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Sample records for multilayer mirrors designed

  1. Design and performance of capping layers for extreme-ultraviolet multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajt, Sasa; Chapman, Henry N.; Nguyen, Nhan; Alameda, Jennifer; Robinson, Jeffrey C.; Malinowski, Michael; Gullikson, Eric; Aquila, Andrew; Tarrio, Charles; Grantham, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer lifetime has emerged as one of the major issues for the commercialization of extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). We describe the performance of an oxidation-resistant capping layer of Ru atop multilayers that results in a reflectivity above 69% at 13.2 nm, which is suitable for EUVL projection optics and has been tested with accelerated electron-beam and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light in a water-vapor environment. Based on accelerated exposure results, we calculated multilayer lifetimes for all reflective mirrors in a typical commercial EUVL tool and concluded that Ru-capped multilayers have ∼40x longer lifetimes than Si-capped multilayers, which translates to 3 months to many years, depending on the mirror dose

  2. Design, conception, and metrology of Extreme Ultraviolet multilayers mirrors resistant environments of space and EUV sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecquet, Ch.

    2009-03-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum (EUV) wavelengths, which range between 13 nm and 40 nm, have many applications in science and technology. These have been developed for example in plasma physics (high order harmonics sources, X ray lasers). The work presented is about the design, the fabrication and the metrology of periodic multilayer mirrors. The main motivation of this study is to establish a cycle of development taking into account both the optical properties of reflective coatings (reflectivity, spectral selectivity, attenuation) and their behaviour under various environments. To improve the spectral selectivity, new multilayer periodic structures have been developed. They are characterized by a bimodal reflectance profile with adjustable attenuation. The effect of environment on the stability of performance is especially critical for the optical collection. The addition of material barriers has stabilized the performance of the peak reflectivity for over 200 h at 400 C deg. and it reduces the influence of other factors of instability on the reflectance. In addition, all structures have been fabricated successfully and evaluated in severe environments. (author)

  3. EUV multilayer mirror, optical system including a multilayer mirror and method of manufacturing a multilayer mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Qiushi; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik; de Boer, Meint J.; von Blanckenhagen, G.

    2016-01-01

    A multilayer mirror (M) reflecting extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a first wave-length range in a EUV spectral region comprises a substrate (SUB) and a stack of layers (SL) on the substrate, the stack of layers comprising layers comprising a low index material and a high index material, the

  4. EUV multilayer mirrors with enhanced stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Nicolas; Yulin, Sergiy; Feigl, Torsten; Kaiser, Norbert

    2006-08-01

    The application of multilayer optics in EUV lithography requires not only the highest possible normal-incidence reflectivity but also a long-term thermal and radiation stability at operating temperatures. This requirement is most important in the case of the collector mirror of the illumination system close to the EUV source where a short-time decrease in reflectivity is most likely. Mo/Si multilayer mirrors, designed for high normal reflectivity at the wavelength of 13.5 nm and deposited by dc magnetron sputtering, were directly exposed to EUV radiation without mitigation system. They presented a loss of reflectivity of more than 18% after only 8 hours of irradiation by a Xe-discharge source. Another problem of Mo/Si multilayers is the instability of reflectivity and peak wavelength under high heat load. It becomes especially critical at temperatures above 200°C, where interdiffusion between the molybdenum and the silicon layers is observed. The development of high-temperature multilayers was focused on two alternative Si-based systems: MoSi II/Si and interface engineered Mo/C/Si/C multilayer mirrors. The multilayer designs as well as the deposition parameters of all systems were optimized in terms of high peak reflectivity (>= 60 %) at a wavelength of 13.5 nm and high thermal stability. Small thermally induced changes of the MoSi II/Si multilayer properties were found but they were independent of the annealing time at all temperatures examined. A wavelength shift of -1.7% and a reflectivity drop of 1.0% have been found after annealing at 500°C for 100 hours. The total degradation of optical properties above 650°C can be explained by a recrystallization process of MoSi II layers.

  5. Measured reflectance of graded multilayer mirrors designed for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.; Windt, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Future astronomical X-ray telescopes, including the balloon-borne High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) and the Constellation-X Hard X-ray Telescope (Con-X HXT) plan to incorporate depth-graded multilayer coatings in order to extend sensitivity into the hard X-ray (10 less than or similar to E less......-graded W/Si multilayers optimized for broadband performance up to 69.5 keV (WK-edge). These designs are ideal for both the HEFT and Con-X HXT applications. We compare the measurements to model calculations to demonstrate that the reflectivity can be well described by the intended power law distribution...

  6. High quality multilayer mirrors for soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimmer, H.; Boeni, P.; Breitmeier, U.; Clemens, D.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mertins, H.C.; Schaefers, F. [BESSY, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    In an effort to develop optical components for X-rays with wavelengths in the water window (2.3 -4.4 nm) multilayer structures have been designed for the following applications: in transmission as phase shifters to change linear into circular polarization, in reflection as mirrors close to normal incidence and as linear polarizers at an angle of incidence of 45{sup o}. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  7. Multilayer active shell mirrors for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, John; Jackson, Kathryn; Pellegrino, Sergio; Redding, David; Wallace, J. Kent; Bradford, Samuel Case; Barbee, Troy

    2016-07-01

    A novel active mirror technology based on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) substrates and replication techniques has been developed. Multiple additional layers are implemented into the design serving various functions. Nanolaminate metal films are used to provide a high quality reflective front surface. A backing layer of thin active material is implemented to provide the surface-parallel actuation scheme. Printed electronics are used to create a custom electrode pattern and flexible routing layer. Mirrors of this design are thin (traditional optics. Such mirrors could be used as lightweight primaries for small CubeSat-based telescopes or as meter-class segments for future large aperture observatories. Multiple mirrors can be produced under identical conditions enabling a substantial reduction in manufacturing cost and complexity. An overview of the mirror design and manufacturing processes is presented. Predictions on the actuation performance have been made through finite element simulations demonstrating correctabilities on the order of 250-300× for astigmatic modes with only 41 independent actuators. A description of the custom metrology system used to characterize the active mirrors is also presented. The system is based on a Reverse Hartmann test and can accommodate extremely large deviations in mirror figure (> 100 μm PV) down to sub-micron precision. The system has been validated against several traditional techniques including photogrammetry and interferometry. The mirror performance has been characterized using this system, as well as closed-loop figure correction experiments on 150 mm dia. prototypes. The mirrors have demonstrated post-correction figure accuracies of 200 nm RMS (two dead actuators limiting performance).

  8. Mirror fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, W.S. Jr.; Carlson, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Recent conceptual reactor designs based on mirror confinement are described. Four components of mirror reactors for which materials considerations and structural mechanics analysis must play an important role in successful design are discussed. The reactor components are: (a) first-wall and thermal conversion blanket, (b) superconducting magnets and their force restraining structure, (c) neutral beam injectors, and (d) plasma direct energy converters

  9. Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhanshan; Cheng Xinbin; Zhu Jingtao; Huang Qiushi; Zhang Zhong; Chen Lingyan

    2011-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization of aperiodic tungsten/carbon (W/C) multi-layer mirror were studied. W/C multi-layer was designed as a broad-angle reflective supermirror for Cu-Kα line (λ = 0.154 nm) in the grazing incident angular range (0.9-1.1 deg.) using simulated annealing algorithm. To deposit the W/C depth-graded multi-layer mirror accurately, we introduce an effective layer growth rate as a function of layer thickness. This method greatly improves the reflectivity curve compared to the conventional multi-layer mirror prepared with constant growth rate. The deposited multi-layer mirror exhibits an average reflectivity of 19% over the grazing incident angle range of 0.88-1.08 deg. which mainly coincides with the designed value. Furthermore, the physical mechanisms were discussed and the re-sputtering process of light-atom layers is accounted for the modification of layer thicknesses which leads to the effective growth rates. Using this calibration method, the aperiodic multi-layer mirrors can be better fabricated for X-ray optics.

  10. Multilayer mirrors as power filters in insertion device beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.; DiGennaro, R.S.

    1988-08-01

    The power-filtering capabilities of multilayer band-pass x-ray mirrors relative to total reflection low-pass mirrors is presented. Results are based on calculations assuming proposed wiggler sources on the upcoming generation of low energy (1.5 GeV) and high energy (7.0 GeV) synchrotron radiation sources. Results show that multilayers out-perform total reflection mirrors in terms of reduction in reflected power by roughly an order of magnitude, with relatively small increases in total absorbed power and power density over total reflection mirrors, and with comparable reflected flux values. Various aspects of this potential application of multilayer x-ray optics are discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Interface characterization in B-based multilayer mirrors for next generation lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naujok, Philipp; Yulin, Sergiy; Müller, Robert; Kaiser, Norbert; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces in La/B_4C and LaN/B_4C multilayer mirrors designed for near normal incidence reflection of 6.x nm EUV light were investigated by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and EUV reflectometry. The thickness and roughness asymmetries of the different interfaces in both studied systems have been identified. A development of interface roughness with an increasing number of bilayers was found by different investigation methods. For near normal incidence, R = 51.1% @ λ = 6.65 nm could be reached with our La/B_4C multilayer mirrors, whereas R = 58.1% was achieved with LaN/B_4C multilayers at the same wavelength. - Highlights: • Interface structure in B-based multilayer mirrors investigated. • Combining X-ray reflection, EUV reflection and transmission electron microscopy • Interface thickness and roughness asymmetry identified • Interface roughness increases with higher number of bilayers.

  12. Multilayer X-ray mirrors for formation of sub-nanometer wavelength range beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhsakhalyan, A.A.; Akhsakhalyan, A.D.; Klyuenkov, E.B.; Murav'ev, V.A.; Salashchenko, N.N.; Kharitonov, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Paper reviews the efforts undertaken in the RF Academy of Sciences IPM within recent 5 years to design multilayer mirror systems to produce X-ray wavelength subnanometer range beams. Paper describes a process to fabricate the mentioned systems covering the procedures to obtain supersmooth surfaces of the specified shape, to deposit gradient multilayer structures on the mentioned surfaces and describes the rules to calculate the optimal parameters of mirrors. Paper presents characteristics of mirror system two types: a mirror in the shape of a parabolic cylinder to collimate radiation in the DRON-4, DRON-6 production-type X-ray diffractometers and in the shape of a quadraelliptic reflector - a new wide-aperture four-corner focusing system [ru

  13. Ion beam sputtered aluminum based multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziani, A. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 18 Avenue E. Belin, 31401 Toulouse (France); Delmotte, F., E-mail: Franck.Delmotte@InstitutOptique.fr [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Le Paven-Thivet, C. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR) UMR-CNRS 6164, Université de Rennes 1, UEB, IUT Saint Brieuc, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22004 Saint Brieuc cedex France (France); Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Roulliay, M. [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay UMR 8214, Univ Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay France (France); Bridou, F. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Gasc, K. [Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 18 Avenue E. Belin, 31401 Toulouse (France)

    2014-02-03

    In this paper, we report on the design, synthesis and characterization of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors for solar imaging applications in the spectral range 17 nm–34 nm. This research is carried out in the context of the preparation of the European Space Agency Solar Orbiter mission. The purpose of this study consists in optimizing the deposition of Al-based multilayers by ion beam sputtering according to several parameters such as the ion beam current and the sputtering angle. After optimization of Al thin films, several kinds of Al-based multilayer mirrors have been compared. We have deposited and characterized bi-material and also tri-material periodic multilayers: aluminum/molybdenum [Al/Mo], aluminum/molybdenum/boron carbide [Al/Mo/B{sub 4}C] and aluminum/molybdenum/silicon carbide [Al/Mo/SiC]. Best experimental results have been obtained on Al/Mo/SiC samples: we have measured reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm and 27.5% at 28.2 nm on a synchrotron radiation source. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors. • Optimization of aluminum thin films by adjusting several deposition parameters. • Comparison of results obtained with different types of Al-based multilayer mirrors. • Reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm on a synchrotron radiation source.

  14. Ion beam sputtered aluminum based multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziani, A.; Delmotte, F.; Le Paven-Thivet, C.; Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A.; Roulliay, M.; Bridou, F.; Gasc, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the design, synthesis and characterization of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors for solar imaging applications in the spectral range 17 nm–34 nm. This research is carried out in the context of the preparation of the European Space Agency Solar Orbiter mission. The purpose of this study consists in optimizing the deposition of Al-based multilayers by ion beam sputtering according to several parameters such as the ion beam current and the sputtering angle. After optimization of Al thin films, several kinds of Al-based multilayer mirrors have been compared. We have deposited and characterized bi-material and also tri-material periodic multilayers: aluminum/molybdenum [Al/Mo], aluminum/molybdenum/boron carbide [Al/Mo/B 4 C] and aluminum/molybdenum/silicon carbide [Al/Mo/SiC]. Best experimental results have been obtained on Al/Mo/SiC samples: we have measured reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm and 27.5% at 28.2 nm on a synchrotron radiation source. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors. • Optimization of aluminum thin films by adjusting several deposition parameters. • Comparison of results obtained with different types of Al-based multilayer mirrors. • Reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm on a synchrotron radiation source

  15. Wolter type I x-ray focusing mirror using multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon, Kwon Su; Namba, Yoshiharu; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2006-01-01

    A multilayer coating is a useful addition to a mirror in the x-ray region and has been applied to normal incidence mirrors used with soft x rays. When a multilayer coating is used on grazing incidence optics, higher performance can be achieved than without it.Cr/Sc multilayers coated on a Wolter type I mirror substrate for a soft x-ray microscope are considered. The reflectivity and effective solid angle are calculated for Wolter type I mirrors with uniform and laterally graded multilayer coatings. The laterally graded multilayer mirror showed superior x-ray performance, and the multilayer tolerances were relaxed. This multilayer mirror could be especially useful in the soft x-ray microscope intended for biological applications

  16. Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachev, S A; Chkhalo, N I; Kuzin, S V; Pariev, D E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Shestov, S V; Zuev, S Y

    2016-03-20

    We provide an analysis of contemporary multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar astronomy in the wavelength ranges: λ=12.9-13.3  nm, λ=17-21  nm, λ=28-33  nm, and λ=58.4  nm. We found new material pairs, which will make new spaceborne experiments possible due to the high reflection efficiencies, spectral resolution, and long-term stabilities of the proposed multilayer coatings. In the spectral range λ=13  nm, Mo/Be multilayer mirrors were shown to demonstrate a better ratio of reflection efficiency and spectral resolution compared with the commonly used Mo/Si. In the spectral range λ=17-21  nm, a new multilayer structure Al/Si was proposed, which had higher spectral resolution along with comparable reflection efficiency compared with the commonly used Al/Zr multilayer structures. In the spectral range λ=30  nm, the Si/B4C/Mg/Cr multilayer structure turned out to best obey reflection efficiency and long-term stability. The B4C and Cr layers prevented mutual diffusion of the Si and Mg layers. For the spectral range λ=58  nm, a new multilayer Mo/Mg-based structure was developed; its reflection efficiency and long-term stability have been analyzed. We also investigated intrinsic stresses inherent for most of the multilayer structures and proposed possibilities for stress elimination.

  17. Thermal stress prediction in mirror and multilayer coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianchao; Zhang, Lin; Morawe, Christian; Sanchez Del Rio, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Multilayer optics for X-rays typically consist of hundreds of periods of two types of alternating sub-layers which are coated on a silicon substrate. The thickness of the coating is well below 1 µm (tens or hundreds of nanometers). The high aspect ratio (∼10(7)) between the size of the optics and the thickness of the multilayer can lead to a huge number of elements (∼10(16)) for the numerical simulation (by finite-element analysis using ANSYS code). In this work, the finite-element model for thermal-structural analysis of multilayer optics has been implemented using the ANSYS layer-functioned elements. The number of meshed elements is considerably reduced and the number of sub-layers feasible for the present computers is increased significantly. Based on this technique, single-layer coated mirrors and multilayer monochromators cooled by water or liquid nitrogen are studied with typical parameters of heat-load, cooling and geometry. The effects of cooling-down of the optics and heating of the X-ray beam are described. It is shown that the influences from the coating on temperature and deformation are negligible. However, large stresses are induced in the layers due to the different thermal expansion coefficients between the layer and the substrate materials, which is the critical issue for the survival of the optics. This is particularly true for the liquid-nitrogen cooling condition. The material properties of thin multilayer films are applied in the simulation to predict the layer thermal stresses with more precision.

  18. Design, conception, and metrology of Extreme Ultraviolet multilayers mirrors resistant environments of space and EUV sources; Conception, realisation et metrologie de miroirs multicouches pour l'extreme ultraviolet resistants aux environnements du spatial et des sources EUV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecquet, Ch.

    2009-03-15

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum (EUV) wavelengths, which range between 13 nm and 40 nm, have many applications in science and technology. These have been developed for example in plasma physics (high order harmonics sources, X ray lasers). The work presented is about the design, the fabrication and the metrology of periodic multilayer mirrors. The main motivation of this study is to establish a cycle of development taking into account both the optical properties of reflective coatings (reflectivity, spectral selectivity, attenuation) and their behaviour under various environments. To improve the spectral selectivity, new multilayer periodic structures have been developed. They are characterized by a bimodal reflectance profile with adjustable attenuation. The effect of environment on the stability of performance is especially critical for the optical collection. The addition of material barriers has stabilized the performance of the peak reflectivity for over 200 h at 400 C deg. and it reduces the influence of other factors of instability on the reflectance. In addition, all structures have been fabricated successfully and evaluated in severe environments. (author)

  19. Measurement of multilayer mirror reflectivity and stimulated emission in the XUV spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, C.; Nam, C.H.; Meixler, L.; Milchberg, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Suckewer, S.; Voorhees, D.; Barbee, T.

    1986-03-01

    We present measurements of multilayer mirror reflectivity and stimulated emission in the XUV spectral region. A molybdenum-silicon multilayer mirror with 12% measured reflectivity at 182 A was found to produce a 120% enhancement of the C VI 182 A line (3 → 2 transition) in a strongly recombining plasma. No such enhancement of the CV 186.7 A line was seen, demonstrating amplification of stimulated emission at 182 A

  20. Bioinspired design of dental multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M; Wang, R; Thompson, V; Rekow, D; Soboyejo, W O

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the use of bioinspired functionally graded structures in the design of dental multi-layers that are more resistant to sub-surface crack nucleation. Unlike existing dental crown restorations that give rise to high stress concentration, the functionally graded layers (between crown materials and the joins that attach them to dentin) are shown to promote significant reductions in stress and improvements in the critical crack size. Special inspiration is drawn from the low stress concentrations associated with the graded distributions in the dentin-enamel-junction (DEJ). The implications of such functionally graded structures are also discussed for the design of dental restorations.

  1. Multilayer optics for x-ray analysis: design - fabrication - application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietsch, R.; Holz, Th.; Bruegemann, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The use of multilayer optics induced a decisive extension of opportunities in laboratory based X-ray analysis. With the growing number of different applications, more and more dedicated X-ray optics are required, optimized for the spectral range they are intended to be used for. Both the characteristic of the used X-ray source and the design of the multilayer optics finally define the performance of the conditioned incident beam for the application. In any case, qualified spacer and absorber materials have to be selected for the deposition of the multilayer in respect to the designated X-ray wavelength. X-ray optical devices based on uniform multilayers have the advantage of a wide acceptance angle but show chromatic aberrations. This effect can be avoided by synthesizing a multilayer with a lateral thickness gradient. The gradient ensures that any beam of a certain wavelength emitted from an infinite narrow X-ray source impinging the multilayer optics fulfills the Bragg condition. Three different types of curvature of laterally graded multilayer mirrors are used for X-ray analysis experiments: parabolic, elliptic and planar, which result in parallel, focusing and divergent beam conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the X-ray beam characteristics: intensity, monochromasy, divergence, beam width and brilliance can be additionally conditioned by combining one multilayer optics with either a different optic and/or with a crystal monochromator. The deposition of nanometer-multilayers, used as X-ray optical components, result in extraordinary requirements of the deposition process concerning precision, reproducibility and long term stability. Across a stack of more than 150 individual layers with thicknesses in the range between 1 to 10 nm, a variation of single layer thickness considerably lower than σ D = 0.1 nm and an interface roughness below σ R = 0.25 nm have to be achieved. Thickness homogeneity Δd/d -8 have to be guaranteed across macroscopic

  2. Hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a nonideal surface grating from multilayer X-ray mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punegov, V.I.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Mytnichenko, S.V.; Kovalenko, N.V.; Chernov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a multilayer surface grating is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The numerical calculations of angular distribution of scattering intensity from X-ray mirror Ni/C are executed with use of recurrence formulae and statistical dynamical theory of diffraction. It is shown, that the essential role in formation of a diffraction pattern plays a diffuse scattering caused by structure imperfection of a multilayer grating [ru

  3. Substrate and coating defect planarization strategies for high-laser-fluence multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Wolfe, Justin E.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Folta, James A.; Adams, John J.; Menor, Marlon G.; Teslich, Nick E.; Soufli, Regina; Menoni, Carmen S.; Patel, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Planarizing or smoothing over nodular defects in multilayer mirrors can be accomplished by a discrete deposit-and-etch process that exploits the angle-dependent etching rate of optical materials. Typically, nodular defects limit the fluence on mirrors irradiated at 1064 nm with 10 ns pulse lengths due to geometrically- and interference-induced light intensification. Planarized hafina/silica multilayer mirrors have demonstrated > 125 J/cm 2 laser resistance for single-shot testing and 50 J/cm 2 for multi-shot testing for nodular defects originating on the substrate surface. Two planarization methods were explored: thick planarization layers on the substrate surface and planarized silica layers throughout the multilayer in which only the silica layers that are below one half of the incoming electric field value are etched. This paper also describes the impact of planarized defects that are buried within the multilayer structure compared to planarized substrate particulate defects. - Highlights: • Defect planarization significantly improves multilayer mirror laser resistance • Substrate and coating defects have both been effectively planarized • Single and multishot laser resistance improvement was demonstrated

  4. Deposition and characterization of multilayers on thin foil x-ray mirrors for high-throughput x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Ahsen M.; Joensen, Karsten D.; Hoeghoej, P.

    1996-01-01

    W/Si and Co/C multilayers have been deposited on epoxy- replicated Au mirrors from the ASTRO-E telescope project, SPectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) flight mirrors, DURAN glass substrates and Si witness wafers. A characterization of the multilayers with both hard x-rays and soft x-rays is presented....... This clearly indicates the effectiveness of the epoxy-replication process for the production of smooth substrates for multilayer deposition to be used in future x-ray telescopes....

  5. Performance of transition metal-carbon multilayer mirrors from 80 to 350 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.; Bartlett, R.J.; Trela, W.J.; Spiller, E.; Golub, L.

    1984-03-01

    We report measurements and theoretical calculations of the reflectivity and resolving power of multilayer mirrors made of alternate layers of a transition metal (Co, Fe, V, and Cr) and carbon (2d approx. = 140 A) from 80 to 350 eV

  6. MULTI-LAYER MIRROR FOR RADIATION IN THE XUV WAVELENGHT RANGE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURE THEREOF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Frederik; Louis, Eric; Kessels, M.J.H.; Verhoeven, Jan; Den Hartog, Harmen Markus Johannes

    2002-01-01

    Multi-layer mirror for radiation with a wavelength in the wavelength range between 0.1 nm and 30 nm (the so-called XUV range), comprising a stack of thin films substantially comprising scattering particles which scatter the radiation, which thin films are separated by separating layers with a

  7. Reflectance Tuning at Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Wavelengths with Active Multilayer Mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, Muharrem; Lee, Christopher James; van Goor, F.A.; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    At extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths the refractive power of transmission type optical components is limited, therefore reflective components are used. Reflective optics (multilayer mirrors) usually consist of many bilayers and each bilayer is composed of a high and a low refractive index

  8. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  9. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design

  10. Irradiated radiation dose measurements of multilayer mirrors and permanent magnets used at FELI facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, K.; Tongu, H.; Okuma, S.; Oshita, E.; Wakita, K.; Takii, T.; Tomimasu, Takio

    1997-01-01

    Recently the operation time of the free electron laser (FEL) user's facilities is close on three thousand hours per year. Cavity mirrors of their optical resonators and permanent magnets of their undulators are used under high intensity radiation field along their high current electron beam lines. Among these mirrors and permanent magnets, multilayer mirrors and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are not so strong against radiation damage compared with Au-coated copper mirrors and Sm-Co permanent magnets. A radiation damage on Ta 2 O 5 /SiO 2 mirrors was found for the first time after about fifty hours visible FEL operation at the FELI. The damage is due to irradiated bremsstrahlung and intracavity FEL. However, radiation damages on Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets were already reported compared with Sm-Co ones using high energy neutrons, protons, deuterons and 60 Coγ-rays. Mixed irradiation effects of 85-MeV electrons, bremsstrahlung and 60 Coγ-rays and of 17-MeV electrons and 60 Coγ-rays were also studied. The latest results show that the magnetic flux loss of Nd-Fe-B is 2% at an absorbed dose of 10 MGy. The present work was carried out to study the irradiated dose distributions near the multilayer mirrors and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). The irradiated dose to the cavity mirrors used in Linac-based FEL experiment is estimated to be 0.3 MGray for fifty hours irradiation. The irradiated dose to the Nd-Fe-B magnets is estimated to be 16 MGray for 2 thousand hours operation. The decrease of their magnetic flux due to 16 MGray is estimated to be about 3%. These dose monitorings are useful to reduce irradiated dosages to the mirrors and the permanent magnets as low as possible and to estimate their safety lifetimes. (author)

  11. Large-area soft x-ray projection lithography using multilayer mirrors structured by RIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Steffen; Kloidt, Andreas; Kleineberg, Ulf; Schmiedeskamp, Bernt; Kadel, Klaus; Schomburg, Werner K.; Hormes, F. J.; Heinzmann, Ulrich

    1993-01-01

    SXPL (soft X-ray projection lithography) is one of the most promising applications of X-ray reflecting optics using multilayer mirrors. Within our collaboration, such multilayer mirrors were fabricated, characterized, laterally structured and then used as reflection masks in a projecting lithography procedure. Mo/Si-multilayer mirrors were produced by electron beam evaporation in UHV under thermal treatment with an in-situ X-ray controlled thickness in the region of 2d equals 14 nm. The reflectivities measured at normal incidence reached up to 54%. Various surface analysis techniques have been applied in order to characterize and optimize the X-ray mirrors. The multilayers were patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) with CF(subscript 4), using a photoresist as the etch mask, thus producing X-ray reflection masks. The masks were tested in the synchrotron radiation laboratory of the electron accelerator ELSA at the Physikalisches Institut of Bonn University. A double crystal X-ray monochromator was modified so as to allow about 0.5 cm(superscript 2) of the reflection mask to be illuminated by white synchrotron radiation. The reflected patterns were projected (with an energy of 100 eV) onto the resist (Hoechst AZ PF 514), which was mounted at an average distance of about 7 mm. In the first test-experiments, structure sizes down to 8 micrometers were nicely reproduced over the whole of the exposed area. Smaller structures were distorted by Fresnel-diffraction. The theoretically calculated diffraction images agree very well with the observed images.

  12. Interferential multi-layer mirrors for X-UV radiation: fabrication, characterization and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn Ki Byoung

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis reports the fabrication of W/C, Ni/C and Mo/C interferential multi-layer mirrors which can be used in the X-UV domain. They have been manufactured by cathodic pulverisation by using a new system for the in-situ control of the thickness of deposited layers, based on the measurement, sampling and real time integration of the ionic current which goes through the target during the coating process. Different methods (X ray diffraction at different wavelengths, electron microscopy and diffraction, in situ electronic resistivity measurement) have been used to study the main parameters which govern the multi-layer reflectivity: structure, substrate and interface roughness, minimum thickness to be deposited to obtain a continuous layer, number of bi-layers, stacking evenness, rate of absorbent element thickness to the period. Absolute reflectivity measurements have been performed by using short wavelength synchrotron radiation and the S component of polarised soft X rays obtained after double reflection on two parallel multi-layer mirrors oriented according to the Brewster angle. Ferromagnetic properties of Ni/C multi-layers have been studied to investigate fundamental magnetic properties, and to obtain additional information on interface structure [fr

  13. Final Technical Report - Polymeric Multilayer Infrared Reflecting Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, John [3M Company, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2016-09-16

    The goal of this project was to develop a clear, polymeric, multilayer film with an expanded infrared (IR) reflection band which would allow improved rejection of incident IR energy. The IR reflection band is covering the region from about 850 nm to 1830 nm. This film is essentially clear and colorless in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectra (visible light transmission of about 89%) while reflecting 90-95% of the IR energy over the portion of the spectra indicated above. This film has a nominal thickness of 3 mils, is polymeric in nature (contains no metals, metal oxides, or other material types) and is essentially clear in appearance This film can then be used as a component of other products such as a solar window film, an IR reflecting interlayer for laminated glass, a heat rejecting skylight film, a base film for daylight redirecting products, a greenhouse film, and many more applications. One of the main strengths of this product is that because it is a standalone IR rejecting film, it can be incorporated and retrofitted into many applications that desire or require the transmission of visible light, but want to block other portions of the solar spectra, especially the IR portion. Many of the applications exist in the window glazing product area where this film can provide for substantial energy improvements in applications where visible light is desired.

  14. Designs of tandem-mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Barr, W.L.; Boghosian, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    We have completed a comparative evaluation of several end plug configurations for tandem mirror fusion reactors with thermal barriers. The axi-cell configuration has been selected for further study and will be the basis for a detailed conceptual design study to be carried out over the next two years. The axi-cell end plug has a simple mirror cell produced by two circular coils followed by a transition coil and a yin-yang pair, which provides for MHD stability

  15. Ageing under mechanical stress: first experiments for a silver based multilayer mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalo, Arnaud; Ravel, Guillaume; Ignat, Michel; Cousin, Bernard; Swain, Michael V.

