGM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Staub, U.

    1996-11-01

    We present a new treatment for a varied-line-spacing grating (VLS) as a monochromator for a soft X-ray synchrotron beamline. Our calculations for a VLS monochromator show that within the small angle approximation we can make the focal length constant, correct for primary coma and spherical aberrations at all wave lengths. This monochromator scheme has still a free choice of included angle, which can be used to optimize efficiency and it can cover a wave length range of eight octaves, distinct more compared to a plane grating monochromator scheme. The analytical calculations are in excellent agreement with our ray traces using the Shadow computer code. (author) 7 figs., tabs., 27 refs

  2. Engineering scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnsorg, R.W.; Hollar, W.E. Jr.; Lau, S.K. [Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States). Technology Div.; Ko, F.K.; Schatz, K. [Advanced Product Development, Bristol, PA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    As reinforcements for composites, VLS SiC fibrils have attractive mechanical properties including high-strength, high modulus, and excellent creep resistance. To make use of their excellent mechanical properties in a composite, a significant volume fraction (>10%) of aligned, long fibrils (>2 mm) needs to be consolidated in the ceramic matrix. The fibrils must be processed into an assembly that will allow for composite fabrication while maintaining fibril alignment and length. With Advanced Product Development (APD) as the yam fabrication subcontractor, Carborundum investigated several approaches to achieve this goaL including traditional yam-forming processes such as carding and air-vortex spinning and nontraditional processes such as tape forming and wet casting. Carborundum additionally performed an economic analysis for producing 500 and 10,000 pounds of SiC fibrils annually using both conservative and more aggressive processing parameters. With the aggressive approach, the projected costs for SiC fibril production for 500 and 10,000 pounds per year are $1,340/pound and $340/pound, respectively.

  3. Collective mechanical behavior of multilayer colloidal arrays of hollow nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Retsch, Markus; Thomas, Edwin L; Boyce, Mary C

    2012-04-03

    The collective mechanical behavior of multilayer colloidal arrays of hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNP) is explored under spherical nanoindentation through a combination of experimental, numerical, and theoretical approaches. The effective indentation modulus E(ind) is found to decrease with an increasing number of layers in a nonlinear manner. The indentation force versus penetration depth behavior for multilayer hollow particle arrays is predicted by an approximate analytical model based on the spring stiffness of the individual particles and the multipoint, multiparticle interactions as well as force transmission between the layers. The model is in good agreement with experiments and with detailed finite element simulations. The ability to tune the effective indentation modulus, E(ind), of the multilayer arrays by manipulating particle geometry and layering is revealed through the model, where E(ind) = (0.725m(-3/2) + 0.275)E(mon) and E(mon) is the monolayer modulus and m is number of layers. E(ind) is seen to plateau with increasing m to E(ind_plateau) = 0.275E(mon) and E(mon) scales with (t/R)(2), t being the particle shell thickness and R being the particle radius. The scaling law governing the nonlinear decrease in indentation modulus with an increase in layer number (E(ind) scaling with m(-3/2)) is found to be similar to that governing the indentation modulus of thin solid films E(ind_solid) on a stiff substrate (where E(ind_solid) scales with h(-1.4) and also decreases until reaching a plateau value) which also decreases with an increase in film thickness h. However, the mechanisms underlying this trend for the colloidal array are clearly different, where discrete particle-to-particle interactions govern the colloidal array behavior in contrast to the substrate constraint on deformation, which governs the thickness dependence of the continuous thin film indentation modulus.

  4. A new approximating formula for calculating gamma-ray buildup factors in multilayer shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, A.; Chiron, M.; Nimal, J.C.; Diop, C.M.; Ridoux, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study proposes a new approximating formula for calculating gamma-ray buildup factors in multilayer shields. The formula combines the buildup factors of single-layer shields with products and quotients. The feasibility of the formula for reproducing the buildup factors was tested by using point isotropic buildup factors calculated with the SN1D discrete ordinates code as reference data. The dose buildup factors of single-, double-, and multilayer shields composed of water, aluminum, iron, and lead were calculated for a spherical geometry in the energy range between 10 MeV and 40 keV and for total thicknesses of up to 30 mean free paths. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the bound electron effect of Compton scattering (incoherent scattering), the coherent scattering, the pair production, and the secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence. The tests have shown that the approximating formula reproduces the reference data of double-layer shields very well for most cases. With the same parameters and with a new physical consideration that takes into account in a global way the degradation of the gamma-ray energy spectrum, the buildup factors of three- and five-layer shields were also very well reproduced

  5. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  6. New developments in Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I; Hoghoj, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    It is now 20 years since super-mirrors were first used as a neutron optical element. Since then the field of multilayer neutron-optics has matured with multilayers finding their way to application in many neutron scattering instruments. However, there is still room for progress in terms of multilayer quality, performance and application. Along with work on multilayers for neutron polarisation Ni/Ti super-mirrors have been optimised. The state-of-the-art Ni/Ti super-mirror performance and the results obtained in two neutron-optics applications of Ni/Ti multilayers are presented. (author).

  7. Neutron optics with multilayer monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, A.M.; Majkrzak, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    A multilayer monochromator is made by depositing thin films of two materials in an alternating sequence on a glass substrate. This makes a multilayer periodic in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the films, with a d-spacing equal to the thickness of one bilayer. Neutrons of wavelength λ incident on a multilayer will be reflected at an angle phi given by the Bragg relation nλ = 2d sinphi, where n is the order of reflection. The use of thin-film multilayers for monochromating neutrons is discussed. Because of the low flux of neutrons, the samples have to be large, and the width of the incident beam can be as much as 2 cm. Multilayers made earlier were fabricated by resistive heating of the materials in a vacuum chamber. Because of geometrical constraints imposed by the size of the vacuum chamber, limits on the amount of material that can be loaded in a boat, and finite life of the boats, this method of preparation limits the length of a multilayer to ∼ 15 cm and the total number of bilayers in a multilayer to about 200. This paper discusses a thin-film deposition system using RF sputtering for depositing films

  8. Solar cells based on particulate structure of active layer: Investigation of light absorption by an ordered system of spherical submicron silicon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskevich, Alexander A.; Loiko, Valery A.

    2015-12-01

    Enhancement of the performance of photovoltaic cells through increasing light absorption due to optimization of an active layer is considered. The optimization consists in creation of particulate structure of active layer. The ordered monolayers and multilayers of submicron crystalline silicon (c-Si) spherical particles are examined. The quasicrystalline approximation (QCA) and the transfer matrix method (TMM) are used to calculate light absorption in the wavelength range from 0.28 μm to 1.12 μm. The integrated over the terrestial solar spectral irradiance "Global tilt" ASTM G173-03 absorption coefficient is calculated. In the wavelength range of small absorption index of c-Si (0.8-1.12 μm) the integral absorption coefficient of monolayer can be more than 20 times higher than the one of the plane-parallel plate of the equivalent volume of material. In the overall considered range (0.28-1.12 μm) the enhancement factor up to ~1.45 for individual monolayer is observed. Maximum value of the spectral absorption coefficient approaches unity for multilayers consisting of large amount of sparse monolayers of small particles. Multilayers with variable concentration and size of particles in the monolayer sequences are considered. Absorption increasing by such gradient multilayers as compared to the non-gradient ones is illustrated. The considered structures are promising for creation of high efficiency thin-film solar cells.

  9. Nanointaglio fabrication of optical lipid multilayer diffraction gratings with applications in biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Troy Warren

    supramolecular remodeling such as vesicle formation from planar lipid bilayers or multilayers are needed to understand cellular self-organization. Presented next is a nanointaglio based method for quantitative measurements of lipid-protein interactions and its suitability for quantifying the membrane binding, inflation, and budding activity of the membrane-remodeling protein Sar1. Optical diffraction gratings composed of lipids are printed on surfaces using nanointaglio, resulting in lipid multilayer gratings. Exposure of lipid multilayer gratings to Sar1 results in the inflation of lipid multilayers into unilamellar structures, the kinetics of which can be detected in a label-free manner by monitoring the diffraction of white light through an optical microscope. Local variations in lipid multilayer volume on the surface can be used to vary substrate availability in a microarray format, allowing kinetic and thermodynamic data to be obtained from a single experiment without the need for varying enzyme concentration. A quantitative model is developed and fits to the data allow measurements of both binding affinity (KD) and kinetics (kon and koff). Importantly, this assay is uniquely capable of quantifying membrane remodeling. Upon Sar1 induced inflation of single bilayers from surface supported multilayers, the semi-cylindrical grating lines are observed to remodel into semi-spherical buds when a critical radius of curvature equal to 300 nm is reached, which is explained in terms of a Rayleigh type instability.

  10. Spherical Bessel transform via exponential sum approximation of spherical Bessel function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Hidekazu

    2018-02-01

    A new algorithm for numerical evaluation of spherical Bessel transform is proposed in this paper. In this method, the spherical Bessel function is approximately represented as an exponential sum with complex parameters. This is obtained by expressing an integral representation of spherical Bessel function in complex plane, and discretizing contour integrals along steepest descent paths and a contour path parallel to real axis using numerical quadrature rule with the double-exponential transformation. The number of terms in the expression is reduced using the modified balanced truncation method. The residual part of integrand is also expanded by exponential functions using Prony-like method. The spherical Bessel transform can be evaluated analytically on arbitrary points in half-open interval.

  11. Uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces admitted by spherically symmetric static spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Robert; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2007-11-01

    It is known that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit a foliation by flat hypersurfaces. Such foliations have explicitly been constructed for some spacetimes, using different approaches, but none of them have proved or even discussed the uniqueness of these foliations. The issue of uniqueness becomes more important due to suitability of flat foliations for studying black hole physics. Here, flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces are obtained by a direct method. It is found that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit flat spherically symmetric hypersurfaces, and that these hypersurfaces are unique up to translation under the timelike Killing vector. This result guarantees the uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric foliations for such spacetimes.

  12. Wedged multilayer Laue lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, Ray; Liu Chian; Qian Jun; Kewish, Cameron M.; Macrander, Albert T.; Yan Hanfei; Maser, Joerg; Kang, Hyon Chol; Stephenson, G. Brian

    2008-01-01

    A multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is an x-ray focusing optic fabricated from a multilayer structure consisting of thousands of layers of two different materials produced by thin-film deposition. The sequence of layer thicknesses is controlled to satisfy the Fresnel zone plate law and the multilayer is sectioned to form the optic. An improved MLL geometry can be created by growing each layer with an in-plane thickness gradient to form a wedge, so that every interface makes the correct angle with the incident beam for symmetric Bragg diffraction. The ultimate hard x-ray focusing performance of a wedged MLL has been predicted to be significantly better than that of a nonwedged MLL, giving subnanometer resolution with high efficiency. Here, we describe a method to deposit the multilayer structure needed for an ideal wedged MLL and report our initial deposition results to produce these structures

  13. Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, M P; Barbee, T W; Heidemann, K F; Gursky, H; Rife, J C; Hunter, W R; Fritz, G G; Cruddace, R G

    1999-11-01

    We have fabricated the four flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer using a holographic ion-etching technique. The gratings are spherical (4000-mm radius of curvature), large (160 mm x 90 mm), and have a laminar groove profile of high density (3600 grooves/mm). They have been coated with a high-reflectance multilayer of Mo/Si. Using an atomic force microscope, we examined the surface characteristics of the first grating before and after multilayer coating. The average roughness is approximately 3 A rms after coating. Using synchrotron radiation, we completed an efficiency calibration map over the wavelength range 225-245 A. At an angle of incidence of 5 degrees and a wavelength of 234 A, the average efficiency in the first inside order is 10.4 +/- 0.5%, and the derived groove efficiency is 34.8 +/- 1.6%. These values exceed all previously published results for a high-density grating.

  14. Interfacial effects in multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general

  15. First results of spherical GEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda; Taureg, Hans; Villa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We developed a method to make GEM foils with a spherical geometry. Tests of this procedure and with the resulting spherical GEMs are presented. Together with a spherical drift electrode, a spherical conversion gap can be formed. This eliminates the parallax error for detection of x-rays, neutrons or UV photons when a gaseous converter is used. This parallax error limits the spatial resolution at wide scattering angles. Besides spherical GEMs, we have developed curved spacers to maintain accurate spacing, and a conical field cage to prevent edge distortion of the radial drift field up to the limit of the angular acceptance of the detector. With these components first tests are done in a setup with a spherical entrance window but a planar readout structure; results will be presented and discussed. A flat readout structure poses difficulties, however. Therefore we will show advanced plans to make a prototype of an entirely spherical double-GEM detector, including a spherical 2D readout structure. This detector w...

  16. Evolution of the spherical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The possible processes of the Galaxy spherical clusters formation and evolution are described on a popular level. The orbits of spherical cluster motion and their spatial velocities are determined. Given are the distrbutions of spherical cluster stars according to their velocities and the observed distribution of spherical clusters in the area of the Galaxy slow evolution. The dissipation and dynamic friction processes destructing clusters with the mass less than 10 4 of solar mass and bringing about the reduction of clusters in the Galaxy are considered. The paradox of forming mainly X-ray sources in spherical clusters is explained. The schematic image of possible ways of forming X-ray sources in spherical clusters is given

  17. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  18. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  19. Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyon Chol; Stephenson, G. Brian; Liu Chian; Conley, Ray; Khachatryan, Ruben; Wieczorek, Michael; Macrander, Albert T.; Yan Hanfei; Maser, Joerg; Hiller, Jon; Koritala, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    We report a process to fabricate multilayer Laue lenses (MLL's) by sectioning and thinning multilayer films. This method can produce a linear zone plate structure with a very large ratio of zone depth to width (e.g., >1000), orders of magnitude larger than can be attained with photolithography. Consequently, MLL's are advantageous for efficient nanofocusing of hard x rays. MLL structures prepared by the technique reported here have been tested at an x-ray energy of 19.5 keV, and a diffraction-limited performance was observed. The present article reports the fabrication techniques that were used to make the MLL's

  20. Spherical CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Taco S.; Geiger, Mario; Koehler, Jonas; Welling, Max

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become the method of choice for learning problems involving 2D planar images. However, a number of problems of recent interest have created a demand for models that can analyze spherical images. Examples include omnidirectional vision for drones, robots, and autonomous cars, molecular regression problems, and global weather and climate modelling. A naive application of convolutional networks to a planar projection of the spherical signal is destined t...

  1. Finding overlapping communities in multilayer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiyi; Suzumura, Toyotaro; Ji, Hongyu; Hu, Guangmin

    2018-01-01

    Finding communities in multilayer networks is a vital step in understanding the structure and dynamics of these layers, where each layer represents a particular type of relationship between nodes in the natural world. However, most community discovery methods for multilayer networks may ignore the interplay between layers or the unique topological structure in a layer. Moreover, most of them can only detect non-overlapping communities. In this paper, we propose a new community discovery method for multilayer networks, which leverages the interplay between layers and the unique topology in a layer to reveal overlapping communities. Through a comprehensive analysis of edge behaviors within and across layers, we first calculate the similarities for edges from the same layer and the cross layers. Then, by leveraging these similarities, we can construct a dendrogram for the multilayer networks that takes both the unique topological structure and the important interplay into consideration. Finally, by introducing a new community density metric for multilayer networks, we can cut the dendrogram to get the overlapping communities for these layers. By applying our method on both synthetic and real-world datasets, we demonstrate that our method has an accurate performance in discovering overlapping communities in multilayer networks.

  2. Preparation and Optical Properties of Spherical Inverse Opals by Liquid Phase Deposition Using Spherical Colloidal Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoi, Y; Tominaga, T

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) inverse opals in spherical shape were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) using spherical colloidal crystals as templates. Spherical colloidal crystals were produced by ink-jet drying technique. Aqueous emulsion droplets that contain polystyrene latex particles were ejected into air and dried. Closely packed colloidal crystals with spherical shape were obtained. The obtained spherical colloidal crystals were used as templates for the LPD. The templates were dispersed in the deposition solution of the LPD, i.e. a mixed solution of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid and reacted for 4 h at 30 °C. After the LPD process, the interstitial spaces of the spherical colloidal crystals were completely filled with titanium oxide. Subsequent heat treatment resulted in removal of templates and spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals. The spherical shape of the template was retained. SEM observations indicated that the periodic ordered voids were surrounded by titanium dioxide. The optical reflectance spectra indicated that the optical properties of the spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals were due to Bragg diffractions from the ordered structure. Filling in the voids of the inverse opals with different solvents caused remarkable changes in the reflectance peak.

  3. Controlling light with plasmonic multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Iorsh, Ivan V.

    2014-01-01

    metamaterials and describe their use for light manipulation at the nanoscale. While demonstrating the recently emphasized hallmark effect of hyperbolic dispersion, we put special emphasis to the comparison between multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials and more broadly defined plasmonic-multilayer metamaterials...

  4. Interfacial behaviour of biopolymer multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstens, Meinou N.; Osorio Caltenco, Lilia A.; Vries, de Renko; Schroën, Karin; Berton-Carabin, Claire C.

    2017-01-01

    Although multilayered emulsions have been related to reduced lipolysis, the involved interfacial phenomena have never been studied directly. In this work, we systematically built multilayers of whey protein and pectin, which we further subjected to digestive conditions, using two different

  5. Friction factor for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluđerović-Radoičić Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the experimental evaluation of different friction factor correlations for water flow through packed beds of spherical and non-spherical particles at ambient temperature. The experiments were performed by measuring the pressure drop across the bed. Packed beds made of monosized glass spherical particles of seven different diameters were used, as well as beds made of 16 fractions of quartz filtration sand obtained by sieving (polydisperse non-spherical particles. The range of bed voidages was 0.359–0.486, while the range of bed particle Reynolds numbers was from 0.3 to 286 for spherical particles and from 0.1 to 50 for non-spherical particles. The obtained results were compared using a number of available literature correlations. In order to improve the correlation results for spherical particles, a new simple equation was proposed in the form of Ergun’s equation, with modified coefficients. The new correlation had a mean absolute deviation between experimental and calculated values of pressure drop of 9.04%. For non-spherical quartz filtration sand particles the best fit was obtained using Ergun’s equation, with a mean absolute deviation of 10.36%. Surface-volume diameter (dSV necessary for correlating the data for filtration sand particles was calculated based on correlations for dV = f(dm and Ψ = f(dm. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. ON172022

  6. Progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a review of our theoretical and experimental progress in octahedral spherical hohlraum study. From our theoretical study, the octahedral spherical hohlraums with 6 Laser Entrance Holes (LEHs of octahedral symmetry have robust high symmetry during the capsule implosion at hohlraum-to-capsule radius ratio larger than 3.7. In addition, the octahedral spherical hohlraums also have potential superiority on low backscattering without supplementary technology. We studied the laser arrangement and constraints of the octahedral spherical hohlraums, and gave a design on the laser arrangement for ignition octahedral hohlraums. As a result, the injection angle of laser beams of 50°–60° was proposed as the optimum candidate range for the octahedral spherical hohlraums. We proposed a novel octahedral spherical hohlraum with cylindrical LEHs and LEH shields, in order to increase the laser coupling efficiency and improve the capsule symmetry and to mitigate the influence of the wall blowoff on laser transport. We studied on the sensitivity of the octahedral spherical hohlraums to random errors and compared the sensitivity among the octahedral spherical hohlraums, the rugby hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums, and the results show that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are robust to these random errors while the cylindrical hohlraums are the most sensitive. Up till to now, we have carried out three experiments on the spherical hohlraum with 2 LEHs on Shenguang(SG laser facilities, including demonstration of improving laser transport by using the cylindrical LEHs in the spherical hohlraums, spherical hohlraum energetics on the SGIII prototype laser facility, and comparisons of laser plasma instabilities between the spherical hohlraums and the cylindrical hohlraums on the SGIII laser facility.

  7. A refined model for characterizing x-ray multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oren, A.L.; Henke, B.L.

    1987-12-01

    The ability to quickly and accurately characterize arbitrary multilayers is very valuable for not only can we use the characterizations to predict the reflectivity of a multilayer for any soft x-ray wavelength, we also can generalize the results to apply to other multilayers of the same type. In addition, we can use the characterizations as a means of evaluating various sputtering environments and refining sputtering techniques to obtain better multilayers. In this report we have obtained improved characterizations for sample molybdenum-silicon and vanadium-silicon multilayers. However, we only examined five crystals overall, so the conclusions that we could draw about the structure of general multilayers is limited. Research involving many multilayers manufactured under the same sputtering conditions is clearly in order. In order to best understand multilayer structures it may be necessary to further refine our model, e.g., adopting a Gaussian form for the interface regions. With such improvements we can expect even better agreement with experimental values and continued concurrence with other characterization techniques. 18 refs., 30 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  9. Base Metal Co-Fired Multilayer Piezoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectrics have been widely used in different kinds of applications, from the automobile industry to consumer electronics. The novel multilayer piezoelectrics, which are inspired by multilayer ceramic capacitors, not only minimize the size of the functional parts, but also maximize energy efficiency. Development of multilayer piezoelectric devices is at a significant crossroads on the way to achieving low costs, high efficiency, and excellent reliability. Concerning the costs of manufacturing multilayer piezoelectrics, the trend is to replace the costly noble metal internal electrodes with base metal materials. This paper discusses the materials development of metal co-firing and the progress of integrating current base metal chemistries. There are some significant considerations in metal co-firing multilayer piezoelectrics: retaining stoichiometry with volatile Pb and alkaline elements in ceramics, the selection of appropriate sintering agents to lower the sintering temperature with minimum impact on piezoelectric performance, and designing effective binder formulation for low pO2 burnout to prevent oxidation of Ni and Cu base metal.

  10. Multilayer Stochastic Block Models Reveal the Multilayer Structure of Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Vallès-Català

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In complex systems, the network of interactions we observe between systems components is the aggregate of the interactions that occur through different mechanisms or layers. Recent studies reveal that the existence of multiple interaction layers can have a dramatic impact in the dynamical processes occurring on these systems. However, these studies assume that the interactions between systems components in each one of the layers are known, while typically for real-world systems we do not have that information. Here, we address the issue of uncovering the different interaction layers from aggregate data by introducing multilayer stochastic block models (SBMs, a generalization of single-layer SBMs that considers different mechanisms of layer aggregation. First, we find the complete probabilistic solution to the problem of finding the optimal multilayer SBM for a given aggregate-observed network. Because this solution is computationally intractable, we propose an approximation that enables us to verify that multilayer SBMs are more predictive of network structure in real-world complex systems.

  11. Multilayer Nanoporous Graphene Membranes for Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-10

    While single-layer nanoporous graphene (NPG) has shown promise as a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination membrane, multilayer graphene membranes can be synthesized more economically than the single-layer material. In this work, we build upon the knowledge gained to date toward single-layer graphene to explore how multilayer NPG might serve as a RO membrane in water desalination using classical molecular dynamic simulations. We show that, while multilayer NPG exhibits similarly promising desalination properties to single-layer membranes, their separation performance can be designed by manipulating various configurational variables in the multilayer case. This work establishes an atomic-level understanding of the effects of additional NPG layers, layer separation, and pore alignment on desalination performance, providing useful guidelines for the design of multilayer NPG membranes.

  12. Mechanical properties of highly textured Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Bufford, D.; Wang, H.; Sun, C.; Zhang, X.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of highly (1 1 1) and (1 0 0) textured Cu/Ni multilayers with individual layer thicknesses, h, varying from 1 to 200 nm. When, h, decreases to 5 nm or less, X-ray diffraction spectra show epitaxial growth of Cu/Ni multilayers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show the coexistence of nanotwins and coherent layer interfaces in highly (1 1 1) textured Cu/Ni multilayers with smaller h. Hardnesses of multilayer films increase with decreasing h, approach a maximum at h of a few nanometers, and show softening thereafter at smaller h. The influence of layer interfaces as well as twin interfaces on strengthening mechanisms of multilayers and the formation of twins in Ni in multilayers are discussed.

  13. Extended asymmetric-cut multilayer X-ray gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasciolu, Mauro; Haase, Anton; Scholze, Frank; Chapman, Henry N; Bajt, Saša

    2015-06-15

    The fabrication and characterization of a large-area high-dispersion blazed grating for soft X-rays based on an asymmetric-cut multilayer structure is reported. An asymmetric-cut multilayer structure acts as a perfect blazed grating of high efficiency that exhibits a single diffracted order, as described by dynamical diffraction throughout the depth of the layered structure. The maximum number of grating periods created by cutting a multilayer deposited on a flat substrate is equal to the number of layers deposited, which limits the size of the grating. The size limitation was overcome by depositing the multilayer onto a substrate which itself is a coarse blazed grating and then polish it flat to reveal the uniformly spaced layers of the multilayer. The number of deposited layers required is such that the multilayer thickness exceeds the step height of the substrate structure. The method is demonstrated by fabricating a 27,060 line pairs per mm blazed grating (36.95 nm period) that is repeated every 3,200 periods by the 120-μm period substrate structure. This preparation technique also relaxes the requirements on stress control and interface roughness of the multilayer film. The dispersion and efficiency of the grating is demonstrated for soft X-rays of 13.2 nm wavelength.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of novel multilayered structures by stereocomplexion of poly(D-lactic acid/poly(L-lactic acid and self-assembly of polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dellacasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enantiomers poly(D-lactic acid (PDLA and poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA were alternately adsorbed directly on calcium carbonate (CaCO3 templates and on poly(styrene sulfonate (PSS and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH multilayer precursors in order to fabricate a novel layer-by-layer (LBL assembly. A single layer of poly(L-lysine (PLL was used as a linker between the (PDLA/PLLAn stereocomplex and the cores with and without the polymeric (PSS/PAHn/PLL multilayer precursor (PEM. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC were used to characterize the chemical composition and molecular weight of poly(lactic acid polymers. Both multilayer structures, with and without polymeric precursor, were firstly fabricated and characterized on planar supports. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and ellipsometry were used to evaluate the thickness and mass of the multilayers. Then, hollow, spherical microcapsules were obtained by the removal of the CaCO3 sacrificial template. The chemical composition of the obtained microcapsules was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD analyses. The microcapsule morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM measurements. The experimental results confirm the successful fabrication of this innovative system, and its full biocompatibility makes it worthy of further characterization as a promising drug carrier for sustained release.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of novel multilayered structures by stereocomplexion of poly(D-lactic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) and self-assembly of polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gesheng; Pastorino, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Summary The enantiomers poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) were alternately adsorbed directly on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) templates and on poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) multilayer precursors in order to fabricate a novel layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. A single layer of poly(L-lysine) (PLL) was used as a linker between the (PDLA/PLLA)n stereocomplex and the cores with and without the polymeric (PSS/PAH)n/PLL multilayer precursor (PEM). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to characterize the chemical composition and molecular weight of poly(lactic acid) polymers. Both multilayer structures, with and without polymeric precursor, were firstly fabricated and characterized on planar supports. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and ellipsometry were used to evaluate the thickness and mass of the multilayers. Then, hollow, spherical microcapsules were obtained by the removal of the CaCO3 sacrificial template. The chemical composition of the obtained microcapsules was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD) analyses. The microcapsule morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. The experimental results confirm the successful fabrication of this innovative system, and its full biocompatibility makes it worthy of further characterization as a promising drug carrier for sustained release. PMID:26925356

  16. Soft X-ray multilayers and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Zhan Shan; Tang Wei Xing; Qin Shuji; Zhou Bing; Chen Ling Ya

    2002-01-01

    The periodic and non-periodic multilayers were designed by using a random number to change each layer and a suitable merit function. Ion beam sputtering and magnetron sputtering were used to fabricate various multilayers and beam splitters in soft X-ray range. The characterization of multilayers by small angle X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and reflectivity illustrated the multilayers had good structures and smooth interlayers. The reflectivity and transmission of a beam splitter is about 5%. The fabrication and transmission properties of Ag, Zr were studied. The Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy were used to investigate the contents and distributions of impurities and influence on qualities of filters. The attenuation coefficients were corrected by the data obtained by measurements

  17. Magnetoresistive multilayers deposited on the AAO membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkinski, Leszek M.; Chalastaras, Athanasios; Vovk, Andriy; Jung, Jin-Seung; Kim, Eun-Mee; Jun, Jong-Ho; Ventrice, Carl A.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon and GaAs wafers are the most commonly used substrates for deposition of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) multilayers. We explored a new type of a substrate, prepared electrochemically by anodization of aluminum sheets, for deposition of GMR multilayers. The surface of this AAO substrate consists of nanosized hemispheres organized in a regular hexagonal array. The current applied along the substrate surface intersects many magnetic layers in the multilayered structure, which results in enhancement of giant magnetoresistance effect. The GMR effect in uncoupled Co/Cu multilayers was significantly larger than the magnetoresistance of similar structures deposited on Si

  18. Heat stability evaluations of Co/SiO2 multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Masahiko; Koike, Masato; Kanehira, Mika; Satou, Futami; Terauchi, Masami; Sano, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The heat stability of Co/SiO 2 multilayers was evaluated. Co/SiO 2 multilayer samples were deposited on Si substrate by means of an ion beam sputtering method, and annealed at temperatures from 100degC to 600degC in a vacuum furnace. For the structural and optical evaluations, small angle x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, soft x-ray reflectivity measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were carried out. As the results, the Co/SiO 2 multilayer samples annealed up to 400degC maintained the initial multilayer structures, and kept almost the same soft x-ray reflectivities as that of the as-deposited Co/SiO 2 multilayer sample. A deterioration of the multilayer structure caused by the growth of Co grains was found on the Co/SiO 2 multilayer samples annealed over 500degC, and the soft x-ray reflectivity dropped in accordance with the deterioration of the multilayer structure. (author)

  19. Are Nanoparticles Spherical or Quasi-Spherical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Stanislav V; Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Tschulik, Kristina; Fletcher, Stephen; Compton, Richard G

    2015-07-20

    The geometry of quasi-spherical nanoparticles is investigated. The combination of SEM imaging and electrochemical nano-impact experiments is demonstrated to allow sizing and characterization of the geometry of single silver nanoparticles. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Numerical simulation and experiment on multilayer stagger-split die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Li, Mingzhe; Han, Qigang; Yang, Yunfei; Wang, Bolong; Sui, Zhou

    2013-05-01

    A novel ultra-high pressure device, multilayer stagger-split die, has been constructed based on the principle of "dividing dies before cracking." Multilayer stagger-split die includes an encircling ring and multilayer assemblages, and the mating surfaces of the multilayer assemblages are mutually staggered between adjacent layers. In this paper, we investigated the stressing features of this structure through finite element techniques, and the results were compared with those of the belt type die and single split die. The contrast experiments were also carried out to test the bearing pressure performance of multilayer stagger-split die. It is concluded that the stress distributions are reasonable and the materials are utilized effectively for multilayer stagger-split die. And experiments indicate that the multilayer stagger-split die can bear the greatest pressure.

  1. In-situ sulfuration synthesis of sandwiched spherical tin sulfide/sulfur-doped graphene composite with ultra-low sulfur content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Yang, Yaqing; Wang, Zhixuan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Zhiwen; Jiang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    SnS is widely studied as anode materials since of its superior structural stability and physicochemical property comparing with other Sn-based composites. Nevertheless, the inconvenience of phase morphology control and excessive consumption of sulfur sources during synthesis hinder the scalable application of SnS nanocomposites. Herein, we report a facile in-situ sulfuration strategy to synthesize sandwiched spherical SnS/sulfur-doped graphene (SnS/S-SG) composite. An ultra-low sulfur content with approximately stoichiometric ratio of Sn:S can effectively promote the sulfuration reaction of SnO2 to SnS and simultaneous sulfur-doping of graphene. The as-prepared SnS/S-SG composite shows a three-dimensional interconnected spherical structure as a whole, in which SnS nanoparticles are sandwiched between the multilayers of graphene sheets forming a hollow sphere. The sandwiched sphere structure and high S doping amount can improve the binding force between SnS and graphene, as well as the structural stability and electrical conductivity of the composite. Thus, a high reversibility of conversion reaction, promising specific capacity (772 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C) and excellent rate performance (705 and 411 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 10 C, respectively) are exhibited in the SnS/S-SG electrode, which are much higher than that of the SnS/spherical graphene synthesized by traditional post-sulfuration method.

  2. EUV multilayer mirrors with enhanced stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Nicolas; Yulin, Sergiy; Feigl, Torsten; Kaiser, Norbert

    2006-08-01

    The application of multilayer optics in EUV lithography requires not only the highest possible normal-incidence reflectivity but also a long-term thermal and radiation stability at operating temperatures. This requirement is most important in the case of the collector mirror of the illumination system close to the EUV source where a short-time decrease in reflectivity is most likely. Mo/Si multilayer mirrors, designed for high normal reflectivity at the wavelength of 13.5 nm and deposited by dc magnetron sputtering, were directly exposed to EUV radiation without mitigation system. They presented a loss of reflectivity of more than 18% after only 8 hours of irradiation by a Xe-discharge source. Another problem of Mo/Si multilayers is the instability of reflectivity and peak wavelength under high heat load. It becomes especially critical at temperatures above 200°C, where interdiffusion between the molybdenum and the silicon layers is observed. The development of high-temperature multilayers was focused on two alternative Si-based systems: MoSi II/Si and interface engineered Mo/C/Si/C multilayer mirrors. The multilayer designs as well as the deposition parameters of all systems were optimized in terms of high peak reflectivity (>= 60 %) at a wavelength of 13.5 nm and high thermal stability. Small thermally induced changes of the MoSi II/Si multilayer properties were found but they were independent of the annealing time at all temperatures examined. A wavelength shift of -1.7% and a reflectivity drop of 1.0% have been found after annealing at 500°C for 100 hours. The total degradation of optical properties above 650°C can be explained by a recrystallization process of MoSi II layers.

  3. Magnetic surfaces, thin films, and multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, S.S.P.; Renard, J.P.; Shinjo, T.; Zinn, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper details recent developments in the magnetism of surfaces, thin films and multilayers. More than 20 invited contributions and more than 60 contributed papers attest to the great interest and vitality of this subject. In recent years the study of magnetic surfaces, thin films and multilayers has undergone a renaissance, partly motivated by the development of new growth and characterization techniques, but perhaps more so by the discovery of many exciting new properties, some quite unanticipated. These include, most recently, the discovery of enormous values of magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers far exceeding those found in magnetic single layer films and the discovery of oscillatory interlayer coupling in transition metal multilayers. These experimental studies have motivated much theoretical work. However these developments are to a large extent powered by materials engineering and our ability to control and understand the growth of thin layers just a few atoms thick. The preparation of single crystal thin film layers and multilayers remains important for many studies, in particular, for properties dependent. These studies obviously require engineering not just a layer thicknesses but of lateral dimensions as well. The properties of such structures are already proving to be a great interest

  4. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  5. Nondestructive diagnosis of multilayer electronic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvienko, A.N.; Savin, D.O.; Yas'ko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of non-destructive tomographic investigation into multilayer printed plates using x radiation are described. Mathematic problem setting is given, experimental facility and methods for source data ecquisition are described. A special attention is paid to the consideration of the main factors differing the actual problem setting from the idealized one. Methods for accounting and correction of these factors are described. The efficiency of the approach proposed is demonstrated using the actual problems of reducing separate layers of multilayer printed plate metallization. The method developed is useful when exersizing control over multilayer printed plate production

  6. Spherical sila- and germa-homoaromaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongfang; Hirsch, Andreas; Nagase, Shigeru; Thiel, Walter; Schleyer, Paul von Ragué

    2003-12-17

    Guided by the 2(N + 1)2 electron-counting rule for spherical aromatic molecules, we have designed various spherical sila- and germa-homoaromatic systems rich in group 14 elements. Their aromaticity is revealed by density-functional computations of their structures and the nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS). Besides the formerly used endohedral inclusion strategy, spherical homoaromaticity is another way to stabilize silicon and germanium clusters.

  7. Porous germanium multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garralaga Rojas, Enrique; Hensen, Jan; Brendel, Rolf [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany); Carstensen, Juergen; Foell, Helmut [Chair for General Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    We present the reproducible fabrication of porous germanium (PGe) single- and multilayers. Mesoporous layers form on heavily doped 4'' p-type Ge wafers by electrochemical etching in highly concentrated HF-based electrolytes with concentrations in a range of 30-50 wt.%. Direct PGe formation is accompanied by a constant dissolution of the already-formed porous layer at the electrolyte/PGe interface, hence yielding a thinner substrate after etching. This effect inhibits multilayer formation as the starting layer is etched while forming the second layer. We avoid dissolution of the porous layer by alternating the etching bias from anodic to cathodic. PGe formation occurs during anodic etching whereas the cathodic step passivates pore walls with H-atoms and avoids electropolishing. The passivation lasts a limited time depending on the etching current density and electrolyte concentration, necessitating a repetition of the cathodic step at suitable intervals. With optimized alternating bias mesoporous multilayer production is possible. We control the porosity of each single layer by varying the etching current density and the electrolyte (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. 75 FR 79019 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10, 4409.29, 4412.31... multilayered wood flooring. The following companies are members of the CAHP: Anderson Hardwood Floors, LLC...

  9. Wolter type I x-ray focusing mirror using multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon, Kwon Su; Namba, Yoshiharu; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2006-01-01

    A multilayer coating is a useful addition to a mirror in the x-ray region and has been applied to normal incidence mirrors used with soft x rays. When a multilayer coating is used on grazing incidence optics, higher performance can be achieved than without it.Cr/Sc multilayers coated on a Wolter type I mirror substrate for a soft x-ray microscope are considered. The reflectivity and effective solid angle are calculated for Wolter type I mirrors with uniform and laterally graded multilayer coatings. The laterally graded multilayer mirror showed superior x-ray performance, and the multilayer tolerances were relaxed. This multilayer mirror could be especially useful in the soft x-ray microscope intended for biological applications

  10. Irradiated multilayer film for primal meat packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustig, S.; Schuetz, J.M.; Vicik, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent deals with a heat-shrinkable, multilayer film suitable for use in fabricating bags for packaging primal and sub-primal meat cuts and processed meats. The multilayer film has a first outer layer of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, a core layer of a barrier film comprising vinylidene chloride-methyl acrylate copolymer, and a second outer layer of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The multilayer film is preferably made by co-extrusion of the layers, and then it is biaxially stretched. After biaxial stretching, the multilayer film is irradiated to a dosage level of between 1 megarad and 5 megarads and heat-sealed in the form of a bag. The bag has improved storage stability characteristics

  11. Spectral tailoring of nanoscale EUV and soft x-ray multilayer optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiushi; Medvedev, Viacheslav; van de Kruijs, Robbert; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Fred

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray (XUV) multilayer optics have experienced significant development over the past few years, particularly on controlling the spectral characteristics of light for advanced applications like EUV photolithography, space observation, and accelerator- or lab-based XUV experiments. Both planar and three dimensional multilayer structures have been developed to tailor the spectral response in a wide wavelength range. For the planar multilayer optics, different layered schemes are explored. Stacks of periodic multilayers and capping layers are demonstrated to achieve multi-channel reflection or suppression of the reflective properties. Aperiodic multilayer structures enable broadband reflection both in angles and wavelengths, with the possibility of polarization control. The broad wavelength band multilayer is also used to shape attosecond pulses for the study of ultrafast phenomena. Narrowband multilayer monochromators are delivered to bridge the resolution gap between crystals and regular multilayers. High spectral purity multilayers with innovated anti-reflection structures are shown to select spectrally clean XUV radiation from broadband X-ray sources, especially the plasma sources for EUV lithography. Significant progress is also made in the three dimensional multilayer optics, i.e., combining micro- and nanostructures with multilayers, in order to provide new freedom to tune the spectral response. Several kinds of multilayer gratings, including multilayer coated gratings, sliced multilayer gratings, and lamellar multilayer gratings are being pursued for high resolution and high efficiency XUV spectrometers/monochromators, with their advantages and disadvantages, respectively. Multilayer diffraction optics are also developed for spectral purity enhancement. New structures like gratings, zone plates, and pyramids that obtain full suppression of the unwanted radiation and high XUV reflectance are reviewed. Based on the present achievement

  12. Generation of high-order Bessel vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum using multilayer amplitude-phase-modulated surfaces in radiofrequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Na; Yu, Shixing; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    A high-order Bessel vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is generated by using multilayer amplitude-phase-modulated surfaces (APMSs) at 10 GHz. The APMS transmitarray is composed of four-layer conformal square-loop (FCSL) surfaces with both amplitude and phase modulation. The APMS can transform a quasi-spherical wave emitted from the feeding source into a pseudo non-diffractive high-order Bessel vortex beam with OAM. The APMS for a second-order Bessel beam carrying OAM in the n = 2 mode is designed, fabricated, and measured. Full-wave simulation and measurement results confirm that Bessel vortex beams with OAM can be effectively generated using the proposed APMS transmitarray.

  13. Multilayer Graphene for Waveguide Terahertz Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We study terahertz to infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene/dielectric artificial medium and present a novel concept of terahertz modulation at midinfrared wavelengths. This approach allows the realization of high-speed electrically controllable terahertz modulators based...... on hollow waveguide sections filled with multilayer graphene....

  14. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  15. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes

    2003-01-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  16. An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Mytnichenko, S V

    2001-01-01

    An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating, representing a thin grating placed on a multilayer mirror, is proposed. A high efficiency of grating diffraction can be obtained by the possibility of changing the phase shift of the wave diffracted from the multilayer under the Bragg and total external reflection conditions. A grazing incidence phase multilayer grating consisting of Pt grating stripes on a Ni/C multilayer and optimized for the hard X-ray range was fabricated. Its diffraction properties were studied at photon energies of 7 and 8 keV. The obtained maximum value of the diffraction efficiency of the +1 grating order was 9% at 7 keV and 6.5% at 8 keV. The data obtained are in a rather good accordance with the theory.

  17. Development of a laser multi-layer cladding technology for damage mitigation of fuel spacers in Hanaro reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, D. H.; Hwang, S. S.; Suh, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    A laser multi-layer cladding technology was developed to mitigate the fretting wear damages occurred at fuel spacers in Hanaro reactor. The detailed experimental results are as follows. 1) Analyses of fretting wear damages and fabrication process of fuel spacers 2) Development and analysis of spherical Al 6061 T-6 alloy powders for the laser cladding 3) Analysis of parameter effects on laser cladding process for clad bids, and optimization of laser cladding process 4) Analysis on the changes of cladding layers due to overlapping factor change 5) Microstructural observation and phase analysis 6) Characterization of materials properties (hardness and wear tests) 7) Manufacture of prototype fuel spacers 8) Development of a vision system and revision of its related softwares

  18. Superconductivity in multilayer perovskite. Weak coupling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koikegami, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the superconductivity of a three-dimensional d-p model with a multilayer perovskite structure on the basis of the second-order perturbation theory within the weak coupling framework. Our model has been designed with multilayer high-T c superconducting cuprates in mind. In our model, multiple Fermi surfaces appear, and the component of a superconducting gap function develops on each band. We have found that the multilayer structure can stabilize the superconductivity in a wide doping range. (author)

  19. RECONSTRUCTION OF 3D VECTOR MODELS OF BUILDINGS BY COMBINATION OF ALS, TLS AND VLS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Boulaassal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS and Vehicle based Laser Scanning (VLS are widely used as data acquisition methods for 3D building modelling. ALS data is often used to generate, among others, roof models. TLS data has proven its effectiveness in the geometric reconstruction of building façades. Although the operating algorithms used in the processing chain of these two kinds of data are quite similar, their combination should be more investigated. This study explores the possibility of combining ALS and TLS data for simultaneously producing 3D building models from bird point of view and pedestrian point of view. The geometric accuracy of roofs and façades models is different due to the acquisition techniques. In order to take these differences into account, the surfaces composing roofs and façades are extracted with the same algorithm of segmentation. Nevertheless the segmentation algorithm must be adapted to the properties of the different point clouds. It is based on the RANSAC algorithm, but has been applied in a sequential way in order to extract all potential planar clusters from airborne and terrestrial datasets. Surfaces are fitted to planar clusters, allowing edge detection and reconstruction of vector polygons. Models resulting from TLS data are obviously more accurate than those generated from ALS data. Therefore, the geometry of the roofs is corrected and adapted according to the geometry of the corresponding façades. Finally, the effects of the differences between raw ALS and TLS data on the results of the modeling process are analyzed. It is shown that such combination could be used to produce reliable 3D building models.

  20. The characterization of multilayers analyzers: Models and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, B.L.; Vejio, J.Y.; Tackaberry, R.E.; Yamada, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure is described for the detailed characterization of multilayer analyzers which can be effectively applied to their design, optimization and application for absolute x-ray spectrometry. An accurate analytical model has been developed that is based upon a simple modification of the dynamical Darwin-Prins theory to extend its application to finite multilayer systems. Its equivalence to the optical E and M solution of the Fresnel equations at each interface is demonstrated by detailed calculation comparisons for the reflectivity of a multilayer throughout the angular range of incidence of 0 to 90 0 . A special spectrograph and experimental method is described for the measurement of the absolute reflectivity characteristics of the multilayer. The experimental measurements at three photon energies in the 100-200 eV region are fit by the analytical modified Darwin-Prins equation (MDP) for I(θ), generating a detailed characterization of two ''state of the art'' multilayers, a sputtered tungsten-carbon of 2d ≅ 70 A and a molecular lead separate of 2d ≅ 100 A. The fitting parameters that are determined in this procedure are applied to help establish the structural characteristics of the particular multilayer

  1. The spherical harmonics method, II (application to problems with plane and spherical symmetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, C

    1958-12-15

    The application of the spherical harmonic method to problems with plane or spherical symmetry is discussed in detail. The numerical results of some applications already made are included to indicate the degree of convergence obtained. Formulae for dealing with distributions of isotropic sources are developed. Tables useful in applying the method are given in Section 11. (author)

  2. Ordered organic-organic multilayer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R

    2015-01-13

    An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.

  3. Localization of multilayer networks by optimized single-layer rewiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Sarika; Pradhan, Priodyuti

    2018-04-01

    We study localization properties of principal eigenvectors (PEVs) of multilayer networks (MNs). Starting with a multilayer network corresponding to a delocalized PEV, we rewire the network edges using an optimization technique such that the PEV of the rewired multilayer network becomes more localized. The framework allows us to scrutinize structural and spectral properties of the networks at various localization points during the rewiring process. We show that rewiring only one layer is enough to attain a MN having a highly localized PEV. Our investigation reveals that a single edge rewiring of the optimized MN can lead to the complete delocalization of a highly localized PEV. This sensitivity in the localization behavior of PEVs is accompanied with the second largest eigenvalue lying very close to the largest one. This observation opens an avenue to gain a deeper insight into the origin of PEV localization of networks. Furthermore, analysis of multilayer networks constructed using real-world social and biological data shows that the localization properties of these real-world multilayer networks are in good agreement with the simulation results for the model multilayer network. This paper is relevant to applications that require understanding propagation of perturbation in multilayer networks.