    2017-11-01

    Improving materials and devices reliability is a major concern to the spatial industry. Results are reported for satellite mirrors-like specimens consisting in oxide-protected metal systems. Optical coatings were deposited by electron beam evaporation. Mechanical stress fields in multi-layered materials play an important role. The stress state can have far-reaching implications both in kinetics and thermodynamics. Therefore an integrated apparatus with four-point bending equipment was designed. The technique allowed us to exert stress into a film or a system of films on a substrate concurrently with thermal treatment. In order to achieve the first tests performed with the help of the apparatus, various preliminary characterizations were required. The article reports the preliminary micro-mechanical testing of the materials (ultra micro-indentation to evaluate the elastic modulus of the samples materials and wafer curvature technique to determine the specimen residual stress) and the first ageing experiment. Experimental evidence of accelerated ageing under stress is successfully reported.

  16. Analysis of buried interfaces in multilayer mirrors using grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry near resonance edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertsu, M G; Nardello, M; Giglia, A; Corso, A J; Maurizio, C; Juschkin, L; Nicolosi, P

    2015-12-10

    Accurate measurements of optical properties of multilayer (ML) mirrors and chemical compositions of interdiffusion layers are particularly challenging to date. In this work, an innovative and nondestructive experimental characterization method for multilayers is discussed. The method is based on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity measurements performed on a wide grazing incidence angular range at an energy near the absorption resonance edge of low-Z elements in the ML components. This experimental method combined with the underlying physical phenomenon of abrupt changes of optical constants near EUV resonance edges enables us to characterize optical and structural properties of multilayers with high sensitivity. A major advantage of the method is to perform detailed quantitative analysis of buried interfaces of multilayer structures in a nondestructive and nonimaging setup. Coatings of Si/Mo multilayers on a Si substrate with period d=16.4  nm, number of bilayers N=25, and different capping structures are investigated. Stoichiometric compositions of Si-on-Mo and Mo-on-Si interface diffusion layers are derived. Effects of surface oxidation reactions and carbon contaminations on the optical constants of capping layers and the impact of neighboring atoms' interactions on optical responses of Si and Mo layers are discussed.

  17. Design of a normal incidence multilayer imaging X-ray microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Gabardi, David R.; Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.

    Normal incidence multilayer Cassegrain X-ray telescopes were flown on the Stanford/MSFC Rocket X-ray Spectroheliograph. These instruments produced high spatial resolution images of the sun and conclusively demonstrated that doubly reflecting multilayer X-ray optical systems are feasible. The images indicated that aplanatic imaging soft X-ray/EUV microscopes should be achievable using multilayer optics technology. A doubly reflecting normal incidence multilayer imaging X-ray microscope based on the Schwarzschild configuration has been designed. The design of the microscope and the results of the optical system ray trace analysis are discussed. High resolution aplanatic imaging X-ray microscopes using normal incidence multilayer X-ray mirrors should have many important applications in advanced X-ray astronomical instrumentation, X-ray lithography, biological, biomedical, metallurgical, and laser fusion research.

  18. Standard mirror fusion reactor design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the work of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Division's reactor study group during FY 1976 on the standard mirror reactor. The ''standard'' mirror reactor is characterized as a steady state, neutral beam sustained, D-T fusioning plasma confined by a Yin-Yang magnetic mirror field. The physics parameters are obtained from the same physics model that explains the 2XIIB experiment. The model assumes that the drift cyclotron loss cone mode occurs on the boundary of the plasma, and that it is stabilized by warm plasma with negligible energy investment. The result of the study was a workable mirror fusion power plant, steady-state blanket removal made relatively simple by open-ended geometry, and no impurity problem due to the positive plasma potential. The Q (fusion power/injected beam power) turns out to be only 1.1 because of loss out the ends from Coulomb collisions, i.e., classical losses. This low Q resulted in 77% of the gross electrical power being used to power the injectors, thereby causing the net power cost to be high. The low Q stimulated an intensive search for Q-enhancement concepts, resulting in the LLL reactor design effort turning to the field reversal mirror and the tandem mirror, each having Q of order 5

  19. Multilayer mirror and foil filter AXUV diode arrays on CDX-U spherical torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Stutman, D.; Iovea, M.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H. W.; Munsat, T.; Jones, B.; Hoffman, D.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent upgrades to CDX-U spherical torus diagnostics include two 10-channel AXUV diode arrays. The multilayer mirror (MLM) array measures the λ150 O VI brightness profile in the poloidal plane using the Mo/B 4 C synthetic multilayer structures as dispersive elements. The foil filter array has a tangential view and is equipped with interchangeable clear aperture, beryllium and titanium filters. This allows measurements of radiated power, O VI or C V radial distributions, respectively. The O VI and C V emissivity and the radiated power profiles are highly peaked. A Neoclassical impurity accumulation mechanism is considered as an explanation. For radiated power measurements in the T e ≤100 eV plasmas, photon energy dependent corrections must be used in order to account for nonlinear AXUV sensitivity in the range E phot ≤20 eV. The arrays are also used for characterization of resistive MHD phenomena, such as the low m modes, saw-tooth oscillations and internal reconnection events. Based on the successful operation of the diagnostics, a new ultra soft x-ray multilayer mirror diode AXUV diode array monitoring the 34 Aa emissivity distribution of C VI will be built and installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

  20. Review of mirror fusion reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Three magnetic confinement concepts, based on the mirror principle, are described. These mirror concepts are summarized as follows: (1) fusion-fission hybrid reactor, (2) tandem mirror reactor, and (3) reversed field mirror reactor

  1. Effects of mirror symmetry on the transmission fingerprints of quasiperiodic photonic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, I.P. [Departamento de Ensino Superior, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao, Campus Imperatriz, 65919-050 Imperatriz, MA (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S., E-mail: mvasconcelos@ect.ufrn.b [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bezerra, C.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-03-29

    We address the transmission properties of light waves through symmetric Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double-period photonic multilayers, i.e., a binary one-dimensional quasiperiodic structure made up of two different dielectric materials (more specifically SiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}), in quarter wavelength condition, presenting mirror symmetry. The optical spectra are calculated by using a theoretical model based on the transfer matrix approach in normal incidence geometry. In our results we present the self-similar features of the spectra and we also present the optical fingerprints through a return map of the transmission coefficients. We discuss these optical fingerprints and compare them with results of previous works, on similar quasiperiodic systems, in the absence of mirror symmetry.

  2. Effects of mirror symmetry on the transmission fingerprints of quasiperiodic photonic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, I.P.; Vasconcelos, M.S.; Bezerra, C.G.

    2010-01-01

    We address the transmission properties of light waves through symmetric Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double-period photonic multilayers, i.e., a binary one-dimensional quasiperiodic structure made up of two different dielectric materials (more specifically SiO 2 and TiO 2 ), in quarter wavelength condition, presenting mirror symmetry. The optical spectra are calculated by using a theoretical model based on the transfer matrix approach in normal incidence geometry. In our results we present the self-similar features of the spectra and we also present the optical fingerprints through a return map of the transmission coefficients. We discuss these optical fingerprints and compare them with results of previous works, on similar quasiperiodic systems, in the absence of mirror symmetry.

  3. Multilayer mirror based monitors for impurity controls in large fusion reactor type devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, S.P.; May, M.J.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Finkenthal, M.; Moos, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    Multilayer Mirror (MLM) based monitors are compact, high throughput diagnostics capable of extracting XUV emissions (the wavelength range including the soft-x-ray and the extreme ultraviolet, 10 angstrom to 304 angstrom) of impurities from the harsh environment of large fusion reactor type devices. For several years the Plasma Spectroscopy Group at Johns Hopkins University has investigated the application of MLM based XUV spectroscopic diagnostics for magnetically confined fusion plasmas. MLM based monitors have been constructed for and extensively used on DIII-D, Alcator C-mod, TEXT, Phaedrus-T, and CDX-U tokamaks to study the impurity behavior of elements ranging from He to Mo. On ITER MLM based devices would be used to monitor the spectral line emissions from Li I-like to F I-like charge states of Fe, Cr, and Ni, as well as extractors for the bands of emissions from high Z elements such as Mo or W for impurity controls of the fusion plasma. In addition to monitoring the impurity emissions from the main plasma, MLM based devices can also be adapted for radiation measurements of low Z elements in the divertor. The concepts and designs of these MLM based monitors for impurity controls in ITER will be presented. The results of neutron irradiation experiments of the MLMs performed in the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory will also be discussed. These preliminary neutron exposure studies show that the dispersive and reflective qualities of the MLMs were not affected in a significant manner

  4. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with spherical multilayer mirrors around 2.5keV photon energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ning; Du, Xuewei; Wang, Qiuping; Cao, Zhurong; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2014-09-01

    A Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) x-ray microscope has been developed for the diagnostics of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The KB microscope system works around 2.5keV with the magnification of 20. It consists of two spherical multilayer mirrors. The grazing angle is 3.575° at 2.5keV. The influence of the slope error of optical components and the alignment errors is simulated by SHADOW software. The mechanical structure which can perform fine tuning is designed. Experiment result with Manson x-ray source shows that the spatial resolution of the system is about 3-4μm over a field of view of 200μm.

  5. Optimization of graded multilayer designs for astronomical x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, P.H.; Harrison, F.A.; Windt, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a systematic method for optimizing the design of depth-graded multilayers for astronomical hard-x-ray and soft-gamma-ray telescopes based on the instrument's bandpass and the field of view. We apply these methods to the design of the conical-approximation Wolter I optics employed...... by the balloon-borne High Energy Focusing Telescope, using W/Si as the multilayer materials. In addition, we present optimized performance calculations of mirrors, using other material pairs that are capable of extending performance to photon energies above the W K-absorption edge (69.5 keV), including Pt/C, Ni...

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of novel multilayer mirrors intended for astronomical and laboratory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozin, Eugene N.; Mednikov, Konstantin N.; Pertsov, Andrei A.; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Reva, Anton A.; Shestov, Sergei V.; Ul'yanov, Artem S.; Vishnyakov, Eugene A.

    2009-05-01

    We report measurements of the reflection spectra of (i) concave (spherical and parabolic) Mo/Si, Mg/Si, and Al/Zr multilayer mirrors (MMs) intended for imaging solar spectroscopy in the framework of the TESIS/CORONAS-FOTON Satellite Project and of (ii) an aperiodic Mo/Si MM optimized for maximum uniform reflectivity in the 125-250 Å range intended for laboratory applications. The reflection spectra were measured in the configuration of a transmission grating spectrometer employing the radiation of a tungsten laser-driven plasma as the source. The function of detectors was fulfilled by backside-illuminated CCDs coated with Al or Zr/Si multilayer absorption filters. High-intensity second-order interference reflection peaks at wavelengths of about 160 Å were revealed in the reflection spectra of the 304-Å Mo/Si MMs. By contrast, the second-order reflection peak in the spectra of the new-generation narrow-band (~12 Å FWHM) 304-Å Mg/Si MMs is substantially depressed. Manifestations of the NEXAFS structure of the L2, 3 absorption edges of Al and Al2O3 were observed in the spectra recorded. The broadband Mo/Si MM was employed as the focusing element of spectrometers in experiments involving (i) the charge exchange of multiply charged ions with the donor atoms of a rare-gas jet; (ii) the spectroscopic characterization of a debris-free soft X-ray radiation source excited by Nd laser pulses in a Xe jet (iii) near-IR-to-soft-X-ray frequency conversion (double Doppler effect) occurring in the retroreflection from the relativistic electron plasma wake wave (flying mirror) driven by a multiterawatt laser in a pulsed helium jet.

  7. A hard X-ray telescope/concentrator design based on graded period multilayer coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Joensen, K. D.; Gorenstein, P.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that compact designs of multifocus, conical approximations to highly nested Wolter I telescopes, as well as single reflection concentrators, employing realistic graded period W/Si or Ni/C multilayer coatings, allow one to obtain more than 1000 cm2 of on-axis effective area at 40 ke...... that it is smaller than roughly 1 mm. The design can be realized with foils as thin (≤0.4 mm) as used for ASCA and SODART or with closed, slightly thicker (∼1.0 mm) mirror shells as used for JET-X and XMM. The effect of an increase of the inner radius is quantified on the effective area for multilayered mirrors up...

  8. Morphologies of laser-induced damage in hafnia-silica multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, F.Y.; Stolz, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    Hafnium-silica multilayer mirrors and polarizers were deposited by e-beam evaporation onto BK7 glass substrates. The mirrors and polarizers were coated for operation at 1053 nm at 45 degree and at Brewster's angle (56 degree), respectively. They were tested with a single 3-ns laser pulse. Morphology of the laser-induced damage was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Four distinct damage morphologies were found: pits, flatbottom pits, scalds, and delaminates. The pits and flat bottom pits ( 2 ). The pits seemed to result from ejection of nodular defects by causing local enhancement of the electric field. Scalds and delaminates could be observed at higher fluences (above 13 J/cm 2 ) and seemed to result from the formation of plasmas on the surface. These damage types often originated at pits and were less than 300 μm diameter; their size increased almost linearly with fluence. Finally, effects of the damage on the beam (reflectivity degradation and phase modulations) were measured

  9. Design and fabrication of heat resistant multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, J.M.; Knight, L.V.; Peterson, B.G.; Perkins, R.T.; Gray, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many promising applications of multilayer x-ray optical elements subject them to intense radiation. This paper discusses the selection of optimal pairs of materials to resist heat damage and presents simulations of multilayer performance under extreme heat loadings

  10. Design of the GOES Telescope secondary mirror mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookman, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The GOES Telescope utilizes a flexure mounting system for the secondary mirror to minimize thermally induced distortions of the secondary mirror. The detailed design is presented along with a discussion of the microradian pointing requirements and how they were achieved. The methodology used to dynamically tune the flexure/secondary mirror assembly to minimize structural interactions will also be discussed.

  11. Critical parameters influencing the EUV-induced damage of Ru-capped multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S B; Ermanoski, I; Tarrio, C; Lucatorto, T B; Madey, T E; Bajt, S; Fang, M; Chandhok, M

    2007-01-01

    Ongoing endurance testing of Ru-capped multilayer mirrors (MLMs) at the NIST synchrotron facility has revealed that the damage resulting from EUV irradiation does not always depend on the exposure conditions in an intuitive way. Previous exposures of Ru-capped MLMs to EUV radiation in the presence of water vapor demonstrated that the mirror damage rate actually decreases with increasing water pressure. We will present results of recent exposures showing that the reduction in damage for partial pressures of water up to 5 x 10 -6 Torr is not the result of a spatially uniform decrease in damage across the Gaussian intensity distribution of the incident EUV beam. Instead we observe a drop in the damage rate in the center of the exposure spot where the intensity is greatest, while the reflectivity loss in the wings of the intensity distribution appears to be independent of water partial pressure. (See Fig. 1.) We will discuss how the overall damage rate and spatial profile can be influenced by admixtures of carbon-containing species (e.g., CO, CO 2 , C 6 H 6 ) at partial pressures one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than the water vapor partial pressure. An investigation is underway to find the cause of the non-Gaussian damage profile. Preliminary results and hypotheses will be discussed. In addition to high-resolution reflectometry of the EUV-exposure sites, the results of surface analysis such as XPS will be presented. We will also discuss how the bandwidth and time structure of incident EUV radiation may affect the rate of reflectivity degradation. Although the observations presented here are based on exposures of Ru-capped MLMs, unless novel capping layers are similarly characterized, direct application of accelerated testing results could significantly overestimate mirror lifetime in the production environment

  12. Stability design considerations for mirror support systems in ICF lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Sommer, S.C.

    1996-10-01

    Some of the major components of laser systems used for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are the large aperture mirrors which direct the path of the laser. These mirrors are typically supported by systems which consist of mirror mounts, mirror enclosures, superstructures, and foundations. Stability design considerations for the support systems of large aperture mirrors have been developed based on the experience of designing and evaluating similar systems at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Examples of the systems developed at LLNL include Nova, the Petawatt laser, Beamlet, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The structural design of support systems of large aperture mirrors has typically been controlled by stability considerations in order for the large laser system to meet its performance requirements for alignment and positioning. This paper will discuss the influence of stability considerations and will provide guidance on the structural design and evaluation of mirror support systems in ICF lasers so that this information can be used on similar systems

  13. Preliminary design of a tandem mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmayer, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the TARA mirror experiment as a possible tandem mirror reactor configuration. This is a preliminary study to size the coil structure based on using the smallest end cell axial length that physics and engineering allow, zeroing the central cell parallel currents and having interchange stability. The input powers are estimated for the final reactor design so a Q value may be estimated. The Q value is defined as the fusion power divided by the total injected power absorbed by the plasma. A computer study was performed on the effect of the transition size, the transition vertical spacing and transition current. These parameters affect the central cell parallel currents, the recircularization of the flux tube and the ratio of central cell beta to anchor beta needed for marginal stability. Two designs were identified. The first uses 100 keV and 13 keV neutral beams to pump the ions that trap in the thermal barrier. The Q value of this reactor is 11.3. The second reactor uses a pump beam at 40 keV. This energy is chosen because there is a resonance for the charge exchange cross section between D 0 and He 2+ at this energy, thus the alpha ash will be pumped along with the deuterium and tritium. The Q value of this reactor is 11.6

  14. Tandem mirror next step conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - The Tandem Mirror Next Step, or TMNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. We outline the project goals, describe some initial device parameters, and relate the technological requirements to ongoing development programs

  15. LUTE primary mirror materials and design study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Greg

    1993-02-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) Primary Mirror Materials and Design Study is to investigate the feasibility of the LUTE telescope primary mirror. A systematic approach to accomplish this key goal was taken by first understanding the optical, thermal, and structural requirements and then deriving the critical primary mirror-level requirements for ground testing, launch, and lunar operations. After summarizing the results in those requirements which drove the selection of material and the design for the primary mirror are discussed. Most important of these are the optical design which was assumed to be the MSFC baseline (i.e. 3 mirror optical system), telescope wavefront error (WFE) allocations, the telescope weight budget, and the LUTE operational temperature ranges. Mechanical load levels, reflectance and microroughness issues, and options for the LUTE metering structure were discussed and an outline for the LUTE telescope sub-system design specification was initiated. The primary mirror analysis and results are presented. The six material substrate candidates are discussed and four distinct mirror geometries which are considered are shown. With these materials and configurations together with varying the location of the mirror support points, a total of 42 possible primary mirror designs resulted. The polishability of each substrate candidate was investigated and a usage history of 0.5 meter and larger precision cryogenic mirrors (the operational low end LUTE temperature of 60 K is the reason we feel a survey of cryogenic mirrors is appropriate) that were flown or tested are presented.

  16. A Designed Room Temperature Multilayered Magnetic Semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Dinah Simone; Charilaou, Michalis; Bordel, Catherine; Duchin, Ryan; Barriga, Alexander; Farmer, Adam; Hellman, Frances; Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    A room temperature magnetic semiconductor has been designed and fabricated by using an epitaxial antiferromagnet (NiO) grown in the (111) orientation, which gives surface uncompensated magnetism for an odd number of planes, layered with the lightly doped semiconductor Al-doped ZnO (AZO). Magnetization and Hall effect measurements of multilayers of NiO and AZO are presented for varying thickness of each. The magnetic properties vary as a function of the number of Ni planes in each NiO layer; an odd number of Ni planes yields on each NiO layer an uncompensated moment which is RKKY-coupled to the moments on adjacent NiO layers via the carriers in the AZO. This RKKY coupling oscillates with the AZO layer thickness, and it disappears entirely in samples where the AZO is replaced with undoped ZnO. The anomalous Hall effect data indicate that the carriers in the AZO are spin-polarized according to the direction of the applied field at both low temperature and room temperature. NiO/AZO multilayers are therefore a promising candidate for spintronic applications demanding a room-temperature semiconductor.

  17. Experimental studies and modeling of X-Rays multilayer mirrors damages under high X-Ray flux generated by a laser-plasma experiment; Etude experimentale et modelisation de l`endommagement des miroirs multicouches X soumis a de hauts flux de rayonnement X dans le cadre de l`experience plasma-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guern, F

    1996-05-24

    We have been able with this work to point out characterize X-Rays multilayers mirrors damages. We have designed two experimental set-up which have been installed in the HELIOTROPE experimental chamber of the OCTAL facility located at the CEA in Limeil-Valenton. We have demonstrated that X-Rays multilayer mirrors properties were drastically modified by X-Rays emitted by a golden laser plasma. We have, more precisely, introduced the damage speed concept to quantify the expansion of the multilayer mirror period. We have been able to classify different multilayer mirrors in function of their resistance to damage and we have demonstrated that a silicate layer deposited on a mirror allowed to increase his resistance to damage. In a second part we have developed a simulation tool in order to simulate the X-Rays multilayer mirrors optical properties modifications. We have therefore coupled a thermo-mechanic code with an optical program. The results of the simulations are in a rather good agreement with the experiments and can be used to predict, before experiments, the multilayer mirror behavior under X-Rays irradiation. (author) 55 refs.

  18. Design of Efficient Mirror Adder in Quantum- Dot Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Manju K.

    2018-03-01

    Lower power consumption is an essential demand for portable multimedia system using digital signal processing algorithms and architectures. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) is a rising nano technology for the development of high performance ultra-dense low power digital circuits. QCA based several efficient binary and decimal arithmetic circuits are implemented, however important improvements are still possible. This paper demonstrate Mirror Adder circuit design in QCA. We present comparative study of mirror adder cells designed using conventional CMOS technique and mirror adder cells designed using quantum-dot cellular automata. QCA based mirror adders are better in terms of area by order of three.

  19. Design and development of the multilayer optics for the new hard x-ray mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Civitani, M.; Raimondi, L.; Sironi, G.; Cotroneo, V.; Negri, B.; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, F.; Borghi, G.; Orlandi, A.; Vernani, D.; Valsecchi, G.; Binda, R.; Romaine, S.; Gorenstein, P.; Attinà, P.

    2017-11-01

    The New Hard X-ray Mission (NHXM) project will be operated by 2017 and is currently undergoing a Phase B study, under the coordination of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The project is being proposed by an international team in the context of the ESA Call CV M3 as a Small Mission program, with a large Italian participation. It is based on 4 hard X-ray optics modules, each formed by 60 evenly spaced multilayer coated Wolter I mirror shells. An extensible bench is used to reach the 10 m focal length. The Wolter I monolithic substrates with multilayer coating are produced in NiCo by electroforming replication. Three of the mirror modules will host in the focal plane a hybrid a detector system (a soft X-ray Si DEPFET array plus a high energy CdTe detector). The detector of the fourth telescope will be a photoelectric polarimeter with imaging capabilities, operating from 2 up to 35 keV. The total on axis effective area of the three telescopes at 1 keV and 30 kev is of 1500 cm2 and 350 cm2 respectively, with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec HEW at 30 keV. In this paper we report on the design and development of the multilayer coated X-ray mirrors based on NiCo shells.

  20. High Bandwidth, Fine Resolution Deformable Mirror Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Low Temperature Solders 68 B.6 Influence Function Parameters 68 APPENDIX C 19 Capacitance Measurement 69 ACCESSION for NTIS white Sectloo ODC Buff...Multilayer actuator: Dilatation versus applied electric field 10 Figure 3 - Multilayer actuator: Influence function 11 Figure 4 - Honeycomb device...bimorph 20 Figure 8 - Bimorph device: Influence function of a bimorph device which has a glass plate 0.20 cm thick 24 Figure 9 - Bimorph device

  1. Design and fabrication of soft x-ray mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, Masaru; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kazuo [Shimadzu Corp., Production Engineering Laboratory, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic technology is important for measuring the chemical status of material surface in the LSI manufacturing process. We report on non-spherical mirrors focusing laser-induced plasma soft x-ray to fine sample surface. We designed toric and ellipsoidal mirror as soft x-ray condensing means, simulated focusing image, manufactured mirror surface on fused quartz substrate, and measured form accuracy. (author)

  2. Some ideas on the choice of designs and materials for cooled mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    This paper expresses some views on the fabrication of future synchrotron beam-line optics; more particularly the metallurgical issues in high-quality metal mirrors. A simple mirror with uniform cooling channels is first analyzed theoretically, followed by the cullular-pin-post system with complex coolant flow path. Choice of mirror material is next considered. For the most challenging situations (need for intensive cooling), the present practice is to use nickel-plated glidcop or silicon; for less severe challenges, Si carbide may be used and cooling may be direct or indirect; and for the mildest heat loads, fused silica or ulf are popular. For the highest performance mirrors (extreme heat load), the glidcop developments should be continued perhaps to cellular-pin-post systems. For extreme distortion, Si is indicated and invar offers both improved performance and lower price. For less extreme challenges but still with cooling, Ni-plated metals have the cost advantage and SXA and other Al alloys can be added to glidcop and invar. For mirrors with mild cooling requirements, stainless steel would have many advantages. Once the internal cooling designs are established, they will be seen as more cost-effective and reliable than clamp-on schemes. Where no cooling is needed, Si, Si carbide, and the glasses can be used. For the future, the effect of electroless Ni layers on cooling design need study, and a way to finish nickel that is compatible with multilayers should be developed

  3. High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x  nm wavelength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Yakshin, Andrey; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    We report a hybrid thin-film deposition procedure to significantly enhance the reflectivity of La/B-based multilayer structures. This is of relevance for applications of multilayer optics at 6.7-nm wavelength and beyond. Such multilayers showed a reflectance of 64.1% at 6.65 nm measured at

  4. Mirroring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Wegener, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    and metaphorical value of mirroring for creativity theory across two different research fields — neuroscience and learning. We engage in a mutual (possibly creative) exploration of mirroring from ‘mirror neurons’ to mirroring in social learning theory. One of the most fascinating aspects of mirroring...... as a neurobiological and as a learning phenomenon is that it points to the embodied and unconscious aspects of social interaction. Thus, mirroring should not be reduced to the non-creative, mechanical repetition of the original, outstanding creativity. To mirror is a human capability built into our capacity to create......Most definitions of creativity emphasise originality. The creative product is recognised as distinct from other products and the creative person as someone who stands out from the crowd. What tend to be overlooked are acts of mirroring as a crucial element of the creative process. The human ability...

  5. Controlling contamination in Mo/Si multilayer mirrors by Si surface capping modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Michael E.; Steinhaus, Chip; Clift, W. Miles; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Mrowka, Stanley; Soufli, Regina

    2002-07-01

    The performance of Mo/Si multilayer mirrors (MLMs) used to reflect UV (EUV) radiation in an EUV + hydrocarbon (NC) vapor environment can be improved by optimizing the silicon capping layer thickness on the MLM in order to minimize the initial buildup of carbon on MLMs. Carbon buildup is undesirable since it can absorb EUV radiation and reduce MLM reflectivity. A set of Mo/Si MLMs deposited on Si wafers was fabricated such that each MLM had a different Si capping layer thickness ranging form 2 nm to 7 nm. Samples from each MLM wafer were exposed to a combination of EUV light + (HC) vapors at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron in order to determine if the Si capping layer thickness affected the carbon buildup on the MLMs. It was found that the capping layer thickness had a major influence on this 'carbonizing' tendency, with the 3 nm layer thickness providing the best initial resistance to carbonizing and accompanying EUV reflectivity loss in the MLM. The Si capping layer thickness deposited on a typical EUV optic is 4.3 nm. Measurements of the absolute reflectivities performed on the Calibration and Standards beamline at the ALS indicated the EUV reflectivity of the 3 nm-capped MLM was actually slightly higher than that of the normal, 4 nm Si-capped sample. These results show that he use of a 3 nm capping layer represents an improvement over the 4 nm layer since the 3 nm has both a higher absolute reflectivity and better initial resistance to carbon buildup. The results also support the general concept of minimizing the electric field intensity at the MLM surface to minimize photoelectron production and, correspondingly, carbon buildup in a EUV + HC vapor environment.

  6. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis

  7. Study of Cr/Sc-based multilayer reflecting mirrors using soft x-ray reflectivity and standing wave-enhanced x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiyi; Burcklen, Catherine; André, Jean-Michel; Guen, Karine Le; Giglia, Angelo; Koshmak, Konstantin; Nannarone, Stefano; Bridou, Françoise; Meltchakov, Evgueni; Rossi, Sébastien de; Delmotte, Franck; Jonnard, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    We study Cr/Sc-based multilayer mirrors designed to work in the water window range using hard and soft x-ray reflectivity as well as x-ray fluorescence enhanced by standing waves. Samples differ by the elemental composition of the stack, the thickness of each layer, and the order of deposition. This paper mainly consists of two parts. In the first part, the optical performances of different Cr/Sc-based multilayers are reported, and in the second part, we extend further the characterization of the structural parameters of the multilayers, which can be extracted by comparing the experimental data with simulations. The methodology is detailed in the case of Cr/B4C/Sc sample for which a three-layer model is used. Structural parameters determined by fitting reflectivity curve are then introduced as fixed parameters to plot the x-ray standing wave curve, to compare with the experiment, and confirm the determined structure of the stack.

  8. Design of a high-efficiency grazing incidence monochromator with multilayer-coated laminar gratings for the 1-6 keV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masato; Ishino, Masahiko; Sasai, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    A grazing incidence objective monochromator consisting of a spherical mirror, a varied-line-spacing plane grating with multilayered coating, a movable plane multilayered mirror, and a fixed exit slit for the 1-6 keV region has been designed. The included angle at the grating was chosen to satisfy the grating equation and extended Bragg condition simultaneously. The aberration was corrected by means of a hybrid design method. A spectral resolving power of ∼600-∼6000 and a throughput of ∼2%-∼40% is expected for the monochromator when used in an undulator beamline

  9. Spectral characterisation of aperiodic normal-incidence Sb/B4C multilayer mirrors for the λ < 124 Å range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, E. A.; Kopylets, I. A.; Kondratenko, V. V.; Kolesnikov, A. O.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ragozin, E. N.; Shatokhin, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Three broadband aperiodic Sb/B4C multilayer mirrors were synthesised for the purposes of soft X-ray optics and spectroscopy in the wavelength range beyond the L-edge of Si (λ plasma radiation source and an electronic detector with a 2D spatial resolution (a CCD matrix with 13 × 13 μm sized pixels). The experimental spectra are compared with theoretical calculations. The effect of lower antimony and B4C layer densities on the reflection spectra is discussed.

  10. Focusing X-rays to a 1-{mu}m spot using elastically bent, graded multilayer coated mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, J.H.; Thompson, A.C.; Kortright, J.B. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In the x-ray fluorescent microprobe at beamline 10.3.1, the ALS bending magnet source is demagnified by a factor of several hundred using a pair of mirrors arranged in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. These are coated with multilayers to increase reflectivity and limit the pass band of the x-rays striking the sample. The x-rays excite characteristic fluorescent x-rays of elements in the sample, which are analyzed by an energy dispersive Si-Li detector, for a sensitive assay of the elemental content. By scanning the focal spot the spatial distribution of the elements is determined; the spatial resolution depends on the size of this spot. When spherical mirrors are used, the spatial resolution is limited by aberrations to 5 or 10 {mu}m. This has been improved to 1 {mu}m through the use of an elliptical mirror formed by elastically bending a plane mirror of uniform width and thickness with the optimum combination of end couples.

  11. Focusing X-rays to a 1-μm spot using elastically bent, graded multilayer coated mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, J.H.; Thompson, A.C.; Kortright, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    In the x-ray fluorescent microprobe at beamline 10.3.1, the ALS bending magnet source is demagnified by a factor of several hundred using a pair of mirrors arranged in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. These are coated with multilayers to increase reflectivity and limit the pass band of the x-rays striking the sample. The x-rays excite characteristic fluorescent x-rays of elements in the sample, which are analyzed by an energy dispersive Si-Li detector, for a sensitive assay of the elemental content. By scanning the focal spot the spatial distribution of the elements is determined; the spatial resolution depends on the size of this spot. When spherical mirrors are used, the spatial resolution is limited by aberrations to 5 or 10 μm. This has been improved to 1 μm through the use of an elliptical mirror formed by elastically bending a plane mirror of uniform width and thickness with the optimum combination of end couples

  12. Rough Mirror as a Quantum State Selector: Analysis and Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Lamy, F.; Meyerovich, A. E.; Escobar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report analysis of rough mirrors used as the gravitational state selectors in neutron beam and similar experiments. The key to mirror properties is its roughness correlation function (CF) which is extracted from the precision optical scanning measurements of the surface profile. To identify CF in the presence of fluctuation-driven fat tails, we perform numerical experiments with computer-generated random surfaces with the known CF. These numerical experiments provide a reliable identification procedure which we apply to the actual rough mirror. The extracted CF allows us to make predictions for ongoing GRANIT experiments. We also propose a radically new design for rough mirrors based on Monte Carlo simulations for the 1D Ising model. The implementation of this design provides a controlled environment with predictable scattering properties

  13. Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Edward F.; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the visible portion of the synchrotron radiation (SR) extracted from the High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-Factory. During off-axis operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm2. When on-axis imaging occurs, the heat flux due to scattered SR, resistive wall losses and Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) heating is estimated at 1 W/cm2. The imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. The design requirements for the primary mirror are listed and discussed. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during on-axis and off-axis operation will be presented.

  14. Progress on the reference mirror fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Doggett, J.N.; Moir, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The design of a reference mirror fusion reactor is underway at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The reactor, rated at about 900 MWe, features steady-state operation, an absence of plasma impurity problems, and good accessibility for blanket maintenance. It is concluded that a mirror reactor appears workable, but its dollar/kWe cost will be considerably higher than present-day nuclear costs. The cost would be reduced most markedly by an increase in plasma Q

  15. Design considerations for energy efficient, resilient, multi-layer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Hansen, Line Pyndt; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2016-01-01

    measures. In this complex problem, considerations such as client traffic granularity, applied grooming policies and multi-layer resiliency add even more complexity. A commercially available network planning tool is used to investigate the interplay between different methods for resilient capacity planning......This work investigates different network design considerations with respect to energy-efficiency, under green-field resilient multi-layer network deployment. The problem of energy efficient, reliable multi-layer network design is known to result in different trade-offs between key performance....... Switching off low-utilized transport links has been investigated via a pro-active re-routing applied during the network planning. Our analysis shows that design factors such as the applied survivability strategy and the applied planning method have higher impact on the key performance indicators compared...

  16. Research on the Multilayer Free Damping Structure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to put forward a design model for multilayer free damping structures. It sets up a mathematical model and deduces the formula for its structural loss factor η and analyzes the change rules of η along with the change rate of the elastic modulus ratio q1, the change rate of the loss factors of damping materials q2, and the change rate of the layer thickness ratio q3 under the condition with the layer thickness ratio h2=1,3,5,10 by software MATLAB. Based on three specific damping structures, the mathematical model is verified through ABAQUS. With the given structural loss factor (η≥2 and the layer number (n=3,4,5,6, 34 kinds of multilayer free damping structures are then presented. The study is meant to provide a more flexible and more diverse design solution for multilayer free damping structures.

  17. Stress Free Multilayer Coating for High Resolution X-ray Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most of X-ray optics research and development in the US is to build a high resolution, large collecting area and light-weight optic, namely an soft X-ray mirror for...

  18. Cr/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burcklen, C.; Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A.; Rossi, S. de; Delmotte, F. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique Graduate School, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Soufli, R. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique Graduate School, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dennetiere, D.; Polack, F.; Capitanio, B.; Thomasset, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, BP 48F-91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Gullikson, E. [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    We present an experimental study of the effect of layer interfaces on the x-ray reflectance in Cr/B{sub 4}C multilayer interference coatings with layer thicknesses ranging from 0.7 nm to 5.4 nm. The multilayers were deposited by magnetron sputtering and by ion beam sputtering. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry, soft x-ray reflectometry, and transmission electron microscopy reveal asymmetric multilayer structures with a larger B{sub 4}C-on-Cr interface, which we modeled with a 1–1.5 nm thick interfacial layer. Reflectance measurements in the vicinity of the Cr L{sub 2,3} absorption edge demonstrate fine structure that is not predicted by simulations using the currently tabulated refractive index (optical constants) values for Cr.

  19. The simplest possible design for a KB microfocus mirror system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S. P., E-mail: steve.collins@diamond.ac.uk; Scott, S. M.; Hawkins, D. M.; Fabrizi, F.; Moser, B.; Nisbet, G.; Sutter, J. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science & Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harwin, R. C. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science & Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Harwin, W. S. [School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6AH (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    We report a design for a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microfocussing mirror system. The main components are described, with emphasis on a ‘tripod’ manipulator, where we outline the required coordinate transformation calculations. The merit of this device lies in its simplicity of design, minimal degrees of freedom, and speed and ease of setup on a beamline. Test results and an example of the mirrors in use on Diamond Beamline I16, showing a high-resolution polar domain map of KTiOPO{sub 4} with a spot size of 1.25 µm × 1.5 µm, are presented.

  20. Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Peter H.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Platonov, Yuriy Y.

    1997-01-01

    on the inside surface of a quarter cylinder section. We found that interfacial roughness (σ) in the multilayers was typically between 3.5 and 4.0 Å on DESAG glass, and between 4.5 and 5.0 Å on the ERAFs. Also, we found that coatings deposited on glass that has been thermally formed into a cylindrical shape...

  1. Streaked spectrometry using multilayer x-ray-interference mirrors to investigate energy transport in laser-plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Henke, B.L.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.

    1981-08-01

    Transport of energy in laser-produced plasmas is scrutinized by devising spectrally and temporally identifiable characteristics in the x-ray emission history which identify the heat-front position at various times in the heating process. Measurements of the relative turn-on times of these characteristics show the rate of energy transport between various points. These measurements can in turn constrain models of energy transport phenomena. We are time-resolving spectrally distinguishable subkilovolt x-ray emissions from different layers of a disk target to examine the transport rate of energy into the target. A similar technique is used to measure the lateral expansion rate of the plasma spot. A soft x-ray streak camera with 15-psec temporal resolution is used to make the temporal measurements. Spectral discrimination of the incident signal is provided by multilayer x-ray interference mirrors

  2. Design and Optimization of Thermophotovoltaic System Cavity with Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermophotovoltaic (TPV systems can convert radiant energy into electrical power. Here we explore the design of the TPV system cavity, which houses the emitter and the photovoltaic (PV cells. Mirrors are utilized in the cavity to modify the spatial and spectral distribution within. After discussing the basic concentric tubular design, two novel cavity configurations are put forward and parametrically studied. The investigated variables include the shape, number, and placement of the mirrors. The optimization objectives are the optimized efficiency and the extended range of application of the TPV system. Through numerical simulations, the relationship between the design parameters and the objectives are revealed. The results show that careful design of the cavity configuration can markedly enhance the performance of the TPV system.

  3. Split-Plot Designs with Mirror Image Pairs as Subplots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... appealing with effects of major interest free from full aliasing assuming that 3rd and higher order interactions are negligible....

  4. Effects of low earth orbit on the optical performance of multi-layer enhanced high reflectance mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Terence; Johnson, Linda; Klemm, Karl; Scheri, Rick; Bennett, Jean; Erickson, Jon; Dibrozolo, Filippo

    1995-01-01

    Two mirror designs developed for space applications were flown along with a standard mid-infrared design on the leading and trailing edges of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Preliminary observations of induced changes in optical performance of ZnS-coated mirrors and impact-related microstructural and microchemical effects are described in the proceedings of the First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium. In this paper, effects of the induced environment and meteoroid/debris impacts on mirror performance are described in more detail. Also, an analysis of reflectance spectra using the results of Auger and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) profiling measurements are used to identify an optical-degradation mechanism for the ZnS-coated mirrors. Structural damage associated with a high-velocity impact on a (Si/Al2O3)-coated mirror was imaged optically and with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM). Scanning Auger and SIMS analysis provided chemical mapping of selected impact sites. The impact data suggest design and fabrication modifications for obtaining improved mechanical performance using a design variation identified in preflight laboratory simulations. Auger surface profile and SIMS imaging data verified the conclusion that secondary impacts are the source of contamination associated with the dendrites grown on the leading-edge ZnS-coated test samples. It was also found that dendrites can be grown in the laboratory by irradiating contaminated sites on a trailing-edge ZnS-coated sample with a rastered electron beam. These results suggest a mechanism for dendrite growth.

  5. Design and application of multilayer monolithic microwave integrated circuit transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, S.B

    1999-07-01

    The design and performance of planar spiral transformers, using multilayer GaAs and silicon MMIC technology, are presented. This multilayer technology gives new opportunities for improving the performance of planar transformers, couplers and baluns. Planar transformers have high parasitic resistance and capacitance and low levels of coupling. Using multilayer technology these problems are overcome by applying a multilayer structure of three metal layers separated by two polyimide dielectric layers. The improvements gained by placing the conductors on different metal layers, and using conductors raised on polyimide layers for low capacitance, have been investigated. The circuits were fabricated using a novel experimental fabrication process, which uses entirely standard materials and techniques and is compatible with BJT's and silicon-germanium HBT's. The transformers were all characterised up to 20 GHz using RF-on-wafer measurements. They demonstrated good performance, considering the experimental nature of in-house multilayer technology and the difficulties in simulating these three-dimensional new geometries. With high resistivity substrates, the silicon components achieved virtually the same performance as their gallium arsenide counterparts. The transformers were then used in simulations of transformer-coupled HBT amplifier circuits, to demonstrate their capabilities. It was shown that these circuits present good performance compared to standard off-the shelf component circuits and are very promising for use in most multilayer MMIC applications. The structures were further used in coupling configurations, and applied in balun circuits and pushpull amplifiers. The spiral transformer coupler can operate at low frequencies without using up much chip area. In a balun configuration, the balun can compensate for coupling and phase imbalance and operates over 5 to 15 GHz. The spiral coupler does not always need multilayer processing, so the balun may be

  6. Parametric design study of tandem mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    The parametric design study of the tandem mirror reactor (TMR) is described. The results of this study illustrate the variation of reactor characteristics with changes in the independent design parameters, reveal the set of design parameters which minimizes the cost of the reactor, and show the sensitivity of the optimized design to physics and technological uncertainties. The total direct capital cost of an optimized 1000 MWe TMR is estimated to be $1300/kWe. The direct capital cost of a 2000 MWe plant is less than $1000/kWe

  7. Preliminary design of a Tandem-Mirror-Next-Step facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, C.C.; Doggett, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The Tandem-Mirror-Next-Step (TMNS) facility is designed to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of a tandem-mirror reactor. The facility is based on a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning, tandem-mirror device with a fusion power output of 245 MW. The fusion power density in the central cell is 2.1 MW/m 3 , with a resultant neutron wall loading of 0.5 MW/m 2 . Overall machine length is 116 m, and the effective central-cell length is 50.9 m. The magnet system includes end cells with yin-yang magnets to provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and thermal-barrier cells to help achieve a plasma Q of 4.7 (where Q = fusion power/injected power). Neutral beams at energies up to 200 keV are used for plasma heating, fueling, and barrier pumping. Electron cyclotron resonant heating at 50 and 100 GHz is used to control the electron temperature in the barriers. Based on the resulting engineering design, the overall cost of the facility is estimated to be just under $1 billion. Unresolved physics issues include central-cell β-limits against MHD ballooning modes (the assumed reference value of β exceeds the current theory-derived limit), and the removal of thermalized α-particles from the plasma

  8. Reactive diffusion in Sc/Si multilayer X-ray mirrors with CrB2 barrier layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershyn, Y.P.; Zubarev, E.N.; Kondratenko, V.V.; Sevryukova, V.A.; Kurbatova, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Processes undergoing in Sc/Si multilayer X-ray mirrors (MXMs) with periods of ∝27 nm and barrier layers of CrB 2 0.3- and 0.7-nm thick within the temperature range of 420-780 K were studied by methods of small-angle X-ray reflectivity (λ=0.154 nm) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. All layers with the exception of Sc ones are amorphous. Barrier layers are stable at least up to a temperature of 625 K and double the activation energy of diffusional intermixing at moderate temperatures. Introduction of barriers improves the thermal stability of Sc/Si MXMs at least by 80 degrees. Diffusion of Si atoms through barrier layers into Sc layers with formation of silicides was shown to be the main degradation mechanism of MXMs. A comparison of the stability for Sc/Si MXMs with different barriers published in the literature is conducted. The ways of further improvement of barrier properties are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Mirror Station for studies of the protection of diagnostic mirrors from impurity contamination in ITER: Design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litnovsky, Andrey; Krasikov, Yuri; Kotov, Vladislav; Matveeva, Maria; Panin, Anatoly; Vera, Liliana; Buzi, Luxherta; Neubauer, Olaf; Biel, Wolfgang; Nicolai, Dirk; Mertens, Philippe; Linsmeier, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Paper is devoted to protection of diagnostic mirrors for ITER. • Modeling predicts suppression of impurity deposition on mirrors by using ducts. • The mirror tube system (Mirror Station) was built to validate the model. • The Mirror Station was exposed in TEXTOR. • The decrease of deposition in cylindrical ducts with fins cannot be confirmed. • All mirrors located in conical ducts preserved their reflectivity. - Abstract: Optical and laser-based diagnostics in ITER will use mirrors to transmit plasma radiation and laser light to the corresponding detectors and cameras. Mirrors will be sputtered by the fast plasma particles and contaminated by impurities leading to the degradation of the reflectivity and hampering the performance of corresponding diagnostics. Dedicated measures were proposed to minimize the impurity deposition comprising the use of shutters and fins inside diagnostic ducts to trap impurities on their way toward the mirror located in the end of these ducts. Modeling results predict at least 7-fold suppression of the deposition for the duct having four fins located at the distance of a half of a diameter from each other. The Mirror Station (MS) was designed to validate modeling predictions and to study the suppression of deposition inside of diagnostic ducts. The MS contained cylindrical and cone-shaped tubes of different lengths with smooth and shaped geometry of ducts. The MS was exposed in the midplane port of TEXTOR for about 3960 s of plasma operation. After exposure, no drastic suppression of deposition was observed in the cylindrical ducts with fins. In the conical tubes no deposition was detected outlining the advantages of a cone form.

  10. Design of Multilayer Insulation for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Weston A.

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is a critical component for future, long term space missions. These missions will require the storage of cryogenic fuels for extended periods of time with little to no boil-off and MLI is vital due to its exceptional radiation shielding properties. Several MLI test articles were designed and fabricated which explored methods of assembling and connecting blankets, yielding results for evaluation. Insight gained, along with previous design experience, will be used in the design of the replacement blanket for the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is slated for upcoming tests. Future design considerations are discussed which include mechanical testing to determine robustness of such a system, as well as cryostat testing of samples to give insight to the loss of thermal performance of sewn panels in comparison to the highly efficient, albeit laborious application of the original MHTB blanket.

  11. Mechanical design aspects of a tandem mirror fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, W.S. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Two ''plugs'' of dense plasma at either end of a central solenoid cell form the basis of a new mirror fusion power plant concept. A central cell blanket design is presented. Modules on crawler tracks serviced by remote welding and handling machines of very simple design are important features resulting from linear axisymmetric geometry. Three blanket designs are considered and the best one presented in some detail. It has lithium as the breeder material, helium cooled. ''Plug'' magnet field strengths must be high. A novel magnet is presented to satisfy the physics of the end plugs. Beam sources at 1,200 KV present special problems. Methods of voltage standoff, arc damage control, and neutralization are discussed. New secondary containment ideas are presented to allow removable roof sections of balanced design

  12. Heuristic urban transportation network design method, a multilayer coevolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain bin; Manan, Mohd Shahrudin Abd; Li, Rong; Wu, Jianjun

    2017-08-01

    The design of urban transportation networks plays a key role in the urban planning process, and the coevolution of urban networks has recently garnered significant attention in literature. However, most of these recent articles are based on networks that are essentially planar. In this research, we propose a heuristic multilayer urban network coevolution model with lower layer network and upper layer network that are associated with growth and stimulate one another. We first use the relative neighbourhood graph and the Gabriel graph to simulate the structure of rail and road networks, respectively. With simulation we find that when a specific number of nodes are added, the total travel cost ratio between an expanded network and the initial lower layer network has the lowest value. The cooperation strength Λ and the changeable parameter average operation speed ratio Θ show that transit users' route choices change dramatically through the coevolution process and that their decisions, in turn, affect the multilayer network structure. We also note that the simulated relation between the Gini coefficient of the betweenness centrality, Θ and Λ have an optimal point for network design. This research could inspire the analysis of urban network topology features and the assessment of urban growth trends.

  13. Design of rotating mirror for ultra-high speed camera based on dynamic characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunbo; Chai Jinlong; Liang Yexing; Liu Chunping; Wang Hongzhi; Yu Chunhui; Li Jingzhen; Huang Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    A systematic design method has been proposed for studying the dynamic design of rotating mirror for ultra-high speed camera. With the finite element software, the numerical analyses of static, modal, harmonic responses and natural frequency sensitivity for the preliminary-designed rotating mirror were done based on the static and dynamic theories. Some experiments were done to verify the results. The physical dimensions of the rotating mirror were modified repeatedly according to the results for designing a new rotating mirror. Then simulation and experiments of fatigue life for the new rotating mirror under alternating force were done. The results show that the maximum static stress is less than the yield stress of the rotating mirror material, which proves the new rotating mirror will not be subjected to static strength failure. However, the results of modal and harmonic response analyses indicate that the dynamic characteristic of the new rotating mirror can not meet the design requirement for the first critical speed is less than the service speed. In all the physical dimensions of the rotating mirror, the circum radius of mirror body and natural frequency are negatively correlated and the degree of correlation is maximal. The first-order natural frequency in- creases from 459.4 Hz to 713.6 Hz, the rate of change is 55.3%, the first critical speed is up to 42 816 r/min, avoiding resonance successfully, and the fatigue strength of the new rotating mirror can meet the design requirement. (authors)

  14. Pebble bed blanket design for deuterium burning tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, S.P.; Dhir, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    The UCLA tandem mirror reactor, SATYR, was developed around the capability of tandem mirrors with thermal barriers to burn deuterium at reasonable efficiency levels. The pebble bed concept has been incorporated into our blanket design for the following reasons: 1) Large area-to-volume ratio for purposes of heat removal; 2) Large volume of structure for high thermal capacity thus increasing the safety margin during off-normal incidents; 3) Relatively inexpensive manufacturing costs because of large acceptable tolerances and lack of exotic materials (i.e., lithium). A simplified stress analysis of the blanket module was performed to optimize and simplify the design. The pre-specified stress intensity limitations used were based upon a 30-year predicted lifetime for each module. Along with stress analysis of the vessel a detailed thermal hydraulic analysis of the pebble bed has been completed. Parameters affecting the pebble bed design are fluidization velocity, pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient, thermally induced stress in the spheres and spatial variation of the power density. Although reasonable gross thermal efficiencies of the 2 designs has been achieved (28% for H 2 O and 39% for He) the high net recirculating power fraction for heating and neutral beams results in relatively low net plant efficiencies (21% and 27%). The results show that a blanket can be designed with good thermal efficiency and a relative-ly simple configuration. However, application of this concept to the high Q deuterium-tritium fuel cycle would have difficulties resulting from the need for continuous removal of the tritium. (orig./HP)

  15. Mirrors design, analysis and manufacturing of the 550mm Korsch telescope experimental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Hsuan; Huang, Yi-Kai; Ling, Jer

    2017-08-01

    In 2015, NSPO (National Space Organization) began to develop the sub-meter resolution optical remote sensing instrument of the next generation optical remote sensing satellite which follow-on to FORMOSAT-5. Upgraded from the Ritchey-Chrétien Cassegrain telescope optical system of FORMOSAT-5, the experimental optical system of the advanced optical remote sensing instrument was enhanced to an off-axis Korsch telescope optical system which consists of five mirrors. It contains: (1) M1: 550mm diameter aperture primary mirror, (2) M2: secondary mirror, (3) M3: off-axis tertiary mirror, (4) FM1 and FM2: two folding flat mirrors, for purpose of limiting the overall volume, reducing the mass, and providing a long focal length and excellent optical performance. By the end of 2015, we implemented several important techniques including optical system design, opto-mechanical design, FEM and multi-physics analysis and optimization system in order to do a preliminary study and begin to develop and design these large-size lightweight aspheric mirrors and flat mirrors. The lightweight mirror design and opto-mechanical interface design were completed in August 2016. We then manufactured and polished these experimental model mirrors in Taiwan; all five mirrors ware completed as spherical surfaces by the end of 2016. Aspheric figuring, assembling tests and optical alignment verification of these mirrors will be done with a Korsch telescope experimental structure model in 2018.

  16. Preliminary design study of the Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Carlson, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes work done in Fiscal Year 1977 by the Fusion Reactor Studies Group of LLL on the conceptual design of a 1000-MW(e) Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR). The high Q (defined as the ratio of fusion power to injection power) predicted for the TMR (approximately 5) reduces the recirculating power to a nondominant problem and results in an attractive mirror fusion power plant. The fusion plasma of the TMR is contained in the 100-m-long central cell where the magnetic field strength is a modest 2 T. The blanket for neutron energy recovery and tritium breeding is cylindrical and, along with the solenoidal magnet, is divided into 3-m-long modules to facilitate maintenance. The central cell is fueled (but not heated) by the injection of low-energy neutral beams near its ends. Thus, the central cell is simple and of low technology. The end-cell plasmas must be of high density and high energy in order to plug and heat (via the electrons) the central-cell plasma. The present conceptual design uses 1.2-MeV neutral-beam injection for the end plugs and a cryogenic-aluminum, Yin-Yang magnet that produces an incremental field of about 1 T over a field of 16 T produced by a pair of Nb 3 Sn superconducting solenoids. Important design problems remain in both the neutral-beam injector and in the end-plug magnet. Also remaining are important physics questions such as alpha-beam particle transport and end-plug stability. These questions are discussed at length in the report and suggestions for future work are given

  17. Use of information technologies when designing multilayered plates and covers with filler of various types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golova, T. A.; Magerramova, I. A.; Ivanov, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Calculation of multilayered plates and covers does not consider anisotropic properties of a construction. Calculation comes down to uniform isotropic covers and definition of one of intense and deformation conditions of constructions. The existing techniques consider work of multilayered designs by means of various coefficients. The article describes the optimized algorithm of operations when designing multilayered plates and covers with filler of various types on the basis of the conducted researches. It is dealt with a development engineering algorithm of calculation of multi-layer constructions of walls. Software is created which allows one to carry out assessment of intense and deformation conditions of constructions of walls.

  18. Using Multilayered Substrate Integrated Waveguide to Design Microwave Gain Equalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and experiment of a novel microwave gain equalizer based on the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technique. The proposed equalizer is formed by an SIW loaded by SIW resonators, which has very compact structure and can compensate for gain slope of microwave systems. Equivalent circuit analysis is given about the proposed structure for a better insight into the structure’s response. A Ku-Band equalizer with four SIW resonators is simulated and fabricated with a multilayer printed circuit board process. The measured results show good performance and agreement with the simulated results; an attenuation slope of −4.5 dB over 12.5–13.5 GHz is reached with a size reduction of 76%.

  19. Engineering design and analysis of an ITER-like first mirror test assembly on JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizvary, Z.; Bourdel, B.; Garcia-Carrasco, A.

    2017-01-01

    is underway on JET, under contract to ITER, with primary objective to test if, under realistic plasma and wall material conditions and with ITER-like first mirror aperture geometry, deposits do grow on first mirrors. This paper describes the engineering design and analysis of this mirror test assembly......The ITER first mirrors are the components of optical diagnostic systems closest to the plasma. Deposition may build up on the surfaces of the mirror affecting their ability to fulfil their function. However, physics modelling of this layer growth is fraught with uncertainty. A new experiment...

  20. Conceptual design of the field-reversed mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Condit, W.C.; Devoto, R.S.; Fink, J.H.; Hanson, J.D.; Neef, W.S.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    For this reactor a reference case conceptual design was developed in some detail. The parameters of the design result partly from somewhat arbitrary physics assumptions and partly from optimization procedures. Two of the assumptions--that only 10% of the alpha-particle energy is deposited in the plasma and that particle confinement scales with the ion-ion collision time--may prove to be overly conservative. A number of possible start-up scenarios for the field-reversed plasmas were considered, but the choice of a specific start-up method for the conceptual design was deferred, pending experimental demonstration of one or more of the schemes in a mirror machine. Basic to our plasma model is the assumption that, once created, the plasma can be stably maintained by injection of a neutral-beam current sufficient to balance the particle-loss rate. The reference design is a multicell configuration with 11 field-reversed toroidal plasma layers arranged along the horizontal axis of a long-superconducting solenoid. Each plasma layer requires the injection of 3.6 MW of 200-keV deuterium and tritium, and produces 20 MW of fusion power. The reactor has a net electric output of 74 MWe. The preliminary estimate for the direct capital cost of the reference design is $1200/kWe. A balance-of-plant study is now underway and will result in a more accurate cost estimate

  1. Sensitivity versus polarisation in multilayer optical thin film design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrem K. Ejigu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a polarised optical filter is more complicated than that of a filter where the polarisation effect does not exist (at a normal angle of incidence. An error in the optical parameters, such as the physical thickness or refractive index of a layer, results in a change in the spectral performance of the multilayer structure. The correlation between error sensitivity and the polarisation effect of light in structures designed at an oblique angle was investigated. To illustrate the correlation, a perpendicular (S and parallel (P polarised beam splitter, at 0.9818 µm central wavelength, designed by genetic algorithm, was used. The beam splitter changes its state of polarisation according to the error in thickness simultaneously induced in each of the layers. The error was calculated by optimising the original design. The observation of the change of the state of polarisation as a result of error sensitivity leads to a different method of designing pure S-polarised or P-polarised optical filters.

  2. Mirror mounts designed for the Advanced Photon Source SRI-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Chang, J.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Alp, E.E.; Sturhahn, W.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Randall, K.; Srajer, G.; Xu, Z.; Yun, W.

    1997-01-01

    Use of a mirror for beamlines at third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, has many advantages. [Yun et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(9)(1996)CD-ROM] A mirror as a first optical component provides significant reduction in the beam peak heat flux and total power on the downstream monochromator and simplifies the bremsstrahlung shielding design for the beamline transport. It also allows us to have a system for multibeamline branching and switching. More generally, a mirror is used for beam focusing and/or low-pass filtering. Six different mirror mounts have been designed for the SRI-CAT beamlines. Four of them are designed as water-cooled mirrors for white or pink beam use, and the other two are for monochromatic beam use. Mirror mount designs, including vacuum vessel structure and precision supporting stages, are presented in this paper. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Mirror mounts designed for the Advanced Photon Source SRI-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Chang, J.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T. M.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Randall, K.; Srajer, G.; Xu, Z.; Yun, W.