  4. Neutron diffraction studies of thin film multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkrzak, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    The application of neutron diffraction methods to the study of the microscopic chemical and magnetic structures of thin film multilayers is reviewed. Multilayer diffraction phenomena are described in general and in particular for the case in which one of the materials of a bilayer is ferromagnetic and the neutron beam polarized. Recent neutron diffraction measurements performed on some interesting multilayer systems are discussed. 70 refs., 5 figs

  5. Multi-layer adaptive thin shells for future space telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastaits, R; Preumont, A; Rodrigues, G; Jetteur, Ph; Hagedorn, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the morphing capability of doubly curved elastic shells with various layers of active materials with strain actuation capability. The equivalent piezoelectric loads of an orthotropic multi-layer shell is established and it is demonstrated that a set of four active layers offer independent control of the in-plane forces and bending moments, which guarantees optimum morphing with arbitrary profile. This is illustrated by a numerical example which compares a unimorph configuration (single layer of active material) with a twin-bimorph (two pairs of symmetrical layers of active material with orthotropic properties). Numerical simulations indicate that the optical (Zernike) modes with shapes where the curvatures in orthogonal directions have opposite signs (e.g. astigmatism, trefoil, tetrafoil) are fairly easy to control with both configurations and that substantial amplitudes may be achieved. However, the optical modes with shapes where the curvatures in orthogonal directions have the same sign (e.g. defocus, coma, spherical aberration) are difficult to control with the unimorph configuration, and they lead to the appearance of slope discontinuities at the interface between the independent electrodes. As expected, a much better morphing is achieved with a twin-bimorph configuration. (paper)

  6. Design and fabrication of heat resistant multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, J.M.; Knight, L.V.; Peterson, B.G.; Perkins, R.T.; Gray, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many promising applications of multilayer x-ray optical elements subject them to intense radiation. This paper discusses the selection of optimal pairs of materials to resist heat damage and presents simulations of multilayer performance under extreme heat loadings

  7. Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, R.; Mora, M.B. de la; Tagueena-Martinez, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Rio, J.A. del [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Transferencia Tecnologica, Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnologia del Estado de Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    Two of the most important properties of a porous silicon multilayer for photonic applications are flat interfaces and a relative large refractive index contrast between layers in the optical wavelength range. In this work, we studied the effect of the current density and HF electrolyte concentration on the refractive index of porous silicon. With the purpose of increasing the refractive index contrast in a multilayer, the refractive index of porous silicon produced at low current was studied in detail. The current density applied to produce the low porosity layers was limited in order to keep the electrolyte flow through the multilayer structure and to avoid deformation of layer interfaces. We found that an electrolyte composed of hydrofluoric acid, ethanol and glycerin in a ratio of 3:7:1 gives a refractive index contrast around 1.3/2.8 at 600 nm. Several multilayer structures with this refractive index contrast were fabricated, such as dielectric Bragg mirrors and microcavities. Reflectance spectra of the structures show the photonic quality of porous silicon multilayers produced under these electrochemical conditions. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Advances in polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofilms as tunable drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bingbing; Barnett, John B; Li, Bingyun

    2009-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofilms, which have a variety of applications ranging from optical and electrochemical materials to biomedical devices. Polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofilms are constructed from aqueous solutions using electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly of oppositely-charged polyelectrolytes on a solid substrate. Multifunctional polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofilms have been studied using charged dyes, metal and inorganic nanoparticles, DNA, proteins, and viruses. In the past few years, there has been increasing attention to developing polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofilms as drug delivery vehicles. In this mini-review, we present recent developments in polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofilms with tunable drug delivery properties, with particular emphasis on the strategies in tuning the loading and release of drugs in polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofilms as well as their applications. PMID:24198464

  9. Multilayer Spectral Graph Clustering via Convex Layer Aggregation: Theory and Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Hero, Alfred O.

    2017-01-01

    Multilayer graphs are commonly used for representing different relations between entities and handling heterogeneous data processing tasks. Non-standard multilayer graph clustering methods are needed for assigning clusters to a common multilayer node set and for combining information from each layer. This paper presents a multilayer spectral graph clustering (SGC) framework that performs convex layer aggregation. Under a multilayer signal plus noise model, we provide a phase transition analys...

  10. Desktop aligner for fabrication of multilayer microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yu, Zeta Tak For; Geraldo, Dalton; Weng, Shinuo; Alve, Nitesh; Dun, Wu; Kini, Akshay; Patel, Karan; Shu, Roberto; Zhang, Feng; Li, Gang; Jin, Qinghui; Fu, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Multilayer assembly is a commonly used technique to construct multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices with complex 3D architecture and connectivity for large-scale microfluidic integration. Accurate alignment of structure features on different PDMS layers before their permanent bonding is critical in determining the yield and quality of assembled multilayer microfluidic devices. Herein, we report a custom-built desktop aligner capable of both local and global alignments of PDMS layers covering a broad size range. Two digital microscopes were incorporated into the aligner design to allow accurate global alignment of PDMS structures up to 4 in. in diameter. Both local and global alignment accuracies of the desktop aligner were determined to be about 20 μm cm(-1). To demonstrate its utility for fabrication of integrated multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices, we applied the desktop aligner to achieve accurate alignment of different functional PDMS layers in multilayer microfluidics including an organs-on-chips device as well as a microfluidic device integrated with vertical passages connecting channels located in different PDMS layers. Owing to its convenient operation, high accuracy, low cost, light weight, and portability, the desktop aligner is useful for microfluidic researchers to achieve rapid and accurate alignment for generating multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices.

  11. Asynchronous cracking with dissimilar paths in multilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bongkyun; Kim, Byungwoon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Sumigawa, Takashi; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2017-11-16

    Multilayer graphene consists of a stack of single-atomic-thick monolayer graphene sheets bound with π-π interactions and is a fascinating model material opening up a new field of fracture mechanics. In this study, fracture behavior of single-crystalline multilayer graphene was investigated using an in situ mode I fracture test under a scanning electron microscope, and abnormal crack propagation in multilayer graphene was identified for the first time. The fracture toughness of graphene was determined from the measured load-displacement curves and the realistic finite element modelling of specimen geometries. Nonlinear fracture behavior of the multilayer graphene is discussed based on nonlinear elastic fracture mechanics. In situ scanning electron microscope images obtained during the fracture test showed asynchronous crack propagation along independent paths, causing interlayer shear stress and slippages. We also found that energy dissipation by interlayer slippages between the graphene layers is the reason for the enhanced fracture toughness of multilayer graphene. The asynchronous cracking with independent paths is a unique cracking and toughening mechanism for single-crystalline multilayer graphene, which is not observed for the monolayer graphene. This could provide a useful insight for the design and development of graphene-based composite materials for structural applications.

  12. Recycling of Polymer-Based Multilayer Packaging: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaiser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-based multilayer packaging materials are commonly used in order to combine the respective performance of different polymers. By this approach, the tailored functionality of packaging concepts is created to sufficiently protect sensitive food products and thus obtain extended shelf life. However, because of their poor recyclability, most multilayers are usually incinerated or landfilled, counteracting the efforts towards a circular economy and crude oil independency. This review depicts the current state of the European multilayer packaging market and sketches the current end-of-life situation of postconsumer multilayer packaging waste in Germany. In the main section, a general overview of the state of research about material recycling of different multilayer packaging systems is provided. It is divided into two subsections, whereby one describes methods to achieve a separation of the different components, either by delamination or the selective dissolution–reprecipitation technique, and the other describes methods to achieve recycling by compatibilization of nonmiscible polymer types. While compatibilization methods and the technique of dissolution–reprecipitation are already extensively studied, the delamination of packaging has not been investigated systematically. All the presented options are able to recycle multilayer packaging, but also have drawbacks like a limited scope or a high expenditure of energy.

  13. Robust giant magnetoresistive effect type multilayer sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssen, K.M.H.; Kuiper, A.E.T.; Roozeboom, F.

    2002-01-01

    A robust Giant Magneto Resistive effect type multilayer sensor comprising a free and a pinned ferromagnetic layer, which can withstand high temperatures and strong magnetic fields as required in automotive applications. The GMR multi-layer has an asymmetric magneto-resistive curve and enables

  14. Irradiated multilayer film for primal meat packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustig, S.; Schuetz, J.M.; Vicik, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent deals with a heat-shrinkable, multilayer film suitable for use in fabricating bags for packaging primal and sub-primal meat cuts and processed meats. The multilayer film has a first outer layer of a first ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, a core layer of a polyvinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride copolymer containing between about 70 weight percent and about 90 weight percent vinylidene chloride as a barrier film, and a second outer layer of a second ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The multilayer film is preferably made by co-extrusion of the layers, and then it is biaxially stretched. After biaxial stretching, the entire multilayer film is substantially uniformly irradiated to a dosage level of between about 2 megarads and about 3 megarads and heat-sealed in the form of a bag. The film is not significantly discoloured by the irradiation and the bag has improved toughness properties and heat-sealing characteristics

  15. Computation of higher spherical harmonics moments of the angular flux for neutron transport problems in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahni, D.C.; Sharma, A.

    2000-01-01

    The integral form of one-speed, spherically symmetric neutron transport equation with isotropic scattering is considered. Two standard problems are solved using normal mode expansion technique. The expansion coefficients are obtained by solving their singular integral equations. It is shown that these expansion coefficients provide a representation of all spherical harmonics moments of the angular flux as a superposition of Bessel functions. It is seen that large errors occur in the computation of higher moments unless we take certain precautions. The reasons for this phenomenon are explained. They throw some light on the failure of spherical harmonics method in treating spherical geometry problems as observed by Aronsson

  16. Statistical Mechanics of Thin Spherical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Košmrlj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes, and the local out-of-plane undulations leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells, thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated “pressure.” Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows nonlinearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power-law exponent that characterizes the response of fluctuating flat membranes to a uniform tension.

  17. Transfer matrices for multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquero, R.

    1988-08-01

    We consider four of the transfer matrices defined to deal with multilayer structures. We deduce algorithms to calculate them numerically, in a simple and neat way. We illustrate their application to semi-infinite systems using SGFM formulae. These algorithms are of fast convergence and allow a calculation of bulk-, surface- and inner-layers band structure in good agreement with much more sophisticated calculations. Supermatrices, interfaces and multilayer structures can be calculated in this way with a small computational effort. (author). 10 refs

  18. Polymerization of vinyl stearate multilayers by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishii, Masanobu; Hatada, Motoyoshi

    1975-01-01

    Studies on the radiation-induced polymerization of vinyl stearate (VST) multilayers were carried out. The VST multilayers built-up on an aluminum plated glass plate by Langmuir-Blodgett technique were irradiated with electron beams from a Van de Graaff electron accelerator in nitrogen atmosphere. The structure of the multilayers and the effects of irradiation were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, contact angle measurement, multireflection infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The VST multilayers became insoluble to methanol by the irradiation, and the multi-reflection infrared spectrum of the VST multilayers turned into that of poly (VST) with increasing dosage. The polymerization proceeded during the irradiation at the temperature range between -10 0 and 10 0 C, and the conversion attained to 90% within 2.5 minutes (total dose, 5.6 Mrads). The multilayers irradiated above 13 Mrads turned into the polymer film insoluble to benzene, indicating that the polymer chains were cross-linked by the irradiation. Stearic acid which was formed by the irradiation of VST at nitrogen-water interface as a hydrolysis product was not detected in this system. (auth.)

  19. Spherical Tensor Calculus for Local Adaptive Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisert, Marco; Burkhardt, Hans

    In 3D image processing tensors play an important role. While rank-1 and rank-2 tensors are well understood and commonly used, higher rank tensors are rare. This is probably due to their cumbersome rotation behavior which prevents a computationally efficient use. In this chapter we want to introduce the notion of a spherical tensor which is based on the irreducible representations of the 3D rotation group. In fact, any ordinary cartesian tensor can be decomposed into a sum of spherical tensors, while each spherical tensor has a quite simple rotation behavior. We introduce so called tensorial harmonics that provide an orthogonal basis for spherical tensor fields of any rank. It is just a generalization of the well known spherical harmonics. Additionally we propose a spherical derivative which connects spherical tensor fields of different degree by differentiation. Based on the proposed theory we present two applications. We propose an efficient algorithm for dense tensor voting in 3D, which makes use of tensorial harmonics decomposition of the tensor-valued voting field. In this way it is possible to perform tensor voting by linear-combinations of convolutions in an efficient way. Secondly, we propose an anisotropic smoothing filter that uses a local shape and orientation adaptive filter kernel which can be computed efficiently by the use spherical derivatives.

  20. Corrugated grating on organic multilayer Bragg reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Sylvain; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2007-08-01

    Polymeric multilayer Bragg structures are combined with diffractive gratings to produce artificial visual color effects. A particular effect is expected due to the angular reflection dependence of the multilayer Bragg structure and the dispersion caused by the grating. The combined effects can also be used to design particular filter functions and various resonant structures. The multilayer Bragg structure is fabricated by spin-coating of two different low-cost polymer materials in solution on a cleaned glass substrate. These polymers have a refractive index difference of about 0.15 and permit multilayer coatings without interlayer problems. Master gratings of different periods are realized by laser beam interference and replicated gratings are superimposed on the multilayer structure by soft embossing in a UV curing glue. The fabrication process requires only polymer materials. The obtained devices are stable and robust. Angular dependent reflection spectrums for the visible are measured. These results show that it is possible to obtain unexpected reflection effects. A rich variety of color spectra can be generated, which is not possible with a single grating. This can be explained by the coupling of transmission of grating orders and the Bragg reflection band. A simple model permits to explain some of the spectral vs angular dependence of reflected light.

  1. Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernlund, John W.; Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-12-01

    Most methods for modeling mantle convection in a two-dimensional (2D) circular annular domain suffer from innate shortcomings in their ability to capture several characteristics of the spherical shell geometry of planetary mantles. While methods such as rescaling the inner and outer radius to reduce anomalous effects in a 2D polar cylindrical coordinate system have been introduced and widely implemented, such fixes may have other drawbacks that adversely affect the outcome of some kinds of mantle convection studies. Here we propose a new approach that we term the "spherical annulus," which is a 2D slice that bisects the spherical shell and is quantitatively formulated at the equator of a spherical polar coordinate system after neglecting terms in the governing equations related to variations in latitude. Spherical scaling is retained in this approximation since the Jacobian function remains proportional to the square of the radius. We present example calculations to show that the behavior of convection in the spherical annulus compares favorably against calculations performed in other 2D annular domains when measured relative to those in a fully three-dimensional (3D) spherical shell.

  2. Inkjet-printed Polyvinyl Alcohol Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaoru, Iulia; Zhou, Zuoxin; Morris, Peter; Gibbons, Gregory J

    2017-05-11

    Inkjet printing is a modern method for polymer processing, and in this work, we demonstrate that this technology is capable of producing polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) multilayer structures. A polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution was formulated. The intrinsic properties of the ink, such as surface tension, viscosity, pH, and time stability, were investigated. The PVOH-based ink was a neutral solution (pH 6.7) with a surface tension of 39.3 mN/m and a viscosity of 7.5 cP. The ink displayed pseudoplastic (non-Newtonian shear thinning) behavior at low shear rates, and overall, it demonstrated good time stability. The wettability of the ink on different substrates was investigated, and glass was identified as the most suitable substrate in this particular case. A proprietary 3D inkjet printer was employed to manufacture polymer multilayer structures. The morphology, surface profile, and thickness uniformity of inkjet-printed multilayers were evaluated via optical microscopy.

  3. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, I.P. [Departamento de Ensino Superior, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao, Imperatriz-MA 65919-050 (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S. [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Bezerra, C.G., E-mail: cbezerra@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants J{sub A} and J{sub B} and spin quantum numbers S{sub A} and S{sub B}, respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant J{sub C} and spin quantum number S{sub C}. For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints. - Highlights: > We model quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers presenting mirror symmetry. > We investigated the allowed and forbidden bands of magnonic transmission. > Transmission return maps show the influence of mirror symmetry. > Mirror symmetry has no effect on the Fibonacci case. > Mirror symmetry does have effect on the Thue-Morse and double period cases.

  4. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, I.P.; Vasconcelos, M.S.; Bezerra, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants J A and J B and spin quantum numbers S A and S B , respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant J C and spin quantum number S C . For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints. - Highlights: → We model quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers presenting mirror symmetry. → We investigated the allowed and forbidden bands of magnonic transmission. → Transmission return maps show the influence of mirror symmetry. → Mirror symmetry has no effect on the Fibonacci case. → Mirror symmetry does have effect on the Thue-Morse and double period cases.

  5. EUV multilayer mirror, optical system including a multilayer mirror and method of manufacturing a multilayer mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Qiushi; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik; de Boer, Meint J.; von Blanckenhagen, G.

    2016-01-01

    A multilayer mirror (M) reflecting extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a first wave-length range in a EUV spectral region comprises a substrate (SUB) and a stack of layers (SL) on the substrate, the stack of layers comprising layers comprising a low index material and a high index material, the

  6. High resolution x-ray microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Gary, C. K.; Park, H.; Lombardo, L. W.; Piestrup, M. A.; Cremer, J. T.; Pantell, R. H.; Dudchik, Y. I.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present x-ray images of grid meshes and biological material obtained using a microspot x-ray tube with a multilayer optic and a 92-element parabolic compound refractive lens CRL made of a plastic containing only hydrogen and carbon. Images obtained using this apparatus are compared with those using an area source with a spherical lens and a spherical lens with multilayer condenser. The authors found the best image quality using the multilayer condenser with a parabolic lens, com...

  7. High frequency fast wave results from the CDX-U spherical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) is the first spherical torus (ST) to investigate radio frequency (RF) heating and current drive. To address the concern that large magnetic field line pitch at the outboard midplane of ST's could inhibit successful coupling to the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW), a rotatable, two strap antenna was installed on CDX-U. Parasitic loading and impurity generation were discovered to be weak and nearly independent of antenna phasing and angle over a wide range, and fast wave electron heating has been observed. Plasma densities up to about 10 12 cm -3 were obtained with noninductive startup solely with HHFW. New ST diagnostics under development on CDX-U include a multilayer mirror (MLM) detector to measure ultrasoft X-rays, a twelve spatial point Thomson scattering (TS) system, and an Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) system for both electron heating and electron temperature measurements. Preliminary experiments with a boron low velocity edge micropellet injector have also been performed, and further studies of its effectiveness for impurity control will be conducted with a variety of spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics on CDX-U. (author)

  8. High frequency fast wave results from the CDX-U spherical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) is the first spherical torus (ST) to investigate radio frequency (RF) heating and current drive. To address the concern that large magnetic field line pitch at the outboard midplane of ST's could inhibit successful coupling to the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW), a rotatable, two strap antenna was installed on CDX-U. Parasitic loading and impurity generation were discovered to be weak and nearly independent of antenna phasing and angle over a wide range, and fast wave electron heating has been observed. Plasma densities up to about 10 12 cm -3 were obtained with noninductive startup solely with HHFW. New ST diagnostics under development on CDX-U include a multilayer mirror (MLM) detector to measure ultrasoft X-rays, a twelve spatial point Thomson scattering (TS) system, and an Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) system for both electron heating and electron temperature measurements. Preliminary experiments with a boron low velocity edge micropellet injector have also been performed, and further studies of its effectiveness for impurity control will be conducted with a variety of spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics on CDX-U. (author)

  9. Spherical spacelike geometries in static spherically symmetric spacetimes: Generalized Painlevè–Gullstrand coordinates, foliation, and embedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar, M.M., E-mail: akbar@utdallas.edu

    2017-06-10

    It is well known that static spherically symmetric spacetimes can admit foliations by flat spacelike hypersurfaces, which are best described in terms of the Painlevè–Gullstrand coordinates. The uniqueness and existence of such foliations were addressed earlier. In this paper, we prove, purely geometrically, that any possible foliation of a static spherically symmetric spacetime by an arbitrary codimension-one spherical spacelike geometry, up to time translation and rotation, is unique, and we find the algebraic condition under which it exists. This leads us to what can be considered as the most natural generalization of the Painlevè–Gullstrand coordinate system for static spherically symmetric metrics, which, in turn, makes it easy to derive generic conclusions on foliation and to study specific cases as well as to easily reproduce previously obtained generalizations as special cases. In particular, we note that the existence of foliation by flat hypersurfaces guarantees the existence of foliation by hypersurfaces whose Ricci curvature tensor is everywhere non-positive (constant negative curvature is a special case). The study of uniqueness and the existence concurrently solves the question of embeddability of a spherical spacelike geometry in one-dimensional higher static spherically symmetric spacetimes, and this produces known and new results geometrically, without having to go through the momentum and Hamiltonian constraints.

  10. High-frequency characteristics of glass/ceramic composite and alumina multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, K.; Suzuki, H.; Yokoyama, H.; Kamechara, N.; Tsubone, K.; Tanisawa, H.; Sugiki, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the transmission characteristics of glass/ceramic composite (borosilicate glass/alumina) and alumina multilayer structures examined. The triplate stripline formed in the glass/ceramic multilayer shows low conductor and dielectric loss. Alumina multilayer, however, has twice the transmission loss at 10 GHz, because the resistivity of W in the alumina multilayer is higher than the Cu in the glass/ceramic multilayer. Crosstalk between striplines in the glass/ceramics is less than -80 dB up to 11 GHz and 9 GHz for alumina

  11. Spiral CT manifestations of spherical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Yang Hongwei; Xu Chunmin; Qin Xiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the Spiral CT manifestations and differential diagnosis of spherical pneumonia. Methods: 18 cases of spherical pneumonia and 20 cases of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma were selected, both of them were confirmed by clinic and/or pathology. The SCT findings of both groups were compared retrospectively. Results: Main spiral CT findings of spherical pneumonia were showed as followings: square or triangular lesions adjacent to pleura; with irregular shape, blurry, slightly lobulated margin, sometimes with halo sign. Small inflammatory patches and intensified vascular markings around the lesions were seen. Lesions became smaller or vanished after short-term anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusion: Spherical pneumonia showed some characteristics on Spiral CT scan, which are helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this disease. (authors)

  12. Non-conformal contact mechanical characteristic analysis on spherical components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen-zhi, G.; Bin, H.; Zheng-ming, G.; Feng-mei, Y.; Jin, Q [The 2. Artillery Engineering Univ., Xi' an (China)

    2017-03-15

    Non-conformal spherical-contact mechanical problems is a three-dimensional coordination or similar to the coordination spherical contact. Due to the complexity of the problem of spherical-contact and difficulties of solving higher-order partial differential equations, problems of three-dimensional coordination or similar to the coordination spherical-contact is still no exact analytical method for solving. It is based on three-dimensional taper model is proposed a model based on the contour surface of the spherical contact and concluded of the formula of the contact pressure and constructed of finite element model by contact pressure distribution under the non-conformal spherical. The results shows spherical contact model can reflect non-conformal spherical-contacting mechanical problems more than taper-contacting model, and apply for the actual project.

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of novel multilayer mirrors intended for astronomical and laboratory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozin, Eugene N.; Mednikov, Konstantin N.; Pertsov, Andrei A.; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Reva, Anton A.; Shestov, Sergei V.; Ul'yanov, Artem S.; Vishnyakov, Eugene A.

    2009-05-01

    We report measurements of the reflection spectra of (i) concave (spherical and parabolic) Mo/Si, Mg/Si, and Al/Zr multilayer mirrors (MMs) intended for imaging solar spectroscopy in the framework of the TESIS/CORONAS-FOTON Satellite Project and of (ii) an aperiodic Mo/Si MM optimized for maximum uniform reflectivity in the 125-250 Å range intended for laboratory applications. The reflection spectra were measured in the configuration of a transmission grating spectrometer employing the radiation of a tungsten laser-driven plasma as the source. The function of detectors was fulfilled by backside-illuminated CCDs coated with Al or Zr/Si multilayer absorption filters. High-intensity second-order interference reflection peaks at wavelengths of about 160 Å were revealed in the reflection spectra of the 304-Å Mo/Si MMs. By contrast, the second-order reflection peak in the spectra of the new-generation narrow-band (~12 Å FWHM) 304-Å Mg/Si MMs is substantially depressed. Manifestations of the NEXAFS structure of the L2, 3 absorption edges of Al and Al2O3 were observed in the spectra recorded. The broadband Mo/Si MM was employed as the focusing element of spectrometers in experiments involving (i) the charge exchange of multiply charged ions with the donor atoms of a rare-gas jet; (ii) the spectroscopic characterization of a debris-free soft X-ray radiation source excited by Nd laser pulses in a Xe jet (iii) near-IR-to-soft-X-ray frequency conversion (double Doppler effect) occurring in the retroreflection from the relativistic electron plasma wake wave (flying mirror) driven by a multiterawatt laser in a pulsed helium jet.

  14. Multilayer optics for x-ray analysis: design - fabrication - application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietsch, R.; Holz, Th.; Bruegemann, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The use of multilayer optics induced a decisive extension of opportunities in laboratory based X-ray analysis. With the growing number of different applications, more and more dedicated X-ray optics are required, optimized for the spectral range they are intended to be used for. Both the characteristic of the used X-ray source and the design of the multilayer optics finally define the performance of the conditioned incident beam for the application. In any case, qualified spacer and absorber materials have to be selected for the deposition of the multilayer in respect to the designated X-ray wavelength. X-ray optical devices based on uniform multilayers have the advantage of a wide acceptance angle but show chromatic aberrations. This effect can be avoided by synthesizing a multilayer with a lateral thickness gradient. The gradient ensures that any beam of a certain wavelength emitted from an infinite narrow X-ray source impinging the multilayer optics fulfills the Bragg condition. Three different types of curvature of laterally graded multilayer mirrors are used for X-ray analysis experiments: parabolic, elliptic and planar, which result in parallel, focusing and divergent beam conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the X-ray beam characteristics: intensity, monochromasy, divergence, beam width and brilliance can be additionally conditioned by combining one multilayer optics with either a different optic and/or with a crystal monochromator. The deposition of nanometer-multilayers, used as X-ray optical components, result in extraordinary requirements of the deposition process concerning precision, reproducibility and long term stability. Across a stack of more than 150 individual layers with thicknesses in the range between 1 to 10 nm, a variation of single layer thickness considerably lower than σ D = 0.1 nm and an interface roughness below σ R = 0.25 nm have to be achieved. Thickness homogeneity Δd/d -8 have to be guaranteed across macroscopic

  15. Scaling of a fast spherical discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antsiferov, P. S., E-mail: Ants@isan.troitsk.ru; Dorokhin, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The influence of the discharge cavity dimensions on the properties of the spherical plasma formed in a fast discharge was studied experimentally. The passage of a current pulse with an amplitude of 30–40 kA and a rise rate of ~10{sup 12} A/s (a fast discharge) through a spherical ceramic (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) cavity with an inner diameter of 11 mm filled with argon at a pressure of 80 Pa results in the formation of a 1- to 2-mm-diameter spherical plasma with an electron temperature of several tens of electronvolts and a density of 10{sup 18}–10{sup 19} cm{sup –3}. It is shown that an increase in the inner diameter of the discharge cavity from 11 to 21 mm leads to the fourfold increase in the formation time of the spherical plasma and a decrease in the average ion charge. A decrease in the cavity diameter to 7 mm makes the spherical plasma unstable.

  16. Spherical aberrations of human astigmatic corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huawei; Dai, Guang-Ming; Chen, Li; Weeber, Henk A; Piers, Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether the average spherical aberration of human astigmatic corneas is statistically equivalent to human nonastigmatic corneas. Spherical aberrations of 445 astigmatic corneas prior to laser vision correction were retrospectively investigated to determine Zernike coefficients for central corneal areas 6 mm in diameter using CTView (Sarver and Associates). Data were divided into groups according to cylinder power (0.01 to 0.25 diopters [D], 0.26 to 0.75 D, 0.76 to 1.06 D, 1.07 to 1.53 D, 1.54 to 2.00 D, and >2.00 D) and according to age by decade. Spherical aberrations were correlated with age and astigmatic power among groups and the entire population. Statistical analyses were conducted, and P.05 for all tested groups). Mean spherical aberration of astigmatic corneas was not correlated significantly with cylinder power or age (P>.05). Spherical aberrations are similar to those of nonastigmatic corneas, permitting the use of these additional data in the design of aspheric toric intra-ocular lenses. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Wenxiang, E-mail: congw@rpi.edu, E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu, E-mail: wangg6@rpi.edu; Xi, Yan, E-mail: congw@rpi.edu, E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu, E-mail: wangg6@rpi.edu; Wang, Ge, E-mail: congw@rpi.edu, E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu, E-mail: wangg6@rpi.edu [Biomedical Imaging Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Grating interferometry is a state-of-the-art x-ray imaging approach, which can acquire information on x-ray attenuation, phase shift, and small-angle scattering simultaneously. Phase-contrast imaging and dark-field imaging are very sensitive to microstructural variation and offers superior contrast resolution for biological soft tissues. However, a common x-ray tube is a point-like source. As a result, the popular planar grating imaging configuration seriously restricts the flux of photons and decreases the visibility of signals, yielding a limited field of view. The purpose of this study is to extend the planar x-ray grating imaging theory and methods to a spherical grating scheme for a wider range of preclinical and clinical applications. Methods: A spherical grating matches the wave front of a point x-ray source very well, allowing the perpendicular incidence of x-rays on the grating to achieve a higher visibility over a larger field of view than the planer grating counterpart. A theoretical analysis of the Talbot effect for spherical grating imaging is proposed to establish a basic foundation for x-ray spherical gratings interferometry. An efficient method of spherical grating imaging is also presented to extract attenuation, differential phase, and dark-field images in the x-ray spherical grating interferometer. Results: Talbot self-imaging with spherical gratings is analyzed based on the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction formula, featuring a periodic angular distribution in a polar coordinate system. The Talbot distance is derived to reveal the Talbot self-imaging pattern. Numerical simulation results show the self-imaging phenomenon of a spherical grating interferometer, which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Conclusions: X-ray Talbot interferometry with spherical gratings has a significant practical promise. Relative to planar grating imaging, spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry has a larger field of view and

  18. Spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Wenxiang; Xi, Yan; Wang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grating interferometry is a state-of-the-art x-ray imaging approach, which can acquire information on x-ray attenuation, phase shift, and small-angle scattering simultaneously. Phase-contrast imaging and dark-field imaging are very sensitive to microstructural variation and offers superior contrast resolution for biological soft tissues. However, a common x-ray tube is a point-like source. As a result, the popular planar grating imaging configuration seriously restricts the flux of photons and decreases the visibility of signals, yielding a limited field of view. The purpose of this study is to extend the planar x-ray grating imaging theory and methods to a spherical grating scheme for a wider range of preclinical and clinical applications. Methods: A spherical grating matches the wave front of a point x-ray source very well, allowing the perpendicular incidence of x-rays on the grating to achieve a higher visibility over a larger field of view than the planer grating counterpart. A theoretical analysis of the Talbot effect for spherical grating imaging is proposed to establish a basic foundation for x-ray spherical gratings interferometry. An efficient method of spherical grating imaging is also presented to extract attenuation, differential phase, and dark-field images in the x-ray spherical grating interferometer. Results: Talbot self-imaging with spherical gratings is analyzed based on the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction formula, featuring a periodic angular distribution in a polar coordinate system. The Talbot distance is derived to reveal the Talbot self-imaging pattern. Numerical simulation results show the self-imaging phenomenon of a spherical grating interferometer, which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Conclusions: X-ray Talbot interferometry with spherical gratings has a significant practical promise. Relative to planar grating imaging, spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry has a larger field of view and

  19. Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Yan, H.; Stephenson, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated partial Multilayer Laue Lens (MLL) linear zone plate structures with thousands of alternating WSi 2 and Si layers and various outermost zone widths according to the Fresnel zone plate formula. Using partial MLL structures, we were able to focus hard X-rays to line foci with a width of 30 nm and below. Here, we describe challenges and approaches used to bond these multilayers to achieve line and point focusing. Bonding was done by coating two multilayers with AuSn and heating in a vacuum oven at 280-300 o C. X-ray reflectivity measurements confirmed that there was no change in the multilayers after heating to 350 o C. A bonded MLL was polished to a 5-25 μm wedge without cracking. SEM image analyses found well-positioned multilayers after bonding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a bonded full MLL for focusing hard X-rays

  20. Multilayer cladding with hyperbolic dispersion for plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of plasmonic waveguides with a dielectric core and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings that possess hyperbolic dispersion. The waveguides hyperbolic multilayer claddings show better performance in comparison to conventional plasmonic waveguides. © OSA 2015....

  1. Multilayer scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Doral, M Nedim; Karlsson, Jon; Egol, Kenneth A; Jazrawi, Laith M; Coelho, Paulo G; Martinez, Amaury; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Owens, Brett D; Ochi, Mitsuo; Hurwitz, Shepard R; Atala, Anthony; Fu, Freddie H; Lu, Helen H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the recent developments in the field of tissue engineering as they relate to multilayer scaffold designs in musculoskeletal regeneration. Clinical and basic research studies that highlight the current knowledge and potential future applications of the multilayer scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering were evaluated and the best evidence collected. Studies were divided into three main categories based on tissue types and interfaces for which multilayer scaffolds were used to regenerate: bone, osteochondral junction and tendon-to-bone interfaces. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the use of stratified scaffolds composed of multiple layers with distinct compositions for regeneration of distinct tissue types within the same scaffold and anatomic location is feasible. This emerging tissue engineering approach has potential applications in regeneration of bone defects, osteochondral lesions and tendon-to-bone interfaces with successful basic research findings that encourage clinical applications. Present data supporting the advantages of the use of multilayer scaffolds as an emerging strategy in musculoskeletal tissue engineering are promising, however, still limited. Positive impacts of the use of next generation scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering can be expected in terms of decreasing the invasiveness of current grafting techniques used for reconstruction of bone and osteochondral defects, and tendon-to-bone interfaces in near future.

  2. Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachev, S A; Chkhalo, N I; Kuzin, S V; Pariev, D E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Shestov, S V; Zuev, S Y

    2016-03-20

    We provide an analysis of contemporary multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar astronomy in the wavelength ranges: λ=12.9-13.3  nm, λ=17-21  nm, λ=28-33  nm, and λ=58.4  nm. We found new material pairs, which will make new spaceborne experiments possible due to the high reflection efficiencies, spectral resolution, and long-term stabilities of the proposed multilayer coatings. In the spectral range λ=13  nm, Mo/Be multilayer mirrors were shown to demonstrate a better ratio of reflection efficiency and spectral resolution compared with the commonly used Mo/Si. In the spectral range λ=17-21  nm, a new multilayer structure Al/Si was proposed, which had higher spectral resolution along with comparable reflection efficiency compared with the commonly used Al/Zr multilayer structures. In the spectral range λ=30  nm, the Si/B4C/Mg/Cr multilayer structure turned out to best obey reflection efficiency and long-term stability. The B4C and Cr layers prevented mutual diffusion of the Si and Mg layers. For the spectral range λ=58  nm, a new multilayer Mo/Mg-based structure was developed; its reflection efficiency and long-term stability have been analyzed. We also investigated intrinsic stresses inherent for most of the multilayer structures and proposed possibilities for stress elimination.

  3. Identifying key nodes in multilayer networks based on tensor decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingjie; Wang, Haitao; Zou, Xiufen

    2017-06-01

    The identification of essential agents in multilayer networks characterized by different types of interactions is a crucial and challenging topic, one that is essential for understanding the topological structure and dynamic processes of multilayer networks. In this paper, we use the fourth-order tensor to represent multilayer networks and propose a novel method to identify essential nodes based on CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor decomposition, referred to as the EDCPTD centrality. This method is based on the perspective of multilayer networked structures, which integrate the information of edges among nodes and links between different layers to quantify the importance of nodes in multilayer networks. Three real-world multilayer biological networks are used to evaluate the performance of the EDCPTD centrality. The bar chart and ROC curves of these multilayer networks indicate that the proposed approach is a good alternative index to identify real important nodes. Meanwhile, by comparing the behavior of both the proposed method and the aggregated single-layer methods, we demonstrate that neglecting the multiple relationships between nodes may lead to incorrect identification of the most versatile nodes. Furthermore, the Gene Ontology functional annotation demonstrates that the identified top nodes based on the proposed approach play a significant role in many vital biological processes. Finally, we have implemented many centrality methods of multilayer networks (including our method and the published methods) and created a visual software based on the MATLAB GUI, called ENMNFinder, which can be used by other researchers.

  4. Magnetic studies in evaporated Ni/Pd multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chafai, K.; Salhi, H.; Lassri, H.; Yamkane, Z.; Lassri, M.; Abid, M.; Hlil, E.K.; Krishnan, R.

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Ni/Pd multilayers, prepared by sequential evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum, have been studied. The Ni thickness dependence of the magnetization and magnetic anisotropy is discussed. The temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization is well described by a T 3/2 law in all multilayers. A spin-wave theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization, and the approximate values for the exchange interactions for various Ni layer thicknesses have been obtained. - Research highlights: → The magnetic properties of Ni/Pd multilayers, prepared by sequential evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum, have been studied. → The temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization is well described by a T 3/2 law in Ni/Pd multilayers. → The spin-wave constant B was observed to depend on t Ni nonmonotonically. → A spin-wave theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization. → The approximate values for the exchange interactions for various Ni layer thicknesses have been obtained.

  5. Fabrication and performance characterization of Al/Ni multilayer energetic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Hu, Yan; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua; Wang, Shouxu; Hua, Tianli

    2014-02-01

    Al/Ni multilayer bridge films, which were composed of alternate Al and Ni layers with bilayer thicknesses of 50, 100 and 200 nm, were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. In each bilayer, the thickness ratio of Al to Ni was maintained at 3:2 to obtain an overall 1:1 atomic composition. The total thickness of Al/Ni multilayer films was 2 μm. XRD measurements show that the compound of AlNi is the final product of the exothermic reactions. DSC curves show that the values of heat release in Al/Ni multilayer films with bilayer thicknesses of 50, 100 and 200 nm are 389.43, 396.69 and 409.92 J g-1, respectively. The temperatures of Al/Ni multilayer films were obviously higher than those of Al bridge film and Ni bridge film. Al/Ni multilayer films with modulation of 50 nm had the highest electrical explosion temperature of 7000 K. The exothermic reaction in Al/Ni multilayer films leads to a more intense electric explosion. Al/Ni multilayer bridge films with modulation period of 50 nm explode more rapidly and intensely than other bridge films because decreasing the bilayer thickness results in an increased reaction velocity.

  6. ELSA- The European Levitated Spherical Actruator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Serin, J.; Telteu-Nedelcu, D.; De La Vallee Poussin, H.; Onillon, E.; Rossini, L.

    2014-08-01

    The reaction sphere is a magnetic bearing spherical actuator consisting of a permanent magnet spherical rotor that can be accelerated in any direction. It consists of an 8-pole permanent magnet spherical rotor that is magnetically levitated and can be accelerated about any axis by a 20-pole stator with electromagnets. The spherical actuator is proposed as a potential alternative to traditional momentum exchange devices such as reaction wheels (RWs) or control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). This new actuator provides several benefits such as reduced mass and power supply allocated to the attitude and navigation unit, performance gain, and improved reliability due to the absence of mechanical bearings. The paper presents the work done on the levitated spherical actuator and more precisely the electrical drive including its control unit and power parts. An elegant breadboard is currently being manufactured within the frame of an FP7 project. This project also comprises a feasibility study to show the feasibility of integrating such a system on a flight platform and to identify all the challenges to be solved in terms of technology or components to be developed.

  7. Oromucosal multilayer films for tailor-made, controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Sandra; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    The oral mucosa has recently become increasingly important as an alternative administration route for tailor-made, controlled drug delivery. Oromucosal multilayer films, assigned to the monograph oromucosal preparations in the Ph.Eur. may be a promising dosage form to overcome the requirements related to this drug delivery site. Areas covered: We provide an overview of multilayer films as drug delivery tools, and discuss manufacturing processes and characterization methods. We focus on the suitability of characterization methods for particular requirements of multilayer films. A classification was performed covering indication areas and APIs incorporated in multilayer film systems for oromucosal use in order to provide a summary of data published in this field. Expert opinion: The shift in drug development to high molecular weight drugs will influence the field of pharmaceutical development and delivery technologies. For a high number of indication areas, such as hormonal disorders, cardiovascular diseases or local treatment of infections, the flexible layer design of oromucosal multilayer films provides a promising option for tailor-made, controlled delivery of APIs to or through defined surfaces in the oral cavity. However, there is a lack of discriminating or standardized testing methods to assess the quality of multilayer films in a reliable way.

  8. Design of a normal incidence multilayer imaging X-ray microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Gabardi, David R.; Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.

    Normal incidence multilayer Cassegrain X-ray telescopes were flown on the Stanford/MSFC Rocket X-ray Spectroheliograph. These instruments produced high spatial resolution images of the sun and conclusively demonstrated that doubly reflecting multilayer X-ray optical systems are feasible. The images indicated that aplanatic imaging soft X-ray/EUV microscopes should be achievable using multilayer optics technology. A doubly reflecting normal incidence multilayer imaging X-ray microscope based on the Schwarzschild configuration has been designed. The design of the microscope and the results of the optical system ray trace analysis are discussed. High resolution aplanatic imaging X-ray microscopes using normal incidence multilayer X-ray mirrors should have many important applications in advanced X-ray astronomical instrumentation, X-ray lithography, biological, biomedical, metallurgical, and laser fusion research.

  9. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  10. Spherical Demons: Fast Surface Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B.T. Thomas; Sabuncu, Mert; Vercauteren, Tom; Ayache, Nicholas; Fischl, Bruce; Golland, Polina

    2009-01-01

    We present the fast Spherical Demons algorithm for registering two spherical images. By exploiting spherical vector spline interpolation theory, we show that a large class of regularizers for the modified demons objective function can be efficiently implemented on the sphere using convolution. Based on the one parameter subgroups of diffeomorphisms, the resulting registration is diffeomorphic and fast – registration of two cortical mesh models with more than 100k nodes takes less than 5 minutes, comparable to the fastest surface registration algorithms. Moreover, the accuracy of our method compares favorably to the popular FreeSurfer registration algorithm. We validate the technique in two different settings: (1) parcellation in a set of in-vivo cortical surfaces and (2) Brodmann area localization in ex-vivo cortical surfaces. PMID:18979813

  11. 78 FR 30329 - Multilayered Wood Flooring from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ...)] Multilayered Wood Flooring from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of...-1179 (Final) concerning multilayered wood flooring (``MLWF'') from China. For further information... reconsider ``its decision not to investigate domestic producers of hardwood plywood used for flooring'' 2. to...

  12. POLYELECTROLYTE MULTILAYER STAMPING IN AQUEOUS PHASE AND NON-CONTACT MODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Sumit; Lee, Ilsoon; Liu, Chun; Chan, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) transfer printing has been previously achieved by stamping under dry conditions. Here, we show for the first time, that PEM can be transferred from a stamp to the base substrate under aqueous conditions whereby the two surfaces are in a non-contact mode. Degradable multilayers of (PAA/PEG)10.5 followed by non-degradable multilayers of (PDAC/SPS)80.5 were fabricated under acidic pH conditions on either PDMS or glass (stamp), and subsequently transferred over top of another multilayer prepared on a different substrate (base substrate), with a spacing of ~ 200 μm between the stamping surface and the base substrate. This multilayer transfer was performed under physiological pH conditions. This process is referred to herein as non-contact, aqueous-phase multilayer (NAM) transfer. NAM transfer can be useful for applications such as fabricating three-dimensional (3-D) cellular scaffolds. We attempted to create a 3-D cellular scaffold using NAM transfer, and characterized the scaffolds with conventional and fluorescence microscopy. PMID:21860540

  13. Zone compensated multilayer laue lens and apparatus and method of fabricating the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Raymond P.; Liu, Chian Qian; Macrander, Albert T.; Yan, Hanfei; Maser, Jorg; Kang, Hyon Chol; Stephenson, Gregory Brian

    2015-07-14

    A multilayer Laue Lens includes a compensation layer formed in between a first multilayer section and a second multilayer section. Each of the first and second multilayer sections includes a plurality of alternating layers made of a pair of different materials. Also, the thickness of layers of the first multilayer section is monotonically increased so that a layer adjacent the substrate has a minimum thickness, and the thickness of layers of the second multilayer section is monotonically decreased so that a layer adjacent the compensation layer has a maximum thickness. In particular, the compensation layer of the multilayer Laue lens has an in-plane thickness gradient laterally offset by 90.degree. as compared to other layers in the first and second multilayer sections, thereby eliminating the strict requirement of the placement error.

  14. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  15. Tunable drug loading and release from polypeptide multilayer nanofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bingbing; Li, Bingyun

    2009-01-01

    Polypeptide multilayer nanofilms were prepared using electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly nanotechnology. Small charged drug molecules (eg, cefazolin, gentamicin, and methylene blue) were loaded in polypeptide multilayer nanofilms. Their loading and release were found to be pH-dependent and could also be controlled by changing the number of film layers and drug incubation time, and applying heat-treatment after film formation. Antibioticloaded polypeptide multilayer nanofilms showed controllable antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus. The developed biodegradable polypeptide multilayer nanofilms are capable of loading both positively- and negatively-charged drug molecules and promise to serve as drug delivery systems on biomedical devices for preventing biomedical device-associated infection, which is a significant clinical complication for both civilian and military patients. PMID:19421369

  16. Contact damage and fracture micromechanisms of multilayered TiN/CrN coatings at micro- and nano-length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, J.J.; Jiménez-Piqué, E.; Martínez, R.; Ramírez, G.; Tarragó, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, systematic nanomechanical and micromechanical studies have been conducted in three multilayer TiN/CrN systems with different bilayer periods (8, 19 and 25 nm). Additionally, experimental work has been performed on corresponding TiN and CrN single layers, for comparison purposes. The investigation includes the use of different indenter tip geometries as well as contact loading conditions (i.e. indentation/scratch) such to induce different stress field and damage scenarios within the films. The surface and subsurface damage under the different indentation imprints and scratch tracks have been observed by atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam. Multilayer TiN/CrN coated systems are found to exhibit higher adhesion strength (under sliding contact load) and cracking resistance (under spherical indentation) than those coated with reference TiN and CrN monolayers. The main reason behind these findings is the effective development of microstructurally-driven deformation and cracking resistant micromechanisms: rotation of columnar grains (and associated distortion of bilayer period) and crack deflection of interlayer thickness length scale, respectively. - Highlights: • Nanomechanical and micromechanical study in TiN/CrN systems • TiN/CrN coated systems exhibit higher adhesion strength and cracking resistance. • Main deformation and cracking micromechanisms: columnar grain rotation and crack deflection

  17. Contact damage and fracture micromechanisms of multilayered TiN/CrN coatings at micro- and nano-length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, J.J., E-mail: joan.josep.roa@upc.edu [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C. Pasqual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jiménez-Piqué, E. [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C. Pasqual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, R. [Centro de Ingeniería Avanzada de Superfícies, Asociación de la Industria Navarra — AIN, Crta. Pamplona, 1, Edificio AIN, 31191 Cordovilla (Spain); Ramírez, G. [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Tarragó, J.M. [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C. Pasqual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2014-11-28

    In this study, systematic nanomechanical and micromechanical studies have been conducted in three multilayer TiN/CrN systems with different bilayer periods (8, 19 and 25 nm). Additionally, experimental work has been performed on corresponding TiN and CrN single layers, for comparison purposes. The investigation includes the use of different indenter tip geometries as well as contact loading conditions (i.e. indentation/scratch) such to induce different stress field and damage scenarios within the films. The surface and subsurface damage under the different indentation imprints and scratch tracks have been observed by atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam. Multilayer TiN/CrN coated systems are found to exhibit higher adhesion strength (under sliding contact load) and cracking resistance (under spherical indentation) than those coated with reference TiN and CrN monolayers. The main reason behind these findings is the effective development of microstructurally-driven deformation and cracking resistant micromechanisms: rotation of columnar grains (and associated distortion of bilayer period) and crack deflection of interlayer thickness length scale, respectively. - Highlights: • Nanomechanical and micromechanical study in TiN/CrN systems • TiN/CrN coated systems exhibit higher adhesion strength and cracking resistance. • Main deformation and cracking micromechanisms: columnar grain rotation and crack deflection.