    1997-01-01

    Use of a mirror for beamlines at third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, has many advantages. [Yun et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(9)(1996)CD-ROM] A mirror as a first optical component provides significant reduction in the beam peak heat flux and total power on the downstream monochromator and simplifies the bremsstrahlung shielding design for the beamline transport. It also allows us to have a system for multibeamline branching and switching. More generally, a mirror is used for beam focusing and/or low-pass filtering. Six different mirror mounts have been designed for the SRI-CAT beamlines. Four of them are designed as water-cooled mirrors for white or pink beam use, and the other two are for monochromatic beam use. Mirror mount designs, including vacuum vessel structure and precision supporting stages, are presented in this paper

  4. Moving ring field-reversed mirror blanket design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, L.; Kessel, C.; Norman, J.; Schultz, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    A blanket design for the Moving Ring Field-Reversed Mirror Reactor (MRFRM) is presented in this paper. The design emphasis is placed on minimizing the induced radioactivities in the first-wall, blanket and shield. To this end, aluminum-alloy was selected as the reference structural material, giving dose rates two weeks after shutdown that are 3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than comparable steel structures. The aluminum first-wall is water-cooled and thermally insulated from the high temperature SiC-clad Li 2 O tritium breeding zone. A local tritium breeding ratio of 1.05 was obtained for the design. The tritium is extracted from the Li 2 O by the use of a small dry helium purge stream through the SiC tubes. About 1 ppM hydrogen is added to the helium purge stream to enhance the tritium recovery rate. Helium at 28 atmospheres pressure is circulated through the blanket and shield, with an outlet temperature of 850 0 C, which is coupled with an existing small size closed-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power conversion system. The spatial and temporal variations of the first-wall temperature caused by the translational movement of the plasma rings along the axis of the cylindrical reactor were evaluated. The after-heat cooling problems of the first-wall were also considered

  5. Mirror hybrid reactor blanket and power conversion system conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Backus, G.A.; Baxi, C.B.; Dee, J.B.; Estrine, E.A.; Rao, R.; Veca, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for a gas-cooled mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor is presented. The designs of the fuel, blanket module and power conversion system are based on existing gas-cooled fission reactor technology that has been developed at General Atomic Company. The uranium silicide fuel is contained in Inconel-clad rods and is cooled by helium gas. The fuel is contained in 16 spherical segment modules which surround the fusion plasma. The hot helium is used to raise steam for a conventional steam cycle turbine generator. The details of the method of support for the massive blanket modules and helium ducts remain to be determined. Nevertheless, the conceptual design appears to be technically feasible with existing gas-cooled technology. A preliminary safety analysis shows that with the development of a satisfactory method of primary coolant circuit containment and support, the hybrid reactor could be licensed under existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations

  6. Magic-Mirror-Spiral: Looking into the role of 'design ideal' in interaction design research projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.; Nazzi, Elena; Sokoler, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    the dialectic during a research practice are missing. In order to embrace this dialectic, in this paper we suggest the formulation of a Design Ideal as the interface between theoretical concept and situation. We support our suggestion by a retrospection of our ongoing exploration of MagicMirrorSpiral...

  7. Conceptual design study for a mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinhua; Deng Boquan; Li Guiqing

    1986-01-01

    A mirror fusion breeder, CHD, has been designed for providing plenty of nuclear fuel for light water reactors to meet the needs for rapid development of nuclear power in the first half of next century. The breeder is able to support the nuclear fuel needs for more than 10 LWRs of equal scale in power with fuel enriched directly in CHD without reprocessing. Measures are taken to flatten the power density distribution in the blanket so that fission is suppressed in the region close to the plasma, and by this way fuel production is enhanced for this direct enriched fusion breeder. In order to reduce the MHD pressure drop, LiPb flows in the blanket axially. Though the tritium inventory in the reactor is very low, special material and design have to be developed to reduce the permeation of tritium through the coolant pipes. The cost of electricity from the system, consisting of 11 LWR plants and one fusion breeder is predicted to be 1.05 times of that from a traditional LWR plant. This figure is insensitive both to the cost of CHD and its support ratio

  8. Design of tandem mirror reactors with thermal barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    End-plug technologies for tandem mirror reactors include high-field superconducting magnets, neutral beam injectors, and gyrotrons for electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH). In addition to their normal use for sustenance of the end-plug plasmas, neutral beam injectors are used for ''pumping'' trapped ions from the thermal barrier regions by charge exchange. An extra function of the axially directed pump beams is the removal of thermalized alpha particles from the reactor. The principles of tandem mirror operation with thermal barriers will be demonstrated in the upgrade of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX-U) in 1981 and the tandem configuration of the Mirror fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) in 1984

  9. Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-05-22

    This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel (/sup 239/Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket.

  10. Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel ( 239 Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket

  11. Design and simulation of the surface shape control system for membrane mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gengsheng; Tang, Minxue

    2009-11-01

    The surface shape control is one of the key technologies for the manufacture of membrane mirror. This paper presents a design of membrane mirror's surface shape control system on the basis of fuzzy logic control. The system contains such function modules as surface shape design, surface shape control, surface shape analysis, and etc. The system functions are realized by using hybrid programming technology of Visual C# and MATLAB. The finite element method is adopted to simulate the surface shape control of membrane mirror. The finite element analysis model is established through ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). ANSYS software kernel is called by the system in background running mode when doing the simulation. The controller is designed by means of controlling the sag of the mirror's central crosssection. The surface shape of the membrane mirror and its optical aberration are obtained by applying Zernike polynomial fitting. The analysis of surface shape control and the simulation of disturbance response are performed for a membrane mirror with 300mm aperture and F/2.7. The result of the simulation shows that by using the designed control system, the RMS wavefront error of the mirror can reach to 142λ (λ=632.8nm), which is consistent to the surface accuracy of the membrane mirror obtained by the large deformation theory of membrane under the same condition.

  12. DESIGN OF MIRRORS AND APODIZATION FUNCTIONS IN PHASE-INDUCED AMPLITUDE APODIZATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, Eric, E-mail: eric.j.cady@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA, 91109 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphs are a promising technology for imaging exoplanets, with the potential to detect Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. A PIAA system nominally consists of a pair of mirrors that reshape incident light without attenuation, coupled with one or more apodizers to mitigate diffraction effects or provide additional beam shaping to produce a desired output profile. We present a set of equations that allow apodizers to be chosen for any given pair of mirrors, or conversely mirror shapes chosen for given apodizers, to produce an arbitrary amplitude profile at the output of the system. We show how classical PIAA systems may be designed by this method and present the design of a novel four-mirror system with higher throughput than a standard two-mirror system. We also discuss the limitations due to diffraction and the design steps that may be taken to mitigate them.

  13. A double-multilayer monochromator using a modular design for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Yun, W.; Lai, B.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A novel double-multilayer monochromator has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source X-ray undulator beamline at Argonne National Laboratory. The monochromator consists of two ultra high-vacuum (UHV) compatible modular vessels, each with a sine-bar driving structure and a water-cooled multilayer holder. A high precision Y-Z stage is used to provide compensating motion for the second multilayer from outside the vacuum chamber so that the monochromator can fix the output monochromatic beam direction and angle during the energy scan in a narrow range. The design details for this monochromator are presented in this paper

  14. Robust design of broadband EUV multilayer beam splitters based on particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hui; Michette, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    A robust design idea for broadband EUV multilayer beam splitters is introduced that achieves the aim of decreasing the influence of layer thickness errors on optical performances. Such beam splitters can be used in interferometry to determine the quality of EUVL masks by comparing with a reference multilayer. In the optimization, particle swarm techniques were used for the first time in such designs. Compared to conventional genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization has stronger ergodicity, simpler processing and faster convergence

  15. Deformable mirrors : Design fundamentals for force actuation of continuous facesheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravensbergen, S.K.; Hamelinck, R.F.H.M.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Steinbuch, M.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive Optics is established as essential technology in current and future ground based (extremely) large telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. Deformable mirrors for astronomic purposes have a high number of actuators (> 10k), a relatively large stroke (> 10µm) on a small spacing

  16. Optical design of a reaction chamber for weakly absorbed light. II. Parallel mirrors, multitravel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, J.J.; Finch, F.T.

    1975-06-01

    This report outlines the possibilities to be found using one or more diffraction-limited high-quality light beams to activate a weakly absorbing gas in a regime where the diffraction spread can be controlled by converging optical devices to within a ratio of √2 of the minimum at the beam waist (corresponding lengths between converging elements are within twice the Rayleigh range). Our designs use plane or cylindrical parallel mirrors down which a light beam is repeatedly reflected. In the first design variation, the beam is re-reflected up the parallel mirrors to the entrance aperture where it can be returned repeatedly for a number of multiply reflecting ''travels'' up and down the parallel mirror reaction chamber. In the second variation, the return of the beam after each multiply reflecting ''travel'' down the chamber is external to the chamber and is achieved by two mirror reflections. For diffraction control the return mirrors can be made converging. For multiple laser excitation, any of the external return mirrors can be replaced by a laser. The advantage of these designs is a high degree of uniformity of chamber illumination with a reasonably high number of passes. Drawbacks of the designs are the large space needed for beam return (many tens of meters for some parameters) and (common to all high optical quality chambers) the figuring and reflectivity demands on the mirrors. (U.S.)

  17. Design of a {O}94 cm mirror mount for the Petawatt Project on Nova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, R.; Tietbohl, G.L.

    1995-10-01

    The authors have designed a large optical gimbal mount that will be used on the Petawatt Project currently under construction on the Nova laser. These mounts are designed to hold and tilt {O}94 cm mirrors and gratings that will redirect the {O}60 cm beam through the Petawatt vacuum compressor. Lacking the commercial availability to house this size optic, they have engineered a large mirror mount with a high natural frequency (42 Hz), low self-weight deflection of the mirror (< {lambda}/46), and high positioning accuracy characteristics (< 1 {micro}rad using flexures and stepping motors). Analysis details and methodology are presented.

  18. Structural design considerations in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vepa, K.; Sterbentz, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    In view of favorable results from the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) also at LLNL, the MFTF project is now being rescoped into a large tandem mirror configuration (MFTF-B), which is the mainline approach to a mirror fusion reactor. This paper concerns itself with the structural aspects of the design of the vessel. The vessel and its intended functions are described. The major structural design issues, especially those influenced by the analysis, are described. The objectives of the finite element analysis and their realization are discussed at length

  19. Design of a OE 94 cm mirror mount for the Petawatt Project on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.; Tietbohl, G.L.

    1995-10-01

    The authors have designed a large optical gimbal mount that will be used on the Petawatt Project currently under construction on the Nova laser. These mounts are designed to hold and tilt OE 94 cm mirrors and gratings that will redirect the OE 60 cm beam through the Petawatt vacuum compressor. Lacking the commercial availability to house this size optic, they have engineered a large mirror mount with a high natural frequency (42 Hz), low self-weight deflection of the mirror (< λ/46), and high positioning accuracy characteristics (< 1 microrad using flexures and stepping motors). Analysis details and methodology are presented

  20. Design guidelines for advanced LSI microcircuit packaging using thick film multilayer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckinpaugh, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    Ceramic multilayer circuitry results from the sequential build-up of two or more layers of pre-determined conductive interconnections separated by dielectric layers and fired at an elevated temperature to form a solidly fused structure. The resultant ceramic interconnect matrix is used as a base to mount active and passive devices and provide the necessary electrical interconnection to accomplish the desired electrical circuit. Many methods are known for developing multilevel conductor mechanisms such as multilayer printed circuits, welded wire matrices, flexible copper tape conductors, and thin and thick-film ceramic multilayers. Each method can be considered as a specialized field with each possessing its own particular set of benefits and problems. This design guide restricts itself to the art of design, fabrication and assembly of ceramic multilayer circuitry and the reliability of the end product.

  1. Design of the science-fold mirrors for the Gemini telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Thomas; Damm, Christoph; Heilemann, Wolfgang

    2000-07-01

    As a part of the Acquisition and Guidance Unit for the Gemini project a light-weight, 50 cm flat mirror has been designed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Mechanics in Jena as a subcontractor of the Carl Zeiss Jena company. A light-weight design of the mirror and its mount was essential since the total mass of the whole assembly including the positioning system was limited to 50 kg while interferometric quality of the mirror surface was required for arbitrary orientation. The overall surface error was below 54 nm r.m.s. while 27 nm was achieved in the central part. The mirror was fabricated from low-expansion glass ceramics to avoid thermally induced deformations. By milling pockets into its rear surface the mass of the mirror was reduced by 70%. The mirror is mounted cinematically via six solid-state hinges to three steel levers. The levers are connected to the mount frame at their centers via ball-and- sphere joints. This arrangement determines the position of the mirror uniquely while it allows for the thermal expansion of the mount frame. The position of the mirror as well as its tilt around an axis perpendicular to the optical one may be controlled a precision of 20 micrometers and 3 arcsec, respectively. The tilt axis is driven directly by two high- torque motors. To avoid an excessive power consumption of the motors the torque of the mirror head to be compensated for by a counterweight mechanism. The mirror may be deployed into the optical path using spindle driven linear rails.

  2. Design of control system for piezoelectric deformable mirror based on fuzzy self-adaptive PID control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Nan; Gao, Wei; Song, Zongxi

    2017-10-01

    With the rapid development of adaptive optics technology, it is widely used in the fields of astronomical telescope imaging, laser beam shaping, optical communication and so on. As the key component of adaptive optics systems, the deformable mirror plays a role in wavefront correction. In order to achieve the high speed and high precision of deformable mirror system tracking control, it is necessary to find out the influence of each link on the system performance to model the system and design the controller. This paper presents a method about the piezoelectric deformable mirror driving control system.

  3. Preliminary conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design of a commercial Mirror Hybrid Reactor, optimized for 239 Pu production, has been completed. This design is the product of a joint effort by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Company, and follows directly from earlier work on the Mirror Hybrid. This paper describes the blanket and power conversion system of the reactor design. Included are descriptions of the prestressed concrete reactor vessel that supports the magnets and contains the blanket and power conversion system components, the blanket module design, the blanket fuel design, and the power conversion system

  4. An approach to the theory of X-ray multilayers with graded period

    CERN Document Server

    Vinogradov, A V

    2000-01-01

    A wide bandpass for multilayer mirrors can be obtained by gradually changing their period. In this paper the theory of such optical elements is developed on the basis of the general theory of wave propagation through layered medium. The results of reflectivity calculation for broadband mirrors are presented. The suggested theory is a natural step to the inverse problem - design of multilayers with the required wavelength dependence of reflectivity.

  5. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  6. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  7. Major aspects of the design of a first mirror for the ITER core CXRS diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasikov, Yury; Panin, Anatoly; Biel, Wolfgang; Krimmer, Andreas; Litnovsky, Andrey; Mertens, Philippe; Neubauer, Olaf; Schrader, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Availability, technological issues, and changes in the ScMo structure to be solved in future. • Developed passively cooled mirror is a workable, flexible, scalable and robust concept. • The generic upper port plug is to be considerable customized. - Abstract: The ITER core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics (cCXRS) occupies the vacuum vessel upper port #3 and includes, in its generic version, the following in-vessel components: an optical mirror system, a shutter, the diagnostic first wall and the neutron shielding block. The most vulnerable diagnostic mirror is obviously the first one (M1) directly observing the plasma. The M1 reference option is made of a single crystalline molybdenum (ScMo). The paper indicates major aspects influencing the first mirror design and identifies the most reasonable and reliable concept for cCXRS M1 at present. The applicability of the option presented is determined by many reasons, and especially, by the ITER generic upper port plug and its customization flexibility. The largest dimension of the mirror polished face is ∼300 mm. Such large ScMo workpieces are currently not available on the market. The mirror should be designed as an assembly of several ScMo pieces joined together. The M1 design is supported by multifield thermal, electromagnetic and structural analyses. The performed study confirms the feasibility of the proposed solutions. At the same time, the paper indicates numerous technological issues of the M1 unit to be solved in future.

  8. Major aspects of the design of a first mirror for the ITER core CXRS diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasikov, Yury, E-mail: y.krasikov@fz-juelich.de; Panin, Anatoly; Biel, Wolfgang; Krimmer, Andreas; Litnovsky, Andrey; Mertens, Philippe; Neubauer, Olaf; Schrader, Michael

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Availability, technological issues, and changes in the ScMo structure to be solved in future. • Developed passively cooled mirror is a workable, flexible, scalable and robust concept. • The generic upper port plug is to be considerable customized. - Abstract: The ITER core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics (cCXRS) occupies the vacuum vessel upper port #3 and includes, in its generic version, the following in-vessel components: an optical mirror system, a shutter, the diagnostic first wall and the neutron shielding block. The most vulnerable diagnostic mirror is obviously the first one (M1) directly observing the plasma. The M1 reference option is made of a single crystalline molybdenum (ScMo). The paper indicates major aspects influencing the first mirror design and identifies the most reasonable and reliable concept for cCXRS M1 at present. The applicability of the option presented is determined by many reasons, and especially, by the ITER generic upper port plug and its customization flexibility. The largest dimension of the mirror polished face is ∼300 mm. Such large ScMo workpieces are currently not available on the market. The mirror should be designed as an assembly of several ScMo pieces joined together. The M1 design is supported by multifield thermal, electromagnetic and structural analyses. The performed study confirms the feasibility of the proposed solutions. At the same time, the paper indicates numerous technological issues of the M1 unit to be solved in future.

  9. Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Voutov, P.; Szentgyorgyi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Extremely broadband grazing-incidence multilayers for hard-X-ray reflection can be obtained by a gradual change of the layer thicknesses down through the structure. Existing approaches for designing similar neutron optics, called supermirrors, are shown to provide respectable performance when...... applied to X-ray multilayers. However, none of these approaches consider the effects of imperfect layer interfaces and absorption in the overlying layers. Adaptations of neutron designs that take these effects into account are presented, and a thorough analysis of two specific applications (a single hard......-X-ray reflector and a hard-X-ray telescope) shows that an improved performance can be obtained. A multilayer whose bilayer thicknesses are given by a power law expression is found to provide the best solution; however, it is only slightly better than some of the adapted neutron designs...

  10. ULE design considerations for a 3m class light weighted mirror blank for E-ELT M5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew; Hobbs, Tom; Edwards, Mary; Arnold, Matthew; Sawyer, Kent

    2016-07-01

    It is expected that the next generation of large ground based astronomical telescopes will need large fast-steering/tip-tilt mirrors made of ultra-lightweight construction. These fast-steering mirrors are used to continuously correct for atmospheric disturbances and telescope vibrations. An example of this is the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) M5 lightweight mirror, which is part of the Tip-Tilt/Field-Stabilization Unit. The baseline design for the E-ELT M5 mirror, as presented in the E-ELT Construction Proposal, is a closed-back ULE mirror with a lightweight core using square core cells. Corning Incorporated (Corning) has a long history of manufacturing lightweight mirror blanks using ULE in a closed-back construction, going back to the 1960's, and includes the Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror, Subaru Telescope secondary and tertiary mirrors, the Magellan I and II tertiary mirrors, and Kepler Space Telescope primary mirror, among many others. A parametric study of 1-meter class lightweight mirror designs showed that Corning's capability to seal a continuous back sheet to a light-weighted core structure provides superior mirror rigidity, in a near-zero thermal expansion material, relative to other existing technologies in this design space. Corning has investigated the parametric performance of several design characteristics for a 3-meter class lightweight mirror blank for the E-ELT M5. Finite Element Analysis was performed on several design scenarios to obtain weight, areal density, and first Eigen frequency. This paper presents an overview of Corning ULE and lightweight mirror manufacturing capabilities, the parametric performance of design characteristics for 1-meter class and 3-meter class lightweight mirrors, as well as the manufacturing advantages and disadvantages of those characteristics.

  11. Design and construction of the multilayer cover for uranium ores landfills in Andujar (Spain) mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Santiago, J.L. de.

    1994-01-01

    This report shows the design and construction of multilayer cover for the landfill of sterile uranium ores in Andujar Mining (Spain). The main chapters are: 1.- Decommissioning project of Uranium Mining in Andujar (Spain) 2.- Elements and design of cover. 3.- Characteristic material

  12. Development and production of hard X-ray multilayer optics for HEFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koglin, J.E; Christensen, Finn Erland; Chonko, J.

    2002-01-01

    approximation Wolter-I design. The segmented mirrors that form these layers are made of thermally formed glass substrates coated with depth-graded multilayer films for enhanced reflectivity. The mirrors are assembled using an over-constraint method that forces the overall shape of the nominally cylindrical...

  13. Design optimization of ultra-precise elliptical mirrors for hard x-ray nanofocusing at Nanoscopium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewish, Cameron M.; Polack, François; Signorato, Riccardo; Somogyi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    The design and implementation of a pair of 100 mm-long grazing-incidence total-reflection mirrors for the hard X-ray beamline Nanoscopium at Synchrotron Soleil is presented. A vertically and horizontally nanofocusing mirror pair, oriented in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry, has been designed and fabricated with the aim of creating a diffraction-limited high-intensity 5 - 20 keV beam with a focal spot size as small as 50 nm. We describe the design considerations, including wave-optical calculations of figures-of-merit that are relevant for spectromicroscopy, such as the focal spot size, depth of field and integrated intensity. The mechanical positioning tolerance in the pitch angle that is required to avoid introducing high-intensity features in the neighborhood of the focal spot is demonstrated with simulations to be of the order of microradians, becoming tighter for shorter focal lengths and therefore directly affecting all nanoprobe mirror systems. Metrology results for the completed mirrors are presented, showing that better than 1.5 °A-rms figure error has been achieved over the full mirror lengths with respect to the designed elliptical surfaces, with less than 60 nrad-rms slope errors.

  14. Simbol-X Mirror Module Thermal Shields: I-Design and X-Ray Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collura, A.; Barbera, M.; Varisco, S.; Basso, S.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ayers, T.

    2009-05-01

    The Simbol-X mission is designed to fly in formation flight configuration. As a consequence, the telescope has both ends open to space, and thermal shielding at telescope entrance and exit is required to maintain temperature uniformity throughout the mirrors. Both mesh and meshless solutions are presently under study for the shields. We discuss the design and the X-ray transmission.

  15. Simbol-X Mirror Module Thermal Shields: I - Design and X-Ray Transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collura, A.; Varisco, S.; Barbera, M.; Basso, S.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ayers, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Simbol-X mission is designed to fly in formation flight configuration. As a consequence, the telescope has both ends open to space, and thermal shielding at telescope entrance and exit is required to maintain temperature uniformity throughout the mirrors. Both mesh and meshless solutions are presently under study for the shields. We discuss the design and the X-ray transmission.

  16. A New Filter Design Method for Disturbed Multilayer Hopfield Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHN, C. K.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the passivity based filtering problem for multilayer Hopfield neural networks with external disturbance. A new passivity based filter design method for multilayer Hopfield neural networks is developed to ensure that the filtering error system is exponentially stable and passive from the external disturbance vector to the output error vector. The unknown gain matrix is obtained by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI, which can be easily facilitated by using some standard numerical packages. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed filter.

  17. Design refinement of multilayer optical thin film devices with two optimization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.V.S.R.

    1992-01-01

    The design efficiency of two different optimization techniques of designing multilayer optical thin film devices is compared. Ten different devices of varying complexities are chosen as design examples for the comparison. The design refinement efficiency and the design parameter characteristics of all the sample designs obtained with the two techniques are compared. The results of the comparison demonstrate that the new method of design developed using damped least squares technique with indirect derivatives give superior and efficient designs compared to the method developed with direct derivatives. (author). 23 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs

  18. Design of an ellipsoidal mirror for freewave characterization of materials at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, M; Muñoz, J; Molina-Cuberos, G J; Margineda, J; García-Collado, Á J

    2016-01-01

    Free-wave characterization of the electromagnetic properties of materials at microwave frequencies requires that scattering at the edges of the samples and/or holder be minimized. Here, an ellipsoidal mirror is designed and characterized in order to decrease the size of the beam, thereby avoiding the scattering problems, even when relatively small samples are used. In the experimental configuration, both the emitting antenna and sample are located at the mirror focuses. Since both the emitted and reflected (focused) beams are Gaussian in nature, we make use of Gaussian beam theory to carry out the design. The mirror parameters are optimized by numerical simulations (COMSOL Multiphysics ® ) and then experimentally tested. An experimental setup is presented for dielectric, magnetic and chiral measurement in the 4.5–18 GHz band. (paper)

  19. Experimental studies of X-UV rays by a laser plasma: X-UV strioscopy by means of multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutrin, F.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis studies a new instrument -from its conception to the measures interpretation- that analyses electronic density gradient in the super critical transportation area of a laser plasma (0,35 μm). This device, so-called of X-UV Schlieren, is based on the refraction property of a probe beam by an index gradient. Its specificity is the use of the X-UV emission at 13 nm (92 eV) of another laser plasma as X-UV probe. The conception and characterization of this instrument are defined thanks to both the emissivity and reflectivity properties of laser plasmas and the reflectivity properties of multilayers. Within this report are presented strioscopy images, spatially and spectrally resolved of an aluminium plasma from a 3.10 12 W/cm 2 laser flux, probed by a 13 nm wavelength. The device has to be closely aligned so as to obtain good contrast and good spatial resolution. For the first time, the refraction of a X-UV probe beam by a laser plasma is displayed. The experiments show that this refraction is all the more obvious for a gold probe plasma of energy 105 J and an aluminium probed plasma of energy 1 J. According to our plasma hydrodynamic simulation, the detected refraction corresponds to an electronic density gradient of 6,5.10 25 electrons/cm 4 in the two first microns of the sur-critical area. To study the parameters dependence of this gradient in the sur-critical area, several solutions for improving the instrument are produced. (author)

  20. Safety by design of printed multilayer materials intended for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeño, Celia; Aznar, Margarita; Nerín, Cristina; Isella, Francesca; Fedeli, Mauro; Bosetti, Osvaldo

    2017-07-01

    Printing inks are commonly used in multilayer plastics materials used for food packaging, and compounds present in inks can migrate to the food either by diffusion through the multilayers or because of set-off phenomena. To avoid this problem, the right design of the packaging is crucial. This paper studies the safety by design of multilayer materials. First, the migration from four different multilayers manufactured using polyethylene terephthalate (PET), aluminium (Al) and polyethylene (PE) was determined. The structural differences among materials such as the presence of inks or lacquer coatings as well as the differences in layers position allowed the study of a safety-by-design approach. Sixty-nine different compounds were detected and identified; 49 of them were not included in the positive list of Regulation EU/10/2011 or in Swiss legislation and 15 belong to Cramer class III, which means that they have a theoretical high toxicity. Some of the compounds related to ink composition were pyrene, a compound commercially used to make dyes and dye precursors and the antioxidant Irganox 1300. The application of external lacquers decreased the concentration of some migrants but also brought the potential for new migrants coming from its composition. A final risk assessment of the material allowed evaluating food safety for different food simulants and confirm it.

  1. Design for the magnetic field requirements of the tandem mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.K.; Chargin, A.K.; Denhoy, B.S.; Waugh, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    The tandem mirror magnetic geometry is described, followed by an analysis of the magnet set designed to meet the requirements of the TMX experiment. The final magnet line-up is composed of a baseball coil with two C coils for each plug, six solenoidal coils for the central cell, and two RC coils plus one octupole coil for each transition

  2. Design of a Piezoelectric-Driven Tilt Mirror for a Fast Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Ho; Lee, Hu-Seung; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yun, So-Nam; Ham, Young-Bog; Yun, Dong-Won

    2012-09-01

    Recently, laser scanners have been used for laser processing such as cutting, welding, and grooving, especially in the automotive industry. The laser scanners need a high-speed driving to minimize cracks caused by thermal shock of brittle materials. Therefore, a novel laser processing system that is composed of a laser source and a piezoelectric-driven tilt mirror to control the reflection angle of the laser beam, and a stage equipped with the tilt mirror has been investigated. In this study, a piezoelectric-driven tilt mirror is designed and analyzed for scanning performance to achieve a beam spot of 30 µm, a pattern width of 1 mm, an overlap ratio of 70% of the circle area, and a scanning speed of 1 m/s. Then, structural analysis of the tilt mirror with three piezoelectric actuators is performed to determine the maximum reflection angle and resonance frequency. Finally, a prototype tilt mirror is fabricated and its basic characteristics are experimentally investigated and discussed.

  3. Large aperture telescope technology: a design for an active lightweight multi-segmented fold-out space mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Whalley, M.; Edeson, R.; Edeson, R.; Tosh, I.; Poyntz-Wright, O.; Atad-Ettedgui, E.; Montgomery, D.; Nawasra, J.

    2017-11-01

    Large aperture telescope technology (LATT) is a design study for a differential lidar (DIAL) system; the main investigation being into suitable methods, technologies and materials for a 4-metre diameter active mirror that can be stowed to fit into a typical launch vehicle (e.g. ROKOT launcher with 2.1-metre diameter cargo) and can self-deploy - in terms of both leaving the space vehicle and that the mirrors unfold and self-align to the correct optical form within the tolerances specified. The primary mirror requirements are: main wavelength of 935.5 nm, RMS corrected wavefront error of λ/6, optical surface roughness better than 5 nm, areal density of less than 16 kg/m2 and 1-2 mirror shape corrections per orbit. The primary mirror consists of 7 segments - a central hexagonal mirror and 6 square mirror petals which unfold to form the 4-meter diameter aperture. The focus of the UK LATT consortium for this European Space Agency (ESA) funded project is on using lightweighted aluminium or carbon-fibre-composite materials for the mirror substrate in preference to more traditional materials such as glass and ceramics; these materials have a high strength and stiffness to weight ratio, significantly reducing risk of damage due to launch forces and subsequent deployment in orbit. We present an overview of the design, which includes suitable actuators for wavefront correction, petal deployment mechanisms and lightweight mirror technologies. Preliminary testing results from manufactured lightweight mirror samples will also be summarised.

  4. User's guide to designing and mounting lenses and mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalskie, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The guidebook is a practitioner-oriented supplement to standard texts in optics and mechanical engineering. It reflects practical experience with the oftentimes troublesome aspects of effectively integrating optical components with mechanical hardware. Accordingly, its focus is on the techniques, assumptions, and levels of design sophistication needed for a wide variety of sizes and optical surface quality levels. It is intended to be a primer for engineers, designers, and draftsmen already familiar with some of the problems encountered in mounting optical components and who are responsible for developing components for high-energy laser systems

  5. Design of an 18 Tesla, tandem mirror, fusion reactor, hybrid choke coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmer, J.F.; Agarwal, K.; Gurol, H.; Mancuso, A.; Michels, P.H.; Peck, S.D.; Burgeson, J.; Dalder, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    A hybrid, part normal part superconducting 18-Tesla solenoid choke coil is designed for a tandem mirror fusion reactor. The present state of the art is represented by the 12-Tesla, superconducting NbSn coil. Future applications other than tandem mirror fusion devices needing high field solenoids might require hybrid magnets of the type described herein. The hybrid design was generated because of critical field performance limitations on present, practical superconducting wires. A hybrid design might be required (due to structural limits) even if the critical field were higher. Also, hybrids could be a cost-effective way of getting very high fields for certain applications. The 18-Tesla solenoid described is composed of an inner coil made of water-cooled, high-strength zirconium copper which generates 3 Tesla. A superconducting NbSn background coil contributes the remaining 15 Tesla. The focus of the design study was on the inner coil. Demonstration fabrication and testing was performed

  6. Design, Construction, and Testing of Lightweight X-ray Mirror Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Espina, Rebecca A.; Hohl, Bruce R.; Matson, Elizabeth A.; Saha, Timo C.; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The Next Generation X-ray Optics (NGXO) team at NASA GSFC is nearing mission readiness for a 10 arc-second Half Power Diameter (HPD) slumped glass mirror technology while laying the groundwork for a future 1-2 arc-second technology based on polished silicon mirrors. Technology Development Modules (TDMs) have been designed, fabricated, integrated with mirrors segments, and extensively tested to demonstrate technology readiness. Tests include X-ray performance, thermal vacuum, acoustic load, and random vibration. The thermal vacuum and acoustic load environments have proven relatively benign, while the random vibration environment has proven challenging due to large input amplification at frequencies above 500 Hz. Epoxy selection, surface preparation, and larger bond area have increased bond strength while vibration isolation has decreased vibration amplification allowing for space launch requirements to be met in the near term. The next generation of TDMs, which demonstrates a lightweight structure supporting more mirror segments, is currently being fabricated. Analysis predicts superior performance characteristics due to the use of E-60 Beryllium-Oxide Metal Matrix Composite material, with only a modest cost increase. These TDMs will be larger, lighter, stiffer, and stronger than the current generation. Preliminary steps are being taken to enable mounting and testing of 1-2 arc-second mirror segments expected to be available in the future. A Vertical X-ray Test Facility (VXTF) will minimize module gravity distortion and allow for less constrained mirror mounts, such as fully kinematic mounts. Permanent kinematic mounting into a modified TDM has been demonstrated to achieve 2 arc-second level distortion free alignment.

  7. Design and fabrication of multimode interference couplers based on digital micro-mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sumei; He, Xingdao; Shen, Chenbo

    2008-03-01

    Multimode interference (MMI) couplers, based on the self-imaging effect (SIE), are accepted popularly in integrated optics. According to the importance of MMI devices, in this paper, we present a novel method to design and fabricate MMI couplers. A technology of maskless lithography to make MMI couplers based on a smart digital micro-mirror device (DMD) system is proposed. A 1×4 MMI device is designed as an example, which shows the present method is efficient and cost-effective.

  8. First results of the wind evaluation breadboard for ELT primary mirror design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes García-Talavera, Marcos; Viera, Teodora; Núñez, Miguel

    2010-07-01

    The Wind Evaluation Breadboard (WEB) is a primary mirror and telescope simulator formed by seven aluminium segments, including position sensors, electromechanical support systems and support structures. WEB has been developed to evaluate technologies for primary mirror wavefront control and to evaluate the performance of the control of wind buffeting disturbance on ELT segmented mirrors. For this purpose WEB electro-mechanical set-up simulates the real operational constrains applied to large segmented mirrors. This paper describes the WEB assembly, integration and verification, the instrument characterisation and close loop control design, including the dynamical characterization of the instrument and the control architecture. The performance of the new technologies developed for position sensing, acting and controlling is evaluated. The integration of the instrument in the observatory and the results of the first experiments are summarised, with different wind conditions, elevation and azimuth angles of incidence. Conclusions are extracted with respect the wind rejection performance and the control strategy for an ELT. WEB has been designed and developed by IAC, ESO, ALTRAN and JUPASA, with the integration of subsystems of FOGALE and TNO.

  9. Design of the deformable mirror demonstration CubeSat (DeMi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ewan S.; Allan, Gregory; Barnes, Derek; Figura, Joseph S.; Haughwout, Christian A.; Gubner, Jennifer N.; Knoedler, Alex A.; LeClair, Sarah; Murphy, Thomas J.; Skouloudis, Nikolaos; Merck, John; Opperman, Roedolph A.; Cahoy, Kerri L.

    2017-09-01

    The Deformable Mirror Demonstration Mission (DeMi) was recently selected by DARPA to demonstrate in-space operation of a wavefront sensor and Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) payload on a 6U CubeSat. Space telescopes designed to make high-contrast observations using internal coronagraphs for direct characterization of exoplanets require the use of high-actuator density deformable mirrors. These DMs can correct image plane aberrations and speckles caused by imperfections, thermal distortions, and diffraction in the telescope and optics that would otherwise corrupt the wavefront and allow leaking starlight to contaminate coronagraphic images. DeMi is provide on-orbit demonstration and performance characterization of a MEMS deformable mirror and closed loop wavefront sensing. The DeMi payload has two operational modes, one mode that images an internal light source and another mode which uses an external aperture to images stars. Both the internal and external modes include image plane and pupil plane wavefront sensing. The objectives of the internal measurement of the 140-actuator MEMS DM actuator displacement are characterization of the mirror performance and demonstration of closed-loop correction of aberrations in the optical path. Using the external aperture to observe stars of magnitude 2 or brighter, assuming 3-axis stability with less than 0.1 degree of attitude knowledge and jitter below 10 arcsec RMSE, per observation, DeMi will also demonstrate closed loop wavefront control on an astrophysical target. We present an updated payload design, results from simulations and laboratory optical prototyping, as well as present our design for accommodating high-voltage multichannel drive electronics for the DM on a CubeSat.

  10. New developments in Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I; Hoghoj, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    It is now 20 years since super-mirrors were first used as a neutron optical element. Since then the field of multilayer neutron-optics has matured with multilayers finding their way to application in many neutron scattering instruments. However, there is still room for progress in terms of multilayer quality, performance and application. Along with work on multilayers for neutron polarisation Ni/Ti super-mirrors have been optimised. The state-of-the-art Ni/Ti super-mirror performance and the results obtained in two neutron-optics applications of Ni/Ti multilayers are presented. (author).

  11. The design and development of a multilayer RF circuit card

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, John Francis

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design an airborne radio frequency circuit card that was very light weight, occupied a small volume, and operated from 20 Mhz to 1500 Mhz. The circuit card being reported on is called an RF multicoupler, and is one of two cards used in a radio frequency distribution unit (RFD). This unit interfaces a large number of receivers to various antennas. In the past this type of circuitry was done by cascading discrete connectorized RF compo...

  12. Conceptual capital-cost estimate and facility design of the Mirror-Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    This report contains contributions by Bechtel Group, Inc. to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the final report on the conceptual design of the Mirror Fusion Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF). Included in this report are the following contributions: (1) conceptual capital cost estimate, (2) structural design, and (3) plot plan and plant arrangement drawings. The conceptual capital cost estimate is prepared in a format suitable for inclusion as a section in the TDF final report. The structural design and drawings are prepared as partial inputs to the TDF final report section on facilities design, which is being prepared by the FEDC

  13. Design analysis for optimal calibration of diffusivity in reactive multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Vohra, Manav

    2017-05-29

    Calibration of the uncertain Arrhenius diffusion parameters for quantifying mixing rates in Zr–Al nanolaminate foils have been previously performed in a Bayesian setting [M. Vohra, J. Winokur, K.R. Overdeep, P. Marcello, T.P. Weihs, and O.M. Knio, Development of a reduced model of formation reactions in Zr–Al nanolaminates, J. Appl. Phys. 116(23) (2014): Article No. 233501]. The parameters were inferred in a low-temperature, homogeneous ignition regime, and a high-temperature self-propagating reaction regime. In this work, we extend the analysis to determine optimal experimental designs that would provide the best data for inference. We employ a rigorous framework that quantifies the expected information gain in an experiment, and find the optimal design conditions using Monte Carlo techniques, sparse quadrature, and polynomial chaos surrogates. For the low-temperature regime, we find the optimal foil heating rate and pulse duration, and confirm through simulation that the optimal design indeed leads to sharp posterior distributions of the diffusion parameters. For the high-temperature regime, we demonstrate the potential for increasing the expected information gain concerning the posteriors by increasing the sample size and reducing the uncertainty in measurements. Moreover, posterior marginals are also obtained to verify favourable experimental scenarios.

  14. Optimal micro-mirror tilt angle and sync mark design for digital micro-mirror device based collinear holographic data storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinpeng; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Lin, Xiao; Liu, Jinyan; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi

    2017-06-01

    The collinear holographic data storage system (CHDSS) is a very promising storage system due to its large storage capacities and high transfer rates in the era of big data. The digital micro-mirror device (DMD) as a spatial light modulator is the key device of the CHDSS due to its high speed, high precision, and broadband working range. To improve the system stability and performance, an optimal micro-mirror tilt angle was theoretically calculated and experimentally confirmed by analyzing the relationship between the tilt angle of the micro-mirror on the DMD and the power profiles of diffraction patterns of the DMD at the Fourier plane. In addition, we proposed a novel chess board sync mark design in the data page to reduce the system bit error rate in circumstances of reduced aperture required to decrease noise and median exposure amount. It will provide practical guidance for future DMD based CHDSS development.

  15. HMI design of MIRROR PLANT for Safe Operation and Application to Vinyl Acetate Monomer Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsugai, Emiko; Nakaya, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic plant simulators have always been used off-line for operator training and control loop design prior to the plant construction phase. Here, we propose on-line use of a dynamic simulator for the development of new plant operation. The developed MIRROR PLANT is an on-line dynamic plant simulator that can perfectly simulate dynamic plant behavior, and can also be used to forecast future plant behavior by making the computer run the simulation faster than real-time. Using the estimated and forecast data, the plant operator can detect abnormal situations in the plant. Before activating an alarm from the conventional control system, the operator will be able to perform proactive operation to maintain safety. In this paper, we propose a new human-machine interface (HMI) design to realize proactive operation and discuss application of the HMI to the vinyl acetate monomer process as an example of MIRROR PLANT

  16. A drift-pump coil design for a Tandem Mirror Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, W.S.; Logan, B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes both the theory and mechanical design behind a new concept for trapped ion removal from tandem mirror end plugs. The design has been developed for the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). The new drift-pump coils replace charge exchange pump beams. Pump beams consume large amounts of power and seriously reduce reactor performance. Drift-pump coils consume only a few megawatts of power and introduce no added burden to the reactor vacuum pumps. In addition, they are easy to replace. The coils are similar in shape to a paper clip and are located at two positions in each end plug. The coils between the transition coil and the first anchor yinyang serve to remove ions trapped in the magnetic well just outboard of the high field choke coil. The coils located between the anchor coil set and the plug coil set remove sloshing ions and trapped cold ions from the plug region

  17. Performance of multilayer coated silicon pore optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M. D.; Collon, M. J.; Jensen, C. P.; Christensen, F. E.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Marggraf, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Lumb, D.; Shortt, B.

    2010-07-01

    The requirements for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) telescope are very challenging in respect of angular resolution and effective area. Within a clear aperture with 1.7 m > R > 0.25 m that is dictated by the spacecraft envelope, the optics technology must be developed to satisfy simultaneously requirements for effective area of 2.5 m2 at 1.25 keV, 0.65 m2 at 6 keV and 150 cm2 at 30 keV. The reflectivity of the bare mirror substrate materials does not allow these requirements to be met. As such the IXO baseline design contains a coating layout that varies as a function of mirror radius and in accordance with the variation in grazing incidence angle. The higher energy photon response is enhanced through the use of depth-graded multilayer coatings on the inner radii mirror modules. In this paper we report on the first reflectivity measurements of wedged ribbed silicon pore optics mirror plates coated with a depth graded W/Si multilayer. The measurements demonstrate that the deposition and performance of the multilayer coatings is compatible with the SPO production process.

  18. Mirror power reactor magnet coil system: a technically and economically feasible design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The design and preliminary engineering analysis of a ''Yin Yang'' coil system utilizing several original design concepts to achieve technical and economic feasibility will be presented. The design analysis is begun with a general description of the constraints and prerequisites which define the problem of designing a satisfactory coil system for a mirror power reactor. This description includes a discussion of the coil conductor geometry required by plasma physics considerations, and also a description of the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force system distributed over the conductor geometry. In addition, the important design constraints which all mirror coil system designs must satisfy if they are to successfully interface with the other reactor components are reviewed. After considering the basic constraints that Yin Yong coil systems must be developed around, a survey of the various design concepts that were developed and explored in search of a satisfactory coil system design is discussed. From this extensive preliminary investigation of potential coil system configurations, a coil system design was developed which appears to offer by far the best combination of technical and economic feasibility of any other coil system design developed thus far

  19. Conceptual design of a mirror reactor for a fusion engineering research facility (FERF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Burleigh, R.C.; Carlson, G.A.; Dexter, W.L.; Hamilton, G.W.; Harvey, A.R.; Hickman, R.G.; Hoffman, M.A.; Hooper, E.B. Jr.; Moir, R.W.; Nelson, R.L.; Pittenger, L.C.; Smith, B.H.; Taylor, C.E.; Werner, R.W.; Wilcox, T.P.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a small mirror fusion reactor for a Fusion Engineering Research Facility (FERF). The reactor produces 3.4 MW of fusion power and a useful neutron flux of about 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 . Superconducting ''yin-yang'' coils are used, and the plasma is sustained by injection of energetic neutral D 0 and T 0 . Conceptual layouts are given for the reactor, its major components, and supporting facilities. (author)

  20. Design Multilayer Antireflection Coatings for Terrestrial Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of methods to design antireflection coatings (ARCs on reflectivity of broadband solar cells, we provide detailed analyses about the ARC coupled with a window layer and the refractive index dispersion effect of each layer. By multidimensional matrix data simulation, two methods were employed to measure the composite reflection of a SiO2/ZnS double-layer ARC within the spectral ranges of 300–870 nm (dual junction and 300–1850 nm (triple junction under AM1.5 solar radiation. A comparison study, between the results obtained from the commonly used weighted average reflectance method (WAR and that from the introduced effective average reflectance method (EAR, shows that the optimization of ARC by EAR method is convenient and feasible.

  1. Equivalent circuit and optimum design of a multilayer laminated piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuxiang; Carazo, Alfredo Vazquez; Park, Seung Ho

    2011-12-01

    A multilayer laminated piezoelectric Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O(3) (PZT) ceramic transformer, operating in a half- wavelength longitudinal resonant mode (λ/2 mode), has been analyzed. This piezoelectric transformer is composed of one thickness-polarized section (T-section) for exciting the longitudinal mechanical vibrations, two longitudinally polarized sections (L-section) for generating high-voltage output, and two insulating layers laminated between the T-section and L-section layers to provide insulation between the input and output sections. Based on the piezoelectric constitutive and motion equations, an electro-elasto-electric (EEE) equivalent circuit has been developed, and correspondingly, an effective EEE coupling coefficient was proposed for optimum design of this multilayer transformer. Commercial finite element analysis software is used to determine the validity of the developed equivalent circuit. Finally, a prototype sample was manufactured and experimental data was collected to verify the model's validity.

  2. Design optimization of multi-layer Silicon Carbide cladding for light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youho, E-mail: euo@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, MSC01 1120 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); NO, Hee Cheon, E-mail: hcno@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • SiC cladding designs are optimized with a multi-layer structural analysis code. • Layer radial thickness fraction that minimizes cladding fracture probability exists. • The demonstrated procedure is applicable for multi-layer SiC cladding design. • Duplex SiC with the inner composite fraction ∼0.4 is optimal in a reference case. • Increasing composite thermal conductivity markedly decreases SiC cladding stress. - Abstract: A parametric study that demonstrates a methodology for determining the optimum bilayer composition in a duplex SiC cladding is discussed. The structural performance of multi-layer SiC cladding design is significantly affected by radial thickness fraction of each layer. This study shows that there exists an optimal composite/monolith radial thickness fraction that minimizes failure probability for a duplex SiC cladding in steady-state operation. An exemplary reference case study shows that the duplex cladding with the inner composite fraction ∼0.4 and the outer CVD-SiC fraction ∼0.6 is found to be the optimal SiC cladding design for the current PWRs with the reference material choice for CVD-SiC and fiber reinforced composite. A marginal increase in the composite fraction from the presented optimal designs may lead to increase structural integrity by introducing some unquantified merits such as increasing damage tolerance. The major factors that affect the optimum cladding designs are temperature gradients and internal gas pressure. Clad wall thickness, thermal conductivity, and Weibull modulus are among the key design parameters/material properties.

  3. Design and Modeling of Polysilicon Electrothermal Actuators for a MEMS Mirror with Low Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lara-Castro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic optical-coherence tomography (OCT systems require low cost mirrors with small footprint size, out-of-plane deflections and low bias voltage. These requirements can be achieved with electrothermal actuators based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS. We present the design and modeling of polysilicon electrothermal actuators for a MEMS mirror (100 μm × 100 μm × 2.25 μm. These actuators are composed by two beam types (2.25 μm thickness with different cross-section area, which are separated by 2 μm gap. The mirror and actuators are designed through the Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology V (SUMMiT V® process, obtaining a small footprint size (1028 μm × 1028 µm for actuators of 550 µm length. The actuators have out-of-plane displacements caused by low dc voltages and without use material layers with distinct thermal expansion coefficients. The temperature behavior along the actuators is calculated through analytical models that include terms of heat energy generation, heat conduction and heat energy loss. The force method is used to predict the maximum out-of-plane displacements in the actuator tip as function of supplied voltage. Both analytical models, under steady-state conditions, employ the polysilicon resistivity as function of the temperature. The electrothermal-and structural behavior of the actuators is studied considering different beams dimensions (length and width and dc bias voltages from 0.5 to 2.5 V. For 2.5 V, the actuator of 550 µm length reaches a maximum temperature, displacement and electrical power of 115 °C, 10.3 µm and 6.3 mW, respectively. The designed actuation mechanism can be useful for MEMS mirrors of different sizes with potential application in endoscopic OCT systems that require low power consumption.

  4. Design and investigation of photo-induced super-hydrophilic materials for car mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiamchai, Pitak; Chindaudom, Pongpan; Horprathum, Mati; Patthanasettakul, Viyapol; Limsuwan, Pichet

    2009-01-01

    During the past decades, interests in various properties in titanium dioxide thin films have been growing rapidly. There have been several reports for TiO 2 thin films prepared on various media with photocatalytic and hydrophilic properties, in order to function as self-cleaning and/or anti-fogging materials. An obvious application is usually found in side-view car mirrors in the automobile industries. In this study, a number of photocatalytic TiO 2 films are prepared on soda-lime glasses for car mirrors by an electron-beam evaporation. The designs and development of the photocatalytic TiO 2 films, based on crystallinity, deposition rate, film thickness, film structure, and surface roughness are discussed. In comparison to the commercialized products, a systematic investigation procedure for the super-hydrophilic properties of the light-induced TiO 2 films for car mirrors has been developed, based on super-hydrophilicity, sustainability, self-cleaning property, and degradation of the samples. In addition, physical characterization by X-ray diffraction and surface roughness are also discussed. It has been found that most commercial products attain super-hydrophilicity only after exposed to ultraviolet and solar irradiation in less than 1 h. They can also maintain hydrophilicity after rigorous cleaning process. On the other hand, our prepared TiO 2 thin films demonstrate super-hydrophilic and photocatalytic properties after exposed to ultraviolet light for more than 2 h. According to the study, their anatase crystallinity, small grain size, and surface conditions all contributes to the excellent results. However, the prepared samples do not attain sufficient retention property to maintain their hydrophilicity. Conclusively, the designs of the TiO 2 films on car mirrors prove adequate to produce super-hydrophilic materials, which still degrade over normal usage. Nevertheless, our proposed investigation methods prove useful in quality evaluation in order to

  5. Design, development, and validation of a segment support actuator for the prototype segmented mirror telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Prasanna Gajanan; Mandal, Amaresh; Parihar, Padmakar S.; Nayak, Dayananda; Mishra, Deepta Sundar

    2018-01-01

    Segmented mirror telescopes (SMT) are built using several small hexagonal mirrors positioned and aligned by the three actuators and six edge sensors per segment to maintain the shape of the primary mirror. The actuators are responsible for maintaining and tracking the mirror segments to the desired position, in the presence of external disturbances introduced by wind, vibration, gravity, and temperature. The present paper describes our effort to develop a soft actuator and the actuator controller for prototype SMT at Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. The actuator designed, developed, and validated is a soft actuator based on the voice coil motor and flexural elements. It is designed for the range of travel of ±1.5 mm and the force range of 25 N along with an offloading mechanism to reduce the power consumption. A precision controller using a programmable system on chip (PSoC 5Lp) and a customized drive board has also been developed for this actuator. The close loop proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller implemented in the PSoC gets position feedback from a high-resolution linear optical encoder. The optimum PID gains are derived using relay tuning method. In the laboratory, we have conducted several experiments to test the performance of the prototype soft actuator as well as the controller. We could achieve 5.73- and 10.15-nm RMS position errors in the steady state as well as tracking with a constant speed of 350 nm/s, respectively. We also present the outcome of various performance tests carried out when off-loader is in action as well as the actuator is subjected to dynamic wind loading.

  6. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.; Gromada, R.J.; McCarville, T.J.; Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Bandini, B.R.; Fulton, F.J.; Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Westman, R.A.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Orient, G.; Wolfer, M.; DeVan, J.H.; Torterelli, P.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future.

  7. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future

  8. Design and fabrication of multi-dielectric thin film laser filters and mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsous, M. B.

    2005-01-01

    Multi-dielectric-film optical filters have designed as mirrors for frequency-doubled-Nd-YAG pumped Raman lasers at different wavelengths (435, 369.9, 319.8, 953.6, 683 nm), and for use in CVL pumped dye lasers: as beam-splitters, antireflection filters, and narrow-band filters. In this work, a theoretical design of these mirrors and filters is given. The treatment and optimization of these designs is detailed in order to overcome the difficulties and reach the final and suitable designs for our needs. In addition, we will describe the evaporation method and the best conditions to do it. These filters should be easy to make and able to resist the laser powers of the pulsed Nd-YAG laser (200mJ/pulse) and the output power of the CVL. Thus, we have adopted designs with the least number of layers and used materials and oxides, which could resist to high laser powers. These filters were tested with laser shots and the convenient designs that were able to support the laser power have been adopted. (Author)

  9. Design of off-axial Gregory telescope design with freeform mirror corrector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhanov, Yu.; Vlakhko, V.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a well-known approach is used for calculation of off-axis three-mirror telescope. It includes usage of conic cross-sections properties, each of the sections forming a stigmatic image. To create a compact optical system, a flat mirror aberration corrector is introduced, which is at later stage transformed into a free-form surface in order to compensate field aberrations. Similarly, one can introduce such a corrector in finalized layout for its further optimization and getting a suitable form, including the conversion of multimirrors axial optical system into decentered one. As an example, off-axial Gregory telescope embodiment is used for infrared waveband region, due to the fact that, unlike the Cassegrain telescope, it provides a real exit pupil, and usage of the mirror corrector brings several advantages. Firstly, this feature may be used to include cold stop or adaptive mirror in the exit pupil, wherein corrector is introduced into a converging beam before the focus of the first mirror. Secondly, when placing corrector in the exit pupil of the optical system it is possible to eliminate high and low order aberrations of center point, which in turn improves optical system f-number, and minimize field aberrations. As another example, off-axial Ritchey-Chretien telescope embodiment is used as a good fit for visible region systems. Analysis and calculation results of optical systems with free-form correctors with surfaces, defined by Power polynomial series are presented in this paper. Advantages of different freeform surfaces usage depends on optical system layouts specifics.

  10. Design of a Compact, Bimorph Deformable Mirror-Based Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Deng, Guohua; Wei, Ling; Li, Xiqi; Yang, Jinsheng; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, constructed and tested an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) using a bimorph mirror. The simulated AOSLO system achieves diffraction-limited criterion through all the raster scanning fields (6.4 mm pupil, 3° × 3° on pupil). The bimorph mirror-based AOSLO corrected ocular aberrations in model eyes to less than 0.1 μm RMS wavefront error with a closed-loop bandwidth of a few Hz. Facilitated with a bimorph mirror at a stroke of ±15 μm with 35 elements and an aperture of 20 mm, the new AOSLO system has a size only half that of the first-generation AOSLO system. The significant increase in stroke allows for large ocular aberrations such as defocus in the range of ±600° and astigmatism in the range of ±200°, thereby fully exploiting the AO correcting capabilities for diseased human eyes in the future.

  11. Design, manufacturing and testing of a four-mirror telescope with a wide field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloesener, P.; Wolfs, F.; Lemagne, F.; Cola, M.; Flebus, C.; Blanchard, G.; Kirschner, V.

    2017-11-01

    Regarding Earth observation missions, it has become unnecessary to point out the importance of making available wide field of view optical instruments for the purpose of spectral imaging. Taking advantage of the pushbroom instrument concept with its linear field across the on-ground track, it is in particular relevant to consider front-end optical configurations that involve an all-reflective system presenting inherent and dedicated advantages such as achromaticity, unobscuration and compactness, while ensuring the required image quality over the whole field. The attractiveness of the concept must be balanced with respect to the state-of-the-art mirror manufacturing technologies as the need for fast, broadband and wide field systems increases the constraints put on the feasibility of each individual component. As part of an ESTEC contract, AMOS designed, manufactured and tested a breadboard of a four-mirror wide field telescope for typical Earth observation superspectral missions. The initial purpose of the development was to assess the feasibility of a telecentric spaceborne three-mirror system covering an unobscured rectangular field of view of 26 degrees across track (ACT) by 6 degrees along track (ALT) with a f-number of 3.5 and a focal length of 500 mm and presenting an overall image quality better than 100 nm RMS wavefront error within the whole field.

  12. Scanning fiber microdisplay: design, implementation, and comparison to MEMS mirror-based scanning displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh, Ramin; Civitci, Fehmi; Ferhanoglu, Onur; Urey, Hakan

    2018-03-05

    In this study, we propose a compact, lightweight scanning fiber microdisplay towards virtual and augmented reality applications. Our design that is tailored as a head-worn-display simply consists of a four-quadrant piezoelectric tube actuator through which a fiber optics cable is extended and actuated, and a reflective (or semi-reflective) ellipsoidal surface that relays the moving tip of the fiber onto the viewer's retina. The proposed display, offers significant advantages in terms of architectural simplicity, form-factor, fabrication complexity and cost over other fiber scanner and MEMS mirror counterparts towards practical realization. We demonstrate the display of various patterns with ∼VGA resolution and further provide analytical formulas for mechanical and optical constraints to compare the performance of the proposed scanning fiber microdisplay with that of MEMS mirror-based microdisplays. Also we discuss the road steps towards improving the performance of the proposed scanning fiber microdisplay to high-definition video formats (such as HD1440), which is beyond what has been achieved by MEMS mirror based laser scanning displays.

  13. A Virtual Pivot Point MEMS Actuator with Externally Mounted Mirror: Design, Fabrication and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Fahim AMIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of a virtual pivot point micro electromechanical systems (MEMS electrostatic actuator with externally mounted mirror is presented. The point of rotation of the movable arm of the actuator is distant from the physical actuator. This is a requirement for certain applications, such as an external cavity laser in Littman configuration. A maximum rotational radius of 5 mm from the virtual pivot point was achieved. A detailed analytical analysis for the displacement of the structure is presented. The dynamic characterization of the device with a finite element analysis simulation shows that the resonance frequency of the in-plane rotational mode is well separated from that of the out-of-plane bending mode, confirming high in-plane stability. The devices were fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with device layer thickness of 100 µm. Thin mirrors were fabricated by dicing a 100 µm thick silicon wafer. A resonance frequency of about 5.9 ´ 102 Hz for the maximum sized mounted mirror (1.7 mm ´ 100 µm ´ 1.0 mm was determined by optical characterization.