  18. Magnons in ultrahigh vacuum deposited Fe/Ag multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kiadi, I.; Lassri, H.; Benkirane, K.; Bensassi, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have grown Fe/Ag multilayers with Ag buffer layer, by evaporation under UHV conditions on glass substrates. The magnetic properties of Fe/Ag multilayers are examined as a function of Fe layer thickness t Fe . The temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization M(T) is well described by a T 3/2 law in all multilayers. A spin-wave theory has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetization and the approximate values for the bulk exchange interaction J b and surface exchange interaction J s for various Fe layer thicknesses have been obtained

  19. Covalently attached multilayer assemblies of diazo-resins and binuclear cobalt phthalocyanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaofang; Zhao Shuang; Yang Min; Sun Changqing; Guo, Liping

    2005-01-01

    By using the ionic self-assembly technique, ordered multilayer thin films composed of diazo-resin (DAR) as polycation and water-soluble binuclear cobalt phthalocyaninehexasulfonate (Bi-CoPc) as polyanion were alternately fabricated on quartz, CaF 2 and glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs). Upon ultraviolet irradiation, the adjacent interface of the multilayer films reacted to form a covalently cross-linking structure. The obtained thin films were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-vis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface photovoltage spectra (SPS), and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that the uniform, highly stable and ordered multilayer thin films were formed. The linkage nature between the adjacent interface of the multilayer films converts from ionic to covalent, and, as a result, the stability of the multilayer thin films dramatically improved. The multilayer thin films on GCEs also exhibited excellent electrochemical behavior

  20. Covalently attached multilayer assemblies of diazo-resins and binuclear cobalt phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaofang [Key Lab of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Zhao Shuang [Key Lab of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Yang Min [Key Lab of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Sun Changqing [Key Lab of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)]. E-mail: sunchq@mail.jlu.edu.cn; Guo, Liping [Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2005-05-01

    By using the ionic self-assembly technique, ordered multilayer thin films composed of diazo-resin (DAR) as polycation and water-soluble binuclear cobalt phthalocyaninehexasulfonate (Bi-CoPc) as polyanion were alternately fabricated on quartz, CaF{sub 2} and glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs). Upon ultraviolet irradiation, the adjacent interface of the multilayer films reacted to form a covalently cross-linking structure. The obtained thin films were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-vis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface photovoltage spectra (SPS), and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that the uniform, highly stable and ordered multilayer thin films were formed. The linkage nature between the adjacent interface of the multilayer films converts from ionic to covalent, and, as a result, the stability of the multilayer thin films dramatically improved. The multilayer thin films on GCEs also exhibited excellent electrochemical behavior.

  1. Multilayer thin films: sequential assembly of nanocomposite materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Decher, Gero; Schlenoff, Joseph B

    2003-01-01

    ... polymeric or nanoparticulate building blocks, understanding the polymer physical chemistry of multilayers, or characterizing their optical, electrical or biological activities. The reasons for the intense interest in the field are also clearly evident: multilayers bridge the gap between monolayers and spun-on or dip-coated films, ...

  2. Design and performance of capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajt, Sasa; Chapman, Henry N.; Nguyen, Nhan; Alameda, Jennifer; Robinson, Jeffrey C.; Malinowski, Michael; Gullikson, Eric; Aquila, Andrew; Tarrio, Charles; Grantham, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer lifetime has emerged as one of the major issues for the commercialization of extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). We describe the performance of an oxidation-resistant capping layer of Ru atop multilayers that results in a reflectivity above 69% at 13.2 nm, which is suitable for EUVL projection optics and has been tested with accelerated electron-beam and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light in a water-vapor environment. Based on accelerated exposure results, we calculated multilayer lifetimes for all reflective mirrors in a typical commercial EUVL tool and concluded that Ru-capped multilayers have ∼40x longer lifetimes than Si-capped multilayers, which translates to 3 months to many years, depending on the mirror dose

  3. Magnetic damping phenomena in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzawi, S.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Atkinson, D.

    2017-11-01

    Damped ferromagnetic precession is an important mechanism underpinning the magnetisation processes in ferromagnetic materials. In thin-film ferromagnets and ferromagnetic/non-magnetic multilayers, the role of precession and damping can be critical for spintronic device functionality and as a consequence there has been significant research activity. This paper presents a review of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers and collates the results of many experimental studies to present a coherent synthesis of the field. The terms that are used to define damping are discussed with the aim of providing consistent definitions for damping phenomena. A description of the theoretical basis of damping is presented from early developments to the latest discussions of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers. An overview of the time and frequency domain methods used to study precessional magnetisation behaviour and damping in thin-films and multilayers is also presented. Finally, a review of the experimental observations of magnetic damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers is presented with the most recent explanations. This brings together the results from many studies and includes the effects of ferromagnetic film thickness, the effects of composition on damping in thin-film ferromagnetic alloys, the influence of non-magnetic dopants in ferromagnetic films and the effects of combining thin-film ferromagnets with various non-magnetic layers in multilayered configurations.

  4. The prediction of spherical aberration with schematic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, H L; Brennan, N A

    1996-07-01

    Many model eyes have been proposed; they differ in optical characteristics and therefore have different aberrations and image quality. In predicting the visual performance of the eye, we are most concerned with the central foveal vision. Spherical aberration is the only on-axis monochromatic aberration and can be used as a criterion to assess the degree of resemblance of eye models to the human eye. We reviewed and compiled experimental values of the spherical aberration of the eye, calculated the spherical aberration of several different categories of model eyes and compared the calculated results to the experimental data. Results show an over-estimation of spherical aberration by all models, the finite schematic eyes predicting values of spherical aberration closest to the experimental data. Current model eyes do not predict the average experimental values of the spherical aberration of the eye. A new model eye satisfying this assessment criterion is required for investigations of the visual performance of the eye.

  5. Measurement of Turbulence Modulation by Non-Spherical Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    The change in the turbulence intensity of an air jet resulting from the addition of particles to the flow is measured using Laser Doppler Anemometry. Three distinct shapes are considered: the prolate spheroid, the disk and the sphere. Measurements of the carrier phase and particle phase velocities...... at the centerline of the jet are carried out for mass loadings of 0.5, 1, 1.6 and particle sizes 880μm, 1350μm, 1820μm for spherical particles. For each non-spherical shape only a single size and loading are considered. The turbulence modulation of the carrier phase is found to highly dependent on the turbulence......, the particle mass flow and the integral length scale of the flow. The expression developed on basis of spherical particles only is applied on the data for the non-spherical particles. The results suggest that non-spherical particles attenuate the carrier phase turbulence significantly more than spherical...

  6. Thermal-Insulation Properties of Multilayer Textile Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Małgorzata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-insulation properties of textile materials play a significant role in material engineering of protective clothing. Thermal-insulation properties are very important from the point of view of thermal comfort of the clothing user as well as the protective efficiency against low or high temperature. Thermal protective clothing usually is a multilayer construction. Its thermal insulation is a resultant of a number of layers and their order, as well as the thermalinsulation properties of a single textile material creating particular layers. The aim of the presented work was to investigate the relationships between the thermal-insulation properties of single materials and multilayer textile packages composed of these materials. Measurement of the thermal-insulation properties of single and multilayer textile materials has been performed with the Alambeta. The following properties have been investigated: thermal conductivity, resistance and absorptivity. Investigated textile packages were composed of two, three and four layers made of woven and knitted fabrics, as well as nonwovens. On the basis of the obtained results an analysis has been carried out in order to assess the dependency of the resultant values of the thermal-insulation properties of multilayer packages on the appropriate values of particular components.

  7. Clustering multilayer omics data using MuNCut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran Hidalgo, Sebastian J; Ma, Shuangge

    2018-03-14

    Omics profiling is now a routine component of biomedical studies. In the analysis of omics data, clustering is an essential step and serves multiple purposes including for example revealing the unknown functionalities of omics units, assisting dimension reduction in outcome model building, and others. In the most recent omics studies, a prominent trend is to conduct multilayer profiling, which collects multiple types of genetic, genomic, epigenetic and other measurements on the same subjects. In the literature, clustering methods tailored to multilayer omics data are still limited. Directly applying the existing clustering methods to multilayer omics data and clustering each layer first and then combing across layers are both "suboptimal" in that they do not accommodate the interconnections within layers and across layers in an informative way. In this study, we develop the MuNCut (Multilayer NCut) clustering approach. It is tailored to multilayer omics data and sufficiently accounts for both across- and within-layer connections. It is based on the novel NCut technique and also takes advantages of regularized sparse estimation. It has an intuitive formulation and is computationally very feasible. To facilitate implementation, we develop the function muncut in the R package NcutYX. Under a wide spectrum of simulation settings, it outperforms competitors. The analysis of TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data on breast cancer and cervical cancer shows that MuNCut generates biologically meaningful results which differ from those using the alternatives. We propose a more effective clustering analysis of multiple omics data. It provides a new venue for jointly analyzing genetic, genomic, epigenetic and other measurements.

  8. The ETE spherical Tokamak project. IAEA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Del Bosco, E.; Berni, L.A.; Ferreira, J.G.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma]. E-mail: ludwig@plasma.inpe.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the historical development of the ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of October, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  9. Spherical solitons in Earth’S mesosphere plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annou, K.; Annou, R.

    2016-01-01

    Soliton formation in Earth’s mesosphere plasma is described. Nonlinear acoustic waves in plasmas with two-temperature ions and a variable dust charge where transverse perturbation is dealt with are studied in bounded spherical geometry. Using the perturbation method, a spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation that describes dust acoustic waves is derived. It is found that the parameters taken into account have significant effects on the properties of nonlinear waves in spherical geometry

  10. 75 FR 66126 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution... flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10, 4409.29, 4412.31, 4412.32, 4412.39, 4412.94, 4412.99, 4418... multilayered wood flooring. The following companies are members of the CAHP: Anderson Hardwood Floors, LLC...

  11. Simulation of reflectivity spectrum for non-absorbing multilayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reflectivity simulation is an essential tool for the design and optimization of optical thin ... with the experimental results of the multilayer optical thin films grown by electron-beam evaporation ... beam splitters [4] and various optical filters. ... thickness (QWOT) layer AR coating and multilayer HR coating using electron- beam ...

  12. Reference Models for Multi-Layer Tissue Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    function of multi-layer tissues (etiology and management of pressure ulcers ). What was the impact on other disciplines? As part of the project, a data...simplification to develop cost -effective models of surface manipulation of multi-layer tissues. Deliverables. Specimen- (or subject) and region-specific...simplification to develop cost -effective models of surgical manipulation. Deliverables. Specimen-specific surrogate models of upper legs confirmed against data

  13. Interface-engineered spin-dependent transport in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shao-Long; Yang, Guang; Teng, Jiao, E-mail: tengjiao@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Guo, Qi-Xun; Li, Lei-Lei; Yu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pt multilayers is studied. • Thermally stable AHE feature is obtained in [Pt/Co]{sub 3}/Ta/MgO multilayers. • Good thermal stability is due to enhanced side-jump and intrinsic contributions. - Abstract: The improvement of anomalous Hall effect (AHE) has been obtained through the introduction of a Ta metallic layer at the Co/MgO interface in perpendicular [Pt/Co]{sub 3}/MgO multilayers. It is exhibited that the saturation anomalous Hall resistivity is 42% larger than that in Co/Pt multilayers without Ta insertion. More meaningfully, thermally stable AHE feature is gained in perpendicular [Pt/Co]{sub 3}/Ta/MgO multilayers despite Co-Pt interdiffusion. The AHE is enhanced for sample [Pt/Co]{sub 3}/Ta/MgO after annealing, mainly due to the enhancement of the side-jump and intrinsic contributions.

  14. Structural integrity of ceramic multilayer capacitor materials and ceramic multilayer capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    With, de G.

    1993-01-01

    An review with 61 refs. is given of the fracture of and stress situation in ceramic capacitor materials and ceramic multilayer capacitors. A brief introduction to the relevant concepts is given first. Next the data for capacitor materials and the data for capacitors are discussed. The materials data

  15. Laplacian eigenmodes for spherical spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, M; Caillerie, S

    2005-01-01

    The possibility that our space is multi-rather than singly-connected has gained renewed interest after the discovery of the low power for the first multipoles of the CMB by WMAP. To test the possibility that our space is a multi-connected spherical space, it is necessary to know the eigenmodes of such spaces. Except for lens and prism space, and to some extent for dodecahedral space, this remains an open problem. Here we derive the eigenmodes of all spherical spaces. For dodecahedral space, the demonstration is much shorter, and the calculation method much simpler than before. We also apply our method to tetrahedric, octahedric and icosahedric spaces. This completes the knowledge of eigenmodes for spherical spaces, and opens the door to new observational tests of the cosmic topology. The vector space V k of the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian on the 3-sphere S 3 , corresponding to the same eigenvalue λ k = -k(k + 2), has dimension (k + 1) 2 . We show that the Wigner functions provide a basis for such a space. Using the properties of the latter, we express the behaviour of a general function of V k under an arbitrary rotation G of SO(4). This offers the possibility of selecting those functions of V k which remain invariant under G. Specifying G to be a generator of the holonomy group of a spherical space X, we give the expression of the vector space V x k of the eigenfunctions of X. We provide a method to calculate the eigenmodes up to an arbitrary order. As an illustration, we give the first modes for the spherical spaces mentioned

  16. Optical measurement of thermal deformation of multilayer optics under synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, P.; Kazimirov, A.; Bazarov, I.

    2007-01-01

    An in situ optical technique to visualize surface distortions of the first monochromator crystal under synchrotron beam heat loading has been developed and applied to measure surface profiles of multilayer optics under white wiggler beam at the CHESS A2 beamline. Two identical multilayer structures deposited on Si and SiC substrates have been tested. Comparison of the reconstructed 3D heatbump profiles showed the surface distortions of the multilayer on SiC a factor of two smaller than the same multilayer on a Si substrate

  17. Optical measurement of thermal deformation of multilayer optics under synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revesz, P. [Cornell University, CHESS, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)], E-mail: pr20@cornell.edu; Kazimirov, A.; Bazarov, I. [Cornell University, CHESS, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    An in situ optical technique to visualize surface distortions of the first monochromator crystal under synchrotron beam heat loading has been developed and applied to measure surface profiles of multilayer optics under white wiggler beam at the CHESS A2 beamline. Two identical multilayer structures deposited on Si and SiC substrates have been tested. Comparison of the reconstructed 3D heatbump profiles showed the surface distortions of the multilayer on SiC a factor of two smaller than the same multilayer on a Si substrate.

  18. Phosphorus-based compounds for EUV multilayer optics materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; Yakshin, Andrey; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated the prospects of phosphorus-based compounds in extreme ultraviolet multilayer optics. Boron phosphide (BP) is suggested to be used as a spacer material in reflective multilayer optics operating just above the L-photoabsorption edge of P (λ ≈9.2 nm). Mo, Ag, Ru, Rh, and Pd were

  19. Low-Q Electrically Small Spherical Magnetic Dipole Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    Three novel electrically small antenna configurations radiating a TE10 spherical mode corresponding to a magnetic dipole are presented and investigated: multiarm spherical helix (MSH) antenna, spherical split ring resonator (S-SRR) antenna, and spherical split ring (SSR) antenna. All three antennas...... are self-resonant, with the input resistance tuned to 50 ohms by an excitation curved dipole/monopole. A prototype of the SSR antenna has been fabricated and measured, yielding results that are consistent with the numerical simulations. Radiation quality factors (Q) of these electrically small antennas (in...

  20. FY 2006 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

    2006-12-28

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.

  1. A spherical Taylor-Couette dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Florence; Gissinger, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    We present a new scenario for magnetic field amplification in the planetary interiors where an electrically conducting fluid is confined in a differentially rotating, spherical shell (spherical Couette flow) with thin aspect-ratio. When the angular momentum sufficiently decreases outwards, a primary hydrodynamic instability is widely known to develop in the equatorial region, characterized by pairs of counter-rotating, axisymmetric toroidal vortices (Taylor vortices) similar to those observed in cylindrical Couette flow. We characterize the subcritical dynamo bifurcation due to this spherical Taylor-Couette flow and study its evolution as the flow successively breaks into wavy and turbulent Taylor vortices for increasing Reynolds number. We show that the critical magnetic Reynolds number seems to reach a constant value as the Reynolds number is gradually increased. The role of global rotation on the dynamo threshold and the implications for planetary interiors are finally discussed.

  2. Heteroepitaxial growth of strained multilayer thin films of high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.; Gupta, A.; Olsson, E.; Segmueller, A.; Koren, G.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the heteroepitaxial growth of multilayer structures of different copper oxide superconductors has been reported by several groups. In general, two different types of multilayer structures should be distinguished. The first kind of mulitlayer is formed by high-T c materials having the same crystal structure and almost the same lattice constants, as for example ReBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (Re=rare earth) multilayers with alternating Re-elements. In these multilayers the two different rare earth copper oxides (Y/Dy, Y/Pr) have the same orthorhombic unit cell. Due to the very similar lattice constants, the misfit strain is easily accommodated without the formation of defects. The second kind of multilayer is formed by layers of materials having different crystal structure and lattice parameters. In these multilayers the misfit can be coherently accommodated below a critical modulation thickness as discussed below. This renders possible the heteroepitaxial growth of strained multilayer structures, both of two copper oxides of different crystal structure, as has been demonstrated recently for the system YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ /Nd 1.83 Ce 0.17 CuO x , and of superconducting copper oxides and insulating materials. For multilayers of different copper oxides, a combination of almost all high-Tc materials should be possible, since the presence of the CuO 2 sheets in these materials results in similar lattice constants in their basal planes ('a' and 'b'). (orig./BHO)

  3. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J.; Barbosa, L.F.W.; Patire Junior, H.; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  4. Miniaturization of Spherical Magnetodielectric Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle

    ; Arbitrary order of the spherical wave, arbitrary radius of the spherical antenna, as well as arbitrarily large core permeability and/or permittivity, given an inversely proportional frequency variation of the imaginary part(s) and an arbitrary dispersion of the real part(s) - thus describing both lossless...... with a magnetic loss tangent of 1 and relative permeability of 300 yield Q/e equal 65% of the Chu lower bound, with a simultaneous e of 71%....

  5. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  6. 76 FR 76435 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...)] Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10, 4409.29, 4412.31, 4412.32, 4412.39, 4412.94... flooring. The following companies are members of the CAHP: Anderson Hardwood Floors, LLC, Fountain Inn, SC...

  7. Magnetic studies of spin wave excitations in Ni/Au multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhi, H.; Chafai, K.; Benkirane, K.; Lassri, H.; Abid, M.; Hlil, E.K.

    2010-01-01

    Ni/Au multilayers were prepared by the electron beam evaporation method under ultra high vacuum conditions. The multilayer films have a coherent structure with (1 1 1) texture. The magnetic properties of Ni/Au multilayers are examined as a function of Ni layer thickness t Ni . The temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization M(T) is well described by a T 3/2 law in all multilayers. A spin wave theory has been used to explain the magnetization versus temperature. Based on this theory, the approximate values for the bulk exchange interaction J b , surface exchange interaction J S and the interlayer coupling strength J I have been obtained for various Ni layer thicknesses.

  8. Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Hubanks, Paul A,; Pavolonis, Michael J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Data Collection 5 processing for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower-level water cloud, that presents difficulties for retrieving cloud effective radius using single layer plane-parallel cloud models. The algorithm uses the MODIS 0.94 micron water vapor band along with CO2 bands to obtain two above-cloud precipitable water retrievals, the difference of which, in conjunction with additional tests, provides a map of where multilayered clouds might potentially exist. The presence of a multilayered cloud results in a large difference in retrievals of above-cloud properties between the CO2 and the 0.94 micron methods. In this paper the MODIS multilayered cloud algorithm is described, results of using the algorithm over example scenes are shown, and global statistics for multilayered clouds as observed by MODIS are discussed. A theoretical study of the algorithm behavior for simulated multilayered clouds is also given. Results are compared to two other comparable passive imager methods. A set of standard cloudy atmospheric profiles developed during the course of this investigation is also presented. The results lead to the conclusion that the MODIS multilayer cloud detection algorithm has some skill in identifying multilayered clouds with different thermodynamic phases

  9. Turbulence Modulation by Non-Spherical Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandø, Matthias

    This study deals with the interaction between turbulence and non-spherical particles and represents an extension of the modeling framework for particleladen flows. The effect of turbulence on particles is commonly referred to as turbulent dispersion while the effect of particles on the carrier....... This study encompass an outlook on existing work, an experimental study, development of a numerical model and a case study advancing the modeling techniques for pulverized coal combustion to deal with larger non-spherical biomass particles. Firstly, existing knowledge concerning the motion of non......-spherical particles and turbulence modulation are outlined. A complete description of the motion of non-spherical particles is still lacking. However, evidence suggests that the equation of motion for a sphere only represent an asymptotical value for a more general, but yet unformulated, description of the motion...

  10. Transformation of Real Spherical Harmonics under Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Z.; Krukowski, St.; Jalbout, A. F.

    2008-08-01

    The algorithm rotating the real spherical harmonics is presented. The convenient and ready to use formulae for l = 0, 1, 2, 3 are listed. The rotation in R3 space is determined by the rotation axis and the rotation angle; the Euler angles are not used. The proposed algorithm consists of three steps. (i) Express the real spherical harmonics as the linear combination of canonical polynomials. (ii) Rotate the canonical polynomials. (iii) Express the rotated canonical polynomials as the linear combination of real spherical harmonics. Since the three step procedure can be treated as a superposition of rotations, the searched rotation matrix for real spherical harmonics is a product of three matrices. The explicit formulae of matrix elements are given for l = 0, 1, 2, 3, what corresponds to s, p, d, f atomic orbitals.

  11. Characterization of Mo/Si multilayer growth on stepped topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Toine; Louis, Eric; Zoethout, E.; Goldberg, K.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with nanoscale bilayer thicknesses have been deposited on stepped substrate topographies, using various deposition angles. The multilayer morphology at the step-edge region was studied by cross section transmission electron microscopy. A transition from a continuous- to

  12. A MULTILAYER BIOCHEMICAL DRY DEPOSITION MODEL 1. MODEL FORMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multilayer biochemical dry deposition model has been developed based on the NOAA Multilayer Model (MLM) to study gaseous exchanges between the soil, plants, and the atmosphere. Most of the parameterizations and submodels have been updated or replaced. The numerical integration ...

  13. Hot-rolled Process of Multilayered Composite Metal Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For multi-layer plate, it is a difficult problem to increase product yield rate and improve bonding interface quality. A high yield hot-rolled method of multilayered plate was proposed. The raw strips and plate were fixed by argon arc welding. The combined billet was put into a metal box and vacuum pumped, and then heated and rolled by multi passes at the temperature of 1000-1200℃. The 67 layered plate with the thickness of 2.5mm was successfully produced. The interfacial microstructures and diffusion behavior were investigated and analyzed by optical microscopy and scan electronic microscopy. The tensile and shear strength were tested,and the shear fractures were analyzed. The results show that the multilayered plate yield rate is more than 90% by two steps billet combination method and rolling process optimization. The good bonding interface quality is obtained, the shear strength of multilayered plate reaches 241 MPa. Nickel interlayer between 9Cr18 and 1Cr17 can not only prevent the diffusion of carbon, but also improve the microstructure characteristics.

  14. Tunable photonic multilayer sensors from photo-crosslinkable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Maria; Hayward, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    The fabrication of tunable photonic multilayer sensors from stimuli-responsive, photo-crosslinkable polymers will be described. Benzophenone is covalently incorporated as a pendent photo-crosslinker, allowing for facile preparation of multilayer films by sequential spin-coating and crosslinking processes. Copolymer chemistries and layer thicknesses are selected to provide robust multilayer sensors which can show color changes across nearly the full visible spectrum due to the specific stimulus-responsive nature of the hydrated film stack. We will describe how this approach is extended to alternative sensor designs by tailoring the thickness and chemistry of each layer independently, allowing for the preparation of sensors which depend not only on the shift in wavelength of a reflectance peak, but also on the transition between Bragg mirrors and filters. Device design is optimized by photo-patterning sensor arrays on a single substrate, providing more efficient fabrication time as well as multi-functional sensors. Finally, radiation-sensitive multilayers, designed by choosing polymers which will preferentially degrade or crosslink under ionizing radiation, will also be described.

  15. Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikang Deng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model for calculating the Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers with a coating is proposed, and validated by a three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE model using ANSYS parametric design language (APDL and atomic force microscopy (AFM characterization. Compared with typical theoretical models (Rayleigh-Ritz model, Euler-Bernoulli (E-B beam model and spring mass model, the proposed theoretical model can obtain Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers more precisely. Also, the influences of coating’s geometric dimensions on Young’s modulus and resonant frequency of microcantilevers are discussed. The thickness of coating has a great influence on Young’s modulus and resonant frequency of multi-layer microcantilevers, and the coating should be considered to calculate Young’s modulus more precisely, especially when fairly thicker coating is employed.

  16. Experimental analysis on stress wave in inhomogeneous multi-layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yun Ho; Ham, Hyo Sick

    1998-01-01

    The guided wave propagation in inhomogeneous multi-layered structures is experimentally explored based on theoretical dispersion curves. It turns out that proper selection of incident angle and frequency is critical for guided wave generation in multi-layered structures. Theoretical dispersion curves greatly depend on adhesive zone thickness, layer thickness and material properties. It was possible to determine the adhesive zone thickness of an inhomogeneous multi-layered structure by monitoring experimentally the change of dispersion curves.

  17. Thermally induced delamination of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Sarraute, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    1998-01-01

    Steady-state delamination of multilayered structures, caused by stresses arising during processing due to thermal expansion mismatch, is analyzed by a fracture mechanics model based on laminate theory. It is found that inserting just a few interlayers with intermediate thermal expansion coefficie...... coefficients may be an effective way of reducing the delamination energy release rate. Uneven layer thickness and increasing elastic mismatch are shown to raise the energy release rate. Experimental work confirms important trends of the model.......Steady-state delamination of multilayered structures, caused by stresses arising during processing due to thermal expansion mismatch, is analyzed by a fracture mechanics model based on laminate theory. It is found that inserting just a few interlayers with intermediate thermal expansion...

  18. Ultrahard Multilayer Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzan, D.C.; Dugger, M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Friedmann, T.A.; Knapp, J.A.; McCarty, K.F.; Medlin, D.L.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Missert, N.; Newcomer, P.P.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tallant, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a new multilayer a-tC material that is thick stress-free, adherent, low friction, and with hardness and stiffness near that of diamond. The new a-tC material is deposited by J pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature, and fully stress-relieved by a short thermal anneal at 600 ampersand deg;C. A thick multilayer is built up by repeated deposition and annealing steps. We measured 88 GPa hardness, 1100 GPa Young's modulus, and 0.1 friction coefficient (under high load). Significantly, these results are all well within the range reported for crystalline diamond. In fact, this material, if considered separate from crystalline diamond, is the 2nd hardest material known to man. Stress-free a-tC also has important advantages over thin film diamond; namely, it is smooth, processed at lower temperature, and can be grown on a much broader range of substrates. This breakthrough will enable a host of applications that we are actively pursuing in MEMs, sensors, LIGA, etc

  19. Dynamics of a spherical minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galla, T; Coolen, A C C; Sherrington, D

    2003-01-01

    We present an exact dynamical solution of a spherical version of the batch minority game (MG) with random external information. The control parameters in this model are the ratio of the number of possible values for the public information over the number of agents, and the radius of the spherical constraint on the microscopic degrees of freedom. We find a phase diagram with three phases: two without anomalous response (an oscillating versus a frozen state) and a further frozen phase with divergent integrated response. In contrast to standard MG versions, we can also calculate the volatility exactly. Our study reveals similarities between the spherical and the conventional MG, but also intriguing differences. Numerical simulations confirm our analytical results

  20. Multilayered sulphonated polysulfone/silica composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmavathi, Rajangam; Karthikumar, Rajendhiran; Sangeetha, Dharmalingam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multilayered membranes were fabricated with SPSu. ► Aminated polysulfone and silica were used as the layers in order to prevent the crossover of methanol. ► The methanol permeability and selectivity ratio proved a strong influence on DMFC application. ► The suitability of the multilayered membranes was studied in the lab made set-ups of PEMFC and DMFC. - Abstract: Polymer electrolyte membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) suffer from low dimensional stability. Hence multilayered membranes using sulfonated polysulfone (SPSu) and silica (SiO 2 ) were fabricated to alter such properties. The introduction of an SiO 2 layer between two layers of SPSu to form the multilayered composite membrane enhanced its dimensional stability, but slightly lowered its proton conductivity when compared to the conventional SPSu/SiO 2 composite membrane. Additionally, higher water absorption, lower methanol permeability and higher flame retardancy were also observed in this newly fabricated multilayered membrane. The performance evaluation of the 2 wt% SiO 2 loaded multilayered membrane in DMFC showed a maximum power density of 86.25 mW cm −2 , which was higher than that obtained for Nafion 117 membrane (52.8 mW cm −2 ) in the same single cell test assembly. Hence, due to the enhanced dimensional stability, reduced methanol permeability and higher maximum power density, the SPSu/SiO 2 /SPSu multilayered membrane can be a viable and a promising candidate for use as an electrolyte membrane in DMFC applications, when compared to Nafion.

  1. Investigation of spherical and concentric mechanism of compound droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meifang Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymer shells with high sphericity and uniform wall thickness are always needed in the inertial confined fusion (ICF experiments. Driven by the need to control the shape of water-in-oil (W1/O compound droplets, the effects of the density matching level, the interfacial tension and the rotation speed of the continuing fluid field on the sphericity and wall thickness uniformity of the resulting polymer shells were investigated and the spherical and concentric mechanisms were also discussed. The centering of W1/O compound droplets, the location and movement of W1/O compound droplets in the external phase (W2 were significantly affected by the density matching level of the key stage and the rotation speed of the continuing fluid field. Therefore, by optimizing the density matching level and rotation speed, the batch yield of polystyrene (PS shells with high sphericity and uniform wall thickness increased. Moreover, the sphericity also increased by raising the oil/water (O/W2 interfacial tension, which drove a droplet to be spherical. The experimental results show that the spherical driving force is from the interfacial tension affected by the two relative phases, while the concentric driving force, as a resultant force, is not only affected by the three phases, but also by the continuing fluid field. The understanding of spherical and concentric mechanism can provide some guidance for preparing polymer shells with high sphericity and uniform wall thickness.

  2. The multilayer nanoparticles formed by layer by layer approach for cancer-targeting therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Keun Sang; Lee, Hwanbum; Kim, Jae Yeon; Koo, Eun Jin; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Yuk, Soon Hong

    2013-01-10

    The multilayer nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared for cancer-targeting therapy using the layer by layer approach. When drug-loaded Pluronic NPs were mixed with vesicles (liposomes) in the aqueous medium, Pluronic NPs were incorporated into the vesicles to form the vesicle NPs. Then, the multilayer NPs were formed by freeze-drying the vesicle NPs in a Pluronic aqueous solution. The morphology and size distribution of the multilayer NPs were observed using a TEM and a particle size analyzer. In order to apply the multilayer NPs as a delivery system for docetaxel (DTX), which is a model anticancer drug, the release pattern of the DTX was observed and the tumor growth was monitored by injecting the multilayer NPs into the tail veins of tumor (squamous cell carcinoma)-bearing mice. The cytotoxicity of free DTX (commercial DTX formulation (Taxotere®)) and the multilayer NPs was evaluated using MTT assay. We also evaluated the tumor targeting ability of the multilayer NPs using magnetic resonance imaging. The multilayer NPs showed excellent tumor targetability and antitumor efficacy in tumor-bearing mice, caused by the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. These results suggest that the multilayer NPs could be a potential drug delivery system for cancer-targeting therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hot-electrons-induced ultrafast demagnitization in Co/Pt multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergeard, N.; Hehn, M.; Mangin, S.; Lengaigne, G.; Montaigne, F.; Lalieu, M. L. M.; Koopmans, B.; Malinowski, G.

    2016-01-01

    Using specially engineered structures to tailor the optical absorption in a metallic multilayer, we analyze the magnetization dynamics of a Co/Pt multilayer buried below a thick Cu layer. We demonstrate that hot electrons alone can very efficiently induce ultrafast demagnetization. Simulations based

  4. How Spherical Is a Cube (Gravitationally)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, Jeff; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    An important concept that is presented in the discussion of Newton's law of universal gravitation is that the gravitational effect external to a spherically symmetric mass distribution is the same as if all of the mass of the distribution were concentrated at the center. By integrating over ring elements of a spherical shell, we show that the…

  5. Giant magnetoresistance of hysteresis-free Cu/Co-based multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetten, A.; Hempel, T.; Schepper, W.; Kleineberg, U.; Reiss, G.

    2001-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that hysteresis-free multilayers based on {Cu/Co} and {Cu/Ni 57 Co 43 } can be experimentally realized obtaining room temperature GMR effect amplitudes from 6.5% up to 20%. A critical window for the layer thickness for hysteresis-free GMR curves can be achieved for both systems, ranging from 0.38 to 0.45 nm and 0.59 to 0.7 nm, respectively. The corresponding sensitivities range from 0.075 up to 0.114%/Oe, but are still below that of normal {Cu/Co} multilayers. Hysteresis-free multilayers based on these systems are stable up to 180 deg. C upon isochronal annealing. It is shown that hysteresis-free {Cu/Co or Ni 57 Co 43 }-multilayers are neither a solution to achieve good temperature stability nor a higher sensitivity compared with normal ones and hence are not candidates for application

  6. Self-assembled metal nano-multilayered film prepared by co-sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianle; Fu, Licai; Qin, Wen; Zhu, Jiajun; Yang, Wulin; Li, Deyi; Zhou, Lingping

    2018-03-01

    Nano-multilayered film is usually prepared by the arrangement deposition of different materials. In this paper, a self-assembled nano-multilayered film was deposited by simultaneous sputtering of Cu and W. The Cu/W nano-multilayered film was accumulated by W-rich layer and Cu-rich layer. Smooth interfaces with consecutive composition variation and semi-coherent even coherent relationship were identified, indicating that a spinodal-like structure with a modulation wavelength of about 20 nm formed during co-deposition process. The participation of diffusion barrier element, such as W, is believed the essential to obtain the nano-multilayered structure besides the technological parameters.

  7. Analytic theory of alternate multilayer gratings operating in single-order regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaowei; Kozhevnikov, Igor V; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Hongchang; Hand, Matthew; Sawhney, Kawal; Wang, Zhanshan

    2017-07-10

    Using the coupled wave approach (CWA), we introduce the analytical theory for alternate multilayer grating (AMG) operating in the single-order regime, in which only one diffraction order is excited. Differing from previous study analogizing AMG to crystals, we conclude that symmetrical structure, or equal thickness of the two multilayer materials, is not the optimal design for AMG and may result in significant reduction in diffraction efficiency. The peculiarities of AMG compared with other multilayer gratings are analyzed. An influence of multilayer structure materials on diffraction efficiency is considered. The validity conditions of analytical theory are also discussed.

  8. Spherical cows in dark matter indirect detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Nicolás [Centro de Investigaciones, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Cra 3 Este # 47A-15, Bogotá (Colombia); Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R., E-mail: nicolas.bernal@uan.edu.co, E-mail: lnecib@mit.edu, E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently. Many of these elongated profiles are due to large subhalos and/or recent mergers. Comparing to gamma-ray emission from the Milky Way and X-ray maps of clusters, we find that the gamma-ray background appears less spherical/more elongated than the expected DM signal from the large majority of halos, and the Galactic gamma ray excess appears very spherical, while the X-ray data would be difficult to distinguish from a DM signal by elongation/sphericity measurements alone.

  9. Multilayer porous UHMWPE scaffolds for bone defects replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, A.V.; Senatov, F.S.; Anisimova, N.Yu.; Kiselevskiy, M.V.; Zalepugin, D.Yu.; Chernyshova, I.V.; Tilkunova, N.A.; Kaloshkin, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of the structural integrity of the damaged bone tissue is an urgent problem. UHMWPE may be potentially used for the manufacture of porous implants simulating as closely as possible the porous cancellous bone tissue. But the extremely high molecular weight of the polymer does not allow using traditional methods of foaming. Porous and multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds with nonporous bulk layer and porous layer that mimics cancellous bone architecture were obtained by solid-state mixing, thermopressing and washing in subcritical water. Structural and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. Porous UHMWPE samples were also studied in vitro and in vivo. The pores of UHMWPE scaffold are open and interconnected. Volume porosity of the obtained samples was 79 ± 2%; the pore size range was 80–700 μm. Strong connection of the two layers in multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds was observed with decreased number of fusion defects. Functionality of implants based on multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds is provided by the fixation of scaffolds in the bone defect through ingrowths of the connective tissue into the pores, which ensures the maintenance of the animals' mobility - Highlights: • Porous UHMWPE scaffold mimics cancellous bone architecture, maintaining its flexibility. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffold is able to simulate different types of bone tissue. • Fixation of scaffolds in the bone provides through ingrowths of the connective tissue into pores. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds can be used for the formation of bone implants.

  10. Multilayer porous UHMWPE scaffolds for bone defects replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimkin, A.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Senatov, F.S., E-mail: senatov@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Anisimova, N.Yu.; Kiselevskiy, M.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zalepugin, D.Yu.; Chernyshova, I.V.; Tilkunova, N.A. [State Plant of Medicinal Drugs, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kaloshkin, S.D. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of the structural integrity of the damaged bone tissue is an urgent problem. UHMWPE may be potentially used for the manufacture of porous implants simulating as closely as possible the porous cancellous bone tissue. But the extremely high molecular weight of the polymer does not allow using traditional methods of foaming. Porous and multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds with nonporous bulk layer and porous layer that mimics cancellous bone architecture were obtained by solid-state mixing, thermopressing and washing in subcritical water. Structural and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. Porous UHMWPE samples were also studied in vitro and in vivo. The pores of UHMWPE scaffold are open and interconnected. Volume porosity of the obtained samples was 79 ± 2%; the pore size range was 80–700 μm. Strong connection of the two layers in multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds was observed with decreased number of fusion defects. Functionality of implants based on multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds is provided by the fixation of scaffolds in the bone defect through ingrowths of the connective tissue into the pores, which ensures the maintenance of the animals' mobility - Highlights: • Porous UHMWPE scaffold mimics cancellous bone architecture, maintaining its flexibility. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffold is able to simulate different types of bone tissue. • Fixation of scaffolds in the bone provides through ingrowths of the connective tissue into pores. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds can be used for the formation of bone implants.

  11. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rui, E-mail: rui.zhang@ed.ac.uk; Cheung, Rebecca [Scottish Microelectronics Centre, Alexander Crum Brown Road, The University of Edinburgh, King' s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Koutsos, Vasileios [Institute for Materials and Processes, School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, King' s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FB (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-25

    We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe{sub 2}, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe{sub 2} membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe{sub 2} and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe{sub 2} flakes onto SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe{sub 2} membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe{sub 2} has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe{sub 2} (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2}. Moreover, the multilayer WSe{sub 2} can endure ∼12.4 GPa stress and ∼7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe{sub 2} can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.

  12. Focusing X-rays to a 1-μm spot using elastically bent, graded multilayer coated mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, J.H.; Thompson, A.C.; Kortright, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    In the x-ray fluorescent microprobe at beamline 10.3.1, the ALS bending magnet source is demagnified by a factor of several hundred using a pair of mirrors arranged in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. These are coated with multilayers to increase reflectivity and limit the pass band of the x-rays striking the sample. The x-rays excite characteristic fluorescent x-rays of elements in the sample, which are analyzed by an energy dispersive Si-Li detector, for a sensitive assay of the elemental content. By scanning the focal spot the spatial distribution of the elements is determined; the spatial resolution depends on the size of this spot. When spherical mirrors are used, the spatial resolution is limited by aberrations to 5 or 10 μm. This has been improved to 1 μm through the use of an elliptical mirror formed by elastically bending a plane mirror of uniform width and thickness with the optimum combination of end couples

  13. Focusing X-rays to a 1-{mu}m spot using elastically bent, graded multilayer coated mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, J.H.; Thompson, A.C.; Kortright, J.B. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In the x-ray fluorescent microprobe at beamline 10.3.1, the ALS bending magnet source is demagnified by a factor of several hundred using a pair of mirrors arranged in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. These are coated with multilayers to increase reflectivity and limit the pass band of the x-rays striking the sample. The x-rays excite characteristic fluorescent x-rays of elements in the sample, which are analyzed by an energy dispersive Si-Li detector, for a sensitive assay of the elemental content. By scanning the focal spot the spatial distribution of the elements is determined; the spatial resolution depends on the size of this spot. When spherical mirrors are used, the spatial resolution is limited by aberrations to 5 or 10 {mu}m. This has been improved to 1 {mu}m through the use of an elliptical mirror formed by elastically bending a plane mirror of uniform width and thickness with the optimum combination of end couples.

  14. Layer-by-layer strippable Ag multilayer films fabricated by modular assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Qianqian; Song, Kai; Wang, Shihui; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Yu; Jiao, Yong-Hua; Sun, Ting; Liu, Fu-Chun; Han, En-Hou

    2014-01-21

    We have developed a new method to fabricate multilayer films, which uses prepared thin films as modular blocks and transfer as operation mode to build up multilayer structures. In order to distinguish it from the in situ fabrication manner, this method is called modular assembly in this study. On the basis of such concept, we have fabricated a multilayer film using the silver mirror film as the modular block and poly(lactic acid) as the transfer tool. Due to the special double-layer structure of the silver mirror film, the resulting multilayer film had a well-defined stratified architecture with alternate porous/compact layers. As a consequence of the distinct structure, the interaction between the adjacent layers was so weak that the multilayer film could be layer-by-layer stripped. In addition, the top layer in the film could provide an effective protection on the morphology and surface property of the underlying layers. This suggests that if the surface of the film was deteriorated, the top layer could be peeled off and the freshly exposed surface would still maintain the original function. The successful preparation of the layer-by-layer strippable silver multilayer demonstrates that modular assembly is a feasible and effective method to build up multilayer films capable of creating novel and attractive micro/nanostructures, having great potential in the fabrication of nanodevices and coatings.

  15. Swift heavy ion irradiation effects in Pt/C and Ni/C multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ajay; Pandita, Suneel; Avasthi, D. K.; Lodha, G. S.; Nandedkar, R. V.

    1998-12-01

    Irradiation effects of 100 MeV Ag ion irradiation on Ni/C and Pt/C multilayers have been studied using X-ray reflectivity measurements. Modifications are observed in both the multilayers at (dE/dx)e values much below the threshold values for Ni and Pt. This effect is attributed to the discontinuous nature of the metal layers. In both the multilayers interfacial roughness increases with irradiation dose. While Ni/C multilayers exhibit large ion-beam induced intermixing, no observable intermixing is observed in the case of Pt/C multilayer. This difference in the behavior of the two systems suggests a significant role for chemically guided defect motion in the mixing process associated with swift heavy ion irradiation.

  16. Multiperiodicity in plasmonic multilayers: General description and diversity of topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Krylova, Anastasia K.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We introduce multiperiodicity in periodicmetal-dielectric multilayers by stacking more than two types of metal and/or dielectric layers into the unit cell. A simple way to characterize arbitrary multiperiodic multilayers using permutation vectors is suggested and employed. Effects of multiperiodi...... of multiperiodicity up to its fourth order are investigated. We demonstrate that various topologies of multiple-sheet isofrequency and dispersion surfaces exist for such plasmonic multilayers, including a photonic realization of nontrivial isolated Dirac cones....

  17. Docetaxel-loaded multilayer nanoparticles with nanodroplets for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Keun Sang; Kim, Kyungim; Yoon, Byeong Deok; Lee, Hye Jin; Park, Dal Yong; Kim, Eun-Yeong; Lee, Kiho; Seo, Jae Hong; Yuk, Soon Hong

    2016-01-01

    A mixture of docetaxel (DTX) and Solutol(®) HS 15 (Solutol) transiently formed nanodroplets when it was suspended in an aqueous medium. However, nanodroplets that comprised DTX and Solutol showed a rapid precipitation of DTX because of their unstable characteristics in the aqueous medium. The incorporation of nanodroplets that comprised DTX and Solutol through vesicle fusion and subsequent stabilization was designed to prepare multilayer nanoparticles (NPs) with a DTX-loaded Solutol nanodroplet (as template NPs) core for an efficient delivery of DTX as a chemotherapeutic drug. As a result, the DTX-loaded Solutol nanodroplets (~11.7 nm) were observed to have an increased average diameter (from 11.7 nm to 156.1 nm) and a good stability of the hydrated NPs without precipitation of DTX by vesicle fusion and multilayered structure, respectively. Also, a long circulation of the multilayer NPs was observed, and this was due to the presence of Pluronic F-68 on the surface of the multilayer NPs. This led to an improved antitumor efficacy based on the enhanced permeation and retention effect. Therefore, this study indicated that the multilayer NPs have a considerable potential as a drug delivery system with an enhanced therapeutic efficacy by blood circulation and with low side effects.