  14. Thin film and multilayer optics for XUV spectral domain (1 nm to 60 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmotte, Franck

    2010-02-01

    The XUV spectral domain (1-60 nm wavelength range) has experienced rapid growth in recent years. On one side, the sources (synchrotron radiation, harmonic generation, x-ray laser, free-electron laser...) require ever more efficient optics, on the other hand, applications (diagnostics of hot plasma, solar physics, x-ray microscopy, EUV lithography, x-ray analysis...) provide new constraints on the design of multilayer stacks. The multilayer mirrors are the only way to achieve efficient optics operating at non-grazing incidence angles in this spectral range. Our work within the team XUV Optics at Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique focuses on the study of materials in thin layers correlated to the study of optical properties of multilayers. The objective is to achieve new multilayer components previously unavailable in the XUV domain, through a better understanding of physical phenomena in these nano-layer stacks. We show through several examples of how we have managed both to improve the performance of multilayer mirrors in a broad spectral range, and secondly, to develop new optical functions: beam splitters, broadband mirrors, dual-band mirrors or phase compensation mirrors. (author)

  15. Progress on the conceptual design of a mirror hybrid fusion--fission reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design study was made of a fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of producing fissile material and electricity. The fusion component is a D-T plasma confined by a pair of magnetic mirror coils in a Yin-Yang configuration and is sustained by neutral beam injection. The neutrons from the fusion plasma drive the fission assembly which is composed of natural uranium carbide fuel rods clad with stainless steel and helium cooled. It was shown conceptually how the reactor might be built using essentially present-day technology and how the uranium-bearing blanket modules can be routinely changed to allow separation of the bred fissile fuel

  16. Slumped glass option for making the XEUS mirrors: preliminary design and ongoing developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Canestrari, R.; Proserpio, L.; Dell'Orto, E.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, Giancarlo

    2008-07-01

    The XEUS mission (X-ray Evolving-Universe Spectroscopy Mission) of ESA, in the present configuration has a mirror collecting area in the order of 5-6 m2 @ 1 keV, 2 m2 @ 7 keV and 1 m2 @ 10 keV. These large collecting areas could be obtained with a mirror assembly composed of a large number of high quality segments each being able to deliver the angular resolution requested by the mission or better. The XEUS telescope will fit in the fairing of an Ariane 5 ECA launcher and hence its diameter is presently of about 4.5 m. The request in terms of angular resolution of the telescope has been set to 5 arcsec with a goal of 2 arcsec. Due to the large size of the optics it is impossible to create closed shells like those used for XMM or Chandra and hence it will be necessary to assemble a large number of segments (for example of ~0.6 m x ~0.3 m size) to recreate the mirror shells. These segments will form a module, an optical sub-unit of the telescope. The modules will be assembled to form the whole mirror system. As for all the space missions, the limits imposed on the payload mass budget by the launcher is the main driver that force the use of very lightweight optics and this request is of course very challenging. For example, the current design for XEUS foresees a geometric-area/mass ratio better than about 30 cm2/kg. In this article is illustrated a possible approach for the realization of large size and lightweight X-ray mirrors that derive from an experience gained from a previous work made in INAF-OAB on the thermal slumping of thin glass optics. The process foresees the use of a mould having a good optical figure but opposite shape respect to the segment to be slumped. On the mould is placed an initially flat glass sheet. With a suitable thermal cycle the glass sheet is conformed to the mould shape. Once tested for acceptance the glass sheet it is then integrated into a module by means of a robotic arm having a feedback system to confirm the correct alignment. A

  17. Adder design using a 5-input majority gate in a novel “multilayer gate design paradigm” for quantum dot cellular automata circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rohit; Ghosh, Bahniman; Gupta, Shoubhik

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel design paradigm for circuits designed in quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) technology. Previously reported QCA circuits in the literature have generally been designed in a single layer which is the main logical block in which the inverter and majority gate are on the base layer, except for the parts where multilayer wire crossing was used. In this paper the concept of multilayer wire crossing has been extended to design logic gates in multilayers. Using a 5-input majority gate in a multilayer, a 1-bit and 2-bit adder have been designed in the proposed multilayer gate design paradigm. A comparison has been made with some adders reported previously in the literature and it has been shown that circuits designed in the proposed design paradigm are much more efficient in terms of area, the requirement of QCA cells in the design and the input–output delay of the circuit. Over all, the availability of one additional spatial dimension makes the design process much more flexible and there is scope for the customizability of logic gate designs to make the circuit compact. (paper)

  18. Design of the multilayer insulation system for the Superconducting Super Collider 50mm dipole cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Schoo, C.J.

    1991-03-01

    The development of the multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 50 mm collider dipole cryostat is an ongoing extension of work conducted during the 40 mm cryostat program. While the basic design of the MLI system for the 50 mm cryostat resembles that of the 40 mm cryostat, results from measurements of MLI thermal performance below 80K have prompted a re-design of the MLI system for the 20K thermal radiation shield. Presented is the design of the MLI system for the 50 mm collider dipole cryostat, with discussion focusing on system performance, blanket geometry, cost-effective fabrication techniques, and built-in quality control measures that assure consistent thermal performance throughout the SSC accelerator. 16 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  19. A design procedure for an acoustic mirror providing dual reflection of longitudinal and shear waves in Solidly Mounted BAW Resonators (SMRs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Jansman, Andreas; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    The quality factor of the traditional Solidly Mounted Resonator (SMR) is limited by substrate losses, as the traditionally employed acoustic mirror reflects longitudinal waves but not shear waves. Modern mirrors do reflect both waves, but design rules for such mirrors have not been published so far.

  20. DC microgrid power flow optimization by multi-layer supervision control. Design and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechilariu, Manuela; Wang, Bao Chao; Locment, Fabrice; Jouglet, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • DC microgrid (PV array, storage, power grid connection, DC load) with multi-layer supervision control. • Power balancing following power flow optimization while providing interface for smart grid communication. • Optimization under constraints: storage capability, grid power limitations, grid time-of-use pricing. • Experimental validation of DC microgrid power flow optimization by multi-layer supervision control. • DC microgrid able to perform peak shaving, to avoid undesired injection, and to make full use of locally energy. - Abstract: Urban areas have great potential for photovoltaic (PV) generation, however, direct PV power injection has limitations for high level PV penetration. It induces additional regulations in grid power balancing because of lacking abilities of responding to grid issues such as reducing grid peak consumption or avoiding undesired injections. The smart grid implementation, which is designed to meet these requirements, is facilitated by microgrids development. This paper presents a DC microgrid (PV array, storage, power grid connection, DC load) with multi-layer supervision control which handles instantaneous power balancing following the power flow optimization while providing interface for smart grid communication. The optimization takes into account forecast of PV power production and load power demand, while satisfying constraints such as storage capability, grid power limitations, grid time-of-use pricing and grid peak hour. Optimization, whose efficiency is related to the prediction accuracy, is carried out by mixed integer linear programming. Experimental results show that the proposed microgrid structure is able to control the power flow at near optimum cost and ensures self-correcting capability. It can respond to issues of performing peak shaving, avoiding undesired injection, and making full use of locally produced energy with respect to rigid element constraints

  1. Utilizing subcooled, superfluid He-II in the design of a 12-Tesla tandem mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoard, R.W.; Cornish, D.N.; Baldi, R.W.; Taylor, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    A design study of 12-T yin-yang coils for a conceptual Tandem Mirror Next Step facility has been recently performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Convair Division of General Dynamics. The large magnets have major and mirror radii of 3.7 and 1.5 m, 0.70 x 3.75 m 2 cross section, 46.3 MA turns, and an overall current density of 1765 A/cm 2 , obtained by the use of Nb 3 Sn and Nb-Ti superconductors. Each coil is composed of several subcoils separated by internal strengthening substructure to react the enormous electromagnetic forces. The size of the yin-yang coils, and hence the current density, was reduced by utilizing subcooled, superfluid He-II at 1.8 K for the coolant. This paper reviews the design study, with emphasis on He-II heat transport and conductor stability. Methods are also presented which allow the extension of Gorter-Mellink-channel calculations to encompass multiple, interconnecting coolant channels

  2. Ultra-compact imaging plate scanner module using a MEMS mirror and specially designed MPPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuichi; Sasaki, Kensuke; Takasaka, Masaomi; Fujimoto, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Koei

    2017-02-01

    Computed radiography (CR), which is one of the most useful methods for dental imaging and nondestructive testing, uses a phosphor imaging plate (IP) because it is flexible, reusable, and inexpensive. Conventional IP scanners utilize a galvanometer or a polygon mirror as a scanning device and a photomultiplier as an optical sensor. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology currently provides silicon-based devices and has the potential to replace such discrete devices and sensors. Using these devices, we constructed an ultra-compact IP scanner. Our extremely compact plate scanner utilizes a module that is composed of a one-dimensional MEMS mirror and a long multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) that is combined with a specially designed wavelength filter and a rod lens. The MEMS mirror, which is a non-resonant electromagnetic type, is 2.6 mm in diameter with a recommended optical scanning angle up to +/-15°. The CR's wide dynamic range is maintained using a newly developed MPPC. The MPPC is a sort of silicon photomultiplier and is a high-sensitivity photon-counting device. To achieve such a wide dynamic range, we developed a long MPPC that has over 10,000 pixels. For size reduction and high optical efficiency, we set the MPPC close to an IP across the rod lens. To prevent the MPPC from detecting excitation light, which is much more intense than photo-stimulated light, we produced a sharp-cut wavelength filter that has a wide angle (+/-60°) of tolerance. We evaluated our constructed scanner module through gray chart and resolution chart images.

  3. Analysis and design of multilayer structures for neutron monochromators and supermirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masalovich, S.

    2013-01-01

    A relatively simple and accurate analytical model for studying the reflectivity of neutron multilayer monochromators and supermirrors is proposed. Design conditions that must be fulfilled in order to reach the maximum reflectivity are considered. The question of the narrowest bandwidth of a monochromator is discussed and the number of layers required to build such a monochromator is derived. Finally, we propose a new and efficient algorithm for synthesis of a supermirror with specified parameters and discuss some inherent restrictions on an attainable reflectivity. -- Highlights: • The inequality (not equation) that defines the thicknesses of layers was obtained. • Ready-to-use formula for the width of the spectral line was found. • Non-quarter-wave monochromators were suggested. • We propose a new algorithm for design of a neutron supermirror. • The problem of minimizing the number of layers in a supermirror is raised

  4. Design of self-cooled, liquid-metal blankets for tokamak and tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y.S.; Gohar, Y.; Hassanein, A.M.; Majumdar, S.; Picologlou, B.F.; Smith, D.L.; Szo, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of the self-cooled, liquid-metal blanket design from the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study (BCSS) are summarized. The objectives of the BCSS project are to define a small number (about three) of blanket concepts that should be the focus of the blanket research and development (RandD) program, identify and prioritize the critical issues for the leading blanket concepts, and provide technical input necessary to develop a blanket RandD program plan. Two liquid metals (lithium and lithium-lead (17Li-83Pb)) and three structural materials (primary candidate alloy (PCA), ferritic steel (FS) (HT-9), and vanadium alloy (V-15 Cr-5 Ti)) are included in the evaluations for both tokamaks and tandem mirror reactors (TMRs). TMR is of the tube configuration similar to the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study design. Analyses were performed in the following generic areas for each blanket concept: MHD, thermal hydraulics, stress, neutronics, and tritium recovery. Integral analyses were performed to determine the design window for each blanket design. The Li/Li/V blanket for tokamak and the Li/Li/V, LiPb/LiPb/V, and Li/Li/HT-9 blankets for the TMR are judged to be top-rated concepts. Because of its better thermophysical properties and more uniform nuclear heating profile, liquid lithium is a better coolant than liquid 17Li83Pb. From an engineering point of view, vanadium alloy is a better structural material than either FS or PCA since the former has both a higher allowable structural temperature and a higher allowable coolant/structure interface temperature than the latter. Critical feasibility issues and design constraints for the self-cooled, liquid-metal blanket concepts are identified and discussed

  5. Design of a wideband multilayer grating spectrometer for the study of electronic structure of thin-film CIS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imazono, Takashi; Koike, Masato; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Nagano, Tetsuya; Koeda, Masaru; Moriya, Naoji

    2014-01-01

    A soft x-ray emission spectrometer equipped with a wideband Ni/C multilayer-coated laminar-type varied-line-spacing holographic grating is designed to analyze the electronic structure in thin-film copper indium selenide (CIS) solar cells nondestructively by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. The spectrometer equipped with the multilayer grating thus designed allows us to detect the L emission lines of Cu, In, and Se simultaneously from a CIS absorber layer in the 1–3.5 keV range at a constant angle of incidence. (author)

  6. Commercial tandem mirror reactor design with thermal barriers: WITAMIR-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Emmert, G.A.; Maynard, C.W.

    1980-10-01

    A conceptual design of a near term commercial tandem mirror power reactor is presented. The basic configuration utilizes yin-yang minimum-B plugs with inboard thermal barriers. The maximum magnetic fields are 6.1 T, 8.1 T, and 15 T in the central cell, yin-yang, and thermal barrier magnets, respectively. The blanket utilizes Pb 83 Li 17 as the coolant and HT-9 as the structural material. This yields a high energy multiplication (1.37), a sufficient tritium breeding ratio (1.07) and has a major advantage with respect to maintenance. The plasma Q is 28 at a fusion power level of 3000 MW(t); the net electrical output is 1530 MW(e); and the overall efficiency is 39%. Cost estimates indicate that WITAMIR-I is competitive with recent tokamak power reactor designs

  7. A design assessment of tritium removal systems for the mirror advanced reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, S.K.; Kveton, O.K.

    1983-01-01

    This study investigates the available processes for removing tritium from light water, and selects the most appropriate process for recovering tritium from the various tritiated water streams identified in the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). A simplified flowsheet is shown for the process and the main process parameters are identified. Previous experience is utilized to predict direct capital costs and power requirement for the Tritiated Water Removal Unit (TWRU). A number of possibilities are discussed for lowering the cost of the TWRU. An estimate is made of the direct capital cost for the Air Detritiation System that has already been selected as the reference design by MARS personnel. The leakage from the MARS coolant loop is estimated, based on the experience obtained with Ontario Hydro's coolant systems. Design targets are identified for tritium levels in the reactor hall atmosphere and in water and air emissions. Tritium levels are predicted for these and are assessed against the previously identified targets

  8. Detection of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) Using a Porous Silicon Optical Biosensor Based on a Multilayered Double Bragg Mirror Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Lv, Jie; Jia, Zhenhong

    2018-01-01

    We successfully demonstrate a porous silicon (PS) double Bragg mirror by electrochemical etching at room temperature as a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) label-free biosensor for detecting ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Compared to various other one-dimension photonic crystal configurations of PS, the double Bragg mirror structure is quite easy to prepare and exhibits interesting optical properties. The width of high reflectivity stop band of the PS double Bragg mirror is about 761 nm with a sharp and deep resonance peak at 1328 nm in the reflectance spectrum, which gives a high sensitivity and distinguishability for sensing performance. The detection sensitivity of such a double Bragg mirror structure is illustrated through the investigation of AOB DNA hybridization in the PS pores. The redshifts of the reflectance spectra show a good linear relationship with both complete complementary and partial complementary DNA. The lowest detection limit for complete complementary DNA is 27.1 nM and the detection limit of the biosensor for partial complementary DNA is 35.0 nM, which provides the feasibility and effectiveness for the detection of AOB in a real environment. The PS double Bragg mirror structure is attractive for widespread biosensing applications and provides great potential for the development of optical applications.

  9. Mechanical design implementation and mathematical considerations for ultra precise diamond turning of multiple freeform mirrors on a common substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Johannes; Beier, Matthias; Peschel, Thomas; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    For optical systems consisting of metal (in general freeform) mirrors there exist several diamond turning fabrication approaches. These are distuingished by the effort in manufacturing and integration of the later system. The more work one puts into the manufacturing stage the less complicated is the alignment and integration afterwards. For example the most degrees of freedom have to be aligned in integration phase if every mirror of the system is fabricated as a single optical component. For a three mirror anastigmat with three freeform mirrors the degrees of freedom sum up to 18. Therefore the mirror fabrication itself is more or less easy, but the integration is very difficult. There are three major parts in the design and manufacturing process chain to be considered for tackling this integration problem. At the first position in the process chain there is the optical design occuring. At this stage a negotiation between manufacturing and design could improve manufacturability because of more possible integration approaches. The second stage is the mechanical design. Here the appropriate manufacturing approach is already chosen, but may be revisited due to incompatiblities with, e.g., stress specifications. The third level is the manufacturing stage. Here are different clamping approaches and fabrication methods possible. The current article will focus on an approach ("snap-together") where two mirrors are fabricated on one substrate and therefore a reduction of the number of degrees of freedom to be aligned are reduced to six. This improves the amount of time needed for the system integration significantly in contrast to a single mirror fabrication.

  10. Optical Interference Coatings Design Contest 2013: angle-independent color mirror and shortwave infrared/midwave infrared dichroic beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Karen; Kruschwitz, Jennifer D T; Keck, Jason

    2014-02-01

    An angle-independent color mirror and an infrared dichroic beam splitter were the subjects of a design contest held in conjunction with the 2013 Optical Interference Coatings topical meeting of the Optical Society of America. A total of 17 designers submitted 63 designs, 22 for Problem A and 41 for Problem B. The submissions were created through a wide spectrum of design approaches and optimization strategies. Michael Trubetskov and Weidong Shen won the first contest by submitting color mirror designs with a zero color difference (ΔE00) between normal incidence and all other incidence angles up to 60° as well as the thinnest design. Michael Trubetskov also won the second contest by submitting beam-splitter designs that met the required transmission while having the lowest mechanical coating stress and thinnest design. Fabien Lemarchand received the second-place finish for the beam-splitter design. The submitted designs are described and evaluated.

  11. Thermal-hydraulics design comparisons for the tandem mirror hybrid reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Yang, Y.S.; Schultz, K.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor (TMHR) is a cylindrical reactor, and the fertile materials and tritium breeding fuel elements can be arranged with radial or axial orientation in the blanket module. Thermal-hydraulics performance comparisons were made between plate, axial rod and radial rod fuel geometrices. The three configurations result in different coolant/void fractions and different clad/structure fractions. The higher void fraction in the two rod designs means that these blankets will have to be thicker than the plate design blanket in order to achieve the same level of nuclear interactions. Their higher structural fractions will degrade the uranium breeding ratio and energy multiplication factor of the design. One difficulty in the thermal-hydraulics analysis of the plate design was caused by the varying energy multiplication of the blanket during the lifetime of the plate which forced the use of designs that operated in the transition flow regime at some point during life. To account for this, an approach was adopted from Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) experience for the pressure drop calculation and the corresponding heat transfer coefficient that was used for the film drop thermal calculation. Because of the superior nuclear performance, the acceptable thermal-hydraulic characteristics and the mechanical design feasibility, the plate geometry concept was chosen for the reference gas-cooled TMHR blanket design

  12. Physics considerations in MV-CBCT multi-layer imager design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-Houng; Fueglistaller, Rony; Myronakis, Marios E; Rottmann, Joerg; Wang, Adam; Shedlock, Daniel; Morf, Daniel; Baturin, Paul; Huber, Pascal; Star-Lack, Josh M; Berbeco, Ross I

    2018-05-30

    Megavoltage (MV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) using an electronic portal imaging (EPID) offers advantageous features, including 3D mapping, treatment beam registration, high-z artifact suppression, and direct radiation dose calculation. Adoption has been slowed by image quality limitations and concerns about imaging dose. Developments in imager design, including pixelated scintillators, structured phosphors, inexpensive scintillation materials, and multi-layer imager (MLI) architecture have been explored to improve EPID image quality and reduce imaging dose. The present study employs a hybrid Monte Carlo and linear systems model to determine the effect of detector design elements, such as multi-layer architecture and scintillation materials. We follow metrics of image quality including modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from projection images to 3D reconstructions to in-plane slices and apply a task based figure-of-merit, the ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio (d') to determine the effect of detector design on object detectability. Generally, detectability was limited by detector noise performance. Deploying an MLI imager with a single scintillation material for all layers yields improvement in noise performance and d' linear with the number of layers. In general, improving x-ray absorption using thicker scintillators results in improved DQE(0). However, if light yield is low, performance will be affected by electronic noise at relatively high doses, resulting in rapid image quality degradation. Maximizing image quality in a heterogenous MLI detector (i.e. multiple different scintillation materials) is most affected by limiting imager noise. However, while a second-order effect, maximizing total spatial resolution of the MLI detector is a balance between the intensity contribution of each layer against its individual MTF. So, while a thinner scintillator may yield a maximal individual-layer MTF, its quantum efficiency will

  13. Design of the algorithm of photons migration in the multilayer skin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulykina, Anastasiia B.; Ryzhova, Victoria A.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Samokhin, Nikita Y.

    2017-06-01

    Design of approaches and methods of the oncological diseases diagnostics has special significance. It allows determining any kind of tumors at early stages. The development of optical and laser technologies provided increase of a number of methods allowing making diagnostic studies of oncological diseases. A promising area of biomedical diagnostics is the development of automated nondestructive testing systems for the study of the skin polarizing properties based on backscattered radiation detection. Specification of the examined tissue polarizing properties allows studying of structural properties change influenced by various pathologies. Consequently, measurement and analysis of the polarizing properties of the scattered optical radiation for the development of methods for diagnosis and imaging of skin in vivo appear relevant. The purpose of this research is to design the algorithm of photons migration in the multilayer skin structure. In this research, the algorithm of photons migration in the multilayer skin structure was designed. It is based on the use of the Monte Carlo method. Implemented Monte Carlo method appears as a tracking the paths of photons experiencing random discrete direction changes before they are released from the analyzed area or decrease their intensity to negligible levels. Modeling algorithm consists of the medium and the source characteristics generation, a photon generating considering spatial coordinates of the polar and azimuthal angles, the photon weight reduction calculating due to specular and diffuse reflection, the photon mean free path definition, the photon motion direction angle definition as a result of random scattering with a Henyey-Greenstein phase function, the medium's absorption calculation. Biological tissue is modeled as a homogeneous scattering sheet characterized by absorption, a scattering and anisotropy coefficients.

  14. Mo/Si multilayers with enhanced TiO II- and RuO II-capping layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulin, Sergiy; Benoit, Nicolas; Feigl, Torsten; Kaiser, Norbert; Fang, Ming; Chandhok, Manish

    2008-03-01

    The lifetime of Mo/Si multilayer-coated projection optics is one of the outstanding issues on the road of commercialization of extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). The application of Mo/Si multilayer optics in EUVL requires both sufficient radiation stability and also the highest possible normal-incidence reflectivity. A serious problem of conventional high-reflective Mo/Si multilayers capped by silicon is the considerable degradation of reflective properties due to carbonization and oxidation of the silicon surface layer under exposure by EUV radiation. In this study, we focus on titanium dioxide (TiO II) and ruthenium dioxide (RuO II) as promising capping layer materials for EUVL multilayer coatings. The multilayer designs as well as the deposition parameters of the Mo/Si systems with different capping layers were optimized in terms of maximum peak reflectivity at the wavelength of 13.5 nm and longterm stability under high-intensive irradiation. Optimized TiO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with an initial reflectivity of 67.0% presented a reflectivity drop of 0.6% after an irradiation dose of 760 J/mm2. The reflectivity drop was explained by the partial oxidation of the silicon sub-layer. No reflectivity loss after similar irradiation dose was found for RuO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors having initial peak reflectivity of 66%. In this paper we present data on improved reflectivity of interface-engineered TiO II- and RuO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors due to the minimization of both interdiffusion processes inside the multilayer stack and absorption loss in the oxide layer. Reflectivities of 68.5% at the wavelength of 13.4 nm were achieved for both TiO II- and RuO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors.

  15. Design and development by direct polishing of the WFXT thin polynomial mirror shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, L.; Campana, S.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Combrinck, H.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Freeman, R.; Mattini, E.; Langstrof, P.; Morton, R.; Motta, G.; Oberle, O.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.; Pels, C.; Schenk, C.; Stock, R.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WFXT) is a medium class mission proposed to address key questions about cosmic origins and physics of the cosmos through an unprecedented survey of the sky in the soft X-ray band (0.2-6 keV) [1], [2]. In order to get the desired angular resolution of 10 arcsec (5 arcsec goal) on the entire 1 degrees Field Of View (FOV), the design of the optical system is based on nested grazing-incidence polynomial profiles mirrors, and assumes a focal plane curvature and plate scale corrections among the shells. This design guarantees an increased angular resolution also at large off-axis positions with respect to the usually adopted Wolter I configuration. In order to meet the requirements in terms of mass and effective area (less than 1200 kg, 6000 cm2 @ 1 keV), the nested shells are thin and made of quartz glass. The telescope assembly is composed by three identical modules of 78 nested shells each, with diameter up to 1.1 m, length in the range of 200-440 mm and thickness of less than 2.2 mm. At this regard, a deterministic direct polishing method is under investigation to manufacture the WFXT thin grazing-incidence mirrors made of quartz. The direct polishing method has already been used for past missions (as Einstein, Rosat, Chandra) but based on much thicker shells (10 mm ore more). The technological challenge for WFXT is to apply the same approach but for 510 times thinner shells. The proposed approach is based on two main steps: first, quartz glass tubes available on the market are ground to conical profiles; second the pre-shaped shells are polished to the required polynomial profiles using a CNC polishing machine. In this paper, preliminary results on the direct grinding and polishing of prototypes shells made by quartz glass with low thickness, representative of the WFXT optical design, are presented.

  16. Uniformity of the soft-x-ray emissions from gold foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams determined by a two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, John F.; Boehly, Thomas; Pien, Gregory; Bradley, David

    1998-01-01

    A two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings was used to image the soft-x-ray emissions from planar foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams. The bandpass of the multilayer coatings was centered at a wavelength of 48.3 Angstrom (257-eV energy) and was 0.5 Angstrom wide. Five overlapping OMEGA beams, without beam smoothing, were typically incident on the gold foils. The total energy was 1500 J, and the focused intensity was 6x10 13 Wcm -2 . The 5.8x magnified images were recorded by a gated framing camera at various times during the 3-ns laser pulse. A pinhole camera imaged the x-ray emission in the energy range of >2 keV. On a spatial scale of 10 μm, it was found that the soft-x-ray images at 257 eV were quite uniform and featureless. In contrast, the hard-x-ray images in the energy range of >2 kev were highly nonuniform with numerous features of size 150 μm. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  17. Design of quadrature mirror filter bank using Lagrange multiplier method based on fractional derivative constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuldeep

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus has recently been identified as a very important mathematical tool in the field of signal processing. Digital filters designed by fractional derivatives give more accurate frequency response in the prescribed frequency region. Digital filters are most important part of multi-rate filter bank systems. In this paper, an improved method based on fractional derivative constraints is presented for the design of two-channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF bank. The design problem is formulated as minimization of L2 error of filter bank transfer function in passband, stopband interval and at quadrature frequency, and then Lagrange multiplier method with fractional derivative constraints is applied to solve it. The proposed method is then successfully applied for the design of two-channel QMF bank with higher order filter taps. Performance of the QMF bank design is then examined through study of various parameters such as passband error, stopband error, transition band error, peak reconstruction error (PRE, stopband attenuation (As. It is found that, the good design can be obtained with the change of number and value of fractional derivative constraint coefficients.

  18. Design of a Multi-layer Lane-Level Map for Vehicle Route Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chaoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of intelligent transportation system, there occurs further demand for high precision localization and route planning, and simultaneously the traditional road-level map fails to meet with this requirement, by which this paper is motivated. In this paper, t he three-layer lane-level map architecture for vehicle path guidance is established, and the mathematical models of road-level layer, intermediate layer and lane-level layer are designed considering efficiency and precision. The geometric model of the lane-level layer of the map is characterized by Cubic Hermite Spline for continuity. A method of generating the lane geometry with fixed and variable control points is proposed, which can effectively ensure the accuracy with limited num ber of control points. In experimental part, a multi-layer map of an intersection is built to validate the map model, and an example of a local map was generated with the lane-level geometry.

  19. Design and development of an in-line sputtering system and process development of thin film multilayer neutron supermirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A.; Sampathkumar, R.; Kumar, Ajaya; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Lagoo, K. D.; Veerapur, R. D.; Padmanabhan, M.; Puri, R. K. [Division of Remote Handling and Robotics, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Bhattacharya, Debarati; Singh, Surendra; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-12-15

    Neutron supermirrors and supermirror polarizers are thin film multilayer based devices which are used for reflecting and polarizing neutrons in various neutron based experiments. In the present communication, the in-house development of a 9 m long in-line dc sputtering system has been described which is suitable for deposition of neutron supermirrors on large size (1500 mm × 150 mm) substrates and in large numbers. The optimisation process of deposition of Co and Ti thin film, Co/Ti periodic multilayers, and a-periodic supermirrors have also been described. The system has been used to deposit thin film multilayer supermirror polarizers which show high reflectivity up to a reasonably large critical wavevector transfer of ∼0.06 Å{sup −1} (corresponding to m = 2.5, i.e., 2.5 times critical wavevector transfer of natural Ni). The computer code for designing these supermirrors has also been developed in-house.

  20. Mirror machine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    Recent mirror reactor conceptual design studies are described. Considered in detail is the design of ''standard'' Yin-Yang fusion power reactors with classical and enhanced confinement. It is shown that to be economically competitive with estimates for other future energy sources, mirror reactors require a considerable increase in Q, or major design simplifications, or preferably both. These improvements may require a departure from the ''standard'' configuration. Two attractive possibilities, both of which would use much of the same physics and technology as the ''standard'' mirror, are the field reversed mirror and the end-stoppered mirror

  1. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  2. Theory of the optimal design of straight-axis minimum-B mirror confinement configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    The design of modern straight-axis linked-mirror plasma-confinement configurations involves a balance between many competing requirements. The dipole and quadrupole components of magnetic induction required in one confinement region often do not match onto the fields of an adjacent region without complications that seriously affect particle drifts or confinement stability. Here, the relevant factors are set down together with the techniques for analytical optimization of the design of a general configuration. A general sufficient condition for the stability of an arbitrary guiding-center MHD equilibrium is derived. This condition makes explicit the stabilizing qualities of good normal curvature and diamagnetic axial current. The instability drive depends on two terms: one carries the sign of normal curvature and the other relates to the relative signs of geodeics curvature and geodesic torsion. The theory is applied to low-beta, large-aspect-ratio equilibria for which analytic expressions for the confining magnetic fields are known. Two optimizations are required to specify the arbitrary features of the quadrupole and dipole fields. One optimization is nonlinear and can be performed by the ordinary calculus of variations; the second optimization is linear and subject to the rules of game theory. Appropriate quality factors are obtained, thus giving the designer quantitative measures with which to balance design trade-offs

  3. Enabling Co-Design of Multi-Layer Exascale Storage Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carothers, Christopher [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Growing demands for computing power in applications such as energy production, climate analysis, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics have propelled computing systems toward the exascale: systems with 1018 floating-point operations per second. These systems, to be designed and constructed over the next decade, will create unprecedented challenges in component counts, power consumption, resource limitations, and system complexity. Data storage and access are an increasingly important and complex component in extreme-scale computing systems, and significant design work is needed to develop successful storage hardware and software architectures at exascale. Co-design of these systems will be necessary to find the best possible design points for exascale systems. The goal of this work has been to enable the exploration and co-design of exascale storage systems by providing a detailed, accurate, and highly parallel simulation of exascale storage and the surrounding environment. Specifically, this simulation has (1) portrayed realistic application checkpointing and analysis workloads, (2) captured the complexity, scale, and multilayer nature of exascale storage hardware and software, and (3) executed in a timeframe that enables “what if'” exploration of design concepts. We developed models of the major hardware and software components in an exascale storage system, as well as the application I/O workloads that drive them. We used our simulation system to investigate critical questions in reliability and concurrency at exascale, helping guide the design of future exascale hardware and software architectures. Additionally, we provided this system to interested vendors and researchers so that others can explore the design space. We validated the capabilities of our simulation environment by configuring the simulation to represent the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Blue Gene/Q system and comparing simulation results for application I

  4. Mechanical design of SST-GATE, a dual-mirror telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Huet, Jean-Michel; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Delphine; Laporte, Philippe; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project aims to create the next generation Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray telescope array. It will be devoted to the observation of gamma rays over a wide band of energy, from a few tens of GeV to more than 100 TeV. Two sites are foreseen to view the whole sky where about 100 telescopes, composed of three different classes, related to the specific energy region to be investigated, will be installed. Among these, the Small Size class of Telescopes, SSTs, are devoted to the highest energy region, to beyond 100 TeV. Due to the large number of SSTs, their unit cost is an important parameter. At the Observatoire de Paris, we have designed a prototype of a Small Size Telescope named SST-GATE, based on the dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optical formula, which has never before been implemented in the design of a telescope. Over the last two years, we developed a mechanical design for SST-GATE from the optical and preliminary mechanical designs made by the University of Durham. The integration of this telescope is currently in progress. Since the early stages of mechanical design of SST-GATE, finite element method has been used employing shape and topology optimization techniques to help design several elements of the telescope. This allowed optimization of the mechanical stiffness/mass ratio, leading to a lightweight and less expensive mechanical structure. These techniques and the resulting mechanical design are detailed in this paper. We will also describe the finite element analyses carried out to calculate the mechanical deformations and the stresses in the structure under observing and survival conditions.

  5. Maintainability considerations for the central cell in WITAMIR-I, a conceptual design of a tandem mirror fusion power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1980-10-01

    The concepts for maintaining the central cell reactor components for WITAMIR-I are described. WITAMIR-I is a conceptual tandem mirror fusion power reactor utilizing thermal barriers designed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Unique solutions to the difficult problems of routine blanket replacement and maintenance are proposed. Solutions are also proposed for maintaining the central cell coils and the shield

  6. Design of Circular, Square, Single, and Multi-layer Induction Coils for Electromagnetic Priming Using Inductance Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, Robert; Kennedy, Mark W.; Aune, Ragnhild E.

    2018-02-01

    Special induction coils used for electro magnetic priming of ceramic foam filters in liquid metal filtration have been designed using a combination of analytical and finite element modeling. Relatively simple empirical equations published by Wheeler in 1928 and 1982 have been used during the design process. The equations were found to accurately predict the z-component of the magnetic flux densities of both single- and multi-layer coils as verified both experimentally and by using COMSOL® 5.1 multiphysics simulations.

  7. Design and manufacture of super-multilayer optical filters based on PARMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Shaobo; Wang, Ruisheng; Ma, Jing; Jiang, Chao; Mu, Jiali; Zhao, Shuaifeng; Yin, Xiaojun

    2018-04-01

    Three multilayer interference optical filters, including a UV band-pass, a VIS dual-band-pass and a notch filter, were designed by using Ta2O5, Nb2O5, Al2O3 and SiO2 as high- and low-index materials. During the design of the coating process, a hybrid optical monitoring and RATE-controlled layer thickness control scheme was adopted. The coating process was simulated by using the optical monitoring system (OMS) Simulator, and the simulation result indicated that the layer thickness can be controlled within an error of less than ±0.1%. The three filters were manufactured on a plasma-assisted reactive magnetic sputtering (PARMS) coating machine. The measurements indicate that for the UV band-pass filter, the peak transmittance is higher than 95% and the blocking density is better than OD6 in the 300-1100 nm region, whereas for the dual-band-pass filter, the center wavelength positioning accuracy of the two passbands are less than ±2 nm, the peak transmittance is higher than 95% and blocking density is better than OD6 in the 300-950 nm region. Finally, for the notch filter, the minimum transmittance rates are >90% and >94% in the visible and near infrared, respectively, and the blocking density is better than OD5.5 at 808 nm.

  8. Design, simulation and testing of a novel radial multi-pole multi-layer magnetorheological brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Li, Hua; Jiang, Xuezheng; Yao, Jin

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with design, simulation and experimental testing of a novel radial multi-pole multi-layer magnetorheological (MR) brake. This MR brake has an innovative structural design with superposition principle of two magnetic fields generated by the inner coils and the outer coils. The MR brake has several media layers of magnetorheological (MR) fluid located between the inner coils and the outer coils, and it can provide higher torque and higher torque density than conventional single-disk or multi-disk or multi-pole single-layer MR brakes can. In this paper, a brief introduction to the structure of the proposed MR brake was given first. Then, theoretical analysis of the magnetic circuit and the braking torque was conducted. In addition, a 3D electromagnetic model of the MR brake was developed to simulate and examine the magnetic flux intensity and corresponding braking torque. A prototype of the brake was fabricated and several tests were carried out to validate its torque capacity. The results show that the proposed MR brake can produce a maximum braking torque of 133 N m and achieve a high torque density of 25.0 kN m-2, a high torque range of 42 and a high torque-to-power ratio of 0.95 N m W-1.

  9. Tritium containment and blanket design challenges for a 1 GWe mirror fusion central power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1976-06-01

    Tritium containment and removal problems associated with the blanket and power-systems for a mirror fusion reactor are identified and conceptual process designs are devised to reduce emissions to the environment below 1 Ci/day. The blanket concept development proceeds by starting with this emission goal of 1 Ci/day and working inward to the blanket. At each decision point, worker safety, operational labor costs, and capital cost tradeoffs are contrasted. The conceptual design uses air for the reactor hall with a continuous catalytic oxidizer-molecular sieve adsorber cleanup system to maintain a 40 μCi/m 3 tritium level (5 μCi/m 3 HTO) against 180 Ci/day leakage from reactor components, energy recovery systems, and process piping. This blanket contains submodules with Li 2 Be 2 O 3 --Be for tritium breeding and submodules with Be for mostly energy production. Tritium production in both is handled by separately containing this breeding material and scavenging this container with lithium vapor-doped helium gas stream

  10. Mirror boxes and mirror mounts for photophysics beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Rao, P.M.; Raja Sekhar, B.N.; Das, N.C.; Khan, H.A.; Bhattacharya, S.S.; Roy, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    Photophysics beamline makes use of one metre Seya-Namioka monochromator and two toroidal mirrors in its fore optics. The first toroidal mirror (pre mirror) focuses light originating from the tangent point of the storage ring onto the entrance slit of the monochromator and second toroidal mirror (post mirror) collects light from the exit slit of the monochromator and focuses light onto the sample placed at a distance of about one metre away from the 2nd mirror. To steer light through monochromator and to focus it on the sample of 1mm x 1mm size require precision rotational and translational motion of the mirrors and this has been achieved with the help of precision mirror mounts. Since Indus-1 operates at pressures less than 10 -9 m.bar, the mirror mounts should be manipulated under similar ultra high vacuum conditions. Considering these requirements, two mirror boxes and two mirror mounts have been designed and fabricated. The coarse movements to the mirrors are imparted from outside the mirror chamber with the help of x-y tables and precision movements to the mirrors are achieved with the help of mirror mounts. The UHV compatibility and performance of the mirror mounts connected to mirror boxes under ultra high vacuum condition is evaluated. The details of the design, fabrication and performance evaluation are discussed in this report. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. Design for an aberration corrected scanning electron microscope using miniature electron mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, Hideto; Kruit, Pieter

    2018-06-01

    Resolution of scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) is determined by aberrations of the objective lens. It is well known that both spherical and chromatic aberrations can be compensated by placing a 90-degree bending magnet and an electron mirror in the beam path before the objective lens. Nevertheless, this approach has not led to wide use of these aberration correctors, partly because aberrations of the bending magnet can be a serious problem. A mirror corrector with two mirrors placed perpendicularly to the optic axis of an SEM and facing each other is proposed. As a result, only small-angle magnetic deflection is necessary to guide the electron beam around the top mirror to the bottom mirror and around the bottom mirror to the objective lens. The deflection angle, in the order of 50 mrad, is sufficiently small to avoid deflection aberrations. In addition, lateral dispersion at the sample plane can be avoided by making the deflection fields symmetric. Such a corrector system is only possible if the incoming beam can pass the top mirror at a distance in the order of millimeters, without being disturbed by the electric fields of electrodes of the mirror. It is proposed that condition can be satisfied with micro-scale electron optical elements fabricated by using MEMS technology. In the proposed corrector system, the micro-mirrors have to provide the exact negative spherical and chromatic aberrations for correcting the aberration of the objective lens. This exact tuning is accomplished by variable magnification between the micro-mirrors and the objective lens using an additional transfer lens. Extensive optical calculations are reported. Aberrations of the micro-mirrors were analyzed by numerical calculation. Dispersion and aberrations of the deflectors were calculated by using an analytical field model. Combination aberrations caused by the off-axis position of dispersive rays in the mirrors and objective lens were also analyzed. It is concluded that the proposed

  12. Conceptual design study FY 1981: synfuels from fusion - using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1982-01-01

    This report represents the second year's effort of a scoping and conceptual design study being conducted for the express purpose of evaluating the engineering potential of producing hydrogen by thermochemical cycles using a tandem mirror fusion driver. The hydrogen thus produced may then be used as a feedstock to produce fuels such as methane, methanol, or gasoline. The main objective of this second year's study has been to obtain some approximate cost figures for hydrogen production through a conceptual design study

  13. Design of UHV chamber assembly and mirror mounts for high resolution VUV beam line at INDUS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksena, G.D.; Sinha, A.K.; Bhattacharya, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The reflecting optical system is designed for the high resolution VUV spectroscopy facility to be installed at INDUS-1. The fore-optics system consists of three cylindrical mirrors (M1, M2 and M3) to accept a 60 mrad (horizontal) x 6 mrad (vertical) diverging synchrotron beam from the storage ring in order to focus the image on the entrance slit of the vacuum spectrometer located at 13 m from the source point. In this paper we present some important details regarding mechanical design of the high resolution beam line consisting of mirror mounts, UHV chambers, associated mechanisms and beam pipes. The mirrors are mounted in an adjustable three point kinematic holder. In addition, these mounts are provided with a multi-plane alignment provision. Mirror mounts are placed inside VHV chambers which are provided with three translational and two rotational movements to facilitate initial as well as final on-line fine-tuned alignments. Beam pipes are connected to the VHV chambers through flanged bellows. Chambers, associated mechanisms, beam pipes with its non-rigid support and related pumping stations are positioned in the support structure rigidly. (author). 2 figs

  14. Software design for the VIS instrument onboard the Euclid mission: a multilayer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, E.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pezzuto, S.; Liu, S. J.; Giusi, G.; Li Causi, G.; Farina, M.; Cropper, M.; Denniston, J.; Niemi, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Euclid mission scientific payload is composed of two instruments: a VISible Imaging Instrument (VIS) and a Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument (NISP). Each instrument has its own control unit. The Instrument Command and Data Processing Unit (VI-CDPU) is the control unit of the VIS instrument. The VI-CDPU is connected directly to the spacecraft by means of a MIL-STD-1553B bus and to the satellite Mass Memory Unit via a SpaceWire link. All the internal interfaces are implemented via SpaceWire links and include 12 high speed lines for the data provided by the 36 focal plane CCDs readout electronics (ROEs) and one link to the Power and Mechanisms Control Unit (VI-PMCU). VI-CDPU is in charge of distributing commands to the instrument sub-systems, collecting their housekeeping parameters and monitoring their health status. Moreover, the unit has the task of acquiring, reordering, compressing and transferring the science data to the satellite Mass Memory. This last feature is probably the most challenging one for the VI-CDPU, since stringent constraints about the minimum lossless compression ratio, the maximum time for the compression execution and the maximum power consumption have to be satisfied. Therefore, an accurate performance analysis at hardware layer is necessary, which could delay too much the design and development of software. In order to mitigate this risk, in the multilayered design of software we decided to design a middleware layer that provides a set of APIs with the aim of hiding the implementation of the HW connected layer to the application one. The middleware is built on top of the Operating System layer (which includes the Real-Time OS that will be adopted) and the onboard Computer Hardware. The middleware itself has a multi-layer architecture composed of 4 layers: the Abstract RTOS Adapter Layer (AOSAL), the Speci_c RTOS Adapter Layer (SOSAL), the Common Patterns Layer (CPL), the Service Layer composed of two subgroups which

  15. Multilayer laminated piezoelectric bending actuators: design and manufacturing for optimum power density and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafferis, Noah T; Lok, Mario; Wei, Gu-Yeon; Wood, Robert J; Winey, Nastasia

    2016-01-01

    In previous work we presented design and manufacturing rules for optimizing the energy density of piezoelectric bimorph actuators through the use of laser-induced melting, insulating edge coating, and features for rigid ground attachments to maximize force output, as well as a pre-stacked technique to enable mass customization. Here we adapt these techniques to bending actuators with four active layers, which utilize thinner material layers. This allows the use of lower operating voltages, which is important for overall power usage optimization, as typical small-scale power supplies are low-voltage and the efficiency of boost-converter and drive circuitry increases with decreasing output voltage. We show that this optimization results in a 24%–47% reduction in the weight of the required power supply (depending on the type of drive circuit used). We also present scaling arguments to determine when multi-layer actuator are preferable to thinner actuators, and show that our techniques are capable of scaling down to sub-mg weight actuators. (paper)

  16. Hypothetical Pattern Recognition Design Using Multi-Layer Perceptorn Neural Network For Supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdullah-al-mamun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Humans are capable to identifying diverse shape in the different pattern in the real world as effortless fashion due to their intelligence is grow since born with facing several learning process. Same way we can prepared an machine using human like brain called Artificial Neural Network that can be recognize different pattern from the real world object. Although the various techniques is exists to implementation the pattern recognition but recently the artificial neural network approaches have been giving the significant attention. Because the approached of artificial neural network is like a human brain that is learn from different observation and give a decision the previously learning rule. Over the 50 years research now a days pattern recognition for machine learning using artificial neural network got a significant achievement. For this reason many real world problem can be solve by modeling the pattern recognition process. The objective of this paper is to present the theoretical concept for pattern recognition design using Multi-Layer Perceptorn neural networkin the algorithm of artificial Intelligence as the best possible way of utilizing available resources to make a decision that can be a human like performance.

  17. Design of an optimized adaptive optics system with a photo-controlled deformable mirror

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilař, Jan; Bonora, Stefano; Lucianetti, Antonio; Jelínková, H.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 13 (2016), s. 1422-1425 ISSN 1041-1135 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : adaptive optics * closed loop systems * deformable mirror Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.375, year: 2016

  18. High-precision MoSi multilayer coatings for radial and 2D designs on curved optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriese, Michael D.; Li, Yang; Platonov, Yuriy Y.

    2017-10-01

    The development of industrial infrastructure for EUV lithography requires a wide array of optics beyond the mask and the scanner optics, which include optics for critical instruments such as exposure testing and actinic inspection. This paper will detail recent results in the production of a variety of high-precision multilayer coatings achieved to support this development. It is critical that the optical designs factor in the capabilities of the achievable multilayer gradients and the associated achievable precision, including impact to surface distortion from the added figure error of the multilayer coating, which adds additional requirements of a specific shape to the period distribution. For example, two different coatings may achieve a ±0.2% variation in multilayer period, but have considerably different added figure error. Part I of the paper will focus on radially-symmetric spherical and aspherical optics. Typical azimuthal uniformity (variation at a fixed radius) achieved is less than ±0.005nm total variation, including measurement precision, on concave optics up to 200mm diameter. For highly curved convex optics (radius of curvature less than 50mm), precision is more challenging and the total variation increases to ±0.01nm total variation for optics 10-30mm in diameter. Total added figure error achieved has been as low as 0.05nm. Part II of the paper will focus on multilayer designs graded in two directions, rather than radially, in order to accommodate the increased complexity of elliptical, toroidal and hyperbolic surfaces. In most cases, the symmetry of the required multilayer gradient does not match the symmetry of the optical surface, and this interaction must be countered via the process design. Achieving such results requires additional flexibility in the design of the deposition equipment, and will be discussed with several examples in the paper, such as the use of variable velocity of an inline substrate carrier in conjunction with a shaped

  19. Design of a Virtual Player for Joint Improvisation with Humans in the Mirror Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chao; Alderisio, Francesco; Słowiński, Piotr; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; di Bernardo, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Joint improvisation is often observed among humans performing joint action tasks. Exploring the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms behind the emergence of joint improvisation is an open research challenge. This paper investigates jointly improvised movements between two participants in the mirror game, a paradigmatic joint task example. First, experiments involving movement coordination of different dyads of human players are performed in order to build a human benchmark. No designation of leader and follower is given beforehand. We find that joint improvisation is characterized by the lack of a leader and high levels of movement synchronization. Then, a theoretical model is proposed to capture some features of their interaction, and a set of experiments is carried out to test and validate the model ability to reproduce the experimental observations. Furthermore, the model is used to drive a computer avatar able to successfully improvise joint motion with a human participant in real time. Finally, a convergence analysis of the proposed model is carried out to confirm its ability to reproduce joint movements between the participants.

  20. Concept and design of an alignment monitoring system for the CBM RICH mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendarouach, Jordan [Justus Liebig University (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. One of the key detector components required for this CBM physics program is the RICH (Ring Imaging CHerenkov) detector, developed for efficient and clean electron identification and pion suppression. The detector consists of about 80 spherical glass mirror tiles, distributed over two sphere parts. An important aspect to guarantee a stable operation of the RICH detector is the alignment of the mirrors. A method originally developed and inspired by the HERA-B experiment uses recorded data to assess mirror alignment of the RICH mirror system. Measurements of Cherenkov distances and angles on the PMT plane may reveal potential misalignments of the considered tile. If mirror misalignment is revealed, it can be subsequently included and rectified by correction routines, which should mostly increase ring reconstruction as well as ring-track matching efficiencies. Results of this alignment method based on simulated events, reproducing potential mirror misalignments, its limits and first correction routines are presented.

  1. Designing multilayered nanoplatforms for SERS-based detection of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluok, Saadet; Guven, Burcu; Eksi, Haslet; Ustundag, Zafer; Tamer, Ugur; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the multilayered surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) platforms were developed for the analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). For this purpose, two molecules [11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) and 2-mercaptoethylamine (2-MEA)] were attached with Aurod and Auspherical nanoparticles to form multilayered constructions on the gold (Au)slide surface. The best multilayered platform structure was chosen depending on SERS enhancement, and this surface was characterised with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. After the optimum multilayered SERS platform and nanoparticle interaction was identified, the oligonucleotides on the Aurod nanoparticles and Auslide were combined to determine target concentrations from the 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) signals using SERS. The correlation between the SERS intensities for DTNB and target concentrations was found to be linear within a range of 10 pM to 1 µM, and with a detection limit of 34 fM. The selectivity and specificity of the developed sandwich assay were tested using negative and positive controls, and nonsense and real sample studies. The obtained results showed that the multilayered SERS sandwich method allows for sensitive, selective, and specific detection of oligonucleotide sequences.

  2. Mirror monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankos, Marian [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Shadman, Khashayar [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-12-02

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing a mirror electron monochromator (MirrorChrom) attachment to new and retrofitted electron microscopes (EMs) for improving the energy resolution of the EM from the characteristic range of 0.2-0.5 eV to the range of 10-50 meV. This improvement will enhance the characterization of materials by imaging and spectroscopy. In particular, the monochromator will refine the energy spectra characterizing materials, as obtained from transmission EMs [TEMs] fitted with electron spectrometers, and it will increase the spatial resolution of the images of materials taken with scanning EMs (SEMs) operated at low voltages. EOI’s MirrorChrom technology utilizes a magnetic prism to simultaneously deflect the electron beam off the axis of the microscope column by 90° and disperse the electrons in proportional to their energies into a module with an electron mirror and a knife-edge. The knife-edge cuts off the tails of the energy distribution to reduce the energy spread of the electrons that are reflected, and subsequently deflected, back into the microscope column. The knife-edge is less prone to contamination, and thereby charging, than the conventional slits used in existing monochromators, which improves the reliability and stability of the module. The overall design of the MirrorChrom exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in order to maintain the beam brightness – a parameter that impacts how well the electron beam can be focused downstream onto a sample. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate monochromator architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between energy resolution and beam current to achieve the optimum design for three particular applications with market potential: increasing the spatial resolution of low voltage SEMs, increasing the energy resolution of low voltage TEMs (beam energy of 5-20 keV), and increasing the energy resolution of conventional TEMs (beam

  3. Design and fabrication of the superconducting-magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatro, R.E.; Wohlwend, J.W.; Kozman, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The superconducting magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) consists of 24 magnets; i.e. two pairs of C-shaped Yin-Yang coils, four C-shaped transition coils, four solenoidal axicell coils, and a 12-solenoid central cell. General Dynamics Convair Division has designed all the coils and is responsible for fabricating 20 coils. The two Yin-Yang pairs (four coils) are being fabricated by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Since MFTF-B is not a magnet development program, but rather a major physics experiment critical to the mirror fusion program, the basic philosophy has been to use proven materials and analytical techniques wherever possible. The transition and axicell coils are currently being analyzed and designed, while fabrication is under way on the solenoid magnets

  4. Low-stress mounting configuration design for large aperture laser transport mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Quan, Xusong; Yao, Chao; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-01

    TM1-6S1 large aperture laser transport mirror is a crucial optical unit of high power solid-state laser in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facility. This article focuses on the low-stress and precise mounting method of large-aperture mirror. Based on the engineering practice of SG-III, the state-of-the-art and key problems of current mounting configuration are clarified firstly. Subsequently, a brand new low-stress mounting configuration with flexure supports is proposed. Opto-mechanical model of the mirror under mounting force is built up with elastic mechanics theory. Further, numerical methods and field tests are employed to verify the favorable load uniform capacity and load adjust capacity of flexure supports. With FEM, the relation between the mounting force from new configuration and the mirror surface distortion (wavefront error) is clarified. The novel mounting method of large aperture optics could be not only used on this laser transport mirror, but also on the other transmission optics and large crystals in ICF facilities.

  5. Extraction of optical parameters of thin films from spectral measurements for design and optical performance of multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, J.; Jurecka, S.; Kucerova, A.

    2003-01-01

    Optical parameters of a-Si:H and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on glass substrates are determined from spectral measurements of reflectance and/or transmittance. It is shown how important the exact knowledge of optical parameters as well as thicknesses of the layers for the design and the optical performance of multilayer structures is. The model of the p-i-n based a:Si-H solar cell with ITO as transparent conductive oxide layer is used for illustrating. The modeling of the solar cell integral reflectance in the spectral region of (650-830) nm is used as a criterion to reverse engineering of a multilayer structure with suppressed reflectance losses. The reflectance of a solar cell is modelled and the simulation of the varying optical parameters of individual layers including their thicknesses is discussed. Besides this,the advantage of using an antireflective layer under ITO is discussed (Authors)

  6. Newly designed double surface bimorph mirror for BL-15A of the photon factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Noriyuki, E-mail: noriyuki.igarashi@kek.jp; Nitani, Hiroaki; Takeichi, Yasuo; Niwa, Yasuhiro; Abe, Hitoshi; Kimura, Masao; Mori, Takeharu; Nagatani, Yasuko; Kosuge, Takashi; Kamijo, Ai; Koyama, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobutaka [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ohta, Hiromasa [Mitsubishi Electric System & Service Co., Ltd. 20F Carrot Tower 4-1-1 Taishido, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8520 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    BL-15A is a new x-ray undulator beamline at the Photon Factory. It will be dedicated to two independent research activities, simultaneous XAFS/XRF/XRD experiments, and SAXS/WAXS/GI-SAXS studies. In order to supply a choice of micro-focus, low-divergence and collimated beams, a double surface bimorph mirror was recently developed. To achieve further mirror surface optimization, the pencil beam scanning method was applied for “in-situ” beam inspection and the Inverse Matrix method was used for determination of optimal voltages on the piezoelectric actuators. The corrected beam profiles at every focal spot gave good agreement with the theoretical values and the resultant beam performance is promising for both techniques. Quick and stable switching between highly focused and intense collimated beams was established using this new mirror with the simple motorized stages.

  7. Preface: The 5th International Workshop on X-ray Mirror Design, Fabrication, and Metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assoufid, Lahsen [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Goldberg, Kenneth; Yashchuk, Valeriy V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Recent developments in synchrotron storage rings and free-electron laser-based x-ray sources with ever-increasing brightness and coherent flux have pushed x-ray optics requirements to new frontiers. This Special Topic gathers a set of articles derived from a subset of the key presentations of the International Workshop on X-ray Mirrors Fabrication (IWXM-2015) and Metrology held at Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA, July 14–16, 2015. The workshop objective was to report on recent progress in x-ray synchrotron radiation mirrors fabrication as well as on new developments in related metrology tools and methods.

  8. Mechanism design of the Thomson scattering diagnostic system for the TMX east mirror plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, D.D.; Goodman, R.K.; Jenkins, S.L.; Wilkerson, J.A.; Parkinson, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    This Thomson scattering diagnostic system is used to measure the electron temperature and density of the east mirror plug of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The measurements are made by firing a high-power ruby laser pulse through the plasma where the electrons then re-radiate a small fraction of the light. Because of the velocity of the electrons, the wavelength of the re-radiated light is Doppler shifted. The width of the Doppler-shifted wavelength spectrum is a measure of the temperature of the electrons in the plasma, and the total amount of re-radiated light is proportional to the electron density

  9. Design and FPGA-implementation of multilayer neural networks with on-chip learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, S.S.M.Y

    2008-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is used in many applications in the industry because of their parallel structure, high speed, and their ability to give easy solution to complicated problems. For example identifying the orange and apple in the sorting machine with neural network is easier than using image processing techniques to do the same thing. There are different software for designing, training, and testing the ANN, but in order to use the ANN in the industry, it should be implemented on hardware outside the computer. Neural networks are artificial systems inspired on the brain's cognitive behavior, which can learn tasks with some degree of complexity, such as signal processing, diagnosis, robotics, image processing, and pattern recognition. Many applications demand a high computing power and the traditional software implementation are not sufficient.This thesis presents design and FPGA implementation of Multilayer Neural Networks with On-chip learning in re-configurable hardware. Hardware implementation of neural network algorithm is very interesting due their high performance and they can easily be made parallel. The architecture proposed herein takes advantage of distinct data paths for the forward and backward propagation stages and a pipelined adaptation of the on- line backpropagation algorithm to significantly improve the performance of the learning phase. The architecture is easily scalable and able to cope with arbitrary network sizes with the same hardware. The implementation is targeted diagnosis of the Research Reactor accidents to avoid the risk of occurrence of a nuclear accident. The proposed designed circuits are implemented using Xilinx FPGA Chip XC40150xv and occupied 73% of Chip CLBs. It achieved 10.8 μs to take decision in the forward propagation compared with current software implemented of RPS which take 24 ms. The results show that the proposed architecture leads to significant speed up comparing to high end software solutions. On

  10. Stress state estimation in multilayer support of vertical shafts, considering off-design cross-sectional deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferov, SV; Sammal, AS; Deev, PV

    2018-03-01

    To determine the stress-strain state of multilayer support of vertical shafts, including cross-sectional deformation of the tubing rings as against the design, the authors propose an analytical method based on the provision of the mechanics of underground structures and surrounding rock mass as the elements of an integrated deformable system. The method involves a rigorous solution of the corresponding problem of elasticity, obtained using the mathematical apparatus of the theory of analytic functions of a complex variable. The design method is implemented as a software program allowing multivariate applied computation. Examples of the calculation are given.