  18. Self-Propagating Reactive Fronts in Compacts of Multilayered Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sraj, I.; Vohra, M.; Alawieh, L.; Weihs, T.P.; Knio, O.M.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive multilayered foils in the form of thin films have gained interest in various applications such as joining, welding, and ignition. Typically, thin film multilayers support self-propagating reaction fronts with speeds ranging from 1 to 20 m/s. In some applications, however, reaction fronts with much smaller velocities are required. This recently motivated Fritz et al. (2011) to fabricate compacts of regular sized/shaped multilayered particles and demonstrate self-sustained reaction fronts having much smaller velocities than thin films with similar layering. In this work, we develop a simplified numerical model to simulate the self-propagation of reactive fronts in an idealized compact, comprising identical Ni/Al multilayered particles in thermal contact. The evolution of the reaction in the compact is simulated using a two-dimensional transient model, based on a reduced description of mixing, heat release, and thermal transport. Computed results reveal that an advancing reaction front can be substantially delayed as it crosses from one particle to a neighboring particle, which results in a reduced mean propagation velocity. A quantitative analysis is thus conducted on the dependence of these phenomena on the contact area between the particles, the thermal contact resistance, and the arrangement of the multilayered particles.

  19. Self-Propagating Reactive Fronts in Compacts of Multilayered Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Sraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive multilayered foils in the form of thin films have gained interest in various applications such as joining, welding, and ignition. Typically, thin film multilayers support self-propagating reaction fronts with speeds ranging from 1 to 20 m/s. In some applications, however, reaction fronts with much smaller velocities are required. This recently motivated Fritz et al. (2011 to fabricate compacts of regular sized/shaped multilayered particles and demonstrate self-sustained reaction fronts having much smaller velocities than thin films with similar layering. In this work, we develop a simplified numerical model to simulate the self-propagation of reactive fronts in an idealized compact, comprising identical Ni/Al multilayered particles in thermal contact. The evolution of the reaction in the compact is simulated using a two-dimensional transient model, based on a reduced description of mixing, heat release, and thermal transport. Computed results reveal that an advancing reaction front can be substantially delayed as it crosses from one particle to a neighboring particle, which results in a reduced mean propagation velocity. A quantitative analysis is thus conducted on the dependence of these phenomena on the contact area between the particles, the thermal contact resistance, and the arrangement of the multilayered particles.

  20. Decomposition of multilayer benzene and n-hexane films on vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2015-09-21

    Reactions of multilayer hydrocarbon films with a polycrystalline V substrate have been investigated using temperature-programmed desorption and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Most of the benzene molecules were dissociated on V, as evidenced by the strong depression in the thermal desorption yields of physisorbed species at 150 K. The reaction products dehydrogenated gradually after the multilayer film disappeared from the surface. Large amount of oxygen was needed to passivate the benzene decomposition on V. These behaviors indicate that the subsurface sites of V play a role in multilayer benzene decomposition. Decomposition of the n-hexane multilayer films is manifested by the desorption of methane at 105 K and gradual hydrogen desorption starting at this temperature, indicating that C-C bond scission precedes C-H bond cleavage. The n-hexane dissociation temperature is considerably lower than the thermal desorption temperature of the physisorbed species (140 K). The n-hexane multilayer morphology changes at the decomposition temperature, suggesting that a liquid-like phase formed after crystallization plays a role in the low-temperature decomposition of n-hexane.

  1. Clustering network layers with the strata multilayer stochastic block model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Natalie; Shai, Saray; Taylor, Dane; Mucha, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer networks are a useful data structure for simultaneously capturing multiple types of relationships between a set of nodes. In such networks, each relational definition gives rise to a layer. While each layer provides its own set of information, community structure across layers can be collectively utilized to discover and quantify underlying relational patterns between nodes. To concisely extract information from a multilayer network, we propose to identify and combine sets of layers with meaningful similarities in community structure. In this paper, we describe the "strata multilayer stochastic block model" (sMLSBM), a probabilistic model for multilayer community structure. The central extension of the model is that there exist groups of layers, called "strata", which are defined such that all layers in a given stratum have community structure described by a common stochastic block model (SBM). That is, layers in a stratum exhibit similar node-to-community assignments and SBM probability parameters. Fitting the sMLSBM to a multilayer network provides a joint clustering that yields node-to-community and layer-to-stratum assignments, which cooperatively aid one another during inference. We describe an algorithm for separating layers into their appropriate strata and an inference technique for estimating the SBM parameters for each stratum. We demonstrate our method using synthetic networks and a multilayer network inferred from data collected in the Human Microbiome Project.

  2. Multilayer composition coatings for cutting tools: formation and performance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, Vladimir P.; Vereschaka, Anatoly S.; Vereschaka, Alexey A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper considers the concept of a multi-layer architecture of the coating in which each layer has a predetermined functionality. Latest generation of coatings with multi-layered architecture for cutting tools secure a dual nature of the coating, in which coatings should not only improve the mechanical and physical characteristics of the cutting tool material, but also reduce the thermo-mechanical effect on the cutting tool determining wear intensity. Here are presented the results of the development of combined methods of forming multi-layer coatings with improved properties. Combined method of forming coatings using a pulsed laser allowed reducing excessively high levels of compressive residual stress and increasing micro hardness of the multilayered coatings. The results in testing coated HSS tools showed that the use of additional pulse of laser processing increases tool life up to 3 times. Using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition for the generation of multilayer coatings based on TiAlN compound has increased the wear-resistance of carbide tools by 2 fold compared with tool life of cutting tool with commercial TiN coatings. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative methodological approach to the deposition of multilayer coatings for cutting tools with functional architectural selection, properties and parameters of the coating based on sound knowledge of coating failure in machining process.

  3. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating

  4. Enhancement of the spin Peltier effect in multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K.; Iguchi, R.; Daimon, S.; Ramos, R.; Anadón, A.; Lucas, I.; Algarabel, P. A.; Morellón, L.; Aguirre, M. H.; Ibarra, M. R.; Saitoh, E.

    2017-05-01

    The spin Peltier effect (SPE), heat-current generation as a result of spin-current injection, has been investigated in alternately stacked Pt/Fe3O4 multilayer films. The temperature modulation induced by the SPE in the [Pt/Fe3O4]×n films was found to be significantly enhanced with increasing the number of Pt/Fe3O4 bilayers n . This SPE enhancement is much greater than that expected for a simple stack of independent Pt/Fe3O4 bilayers. The observed n dependence of the SPE can be explained by introducing spin-current redistribution in the multilayer films in the thickness direction, in a manner similar to the enhancement of the spin Seebeck effect in multilayers.

  5. Neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters and a phase-spin echo interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Toru; Tasaki, Seiji; Kawai, Takeshi; Hino, Masahiro; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Achiwa, Norio; Otake, Yoshie; Funahashi, Haruhiko.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron spin quantum precession by multilayer spin splitter has been demonstrated using a new spin interferometer. The multilayer spin splitter consists of a magnetic multilayer mirror on top, followed by a gap layer and a non magnetic multilayer mirror which are evaporated on a silicon substrate. Using the multilayer spin splitter, a polarized neutron wave in a magnetic field perpendicular to the polarization is split into two spin eigenstates with a phase shift in the direction of the magnetic field. The spin quantum precession is equal to the phase shift, which depends on the effective thickness of the gap layer. The demonstration experiments verify the multilayer spin splitter as a neutron spin precession device as well as the coherent superposition principle of the two spin eigenstates. We have developed a new phase-spin echo interferometer using the multilayer spin splitters. We present successful performance tests of the multilayer spin splitter and the phase-spin echo interferometer. (author)

  6. Stress in tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujada, B.R.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon (WC-DLC) multilayer coatings have been prepared by sputter deposition from a tungsten-carbide target and periodic switching on and off of the reactive acetylene gas flow. The stress in the resulting WC-DLC multilayers has been studied by substrate curvature.

  7. Photo-crosslinkable polymers for fabrication of photonic multilayer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Maria; Hayward, Ryan C.

    2013-03-01

    We have used photo-crosslinkable polymers to fabricate photonic multilayer sensors. Benzophenone is utilized as a covalently incorporated pendent photo-crosslinker, providing a convenient means of fabricating multilayer films by sequential spin-coating and crosslinking processes. Colorimetric temperature sensors were designed from thermally-responsive, low-refractive index poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and high-refractive index poly(para-methyl styrene) (P pMS). Copolymer chemistries and layer thicknesses were selected to provide robust multilayer sensors which show color changes across nearly the full visible spectrum due to changes in temperature of the hydrated film stack. We have characterized the uniformity and interfacial broadening within the multilayers, the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling, and the reversibility over multiple hydration/dehydration cycles. We also describe how the approach can be extended to alternative sensor designs through the ability to tailor each layer independently, as well as to additional stimuli by selecting alternative copolymer chemistries.

  8. Theory and applications of spherical microphone array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Jarrett, Daniel P; Naylor, Patrick A

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the signal processing algorithms that have been developed to process the signals acquired by a spherical microphone array. Spherical microphone arrays can be used to capture the sound field in three dimensions and have received significant interest from researchers and audio engineers. Algorithms for spherical array processing are different to corresponding algorithms already known in the literature of linear and planar arrays because the spherical geometry can be exploited to great beneficial effect. The authors aim to advance the field of spherical array processing by helping those new to the field to study it efficiently and from a single source, as well as by offering a way for more experienced researchers and engineers to consolidate their understanding, adding either or both of breadth and depth. The level of the presentation corresponds to graduate studies at MSc and PhD level. This book begins with a presentation of some of the essential mathematical and physical theory relevant to ...

  9. Non-Spherical Gravitational Collapse of Strange Quark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zade S S; Patil K D; Mulkalwar P N

    2008-01-01

    We study the non-spherical gravitational collapse of the strange quark null fluid.The interesting feature which emerges is that the non-spherical collapse of charged strange quark matter leads to a naked singularity whereas the gravitational collapse of neutral quark matter proceeds to form a black hole.We extend the earlier work of Harko and Cheng[Phys.Lett.A 266 (2000) 249]to the non-spherical case.

  10. On the phase diagram of non-spherical nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Wautelet, M; Hecq, M

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagram of nanoparticles is known to be a function of their size. In the literature, this is generally demonstrated for cases where their shape is spherical. Here, it is shown theoretically that the phase diagram of non-spherical particles may be calculated from the spherical case, at the same surface area/volume ratio, both with and without surface segregation, provided the surface tension is considered to be isotropic.

  11. Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senf, F.; Bijkerk, Frederik; Eggenstein, F.; Gwalt, G.; Huang, Qiushi; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Kutz, O.; Lemke, S.; Louis, Eric; Mertin, M.; Packe, I.; Rudolph, I.; Schafers, F.; Siewert, F.; Sokolov, A.; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Waberski, C.; Wang, Z.; Wolf, J.; Zeschke, T.; Erko, A.

    2016-01-01

    For photon energies of 1 – 5 keV, blazed gratings with multilayer coating are ideally suited for the suppression of stray and higher orders light in grating monochromators. We developed and characterized a blazed 2000 lines/mm grating coated with a 20 period Cr/C- multilayer. The multilayer

  12. Spherical proton emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, S.; Semmes, P.B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches to proton emission from spherical nuclei are investigated, and it is found that all the methods employed give very similar results. The calculated decay widths are found to be qualitatively insensitive to the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential, i.e., changing the potential parameters over a fairly large range typically changes the decay width by no more than a factor of ∼3. Proton half-lives of observed heavy proton emitters are, in general, well reproduced by spherical calculations with the spectroscopic factors calculated in the independent quasiparticle approximation. The quantitative agreement with experimental data obtained in our study requires that the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential be chosen carefully. It also suggests that deformed proton emitters will provide invaluable spectroscopic information on the angular momentum decomposition of single-proton orbitals in deformed nuclei. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Recent Progress on Spherical Torus Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masayuki [PPPL; Kaita, Robert [PPPL

    2014-01-01

    The spherical torus or spherical tokamak (ST) is a member of the tokamak family with its aspect ratio (A = R0/a) reduced to A ~ 1.5, well below the normal tokamak operating range of A ≥ 2.5. As the aspect ratio is reduced, the ideal tokamak beta β (radio of plasma to magnetic pressure) stability limit increases rapidly, approximately as β ~ 1/A. The plasma current it can sustain for a given edge safety factor q-95 also increases rapidly. Because of the above, as well as the natural elongation κ, which makes its plasma shape appear spherical, the ST configuration can yield exceptionally high tokamak performance in a compact geometry. Due to its compactness and high performance, the ST configuration has various near term applications, including a compact fusion neutron source with low tritium consumption, in addition to its longer term goal of attractive fusion energy power source. Since the start of the two megaampere class ST facilities in 2000, National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in the US and Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) in UK, active ST research has been conducted worldwide. More than sixteen ST research facilities operating during this period have achieved remarkable advances in all of fusion science areas, involving fundamental fusion energy science as well as innovation. These results suggest exciting future prospects for ST research both near term and longer term. The present paper reviews the scientific progress made by the worldwide ST research community during this new mega-ampere-ST era.

  14. Elastic interaction between surface and spherical pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, G.Z.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Kislitsyn, S.B.; Turkebaev, T.Eh.

    2000-01-01

    The energy of elastic interaction of a gas-filled spherical cavity with a boundary of an elastic isotropic half-space is determined. The elastic field of a system of a spherical cavity - boundary is represented as an expansion in series of potential functions. The factors of expansions are determined by boundary conditions on a free surface of an elastic half-space and on a spherical surface of a cavity with pressure of gas P. Function of a Tresca-Miesesa on a surface of elastic surface is defined additionally with purpose creep condition determination caused by gas pressure in the cavity. (author)

  15. Thermal stress prediction in mirror and multilayer coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianchao; Zhang, Lin; Morawe, Christian; Sanchez Del Rio, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Multilayer optics for X-rays typically consist of hundreds of periods of two types of alternating sub-layers which are coated on a silicon substrate. The thickness of the coating is well below 1 µm (tens or hundreds of nanometers). The high aspect ratio (∼10(7)) between the size of the optics and the thickness of the multilayer can lead to a huge number of elements (∼10(16)) for the numerical simulation (by finite-element analysis using ANSYS code). In this work, the finite-element model for thermal-structural analysis of multilayer optics has been implemented using the ANSYS layer-functioned elements. The number of meshed elements is considerably reduced and the number of sub-layers feasible for the present computers is increased significantly. Based on this technique, single-layer coated mirrors and multilayer monochromators cooled by water or liquid nitrogen are studied with typical parameters of heat-load, cooling and geometry. The effects of cooling-down of the optics and heating of the X-ray beam are described. It is shown that the influences from the coating on temperature and deformation are negligible. However, large stresses are induced in the layers due to the different thermal expansion coefficients between the layer and the substrate materials, which is the critical issue for the survival of the optics. This is particularly true for the liquid-nitrogen cooling condition. The material properties of thin multilayer films are applied in the simulation to predict the layer thermal stresses with more precision.

  16. Studies of spherical inertial-electrostatic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results from studies of Spherical Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (SIEC) are presented. This principle of IEC involves the confinement by multiple potential wells created by ion injection into a spherical device containing biased grids. A semitransparent cathode accelerates ions, generating a spherical ion-beam flow which converges at the center of the spherical volume, creating a space charge (potential well) region. An electron flow is created by the core (virtual anode) region, forming in turn a virtual cathode. Ions trapped inside this well oscillate back and forth until they fuse or degrade in energy. Such multiple wells with virtual anodes and cathodes, have been called ''Poissors'' following the original work by Farnsworth and by Hirsch. Fusion within the core occurs by reactions between non-Maxwellian beam-beam type ions. This has the potential for achieving a high power density and also for burning both D-T and advanced fuels. If successful, such a device would be attractive for a variety of high power density applications, e.g., space power or as a neutron source based on D-D or D-T operation. Simulations of recent SIEC experiments have been carried out using the XL-code, to solve Poisson's equation, self-consistently with the collisionless Vlasov equation in spherical geometry for several current species and grid parameters. The potential profile predictions are reasonably consistent with experimental results. Potential well measurements used a collimated proton detector. Results indicate that an ∼ 15-kV virtual anode, at least one centimeter in radius, was formed in a spherical device with a cathode potential of 30 kV using an ion current of ∼ 30 mA. Analysis indicates D + densities on the order of 10 9 cm -3 , and D 2 + densities on the order of 10 10 cm -3 . Steady-state D-D neutron emission of about 10 6 n/sec is observed

  17. Status and limitations of multilayer X-ray interference structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Trends in the performance of x-ray multilayer interference structures with periods ranging from 9 to 130 (angstrom) are reviewed. Analysis of near-normal incidence reflectance data vs photon energy reveals that the effective interface with σ in a static Debye-Waller model, describing interdiffusion and roughness, decreases as the multilayer period decreases, and reaches a lower limit of roughly 2 (angstrom). Specular reflectance and diffuse scattering from uncoated and multilayer-coated substrates having different roughness suggest that this lower limit results largely from substrate roughness. The increase in interface width with period thus results from increasing roughness of interdiffusion as the layer thickness increases

  18. Systematic Calibration for a Backpacked Spherical Photogrammetry Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, J. Y.; Su, B. W.; Hsiao, K. W.; Jhan, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    A spherical camera can observe the environment for almost 720 degrees' field of view in one shoot, which is useful for augmented reality, environment documentation, or mobile mapping applications. This paper aims to develop a spherical photogrammetry imaging system for the purpose of 3D measurement through a backpacked mobile mapping system (MMS). The used equipment contains a Ladybug-5 spherical camera, a tactical grade positioning and orientation system (POS), i.e. SPAN-CPT, and an odometer, etc. This research aims to directly apply photogrammetric space intersection technique for 3D mapping from a spherical image stereo-pair. For this purpose, several systematic calibration procedures are required, including lens distortion calibration, relative orientation calibration, boresight calibration for direct georeferencing, and spherical image calibration. The lens distortion is serious on the ladybug-5 camera's original 6 images. Meanwhile, for spherical image mosaicking from these original 6 images, we propose the use of their relative orientation and correct their lens distortion at the same time. However, the constructed spherical image still contains systematic error, which will reduce the 3D measurement accuracy. Later for direct georeferencing purpose, we need to establish a ground control field for boresight/lever-arm calibration. Then, we can apply the calibrated parameters to obtain the exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of all spherical images. In the end, the 3D positioning accuracy after space intersection will be evaluated, including EOPs obtained by structure from motion method.

  19. Technique for etching monolayer and multilayer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Conley, Raymond P.; Divan, Ralu; Macrander, Albert

    2015-10-06

    A process is disclosed for sectioning by etching of monolayers and multilayers using an RIE technique with fluorine-based chemistry. In one embodiment, the process uses Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) alone or in combination with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) using fluorine-based chemistry alone and using sufficient power to provide high ion energy to increase the etching rate and to obtain deeper anisotropic etching. In a second embodiment, a process is provided for sectioning of WSi.sub.2/Si multilayers using RIE in combination with ICP using a combination of fluorine-based and chlorine-based chemistries and using RF power and ICP power. According to the second embodiment, a high level of vertical anisotropy is achieved by a ratio of three gases; namely, CHF.sub.3, Cl.sub.2, and O.sub.2 with RF and ICP. Additionally, in conjunction with the second embodiment, a passivation layer can be formed on the surface of the multilayer which aids in anisotropic profile generation.

  20. Rocket flight of a multilayer coated high-density EUV toroidal grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A. M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Davila, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    A multilayer coated high density toroidal grating was flown on a sounding rocket experiment in the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) instrument. To our knowledge this is the first space flight of a multilayer coated grating. Pre-flight performance evaluation showed that the application of a 10-layer Ir/Si multilayer coating to the 3600 l/mm blazed toroidal replica grating produced a factor of 9 enhancement in peak efficiency near the design wavelength around 30 nm in first order over the standard gold coating, with a measured EUV efficiency that peaked at 3.3 percent. In addition, the grating's spectral resolution of better than 5000 was maintained. The region of enhanced grating efficiency due to the multilayer coating is clearly evident in the flight data. Within the bandpass of the multilayer coating, the recorded film densities were roughly equivalent to those obtained with a factor of six longer exposure on the previous flight of the SERTS instrument.

  1. Mathematical Formulation of Multilayer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Manlio; Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Cozzo, Emanuele; Kivelä, Mikko; Moreno, Yamir; Porter, Mason A.; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2013-10-01

    A network representation is useful for describing the structure of a large variety of complex systems. However, most real and engineered systems have multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and the data produced by such systems are very rich. Achieving a deep understanding of such systems necessitates generalizing “traditional” network theory, and the newfound deluge of data now makes it possible to test increasingly general frameworks for the study of networks. In particular, although adjacency matrices are useful to describe traditional single-layer networks, such a representation is insufficient for the analysis and description of multiplex and time-dependent networks. One must therefore develop a more general mathematical framework to cope with the challenges posed by multilayer complex systems. In this paper, we introduce a tensorial framework to study multilayer networks, and we discuss the generalization of several important network descriptors and dynamical processes—including degree centrality, clustering coefficients, eigenvector centrality, modularity, von Neumann entropy, and diffusion—for this framework. We examine the impact of different choices in constructing these generalizations, and we illustrate how to obtain known results for the special cases of single-layer and multiplex networks. Our tensorial approach will be helpful for tackling pressing problems in multilayer complex systems, such as inferring who is influencing whom (and by which media) in multichannel social networks and developing routing techniques for multimodal transportation systems.

  2. A novel multilayer model with controllable mechanical properties for magnesium-based bone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juncen; Huang, Wanru; Li, Qing; She, Zuxin; Chen, Funan; Li, Longqin

    2015-04-01

    Proper mechanical properties are essential for the clinical application of magnesium-based implants. In the present work, a novel multilayer model composed of three layers with desirable features was developed. The modulus of the multilayer model can be adjusted by changing the thickness of each layer. To combine three layers and improve the corrosion resistance of the whole multilayer model, the polycaprolactone coating was employed. In the immersion test, pH values, the concentration of released magnesium ions, and weight loss indicate that the corrosion rate of multilayer models is considerable lower than that of the one-layer bare substrate. The three-point bending test, which is used to examine models' mechanical properties, shows that the flexural modulus of multilayer models is reduced effectively. In addition, the mechanical degradation of multilayer models is more stable, compared to the one-layer substrate.

  3. The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Biancarosa, J.; Shen, Q.; Boas, L.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The NSLS-II(1) program has a requirement for an unprecedented level of x-ray nanofocusing and has selected the wedged multilayer Laue lens(2,3) (MLL) as the optic of choice to meet this goal. In order to fabricate the MLL a deposition system is required that is capable of depositing depth-graded and laterally-graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, with total film growth in one run up to 100 m thick or greater. This machine design expounds on the positive features of a rotary deposition system(4) constructed previously for MLLs and will contain multiple stationary, horizontally-oriented magnetron sources where a transport will move a substrate back and forth in a linear fashion over shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating.

  4. Electron with arbitrary pseudo-spins in multilayer graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Worasak Prarokijjak; Bumned Soodchomshom

    2015-01-01

    Using the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of the ABC-stacked multilayer graphene, the pseudo-spin coupling to real orbital angular momentum of electrons in multilayer graphene is investigated. We show that the electron wave function in N-layer graphene mimics the behavior of a particle with a spin of N × (}/2), where N={1, 2, 3, . . .}. It is said that for N>1 the low-energy effective Hamiltonian for ABC-stacked graphene cannot be used to describe pseudo-spin-1/2 particles. The wave function of electrons in multilayer graphene may behave like fermionic (or bosonic) particle for N being odd (or even). In this paper, we propose a theory of graphene serving as a host material of electrons with arbitrary pseudo-spins tunable by changing the number of graphene layers.

  5. Electron with arbitrary pseudo-spins in multilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prarokijjak Worasak; Soodchomshom Bumned

    2015-01-01

    Using the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of the ABC-stacked multilayer graphene, the pseudo-spin coupling to real orbital angular momentum of electrons in multilayer graphene is investigated. We show that the electron wave function in N-layer graphene mimics the behavior of a particle with a spin of N × (ħ/2), where N = {1, 2, 3,…}. It is said that for N > 1 the low-energy effective Hamiltonian for ABC-stacked graphene cannot be used to describe pseudo-spin-1/2 particles. The wave function of electrons in multilayer graphene may behave like fermionic (or bosonic) particle for N being odd (or even). In this paper, we propose a theory of graphene serving as a host material of electrons with arbitrary pseudo-spins tunable by changing the number of graphene layers. (paper)

  6. Multilayer network decoding versatility and trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Yadav, Alok; Jalan, Sarika

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the multilayer networks have increasingly been realized as a more realistic framework to understand emergent physical phenomena in complex real-world systems. We analyze massive time-varying social data drawn from the largest film industry of the world under a multilayer network framework. The framework enables us to evaluate the versatility of actors, which turns out to be an intrinsic property of lead actors. Versatility in dimers suggests that working with different types of nodes are more beneficial than with similar ones. However, the triangles yield a different relation between type of co-actor and the success of lead nodes indicating the importance of higher-order motifs in understanding the properties of the underlying system. Furthermore, despite the degree-degree correlations of entire networks being neutral, multilayering picks up different values of correlation indicating positive connotations like trust, in the recent years. The analysis of weak ties of the industry uncovers nodes from a lower-degree regime being important in linking Bollywood clusters. The framework and the tools used herein may be used for unraveling the complexity of other real-world systems.

  7. Spherical Dunkl-monogenics and a factorization of the Dunkl-Laplacian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Minggang; Cerejeiras, Paula; Kaehler, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider and study a factorization of the Dunkl-Laplacian in terms of spherical coordinates. This allows for the construction of a direct sum decomposition of spherical Dunkl-harmonics. By explicit representation in spherical coordinates of Dunkl-harmonics, one obtains explicit projection operators from Dunkl-harmonics to inner (resp. outer) Dunkl-monogenics. Concrete examples of spherical Dunkl-monogenics will be given at the end.

  8. Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhanshan; Cheng Xinbin; Zhu Jingtao; Huang Qiushi; Zhang Zhong; Chen Lingyan

    2011-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization of aperiodic tungsten/carbon (W/C) multi-layer mirror were studied. W/C multi-layer was designed as a broad-angle reflective supermirror for Cu-Kα line (λ = 0.154 nm) in the grazing incident angular range (0.9-1.1 deg.) using simulated annealing algorithm. To deposit the W/C depth-graded multi-layer mirror accurately, we introduce an effective layer growth rate as a function of layer thickness. This method greatly improves the reflectivity curve compared to the conventional multi-layer mirror prepared with constant growth rate. The deposited multi-layer mirror exhibits an average reflectivity of 19% over the grazing incident angle range of 0.88-1.08 deg. which mainly coincides with the designed value. Furthermore, the physical mechanisms were discussed and the re-sputtering process of light-atom layers is accounted for the modification of layer thicknesses which leads to the effective growth rates. Using this calibration method, the aperiodic multi-layer mirrors can be better fabricated for X-ray optics.

  9. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  10. Exchange interactions in Fe/Y multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkabil, R.; Elkaidi, I.; Annouar, F.; Lassri, H.; Hamdoun, A.; Bensassi, B.; Berrada, A.; Krishnan, R.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetization of Fe/Y multilayers has been measured as a function of temperature. A bulk-like T 3/2 temperature dependence of the magnetization is observed for all multilayers in the temperature range 5-300 K. The spin-wave constant B is found to decrease inversely with t Fe . A simple theoretical model with exchange interactions only, and with non-interacting magnons, has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetization and the approximate values for the bulk exchange interaction J b , surface exchange interaction J s and the interlayer exchange interaction J I for various Fe layer thicknesses have been obtained

  11. Domain structures and magnetization reversal in Co/Pd and CoFeB/Pd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbiaa, R., E-mail: rachid@squ.edu.om [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123 (Oman); Ranjbar, M. [Physics Department, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åkerman, J. [Physics Department, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-05-07

    Domain structures and magnetization reversal of (Co/Pd) and (CoFeB/Pd) multilayers with 7 and 14 repeats were investigated. The Co-based multilayers show much larger coercivities, a better squareness, and a sharper magnetization switching than CoFeB-based multilayers. From magnetic force microscopy observations, both structures show strong reduction in domains size as the number of repeats increases but the magnetic domains for Co-based multilayers are more than one order of magnitude larger than for CoFeB-based multilayers. By imaging domains at different times, breaks in the (CoFeB/Pd) multilayer stripes were observed within only few hours, while no change could be seen for (Co/Pd) multilayers. Although CoFeB single layers are suitable for magnetoresistive devices due to their large spin polarization and low damping constants, their lamination with Pd suffers mainly from thermal instability.

  12. Preparation of spherical particles by vibrating orifice technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Shuichi; Tomizawa, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Hidemi; Yano, Tetsuji; Yamane, Masayuki

    2000-05-01

    Preparation of micrometer-sized spherical particles containing Rhodamine 6G (R6G) has been investigated for the spherical cavity micro-laser. Using phenyl triethoxy silane (PTES) as a starting material, R6G-doped monodisperse spherical particles were prepared by the vibrating orifice technique. Processing consists of two major processes: (1) Hydrolysis and polymerization of PTES and (2) Droplet formation from PTES oligomers by vibrating orifice technique. A cylindrical liquid jet passing through the orifice of 10 and 20 micrometers in diameter breaks up into equal- sized droplets by mechanical vibration. Alcohol solvent of these droplets was evaporated during flying with carrier gas and subsequently solidified in ammonium water trap. For making smooth surface and god shaped particles, control of molecular weight of PTES oligomer was essential. R6G-doped hybrid spherical particles of 4 to 10 micrometers size of cavity structure were successfully obtained. The spherical particles were pumped by a second harmonic pulse of Q- switched Nd:YAG laser and laser emission peaks were observed at wavelengths which correspond to the resonance modes.

  13. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y.; Ishii, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogeniz......Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any...

  14. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  15. Docetaxel-loaded multilayer nanoparticles with nanodroplets for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh KS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Keun Sang Oh,1,* Kyungim Kim,1,* Byeong Deok Yoon,1 Hye Jin Lee,1 Dal Yong Park,1 Eun-yeong Kim,1 Kiho Lee,1 Jae Hong Seo,2 Soon Hong Yuk1,2 1College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong, 2Biomedical Research Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Guro-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A mixture of docetaxel (DTX and Solutol® HS 15 (Solutol transiently formed nanodroplets when it was suspended in an aqueous medium. However, nanodroplets that comprised DTX and Solutol showed a rapid precipitation of DTX because of their unstable characteristics in the aqueous medium. The incorporation of nanodroplets that comprised DTX and Solutol through vesicle fusion and subsequent stabilization was designed to prepare multilayer nanoparticles (NPs with a DTX-loaded Solutol nanodroplet (as template NPs core for an efficient delivery of DTX as a chemotherapeutic drug. As a result, the DTX-loaded Solutol nanodroplets (~11.7 nm were observed to have an increased average diameter (from 11.7 nm to 156.1 nm and a good stability of the hydrated NPs without precipitation of DTX by vesicle fusion and multilayered structure, respectively. Also, a long circulation of the multilayer NPs was observed, and this was due to the presence of Pluronic F-68 on the surface of the multilayer NPs. This led to an improved antitumor efficacy based on the enhanced permeation and retention effect. Therefore, this study indicated that the multilayer NPs have a considerable potential as a drug delivery system with an enhanced therapeutic efficacy by blood circulation and with low side effects. Keywords: multilayer nanoparticles, Solutol, Pluronic F-68, docetaxel, cancer therapy

  16. Multilayer mirrors as power filters in insertion device beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.; DiGennaro, R.S.

    1988-08-01

    The power-filtering capabilities of multilayer band-pass x-ray mirrors relative to total reflection low-pass mirrors is presented. Results are based on calculations assuming proposed wiggler sources on the upcoming generation of low energy (1.5 GeV) and high energy (7.0 GeV) synchrotron radiation sources. Results show that multilayers out-perform total reflection mirrors in terms of reduction in reflected power by roughly an order of magnitude, with relatively small increases in total absorbed power and power density over total reflection mirrors, and with comparable reflected flux values. Various aspects of this potential application of multilayer x-ray optics are discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Anomalously Weak Scattering in Metal-Semiconductor Multilayer Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Shen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to strong plasmonic scattering from metal particles or structures in metal films, we show that patterns of arbitrary shape fabricated out of multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials become invisible within a chosen band of optical frequencies. This is due to anomalously weak scattering when the in-plane permittivity of the multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials is tuned to match with the surrounding medium. This new phenomenon is described theoretically and demonstrated experimentally by optical characterization of various patterns in Au-Si multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials. This anomalously weak scattering is insensitive to pattern sizes, shapes, and incident angles, and has potential applications in scattering cross-section engineering, optical encryption, low-observable conductive probes, and optoelectric devices.

  18. Tunable Multilayer Graphene Metamaterials for Terahertz/Infrared Waveguide Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, Irina; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    regimes of multilayer graphene-dielectric artificial metamaterials. The interplay between interband and intraband transitions in graphene allows converting the structure into a transparent and/or electromagnetically dense artificial medium. The gate voltage can be used to electrically control...... the concentration of carriers in the graphene sheets and, thus, efficiently change the dispersion of the whole structure. Placed inside a hollow waveguide, a multilayer graphene/dielectric metamaterial provides high-speed modulation and tunable bandpass filtering. The absence of scattered radiation enables dense...... the latter to shift its central frequency by 1:25% per every meV graphene Fermi energy change. We believe that graphene-dielectric multilayer metamaterials will constitute the functional platform for THz-IR waveguide-integrated devices....

  19. Effects of x-ray and neutron irradiation on spherical colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramaki, Ryoji

    1980-01-01

    Responses of in vitro cultured mammalian cells in spherical colonies to 200 kVp x-rays and D-T neutrons were studied using reproductive capacity as a criterion for survival. Cell lines used were FM3A, L5 and Chinese hamster V79. The spherical colonies exposed to x-rays exhibited two-component survival curves. All cells used were more radio-resistant in spherical colonies than in single cell suspensions. It was suggested that this difference in response was attributable to the presence of hypoxic cells in spherical colonies. Dose-modifying Factor (DMF), the ratios of D 0 of the second slopes of the curves for spherical colonies to those for single cells, were 1.6 for FM3A, 1.8 for L5, and 1.7 for Chinese hamster V79. The hypoxic cell fractions in spherical colonies for FM3A, L5, and Chinese hamster V79, were 0.1, 0.6 and 0.4, respectively, resulting in variations in cell survival in spherical colonies following x-radiation. No significant difference was observed between responses of spherical colonies and single cell suspensions to D-T neutrons. FM3A and Chinese hamster V79 showed two-component survival curves when irradiated with neutrons at 37 0 C, but not at 25 0 C. The repair of potentially lethal and sub-lethal damage was also investigated using FM3A in spherical colonies. No detectable repair of potentially lethal damage was observed for x-rays and D-T neutrons. The effect of neutron fractionation was considerably smaller for spherical colonies as compared to single cells. (author)

  20. Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

  1. Multilayer tape cast SOFC – Effect of anode sintering temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Birkl, Christoph; Brodersen, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Multilayer tape casting (MTC) is considered a promising, cost-efficient, up-scalable shaping process for production of planar anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Multilayer tape casting of the three layers comprising the half cell (anode support/active anode/electrolyte) can potentially...

  2. Spherical convolutions and their application in molecular modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter; Frellsen, Jes

    2017-01-01

    Convolutional neural networks are increasingly used outside the domain of image analysis, in particular in various areas of the natural sciences concerned with spatial data. Such networks often work out-of-the box, and in some cases entire model architectures from image analysis can be carried over...... to other problem domains almost unaltered. Unfortunately, this convenience does not trivially extend to data in non-euclidean spaces, such as spherical data. In this paper, we introduce two strategies for conducting convolutions on the sphere, using either a spherical-polar grid or a grid based...... of spherical convolutions in the context of molecular modelling, by considering structural environments within proteins. We show that the models are capable of learning non-trivial functions in these molecular environments, and that our spherical convolutions generally outperform standard 3D convolutions...

  3. Boundary element method in dynamic interaction of structures with multilayers media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, N.; Poterasu, V.F.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the problems of dynamic interaction between the multilayers media and structure by means of B.E.M., using Green's functions. The structure considered by the authors as a particular problem concerns a reinforced concrete shear wall and soil foundation of three layers having different thickness and mechanical characteristics. The authors will present comparatively the stresses and the displacements in static and dynamic regime interaction response of the structure. Theoretical part of the paper presents: Green's functions for the multilayers media in dynamic regime, stiffness matrices, stresses and displacements in the multilayers media exprimed by means of the Green's functions induced by the shear and horizontal forces, computer program, consideration for dynamic, structure-foundation-multilayers soil foundation interaction. (author)

  4. Watermarking on 3D mesh based on spherical wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Qiu; Dai, Min-Ya; Bao, Hu-Jun; Peng, Qun-Sheng

    2004-03-01

    In this paper we propose a robust watermarking algorithm for 3D mesh. The algorithm is based on spherical wavelet transform. Our basic idea is to decompose the original mesh into a series of details at different scales by using spherical wavelet transform; the watermark is then embedded into the different levels of details. The embedding process includes: global sphere parameterization, spherical uniform sampling, spherical wavelet forward transform, embedding watermark, spherical wavelet inverse transform, and at last resampling the mesh watermarked to recover the topological connectivity of the original model. Experiments showed that our algorithm can improve the capacity of the watermark and the robustness of watermarking against attacks.

  5. Multivalent-Counterion-Induced Surfactant Multilayer Formation at Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Solid-Solution Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun; Xu, Hui; Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Sivia, Devinderjit S

    2015-06-23

    Surface multilayer formation from the anionic-nonionic surfactant mixture of sodium dodecyl dioxyethylene sulfate, SLES, and monododecyl dodecaethylene glycol, C12E12, by the addition of multivalent Al(3+) counterions at the solid-solution interface is observed and characterized by neutron reflectivity, NR. The ability to form surface multilayer structures on hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica and cellulose surfaces is demonstrated. The surface multilayer formation is more pronounced and more well developed on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica surfaces than on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic cellulose surfaces. The less well developed multilayer formation on the cellulose surfaces is attributed to the greater surface inhomogeneities of the cellulose surface which partially inhibit lateral coherence and growth of the multilayer domains at the surface. The surface multilayer formation is associated with extreme wetting properties and offers the potential for the manipulation of the solid surfaces for enhanced adsorption and control of the wetting behavior.

  6. Domain wall theory and exchange stiffness in Co/Pd multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambersky, V.; Kambersky, V.; de Haan, P.; Simsova, J.; Porthun, S.; Porthun, S.; Gemperle, R.; Lodder, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The stripe model of domain structure in multilayers is studied by micromagnetic simulation. The results indicate a strong reduction of the effective domain wall energy (by dipolar effects). Domain width measurements on sputtered Co/Pd multilayers are compared with the theory. The estimated exchange

  7. Durable Corrosion Resistance of Copper Due to Multi-Layer Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Tiwari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-thin graphene coating has been reported to provide considerable resistance against corrosion during short-term exposures, however, there is great variability in the corrosion resistance due to graphene coating in different studies. It may be possible to overcome the problem of hampered corrosion protection ability of graphene that is caused due to defective single layer graphene by applying multilayer graphene. Systematic electrochemical characterization showed that the multilayer graphene coating developed in the study provided significant corrosion resistance in a chloride solution and the corrosion resistance was sustained for long durations (~400 h, which is attributed to the multilayer graphene.

  8. Characterization of multilayer nitride coatings by electron microscopy and modulus mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemmasani, Sai Pramod; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V.; Ramakrishna, M.; Valleti, Krishna; Gundakaram, Ravi C.; Joshi, Shrikant V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses multi-scale characterization of physical vapour deposited multilayer nitride coatings using a combination of electron microscopy and modulus mapping. Multilayer coatings with a triple layer structure based on TiAlN and nanocomposite nitrides with a nano-multilayered architecture were deposited by Cathodic arc deposition and detailed microstructural studies were carried out employing Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Electron Backscattered Diffraction, Focused Ion Beam and Cross sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy in order to identify the different phases and to study microstructural features of the various layers formed as a result of the deposition process. Modulus mapping was also performed to study the effect of varying composition on the moduli of the nano-multilayers within the triple layer coating by using a Scanning Probe Microscopy based technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt on modulus mapping of cathodic arc deposited nitride multilayer coatings. This work demonstrates the application of Scanning Probe Microscopy based modulus mapping and electron microscopy for the study of coating properties and their relation to composition and microstructure. - Highlights: • Microstructure of a triple layer nitride coating studied at multiple length scales. • Phases identified by EDS, EBSD and SAED (TEM). • Nanolayered, nanocomposite structure of the coating studied using FIB and TEM. • Modulus mapping identified moduli variation even in a nani-multilayer architecture

  9. Ring-dot-shaped multilayer piezoelectric step-down transformers using PZT-based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Insung; Joo, Hyeonkyu; Song, Jaesung; Jeong, Soonjong; Kim, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, multilayer piezo stack transformers for switching mode power supply (SMPS) application were manufactured using 0.01Pb(Ni 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 - 0.08Pb(Mn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 - 0.91Pb(Zr 0.505 Ti 0.495 )O 3 (PNN-PMN-PZT) ceramics. The voltage ratio of a multilayer piezo stack transformer showed a maximum at the resonance frequency of the input and then increased with increasing load resistance. The efficiency of the multilayer piezo stack transformer showed its highest value at around the matching load. The output power increased with increasing input voltage. The temperature of the multilayer piezo stack transformer increased with increasing output power and load resistance. The manufactured multilayer piezo stack transformer could be used up to 5 W at a resonance frequency of 70.25 kHz for SMPS application because the temperature rise from room temperature is believed to about 20 .deg. C and because the transformer is electrically stable. The newly-developed ring-dot-type step-down multilayer piezo stack transformer shows possible applications as SMPS for electronic power sources with excellent input-to-output properties.

  10. High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x  nm wavelength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Yakshin, Andrey; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    We report a hybrid thin-film deposition procedure to significantly enhance the reflectivity of La/B-based multilayer structures. This is of relevance for applications of multilayer optics at 6.7-nm wavelength and beyond. Such multilayers showed a reflectance of 64.1% at 6.65 nm measured at

  11. Electromagnetic cloaking in higher order spherical cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhwa, H. H.; Aiyar, R. P. R. C.; Kulkarni, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    The inception of transformation optics has led to the realisation of the invisibility devices for various applications, one of which is spherical cloaking. In this paper, a formulation for a higher-order spherical cloak has been proposed to reduce its physical thickness significantly by introducing a nonlinear relation between the original and transformed coordinate systems and it has been verified using the ray tracing approach. Analysis has been carried out to observe the anomalies in the variation of refractive index for higher order cloaks indicating the presence of poles in the relevant equations. Furthermore, a higher-order spherical cloak with predefined values of the material characteristics on its inner and outer surfaces has been designed for practical application.

  12. Fabrication of anticorrosive multilayer onto magnesium alloy substrates via spin-assisted layer-by-layer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Kaiyong, E-mail: Kaiyong_cai@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Sui Xiaojing; Hu Yan [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhao Li [China National Centre for Biotechnology Development, No. 16, Xi Si Huan Zhong Lu, Haidian District, Beijing 100036 (China); Lai Min; Luo Zhong; Liu Peng; Yang Weihu [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2011-12-01

    To improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy, we reported a novel approach for the fabrication of anticorrosive multilayers onto AZ91D substrates. The multilayers were composed of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ). They were deposited onto AZ91D substrates via a spin-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The multilayered structure was stabilized with glutaraldehyde (GA) as crossing linker. It was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Surface morphologies and elemental compositions of the formed anticorrosive multilayers were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The corrosion performance of the multilayer coated AZ91D substrates was characterized by hydrogen evolution. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements suggested that the multilayered coating improved the corrosion resistance of AZ91D substrates. In vitro study revealed that the multilayered coating was cytocompatible. The study provides a potential alternative for the fabrication of corrosion resistant magnesium alloy-based implants. Highlights: {yields} Corrosion protective multilayers have been constructed onto AZ91D substrates via layer by layer technique. {yields} The multilayered structured containing 8-hydroxyquinoline highly improves the corrosion resistance of AZ91D substrates. {yields} The novel multilayered coating is potentially important for developing corrosion resistant magnesium alloy-based implants.

  13. Fabrication of anticorrosive multilayer onto magnesium alloy substrates via spin-assisted layer-by-layer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Kaiyong; Sui Xiaojing; Hu Yan; Zhao Li; Lai Min; Luo Zhong; Liu Peng; Yang Weihu

    2011-01-01

    To improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy, we reported a novel approach for the fabrication of anticorrosive multilayers onto AZ91D substrates. The multilayers were composed of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ). They were deposited onto AZ91D substrates via a spin-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The multilayered structure was stabilized with glutaraldehyde (GA) as crossing linker. It was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Surface morphologies and elemental compositions of the formed anticorrosive multilayers were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The corrosion performance of the multilayer coated AZ91D substrates was characterized by hydrogen evolution. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements suggested that the multilayered coating improved the corrosion resistance of AZ91D substrates. In vitro study revealed that the multilayered coating was cytocompatible. The study provides a potential alternative for the fabrication of corrosion resistant magnesium alloy-based implants. Highlights: → Corrosion protective multilayers have been constructed onto AZ91D substrates via layer by layer technique. → The multilayered structured containing 8-hydroxyquinoline highly improves the corrosion resistance of AZ91D substrates. → The novel multilayered coating is potentially important for developing corrosion resistant magnesium alloy-based implants.

  14. Investigation of CoFeV/TiZr multilayer by polarized neutron reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Li Xinxi; Huang Chaoqiang

    2007-06-01

    The interracial structures of CoFeV/TiZr multilayer play an important role in performance of polarizing supermirrors. Aiming to requirement, CoFeV/ TiZr layered samples with different structures were prepared. Specular reflection of polarized neutrons was employed to study the depth profile of scattering length, density, thickness and roughness of CoFeV/TiZr multilayer and magnetically dead layers. The result shows that the roughness in CoFeV/ TiZr multilayer can be described with roughness increase law and the thickness of magnetically dead layers is about 0.5 nm. The producing technology of the multilayer reaches the requirements. (authors)

  15. Spherical Nb single crystals containerlessly grown by electrostatic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Y.S.; Takeya, H.; Hirata, K.; Togano, K.

    2003-01-01

    Spherical Nb (T m =2750 K) single crystals were grown via containerless electrostatic levitation (ESL). Samples became spherical at melting in levitation and undercooled typically 300-450 K prior to nucleation. As-processed samples were still spherical without any macroscopic shape change by solidification showing a uniform dendritic surface morphology. Crystallographic {111} planes exposed in equilateral triangular shapes on the surface by preferential macroetching and spotty back-reflection Laue patterns confirm the single crystal nature of the ESL-processed Nb samples. No hysteresis in magnetization between zero field and field cooling also implies a clean defect-free condition of the spherical Nb single crystals

  16. Effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in atmospheric turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xiaoling; Deng, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in weak, moderate and strong turbulence is studied using numerical simulation method. It is found that the effect of the negative spherical aberration on the on-axis scintillation index is quite different from that of the positive spherical aberration. In weak turbulence, the positive spherical aberration results in a decrease of the on-axis scintillation index on propagation, but the negative spherical aberration results in an increase of the on-axis scintillation index when the propagation distance is not large. In particular, in weak turbulence the negative spherical aberration may cause peaks of the on-axis scintillation index, and the peaks disappear in moderate and strong turbulence, which is explained in physics. The strong turbulence leads to less discrepancy among scintillations of Gaussian beams with and without spherical aberration. - Highlights: • In weak turbulence scintillations can be suppressed using positive spherical aberration. • In weak turbulence scintillations may be very large due to negative spherical aberration. • The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations is less with increasing of turbulence

  17. Effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Xiaoling, E-mail: jiXL100@163.com; Deng, Jinping

    2014-07-18

    The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in weak, moderate and strong turbulence is studied using numerical simulation method. It is found that the effect of the negative spherical aberration on the on-axis scintillation index is quite different from that of the positive spherical aberration. In weak turbulence, the positive spherical aberration results in a decrease of the on-axis scintillation index on propagation, but the negative spherical aberration results in an increase of the on-axis scintillation index when the propagation distance is not large. In particular, in weak turbulence the negative spherical aberration may cause peaks of the on-axis scintillation index, and the peaks disappear in moderate and strong turbulence, which is explained in physics. The strong turbulence leads to less discrepancy among scintillations of Gaussian beams with and without spherical aberration. - Highlights: • In weak turbulence scintillations can be suppressed using positive spherical aberration. • In weak turbulence scintillations may be very large due to negative spherical aberration. • The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations is less with increasing of turbulence.

  18. Spherical near-field scanning at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. E.; Jensen, F.

    1988-01-01

    The early work (1969-79) on spherical near-field antenna measurements at the Technical University of Denmark (TUD) is outlined. A spherical near-field transmission formula is described and the first probe-corrected spherical near-field measurements are discussed. The TUD-ESA (European Space Agency...

  19. Degradation of periodic multilayers as seen by small-angle x-ray scattering and x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaja, D; Simek, D; Zdeborova, L; Valvoda, V

    2002-01-01

    The capabilities of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle x-ray diffraction (XRD) to recognize structural changes in periodic multilayers were compared on Fe/Au multilayers with different degrees of structural degradation. Experimental results have shown that both methods are equally sensitive to the multilayer degradation, i.e., to the occurrence of non-continuous interfaces, to short-circuits in the multilayer structure and to the multilayer precipitation. XRD yielded additional information on the multilayer crystallinity, whilst SAXS could better recognize fragments of a long-range periodicity (remnants of the original multilayer structure). Changes in the multilayer structure were initiated by successive annealing at 200 and 300 deg. C. Experimental data were complemented by numerical simulations performed using a combination of optical theory and the distorted wave Born approximation for SAXS or the kinematical Born approximation for XRD.

  20. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels Vinther; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry....... Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer...... DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology....

  1. Multilayer DNA origami packed on hexagonal and hybrid lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V; Gothelf, Kurt V; Shih, William M

    2012-01-25

    "Scaffolded DNA origami" has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Nanolaminated TiN/Mo2N hard multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martev, I N; Dechev, D A; Ivanov, N P; Uzunov, T S D; Kashchieva, E P

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results on the synthesis of hard multilayer coatings consisting of titanium nitride and molybdenum nitride thin films with thickness of several nm. The TiN and Mo 2 N films were successively deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. These multilayer structures were investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cross-section scanning electron microscopy (CSSEM) and cross-section electron probe microanalysis (CSEPMA). The mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings, namely, hardness, Young's modulus and the coefficient of plastic deformation were measured. The adhesion was evaluated by the Rockwell-C-impact test. Coatings with different total thickness were examined with respect to adhesion to substrates of tool materials.

  3. Multilayer modal actuator-based piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Tien; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2007-02-01

    An innovative, multilayer piezoelectric transformer equipped with a full modal filtering input electrode is reported herein. This modal-shaped electrode, based on the orthogonal property of structural vibration modes, is characterized by full modal filtering to ensure that only the desired vibration mode is excited during operation. The newly developed piezoelectric transformer is comprised of three layers: a multilayered input layer, an insulation layer, and a single output layer. The electrode shape of the input layer is derived from its structural vibration modal shape, which takes advantage of the orthogonal property of the vibration modes to achieve a full modal filtering effect. The insulation layer possesses two functions: first, to couple the mechanical vibration energy between the input and output, and second, to provide electrical insulation between the two layers. To meet the two functions, a low temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) was used to provide the high mechanical rigidity and high electrical insulation. It can be shown that this newly developed piezoelectric transformer has the advantage of possessing a more efficient energy transfer and a wider optimal working frequency range when compared to traditional piezoelectric transformers. A multilayer piezoelectric, transformer-based inverter applicable for use in LCD monitors or portable displays is presented as well.

  4. Multilayer Relaxation and Surface Energies of Metallic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Rodriguez, Agustin M.; Ferrante, John

    1994-01-01

    The perpendicular and parallel multilayer relaxations of fcc (210) surfaces are studied using equivalent crystal theory (ECT). A comparison with experimental and theoretical results is made for AI(210). The effect of uncertainties in the input parameters on the magnitudes and ordering of surface relaxations for this semiempirical method is estimated. A new measure of surface roughness is proposed. Predictions for the multilayer relaxations and surface energies of the (210) face of Cu and Ni are also included.

  5. Anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity in multilayer silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Shi-You; Xiang, Hong-Jun; Gong, Xin-Gao

    2018-06-01

    We systematically study thermal conductivity of multilayer silicene by means of Boltzmann Transportation Equation (BTE) method. We find that their thermal conductivity strongly depends on the surface structures. Thermal conductivity of bilayer silicene varies from 3.31 W/mK to 57.9 W/mK with different surface structures. Also, the 2 × 1 surface reconstruction induces unusual large thermal conductivity anisotropy, which reaches 70% in a four-layer silicene. We also find that the anisotropy decreases with silicene thickness increasing, owing to the significant reduction of thermal conductivity in the zigzag direction and its slight increment in the armchair direction. Finally, we find that both the phonon-lifetime anisotropy and the phonon-group-velocity anisotropy contribute to the thermal conductivity anisotropy of multilayer silicene. These findings could be helpful in the field of heat management, thermoelectric applications involving silicene and other multilayer nanomaterials with surface reconstructions in the future.

  6. Optimisation of multi-layer rotationally moulded foamed structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, A. J.; McCourt, M. P.; Kearns, M. P.; Martin, P. J.; Cunningham, E.

    2018-05-01

    Multi-layer skin-foam and skin-foam-skin sandwich constructions are of increasing interest in the rotational moulding process for two reasons. Firstly, multi-layer constructions can improve the thermal insulation properties of a part. Secondly, foamed polyethylene sandwiched between solid polyethylene skins can increase the mechanical properties of rotationally moulded structural components, in particular increasing flexural properties and impact strength (IS). The processing of multiple layers of polyethylene and polyethylene foam presents unique challenges such as the control of chemical blowing agent decomposition temperature, and the optimisation of cooling rates to prevent destruction of the foam core; therefore, precise temperature control is paramount to success. Long cooling cycle times are associated with the creation of multi-layer foam parts due to their insulative nature; consequently, often making the costs of production prohibitive. Devices such as Rotocooler®, a rapid internal mould water spray cooling system, have been shown to have the potential to significantly decrease cooling times in rotational moulding. It is essential to monitor and control such devices to minimise the warpage associated with the rapid cooling of a moulding from only one side. The work presented here demonstrates the use of threaded thermocouples to monitor the polymer melt in multi-layer sandwich constructions, in order to analyse the cooling cycle of multi-layer foamed structures. A series of polyethylene skin-foam test mouldings were produced, and the effect of cooling medium on foam characteristics, mechanical properties, and process cycle time were investigated. Cooling cycle time reductions of 45%, 26%, and 29% were found for increasing (1%, 2%, and 3%) chemical blowing agent (CBA) amount when using internal water cooling technology from ˜123°C compared with forced air cooling (FAC). Subsequently, a reduction of IS for the same skin-foam parts was found to be 1%, 4

  7. Spherical subsystem of galactic radiosources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, A G; Popov, M V [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Gosudarstvennyj Astronomicheskij Inst. ' ' GAISh' '

    1975-05-01

    The concentration of statistically complete sampling radiosources of the Ohiof scanning with plane spectra towards the Galaxy centre has been discovered. Quantitative calculations have showed that the sources form a spheric subsystem, which is close in parameters to such old formations in the Galaxy as globular clusters and the RRLsub(YR) type stars. The luminosity of the galaxy spheric subsystem object equals 10/sup 33/ erg/sec, the total number of objects being 7000. The existence of such a subsystem explains s the anomalously by low incline of statistics lgN-lgS in HF scanning PKS (..gamma..-2700Mgz) and the Michigan University scanning (..gamma..=8000Mgz) because the sources of galaxy spheric subsystem make up a considerable share in the total number of sources, especially at high frequencies (50% of sources with a flux greater than a unit of flux per 8000Mgz). It is very probable that the given subsystem consists of the representatives of one of the following class of objects: a) heat sources - the H2H regions with T=10/sup 40/K, Nsub(e)=10/sup 3/, l=1 ps b) supermass black holes with mass M/Mo approximately 10/sup 5/.

  8. High proton conductivity in the molecular interlayer of a polymer nanosheet multilayer film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuma; Hayasaka, Yuta; Mitsuishi, Masaya; Miyashita, Tokuji; Nagano, Shusaku; Matsui, Jun

    2015-05-12

    High proton conductivity was achieved in a polymer multilayer film with a well-defined two-dimensional lamella structure. The multilayer film was prepared by deposition of poly(N-dodecylacryamide-co-acrylic acid) (p(DDA/AA)) monolayers onto a solid substrate using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Grazing-angle incidence X-ray diffraction measurement of a 30-layer film of p(DDA/AA) showed strong diffraction peaks in the out-of-plane direction at 2θ = 2.26° and 4.50°, revealing that the multilayer film had a highly uniform layered structure with a monolayer thickness of 2.0 nm. The proton conductivity of the p(DDA/AA) multilayer film parallel to the layer plane direction was 0.051 S/cm at 60 °C and 98% relative humidity with a low activation energy of 0.35 eV, which is comparable to perfluorosulfonic acid membranes. The high conductivity and low activation energy resulted from the formation of uniform two-dimensional proton-conductive nanochannels in the hydrophilic regions of the multilayer film. The proton conductivity of the multilayer film perpendicular to the layer plane was determined to be 2.1 × 10(-13) S/cm. Therefore, the multilayer film showed large anisotropic conductivity with an anisotropic ratio of 2.4 × 10(11).

  9. Handling magnetic anisotropy and magnetoimpedance effect in flexible multilayers under external stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agra, K.; Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Mori, T.J.A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 1000, Guará, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Callegari, G.L.; Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Correa, M.A., E-mail: marciocorrea@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We investigate the dynamic magnetic response though magnetoimpedance effect of ferromagnetic flexible NiFe/Ta and FeCuNbSiB/Ta multilayers under external stress. We explore the possibility of handling magnetic anisotropy, and consequently the magnetoimpedance effect, of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates. We quantify the sensitivity of the multilayers under external stress by calculating the ratio between impedance variations and external stress changes, and show that considerable values can be reached by tuning the magnetic field, frequency, magnetostriction constant, and external stress. The results extend possibilities of application of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates when under external stress and place them as very attractive candidates as element sensor for the development of sensitive smart touch sensors. - Highlights: • We investigate the magnetoimpedance effect in magnetostrictive flexible multilayers grown on flexible substrates. • The external applied stress enables to tuning the samples anisotropies, and consequently the MI performance. • The flexible substrate becomes promising candidate for RF-frequency devices.

  10. Electromechanical field effect transistors based on multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Z.T., E-mail: jiangzhaotan@hotmail.com; Lv, Z.T.; Zhang, X.D.

    2017-06-21

    Based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian approach, we demonstrate that the electromechanical field effect transistors (FETs) can be realized by using the multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs). The synergistic combination of the electric field and the external strains can establish the on–off switching since the electric field can shift or split the energy band, and the mechanical strains can widen or narrow the band widths. This kind of multilayer PNR FETs, much solider than the monolayer PNR one and more easily biased by different electric fields, has more transport channels consequently leading to the higher on–off current ratio or the higher sensitivity to the electric fields. Meanwhile, the strain-induced band-flattening will be beneficial for improving the flexibility in designing the electromechanical FETs. In addition, such electromechanical FETs can act as strain-controlled FETs or mechanical detectors for detecting the strains, indicating their potential applications in nano- and micro-electromechanical fields. - Highlights: • Electromechanical transistors are designed with multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons. • Electromechanical synergistic effect can establish the on–off switching more flexibly. • Multilayer transistors, solider and more easily biased, has more transport channels. • Electromechanical transistors can act as strain-controlled transistors or mechanical detectors.

  11. X-ray grazing incidence diffraction from multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, S.; Boeni, P.; Swygenhoven, H. van; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Grazing incidence scattering geometries using synchrotron radiation have been applied in order to characterise the roughness profiles and the structural coherence of multilayers. The lateral correlation length of the roughness profiles was evaluated using diffuse reflectivity in the `out of plane` geometry. This type of measurement is the only diffuse reflectivity technique allowing large lateral momentum transfer. It is typically suitable for correlation lengths smaller than 1000 A. The lateral structural coherence length of Ni{sub 3}Al/Ni multilayers as a function of the layer thickness was obtained by grazing incidence diffraction (GID). 3 figs., 1 ref.

  12. Rapid Prototyping of Electrically Small Spherical Wire Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2014-01-01

    It is shown how modern rapid prototyping technologies can be applied for quick and inexpensive, but still accurate, fabrication of electrically small wire antennas. A well known folded spherical helix antenna and a novel spherical zigzag antenna have been fabricated and tested, exhibiting...

  13. Equilibrium spherically curved two-dimensional Lennard-Jones systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, J.M.; Sloot, P.M.A.; van Dantzig, R.

    2005-01-01

    To learn about basic aspects of nano-scale spherical molecular shells during their formation, spherically curved two-dimensional N-particle Lennard-Jones systems are simulated, studying curvature evolution paths at zero-temperature. For many N-values (N < 800) equilibrium configu- rations are traced

  14. Stability of the spherical form of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, A.A.

    1976-08-01

    An extension of the mass formula for a spherical nucleus in the drop model to include a largely deformed nucleus of different forms is investigated. It is found that although the spherical form is stable under small deformations from equilibrium, there exists for heavier nuclei another more favourable stable form, which can be approximated by two, or three touching prolate ellipsoids of revolution

  15. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  16. Preparation of multilayered nanocrystalline thin films with composition-modulated interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, D.; Barna, P.B.; Szekely, L.; Geszti, O.; Hattori, T.; Devenyi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The properties of multilayer thin film structures depend on the morphology and structure of interfaces. A broad interface, in which the composition is varying, can enhance, e.g., the hardness of multilayer thin films. In the present experiments multilayers of TiAlN and CrN as well as TiAlN, CrN and MoS 2 were studied by using unbalanced magnetron sputter sources. The sputter sources were arranged side by side on an arc. This arrangement permits development of a transition zone between the layers, where the composition changes continuously. The multilayer system was deposited by one-fold oscillating movement of substrates in front of sputter sources. Thicknesses of layers could be changed both by oscillation frequency and by the power applied to sputter sources. Ti/Al: 50/50 at%, pure chromium and MoS 2 targets were used in the sputter sources. The depositions were performed in an Ar-N 2 mixture at 0.22 Pa working pressure. The sputtering power of the TiAl source was feed-back adjusted in fuzzy-logic mode in order to avoid fluctuation of the TiAl target sputter rate due to poisoning of the target surface. Structure characterization of films deposited on Si wafers covered by thermally grown SiO 2 was performed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. At first a 100 nm thick Cr base layer was deposited on the substrate to improve adhesion, which was followed by a CrN transition layer. The CrN transition layer was followed by a 100 nm thick TiAlN/CrN multilayer system. The TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system was deposited on the surface of this underlayer system. The underlayer systems Cr, CrN and TiAlN/CrN were crystalline with columnar structure according to the morphology of zone T of the structure zone models. The column boundaries contained segregated phases showing up in the under-focused TEM images. The surface of the underlayer system was wavy due to dome-shaped columns. The nanometer-scaled TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system followed this waviness

  17. Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Pivovaroff, Mike J.; Soufli, Regina; Alameda, Jennifer; Mirkarimi, Paul; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Baker, Sherry L.; McCarville, Tom; Ziock, Klaus; Hornback, Donald; Romaine, Suzanne; Bruni, Ric; Zhong, Zhong; Honkimäki, Veijo; Ziegler, Eric; Christensen, Finn E.; Jakobsen, Anders C.

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer coatings enhance x-ray mirror performance at incidence angles steeper than the critical angle, allowing for improved flux, design flexibility and facilitating alignment. In an attempt to extend the use of multilayer coatings to photon energies higher than previously achieved, we have developed multilayers with ultra-short periods between 1 and 2 nm based on the material system WC/SiC. This material system was selected because it possesses very sharp and stable interfaces. In this article, we show highlights from a series of experiments performed in order to characterize the stress, microstructure and morphology of the multilayer films, as well as their reflective performance at photon energies from 8 to 384 keV

  18. Synchronous determination of mercury (II) and copper (II) based on quantum dots-multilayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qiang; Ha Enna; Yang Fengping; Su Xingguang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We developed a sensitive sensor for synchronous detection of Hg (II) and Cu (II) based on the quenchedand recovered PL intensity of QDs-multilayer films. Solutions containing Hg (II) or Cu (II) were used to quench the fluorescence of the QDs-multilayer films firstly. Then, glutathione (GSH) was used to remove Hg (II) or Cu (II) from the QDs-multilayer films due to stronger affinity of GSH-metal ions than that of QDs metal ions. Thus, the fluorescence of QDs-multilayer films was recovered. Highlights: → QDs-multilayer films were developed for synchronous detection of Hg (II) and Cu (II). → Hg (II) and Cu (II) could quench the photoluminescence of the QDs-multilayer films. → Glutathione was used to remove metal ions and recovery photoluminescence of QDs-multilayer films. - Abstract: A sensitive sensor for mercury (II) and copper (II) synchronous detection was established via the changed photoluminescence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) multilayer films in this work. QDs were deposited on the quartz slides to form QDs-multilayer films by electrostatic interactions with poly(dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA). Hg 2+ or Cu 2+ could quench the photoluminescence of the QDs-multilayer films, and glutathione (GSH) was used to remove Hg 2+ or Cu 2+ from QDs-multilayer films due to strong affinity of GSH-metal ions, which resulted in the recovered photoluminescence of QDs-multilayer films. There are good linear relationships between the metal ions concentration and the photoluminescence intensity of QDs in the quenched and recovered process. It was found that the Stern-Volmer constants for Hg 2+ are higher than that for Cu 2+ . Based on different quenching and recovery constant between Hg 2+ and Cu 2+ , the synchronous detection of Hg 2+ and Cu 2+ can be achieved. The linear ranges of this assay were obtained from 0.005 to 0.5 μM for Hg 2+ and from 0.01 to 1 μM for Cu 2+ , respectively. And the artificial water samples were determined by this

  19. Near-field heat transfer between graphene/hBN multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Guizal, Brahim; Zhang, Zhuomin M.; Fan, Shanhui; Antezza, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    We study the radiative heat transfer between multilayer structures made by a periodic repetition of a graphene sheet and a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slab. Surface plasmons in a monolayer graphene can couple with hyperbolic phonon polaritons in a single hBN film to form hybrid polaritons that can assist photon tunneling. For periodic multilayer graphene/hBN structures, the stacked metallic/dielectric array can give rise to a further effective hyperbolic behavior, in addition to the intrinsic natural hyperbolic behavior of hBN. The effective hyperbolicity can enable more hyperbolic polaritons that enhance the photon tunneling and hence the near-field heat transfer. However, the hybrid polaritons on the surface, i.e., surface plasmon-phonon polaritons, dominate the near-field heat transfer between multilayer structures when the topmost layer is graphene. The effective hyperbolic regions can be well predicted by the effective medium theory (EMT), thought EMT fails to capture the hybrid surface polaritons and results in a heat transfer rate much lower compared to the exact calculation. The chemical potential of the graphene sheets can be tuned through electrical gating and results in an additional modulation of the heat transfer. We found that the near-field heat transfer between multilayer structures does not increase monotonously with the number of layers in the stack, which provides a way to control the heat transfer rate by the number of graphene layers in the multilayer structure. The results may benefit the applications of near-field energy harvesting and radiative cooling based on hybrid polaritons in two-dimensional materials.

  20. Flow and scour around spherical bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Christoffer

    2003-01-01

    Spherical bodies placed in the marine environment may bury themselves due to the action of the waves and the current on the sediment in their immediate neighborhood. The present study addresses this topic by a numerical and an experimental investigation of the flow and scour around a spherical body...... results except in the critical flow regime. For flow around a near-wall sphere, a weak horseshoe vortex emerges as the gap ratio becomes less than or equal to 0.3. In Chapter 3, a RANS flow solver has been used to compute the bed shear stress for a near-wall sphere. The model results compare well...... 4, an experimental study on the scour around spherical bodies and self-burial in sand for steady current and waves has been carried out. The effect of the contraction of streamlines is found to be the key element in the scour process both for steady current and waves. Furthermore, it is demonstrated...

  1. Spherical tokamak power plant design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hender, T.C.; Bond, A.; Edwards, J.; Karditsas, P.J.; McClements, K.G.; Mustoe, J.; Sherwood, D.V.; Voss, G.M.; Wilson, H.R.

    2000-01-01

    The very high β potential of the spherical tokamak has been demonstrated in the START experiment. Systems code studies show the cost of electricity from spherical tokamak power plants, operating at high β in second ballooning mode stable regime, is comparable with fossil fuels and fission. Outline engineering designs are presented based on two concepts for the central rod of the toroidal field (TF) circuit - a room temperature water cooled copper rod or a helium cooled cryogenic aluminium rod. For the copper rod case the TF return limbs are supported by the vacuum vessel, while for the aluminium rod the TF coils form an independent structure. In both cases thermohydraulic and stress calculations indicate the viability of the design. Two-dimensional neutronics calculations show the feasibility of tritium self-sufficiency without an inboard blanket. The spherical tokamak has unique maintenance possibilities based on lowering major component structures into a hot cell beneath the device and these are discussed

  2. Integrals of products of spherical functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, O.

    1975-01-01

    Various branches of mathematical physics use integral formulas of the products of spherical functions. In quantum mechanics and in transport theory the integrals ∫sub((4π))dΩ vectorYsub(s)sup(t)(Ω vector)Ysub(l)sup(k)(Ω vector)Ysub(n)sup(m)(Ω vector), ∫sub(-1)sup(1)dμPsub(s)sup(t)(μ)Psub(l)sup(k)(μ)Psub(n)sup(m)(μ), ∫sub(-1)sup(1)dμPsub(s)(μ)Psub(l)(μ)Psub(n)(μ) are generally applied, where Ysub(α)sup(β)(Ω vector) are spherical harmonics, Psub(α)sup(β)(μ) are associated Legendre functions, and Psub(α)(μ) are Legendre polynomials. In the paper, the general procedure of calculating the integrals of the products of any combination of spherical functions is given. The procedure is referred to in a report on the boundary conditions for the cylindrical geometry in neutron transport theory for both the outer and inner cylindrical boundaries. (author)

  3. A multilayer approach for turbidity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Castro Díaz, Manuel J.; Morales de Luna, Tomás

    2017-04-01

    When a river that carries sediment in suspension enters into a lake or the ocean it can form a plume that can be classified as hyperpycnal or hypopycnal. Hypopycnal plumes occurs if the combined density of the sediment and interstitial fluid is lower than that of the ambient. Hyperpycnal plumes are a class of sediment-laden gravity current commonly referred to as turbidity currents [7,9]. Some layer-averaged models have been previously developed (see [3, 4, 8] among others). Although this layer-averaged approach gives a fast and valuable information, it has the disadvantage that the vertical distribution of the sediment in suspension is lost. A recent technique based on a multilayer approach [1, 2, 6] has shown to be specially useful to generalize shallow water type models in order to keep track of the vertical components of the averaged variables in the classical shallow water equations. In [5] multilayer model is obtained using a vertical discontinuous Galerkin approach for which the vertical velocity is supposed to be piecewise linear and the horizontal velocity is supposed to be piecewise constant. In this work the technique introduced in [5] is generalized to derive a model for turbidity currents. This model allows to simulate hyperpycnal as well as hypopycnal plumes. Several numerical tests will be presented. References [1] E. Audusse, M. Bristeau, B. Perthame, and J. Sainte-Marie. A multilayer Saint-Venant system with mass exchanges for shallow water flows. derivation and numerical validation. ESAIM: Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis, 45(1):169-200, (2010). [2] E. Audusse, M.-O. Bristeau, M. Pelanti, and J. Sainte-Marie. Approximation of the hydrostatic Navier–Stokes system for density stratified flows by a multilayer model: Kinetic interpretation and numerical solution. Journal of Computational Physics, 230(9):3453-3478, (2011). [3] S. F. Bradford and N. D. Katopodes. Hydrodynamics of turbid underflows. i: Formulation and numerical

  4. Comparing multilayer brain networks between groups: Introducing graph metrics and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandke, Kanad; Meier, Jil; Brookes, Matthew J; O'Dea, Reuben D; Van Mieghem, Piet; Stam, Cornelis J; Hillebrand, Arjan; Tewarie, Prejaas

    2018-02-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the advantages of multi-modal neuroimaging. Networks obtained from different modalities are usually treated in isolation, which is however contradictory to accumulating evidence that these networks show non-trivial interdependencies. Even networks obtained from a single modality, such as frequency-band specific functional networks measured from magnetoencephalography (MEG) are often treated independently. Here, we discuss how a multilayer network framework allows for integration of multiple networks into a single network description and how graph metrics can be applied to quantify multilayer network organisation for group comparison. We analyse how well-known biases for single layer networks, such as effects of group differences in link density and/or average connectivity, influence multilayer networks, and we compare four schemes that aim to correct for such biases: the minimum spanning tree (MST), effective graph resistance cost minimisation, efficiency cost optimisation (ECO) and a normalisation scheme based on singular value decomposition (SVD). These schemes can be applied to the layers independently or to the multilayer network as a whole. For correction applied to whole multilayer networks, only the SVD showed sufficient bias correction. For correction applied to individual layers, three schemes (ECO, MST, SVD) could correct for biases. By using generative models as well as empirical MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we further demonstrated that all schemes were sensitive to identify network topology when the original networks were perturbed. In conclusion, uncorrected multilayer network analysis leads to biases. These biases may differ between centres and studies and could consequently lead to unreproducible results in a similar manner as for single layer networks. We therefore recommend using correction schemes prior to multilayer network analysis for group comparisons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  5. "{Deposition and characterization of multilayers on thin foil x-ray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, A.M.; Joensen, K.D.; Hoeghoej, P.

    1996-01-01

    W/Si and Co/C multilayers have been deposited on epoxy- replicated Au mirrors from the ASTRO-E telescope project, SPectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) flight mirrors, DURAN glass substrates and Si witness wafers. A characterization of the multilayers with both hard x-rays and soft x-rays is presented. T...

  6. Designing multilayered nanoplatforms for SERS-based detection of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluok, Saadet; Guven, Burcu; Eksi, Haslet; Ustundag, Zafer; Tamer, Ugur; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the multilayered surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) platforms were developed for the analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). For this purpose, two molecules [11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) and 2-mercaptoethylamine (2-MEA)] were attached with Aurod and Auspherical nanoparticles to form multilayered constructions on the gold (Au)slide surface. The best multilayered platform structure was chosen depending on SERS enhancement, and this surface was characterised with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. After the optimum multilayered SERS platform and nanoparticle interaction was identified, the oligonucleotides on the Aurod nanoparticles and Auslide were combined to determine target concentrations from the 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) signals using SERS. The correlation between the SERS intensities for DTNB and target concentrations was found to be linear within a range of 10 pM to 1 µM, and with a detection limit of 34 fM. The selectivity and specificity of the developed sandwich assay were tested using negative and positive controls, and nonsense and real sample studies. The obtained results showed that the multilayered SERS sandwich method allows for sensitive, selective, and specific detection of oligonucleotide sequences.

  7. Realistic absorption coefficient of each individual film in a multilayer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2015-02-01

    A spectrophotometric strategy, termed multilayer-method (ML-method), is presented and discussed to realistically calculate the absorption coefficient of each individual layer embedded in multilayer architectures without reverse engineering, numerical refinements and assumptions about the layer homogeneity and thickness. The strategy extends in a non-straightforward way a consolidated route, already published by the authors and here termed basic-method, able to accurately characterize an absorbing film covering transparent substrates. The ML-method inherently accounts for non-measurable contribution of the interfaces (including multiple reflections), describes the specific film structure as determined by the multilayer architecture and used deposition approach and parameters, exploits simple mathematics, and has wide range of applicability (high-to-weak absorption regions, thick-to-ultrathin films). Reliability tests are performed on films and multilayers based on a well-known material (indium tin oxide) by deliberately changing the film structural quality through doping, thickness-tuning and underlying supporting-film. Results are found consistent with information obtained by standard (optical and structural) analysis, the basic-method and band gap values reported in the literature. The discussed example-applications demonstrate the ability of the ML-method to overcome the drawbacks commonly limiting an accurate description of multilayer architectures.

  8. Ring-dot-shaped multilayer piezoelectric step-down transformers using PZT-based ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Insung; Joo, Hyeonkyu; Song, Jaesung; Jeong, Soonjong; Kim, Minsoo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, multilayer piezo stack transformers for switching mode power supply (SMPS) application were manufactured using 0.01Pb(Ni{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} - 0.08Pb(Mn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} - 0.91Pb(Zr{sub 0.505}Ti{sub 0.495})O{sub 3} (PNN-PMN-PZT) ceramics. The voltage ratio of a multilayer piezo stack transformer showed a maximum at the resonance frequency of the input and then increased with increasing load resistance. The efficiency of the multilayer piezo stack transformer showed its highest value at around the matching load. The output power increased with increasing input voltage. The temperature of the multilayer piezo stack transformer increased with increasing output power and load resistance. The manufactured multilayer piezo stack transformer could be used up to 5 W at a resonance frequency of 70.25 kHz for SMPS application because the temperature rise from room temperature is believed to about 20 .deg. C and because the transformer is electrically stable. The newly-developed ring-dot-type step-down multilayer piezo stack transformer shows possible applications as SMPS for electronic power sources with excellent input-to-output properties.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zongwei; Liu Yucun; Liu Dengcheng; Yan Liwei; Chen Ji

    2010-01-01

    Spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) with good flowability and controlled bulk density (0.65-0.95 g/cm 3 ) has been prepared at factory scale by the modified method using 4-methylphenol as crystal control ingredient. Results showed that the yield of product was increased by 5-10%, and the waste water was significantly decreased due to circulation use of waste water compared with traditional method. Synthesized spherical DDNP was characterized by IR, laser granularity measurement, SEM, HPLC and XRD. IR spectrum confirmed the structural features of spherical DDNP. The particle analysis revealed that the modified method could offer spherical DDNP with average particle size of 350 μm and high purity (>98.52%). The XRD peaks of spherical DDNP have similar diffraction angles as those of traditional DDNP. The DSC profile of spherical DDNP showed the exothermic decomposition in the temperature range of 161.2-188.5 deg. C. The product can be pressed at over 40 MPa without dead pressed phenomenon, and the minimum detonating charge of spherical DDNP was measured to be about 0.15 g. Furthermore, impact sensitivity test suggested that spherical DDNP is less sensitive than traditional DDNP.

  10. Mo/Si multilayers with enhanced TiO II- and RuO II-capping layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulin, Sergiy; Benoit, Nicolas; Feigl, Torsten; Kaiser, Norbert; Fang, Ming; Chandhok, Manish

    2008-03-01

    The lifetime of Mo/Si multilayer-coated projection optics is one of the outstanding issues on the road of commercialization of extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). The application of Mo/Si multilayer optics in EUVL requires both sufficient radiation stability and also the highest possible normal-incidence reflectivity. A serious problem of conventional high-reflective Mo/Si multilayers capped by silicon is the considerable degradation of reflective properties due to carbonization and oxidation of the silicon surface layer under exposure by EUV radiation. In this study, we focus on titanium dioxide (TiO II) and ruthenium dioxide (RuO II) as promising capping layer materials for EUVL multilayer coatings. The multilayer designs as well as the deposition parameters of the Mo/Si systems with different capping layers were optimized in terms of maximum peak reflectivity at the wavelength of 13.5 nm and longterm stability under high-intensive irradiation. Optimized TiO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with an initial reflectivity of 67.0% presented a reflectivity drop of 0.6% after an irradiation dose of 760 J/mm2. The reflectivity drop was explained by the partial oxidation of the silicon sub-layer. No reflectivity loss after similar irradiation dose was found for RuO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors having initial peak reflectivity of 66%. In this paper we present data on improved reflectivity of interface-engineered TiO II- and RuO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors due to the minimization of both interdiffusion processes inside the multilayer stack and absorption loss in the oxide layer. Reflectivities of 68.5% at the wavelength of 13.4 nm were achieved for both TiO II- and RuO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors.

  11. Periphony-Lattice Mixed-Order Ambisonic Scheme for Spherical Microphone Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Marschall, Marton

    2018-01-01

    to performance that is independent of the incident direction of the sound waves. On the other hand, mixed-order ambisonic (MOA) schemes that select an appropriate subset of spherical harmonics can improve the performance for horizontal directions at the expense of other directions. This paper proposes an MOA......Most methods for sound field reconstruction and spherical beamforming with spherical microphone arrays are mathematically based on the spherical harmonics expansion. In many cases, this expansion is truncated at a certain order as in higher order ambisonics (HOA). This truncation leads...

  12. Spin-resolved unpolarized neutron off-specular scattering for magnetic multilayer studies

    CERN Document Server

    Lauter, H J; Toperverg, B P; Romashev, L; Ustinov, V; Kravtsov, E; Vorobiev, A; Major, J; Nikonov, O A

    2002-01-01

    The capabilities of the method of using unpolarized neutron off-specular scattering for investigation of magnetic structures in exchange-coupled magnetic multilayers are thoroughly examined. It is demonstrated that strong anomalies in spin-flip selective scattering processes originating from magnetic fluctuations enables a straightforward determination of the coupling angle between the magnetization direction of successive Fe layers in Fe/Cr multilayers. A complete quantitative 2-dimensional data analysis of specular and off-specular scattering has been employed to provide detailed information on the lateral and transverse magnetization arrangement in the multilayer. (orig.)

  13. Spherical torus, compact fusion at low field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-02-01

    A spherical torus is obtained by retaining only the indispensable components on the inboard side of a tokamak plasma, such as a cooled, normal conductor that carries current to produce a toroidal magnetic field. The resulting device features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (ranging from below 2 to about 1.3), a naturally elongated D-shaped plasma cross section, and ramp-up of the plasma current primarily by noninductive means. As a result of the favorable dependence of the tokamak plasma behavior to decreasing aspect ratio, a spherical torus is projected to have small size, high beta, and modest field. Assuming Mirnov confinement scaling, an ignition spherical torus at a field of 2 T features a major radius of 1.5 m, a minor radius of 1.0 m, a plasma current of 14 MA, comparable toroidal and poloidal field coil currents, an average beta of 24%, and a fusion power of 50 MW. At 2 T, a Q = 1 spherical torus will have a major radius of 0.8 m, a minor radius of 0.5 m, and a fusion power of a few megawatts

  14. Anomalous magnetoresistance in Fibonacci multilayers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, L. D.; Bezerra, C. G.; Correa, M. A.; Chesman, C.; Pearson, J. E.; Hoffmann, A. (Materials Science Division); (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte)

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigated magnetoresistance curves in quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers for two different growth directions, namely, [110] and [100]. We considered identical ferromagnetic layers separated by nonmagnetic layers with two different thicknesses chosen based on the Fibonacci sequence. Using parameters for Fe/Cr multilayers, four terms were included in our description of the magnetic energy: Zeeman, cubic anisotropy, bilinear coupling, and biquadratic coupling. The minimum energy was determined by the gradient method and the equilibrium magnetization directions found were used to calculate magnetoresistance curves. By choosing spacers with a thickness such that biquadratic coupling is stronger than bilinear coupling, unusual behaviors for the magnetoresistance were observed: (i) for the [110] case, there is a different behavior for structures based on even and odd Fibonacci generations, and, more interesting, (ii) for the [100] case, we found magnetic field ranges for which the magnetoresistance increases with magnetic field.

  15. Surface modification of multilayer graphene using Ga ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quan, E-mail: wangq@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shao, Ying; Ge, Daohan; Ren, Naifei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yang, Qizhi [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State key laboratory of Robotics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shengyang 110000 (China)

    2015-04-28

    The effect of Ga ion irradiation intensity on the surface of multilayer graphene was examined. Using Raman spectroscopy, we determined that the irradiation caused defects in the crystal structure of graphene. The density of defects increased with the increase in dwell times. Furthermore, the strain induced by the irradiation changed the crystallite size and the distance between defects. These defects had the effect of doping the multilayer graphene and increasing its work function. The increase in work function was determined using contact potential difference measurements. The surface morphology of the multilayer graphene changed following irradiation as determined by atomic force microscopy. Additionally, the adhesion between the atomic force microscopy tip and sample increased further indicating that the irradiation had caused surface modification, important for devices that incorporate graphene.

  16. Design considerations for energy efficient, resilient, multi-layer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Hansen, Line Pyndt; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2016-01-01

    measures. In this complex problem, considerations such as client traffic granularity, applied grooming policies and multi-layer resiliency add even more complexity. A commercially available network planning tool is used to investigate the interplay between different methods for resilient capacity planning......This work investigates different network design considerations with respect to energy-efficiency, under green-field resilient multi-layer network deployment. The problem of energy efficient, reliable multi-layer network design is known to result in different trade-offs between key performance....... Switching off low-utilized transport links has been investigated via a pro-active re-routing applied during the network planning. Our analysis shows that design factors such as the applied survivability strategy and the applied planning method have higher impact on the key performance indicators compared...

  17. Multilayer Photonic Crystal for Spectral Narrowing of Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanfang LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer colloidal crystal has been prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition of silica microspheres on a glass slide. Each layer is a slab consisting of a fcc close-packed colloidal arrays. By properly choosing the sizes of spheres, the whole spectral feature of multilayer colloidal crystal can be tuned. Here, we engineered a multilayer superlattice structure with an effective passband between two stop bands. This gives a strong narrowing effect on emission spectrum. With the stop bands at the shortwave and longwave edges of emission spectrum, the passband in the central wavelength region can be regarded as a strong decrease of suppression effect and enhancement of a narrow wavelength region of emission. The spectral narrowing modification effect of suitably engineered colloidal crystals shows up their importance in potential application as optical filters and lasing devices.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16320

  18. Research on the Multilayer Free Damping Structure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to put forward a design model for multilayer free damping structures. It sets up a mathematical model and deduces the formula for its structural loss factor η and analyzes the change rules of η along with the change rate of the elastic modulus ratio q1, the change rate of the loss factors of damping materials q2, and the change rate of the layer thickness ratio q3 under the condition with the layer thickness ratio h2=1,3,5,10 by software MATLAB. Based on three specific damping structures, the mathematical model is verified through ABAQUS. With the given structural loss factor (η≥2 and the layer number (n=3,4,5,6, 34 kinds of multilayer free damping structures are then presented. The study is meant to provide a more flexible and more diverse design solution for multilayer free damping structures.

  19. Three dimensional multilayer solenoid microcoils inside silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangwei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Shan, Chao; Liu, Keyin; Li, Yanyang; Bian, Hao; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) solenoid microcoils could generate uniform magnetic field. Multilayer solenoid microcoils are highly pursued for strong magnetic field and high inductance in advanced magnetic microsystems. However, the fabrication of the 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils is still a challenging task. In this paper, 3D multilayer solenoid microcoils with uniform diameters and high aspect ratio were fabricated in silica glass. An alloy (Bi/In/Sn/Pb) with high melting point was chosen as the conductive metal to overcome the limitation of working temperature and improve the electrical property. The inductance of the three layers microcoils was measured, and the value is 77.71 nH at 100 kHz and 17.39 nH at 120 MHz. The quality factor was calculated, and it has a value of 5.02 at 120 MHz. This approach shows an improvement method to achieve complex 3D metal microstructures and electronic components, which could be widely integrated in advanced magnetic microsystems.

  20. The spherical limit of the n-vector model and correlation inequaljties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelescu, N.; Bundaru, M.; Costache, G.

    1978-08-01

    The asymptotics of the state of the n-vector model with a finite number of spins in the spherical limit is studied. Besides rederiving the limit free energy, corresponding to a generalized spherical model (with ''spherical constraint'' at every site), we obtain also the limit of the correlation functions, which allow a precise definition of the state of the latter model. Correlation inequalities are proved for ferromagnetic interactions in the asymptotic regime. In particular, it is shown that the generalized spherical model fulfills the expected Griffiths' type inequalities, differing in this respect from the spherical model with overall constraint. (author)

  1. A modular spherical harmonics approach to the neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inanc, F.; Rohach, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    A modular nodal method was developed for solving the neutron transport equation in 2-D xy coordinates. The spherical harmonic expansion was used for approximating the second-order even-parity form of the neutron transport equation. The boundary conditions of the spherical harmonics approximation were derived in a form to have forms analogous to the partial currents in the neutron diffusion equation. Relations were developed for generating both the second-order spherical harmonic equations and the boundary conditions in an automated computational algorithm. Nodes using different orders of the spherical harmonics approximation to the transport equation were interfaced through mixed-type boundary conditions. The determination of spherical harmonic orders implemented in the nodes were determined by the scheme in an automated manner. Results of the method compared favorably to benchmark problems. (author)

  2. Examination of High-Torque Sandwich-Type Spherical Ultrasonic Motor Using with High-Power Multimode Annular Vibrating Stator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Mizuno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spherical ultrasonic motors (SUSMs that can operate with multiple degrees of freedom (MDOF using only a single stator have high holding torque and high torque at low speed, which makes reduction gearing unnecessary. The simple structure of MDOF-SUSMs makes them useful as compact actuators, but their development is still insufficient for applications such as joints of humanoid robots and other systems that require MDOF and high torque. To increase the torque of a sandwich-type MDOF-SUSM, we have not only made the vibrating stator and spherical rotor larger but also improved the structure using three design concepts: (1 increasing the strength of all three vibration modes using multilayered piezoelectric actuators (MPAs embedded in the stator, (2 enhancing the rigidity of the friction driving portion of the stator for transmitting more vibration force to the friction-driven rotor surface, and (3 making the support mechanism more stable. An MDOF-SUSM prototype was tested, and the maximum torques of rotation around the X(Y-axis and Z-axis were measured as 1.48 N∙m and 2.05 N∙m, respectively. Moreover, the values for torque per unit weight of the stator were obtained as 0.87 N∙m/kg for the X(Y-axis and 1.20 N∙m/kg for the Z-axis. These are larger than values reported for any other sandwich-type MDOF-SUSM of which we are aware. Hence, the new design concepts were shown to be effective for increasing torque. In addition, we measured the transient response and calculated the load characteristics of rotation around the rotor’s three orthogonal axes.

  3. Effective pair potentials for spherical nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zon, Ramses

    2009-01-01

    An effective description for rigid spherical nanoparticles in a fluid of point particles is presented. The points inside the nanoparticles and the point particles are assumed to interact via spherically symmetric additive pair potentials, while the distribution of points inside the nanoparticles is taken to be spherically symmetric and smooth. The resulting effective pair interactions between a nanoparticle and a point particle, as well as between two nanoparticles, are then given by spherically symmetric potentials. If overlap between particles is allowed, as can occur for some forms of the pair potentials, the effective potential generally has non-analytic points. It is shown that for each effective potential the expressions for different overlapping cases can be written in terms of one analytic auxiliary potential. Even when only non-overlapping situations are possible, the auxiliary potentials facilitate the formulation of the effective potentials. Effective potentials for hollow nanoparticles (appropriate e.g. for buckyballs) are also considered and shown to be related to those for solid nanoparticles. For hollow nanoparticles overlap is more physical, since this covers the case of a smaller particle embedded in a larger, hollow nanoparticle. Finally, explicit expressions are given for the effective potentials derived from basic pair potentials of power law and exponential form, as well as from the commonly used London–van der Waals, Morse, Buckingham, and Lennard-Jones potentials. The applicability of the latter is demonstrated by comparison with an atomic description of nanoparticles with an internal face centered cubic structure

  4. Fabrication and Characteristics of Al/PTFE Multilayers and Application in Micro-initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxin; Jiang, Hongchuan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zhang, Wanli; Li, Yanrong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a micro-initiator was designed and fabricated by integrating Al/PTFE multilayers with a Cu film bridge. The regularity layer structure and interface composition of Al/PTFE multilayers was analysed by transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The heat release reaction in Al/PTFE multilayers can be triggered with reaction temperature of 430 °C, and the overall heat of reaction is 3192 J/g. Al/PTFE multilayers with bilayer thickness of 200 nm was alternately deposited on a Cu film bridge to improve the electric explosion performances. Compared to Cu film bridge, the Al/PTFE/Cu integrated film bridge exhibits improved performances with longer explosion duration time, more violent explosion phenomenon and larger quantities of ejected product particles.

  5. Structural evolution of Ti/TiC multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, I.; Frage, N.; Dariel, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Hard coatings based on metal/ceramic multilayers with periods in the nanometer range have been shown to possess some potential for improved tribological and mechanical properties. The present work is concerned with the structural evolution of (Ti/TiC) multilayers. Two kinds of multilayers consisting of 30 equithick (40 nm)TiC layers and 20 and 60 nm thick Ti layers, respectively, were sputter deposited on Mo substrates. The structural and the compositional evolution of these multilayers were examined by x-ray diffraction, transition electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, Auger electron microscopy spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis (DTA), in the as-deposited state and after various heat treatments up to 500 deg. C. Initially, the Ti layers had a crystalline columnar grain structure displaying a (002) texture. The TiC layers displayed weak crystallinity with a pronounced (111) texture. In the course of the heat treatments, carbon diffused from the carbide layer into the adjacent Ti layers transforming the latter into off-stoichiometric TiC x with x≅0.5 and simultaneously depleting the carbon content of the initial carbide layer. The formed TiC x layers maintained the textural relationship with the neighboring TiC layers, consistent with a transformation that involved only a ABAB to ABC stacking change of the Ti sublattice. Increased mobility of the Ti atoms in carbon-depleted original TiC layers led to their full or partial recrystallization. The thermal effects associated both with the transformation of Ti layers into TiC, due to the influx of carbon atoms, and with the recrystallization of the original TiC layers were clearly revealed by the DTA measurements

  6. Magnetic studies of spin wave excitations in Fe/Mn multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salhi, H. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco); LMPG, Ecole supérieure de technologie, Université Hassan de Casablanca, Casablanca (Morocco); Moubah, R.; El Bahoui, A.; Lassri, H. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2017-04-15

    The structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers grown by thermal evaporation technique were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and spin wave theory. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the Fe and Mn layers are continuous with a significant interfacial roughness. The magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers were studied for various Fe thicknesses (t{sub Fe}). The change of magnetization as a function of temperature is well depicted by a T{sup 3/2} law. The Fe spin-wave constant was extracted and found to be larger than that reported for bulk Fe, which we attribute to the fluctuation of magnetic moments at the interface, due to the interfacial roughness. The experimental M (T) data were satisfactory fitted for multilayers with different Fe thicknesses; and several exchange interactions were extracted. - Highlights: • The structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers were studied. • Fe and Mn layers are continuous with an important interfacial roughness. • The Fe spin-wave constant is larger than that reported for bulk Fe due to the fluctuation of the interfacial magnetic moments.

  7. Magnetic studies of spin wave excitations in Fe/Mn multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhi, H.; Moubah, R.; El Bahoui, A.; Lassri, H.

    2017-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers grown by thermal evaporation technique were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and spin wave theory. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the Fe and Mn layers are continuous with a significant interfacial roughness. The magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers were studied for various Fe thicknesses (t Fe ). The change of magnetization as a function of temperature is well depicted by a T 3/2 law. The Fe spin-wave constant was extracted and found to be larger than that reported for bulk Fe, which we attribute to the fluctuation of magnetic moments at the interface, due to the interfacial roughness. The experimental M (T) data were satisfactory fitted for multilayers with different Fe thicknesses; and several exchange interactions were extracted. - Highlights: • The structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers were studied. • Fe and Mn layers are continuous with an important interfacial roughness. • The Fe spin-wave constant is larger than that reported for bulk Fe due to the fluctuation of the interfacial magnetic moments.

  8. Construction of pegylated multilayer architectures via (strept)avidin/biotin interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Zhifei; Wilson, John T.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2007-01-01

    Pegylated multilayer architectures were fabricated as films on planar substrates, as shells on colloidal particles, or as free-standing hollow capsules using layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of biotinylated poly-L-lysine (PLL) and (strept)avidin. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was incorporated into the multilayer architectures by assembly with biotin-derivatized poly(L-lysine)-g-poly(ethylene glycol)(PPB). Stepwise growth of multilayers was followed by UV-vis spectroscopy and the formation of core-shells and hollow capsules characterized by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both absorbance and TEM data suggest that approximately two layers of FITC-avidin were adsorbed with each surface deposition. In contrast, use of unmodified PLL did not lead to formation of multilayer coatings, confirming that (strept)avidin-biotin interactions were responsible for film growth even in the presence of electrostatic repulsive forces between PLL and avidin and the steric hindrance of associated PEG chains. This technique provides new opportunities for the generation of robust films with tailored interfacial binding and transport properties

  9. Performance of multilayer coated silicon pore optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M. D.; Collon, M. J.; Jensen, C. P.; Christensen, F. E.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Marggraf, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Lumb, D.; Shortt, B.

    2010-07-01

    The requirements for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) telescope are very challenging in respect of angular resolution and effective area. Within a clear aperture with 1.7 m > R > 0.25 m that is dictated by the spacecraft envelope, the optics technology must be developed to satisfy simultaneously requirements for effective area of 2.5 m2 at 1.25 keV, 0.65 m2 at 6 keV and 150 cm2 at 30 keV. The reflectivity of the bare mirror substrate materials does not allow these requirements to be met. As such the IXO baseline design contains a coating layout that varies as a function of mirror radius and in accordance with the variation in grazing incidence angle. The higher energy photon response is enhanced through the use of depth-graded multilayer coatings on the inner radii mirror modules. In this paper we report on the first reflectivity measurements of wedged ribbed silicon pore optics mirror plates coated with a depth graded W/Si multilayer. The measurements demonstrate that the deposition and performance of the multilayer coatings is compatible with the SPO production process.

  10. SnO2/PPy Screen-Printed Multilayer CO2 Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. WAGHULEY

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 plays a dominant role in solid state gas sensors and exhibit sensitivity towards oxidizing and reducing gases by a variation of its electrical properties. The electrical conducting polymer-polypyrrole (PPy has high anisotropy of electrical conduction and used as a gas sensor. SnO2/PPy multilayer, pure SnO2, pure PPy sensors were prepared by screen-printing method on Al2O3 layer followed by glass substrate. The sensors were used for different concentration (ppm of CO2 gas investigation at room temperature (303 K. The sensitivity of SnO2/PPy multilayer sensor was found to be higher, compared with pure SnO2 and pure PPy sensors. The multilayer sensor exhibited improved stability. The response and recovery time of multilayer sensor were found to be ~2 min and ~10 min respectively.

  11. Stronger multilayer acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators with silicone gel coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; La, Thanh-Giang; Sheng-Wei Foong, Ervin; Shrestha, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) perform worst off than single-layer DEAs due to higher susceptibility to electro-thermal breakdown. This paper presents a hot-spot model to predict the electro-thermal breakdown field of DEAs and its dependence on thermal insulation. To inhibit the electrothermal breakdown, silicone gel coating was applied as barrier coating to multilayer acrylic DEA. The gel coating helps suppress the electro-thermally induced puncturing of DEA membrane at the hot spot. As a result, the gel-coated DEAs, in either a single layer or a multilayer stack, can produce 30% more isometric stress change as compared to those none-coated. These gel-coated acrylic DEAs show great potential to make stronger artificial muscles.

  12. Substrate and coating defect planarization strategies for high-laser-fluence multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Wolfe, Justin E.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Folta, James A.; Adams, John J.; Menor, Marlon G.; Teslich, Nick E.; Soufli, Regina; Menoni, Carmen S.; Patel, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Planarizing or smoothing over nodular defects in multilayer mirrors can be accomplished by a discrete deposit-and-etch process that exploits the angle-dependent etching rate of optical materials. Typically, nodular defects limit the fluence on mirrors irradiated at 1064 nm with 10 ns pulse lengths due to geometrically- and interference-induced light intensification. Planarized hafina/silica multilayer mirrors have demonstrated > 125 J/cm 2 laser resistance for single-shot testing and 50 J/cm 2 for multi-shot testing for nodular defects originating on the substrate surface. Two planarization methods were explored: thick planarization layers on the substrate surface and planarized silica layers throughout the multilayer in which only the silica layers that are below one half of the incoming electric field value are etched. This paper also describes the impact of planarized defects that are buried within the multilayer structure compared to planarized substrate particulate defects. - Highlights: • Defect planarization significantly improves multilayer mirror laser resistance • Substrate and coating defects have both been effectively planarized • Single and multishot laser resistance improvement was demonstrated

  13. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of X-Ray Multilayer Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David

    2015-01-01

    The project objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) position as a world leader in the design of innovative x-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures are absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of x-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever-increasing photon energies (i.e., up to 200 keV or higher), well beyond Chandra's (approx.10 keV) and NuStar's (approx.75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the x-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication, and design of innovative x-ray instrumentation, which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments. To this aim, a magnetron vacuum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film x-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and x-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  14. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance the MSFC's position as a world leader in the design of innovative X-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures is absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of X-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever increasing photon energies (i. e. up to 200 keV or higher); well beyond Chandra (approx. 10 keV) and NuStar's (approx. 75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the X-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication and design of innovative X-ray instrumentation which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments.To this aim, a magnetron vacum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film X-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and X-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  15. Influence of Fe underlayers on stress evolution of Ti in Ti/Fe multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Li; Thompson, Gregory, E-mail: gthompson@eng.ua.edu [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487-0202 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A series of 40–2 nm bilayer spacing Ti/Fe multilayers were sputter-deposited. As the length scale of individual Ti layers equaled to 2 nm, Ti phase transforms from a hexagonal close packed (hcp)-to-body centered cubic (bcc) crystal structures for equal layer thicknesses in Ti/Fe multilayers. Further equal reductions in bilayer spacing to less than 1 nm resulted in an additional transformation from a crystalline to amorphous structure. Atom probe tomography reveals significant intermixing between layers which contributes to the observed phase transformations. Real-time, intrinsic growth stress measurements were also performed to relate the adatom mobility to these phase transformations. For the hcp Ti/bcc Fe multilayers of equivalent volume fractions, the multilayers undergo an overall tensile stress state to a compressive stress state with decreasing bilayer thickness for the multilayers. When the above phase transformations occurred, a modest reduction in the overall compressive stress of the multilayer was noted. Depending on the Fe thickness, the Ti growth was observed to be a tensile to compressive growth change to a purely compressive growth for thinner bilayer spacing. Fe retained a tensile growth stress regardless of the bilayer spacing studied.

  16. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, J F; Sousa, R; Cunha, D J; Vieira, E M F; Goncalves, L M; Silva, M M; Dupont, L

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber. (paper)

  17. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Cunha, D. J.; Vieira, E. M. F.; Silva, M. M.; Dupont, L.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si3N4). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber.

  18. Design and application of multilayer monolithic microwave integrated circuit transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, S.B

    1999-07-01

    The design and performance of planar spiral transformers, using multilayer GaAs and silicon MMIC technology, are presented. This multilayer technology gives new opportunities for improving the performance of planar transformers, couplers and baluns. Planar transformers have high parasitic resistance and capacitance and low levels of coupling. Using multilayer technology these problems are overcome by applying a multilayer structure of three metal layers separated by two polyimide dielectric layers. The improvements gained by placing the conductors on different metal layers, and using conductors raised on polyimide layers for low capacitance, have been investigated. The circuits were fabricated using a novel experimental fabrication process, which uses entirely standard materials and techniques and is compatible with BJT's and silicon-germanium HBT's. The transformers were all characterised up to 20 GHz using RF-on-wafer measurements. They demonstrated good performance, considering the experimental nature of in-house multilayer technology and the difficulties in simulating these three-dimensional new geometries. With high resistivity substrates, the silicon components achieved virtually the same performance as their gallium arsenide counterparts. The transformers were then used in simulations of transformer-coupled HBT amplifier circuits, to demonstrate their capabilities. It was shown that these circuits present good performance compared to standard off-the shelf component circuits and are very promising for use in most multilayer MMIC applications. The structures were further used in coupling configurations, and applied in balun circuits and pushpull amplifiers. The spiral transformer coupler can operate at low frequencies without using up much chip area. In a balun configuration, the balun can compensate for coupling and phase imbalance and operates over 5 to 15 GHz. The spiral coupler does not always need multilayer processing, so the balun may be

  19. Method of producing spherical lithium aluminate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Medico, R.R.; Baugh, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical particles of lithium aluminate are formed by initially producing aluminium hydroxide spheroids, and immersing the spheroids in a lithium ion-containing solution to infuse lithium ions into the spheroids. The lithium-infused spheroids are rinsed to remove excess lithium ion from the surface, and the rinsed spheroids are soaked for a period of time in a liquid medium, dried and sintered to form lithium aluminate spherical particles. (author)

  20. Origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, M.; Hübner, R.; Suess, D.; Heinrich, B.; Girt, E.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the variation in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of (111) textured Au /N ×[Co /Ni ]/Au films as a function of the number of bilayer repeats N . The ferromagnetic resonance and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer measurements show that the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Co/Ni multilayers first increases with N for N ≤10 and then moderately decreases for N >10 . The model we propose reveals that the decrease of the anisotropy for N reduction in the magnetoelastic and magnetocrystalline anisotropies. A moderate decrease in the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for N >10 is due to the reduction in the magnetocrystalline and the surface anisotropies. To calculate the contribution of magnetoelastic anisotropy in the Co/Ni multilayers, in-plane and out-of-plane x-ray diffraction measurements are performed to determine the spacing between Co/Ni (111) and (220) planes. The magnetocrystalline bulk anisotropy is estimated from the difference in the perpendicular and parallel g factors of Co/Ni multilayers that are measured using the in-plane and out-of-plane ferromagnetic resonance measurements. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to estimate the multilayer film roughness. These values are used to calculate the roughness-induced surface and magnetocrystalline anisotropy coefficients as a function of N .

  1. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  2. Modeling Macroscopic Shape Distortions during Sintering of Multi-layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye

    as to help achieve defect free multi-layer components. The initial thickness ratio between the layers making the multi-layer has also significant effect on the extent of camber evolution depending on the material systems. During sintering of tubular bi-layer structures, tangential (hoop) stresses are very...... large compared to radial stresses. The maximum value of hoop stress, which can generate processing defects such as cracks and coating peel-offs, occurs at the beginning of the sintering cycle. Unlike most of the models defining material properties based on porosity and grain size only, the multi...... (firing). However, unintended features like shape instabilities of samples, cracks or delamination of layers may arise during sintering of multi-layer composites. Among these defects, macroscopic shape distortions in the samples can cause problems in the assembly or performance of the final component...

  3. Wrapped Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    New NASA vehicles, such as Earth Departure Stage (EDS), Orion, landers, and orbiting fuel depots, need improved cryogenic propellant transfer and storage for long-duration missions. Current cryogen feed line multilayer insulation (MLI) performance is 10 times worse per area than tank MLI insulation. During each launch, cryogenic piping loses approximately 150,000 gallons (equivalent to $300,000) in boil-off during transfer, chill down, and ground hold. Quest Product Development Corp., teaming with Ball Aerospace, developed an innovative advanced insulation system, Wrapped MLI (wMLI), to provide improved thermal insulation for cryogenic feed lines. wMLI is high-performance multilayer insulation designed for cryogenic piping. It uses Quest's innovative discrete-spacer technology to control layer spacing/ density and reduce heat leak. The Phase I project successfully designed, built, and tested a wMLI prototype with a measured heat leak 3.6X lower than spiral-wrapped conventional MLI widely used for piping insulation. A wMLI prototype had a heat leak of 7.3 W/m2, or 27 percent of the heat leak of conventional MLI (26.7 W/m2). The Phase II project is further developing wMLI technology with custom, molded polymer spacers and advancing the product toward commercialization via a rigorous testing program, including developing advanced vacuuminsulated pipe for ground support equipment.

  4. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon

  5. The stress-strain relationship for multilayers of the high Tc superconducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, H.; Yamamura, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the calculation of the stress-strain relationship for multilayers of the high Tc superconducting oxides. The elucidation of this relationship is expected quite helpful for the preparation of high-quality multilayers of these materials. This calculation is possible to do in the same way of Timoshenko's bi-metal treatment. The authors did computation of the residual stress and strain, and the state of stress and strain for these multilayers has been acquired in detail by this calculation

  6. Thermal performance measurement and application of a multilayer insulator for emergency architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvalai, Graziano; Imperadori, Marco; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Pusceddu, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Lightness coupled with a quick assembly method is crucial for emergency architecture in post-disaster area where accessibility and action time play a huge barer to rescue people. In this prospective, the following work analyses the potentiality (technological and thermal performances) of multilayer insulator for a new shelter envelope able to provide superior thermal comfort for the users. The thermal characteristics are derived experimentally by means of a guard ring apparatus under different working temperatures. Tests are performed on the multilayer insulator itself and on a composite structure, made of the multilayer insulator and two air gaps wrapped by a polyester cover, which is the core of a new lightweight emergency architecture. Experimental results show good agreement with literature data, providing a thermal conductivity and transmittance of about 0.04 W/(m °C) and 1.6 W/(m 2  °C) for the tested multilayer. The composite structure called Thermo Reflective Multilayer System (TRMS) shows better insulation performances, providing a thermal transmittance set to 0.85 W/(m 2  °C). A thermal model of an emergency tent based on the new insulating structure (TRMS) has been developed and its thermal performances have been compared with those of a UNHCR traditional emergency shelter. The shelter model was simulated (Trnsys v.17 environment) in the winter season considering the climate of Belgrade and using only the casual gains from occupant and solar radiation through opaque wall. Numerical simulations evidenced that the new insulating composite envelope reduces required heating load of about two and four times with respect to the traditional insulation. The study sets a starting point to develop a lightweight emergency architecture made with a combination between multilayer, air, polyester and vulcanized rubber. - Highlights: • Multilayer insulator tested by means of a guard ring apparatus. • Thermo reflective multilayer system (TRMS) development

  7. Self organized formation of Ge nanocrystals in multilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Zschintzsch-Dias, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to create a process which allows the tailored growth of Ge nanocrystals for use in photovoltic applications. The multilayer systems used here provide a reliable method to control the Ge nanocrystal size after phase separation. In this thesis, the deposition of GeOx/SiO2 and Ge:SiOx~ 2/SiO2 multilayers via reactive dc magnetron sputtering and the self-ordered Ge nanocrystal formation within the GeOx and Ge:SiOx~ 2 sublayers during subsequent annealing is investigated...

  8. Soft Magnetic Multilayered Thin Films for HF Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizos, George; Giannopoulos, George; Serletis, Christos; Maity, Tuhin; Roy, Saibal; Lupu, Nicoleta; Kijima, Hanae; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Niarchos, Dimitris

    Multilayered thin films from various soft magnetic materials were successfully prepared by magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere. The magnetic properties and microstructure were investigated. It is found that the films show good soft magnetic properties: magnetic coercivity of 1-10 Oe and saturation magnetization higher than 1T. The initial permeability of the films is greater than 300 and flattens up to 600 MHz. The multilayer thin film properties in combination with their easy, fast and reproducible fabrication indicate that they are potential candidates for high frequency applications.

  9. Negative Refraction Using Frequency-Tuned Oxide Multilayer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Lu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An oxide-based multilayer structure was proposed to realize negative refraction. The multilayer composes of alternative layers having negative permittivity and negative permeability, respectively. In order to realize negative refraction, their dielectric and magnetic resonances of layers will be tuned to the frequency as close as possibly via changing their temperature, composition, structure, and so forth. Such oxide-based NIMs are attractive for their potential applications as optical super lenses, imagers, optical cloaking, sensors, and so forth, those are required with low-loss, low-cost, and good fabrication flexibility.

  10. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V.; Gothelf, Kurt V.; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher r...

  11. 76 FR 92 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-971] Multilayered Wood Flooring... Department'') initiated an investigation of multilayered wood flooring from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

  12. Thermoelasticity and interdiffusion in CuNi multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoudia, M.C.; Gao, F.; Roussel, J.M.; Labat, S.; Gailhanou, M.; Thomas, O.; Beke, D.L.; Erdelyi, Z.; Langer, G.A.; Csik, A.; Kis-Varga, M.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The idea of observing artificial metallic multilayers with x-ray diffraction techniques to study interdiffusion phenomena dates back to the work of DuMond and Youtz. Interestingly, these pioneering contributions even suggested that the approach could be used to measure the concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient. This remark is precisely the subject of the present work: we aim to revisit this issue in light of recent atomistic simulation results obtained for coherent CuNi multilayers. More generally, CuNi multilayers have been extensively studied for their magnetic, mechanical, and optical properties. These physical properties depend critically on interfaces and require a good control on the evolution of composition and strain fields under heat treatment. Understanding of how interdiffusion proceeds in these nanosystems should therefore improve these practical aspects. From a theoretical viewpoint these synthetic modulated structures have been also used as valuable model systems to test the various diffusion theories accounting in particular for the influence of the alloying energy, the coherency strain, and the local concentration. Nowadays, this field remains active and has been extended with the development of atomic simulations and many microscopy techniques like atom probe tomography which give details on the intermixing mechanisms. We have performed x-ray diffraction experiments on coherent CuNi multilayers to probe thermoelasticity and interdiffusion in these samples. Kinetic mean-field simulations combined with the modeling of the x-ray spectra were also achieved to rationalize the experimental results. We have shown that classical thermoelastic arguments combined with bulk data can be used to model the x-ray scattered intensity of annealed coherent CuNi multilayers. This result provides a valuable framework to analyze the evolution of the concentration profiles at higher temperature. The typical coherent

  13. Collisions of droplets on spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampous, Georgios; Hardalupas, Yannis

    2017-10-01

    Head-on collisions between droplets and spherical particles are examined for water droplets in the diameter range between 170 μm and 280 μm and spherical particles in the diameter range between 500 μm and 2000 μm. The droplet velocities range between 6 m/s and 11 m/s, while the spherical particles are fixed in space. The Weber and Ohnesorge numbers and ratio of droplet to particle diameter were between 92 deposition and splashing regimes, a regime is observed in the intermediate region, where the droplet forms a stable crown, which does not breakup but propagates along the particle surface and passes around the particle. This regime is prevalent when the droplets collide on small particles. The characteristics of the collision at the onset of rim instability are also described in terms of the location of the film on the particle surface and the orientation and length of the ejected crown. Proper orthogonal decomposition identified that the first 2 modes are enough to capture the overall morphology of the crown at the splashing threshold.

  14. Design guidelines for advanced LSI microcircuit packaging using thick film multilayer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckinpaugh, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    Ceramic multilayer circuitry results from the sequential build-up of two or more layers of pre-determined conductive interconnections separated by dielectric layers and fired at an elevated temperature to form a solidly fused structure. The resultant ceramic interconnect matrix is used as a base to mount active and passive devices and provide the necessary electrical interconnection to accomplish the desired electrical circuit. Many methods are known for developing multilevel conductor mechanisms such as multilayer printed circuits, welded wire matrices, flexible copper tape conductors, and thin and thick-film ceramic multilayers. Each method can be considered as a specialized field with each possessing its own particular set of benefits and problems. This design guide restricts itself to the art of design, fabrication and assembly of ceramic multilayer circuitry and the reliability of the end product.

  15. Kossel interferences of proton-induced X-ray emission lines in periodic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meiyi; Le Guen, Karine; André, Jean-Michel [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Ilakovac, Vita [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Vickridge, Ian [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, boîte courrier 840, F-75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, boîte courrier 840, F-75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Schmaus, Didier [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, boîte courrier 840, F-75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, boîte courrier 840, F-75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Université Paris Diderot-P7, F-75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); and others

    2016-11-01

    The Kossel interferences generated by characteristic X-ray lines produced inside a periodic multilayer have been observed upon proton irradiation, by submitting a Cr/B{sub 4}C/Sc multilayer stack to 2 MeV protons and observing the intensity of the Sc and Cr Kα characteristic emissions as a function of the detection angle. When this angle is close to the Bragg angle corresponding to the emission wavelength and period of the multilayer, an oscillation of the measured intensity is detected. The results are in good agreement with a model based on the reciprocity theorem. The combination of the Kossel measurements and their simulation, will be a useful tool to obtain a good description of the multilayer stack and thus to study nanometer-thick layers and their interfaces.

  16. Electrical resistivity of thin metal films and multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenn, M.

    1999-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) of thin films and multilayers of Cu, Nb and Zr have been measured over a wide range of layer thicknesses. The structure of the films has been characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray reflectivity. The experimental results have been compared with the semiclassical theory due to Dimmich. The values of the grain boundary reflectivity, R, in the single films has been found to be approximately 0.35 for Cu in agreement with the literature. The value of R for Nb and Zr has been found to vary with grain size, although it is approximately 0.55 for Nb and 0.925 for Zr over a wide range of grain sizes, and this is believed to be presented for the first time. The value of the interfacial specularity parameter, p, is not found to have a significant effect compared to R in the single films. Dimmich's theoretical expression for the TCR does not match experiment, but by adapting the resistivity expression of the theory to different temperatures a satisfactory fit has been obtained. It has been concluded that the assumption of the free electron model in the presence of grain boundary scattering is in error. The adapted theory predicts negative TCR in sufficiently thin films with experimentally plausible values of the input parameters, and this is believed to be demonstrated for the first time. The experimental resistivity of the multilayers was much lower than expected from the resistivity of the single films. A theoretical fit to the experimental resistivity and TCR of the multilayers was obtained by adjusting the parameter values obtained from single films, and the value of p was found to be significant. This procedure leads to a contradiction in the value of R for Nb. With a view to extending the above work to magnetic multilayers, an AC susceptometer has been designed, built and tested. The results indicate that this instrument would be suitable for work on magnetic

  17. Non-Spherical Microcapsules for Increased Core Content Volume Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to advance microencapsulation from the standard spherical microcapsule to a non-spherical, high-aspect ratio (HAR), elongated microcapsule. This was to be accomplished by developing reproducible methods of synthesizing or fabricating robust, non-spherical, HAR microcapsules. An additional goal of this project was to develop the techniques to the point where scale-up of these methods could be examined. Additionally, this project investigated ways to apply the microencapsulation techniques developed as part of this project to self-healing formulations.

  18. Emulating Spherical Wave Channel Models in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    to emulate spherical wave channel models in multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. In this paper, a technique based on the field synthesis principle is proposed to approximate spherical waves emitted from arbitrarily located point sources with arbitrary polarizations. Simulation results show that static......Spherical wave channel modeling has attracted huge research attention for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and short-distance MIMO systems. Current research work in multi-probe anechoic chamber systems is limited to reproduce radio channels assuming planar wavefronts. There is a need...... spherical waves can be reproduced with a limited number of probes, and the field synthesis accuracy of spherical wave depends on the location of the source point....

  19. Interface characterization in B-based multilayer mirrors for next generation lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naujok, Philipp; Yulin, Sergiy; Müller, Robert; Kaiser, Norbert; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces in La/B_4C and LaN/B_4C multilayer mirrors designed for near normal incidence reflection of 6.x nm EUV light were investigated by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and EUV reflectometry. The thickness and roughness asymmetries of the different interfaces in both studied systems have been identified. A development of interface roughness with an increasing number of bilayers was found by different investigation methods. For near normal incidence, R = 51.1% @ λ = 6.65 nm could be reached with our La/B_4C multilayer mirrors, whereas R = 58.1% was achieved with LaN/B_4C multilayers at the same wavelength. - Highlights: • Interface structure in B-based multilayer mirrors investigated. • Combining X-ray reflection, EUV reflection and transmission electron microscopy • Interface thickness and roughness asymmetry identified • Interface roughness increases with higher number of bilayers.

  20. MISR Dark Water aerosol retrievals: operational algorithm sensitivity to particle non-sphericity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kalashnikova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to theoretically investigate the sensitivity of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR operational (version 22 Dark Water retrieval algorithm to aerosol non-sphericity over the global oceans under actual observing conditions, accounting for current algorithm assumptions. Non-spherical (dust aerosol models, which were introduced in version 16 of the MISR aerosol product, improved the quality and coverage of retrievals in dusty regions. Due to the sensitivity of the retrieval to the presence of non-spherical aerosols, the MISR aerosol product has been successfully used to track the location and evolution of mineral dust plumes from the Sahara across the Atlantic, for example. However, the MISR global non-spherical aerosol optical depth (AOD fraction product has been found to have several climatological artifacts superimposed on valid detections of mineral dust, including high non-spherical fraction in the Southern Ocean and seasonally variable bands of high non-sphericity. In this paper we introduce a formal approach to examine the ability of the operational MISR Dark Water algorithm to distinguish among various spherical and non-spherical particles as a function of the variable MISR viewing geometry. We demonstrate the following under the criteria currently implemented: (1 Dark Water retrieval sensitivity to particle non-sphericity decreases for AOD below about 0.1 primarily due to an unnecessarily large lower bound imposed on the uncertainty in MISR observations at low light levels, and improves when this lower bound is removed; (2 Dark Water retrievals are able to distinguish between the spherical and non-spherical particles currently used for all MISR viewing geometries when the AOD exceeds 0.1; (3 the sensitivity of the MISR retrievals to aerosol non-sphericity varies in a complex way that depends on the sampling of the scattering phase function and the contribution from multiple scattering; and (4 non-sphericity

  1. Performance Test of the Microwave Ion Source with the Multi-layer DC Break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Il; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Cho, Yong Sub

    2012-01-01

    A microwave proton source has been developed as a proton injector for the 100-MeV proton linac of the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project). On microwave ion source, the high voltage for the beam extraction is applied to the plasma chamber, also to the microwave components such as a 2.45GHz magnetron, a 3-stub tuner, waveguides. If microwave components can be installed on ground side, the microwave ion source can be operated and maintained easily. For the purpose, the multi-layer DC break has been developed. A multi-layer insulation has the arrangement of conductors and insulators as shown in the Fig. 1. For the purpose of stable operation as the multi-layer DC break, we checked the radiation of the insulator depending on materials and high voltage test of a fabricated multi-layer insulation. In this report, the details of performance test of the multi-layer DC break will be presented

  2. Developement of Spherical Polyurethane Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Maeda; H. Ohmori; H. Gyotoku

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion We established a new method to produce the spherical polyurethane beads which have narrower distribution of particle size. This narrower distribution was achieved by the polyurethane prepolymer which contains ketimine as a blocked chain-extending agent. Firstly, the prepolymer is dispersed into the aqueous solution containing surfactant. Secondaly, water comes into the inside of prepolymer as oil phase. Thirdly, ketimine is hydrolyzed to amine, and amine reacts with prepolymer immediately to be polyurethane.Our spherical polyurethane beads are very suitable for automotive interior parts especially for instrument panel cover sheet producing under the slush molding method, because of good process ability, excellent durability to the sunlight and mechanical properties at low temperature. See Fig. 1 ,Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 (Page 820).

  3. The calculation of electron depth-dose distributions in multilayer medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuanshan; Xu Mengjie; Li Zhiliang; Feng Yongxiang; Li Panlin

    1989-01-01

    Energy deposition in multilayer medium and the depth dose distribution in the layers are studied. Based on semi-empirical calculation of electron energy absorption in matter with EDMULT program of Tabata and Ito, further work has been carried out to extend the computation to multilayer composite material. New program developed in this paper makes IBM-PC compatible with complicated electron dose calculations

  4. Spherical null geodesics of rotating Kerr black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2013-01-01

    The non-equatorial spherical null geodesics of rotating Kerr black holes are studied analytically. Unlike the extensively studied equatorial circular orbits whose radii are known analytically, no closed-form formula exists in the literature for the radii of generic (non-equatorial) spherical geodesics. We provide here an approximate formula for the radii r ph (a/M;cosi) of these spherical null geodesics, where a/M is the dimensionless angular momentum of the black hole and cos i is an effective inclination angle (with respect to the black-hole equatorial plane) of the orbit. It is well-known that the equatorial circular geodesics of the Kerr spacetime (the prograde and the retrograde orbits with cosi=±1) are characterized by a monotonic dependence of their radii r ph (a/M;cosi=±1) on the dimensionless spin-parameter a/M of the black hole. We use here our novel analytical formula to reveal that this well-known property of the equatorial circular geodesics is actually not a generic property of the Kerr spacetime. In particular, we find that counter-rotating spherical null orbits in the range (3√(3)−√(59))/4≲cosi ph (a/M;cosi=const) on the dimensionless rotation-parameter a/M of the black hole. Furthermore, it is shown that spherical photon orbits of rapidly-rotating black holes are characterized by a critical inclination angle, cosi=√(4/7), above which the coordinate radii of the orbits approach the black-hole radius in the extremal limit. We prove that this critical inclination angle signals a transition in the physical properties of the spherical null geodesics: in particular, it separates orbits which are characterized by finite proper distances to the black-hole horizon from orbits which are characterized by infinite proper distances to the horizon.

  5. Processing and characterization of multilayers for energy device fabrication (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Gurauskis, Jonas

    SOFC and tubular OTM, we present selected challenges in ceramic processing such asymmetric multilayer structures. By optimizing different steps in the ceramic processing, we improved the mechanical properties and gas permeability of porous supports and the (electrochemical) performance of electrodes......The performance of asymmetric multilayer structures in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)/solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC), tubular oxygen transport membranes (OTM) and similar high temperature energy devices is often determined by the ceramic fabrication (for given materials and design). A good...... understanding and control of different processing steps (from powder/materials selection, through shaping and sintering) is of crucial importance to achieve a defect-free multilayer microstructure with the desired properties and performance. Based on the experiences at DTU Energy with the fabrication of planar...

  6. Interface alloying in multilayer thin films using polarized neutron reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    Polarized Neutron Reflectometry (PNR) is an excellent tool to probe magnetic depth profile in multilayer thin film samples. In case of multilayer films with alternating magnetic and non-magnetic layers, PNR can provide magnetic depth profile at the interfaces with better than nanometer resolution. Using PNR and Xray Reflectometry (XRR) together one can obtain chemical composition and magnetic structure, viz. magnetic moment density at interfaces in multilayer films. We have used these two techniques to obtain kinetics of alloy formation at the interfaces and the magnetic nature of the alloy at the interfaces in several important thin films with magnetic/non-magnetic bilayers. These include Ni/Ti, Ni/Al and Si/Ni pairs. Results obtained from these studies will be presented in this talk. (author)

  7. Lamellar multilayer hexadecylaniline-modified gold nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    standard Wilhelmy plate was used for surface pressure sensing. Multilayer ... carried out on a JEOL model 1200EX instrument operated at an accelerating voltage of ... the gold nanoparticles within domains (and reorganization of the domains ...

  8. Sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kopf, D.A.

    In an electron beam device in which an electron beam is developed and then focused by a lens to a particular spot, there is provided a means for eliminating spherical aberration. A sextupole electromagnetic lens is positioned between two focusing lenses. The interaction of the sextupole with the beam compensates for spherical aberration. (GHT)

  9. Tuning the electronic properties of gated multilayer phosphorene: A self-consistent tight-binding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. L.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-04-01

    By taking account of the electric-field-induced charge screening, a self-consistent calculation within the framework of the tight-binding approach is employed to obtain the electronic band structure of gated multilayer phosphorene and the charge densities on the different phosphorene layers. We find charge density and screening anomalies in single-gated multilayer phosphorene and electron-hole bilayers in dual-gated multilayer phosphorene. Due to the unique puckered lattice structure, both intralayer and interlayer charge screenings are important in gated multilayer phosphorene. We find that the electric-field tuning of the band structure of multilayer phosphorene is distinctively different in the presence and absence of charge screening. For instance, it is shown that the unscreened band gap of multilayer phosphorene decreases dramatically with increasing electric-field strength. However, in the presence of charge screening, the magnitude of this band-gap decrease is significantly reduced and the reduction depends strongly on the number of phosphorene layers. Our theoretical results of the band-gap tuning are compared with recent experiments and good agreement is found.

  10. 76 FR 76693 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ..., tongue-and-groove construction or locking joints). All multilayered wood flooring is included within the... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-971] Multilayered Wood Flooring...''), the Department is issuing a countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on multilayered wood flooring from the...

  11. Models for randomly distributed nanoscopic domains on spherical vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Vinicius N. P.; Bolmatov, Dima; Katsaras, John

    2018-06-01

    The existence of lipid domains in the plasma membrane of biological systems has proven controversial, primarily due to their nanoscopic size—a length scale difficult to interrogate with most commonly used experimental techniques. Scattering techniques have recently proven capable of studying nanoscopic lipid domains populating spherical vesicles. However, the development of analytical methods able of predicting and analyzing domain pair correlations from such experiments has not kept pace. Here, we developed models for the random distribution of monodisperse, circular nanoscopic domains averaged on the surface of a spherical vesicle. Specifically, the models take into account (i) intradomain correlations corresponding to form factors and interdomain correlations corresponding to pair distribution functions, and (ii) the analytical computation of interdomain correlations for cases of two and three domains on a spherical vesicle. In the case of more than three domains, these correlations are treated either by Monte Carlo simulations or by spherical analogs of the Ornstein-Zernike and Percus-Yevick (PY) equations. Importantly, the spherical analog of the PY equation works best in the case of nanoscopic size domains, a length scale that is mostly inaccessible by experimental approaches such as, for example, fluorescent techniques and optical microscopies. The analytical form factors and structure factors of nanoscopic domains populating a spherical vesicle provide a new and important framework for the quantitative analysis of experimental data from commonly studied phase-separated vesicles used in a wide range of biophysical studies.

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in multi-structured spherical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.; Lawande, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    An eigenvalue equation for the exponential growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is derived in spherical geometry. The free surface and jump boundary conditions are obtained from the eigenvalue equation. The eigenvalue equation is solved in the cases where the initial fluid density profile has a step function or exponential variation in space and analytical formulae for growth rate of the instability are obtained. The solutions for the step function are generalized for any number N of spherical zones forming an arbitrary fluid density profile. The results of the numerical calculations for N spherical zones are compared with the exact analytical results for exponential fluid density profile with N=10 and a good agreement is observed. The formalism is further used to study the effects of density gradients on Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry. Also analytical formulae are presented for a particular case of N=3 and shell targets. The formalism developed here can be used to study the growth of the instability in present day multi-structured shell targets. (author)

  13. JUST: Joint Upgraded Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, E.A.; Dvorkin, N.Ya.; Filatov, O.G.

    1997-01-01

    The main goals, ideas and the programme of JUST, spherical tokamak (ST) for the plasma burn investigation, are presented. The place and prospects of JUST in thermonuclear investigations are discussed. (author)

  14. Grazing incidence Fe-line telescopes using W/B4C multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Gorenstein, P.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1995-01-01

    The loss of throughput observed at higher energies for traditional grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes coated with high-Z elements can be partly countered by employing multilayers on the outermost reflectors. Using 8-keV reflectivity data from a periodic W/B4C multilayer, the expected performance...

  15. Spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2009-05-01

    Active control of sound has been employed to reduce noise levels around listeners' head using destructive interference from noise-canceling sound sources. Recently, spherical loudspeaker arrays have been studied as multiple-channel sound sources, capable of generating sound fields with high complexity. In this paper, the potential use of a spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound is investigated. A theoretical analysis of the primary and secondary sound fields around a spherical sound source reveals that the natural quiet zones for the spherical source have a shell-shape. Using numerical optimization, quiet zones with other shapes are designed, showing potential for quiet zones with extents that are significantly larger than the well-known limit of a tenth of a wavelength for monopole sources. The paper presents several simulation examples showing quiet zones in various configurations.

  16. Writing nanopatterns with electrochemical oxidation on redox responsive organometallic multilayers by AFM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Jing; Hempenius, Mark A.; Chung, H.J.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoelectrochemical patterning of redox responsive organometallic poly(ferrocenylsilane) (PFS) multilayers is demonstrated by electrochemical dip pen lithography (EDPN). Local electrochemical oxidation and Joule heating of PFS multilayers from the tip are considered as relevant mechanisms related to

  17. Electrically small circularly polarized spherical antenna with air core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2013-01-01

    An electrically small circularly polarized self-resonant spherical antenna with air core is presented. The antenna is a modified multiarm spherical helix exciting TM10 and TE10 spherical modes with equal radiated power, and thus yielding perfect circular polarization over the entire far......-field sphere (except the polar regions, where the radiation is low). The self-resonance is achieved by exciting higher-order TM modes, which provide the necessary electric stored energy in the near-field, while contributing negligibly to the far-field radiation of the antenna. The antenna has electrical size...

  18. Virial theorem and hypervirial theorem in a spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yan; Chen Jingling; Zhang Fulin

    2011-01-01

    The virial theorem in the one- and two-dimensional spherical geometry are presented in both classical and quantum mechanics. Choosing a special class of hypervirial operators, the quantum hypervirial relations in the spherical spaces are obtained. With the aid of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem, these relations can be used to formulate a perturbation theorem without wavefunctions, corresponding to the hypervirial-Hellmann-Feynman theorem perturbation theorem of Euclidean geometry. The one-dimensional harmonic oscillator and two-dimensional Coulomb system in the spherical spaces are given as two sample examples to illustrate the perturbation method. (paper)

  19. Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jingtao; Zhou Sika; Li Haochuan; Huang Qiushi; Wang Zhanshan; Le Guen, Karine; Hu, Min-Hui; Andre, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe

    2010-07-10

    Mg-based multilayers, including SiC/Mg, Co/Mg, B4C/Mg, and Si/Mg, are investigated for solar imaging and a He II calibration lamp at a 30.4 nm wavelength. These multilayers were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering method and characterized by x-ray reflection. The reflectivities of these multilayers were measured by synchrotron radiation. Near-normal-incidence reflectivities of Co/Mg and SiC/Mg multilayer mirrors are as high as 40.3% and 44.6%, respectively, while those of B4C/Mg and Si/Mg mirrors are too low for application. The measured results suggest that SiC/Mg, Co/Mg multilayers are promising for a 30.4 nm wavelength.

  20. Surface patterning of multilayer graphene by ultraviolet laser irradiation in biomolecule sensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tien-Li, E-mail: tlchang@ntnu.edu.tw; Chen, Zhao-Chi

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Direct UV laser irradiation on multilayer graphene was discussed. • Multilayer graphene with screen-printed process was presented. • Surface patterning of multilayer graphene at fluence threshold was investigated. • Electrical response of glucose in sensing devices can be studied. - Abstract: The study presents a direct process for surface patterning of multilayer graphene on the glass substrate as a biosensing device. In contrast to lithography with etching, the proposed process provides simultaneous surface patterning of multilayer graphene through nanosecond laser irradiation. In this study, the multilayer graphene was prepared by a screen printing process. Additionally, the wavelength of the laser beam was 355 nm. To perform the effective laser process with the small heat affected zone, the surface patterns on the sensing devices could be directly fabricated using the laser with optimal control of the pulse overlap at a fluence threshold of 0.63 J/cm{sup 2}. The unique patterning of the laser-ablated surface exhibits their electrical and hydrophilic characteristics. The hydrophilic surface of graphene-based sensing devices was achieved in the process with the pulse overlap of 90%. Furthermore, the sensing devices for controlling the electrical response of glucose by using glucose oxidase can be used in sensors in commercial medical applications.

  1. Simple electrodepositing of CoFe/Cu multilayers: Effect of ferromagnetic layer thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekgül, Atakan, E-mail: atakantekgul@gmail.com [Akdeniz University, Physics Department, Science Faculty, TR-07058 Antalya (Turkey); Uludag University, Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, TR-16059 Bursa (Turkey); Alper, Mürsel [Uludag University, Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, TR-16059 Bursa (Turkey); Kockar, Hakan [Balikesir University, Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, TR-10145 Balikesir (Turkey)

    2017-01-01

    The CoFe/Cu magnetic multilayers were produced by changing CoFe ferromagnetic layers from 3 nm to 10 nm using electrodeposition. By now, the thinnest Cu (0.5 nm) layer thicknesses were used to see whether the GMR effect in the multilayers can be obtained or not since the pinning of non-magnetic layer between the ferromagnetic layers is required. For the proper depositions, the cyclic voltammograms was used, and the current–time transients were obtained. The Cu and CoFe layers were deposited at a cathode potential of −0.3 and −1.5 V with respect to saturated calomel electrode, respectively. From the XRD patterns, the multilayers were shown to be fcc crystal structures. For the magnetization measurements, saturation magnetization increases from 160 to 600 kA/m from 3 to 8 nm ferromagnetic layer thicknesses. And, the coercivity values increase until the 8 nm of the CoFe layer thickness. It is seen that the thin Cu layer (fixed at 0.5 nm) and pinholes support the random magnetization orientation and thus all multilayers exhibited the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect, and the highest GMR value was observed about 5.5%. And, the variation of GMR field sensitivity was calculated. The results show that the GMR and GMR sensitivity are compatible among the multilayers. The CoFe/Cu magnetic multilayers having GMR properties are used in GMR sensors and hard disk drive of the nano-technological devices. - Highlights: • The much thinner (0.5 nm) Cu layer was used to obtain the GMR effect on the electrodeposited CoFe/Cu multilayers. • All samples exhibited GMR and the maximum GMR value was 5.5%. • The M{sub s} and the H{sub c} changed with increasing magnetic layer thickness.

  2. 77 FR 5484 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Amended Antidumping and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ..., tongue-and-groove construction or locking joints). All multilayered wood flooring is included within the... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-970, C-570-971] Multilayered Wood... (``CVD'') orders on multilayered wood flooring from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') to remove an...

  3. Overview of the CERES Edition-4 Multilayer Cloud Property Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F. L.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Smith, R. A.; Brown, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the cloud vertical distribution is important for understanding the role of clouds on earth's radiation budget and climate change. Since high-level cirrus clouds with low emission temperatures and small optical depths can provide a positive feedback to a climate system and low-level stratus clouds with high emission temperatures and large optical depths can provide a negative feedback effect, the retrieval of multilayer cloud properties using satellite observations, like Terra and Aqua MODIS, is critically important for a variety of cloud and climate applications. For the objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), new algorithms have been developed using Terra and Aqua MODIS data to allow separate retrievals of cirrus and stratus cloud properties when the two dominant cloud types are simultaneously present in a multilayer system. In this paper, we will present an overview of the new CERES Edition-4 multilayer cloud property datasets derived from Terra as well as Aqua. Assessment of the new CERES multilayer cloud datasets will include high-level cirrus and low-level stratus cloud heights, pressures, and temperatures as well as their optical depths, emissivities, and microphysical properties.

  4. Photon wavelength dependent valley photocurrent in multilayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hongming; Tang, Ning; Xu, Xiaolong; Shang, LiangLiang; Huang, Wei; Fu, Lei; Fang, Xianfa; Yu, Jiachen; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Dai, Lun; Chen, Yonghai; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The degree of freedom (DOF) of the K (K') valley in transition-metal dichalcogenides, especially molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), offers an opportunity for next-generation valleytronics devices. In this work, the K (K') valley DOF of multilayer MoS2 is studied by means of the photon wavelength dependent circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) at room temperature upon a strong external out-of-plane electric field induced by an ionic liquid (IL) gate, which breaks the spatial-inversion symmetry. It is demonstrated that only on resonant excitations in the K (K') valley can the valley-related CPGE signals in multilayer MoS2 with an IL gate be detected, indicating that the valley contrast is indeed regenerated between the K and K' valleys when the electric field is applied. As expected, it can also be seen that the K (K') valley DOF in multilayer MoS2 can be modulated by the external electric field. The observation of photon wavelength dependent valley photocurrent in multilayer MoS2, with the help of better Ohmic contacts, may pave a way for optoelectronic applications of valleytronics in the future.

  5. Interlayer growth in Mo/B4C multilayered structures upon thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyabero, S. L.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Zoethout, E.; Bosgra, J.; Loch, R. A.; Blanckenhagen, G. von; Bijkerk, F.

    2013-01-01

    Both multilayer period thickness expansion and compaction were observed in Mo/B 4 C multilayers upon annealing, and the physical causes for this were explored in detail. Using in situ time-dependent grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry, period changes down to picometer-scale were resolved. It was shown that the changes depend on the thickness of the B 4 C layers, annealing temperature, and annealing time. Although strong stress relaxation during annealing was observed, it was excluded as a cause for period expansion. Auger electron spectroscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the growth of interlayers, with associated period changes influenced by the supply of B and C atoms to the growing compound interlayers. For multilayers with a Mo thickness of 3 nm, two regimes were recognized, depending on the deposited B 4 C thickness: in multilayers with B 4 C ≤ 1.5 nm, the supply of additional Mo into the already formed MoB x C y interlayer was dominant and led to densification, resulting in period compaction. For multilayers with B 4 C ≥ 2 nm, the B and C enrichment of interlayers formed low density compounds and yielded period expansion.

  6. [The role of BCP in electroluminescence of multilayer organic light-emitting devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhao-Ru; Yang, Sheng-Yi; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Meng, Ling-Chuan

    2009-03-01

    As a hole-blocking layer, 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) is usually used in blue and white light electroluminescent devices. The ability of blocking holes of BCP layer depends on its thickness, and basically holes can tunnel through thin BCP layer. In order to know the role of BCP layer in electroluminescence (EL) of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), in the present paper, the authors designed a multilayer OLED ITO/NPB/BCP/Alq3 : DCJTB/Alq3/Al and investigated the influence of thickness of BCP on the EL spectra of multilayer OLEDs at different applied voltages. The experimental data show that thin BCP layer can block holes partially and tune the energy transfer between different emissive layers, and in this way, it is easy to obtain white emission, but its EL spectra will change with the applied voltages. The EL spectra of multilayer device will remain relatively stable when BCP layer is thick enough, and the holes can hardly tunnel through when the thickness of BCP layer is more than 15 nm. Furthermore, the stability of EL spectra of the multilayer OLED at different applied voltages was discussed.

  7. Direct Magnetic Relief Recording Using As40S60: Mn-Se Nanocomposite Multilayer Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski, A; Achimova, E; Paiuk, O; Meshalkin, A; Prisacar, A; Triduh, G; Oleksenko, P; Lytvyn, P

    2017-12-01

    Processes of holographic recording of surface relief structures using As 2 S 3 :Mn-Se multilayer nanostructures as registering media were studied in this paper. Optical properties of As 2 S 3 :Mn, Se layers, and As 2 S 3 :Mn-Se multilayer nanostructures were investigated. Values of optical bandgaps were obtained from Tauc dependencies. Surface relief diffraction gratings were recorded. Direct one-stage formation of surface relief using multilayer nanostructures is considered. For the first time, possibility of direct formation of magnetic relief simultaneous with surface relief formation under optical recording using As 2 S 3 :Mn-Se multilayer nanostructures is shown.

  8. Structural color of a lycaenid butterfly: analysis of an aperiodic multilayer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, S; Shimizu, Y; Kinoshita, S; Matsuhana, B

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the structural color of the green wing of the lycaenid butterfly Chrysozephyrus brillantinus. Electron microscopy revealed that the bottom plate of the cover scale on the wing consists of an alternating air–cuticle multilayer structure. However, the thicknesses of the layers were not constant but greatly differed depending on the layer, unlike the periodic multilayer designs often adopted for artificial laser-reflecting mirrors. The agreement between the experimentally determined and theoretically calculated reflectance spectra led us to conclude that the multilayer interference in the aperiodic system is the primary origin of the structural color. We analyzed optical interference in this aperiodic system using a simple analytical model and found that two spectral peaks arise from constructive interference among different parts of the multilayer structure. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the aperiodic system over a periodic one. (paper)

  9. The Spherical Deformation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asgar

    2003-01-01

    Miller et al. (1994) describe a model for representing spatial objects with no obvious landmarks. Each object is represented by a global translation and a normal deformation of a sphere. The normal deformation is defined via the orthonormal spherical-harmonic basis. In this paper we analyse the s...

  10. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  11. START: the creation of a spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Alan

    1992-01-01

    The START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) plasma fusion experiment is now operational at AEA Fusion's Culham Laboratory. It is the world's first experiment to explore an extreme limit of the tokamak - the Spherical Tokamak - which theoretical studies predict may have substantial advantages in the search for economic fusion power. The Head of the START project, describes the concept, some of the initial experimental results and the possibility of developing a spherical tokamak power reactor. (author)

  12. Automation Enhancement of Multilayer Laue Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer K. R.; Conley R.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray optics fabrication at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been facilitated by a new, state of the art magnetron sputtering physical deposition system. With its nine magnetron sputtering cathodes and substrate carrier that moves on a linear rail via a UHV brushless linear servo motor, the system is capable of accurately depositing the many thousands of layers necessary for multilayer Laue lenses. I have engineered a versatile and automated control program from scratch for the base system and many subsystems. Its main features include a custom scripting language, a fully customizable graphical user interface, wireless and remote control, and a terminal-based interface. This control system has already been successfully used in the creation of many types of x-ray optics, including several thousand layer multilayer Laue lenses.Before reaching the point at which a deposition can be run, stencil-like masks for the sputtering cathodes must be created to ensure the proper distribution of sputtered atoms. Quality of multilayer Laue lenses can also be difficult to measure, given the size of the thin film layers. I employ my knowledge of software and algorithms to further ease these previously painstaking processes with custom programs. Additionally, I will give an overview of an x-ray optic simulator package I helped develop during the summer of 2010. In the interest of keeping my software free and open, I have worked mostly with the multiplatform Python and the PyQt application framework, utilizing C and C++ where necessary.

  13. High efficiency multilayer blazed gratings for EUV and soft X-rays: Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, Dmitriy; Ahn, Minseung; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Chang, Chih-Hao; Goray, Leonid; Gullikson, Eric; Heilmann, Ralf; Salmassi, Farhad; Schattenburg, Mark; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer coated blazed gratings with high groove density are the best candidates for use in high resolution EUV and soft x-ray spectroscopy. Theoretical analysis shows that such a grating can be potentially optimized for high dispersion and spectral resolution in a desired high diffraction order without significant loss of diffraction efficiency. In order to realize this potential, the grating fabrication process should provide a perfect triangular groove profile and an extremely smooth surface of the blazed facets. Here we report on recent progress achieved at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in fabrication of high quality multilayer coated blazed gratings. The blazed gratings were fabricated using scanning beam interference lithography followed by wet anisotropic etching of silicon. A 200 nm period grating coated with a Mo/Si multilayer composed with 30 bi-layers demonstrated an absolute efficiency of 37.6percent in the 3rd diffraction order at 13.6 nm wavelength. The groove profile of the grating was thoroughly characterized with atomic force microscopy before and after the multilayer deposition. The obtained metrology data were used for simulation of the grating efficiency with the vector electromagnetic PCGrate-6.1 code. The simulations showed that smoothing of the grating profile during the multilayer deposition is the main reason for efficiency losses compared to the theoretical maximum. Investigation of the grating with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a complex evolution of the groove profile in the course of the multilayer deposition. Impact of the shadowing and smoothing processes on growth of the multilayer on the surface of the sawtooth substrate is discussed.

  14. Evolutionary games on multilayer networks: a colloquium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-05-01

    Networks form the backbone of many complex systems, ranging from the Internet to human societies. Accordingly, not only is the range of our interactions limited and thus best described and modeled by networks, it is also a fact that the networks that are an integral part of such models are often interdependent or even interconnected. Networks of networks or multilayer networks are therefore a more apt description of social systems. This colloquium is devoted to evolutionary games on multilayer networks, and in particular to the evolution of cooperation as one of the main pillars of modern human societies. We first give an overview of the most significant conceptual differences between single-layer and multilayer networks, and we provide basic definitions and a classification of the most commonly used terms. Subsequently, we review fascinating and counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes that emerge due to different types of interdependencies between otherwise independent populations. The focus is on coupling through the utilities of players, through the flow of information, as well as through the popularity of different strategies on different network layers. The colloquium highlights the importance of pattern formation and collective behavior for the promotion of cooperation under adverse conditions, as well as the synergies between network science and evolutionary game theory.

  15. Buckling strength of spherical shells under combined loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, H.; Kokubo, K.; Takayanagi, M.; Hayasaka, Y.; Kume, T.; Nagata, T.

    1995-01-01

    Many studies on buckling of cylindrical shells have been conducted, and many buckling evaluation equations have been proposed for actual plant designs; however, buckling of spherical shells under combined horizontal and vertical loads cannot be evaluated due to insufficient data. There is a particular lack of buckling data for spherical shells under lateral loads. To establish a method for estimating the buckling strength of spherical shells, we investigate the interactions between horizontal and vertical (compressive tensile) loads by conducting buckling tests. Applying several combinations of these loads in tests and using computer linear analysis, we obtain interaction curves. This study reports on the buckling tests conducted using spherical shell 1120 mm in dia., 0.7 mm thick and 696 mm high, which are shaped individually by press-forming and finally joined together by four meridional welds, using a specially made jig. Initial imperfections before testing and local deformations after each loading increment during testing are measured with special measuring equipment, and the interaction curve of horizontal and vertical loads and effect of imperfection on the buckling strength of spherical shells are obtained. Nonlinear FEM programs are developed using an 8-node isoparametric shell element and a four-node quadrilateral element of C 0 type with reduced integration based upon a Mindlin-Reissner theory which includes transverse shear. Actual initial imperfections are generally in irregular patterns. Thus, there may be several definitions of the equivalent magnitudes of initial imperfections related to buckling loads. Equivalent magnitudes have no practical meaning unless they can be obtained easily not only for small structures such as test shells but also for large actual structures. In the present study, we define the equivalent magnitude of initial imperfections as the maximum local ruggedness measured radially from a circular temperature having a radius equal

  16. EUV multilayer defect compensation (MDC) by absorber pattern modification: from theory to wafer validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Linyong; Hu, Peter; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram; Peng, Danping; Li, Ying; Chen, Dongxue

    2011-11-01

    According to the ITRS roadmap, mask defects are among the top technical challenges to introduce extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography into production. Making a multilayer defect-free extreme ultraviolet (EUV) blank is not possible today, and is unlikely to happen in the next few years. This means that EUV must work with multilayer defects present on the mask. The method proposed by Luminescent is to compensate effects of multilayer defects on images by modifying the absorber patterns. The effect of a multilayer defect is to distort the images of adjacent absorber patterns. Although the defect cannot be repaired, the images may be restored to their desired targets by changing the absorber patterns. This method was first introduced in our paper at BACUS 2010, which described a simple pixel-based compensation algorithm using a fast multilayer model. The fast model made it possible to complete the compensation calculations in seconds, instead of days or weeks required for rigorous Finite Domain Time Difference (FDTD) simulations. Our SPIE 2011 paper introduced an advanced compensation algorithm using the Level Set Method for 2D absorber patterns. In this paper the method is extended to consider process window, and allow repair tool constraints, such as permitting etching but not deposition. The multilayer defect growth model is also enhanced so that the multilayer defect can be "inverted", or recovered from the top layer profile using a calibrated model.

  17. Exploring interface morphology of a deeply buried layer in periodic multilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Gangadhar; Srivastava, A. K.; Tiwari, M. K., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013, Madhya Pradesh (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai-400094, Maharashtra (India); Khooha, Ajay; Singh, A. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2016-06-27

    Long-term durability of a thin film device is strongly correlated with the nature of interface structure associated between different constituent layers. Synthetic periodic multilayer structures are primarily employed as artificial X-ray Bragg reflectors in many applications, and their reflection efficiency is predominantly dictated by the nature of the buried interfaces between the different layers. Herein, we demonstrate the applicability of the combined analysis approach of the X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence measurements for the reliable and precise determination of a buried interface structure inside periodic X-ray multilayer structures. X-ray standing wave field (XSW) generated under Bragg reflection condition is used to probe the different constituent layers of the W- B{sub 4}C multilayer structure at 10 keV and 12 keV incident X-ray energies. Our results show that the XSW assisted fluorescence measurements are markedly sensitive to the location and interface morphology of a buried layer structure inside a periodic multilayer structure. The cross sectional transmission electron microscopy results obtained on the W-B{sub 4}C multilayer structure provide a deeper look on the overall reliability and accuracy of the XSW method. The method described here would also be applicable for nondestructive characterization of a wide range of thin film based semiconductor and optical devices.

  18. KLASIFIKASI WEBSITE MENGGUNAKAN ALGORITMA MULTILAYER PERCEPTRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Purnama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sistem klasifikasi merupakan proses temu balik informasi yang sangat bergantung dari elemen-elemen penyusunnya.Sistem ini banyak digunakan untuk mengatasi permasalahan segmentasi data. Klasifikasi dapat digunakan pada website sebagaimetode untuk mengelompokkan website. Website merupakan salah satu data yang memiliki informasi yang beraneka-ragam,sehingga pengelompokan data ini penting untuk diteliti. Sistem klasifikasi dimulai dengan melakukan proses pengumpulaninformasi dari halaman website (parsing dan untuk setiap hasil parsing dilakukan proses penghapusan kata henti, stemming,feature selection dengan tf-idf. Hasil dari proses ini berupa fitur yang menjadi inputan algoritma Multilayer Perceptron. Dalamalgoritma ini terjadi proses pembelajaran terhadap pola input masukan dan pembuatan bobot pelatihan. Bobot ini akandigunakan pada proses klasifikasi. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan bahwa algoritma Multilayer Perceptron dapatmenghasilkan klasifikasi website dengan akurasi yang bagus. Hal ini dibuktikan dengan beberapa tahapan penelitian yangberbeda dan didapatkan nilai akurasi rata-rata diatas 70%.

  19. Magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of Co/Cu multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, X. K., E-mail: xiukun.hu@ptb.de; Krzysteczko, P.; Liebing, N.; Schumacher, H. W. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Serrano-Guisan, S. [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal); Rott, K.; Reiss, G. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Kimling, J.; Böhnert, T.; Nielsch, K. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    The switching of the magnetic configuration of giant magnetoresistance multilayers not only changes the electrical and thermal conductivities but also the thermopower. We study the magnetotransport and the magnetothermoelectric properties of Co/Cu multilayer devices in a lateral thermal gradient. The Seebeck coefficient reaches values up to −18 μV/K at room temperature and shows a magnetic field dependence up to 28.6% upon spin reversal. In combination with thermal conductivity data of the same Co/Cu stack, we find a magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of up to 65%. Furthermore, a magneto-power factor of up to 110% is derived.

  20. Optical trapping of a spherically symmetric sphere in the ray-optics regime: a model for optical tweezers upon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yiren; Hsu Long; Chi Sien

    2006-01-01

    Since their invention in 1986, optical tweezers have become a popular manipulation and force measurement tool in cellular and molecular biology. However, until recently there has not been a sophisticated model for optical tweezers on trapping cells in the ray-optics regime. We present a model for optical tweezers to calculate the optical force upon a spherically symmetric multilayer sphere representing a common biological cell. A numerical simulation of this model shows that not only is the magnitude of the optical force upon a Chinese hamster ovary cell significantly three times smaller than that upon a polystyrene bead of the same size, but the distribution of the optical force upon a cell is also much different from that upon a uniform particle, and there is a 30% difference in the optical trapping stiffness of these two cases. Furthermore, under a small variant condition for the refractive indices of any adjacent layers of the sphere, this model provides a simple approximation to calculate the optical force and the stiffness of an optical tweezers system

  1. Near-field heat transfer between graphene/hBN multilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bo; Guizal, Brahim; Zhang, Zhuomin M.; Fan, Shanhui; Antezza, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    We study the radiative heat transfer between multilayer structures made by a periodic repetition of a graphene sheet and a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slab. Surface plasmons in a monolayer graphene can couple with a hyperbolic phonon polaritons in a single hBN film to form hybrid polaritons that can assist photon tunneling. For periodic multilayer graphene/hBN structures, the stacked metallic/dielectric array can give rise to a further effective hyperbolic behavior, in addition to the intri...

  2. Magnetic properties and structure of FePt/FeMn multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Suzuki, Takao

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study of the magnetic properties by ion beam sputter-deposition system, was conducted in conjunction with the structure of FePt/FeMn multilayers fabricated onto MgO(0 0 1) substrates. Both parallel and perpendicular exchange biases were observed in the multilayers and were found to decrease drastically, as the deposition temperature is higher than 350 deg. C, which is evidently due to the interdiffusion at the interface. The thickness dependence study shows that the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy observed in the multilayers originates from surface anisotropy, being consistent with the decrease of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as the deposition temperature is increased. The difference between parallel and perpendicular blocking temperatures that was clearly observed, is possibly due to the spin canting out of plane at the interface

  3. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan

    2013-06-01

    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics and the Low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology for its high density integration. A coupling slot has been used to perform vertical integration, which can be easily optimized through its length. The measured input return loss within the bandwidth of interest (32 GHz-38 GHz) is less than -15 dB and -18 dB for the multilayer transition and the power divider, respectively. The lateral dimensions of a multilayer system, such as a feed network of an array, can be greatly reduced by employing these 3D slot-coupled components. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Invariants of the spherical sector in conformal mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakobyan, Tigran; Nersessian, Armen; Saghatelian, Armen; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    A direct relation is established between the constants of motion for conformal mechanics and those for its spherical part. In this way, we find the complete set of functionally independent constants of motion for the so-called cuboctahedric Higgs oscillator, which is just the spherical part of the rational A 3 Calogero model (describing four Calogero particles after decoupling their center of mass).

  5. Babcock and Wilcox plate fabrication experience with uranium silicide spherical fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Lawrence E.; Pace, Brett W.

    1996-01-01

    This report is written to present the fuel fabrication experience of Babcock and Wilcox using atomized spherical uranium silicide powder. The intent is to demonstrate the ability to fabricate fuel plates using spherical powder and to provide useful information proceeding into the next phase of work using this type of fuel. The limited quantity of resources- spherical powder and time, did not allow for much process optimizing in this work scope. However, the information contained within provides optimism for the future of spherical uranium silicide fuel plate fabrication at Babcock and Wilcox.The success of assembling fuel elements with spherical powder will enable Babcock and Wilcox to reduce overall costs to its customers while still maintaining our reputation for providing high quality research and test reactor products. (author)

  6. Magnetic metallic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, R.Q.

    1994-04-01

    Utilizing self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations, several aspects of multilayers and interfaces are explored: enhancement and reduction of the local magnetic moments, magnetic coupling at the interfaces, magnetic arrangements within each film and among non-neighboring films, global symmetry of the systems, frustration, orientation of the various moments with respect to an outside applied field, and magnetic-field induced transitions. Magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic-normal-metal multilayers is found by solving the Boltzmann equation. Results explain the giant negative magnetoresistance encountered in these systems when an initial antiparallel arrangement is changed into a parallel configuration by an external magnetic field. The calculation depends on (1) geometric parameters (thicknesses of layers), (2) intrinsic metal parameters (number of conduction electrons, magnetization, and effective masses in layers), (3) bulk sample properties (conductivity relaxation times), (4) interface scattering properties (diffuse scattering versus potential scattering at the interfaces, and (5) outer surface scattering properties (specular versus diffuse surface scattering). It is found that a large negative magnetoresistance requires considerable asymmetry in interface scattering for the two spin orientations. Features of the interfaces that may produce an asymmetrical spin-dependent scattering are studied: varying interfacial geometric random roughness with no lateral coherence, correlated (quasi-periodic) roughness, and varying chemical composition of the interfaces. The interplay between these aspects of the interfaces may enhance or suppress the magnetoresistance, depending on whether it increases or decreases the asymmetry in the spin-dependent scattering of the conduction electrons

  7. Spherical Cancer Models in Tumor Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Bastien Weiswald

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D in vitro models have been used in cancer research as an intermediate model between in vitro cancer cell line cultures and in vivo tumor. Spherical cancer models represent major 3D in vitro models that have been described over the past 4 decades. These models have gained popularity in cancer stem cell research using tumorospheres. Thus, it is crucial to define and clarify the different spherical cancer models thus far described. Here, we focus on in vitro multicellular spheres used in cancer research. All these spherelike structures are characterized by their well-rounded shape, the presence of cancer cells, and their capacity to be maintained as free-floating cultures. We propose a rational classification of the four most commonly used spherical cancer models in cancer research based on culture methods for obtaining them and on subsequent differences in sphere biology: the multicellular tumor spheroid model, first described in the early 70s and obtained by culture of cancer cell lines under nonadherent conditions; tumorospheres, a model of cancer stem cell expansion established in a serum-free medium supplemented with growth factors; tissue-derived tumor spheres and organotypic multicellular spheroids, obtained by tumor tissue mechanical dissociation and cutting. In addition, we describe their applications to and interest in cancer research; in particular, we describe their contribution to chemoresistance, radioresistance, tumorigenicity, and invasion and migration studies. Although these models share a common 3D conformation, each displays its own intrinsic properties. Therefore, the most relevant spherical cancer model must be carefully selected, as a function of the study aim and cancer type.

  8. Multilayer Network Planning - A Practical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Autenrieth, Achim

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a pragmatic and practical multilayer network planning approach based on a candidate lightpath auxiliary graph model. The paper discusses, how this approach can be applied to offline network planning as well as dynamic planning and provisioning of services.

  9. Erosion and damage by hard spherical particles on glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikkerveer, P.J.; Verspui, M.A.; Skerka, G.J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Solid particle impact of hard spherical particles on glass is of fundamental interest because of the presence of a number of different impact regimes. Understanding the impact of spherical particles is also a step toward modeling the behavior of rounded particles. This paper verifies theoretical

  10. Biocolloids with ordered urease multilayer shells as enzymatic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvov, Y; Caruso, F

    2001-09-01

    The preparation of biocolloids with organized enzyme-containing multilayer shells for exploitation as colloidal enzymatic nanoreactors is described. Urease multilayers were assembled onto submicrometer-sized polystyrene spheres by the sequential adsorption of urease and polyelectrolyte, in a predetermined order, utilizing electrostatic interactions for layer growth. The catalytic activity of the biocolloids increased proportionally with the number of urease layers deposited on the particles, demonstrating that biocolloid particles with tailored enzymatic activities can be produced. It was further found that precoating the latex spheres with nanoparticles (40-nm silica or 12-nm magnetite) enhanced both the stability (with respect to adsorption) and enzymatic activity of the urease multilayers. The presence of the magnetite nanoparticle coating also provided a magnetic function that allowed the biocolloids to be easily and rapidly separated with a permanent magnet. The fabrication of such colloids opens new avenues for the application of bioparticles and represents a promising route for the creation of complex catalytic particles.

  11. Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes by blade coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Rong; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Lee, Kuan-Chen; Horng, Sheng-Fu

    2008-10-01

    Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes fabricated by blade coating are presented. Multilayer of polymers can be easily deposited by blade coating on a hot plate. The multilayer structure is confirmed by the total thickness and the cross section view in the scanning electron microscope. The film thickness variation is only 3.3% in 10cm scale and the film roughness is about 0.3nm in the micron scale. The efficiency of single layer poly(para-phenylene vinylene) copolymer Super Yellow and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO, deep blue) devices are 9 and 1.7cd/A, respectively, by blade coating. The efficiency of the PFO device is raised to 2.9cd/A with a 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenylyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) hole-blocking layer and to 2.3cd/A with a poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(4,4'-(N-(4-sec-butylphenyl))diphenylamine)] elec-tron-blocking layer added by blade coating.

  12. Spherical reconciliation for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhao; Shi Jian-Hong; Li Feng-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Information reconciliation is a significant step for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. We propose a reconciliation method that allows two authorized parties to extract a consistent and secure binary key in a CV-QKD protocol, which is based on Gaussian-modulated coherent states and homodyne detection. This method named spherical reconciliation is based on spherical quantization and non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. With the suitable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and code rate of non-binary LDPC codes, spherical reconciliation algorithm has a high efficiency and can extend the transmission distance of CV-QKD. (paper)

  13. Investigation of optical properties of Cu/Ni multilayer nanowires embedded in etched ion-track template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Lu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yao, Huijun, E-mail: Yaohuijun@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Duan, Jinglai; Chen, Yonghui [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lyu, Shuangbao [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Maaz, Khan [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mo, Dan [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Jie, E-mail: J.Liu@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Sun, Youmei; Hou, Mingdong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram of measurement of extinction spectra of Cu/Ni multilayer nanowire arrays embedded in the template after removing the gold/copper substrate. - Highlights: • The optical properties of Cu/Ni multilayer nanowire arrays were first investigated by UV/Vis/NIR spectrometer and it was confirmed that the extinction peaks strongly related to the periodicity of the multilayer nanowire. • The Ni segment was thought as a kind of impurity which can change the surface electron distribution and thereby the extinction peaks of nanowire. • Current work supplied the clear layer thickness information of Cu and Ni in Cu/Ni multilayer nanowire with TEM and EDS line-scan profile analysis. - Abstract: For understanding the interaction between light and noble/magnetism multilayer nanowires, Cu/Ni multilayer nanowires are fabricated by a multi-potential step deposition technique in etched ion-track polycarbonate template. The component and the corresponding layer thickness of multilayer nanowire are confirmed by TEM and EDS line-scan analysis. By tailoring the nanowire diameter, the Cu layer thickness and the periodicity of the nanowire, the extinction spectral of nanowire arrays exhibit an extra sensitivity to the change of structural parameters. The resonance wavelength caused by surface plasmon resonance increases obviously with increasing the nanowire diameter, the Cu layer thickness and the periodicity. The observations in our work can be explained by the “impurity effect” and coupled effect and can also be optimized for developing optical devices based on multilayer nanowires.

  14. The microstructure and mechanical properties of multilayer diamond-like carbon films with different modulation ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhaoying; Zheng, Y.J.; Jiang, F.; Leng, Y.X.; Sun Hong; Huang Nan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The multilayer DLC films with different modulation ratios have been fabricated by FCVA. ► The multilayer DLC films can effectively decrease the residual stress of the DLC films. ► The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 shows the best wear resistance. - Abstract: The multilayer DLC films consisting of sp 2 -rich DLC layers (soft DLC) and sp 3 -rich DLC layers (hard DLC) with different modulation ratios (thickness ratio of the hard DLC to soft DLC) ranging from 2:1, 1:1 to 1:2 had been deposited on Si (1 0 0) wafer and Ti–6Al–4V alloy substrates by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition. The effect of modulation ratio on the microstructure and properties of the multilayer DLC films including sp 3 content, residual stress, mechanical properties, adhesion strength and wear resistance were studied by Raman spectroscopy, profilometry technique, nanoindenter, Vickers indentation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ball-on-disc reciprocating friction test. The results showed that the sp 3 content and the hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreased with modulation ratios decreasing. The stress of the multilayer DLC films could be effectively reduced and the stress decreased with the modulation ratio decreasing. The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 had the best wear resistance due to a balance between hardness and residual stress.

  15. Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niese, Sven; Krüger, Peter; Kubec, Adam; Laas, Roman; Gawlitza, Peter; Melzer, Kathleen; Braun, Stefan; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2014-01-01

    Diffractive optics for hard X-rays feature superior properties in terms of resolution and efficiency, if volume diffraction effects are exploited all-over the aperture. For multilayer Laue lenses, preferably a wedged geometry is required to obtain this effect. We present an approach utilizing an additional stress layer to realize the necessary geometrical modifications where each lens can be customized to a selected photon energy independently of the given multilayer deposition. The quality of the deposition of the stress layer is evaluated using a laboratory X-ray microscope prior to its application at synchrotron radiation facilities with a special approach to measure the relative layer tilt at high spatial resolution. - Highlights: • Wedged multilayer Laue lenses were fabricated using an additional stress layer. • Each lens can be customized to any photon energy independently of the multilayer. • The relative layer tilt is measured using laboratory X-ray microscopy

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of effects of twin interfaces on Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Tao; Peng, Xianghe; Weng, Shayuan; Zhao, Yinbo; Gao, Fengshan; Deng, Lijun; Wang, Zhongchang

    2016-01-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation of the indentation on pure Cu and Ni films and Cu/Ni multilayered films with a cylindrical indenter, aimed to investigate the effects of the cubic-on-cubic interface and hetero-twin interface on their mechanical properties. We also investigate systematically the formation of twin boundary in the pure metals and the effects of the cubic-on-cubic and hetero-twin interface on mechanical properties of the multilayers. We find that the slip of the horizontal stacking fault can release the internal stress, resulting in insignificant strengthening. The change in the crystal orientation by horizontal movement of the atoms in a layer-by-layer manner is found to initiate the movement of twin boundary, and the hetero-twin interface is beneficial to the hardening of multilayers. Moreover, we also find that increasing number of hetero-twin interfaces can harden the Cu/Ni multilayers.

  17. Electrostatic axisymmetric mirror with removable spherical aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmuzaev, S.B.; Serikbaeva, G.S.; Hizirova, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The electrostatic axisymmetric mirror, assembled from three coaxial cylinders with an equal diameter d and under the potential v1, v2 and v3, was computed. The proportions of geometrical and electric parameters of the mirror, with which the spherical 3-order aberration may be eliminated, were determined. The computation outcomes of the case, when the focal power of the mirror is enough large and the object plane in the focus is out of its field, are presented (Fig. 1 - potentials proportion that makes elimination of the spherical aberration possible; Fig. 2 - the focus coordinates when the spherical aberration is eliminated). The geometrical values are presented by d, and the electric ones are presented by v1. The figures on the curves present a length of the second (middle) electrode. The zero point is located in the middle of the gap between the first and second electrodes The investigated mirror may be used as a lens for the transmission electron microscope

  18. A study on heat transfer characteristics of spherical and fibrous alumina nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang Kyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spherical and fibrous alumina nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed wire evaporation and hydrolysis methods. ► Fibrous alumina nanofluid exhibited higher thermal conductivity enhancement than spherical one due to entangled structure of nanofibers with high aspect-ratio. ► Decreasing rate of viscosity with temperature for fibrous alumina nanofluid was much larger than that for spherical one. - Abstract: Ethylene glycol based nanofluids containing spherical/fibrous alumina nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed wire evaporation and hydrolysis methods. The crystallographic and morphological properties of the prepared nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas adsorption and transmission electron microscopy. The average diameter of spherical alumina nanoparticles was about 80 nm and the alumina nanofibers exhibited a high aspect ratio (length/width). The viscosity and thermal conductivity of the spherical/fibrous alumina nanofluids were experimentally measured in the temperature range from 25 to 80 °C. For the fibrous alumina nanofluid, the increase of temperature raised thermal conductivity but lowered viscosity. On the other hand, for the spherical alumina nanofluid, both thermal conductivity and viscosity were decreased with increasing temperature. In particular, the fibrous alumina nanofluid exhibited a higher enhancement of thermal conductivity than the spherical one due to the well-connected structure between entangled nanofibers with high aspect ratio.

  19. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  20. Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, V F

    1997-01-01

    Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Dar...

  1. Cylindrical and spherical dust-acoustic wave modulations in dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The nonlinear wave modulation of planar and non-planar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-acoustic waves (DAW) propagating in dusty plasmas, in the presence of non-extensive distribu- tions for ions and electrons is investigated. By employing multiple scales technique, a cylindrically and spherically modified ...

  2. 76 FR 76690 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... construction or locking joints). All multilayered wood flooring is included within the definition of the... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-970] Multilayered Wood Flooring... is issuing an antidumping duty order on multilayered wood flooring (``wood flooring'') from the...

  3. Magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy/molybdenum multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romera, M.; Ciudad, D.; Maicas, M.; Aroca, C.; Ranchal, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the magnetic properties of sputtered Permalloy (Py: Ni 80 Fe 20 )/molybdenum (Mo) multilayer thin films. We show that it is possible to maintain a low coercivity and a high permeability in thick sputtered Py films when reducing the out-of-plane component of the anisotropy by inserting thin film spacers of a non-magnetic material like Mo. For these kind of multilayers, we have found coercivities which are close to those for single layer films with no out-of-plane anisotropy. The coercivity is also dependent on the number of layers exhibiting a minimum value when each single Py layer has a thickness close to the transition thickness between Neel and Bloch domain walls.

  4. Magnetic transition in Co/(Gd-Co) multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svalov, A.V.; Fernandez, A.; Barandiaran, J.M.; Vas'kovskiy, V.O.; Orue, I.; Tejedor, M.; Kurlyandskaya, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    [Co/Gd 0.36 Co 0.64 ] 4 /Co multilayers with Co termination layer have been prepared by rf sputtering. They form macroscopic ferrimagnets with a compensation temperature (T comp ) determined by the thickness ratio of the layers. In low fields the magnetization of Co and Gd-Co layers are along the axis of the applied field. Increasing field makes the moments of both the Co and Gd-Co layers deviate from the axis of the field giving rise to a transition into a twisted state. These magnetic transitions were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), magneto-optic Kerr effect and magnetoresistance measurements at various temperatures. The nucleation and evolution of surface- and bulk-twisted magnetic states were also observed in these multilayers

  5. 24 h stability of thick multilayer silicene in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Padova, Paola; Ottaviani, Carlo; Quaresima, Claudio; Generosi, Amanda; Paci, Barbara; Le Lay, Guy; Olivieri, Bruno; Imperatori, Patrizia; Salomon, Eric; Angot, Thierry; Quagliano, Lucia; Romano, Claudia; Vona, Alessandro; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Thick epitaxial multilayer silicene films with a √3 × √3R(30°) surface structure show only mild surface oxidation after 24 h in air, as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed in air without any protective capping, as well as, for comparison, with a thin Al 2 O 3 cap, showed the (002) reflection and the G, D and 2D Raman structures, which are unique fingerprints of thick multilayer silicene. (letter)

  6. Determining spherical lens correction for astronaut training underwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jason; Gibson, C Robert; Strauss, Samuel

    2011-09-01

    To develop a model that will accurately predict the distance spherical lens correction needed to be worn by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts while training underwater. The replica space suit's helmet contains curved visors that induce refractive power when submersed in water. Anterior surface powers and thicknesses were measured for the helmet's protective and inside visors. The impact of each visor on the helmet's refractive power in water was analyzed using thick lens calculations and Zemax optical design software. Using geometrical optics approximations, a model was developed to determine the optimal distance spherical power needed to be worn underwater based on the helmet's total induced spherical power underwater and the astronaut's manifest spectacle plane correction in air. The validity of the model was tested using data from both eyes of 10 astronauts who trained underwater. The helmet's visors induced a total power of -2.737 D when placed underwater. The required underwater spherical correction (FW) was linearly related to the spectacle plane spherical correction in air (FAir): FW = FAir + 2.356 D. The mean magnitude of the difference between the actual correction worn underwater and the calculated underwater correction was 0.20 ± 0.11 D. The actual and calculated values were highly correlated (r = 0.971) with 70% of eyes having a difference in magnitude of astronauts. The model accurately predicts the actual values worn underwater and can be applied (more generally) to determine a suitable spectacle lens correction to be worn behind other types of masks when submerged underwater.

  7. Guided wave sensing of polyelectrolyte multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Pedersen, H.C.; Cuisinier, F.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    A planar optical waveguide configuration is proposed to monitor the buildup of thick polyelectrolyte multilayers on the surface of the waveguide in aqueous solutions. Instead of detecting the layer by the electromagnetic evanescent field the polyelectrolyte layer acts as an additional waveguiding...

  8. The visco-elastic multilayer program VEROAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    The mathematical principles and derivation of a linear visco-elastic multilayer computer program are described. The mathematical derivation is based on Fourier Transformation. The program is called VEROAD, which is an acronym for Visco-Elastic ROad Analysis Delft. The program allows calculation of

  9. Magnetotransport and magnetization reversal of electrodeposited multilayer nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xueti

    2007-12-01

    Electrodeposited magnetic multilayer nanowires are ideal materials to study nanoscale magnetism and the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in the current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) geometry. This is because the diameter of each nanowire is uniform, the surface of the nanowire is smooth, and the thickness of both the magnetic and non-magnetic layers can be varied to either larger or smaller than the spin diffusion length which is an important parameter in magnetotransport study. In addition, the aspect ratio (layer-thickness/diameter) that is related to shape anisotropy can be varied for magnetization reversal study. There has been little understanding in the magnetization reversal mechanism of multilayer nanowires, which is complicated due to the dipolar interactions between magnetic layers in each nanowire and between nanowires. The objective of this work is to study the magnetization reversal mechanism of multilayer nanowires using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), where various dipolar interactions are taken into account. Although multilayer nanowires are ideal for the study of the CPP-GMR effect, there remains technical difficulty in making an electrical contact with individual nanowires for the CPP-GMR measurements. In this work, a point-contact method using a conductive plunger tip was developed in-house, that enabled us to measure the CPP-GMR of selected multilayer nanowires in an array of vertically aligned nanowires in each sample. To examine the CPP-GMR and compare the results with theoretical models, the CPP-GMR data were systematically obtained from samples with various magnetic and non-magnetic layer thicknesses. It was found from VSM measurement that the magnetization reversal mode in electrodeposited CoNi/Cu multilayer nanowires depends on the shape and thickness of the CoNi layers where the mode in rod-shaped thick CoNi layers is different from that in disk-shaped thin CoNi layers. The reversal mode in coherent rotation or curling was determined

  10. Depth profile analysis of electrodeposited nanoscale multilayers by Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, G.L.; Berenyi, Z.; Vad, K.; Peter, L.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nanoscale multilayers have been in the focus of research since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in this family of nanostructures. The first observation of GMR on sputtered magnetic/non-magnetic multilayers was followed by the detection of the same effect in electrodeposited Co-Ni-Cu/Cu multilayers within half a decade. Electrodeposition has long been considered as an inexpensive alternative of the high-vacuum methods to produce multilayers with GMR, although the GMR effect observed for electrodeposited multilayers is usually inferior to multilayers produced by physical methods. Electrochemistry appears to be an exclusive technology to produce multilayered nanowires by using porous templates. In spite of the large number of papers about the multilayers themselves, data on the depth profile of electrodeposited multilayer samples are very scarce. It has long been known that the simultaneous electrodeposition of the iron group metals takes place in the so-called anomalous manner. The diagnostic criterion of the anomalous codeposition is that the metallic component of lower standard potential (the Co in the case of Ni/Co) can be discharged together with the more noble one (Ni) at potentials where the less noble component (Co) alone cannot be deposited onto a substrate composed of the parent metal; moreover, the less noble metal (Co) is deposited preferentially. We have investigated the composition gradient along the growth direction of electrodeposited Co/Cu and CoNiCu/Cu multilayers films using SNMS. Samples were electrodeposited using the single bath method. Commercial Cu sheets and an Cr/Cu layer evaporated onto Si (111) surface were used as substrates with high and low roughness, respectively. The depth profiles of the samples were recorded using SNMS (INA-X, Specs GmbH, Berlin) in the Direct Bombardment Mode. Depth profile analysis of electrodeposited magnetic/nonmagnetic layered structures on

  11. Full Piezoelectric Multilayer-Stacked Hybrid Actuation/Transduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Zu, Tian-Bing

    2011-01-01

    The Stacked HYBATS (Hybrid Actuation/Transduction system) demonstrates significantly enhanced electromechanical performance by using the cooperative contributions of the electromechanical responses of multilayer, stacked negative strain components and positive strain components. Both experimental and theoretical studies indicate that, for Stacked HYBATS, the displacement is over three times that of a same-sized conventional flextensional actuator/transducer. The coupled resonance mode between positive strain and negative strain components of Stacked HYBATS is much stronger than the resonance of a single element actuation only when the effective lengths of the two kinds of elements match each other. Compared with the previously invented hybrid actuation system (HYBAS), the multilayer Stacked HYBATS can be designed to provide high mechanical load capability, low voltage driving, and a highly effective piezoelectric constant. The negative strain component will contract, and the positive strain component will expand in the length directions when an electric field is applied on the device. The interaction between the two elements makes an enhanced motion along the Z direction for Stacked-HYBATS. In order to dominate the dynamic length of Stacked-HYBATS by the negative strain component, the area of the cross-section for the negative strain component will be much larger than the total cross-section areas of the two positive strain components. The transverse strain is negative and longitudinal strain positive in inorganic materials, such as ceramics/single crystals. Different piezoelectric multilayer stack configurations can make a piezoelectric ceramic/single-crystal multilayer stack exhibit negative strain or positive strain at a certain direction without increasing the applied voltage. The difference of this innovation from the HYBAS is that all the elements can be made from one-of-a-kind materials. Stacked HYBATS can provide an extremely effective piezoelectric

  12. Nanosecond Surface Microdischarges in Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinov, A. E.; Lyubimtseva, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    Multilayer structures in which nanosecond surface microdischarges are generated have been developed, fabricated, and investigated. In these structures, layers are made in the form of thin transparent films, and a plasma discharge channel is formed in thin spacings between the layers. Passage of the discharge channel from one layer into the neighboring layer is implemented via pre-fabricated microholes. Images of microdischarges were obtained which confirmed that their plasma channels are formed according to the route assigned by the holes. The route may follow a fairly complex scheme and have self-intersection points and portions in which the electrons are bound to move in opposition to the electric field. In studying the shape of channels in multilayer strictures, the authors have found a new physical effect which lies in the azimuthal self-orientation of the discharge channel as it passes from one microhole to another.

  13. Low-loss compact multilayer silicon nitride platform for 3D photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Guan, Binbin; Liu, Guangyao; Yoo, S J B

    2015-08-10

    We design, fabricate, and demonstrate a silicon nitride (Si(3)N(4)) multilayer platform optimized for low-loss and compact multilayer photonic integrated circuits. The designed platform, with 200 nm thick waveguide core and 700 nm interlayer gap, is compatible for active thermal tuning and applicable to realizing compact photonic devices such as arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs). We achieve ultra-low loss vertical couplers with 0.01 dB coupling loss, multilayer crossing loss of 0.167 dB at 90° crossing angle, 50 μm bending radius, 100 × 2 μm(2) footprint, lateral misalignment tolerance up to 400 nm, and less than -52 dB interlayer crosstalk at 1550 nm wavelength. Based on the designed platform, we demonstrate a 27 × 32 × 2 multilayer star coupler.

  14. Electrically controlled band gap and topological phase transition in two-dimensional multilayer germanane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Jingshan; Li, Xiao; Qian, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Electrically controlled band gap and topological electronic states are important for the next-generation topological quantum devices. In this letter, we study the electric field control of band gap and topological phase transitions in multilayer germanane. We find that although the monolayer and multilayer germananes are normal insulators, a vertical electric field can significantly reduce the band gap of multilayer germananes owing to the giant Stark effect. The decrease of band gap eventually leads to band inversion, transforming them into topological insulators with nontrivial Z_2 invariant. The electrically controlled topological phase transition in multilayer germananes provides a potential route to manipulate topologically protected edge states and design topological quantum devices. This strategy should be generally applicable to a broad range of materials, including other two-dimensional materials and ultrathin films with controlled growth.

  15. Electrohydrodynamic direct—writing of conductor—insulator-conductor multi-layer interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Gao-Feng; Pei Yan-Bo; Wang Xiang; Zheng Jian-Yi; Sun Dao-Heng

    2014-01-01

    A multi-layer interconnection structure is a basic component of electronic devices, and printing of the multi-layer interconnection structure is the key process in printed electronics. In this work, electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) is utilized to print the conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnection structure. Silver ink is chosen to print the conductor pattern, and a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution is utilized to fabricate the insulator layer between the bottom and top conductor patterns. The influences of EDW process parameters on the line width of the printed conductor and insulator patterns are studied systematically. The obtained results show that the line width of the printed structure increases with the increase of the flow rate, but decreases with the increase of applied voltage and PVP content in the solution. The average resistivity values of the bottom and top silver conductor tracks are determined to be 1.34 × 10 −7 Ω·m and 1.39 × 10 −7 Ω·m, respectively. The printed PVP layer between the two conductor tracks is well insulated, which can meet the insulation requirement of the electronic devices. This study offers an alternative, fast, and cost-effective method of fabricating conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnections in the electronic industry

  16. Interfacial pattern changes of imprinted multilayered material in milli- and microscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Kazuhiro; Tokumaru, Kazuki; Tsumori, Fujio

    2018-06-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a technique that transfers a mold pattern of nanometer order to the surface of a resist material by heating and pressing. NIL is an excellent technology in terms of high productivity, accuracy, and resolution. Recently, NIL has been applied to the processing of different multilayered materials, in which it is possible to process multiple materials simultaneously. In this processing of multilayered materials, it is possible to form an interfacial pattern between the upper layer and the lower layer simultaneously with patterning on the mold surface. This interface pattern can be controlled by the deformation characteristics, initial thickness, and so forth. In this research, we compared the interfacial pattern changes of imprinted multilayered materials in milli- and microscales. For multilayered imprint using multiple materials, it is important to know the flow of the resist and its dependence on the scale. If there is similarity in the relationship produced by the scale on the imprinted samples, a process design with a number of feedbacks could be realized. It also becomes easier to treat structures in the millimeter scale for the experiment. In this study, we employed micropowder imprint (µPI) for multilayered material imprint. A compound sheet of alumina powder and polymer binder was used for imprint. Two similar experiments in different scales, micro- and millimeter scales, were carried out. Results indicate that the interfacial patterns of micro- and millimeter-scale-imprinted samples are similar.

  17. Van der Waals epitaxy of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on wet-transferred multilayer graphene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhao, Yun; Wei, Tongbo; Liu, Zhiqiang; Duan, Ruifei; Wang, Yunyu; Zhang, Xiang; Wu, QingQing; Yan, Jianchang; Yi, Xiaoyao; Yuan, Guodong; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jimin

    2017-08-01

    We experimentally investigated the possibility of using multilayer graphene to solve large mismatch problems between sapphire and nitride and further studied the effects of a multilayer graphene interlayer on the optical and electrical properties of LEDs. For the subsequent growth of 3-µm-thick GaN on AlN, multilayer graphene helps release stress and effectively removes cracks. In addition, multilayer graphene increases the diffraction of the substrate surface as determined from the increase in optical transmittance spectra in the wavelength range of 400-900 nm. Although the crystalline quality of GaN with multilayer graphene is slightly decreased, LEDs grown on multilayer graphene still show a higher output power than those grown on conventional sapphire. The present findings showed that the multilayer graphene layer is attractive as a potential substrate for the epitaxial growth of III-nitride to reduce stress and it could improve back light extraction as a rough layer to increase external quantum efficiency.

  18. Multilayer porous UHMWPE scaffolds for bone defects replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimkin, A V; Senatov, F S; Anisimova, N Yu; Kiselevskiy, M V; Zalepugin, D Yu; Chernyshova, I V; Tilkunova, N A; Kaloshkin, S D

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of the structural integrity of the damaged bone tissue is an urgent problem. UHMWPE may be potentially used for the manufacture of porous implants simulating as closely as possible the porous cancellous bone tissue. But the extremely high molecular weight of the polymer does not allow using traditional methods of foaming. Porous and multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds with nonporous bulk layer and porous layer that mimics cancellous bone architecture were obtained by solid-state mixing, thermopressing and washing in subcritical water. Structural and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. Porous UHMWPE samples were also studied in vitro and in vivo. The pores of UHMWPE scaffold are open and interconnected. Volume porosity of the obtained samples was 79±2%; the pore size range was 80-700μm. Strong connection of the two layers in multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds was observed with decreased number of fusion defects. Functionality of implants based on multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds is provided by the fixation of scaffolds in the bone defect through ingrowths of the connective tissue into the pores, which ensures the maintenance of the animals' mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Depth of focus in spherical and aspheric intraocular lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Li; Tang, Xin; Liu, Yong-ji

    2012-02-01

    To investigate depth of focus (DOF) in spherical and aspheric IOL eye models. Computer numerical simulation experiment was used. IOL eye model based on Liou-Brennan eye model was constructed by using ZEMAX optical design software. Different IOL were implanted in this eye model. Monochromatic through focus modulation transfer function (MTF) curves were computed. Pupil and aspheric designs' effect on DOF were analyzed. DOF of eye model increased with pupil shrinkage in 550 nm monochromatic light (FY60AD 1.20 D at 6 mm pupil, 1.35 D at 5 mm pupil, 1.70 D at 4 mm pupil, 2.46 D at 3 mm pupil; YA60BBR 1.24 D at 6 mm pupil, 1.48 D at 5 mm pupil, 1.80 D at 4 mm pupil, 2.50 D at 3 mm pupil). MTF in spherical IOL eye model was higher with minus defocus, this trend was obvious at larger pupil. MTF of aspheric IOL eyes were higher than spherical IOL eyes when well focused at 5 mm pupil, while the DOF was lower in aspheric IOL with negative spherical aberration (Tecnis Z9000 1.31 D, FY60AD 1.35 D, CeeOn911 1.55 D, YA60BBR 1.48 D). DOF decreased less in aspheric IOL with zero spherical aberration (LI61AO 1.42 D). DOF in IOL eye model was higher at smaller pupil. When the pupil was large, well focused aspheric IOL improved optical quality compared with spherical IOL, while DOF and the tolerance to defocus in aspheric IOL were partially lost; this phenomenon was obvious with minus defocus.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Kai, E-mail: fengkai@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Zhuguo, E-mail: lizg@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Both grain size and phase constitution of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers are dependent on individual layer thickness. • The hardness of annealed Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers varies with individual layer thickness and annealing temperature. • 40 nm Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer exhibits excellent hardness at elevated temperature. - Abstract: Nano-structured Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni{sub 3}Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni{sub 3}Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  1. X-ray investigation of the interface structure of free standing InAs nanowires grown on GaAs[ anti 1 anti 1 anti 1]{sub B}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Jens; Gottschalch, Volker; Wagner, Gerald [Universitaet Leipzig, Halbleiterchemie, Leipzig (Germany); Pietsch, Ullrich; Davydok, Anton; Biermanns, Andreas [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, Siegen (Germany); Grenzer, Joerg [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The heteroepitaxial growth process of InAs nanowires (NW) on GaAs[ anti 1 anti 1 anti 1]{sub B} substrate was investigated by X-ray grazing-incidence diffraction using synchrotron radiation. For crystal growth we applied the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism via gold seeds. The general sample structure was extracted from various electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction experiments. We found a closed Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x} As graduated alloy layer at the substrate to NW interface which was formed in the initial stage of VLS growth with a Au-Ga-In liquid alloy. With ongoing growth time a transition from this VLS layer growth to the conventional VLS NW growth was observed. The structural properties of both VLS grown crystal types were examined. Furthermore, we discuss the VLS layer growth process. (orig.)

  2. Dipole radiation in a multilayer geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, C.E.; Giergiel, J.; Hemminger, J.C.; Ushioda, S.

    1987-01-01

    There are several kinds of experiments that can be done with multilayer stacks of dielectric media which require an understanding of light emission by sources within the stack for their analysis. These experiments may involve, for example, light-emitting tunnel junctions, Raman scattering in Kretschmann and other multilayered geometries, and Rayleigh scattering by small amounts of surface or interface roughness, either alone or in combination with other processes. A set of electromagnetic Green's functions for a multilayer stack of isotropic dielectric media [D. L. Mills and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 12, 2943 (1975)] gives the electric fields produced everywhere by a point source of current oscillating at a frequency f. These Green's functions can thus be used to solve this type of problem. In this paper we show how these Green's functions can be written in terms of 2 x 2 transfer matrices of the type commonly used to find the fields in a dielectric stack due to an incident plane wave. With this simplification we can easily evaluate the Green's functions for a stack with an arbitrary number of layers. We further show that, when the electric fields generated by a point source within the stack are evaluated far away, they can be written directly in terms of the electric fields that would be generated at the location of the current source by plane waves incident from the direction of the observation point. We show that this follows from the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. Thus, in this case the formalism of Green's functions is not needed

  3. Exploring the magnetization dynamics of NiFe/Pt multilayers in flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrêa, M.A., E-mail: marciocorrea@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Dutra, R.; Marcondes, T.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mori, T.J.A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 1000, Guará, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Sommer, R.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Urca, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Magnetic properties of multilayers grown onto flexible substrates were investigated. • Experimental and theoretical magnetization dynamics results are presented. • The flexible substrates become promising candidate for rf-frequency devices. - Abstract: We investigate the structural and magnetic properties, and the magnetization dynamics in Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Pt multilayer systems grown onto rigid and flexible substrates. The structural characterization shows evidence of a superlattice behavior, while the quasi-static magnetization characterization reveal a weak magnetic anisotropy induced in the multilayers. The magnetization dynamics is investigated through the magnetoimpedance effect. We employ a theoretical approach to describe the experimental magnetoimpedance effect and verify the influence of the effective damping parameter on the magnetization dynamics. Experimental data and theoretical results are in agreement and suggest that the multilayers present high effective damping parameter. Moreover, our experiments raise an interesting issue on the possibility of achieving considerable MI% values, even for systems with weak magnetic anisotropy and high damping parameter grown onto flexible substrates.

  4. Multi-layer micro/nanofluid devices with bio-nanovalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Firestone, Millicent A.

    2013-01-01

    A user-friendly multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device and micro/nano fabrication process are provided for numerous uses. The multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device can comprise: a substrate, such as indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO glass); a conductive layer of ferroelectric material, preferably comprising a PZT layer of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) positioned on the substrate; electrodes connected to the conductive layer; a nanofluidics layer positioned on the conductive layer and defining nanochannels; a microfluidics layer positioned upon the nanofluidics layer and defining microchannels; and biomolecular nanovalves providing bio-nanovalves which are moveable from a closed position to an open position to control fluid flow at a nanoscale.

  5. Sculpted-multilayer optical effects in two species of Papilio butterfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukusic, Peter; Sambles, Roy; Lawrence, Christopher; Wakely, Gavin

    2001-01-01

    The wing-scale microstructures associated with two species of Papilio butterfly are described and characterized. Despite close similarities in their structures, they do not exhibit analogous optical effects. With Papilio palinurus, deep modulations in its multilayering create bicolor reflectivity with strong polarization effects, and this leads to additive color mixing in certain visual systems. In contrast to this, Papilio ulysses features shallow multilayer modulation that produces monocolor reflectivity without significant polarization effects

  6. Influence of plasticity mismatch and porosity on mechanical behavior of nanoscale Ag/W multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.P.; Zong, R.L.; Zeng, F.; Gao, Y.; Pan, F.

    2007-01-01

    Ag/W multilayers with periodicity ranging from 15 to 200 nm were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, hardness and elastic modulus were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that multilayers with periodicity less than 50 nm have columnar porous structure, which leads to low modulus and brittle fracture. Multilayers with periodicity larger than 50 nm have continuous laminated structure, and they are relatively ductile. All the multilayers have abnormal low hardness far less than a rule of mixture value, which has been attributed to porous structure and the deformation localization due to the plasticity mismatch between Ag and W

  7. Filter construction technology in mining drilling hole for in-situ leaching of multilayer deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yan; Hu Baishi; Tan Yahui; Yang Lizhi; Li Xiaojian; Wang Xiaodong; Chang Jingtao; Qin Hao

    2014-01-01

    Taking a typical multilayer sandstone uranium deposit as example, study was carried out on filter construction technology in mining drilling hole for in-situ leaching of multilayer deposit. According to the character of multilayer sandstone, four injecting holes and one drawning hole were designed between the P13-P15 exploration lines, five different methods were used to construct filter. Construction technology by different methods was introduced and the advantages and disadvantages of the construction filter with five methods were analysed. As far as five experimental drilling holes, layered gravel-filling hole construction technology is a suitable method for construction multilayer filter with continuous construction, simple operation and good effect of well completion. (authors)

  8. 77 FR 45336 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-970] Multilayered Wood Flooring... on multilayered wood flooring from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') meets the statutory and... announcing the antidumping duty order on multilayered wood flooring from the PRC was published in the Federal...

  9. 78 FR 46318 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-970] Multilayered Wood Flooring... antidumping duty order on multilayered wood flooring from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') meet the...: Background The Department published the antidumping duty order on multilayered wood flooring from the PRC on...

  10. Magnetic field decoupling and 3D-2D crossover in Nb/Cu multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnov, V.M.; Kovalev, A.E.; Oboznov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    magnetic field and by the multiply branched I-V curves caused by flux-flow of Josephson vortices in the stacked superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor junctions composing the multilayer. By measurements across layers the ''breaking field'' at which the proximity induced superconductivity in the normal...... layers of superconductor-normal-metal (Nb/Cu) multilayers is destroyed was observed directly. A dimensionality diagram in the (H-T) plane was deduced from our data. Reasons for complication of the ''Fraunhofer pattern,'' I-c(H), in ''long'' multilayers are discussed....

  11. Investigation of Gas Solid Fluidized Bed Dynamics with Non-Spherical Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2013-06-30

    One of the largest challenges for 21st century is to fulfill global energy demand while also reducing detrimental impacts of energy generation and use on the environment. Gasification is a promising technology to meet the requirement of reduced emissions without compromising performance. Coal gasification is not an incinerating process; rather than burning coal completely a partial combustion takes place in the presence of steam and limited amounts of oxygen. In this controlled environment, a chemical reaction takes place to produce a mixture of clean synthetic gas. Gas-solid fluidized bed is one such type of gasification technology. During gasification, the mixing behavior of solid (coal) and gas and their flow patterns can be very complicated to understand. Many attempts have taken place in laboratory scale to understand bed hydrodynamics with spherical particles though in actual applications with coal, the particles are non-spherical. This issue drove the documented attempt presented here to investigate fluidized bed behavior using different ranges of non-spherical particles, as well as spherical. For this investigation, various parameters are controlled that included particle size, bed height, bed diameter and particle shape. Particles ranged from 355 µm to 1180 µm, bed diameter varied from 2 cm to 7 cm, two fluidized beds with diameters of 3.4 cm and 12.4 cm, for the spherical and non-spherical shaped particles that were taken into consideration. Pressure drop was measured with increasing superficial gas velocity. The velocity required in order to start to fluidize the particle is called the minimum fluidization velocity, which is one of the most important parameters to design and optimize within a gas-solid fluidized bed. This minimum fluidization velocity was monitored during investigation while observing variables factors and their effect on this velocity. From our investigation, it has been found that minimum fluidization velocity is independent of bed

  12. Subwavelength resolution from multilayered structure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo Han; Jen, Yi-Jun; Liu, Wei-Chih; Lin, Shan-wen; Lan, Yung-Chiang; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-10-01

    Breaking optical diffraction limit is one of the most important issues needed to be overcome for the demand of high-density optoelectronic components. Here, a multilayered structure which consists of alternating semiconductor and dielectric layers for breaking optical diffraction limitation at THz frequency region are proposed and analyzed. We numerically demonstrate that such multilayered structure not only can act as a hyperbolic metamaterial but also a birefringence material via the control of the external temperature (or magnetic field). A practical approach is provided to control all the diffraction signals toward a specific direction by using transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. Numerical calculations and computer simulation (based on finite element method, FEM) are carried out, which agree well with each other. The temperature (or magnetic field) parameter can be tuned to create an effective material with nearly flat isofrequency feature to transfer (project) all the k-space signals excited from the object to be resolved to the image plane. Furthermore, this multilayered structure can resolve subwavelength structures at various incident THz light sources simultaneously. In addition, the resolution power for a fixed operating frequency also can be tuned by only changing the magnitude of external magnetic field. Such a device provides a practical route for multi-functional material, photolithography and real-time super-resolution image.

  13. Facile fabrication of multilayer separators for lithium-ion battery via multilayer coextrusion and thermal induced phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Pu, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/polyethylene (PE) multilayer separators with cellular-like submicron pore structure for lithium-ion battery are efficiently fabricated by the combination of multilayer coextrusion (MC) and thermal induced phase separation (TIPS). The as-prepared separators, referred to as MC-TIPS PP/PE, not only show efficacious thermal shutdown function and wider shutdown temperature window, but also exhibit higher thermal stability than the commercial separator with trilayer construction of PP and PE (Celgard® 2325). The dimensional shrinkage of MC-TIPS PP/PE can be negligible until 160 °C. In addition, compared to the commercial separator, MC-TIPS PP/PE exhibits higher porosity and electrolyte uptake, leading to higher ionic conductivity and better battery performances. The above-mentioned fascinating characteristics with the convenient preparation process make MC-TIPS PP/PE a promising candidate for the application as high performance lithium-ion battery separators.

  14. Josephson plasma resonance in superconducting multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sakai, S

    1998-01-01

    We derive an analytical solution for the Josephson plasma resonance of superconducting multilayers. This analytical solution is derived mainly for low-T-c systems with magnetic coupling between the superconducting layers. but many features of our results are more general, and thus an application...

  15. Normal modes and quality factors of spherical dielectric resonators: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eigenmodes; spherical resonators; spherical dielectric resonators; quality factors. PACS No. 42.50. .... Alternatively, introducing the angular momentum operator L defined as, L = (1/j)( r × ∇) ...... referee of the article for some helpful comments.

  16. Asymmetric magnetization reversal in exchange-biased Co/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijken, Sebastiaan van [SFI Trintiy Nanoscience Laboratory, Physics Department, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Czapkiewicz, M.; Zoladz, M.; Stobiecki, T. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow 30-059 (Poland)

    2006-01-01

    A detailed study of the magnetization reversal process in [20 Aa Pt/t Aa Co]{sub 3}/100 Aa IrMn/20 Aa Pt multilayers with 4 Aa{<=}t{<=}9 Aa is presented. The hysteresis of as-deposited films with t{>=} 5Aa is found to be asymmetric. This asymmetry is explained by a lateral variation in the perpendicular exchange bias direction due to the growth of IrMn onto multi-domain Co/Pt multilayers. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system.

  18. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system

  19. Magnetic-plasmonic multilayered nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumthan, Orathai

    Multilayered nanorods which consist of alternating magnetic layers separated by Au layers combine two distinctive properties, magnetic properties and surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) properties into one nano-entity. Their magnetic properties are tunable by changing the layer thickness, varying from single domain to superparamagnetic state. Superparamagnetic is a key requirement for magnetic nanoparticles for bioapplications. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles exhibit high magnetic moments at low applied magnetic field while retain no magnetic moments when magnetic field is removed preventing them from aggregation due to magnetic attraction. Au layers in the nanorods provide anchorage sites for functional group attachment. Also, Au nanodisks exhibit SPR properties. The SPR peak can be tuned from 540 nm to 820 nm by controlling the thickness of magnetic segments while keeping Au thickness constant. In this research, there are three types of multilayered nanorod have been fabricated: Au/NiFe nanorods, Au/Fe nanorods, and Au/Co nanorods. These magnetic nanorods were fabricated by templated electrodeposition into the channels in Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membrane. The setup for AAO fabrication was developed as a part of this research. Our fabricated AAO membrane has channels with a diameter ranging from 40nm to 80 nm and a thickness of 10um to 12um. Magnetic properties of nanorods such as saturation field, saturation moment, coercivity and remanence are able to manipulate through their shape anisotropy. The magnetization will be easier in long axis rather than short axis of particle. In addition, Au nanodisks in the nanorod structure are not only serving as anchorage sites for functional groups but also provide SPR properties. Under irradiation of light Au nanodisks strongly absorb light at SPR frequency which ranging from 540 nm to 820 nm by controlling the thickness of magnetic segments while keeping Au thickness constant. The SPR tunability of nanorods in near

  20. Numerical relativity in spherical coordinates with the Einstein Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Vassilios; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela; Ruchlin, Ian; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2018-04-01

    Numerical relativity codes that do not make assumptions on spatial symmetries most commonly adopt Cartesian coordinates. While these coordinates have many attractive features, spherical coordinates are much better suited to take advantage of approximate symmetries in a number of astrophysical objects, including single stars, black holes, and accretion disks. While the appearance of coordinate singularities often spoils numerical relativity simulations in spherical coordinates, especially in the absence of any symmetry assumptions, it has recently been demonstrated that these problems can be avoided if the coordinate singularities are handled analytically. This is possible with the help of a reference-metric version of the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation together with a proper rescaling of tensorial quantities. In this paper we report on an implementation of this formalism in the Einstein Toolkit. We adapt the Einstein Toolkit infrastructure, originally designed for Cartesian coordinates, to handle spherical coordinates, by providing appropriate boundary conditions at both inner and outer boundaries. We perform numerical simulations for a disturbed Kerr black hole, extract the gravitational wave signal, and demonstrate that the noise in these signals is orders of magnitude smaller when computed on spherical grids rather than Cartesian grids. With the public release of our new Einstein Toolkit thorns, our methods for numerical relativity in spherical coordinates will become available to the entire numerical relativity community.

  1. Gravitational settling of a highly concentrated system of solid spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, V. A.; Usanina, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    In the present paper, we report on the results of an experimental study of the process of gravity sedimentation of a cloud of monodispersed solid spherical particles with initial volume concentration C > 0.03, which was performed in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. An analytical estimate of the settling regimes of spherical particle clouds is presented. A new method for creating a spherical particle cloud with a high concentration of particles is proposed. A qualitative picture of the settling process of a highly concentrated particle cloud under gravity is revealed. A criterial dependence for the drag coefficient of a sedimenting spherical particle cloud as an entity is obtained.

  2. Thinning of multilayer graphene to monolayer graphene in a plasma environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, K S; Misra, D S; Rafiee, J; Rafiee, M A; Koratkar, N; Mathur, A; Roy, S S; McLauhglin, J

    2011-01-01

    We present a facile approach to transform multilayer graphene to single-layer graphene in a gradual thinning process. Our technique is based upon gradual etching of multilayer graphene in a hydrogen and nitrogen plasma environment. High resolution transmission microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirm the transformation of multilayer graphene to monolayer graphene at a substrate temperature of ∼ 400 0 C. The shift in the position of the G-band peak shows a perfect linear dependence with substrate temperature, which indicates a controlled gradual etching process. Selected area electron diffraction also confirmed the removal of functional groups from the graphene surface due to the plasma treatment. We also show that plasma treatment can be used to engineer graphene nanomesh structures.

  3. High energy PIXE: A tool to characterize multi-layer thick samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subercaze, A.; Koumeir, C.; Métivier, V.; Servagent, N.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.

    2018-02-01

    High energy PIXE is a useful and non-destructive tool to characterize multi-layer thick samples such as cultural heritage objects. In a previous work, we demonstrated the possibility to perform quantitative analysis of simple multi-layer samples using high energy PIXE, without any assumption on their composition. In this work an in-depth study of the parameters involved in the method previously published is proposed. Its extension to more complex samples with a repeated layer is also presented. Experiments have been performed at the ARRONAX cyclotron using 68 MeV protons. The thicknesses and sequences of a multi-layer sample including two different layers of the same element have been determined. Performances and limits of this method are presented and discussed.

  4. Coordinated Multi-layer Multi-domain Optical Network (COMMON) for Large-Scale Science Applications (COMMON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vokkarane, Vinod [University of Massachusetts

    2013-09-01

    We intend to implement a Coordinated Multi-layer Multi-domain Optical Network (COMMON) Framework for Large-scale Science Applications. In the COMMON project, specific problems to be addressed include 1) anycast/multicast/manycast request provisioning, 2) deployable OSCARS enhancements, 3) multi-layer, multi-domain quality of service (QoS), and 4) multi-layer, multidomain path survivability. In what follows, we outline the progress in the above categories (Year 1, 2, and 3 deliverables).

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloy multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cortés, J.F.; San Juan, J.; López, G.A.; Nó, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Among active materials, shape memory alloys are well recognized for their work output density. Because of that, these alloys have attracted much attention to be used in micro/nano electromechanical systems. In the present work, the electron beam evaporation technique has been used to growth, by a multilayer method, two shape memory alloy thin films with different Cu–Al–Ni composition. Multilayers have been further thermally treated to produce the alloys by solid solution diffusion. The produced multilayers have been characterized and the presence of the martensite phase in the obtained thin films was studied. Furthermore, the influence of two different coatings onto the Si substrates, namely Si/SiO 2 and Si/Si 3 N 4 , was investigated. Mechanically stable, not detaching from the substrates, Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloy thin films, about 1 micrometre thick, showing a martensitic transformation have been produced. - Highlights: ► Multilayer thin films of Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloys produced by e-beam evaporation. ► SiN X 200 nm thick coating is good for high quality Cu–Al–Ni shape memory thin films. ► Thermal treatment renders Cu–Al–Ni multilayer in homogeneous martensite thin film

  6. Design innovations of the next-step spherical torus experiment and spherical torus development path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Kessel, C.; Peng, M.

    2003-01-01

    The spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path is complementary to the tokamak burning plasma experiment such as ITER as it focuses toward the compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher toroidal beta regimes to improve the design of DEMO and a Power Plant. To support the ST development path, one option of a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) device is examined. NSST is a 'performance extension' (PE) stage ST with a plasma current of 5 - 10 MA, R = 1.5, B T ≤ 2.7 T with flexible physics capability to 1) Provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of the CTF, 2) Explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, 3) Contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high β toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the TFTR site to minimize the cost and time required for the construction. (author)

  7. High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Mingwu; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Huang, Qiushi [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Zhanshan, E-mail: wangzs@tongji.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); She, Rui; Feng, Hua [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Hongchang [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    X-ray reflection near 45° via multilayer mirrors can be used for astronomical polarization measurements. A Cr/C multilayer mirror (designed for X-ray polarimetry at 250 eV), with a period thickness of 3.86 nm and a bi-layer number of 100, was fabricated using direct current magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8 keV and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the multilayer structure. Different models were introduced to fit the hard X-ray reflectivity curve, which indicates that the layer thickness of two materials slightly drifts from the bottom to the top of the stack. Both the chromium and carbon layers are amorphous with asymmetric interfaces, while the Cr-on-C interface is slightly wider. Based on the good quality of the multilayer structure, a high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV at a grazing incidence angle of 40.7°. The fabricated Cr/C multilayer mirror exhibits high reflectivity and polarization levels in the energy region of 240 eV–260 eV. - Highlights: • We fabricated Cr/C multilayer with 3.8 nm d-spacing. • X-ray reflectometry was used to determine the exact structure of Cr/C multilayer. • A high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV. • Both Cr and C were found to be amorphous with slightly asymmetric interfaces. • A 4-layer model was used to fit and explain the results.

  8. Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dipankar, R.

    1977-12-01

    Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat

  9. Next Step Spherical Torus Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Kessel, C.; Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Schmidt, J.; Woolley, R.; Zatz, I.

    2002-01-01

    Studies are underway to identify and characterize a design point for a Next Step Spherical Torus (NSST) experiment. This would be a ''Proof of Performance'' device which would follow and build upon the successes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) a ''Proof of Principle'' device which has operated at PPPL since 1999. With the Decontamination and Decommissioning (DandD) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) nearly completed, the TFTR test cell and facility will soon be available for a device such as NSST. By utilizing the TFTR test cell, NSST can be constructed for a relatively low cost on a short time scale. In addition, while furthering spherical torus (ST) research, this device could achieve modest fusion power gain for short-pulse lengths, a significant step toward future large burning plasma devices now under discussion in the fusion community. The selected design point is Q=2 at HH=1.4, P subscript ''fusion''=60 MW, 5 second pulse, with R subscript ''0''=1.5 m, A=1.6, I subscript ''p''=10vMA, B subscript ''t''=2.6 T, CS flux=16 weber. Most of the research would be conducted in D-D, with a limited D-T campaign during the last years of the program

  10. Integrated Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Integrated multilayer insulation (IMLI) is being developed as an improved alternative to conventional multilayer insulation (MLI), which is more than 50 years old. A typical conventional MLI blanket comprises between 10 and 120 metallized polymer films separated by polyester nets. MLI is the best thermal- insulation material for use in a vacuum, and is the insulation material of choice for spacecraft and cryogenic systems. However, conventional MLI has several disadvantages: It is difficult or impossible to maintain the desired value of gap distance between the film layers (and consequently, it is difficult or impossible to ensure consistent performance), and fabrication and installation are labor-intensive and difficult. The development of IMLI is intended to overcome these disadvantages to some extent and to offer some additional advantages over conventional MLI. The main difference between IMLI and conventional MLI lies in the method of maintaining the gaps between the film layers. In IMLI, the film layers are separated by what its developers call a micro-molded discrete matrix, which can be loosely characterized as consisting of arrays of highly engineered, small, lightweight, polymer (typically, thermoplastic) frames attached to, and placed between, the film layers. The term "micro-molded" refers to both the smallness of the frames and the fact that they are fabricated in a process that forms precise small features, described below, that are essential to attainment of the desired properties. The term "discrete" refers to the nature of the matrix as consisting of separate frames, in contradistinction to a unitary frame spanning entire volume of an insulation blanket.

  11. Experimental Demonstration of Effective Medium Approximation Breakdown in Deeply Subwavelength All-Dielectric Multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Takayama, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of anomalous breakdown of the effective medium approximation in all-dielectric deeply subwavelength thickness (d∼λ/160-λ/30) multilayers, as recently predicted theoretically [H. H. Sheinfux et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 243901 (2014)]. Multilayer...... stacks are composed of alternating alumina and titania layers fabricated using atomic layer deposition. For light incident on such multilayers at angles near the total internal reflection, we observe pronounced differences in the reflectance spectra for structures with 10- vs 20-nm thick layers, as well...

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of Ce/Fe and Ce/FeCoV multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, S; Boeni, P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mannix, D; Stirling, W G [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom); Lander, G H

    1997-09-01

    Ce/Fe and Ce/FeCoV multilayers have been grown by magnetron sputtering. The interfaces are well defined and the layers are crystalline down to an individual layer thickness of 20 A. Ce/FeCoV multilayers show sharper interfaces than Ce/Fe but some loss of crystallinity is observed. Hysteresis loops obtained by SQUID show different behaviour of the bulk magnetisation as a function of the layer thickness. Fe moments are found by Moessbauer spectroscopy to be perpendicular to the interfaces for multilayers with small periodicity. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  13. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  14. The Impedance of Multi-layer Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, L

    2003-01-01

    Many components of the LHC vacuum chamber have multi-layered walls : the copper coated cold beam screen, the titanium coated ceramic chamber of the dump kickers, the ceramic chamber of the injection kickers coated with copper stripes, only to name a few. Theories and computer programs are available for some time already to evaluate the impedance of these elements. Nevertheless, the algorithm developed in this paper is more convenient in its application and has been used extensively in the design phase of multi-layer LHC vacuum chamber elements. It is based on classical transmission line theory. Closed expressions are derived for simple layer configurations, while beam pipes involving many layers demand a chain calculation. The algorithm has been tested with a number of published examples and was verified with experimental data as well.

  15. Development of a low activation concrete shielding wall by multi-layered structure for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi; Maegawa, Toshio; Yoshimatsu, Kenji; Sato, Koichi; Nonaka, Akira; Takakura, Kosuke; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara

    2011-01-01

    A multi-layered concrete structure has been developed to reduce induced activity in the shielding for neutron generating facilities such as a fusion reactor. The multi-layered concrete structure is composed of: (1) an inner low activation concrete, (2) a boron-doped low activation concrete as the second layer, and (3) ordinary concrete as the outer layer of the neutron shield. With the multi-layered concrete structure the volume of boron is drastically decreased compared to a monolithic boron-doped concrete. A 14 MeV neutron shielding experiment with multi-layered concrete structure mockups was performed at FNS and several reaction rates and induced activity in the mockups were measured. This demonstrated that the multi-layered concrete effectively reduced low energy neutrons and induced activity.

  16. Robust Multilayer Graphene-Organic Frameworks for Selective Separation of Monovalent Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Jiajie; Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhijuan; Charchalac Ochoa, Sebastian Ignacio; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2018-05-30

    The chemical and mechanical stability of graphene nanosheets was used in this work to design a multilayer architecture of graphene, grafted with sulfonated 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (SDDS). Quaternized poly(phenylene oxide) (QPPO) was synthesized and mixed with SDDS (rGO-SDDS-rGO@QPPO), yielding a multilayer graphene-organic framework (MGOF) with positive as well as negative functional groups that can be applied as a versatile electrodriven membrane in electrodialysis (ED). Multilayer graphene-organic frameworks are a new class of multilayer structures, with an architecture having a tunable interlayer spacing connected by cationic polymer material. MGOF membranes were demonstrated to allow for an excellent selective separation of monovalent anions in aqueous solution. Furthermore, different types of rGO-SDDS-rGO@QPPO membranes were found to have a good mechanical strength, with a tensile strength up to 66.43 MPa. The membrane (rGO-SDDS-rGO@QPPO-2) also has a low surface electric resistance (2.79 Ω·cm 2 ) and a low water content (14.5%) and swelling rate (4.7%). In addition, the selective separation between Cl - and SO 4 2- of the MGOF membranes could be as high as 36.6%.

  17. Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Tom [USC; Ghani, Nasir [UNM; Boyd, Eric [UCAID

    2010-08-31

    At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, Control plane software release, Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, Network Virtualization architecture, Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  18. Finite element analysis of multilayer coextrusion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Schunk, Peter Randall; Baer, Thomas A. (Proctor & Gamble Company, West Chester, OH); Mrozek, Randy A. (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Collins, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2011-09-01

    Multilayer coextrusion has become a popular commercial process for producing complex polymeric products from soda bottles to reflective coatings. A numerical model of a multilayer coextrusion process is developed based on a finite element discretization and two different free-surface methods, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh implementation and an Eulerian level set method, to understand the moving boundary problem associated with the polymer-polymer interface. The goal of this work is to have a numerical capability suitable for optimizing and troubleshooting the coextrusion process, circumventing flow instabilities such as ribbing and barring, and reducing variability in layer thickness. Though these instabilities can be both viscous and elastic in nature, for this work a generalized Newtonian description of the fluid is used. Models of varying degrees of complexity are investigated including stability analysis and direct three-dimensional finite element free surface approaches. The results of this work show how critical modeling can be to reduce build test cycles, improve material choices, and guide mold design.

  19. Stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells and wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Mustapha; Lake, Kayll

    2002-01-01

    The stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells (and wormholes) to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations about static equilibrium is examined. This work generalizes and systematizes previous studies and explores the consequences of including the cosmological constant. The approach shows how the existence (or not) of a domain wall dominates the landscape of possible equilibrium configurations

  20. TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

  1. High-energy x-ray microscopy with multilayer reflectors (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the x rays emitted by the hot plasma region is a key element in the study of the physical processes occurring in laser-produced plasmas and complements other diagnostics such as spectroscopy and temporal studies. X-ray microscopy with reflection microscopes offers the most direct means of obtaining this information. Until recently, the two types of microscopes that had been developed for this purpose, the Kirkpatrick--Baez and the Wolter, operated at relatively low energies (about 4--5 keV) and had very little spectral selectivity, relying on filters for coarse spectral resolution. With the development of x-ray reflecting multilayer mirrors, the energy response of such microscopes can be extended to 10 keV or higher, with good spectral selectivity. In addition, it is possible to reduce some of the optical aberrations to obtain improved spatial resolution. This paper describes some of the recent progress in making and evaluating x-ray reflectors, and outlines the optical design considerations for multilayer-coated microscopes. Results from a prototype multilayer K--B microscope are presented

  2. Formation of oriented membrane multilayers of Na/K-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachence, J.M.; Knott, R.; Edelman, I.S.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Wallace, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    The isolated membrane-bound enzyme retains its ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis activity, and produces ATP-dependent Na + and K + fluxes when incorporated into phospholipid vesicles. The ultimate goal of this work is to determine its low resolution structure using both X-ray and neutron diffraction. A number of methods were used to impart lamellar stacking order to highly purified pig Na/K-ATPase membranes. Upon partial dehydration, x-ray diffraction from Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers at 98% relative humidity yielded discrete reflections of 118 A periodicity, diffracting to 1/14.8 A -1 , additionally, continuous diffraction to 1/10 A -1 was obtained. Subjecting the membrane multilayers to high magnetic fields improved the quality of the lamellar diffraction dramatically. Neutron diffraction studies of the partially dehydrated Na/K-ATPase membrane multilayers detected a mosaic spread of 2 0 when the samples were subjected to a magnetic field of 5 Tesla perpendicular to the membrane surface; the reflections were narrower than the camera line width; hence, the lattice disorder has also decreased significantly, although only four orders were measured

  3. High quality junctions by interpenetration of vapor liquid solid grown nanostructures for microchip integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jebril, Seid; Kuhlmann, Hanna; Adelung, Rainer [Funktionale Nanomaterialien, CAU Kiel (Germany); Mueller, Sven [Nanowires and Thin Films, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Ronning, Carsten [Institute for Solid State Physics, Universitaet Jena (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Synthese und Realstruktur, CAU Kiel (Germany); Duppel, Viola [MPI fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The usability of nanostructures in electrical devices like gas sensors depends critically on the ability to form high quality contacts and junctions. For the fabrication of various nanostructures, vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a wide spread and very efficient technique. However, forming contacts with the VLS grown structures to utilize them in a device is still tedious, because either the substrate has to be epitaxial to the VLS material or a manual alignment is necessary. Here we demonstrate the contact formation by simply using the ability of individual crystals to interpenetrate each other during the straight forward VLS growth. This allows growing VLS structures directly on two neighboring gold circuit paths of a microchip; bridges over predefined gaps will be formed. Moreover, TEM investigations confirm the high quality of the crystalline junctions that allow demonstrations as UV and hydrogen-sensor. The VLS devices are compared with conventional produced.

  4. Preliminary investigation of changes in x-ray multilayer optics subjected to high radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockaday, M.P.; Blake, R.L.; Grosso, J.S.; Selph, M.M.; Klein, M.M.; Matuska, W. Jr.; Palmer, M.A.; Liefeld, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of metal multilayers was exposed to high x-ray flux using Sandia National Laboratories' PROTO II machine in the gas puff mode. Fluxes incident on the multilayers above 700 MW/cm 2 in total radiation, in nominal 20 ns pulses, were realized. The neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines were used to probe the x-ray reflectivity properties of the multilayers as they underwent change of state during the heating pulse. A fluorescer-fiber optic-streak camera system was used to monitor the changes in x-ray reflectivity as a function of time and irradiance. Preliminary results are presented for a W/C multilayer. Work in progress to model the experiment is discussed. 13 refs., 4 figs

  5. Multiferroic properties of BiFeO3/BaTiO3 multilayered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Savita; Tomar, Monika; Kumar, Ashok; Puri, Nitin K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Multilayered structures of multiferroic BiFeO 3 (BFO) and ferroelectric BaTiO 3 (BTO) have been fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties of the multilayered system (BFO/BTO) have been investigated. It could be inferred that the magnetization increases with the incorporation of BTO buffer layer, which indicates a coupling between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic orders. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements performed on the prepared multiferroic samples show that the magnetization is significantly increased (M s =56.88 emu/cm 3 ) for the multilayer system with more number of layers (four) keeping the total thickness of the multilayered system constant (350 nm) meanwhile maintaining the sufficiently enhanced ferroelectric properties (P r =29.68 µC/cm 2 )

  6. Polysaccharide Encrusted Multilayered Nano-Colloidal System of Andrographolide for Improved Hepatoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nidhi; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Narayan Prasad

    2017-02-01

    Andrographolide (AP), a phytoconstituent of Andrographis paniculata is reported as a potent hepatoprotective agent. However, utility of this molecule is restricted due to its low aqueous solubility, gastric instability and hence low bioavailability. It was aimed to formulate and characterize AP-loaded, natural biopolymer stabilized, multilayered nano-hydrocolloid delivery system. Nanoemulsion (NE) was formulated using layer-by-layer (LbL) technology via electrostatic deposition of chitosan over alginate encrusted o/w NE by ultra-sonication. Improved transparency and stability of NE were observed with increasing sonication time. Best stability was obtained after 20 min sonication and particle size of the multilayered NE was measured in the range of 90.8-167.8 nm. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the progressive layering of nanosized NE. Higher magnitude of zeta potential (i.e., 22.9 to 31.01 mV) confirmed higher stability and coating of alginate layer over NE surface for the period of 3 months. NE showed strategic release pattern when assessed in vitro in various simulated biological fluids of GIT in timed pattern. Multilayered NE showed significant modulation in liver function test (ALT, ALP, AST, TBIL, DBIL, and liver glycogen) and serum cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-β) when assessed in vivo in galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide intoxicated mice. In conclusion, the andrographolide engrained multi-layered NE enhanced the solubility, stability and henceforth assured the increased availability in simulated biological fluids. The in vivo study exhibited the significantly improved hepatoprotection by andrographolide when delivered in stable multi-layered NE carrier systems.

  7. Modelling of UWB Antenna Perturbed by Human Phantom in Spherical Harmonics Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhedhbi, Meriem; Avrillon, Stephane; Pedersen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    is attractive for simulation purposes. We propose a simple model for the spherical harmonics coefficients allowing to predict the antenna behavior perturbed by a human phantom. The model is based on knowledge of the spherical harmonic coefficients of antenna in free space and the antenna-phantom distance.......In this paper we study how the antenna radiation pattern is perturbed in the presence of a human phantom in terms of changes in the coefficients of the spherical harmonic antenna representation. The spherical harmonic basis allows for a compact representation of the antenna pattern which...

  8. Use of information technologies when designing multilayered plates and covers with filler of various types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golova, T. A.; Magerramova, I. A.; Ivanov, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Calculation of multilayered plates and covers does not consider anisotropic properties of a construction. Calculation comes down to uniform isotropic covers and definition of one of intense and deformation conditions of constructions. The existing techniques consider work of multilayered designs by means of various coefficients. The article describes the optimized algorithm of operations when designing multilayered plates and covers with filler of various types on the basis of the conducted researches. It is dealt with a development engineering algorithm of calculation of multi-layer constructions of walls. Software is created which allows one to carry out assessment of intense and deformation conditions of constructions of walls.

  9. Mathematical model for optimization of multilayer submerged-arc welding of frame equipment of power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankov, V.V.; Chernyshev, G.G.; Kozlov, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    A mathematical model for optimization of multilayer submerged arc welding of frame equipment of power units is constructed. The variation-energy method permits to construct the universal mathematical model for strengthening formation of a single bead; the method is reasonable for simulation of a multilayer welded joint. Minimization of the distance between maximum and minimum layer height of a built-up metal is the necessary condition for qualitative formation of the multilayer joint. One can calculate in real time scale the optimal vector of maximally ten parameters under the multilayer welding condition immediately after change in the grooving width using the developed mathematical model of optimization

  10. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  11. Initial value formulation for the spherically symmetric dust solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    1990-01-01

    An initial value formulation for the dust solution with spherical symmetry is given explicitly in which the initial distributions of dust and its velocity on an initial surface are chosen to be the initial data. As special cases, the Friedmann universe, the Schwarzschild solution in comoving coordinates, and a spherically symmetric and radially inhomogeneous cosmological model are derived

  12. Effect of the spherical Earth on a simple pendulum

    OpenAIRE

    Burko, Lior M.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the period of a simple pendulum in the gravitational field of the spherical Earth. Effectively, gravity is enhanced compared with the often used flat Earth approximation, such that the period of the pendulum is shortened. We discuss the flat Earth approximation, and show when the corrections due to the spherical Earth may be of interest.

  13. Ferroelectric properties of PZT/BFO multilayer thin films prepared using the sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2012-01-05

    In this study, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/BiFeO3 [PZT/BFO] multilayer thin films were fabricated using the spin-coating method on a Pt(200 nm)/Ti(10 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/p-Si(100) substrate alternately using BFO and PZT metal alkoxide solutions. The coating-and-heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All PZT/BFO multilayer thin films show a void-free, uniform grain structure without the presence of rosette structures. The relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the six-coated PZT/BFO [PZT/BFO-6] thin film were approximately 405 and 0.03%, respectively. As the number of coatings increased, the remanent polarization and coercive field increased. The values for the BFO-6 multilayer thin film were 41.3 C/cm2 and 15.1 MV/cm, respectively. The leakage current density of the BFO-6 multilayer thin film at 5 V was 2.52 × 10-7 A/cm2.

  14. Development of neutron diffuse scattering analysis code by thin film and multilayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering by thin film, roughness of surface of thin film, correlation function, neutron propagation by thin film, diffuse scattering by DWBA theory, measurement model, SDIFFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by thin film) and simulation results are explained. On neutron diffuse scattering by multilayer film, roughness of multilayer film, principle of diffuse scattering, measurement method and simulation examples by MDIFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by multilayer film) are explained. (S.Y.)To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering

  15. A Reduced-Order Model for Evaluating the Dynamic Response of Multilayer Plates to Impulsive Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    A REDUCED-ORDER MODEL FOR EVALUATING THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF MULTILAYER PLATES TO IMPULSIVE LOADS Weiran Jiang, Alyssa Bennett, Nickolas...innovative multilayer materials or structures to optimize the dynamic performance as a mechanism to absorb and spread energy from an impulsive load...models. • Optimizing the structural weight and levels of protection of the multilayer plates with a good combination of materials. Technical Approach 2016

  16. Anisotropy of heat conduction in Mo/Si multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, V. V.; Yakshin, A. E.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Bijkerk, F.; Yang, J.; Schmidt, A. J.; Zoethout, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the studies of anisotropic heat conduction phenomena in Mo/Si multilayers with individual layer thicknesses selected to be smaller than the mean free path of heat carriers. We applied the frequency-domain thermoreflectance technique to characterize the thermal conductivity tensor. While the mechanisms of the cross-plane heat conduction were studied in detail previously, here we focus on the in-plane heat conduction. To analyze the relative contribution of electron transport to the in-plane heat conduction, we applied sheet-resistance measurements. Results of Mo/Si multilayers with variable thickness of the Mo layers indicate that the net in-plane thermal conductivity depends on the microstructure of the Mo layers

  17. Design of a visible-light spectroscopy clinical tissue oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaron, David A; Parachikov, Ilian H; Cheong, Wai-Fung; Friedland, Shai; Rubinsky, Boris E; Otten, David M; Liu, Frank W H; Levinson, Carl J; Murphy, Aileen L; Price, John W; Talmi, Yair; Weersing, James P; Duckworth, Joshua L; Hörchner, Uwe B; Kermit, Eben L

    2005-01-01

    We develop a clinical visible-light spectroscopy (VLS) tissue oximeter. Unlike currently approved near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) or pulse oximetry (SpO2%), VLS relies on locally absorbed, shallow-penetrating visible light (475 to 625 nm) for the monitoring of microvascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2%), allowing incorporation into therapeutic catheters and probes. A range of probes is developed, including noncontact wands, invasive catheters, and penetrating needles with injection ports. Data are collected from: 1. probes, standards, and reference solutions to optimize each component; 2. ex vivo hemoglobin solutions analyzed for StO2% and pO2 during deoxygenation; and 3. human subject skin and mucosal tissue surfaces. Results show that differential VLS allows extraction of features and minimization of scattering effects, in vitro VLS oximetry reproduces the expected sigmoid hemoglobin binding curve, and in vivo VLS spectroscopy of human tissue allows for real-time monitoring (e.g., gastrointestinal mucosal saturation 69+/-4%, n=804; gastrointestinal tumor saturation 45+/-23%, n=14; and p<0.0001), with reproducible values and small standard deviations (SDs) in normal tissues. FDA approved VLS systems began shipping earlier this year. We conclude that VLS is suitable for the real-time collection of spectroscopic and oximetric data from human tissues, and that a VLS oximeter has application to the monitoring of localized subsurface hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the microvascular tissue spaces of human subjects.

  18. Effect of swift heavy ion-irradiation on Cr/Fe/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ratnesh; Gupta, Ajay; Avasthi, D.K.; Principi, G.; Tosello, C.

    1999-01-01

    A multilayer film having overall composition Fe 50 Cr 25 Ni 25 , was irradiated successively by 80 MeV Si ions and Ag ions of 150 and 200 MeV energy. The energy deposited in the multilayer in the form of electronic excitations results in significant modification at the interfaces. The interfacial roughness increases in the system after the irradiations as revealed by X-ray reflectivity measurement. Moessbauer measurements provide evidence of intermixing after the irradiation by 200 MeV Ag ions. Comparison of heavy ion irradiated multilayer has been done with annealed and low energy ion irradiated samples. Results suggest that the phases formed at the interfaces of iron as a result of electronic energy loss are similar to those in the cases of thermal diffusion and keV energy ion beam irradiation

  19. Magnetoresistance in amorphous NdFeB/FeB compositionally modulated multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peral, G.; Briones, F.; Vicent, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Resistance measurements have been done in amorphous Nd 12 Fe 80 B 8 sputtered films and in amorphous sputtered Nd 26 Fe 68 B 6 /Fe 92 B 8 multilayers between 6 and 150 K with applied magnetic field parallel (LMR) and perpendicular (TMR) up to 7 T. The samples were grown by dc triode sputtering, with nominal unequal (2:1) layer thicknesses. The layered character of the samples have been tested by x-ray diffraction. Longitudinal magnetoresistance (LMR) is positive and transverse magnetoresistance (TMR) is negative. The magnetoresistance values are higher than in amorphous ferromagnets, and multilayering of these alloys produces much larger magnetoresistance values than either alloy alone and there is a strong dependence on the multilayer wavelength. The MR shows a weak temperature dependence in the temperature interval that was investigated

  20. Thermoelectric characteristics of Pt-silicide/silicon multi-layer structured p-type silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Wonchul; Jun, Dongseok; Kim, Soojung; Shin, Mincheol; Jang, Moongyu

    2015-01-01

    Electric and thermoelectric properties of silicide/silicon multi-layer structured devices were investigated with the variation of silicide/silicon heterojunction numbers from 3 to 12 layers. For the fabrication of silicide/silicon multi-layered structure, platinum and silicon layers are repeatedly sputtered on the (100) silicon bulk substrate and rapid thermal annealing is carried out for the silicidation. The manufactured devices show ohmic current–voltage (I–V) characteristics. The Seebeck coefficient of bulk Si is evaluated as 195.8 ± 15.3 μV/K at 300 K, whereas the 12 layered silicide/silicon multi-layer structured device is evaluated as 201.8 ± 9.1 μV/K. As the temperature increases to 400 K, the Seebeck coefficient increases to 237.2 ± 4.7 μV/K and 277.0 ± 1.1 μV/K for bulk and 12 layered devices, respectively. The increase of Seebeck coefficient in multi-layered structure is mainly attributed to the electron filtering effect due to the Schottky barrier at Pt-silicide/silicon interface. At 400 K, the thermal conductivity is reduced by about half of magnitude compared to bulk in multi-layered device which shows the efficient suppression of phonon propagation by using Pt-silicide/silicon hetero-junctions. - Highlights: • Silicide/silicon multi-layer structured is proposed for thermoelectric devices. • Electric and thermoelectric properties with the number of layer are investigated. • An increase of Seebeck coefficient is mainly attributed the Schottky barrier. • Phonon propagation is suppressed with the existence of Schottky barrier. • Thermal conductivity is reduced due to the suppression of phonon propagation