  11. Lifetime of piezoceramic multilayer actuators : interplay of material properties and actuator design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Bos, B.; Groen, W.A.; Dortmans, L.M.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    We report an investigation into factors limiting the functional lifetime of multilayer piezoceramic actuators. The study consists of a combination of lifetime experiments by means of an accelerated lifetime test, inspection of the actuator microstructure at different stages of the accelerated

  12. Design of combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, A. D.; Lindu, M.; Yanidar, R.; Faruq, M.

    2018-01-01

    As environmental regulation has become stricter in recent years, there is an increasing concern about the issue of wastewater treatment in urban areas. Senior High School as center of student activity has a potential source to generated domestic wastewater from toilet, bathroom and canteen. Canteen wastewater contains high-organic content that to be treated before discharged. Based on previous research the subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow is an attractive alternative to provide efficient treatment of canteen wastewater. The effluent concentration complied with regulation according to [9]. Due to limited land, addition of preliminary treatment such as the presence of biofilter was found to improve the performance. The aim of this study was to design combination biofilter and subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) treating canteen wastewater. Vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) is used because from previous research, subsurface constructed wetland-multilayer filtration (SCW-MLF) with vertical flow type using vetiveria zizanioides (akar wangi) can be an alternative canteen wastewater treatment that is uncomplicated in technology, low cost in operational and have a beautiful landscape view, besides no odors or insects were presented during the operation.

  13. Impact of design-parameters on the optical performance of a highpower adaptive mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, W.D.; Nijkerk, M.D.; Smeltink, J.A.; Dool, T.C. van den; Zwet, E.J. van; Baars, G.E. van

    2017-01-01

    TNO is developing a High Power Adaptive Mirror (HPAM) to be used in the CO2 laser beam path of an Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) light source for next-generation lithography. In this paper we report on a developed methodology, and the necessary simulation tools, to assess the performance and associated

  14. Design of GA thermochemical water-splitting process for the Mirror Advanced Reactor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.C.

    1983-04-01

    GA interfaced the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle to the Mirror Advanced Reactor System (MARS). The results of this effort follow as one section and part of a second section to be included in the MARS final report. This section describes the process and its interface to the reactor. The capital and operating costs for the hydrogen plant are described

  15. Structural color of a lycaenid butterfly: analysis of an aperiodic multilayer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, S; Shimizu, Y; Kinoshita, S; Matsuhana, B

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the structural color of the green wing of the lycaenid butterfly Chrysozephyrus brillantinus. Electron microscopy revealed that the bottom plate of the cover scale on the wing consists of an alternating air–cuticle multilayer structure. However, the thicknesses of the layers were not constant but greatly differed depending on the layer, unlike the periodic multilayer designs often adopted for artificial laser-reflecting mirrors. The agreement between the experimentally determined and theoretically calculated reflectance spectra led us to conclude that the multilayer interference in the aperiodic system is the primary origin of the structural color. We analyzed optical interference in this aperiodic system using a simple analytical model and found that two spectral peaks arise from constructive interference among different parts of the multilayer structure. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the aperiodic system over a periodic one. (paper)

  16. Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Pivovaroff, Mike J.; Soufli, Regina; Alameda, Jennifer; Mirkarimi, Paul; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Baker, Sherry L.; McCarville, Tom; Ziock, Klaus; Hornback, Donald; Romaine, Suzanne; Bruni, Ric; Zhong, Zhong; Honkimäki, Veijo; Ziegler, Eric; Christensen, Finn E.; Jakobsen, Anders C.

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer coatings enhance x-ray mirror performance at incidence angles steeper than the critical angle, allowing for improved flux, design flexibility and facilitating alignment. In an attempt to extend the use of multilayer coatings to photon energies higher than previously achieved, we have developed multilayers with ultra-short periods between 1 and 2 nm based on the material system WC/SiC. This material system was selected because it possesses very sharp and stable interfaces. In this article, we show highlights from a series of experiments performed in order to characterize the stress, microstructure and morphology of the multilayer films, as well as their reflective performance at photon energies from 8 to 384 keV

  17. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  18. Design rules for a compact and low-cost optical position sensing of MOEMS tilt mirrors based on a Gaussian-shaped light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Marcus; Tortschanoff, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    A tilt mirror's deflection angle tracking setup is examined from a theoretical point of view. The proposed setup is based on a simple optical approach and easily scalable. Thus, the principle is especially of interest for small and fast oscillating MEMS/MOEMS based tilt mirrors. An experimentally established optical scheme is used as a starting point for accurate and fast mirror angle-position detection. This approach uses an additional layer, positioned under the MOEMS mirror's backside, consisting of a light source in the center and two photodetectors positioned symmetrical around the center. The mirror's back surface is illuminated by the light source and the intensity change due to mirror tilting is tracked via the photodiodes. The challenge of this method is to get a linear relation between the measured intensity and the current mirror tilt angle even for larger angles. State-of-the-art MOEMS mirrors achieve angles up to ±30°, which exceeds the linear angle approximations. The use of an LED, small laser diode or VCSEL as a lightsource is appropriate due to their small size and inexpensive price. Those light sources typically emit light with a Gaussian intensity distribution. This makes an analytical prediction of the expected detector signal quite complicated. In this publication an analytical simulation model is developed to evaluate the influence of the main parameters for this optical mirror tilt-sensor design. An easy and fast to calculate value directly linked to the mirror's tilt-angle is the "relative differential intensity" (RDI = (I1 - I2) / (I1 + I2)). Evaluation of its slope and nonlinear error highlights dependencies between the identified parameters for best SNR and linearity. Also the energy amount covering the detector area is taken into account. Design optimizing rules are proposed and discussed based on theoretical considerations.

  19. Design and fabrication of optical thin film layers with variable thickness profile for producing variable reflectivity mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R fallah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available   The design method and fabrication of mirrors with variable reflectivity are presented. To fabricate such a mirror a fixed mask with a circular aperture is used. The circular aperture is considered as an extended source with cosx(θas its diffusion distribution function and is the parameter for the distribution function of the particles through the aperture. The thickness profile of deposited layer is a function of this distribution. In this work, the coating system is calibrated for the materials which are used and then the parameter of the diffusion distribution function of the particles through the circular aperture is defined by experiments. Using these results, a graph is presented which connects the parameter of the circular aperture to the parameters of the thickness profile. It is then possible to deposit any type of variable reflectivity mirror using this graph. Finally, the effect of the uncertainty in measuring layer thicknesses on the phase of reflected wave and transmitted wave is investigated.

  20. Design of an elliptically bent refocus mirror for the MERLIN beamline at the advanced light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelez, Nicholas; Chuang, Yi-De; Smith-Baumann, Alexis; Franck, Keith; Duarte, R.; Lanzara, A.; Hasan, M.Z.; Dessau, D.S.; Chiang, T.C.; Shen, Z.-X.; Hussain, Zahid

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for well-focused beam with high quality imaging of the full field to further explore the potential of novel instruments. For beamlines operating at focal point, mechanical benders have often been used to shape the refocusing mirror into an ideal elliptical cylinder. Unfortunately, the limited number of couplings for these mechanisms requires specific substrate side-shaping, often calculated using beam bending theory [J.H. Underwood, Space Sci. Instrum. 3 (1977) 259; M. Howells et al., Opt. Eng. 39 (2000) 2748; T. Warwick et al., Document available at OSTI website: http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/servlets/purl/842557-JYZCS3/native/], to meet demanding figure requirements. Here, we use finite element analysis (FEA) to validate the side-shaping algorithm and then couple the output with SHADOW to evaluate mirror performance when an ideal ellipse is not achieved

  1. Some ideas on the choice of designs and materials for cooled mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Here the author expresses some of his views on how the fabrication of future synchrotron beam-line optics ought to be approached. Many of the most interesting new ideas for beam-line mirrors, especially those with a promise of low costs, involve metals. Historically these materials had posed certain problems, but these have been overcome in recent times to the extent that the initial complement of Advanced-Light-Source (ALS) beam-line optics were made of metal and have met their specifications. To go furthere along that road one needs to get more interested in the metallurgical issues involved in making high-quality metal mirrors. The author recounts the results of some investigations into these materials questions and trys to draw on some of the experiences and achievements of these communities which have hitherto had only limited contact with synchrotron radiation researchers.

  2. Design of mirrors and apodization functions in phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cady, E.

    2012-01-01

    Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphs are a promising technology for imaging exoplanets, with the potential to detect Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. A PIAA system nominally consists of a pair of mirrors which reshape incident light without attenuation, coupled with one or more apodizers to mitigate diffraction effects or provide additional beam-shaping to produce a desired output profile. We present a set of equations that allow apodizers to be chosen for any give...

  3. Single event mirroring and sense amplifier designs for enhanced SE tolerance of DRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, K.; Massengill, L.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of existing SRAM SEU hardening techniques to conventional CMOS cross-coupled sense amplifiers used in DRAM structures. We propose a novel SEU mirroring concept and implementation for hardening DRAMs to bitline hits. Simulations indicate a 24-fold improvement in critical charge during the sensing state using a 10K T-Resistor scheme and a 28-fold improvement during the highly susceptible high impedance state using 2pF dynamic capacitance coupling

  4. Hard X-ray mirrors for Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brejnholt, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hill, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decker, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alameda, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pivovaroff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pardini, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    Research performed under this LDRD aimed to demonstrate the ability to detect and measure hard X-ray emissions using multilayer X-ray reflective optics above 400 keV, to enable the development of inexpensive and high-accuracy mirror substrates, and to investigate applications of hard X-ray mirrors of interest to the nuclear security community. Experiments conducted at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility demonstrated hard X-ray mirror reflectivity up to 650 keV for the first time. Hard X-ray optics substrates must have surface roughness under 3 to 4 Angstrom rms, and three materials were evaluated as potential substrates: polycarbonates, thin Schott glass and a new type of flexible glass called Willow Glass®. Chemical smoothing and thermal heating of the surface of polycarbonate samples, which are inexpensive but have poor intrinsic surface characteristics, did not yield acceptable surface roughness. D263 Schott glass was used for the focusing optics of the NASA NuSTAR telescope. The required specialized hardware and process were costly and motivated experiments with a modified non-contact slumping technique. The surface roughness of the glass was preserved and the process yielded cylindrical shells with good net shape pointing to the potential advantage of this technique. Finally, measured surface roughness of 200 and 130 μm thick Willow Glass sheets was between 2 and 2.5 A rms. Additional results of flexibility tests and multilayer deposition campaigns indicated it is a promising substrate for hard X-ray optics. The detection of U and Pu characteristics X-ray lines and gamma emission lines in a high background environment was identified as an area for which X-ray mirrors could have an impact and where focusing optics could help reduce signal to noise ratio by focusing signal onto a smaller detector. Hence the first one twelvetant of a Wolter I focusing optics for the 90 to 140 keV energy range based on aperiodic multilayer coating was designed. Finally

  5. Design and Analysis of Multilayered Waveguide Structure With Metal-Dielectric Gratings for Sensing With Reflection Narrowband Notch Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiju ZHANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Developments in micro and nanofabrication technologies have led a variety of grating waveguide structures (GWS being proposed and implemented in optics and laser application systems. A new design of multilayered nanostructure double-grating is described for reflection notch filter. Thin metal film and dielectric film are used and designed with one-dimensional composite gratings. The results calculated by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA present that the thin metal film between substrate and grating can produce significant attenuated reflections and efficiency in a broad reflected spectral range. The behavior of such a reflection filter is evaluated for refractive index sensing, which can be applied inside the integrated waveguide structure while succeeding cycles in measurement. The filter peaks are designed and obtained in a visible range with full width half maximum (FWHM of several nanometers to less than one nanometer. The multilayered structure shows a sensitivity of refractive index of 220nm/RIU as changing the surroundings. The reflection spectra are studied under different periods, depths and duty cycles. The passive structure and its characteristics can achieve practical applications in various fields, such as optical sensing, color filtering, Raman spectroscopy and laser technology.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9625

  6. Einstein's Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…

  7. Design, installation, and performance of a multi-layered permeable reactive barrier, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Longmire, Patrick A.; Strietelmeier, Elizabeth A.; Taylor, Tammy P.; Den-Baars, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-layered permeable reactive barrier (PRB) has been installed in Mortandad Canyon, on the Pajarito Plateau in the north-central part of LANL, to demonstrate in-situ treatment of a suite of contaminants with dissimilar geochemical properties. The PRB will also mitigate possible vulnerabilities from downgradient contaminant movement within alluvial and deeper perched groundwater. Mortandad Canyon was selected as the location for this demonstration project because the flow of alluvial groundwater is constrained by the geology of the canyon, a large network of monitoring wells already were installed along the canyon reach, and the hydrochemistry and contaminant history of the canyon is well-documented. The PRB uses a funnel-and-gate system with a series of four reactive media cells to immobilize or destroy contaminants present in alluvial groundwater, including strontium-90, plutonium-238,239,240, americium-241, perchlorate, and nitrate. The four cells, ordered by sequence of contact with the groundwater, consist of gravel-sized scoria (for colloid removal); phosphate rock containing apatite (for metals and radionuclides); pecan shells and cotton seed admixed with gravel (bio-barrier, to deplete dissolved oxygen and destroy potential RCRA organic compounds, nitrate and perchlorate); and limestone (pH buffering and anion adsorption). Design elements of the PRB are based on laboratory-scale treatability studies and on a field investigation of hydrologic, geochemical, and geotechnical parameters. The PRB was designed with the following criteria: 1-day residence time within the biobarrier, 10-year lifetime, minimization of surface water infiltration and erosion, optimization of hydraulic capture, and minimization of excavated material requiring disposal. Each layer has been equipped with monitoring wells or ports to allow sampling of groundwater and reactive media, and monitor wells are located immediately adjacent to the up- and down-gradient perimeter of the

  8. Soft X-ray Calibration of the Co/C Multilayer Mirrors for the Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the Spectrum Röntgen-Gamma Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Tarrio, C.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1996-01-01

    The objective crystal spectrometer (OXS) on the forthcoming Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite is designed to carry three kinds of crystals: LiF(220), Si(111) and RAP(001), placed in front of the SODART telescope. Thirty six super polished (RMS roughness

  9. Application of structural mechanics methods to the design of large tandem mirror fusion devices (MFTF-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, V.N.; Ng, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires state-of-the-art structural-mechanics methods to deal with access constraints for plasma heating and diagnostics, alignment requirements, and load complexity and variety. Large interactive structures required an integrated analytical approach to achieve a resonable level of overall system optimization. The Tandem Magnet Generator (TMG) creates a magnet configuration for the EFFI calculation of electromagnetic-field forces that, coupled with other loads, form the input loading to magnetic and vessel finite-element models. The anlytical results provide the data base for detailed design of magnet, vessel, foundation, and interaction effects. (orig.)

  10. Chiral mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-01-01

    Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media

  11. Design trade study for a 4-meter off-axis primary mirror substrate and mount for the Habitable-zone Exoplanet Direct Imaging Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William R.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-09-01

    An extensive trade study was conducted to evaluate primary mirror substrate design architectures for the HabEx mission baseline 4-meter off-axis telescope. The study's purpose is not to produce a final design, but rather to established a design methodology for matching the mirror's properties (mass and stiffness) with the mission's optical performance specifications (static dynamic wavefront error, WFE). The study systematically compares the effect of proven design elements (closed-back vs open-back vs partial-back; meniscus vs flat back vs shaped back; etc.), which can be implemented with proven space mirror materials (ULE and Zerodur), on static and dynamic WFE. Additionally, the study compares static and dynamic WFE of each substrate point design integrated onto three and six point mounts.

  12. U. S. Mirror Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1978-01-01

    The mirror approach is now the principal alternate to the tokamak in the U.S. magnetic fusion energy program. The program is now focused on two new concepts that can obtain high values of Q, defined as the ratio of fusion power output to the neutral beam power injected to sustain the reaction. These are the tandem mirror and field reversed mirror concepts. Theoretically both concepts should be able to attain Q = 5 or more, as compared with Q approximately 1 in previous mirror designs. Success with either or both of these approaches would point the way toward fusion power plants with many attractive features. The linear geometry of mirror systems offers a distinct alternative to the toroidal tokamak. As a direct consequence of this difference in geometry, it is generally possible to build mirror systems in smaller units of modular construction that can probably be made to operate in steady-state. During the next 5 years the main mirror facilities in the U.S. will be the 2XIIB (renamed Beta II); a tandem mirror experiment caled TMX; and the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) scheduled to be completed in 1981 at a cost of $94 million. As a background for discussing this program and mirror reactor concepts in later lectures, the current status of mirror physics will be reviewed by comparing theory and experimental data in four critical areas. These are adiabatic confinement of individual ions, electron heat losses out of the ends of the machine, the achievement of beta values of order unity; and stabilization of ''loss cone'' modes

  13. Tunable photonic multilayer sensors from photo-crosslinkable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Maria; Hayward, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    The fabrication of tunable photonic multilayer sensors from stimuli-responsive, photo-crosslinkable polymers will be described. Benzophenone is covalently incorporated as a pendent photo-crosslinker, allowing for facile preparation of multilayer films by sequential spin-coating and crosslinking processes. Copolymer chemistries and layer thicknesses are selected to provide robust multilayer sensors which can show color changes across nearly the full visible spectrum due to the specific stimulus-responsive nature of the hydrated film stack. We will describe how this approach is extended to alternative sensor designs by tailoring the thickness and chemistry of each layer independently, allowing for the preparation of sensors which depend not only on the shift in wavelength of a reflectance peak, but also on the transition between Bragg mirrors and filters. Device design is optimized by photo-patterning sensor arrays on a single substrate, providing more efficient fabrication time as well as multi-functional sensors. Finally, radiation-sensitive multilayers, designed by choosing polymers which will preferentially degrade or crosslink under ionizing radiation, will also be described.

  14. Multilayer Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiana, Michael; Muldoon, Sarah Feldt

    2018-01-01

    The field of neuroscience is facing an unprecedented expanse in the volume and diversity of available data. Traditionally, network models have provided key insights into the structure and function of the brain. With the advent of big data in neuroscience, both more sophisticated models capable of characterizing the increasing complexity of the data and novel methods of quantitative analysis are needed. Recently, multilayer networks, a mathematical extension of traditional networks, have gained increasing popularity in neuroscience due to their ability to capture the full information of multi-model, multi-scale, spatiotemporal data sets. Here, we review multilayer networks and their applications in neuroscience, showing how incorporating the multilayer framework into network neuroscience analysis has uncovered previously hidden features of brain networks. We specifically highlight the use of multilayer networks to model disease, structure-function relationships, network evolution, and link multi-scale data. Finally, we close with a discussion of promising new directions of multilayer network neuroscience research and propose a modified definition of multilayer networks designed to unite and clarify the use of the multilayer formalism in describing real-world systems.

  15. Bronze rainbow hologram mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P.

    2006-02-01

    This project draws on holographic embossing techniques, ancient artistic conventions of bronze mirror design and modelling and casting processes to accomplish portraiture of reflection. Laser scanning, 3D computer graphics and holographic imaging are employed to enable a permanent 3D static holographic image to appear integrated with the real-time moving reflection of a viewer's face in a polished bronze disc. The disc and the figure which holds it (caryatid) are cast in bronze from a lost wax model, a technique which has been used for millennia to make personal mirrors. The Caryatid form of bronze mirror which went through many permutations in ancient Egyptian, Greece and Rome shows a plethora of expressive figure poses ranging from sleek nudes to highly embellished multifigure arrangements. The prototype of this series was made for Australian choreographer Graeme Murphy, Artistic Director of the Sydney Dance Company. Each subsequent mirror will be unique in figure and holographic imagery as arranged between artist and subject. Conceptually this project references both the modern experience of viewing mirrors retrieved from ancient tombs, which due to deterioration of the surface no longer reflect, and the functioning of Chinese Magic mirrors, which have the ability to project a predetermined image. Inspired by the metaphorical potential of these mirrors, which do not reflect the immediate reality of the viewer, this bronze hologram mirror series enables each viewer to reflect upon himself or herself observing simultaneously the holographic image and their own partially obliterated reflection.

  16. Design of Electromagnetic Moving-coil type Voice Coil Motor for Scanning mirror of Barcode reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Bu Hyun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Shim, Hyun Ho; Park, Sang Goo [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Yop [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    A voice coil actuator with moving coil type for scanning mirror system of barcode reader has been developed. The actuator has a simple structure including a magnet, a coil and a pin. The performance of the actuator is analyzed by a linearized theoretical model. And the dynamic performance of the proposed actuator is predicted through motor constant and restoring constant obtained by finite element simulations. The theoretical model was verified by the prototype which has 64 Hz resonance frequency and 60 deg reflecting angle. We also discovered that that 3 V input can make the actuator rotate over 61.8 deg reflecting angle at 50 Hz resonance frequency. The proposed actuator can simplify its driving configuration because of its implementation of open-loop control.

  17. A novel non-contact profiler design for measuring synchrotron radiation mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yao; Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; DeBiasse, R.A.; Wang, Run-Wen

    1990-08-01

    A novel optical profiler is described in this paper for measurement of surface profiles of synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The measurement is based on a combination of an optical heterodyne technique and a precise phase measurement procedure without a reference surface. A Zeeman two-frequency He-Ne laser is employed as the light source. The common-path optical system, which uses a birefringent lens as the beam splitter, minimizes the effects of air turbulence, sample vibration and temperature variation. A special autofocus system allows the profiler to measure the roughness and shape of a sample surface. The optical system is mounted on a large linear air-bearing slide, and is capable of scanning over distances covering the spatial period range from several microns to nearly one meter with a high measurement accuracy. 9 refs., 5 figs

  18. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, I.P. [Departamento de Ensino Superior, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Maranhao, Imperatriz-MA 65919-050 (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Vasconcelos, M.S. [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Bezerra, C.G., E-mail: cbezerra@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN 59072-970 (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants J{sub A} and J{sub B} and spin quantum numbers S{sub A} and S{sub B}, respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant J{sub C} and spin quantum number S{sub C}. For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints. - Highlights: > We model quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers presenting mirror symmetry. > We investigated the allowed and forbidden bands of magnonic transmission. > Transmission return maps show the influence of mirror symmetry. > Mirror symmetry has no effect on the Fibonacci case. > Mirror symmetry does have effect on the Thue-Morse and double period cases.

  19. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, I.P.; Vasconcelos, M.S.; Bezerra, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants J A and J B and spin quantum numbers S A and S B , respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant J C and spin quantum number S C . For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints. - Highlights: → We model quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers presenting mirror symmetry. → We investigated the allowed and forbidden bands of magnonic transmission. → Transmission return maps show the influence of mirror symmetry. → Mirror symmetry has no effect on the Fibonacci case. → Mirror symmetry does have effect on the Thue-Morse and double period cases.

  20. Multi-layer imager design for mega-voltage spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myronakis, Marios; Hu, Yue-Houng; Fueglistaller, Rony; Wang, Adam; Baturin, Paul; Huber, Pascal; Morf, Daniel; Star-Lack, Josh; Berbeco, Ross

    2018-05-01

    The architecture of multi-layer imagers (MLIs) can be exploited to provide megavoltage spectral imaging (MVSPI) for specific imaging tasks. In the current work, we investigated bone suppression and gold fiducial contrast enhancement as two clinical tasks which could be improved with spectral imaging. A method based on analytical calculations that enables rapid investigation of MLI component materials and thicknesses was developed and validated against Monte Carlo computations. The figure of merit for task-specific imaging performance was the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold fiducial when the CNR of bone was equal to zero after a weighted subtraction of the signals obtained from each MLI layer. Results demonstrated a sharp increase in the CNR of gold when the build-up component or scintillation materials and thicknesses were modified. The potential for low-cost, prompt implementation of specific modifications (e.g. composition of the build-up component) could accelerate clinical translation of MVSPI.

  1. Equilibrium and Stability Properties of Low Aspect Ratio Mirror Systems: from Neutron Source Design to the Parker Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ethan; Anderson, Jay; Clark, Mike; Egedal, Jan; Endrizzi, Douglass; Flanagan, Ken; Harvey, Robert; Lynn, Jacob; Milhone, Jason; Wallace, John; Waleffe, Roger; Mirnov, Vladimir; Forest, Cary

    2017-10-01

    Equilibrium reconstructions of rotating magnetospheres in the lab are computed using a user-friendly extended Grad-Shafranov solver written in Python and various magnetic and kinetic measurements. The stability of these equilibria are investigated using the NIMROD code with two goals: understand the onset of the classic ``wobble'' in the heliospheric current sheet and demonstrating proof-of-principle for a laboratory source of high- β turbulence. Using the same extended Grad-Shafranov solver, equilibria for an axisymmetric, non-paraxial magnetic mirror are used as a design foundation for a high-field magnetic mirror neutron source. These equilibria are numerically shown to be stable to the m=1 flute instability, with higher modes likely stabilized by FLR effects; this provides stability to gross MHD modes in an axisymmetric configuration. Numerical results of RF heating and neutral beam injection (NBI) from the GENRAY/CQL3D code suite show neutron fluxes promising for medical radioisotope production as well as materials testing. Synergistic effects between NBI and high-harmonic fast wave heating show large increases in neutron yield for a modest increase in RF power. work funded by DOE, NSF, NASA.

  2. Fusion component design for the moving-ring field-reversed mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    This partial report on the reactor design contains sections on the following: (1) burner section magnet system design, (2) plasma ring energy recovery, (3) vacuum system, (4) cryogenic system, (5) tritium flows and inventories, and (6) reactor design and layout

  3. Cavity-mirror degradation in the deep-UV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Sei, N. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    It is known that the degradation of dielectric multilayer mirrors used in short wavelength free-electron lasers (FELs) is caused by the carbon contamination on the mirror surface and the defects inside the dielectrics. We reported last year that the degraded dielectric multilayer mirrors can be repaired with both surface treatment by RF-induced oxygen plasma and thermal annealing. However, such a mirror degradation is still one of the most critical issues in the deep ultraviolet (UV) FELs, because the fundamental undulator radiation resonating in the laser cavity, the intensity of which is much higher than that of higher harmonics, can be sufficiently energetic to cause the mirror degradation through photochemical reactions. We are investigating the mirror degradation mainly in the deep UV region down to 240 nm. The experimental results will be shown. The mirror degradation mechanism will be discussed.

  4. High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Mingwu; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Huang, Qiushi [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Zhanshan, E-mail: wangzs@tongji.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); She, Rui; Feng, Hua [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Hongchang [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    X-ray reflection near 45° via multilayer mirrors can be used for astronomical polarization measurements. A Cr/C multilayer mirror (designed for X-ray polarimetry at 250 eV), with a period thickness of 3.86 nm and a bi-layer number of 100, was fabricated using direct current magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8 keV and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the multilayer structure. Different models were introduced to fit the hard X-ray reflectivity curve, which indicates that the layer thickness of two materials slightly drifts from the bottom to the top of the stack. Both the chromium and carbon layers are amorphous with asymmetric interfaces, while the Cr-on-C interface is slightly wider. Based on the good quality of the multilayer structure, a high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV at a grazing incidence angle of 40.7°. The fabricated Cr/C multilayer mirror exhibits high reflectivity and polarization levels in the energy region of 240 eV–260 eV. - Highlights: • We fabricated Cr/C multilayer with 3.8 nm d-spacing. • X-ray reflectometry was used to determine the exact structure of Cr/C multilayer. • A high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV. • Both Cr and C were found to be amorphous with slightly asymmetric interfaces. • A 4-layer model was used to fit and explain the results.

  5. Issues facing the U. S. mirror program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.V.

    1978-07-01

    Some of the current issues associated with the U.S. Magnetic Mirror Program are analyzed. They are presented as five separate papers entitled: (1) Relevant Issues Broughtup by the Mirror Reactor Design Studies. (2) An Assessment of the Design Study of the 1 MeV Neutral Beam Injector Required for a Tandem Mirror Reactor. (3) The Significance of the Radial Plasma Size Measured in Units of Ion Gyroradii in Tandem Mirrors and Field Reversed Mirrors. (4) Producing Field Reversed Mirror Plasmas by Methods used in Field Reversed Theta Pinch. (5) RF Stoppering of Mirror Confined Plasma.

  6. Mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, Claire

    1999-01-01

    This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...

  7. Einstein's Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-10-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity.1-4 The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a constant velocity.5 Einstein showed an intriguing fact that the usual law of reflection would not hold in the case of a uniformly moving mirror, that is, the angles of incidence and reflection of the light would not equal each other. Later on, it has been shown that the law of reflection at a moving mirror can be obtained in various alternative ways,6-10 but none of them seems suitable for bringing this interesting subject into the high school classroom.

  8. Mathematical Formalism for Designing Wide-Field X-Ray Telescopes: Mirror Nodal Positions and Detector Tilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a mathematical formalism for optimizing the mirror nodal positions along the optical axis and the tilt of a commonly employed detector configuration at the focus of a x-ray telescope consisting of nested mirror shells with known mirror surface prescriptions. We adopt the spatial resolution averaged over the field-of-view as the figure of merit M. A more complete description appears in our paper in these proceedings.

  9. VC and ACIS/HOOPS based semi-physical virtual prototype design and motion simulation of 2D scanning mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyan; Dai, Xiaobing; He, Xudong; Gao, Pengcheng

    2013-10-01

    Image-spectrum integrated instrument is an infrared scanning system which integrates optics, mechanics, electrics and information processing. Not only can it achieve scene imaging, but also it can detect, track and identify targets of interests in the scene through acquiring their spectra. After having a brief introduction to image-spectrum integrated instrument and analyzing how 2D scanning mirror works, this paper built 3D model of 2D scanning mirror and simulated its motion using two PCs basing on VC++ and ACIS/HOOPS. Two PCs communicate with each other through serial ports. One PC serves as host computer, on which controlling software runs, is responsible for loading image sequence, image processing, target detecting, and generating and sending motion commands to scanning mirror. The other serves as slave computer, on which scanning mirror motion simulation software runs, is responsible for receiving motion commands to control scanning mirror to finish corresponding movements. This method proposed in this paper adopted semi-physical virtual prototype technology and used real scene image sequence to control virtual 2D scanning mirror and simulates motion of real 2D scanning mirror. It has no need for real scanning mirror and is of important practical significance for debugging controlling software of 2D scanning mirror.

  10. "{Deposition and characterization of multilayers on thin foil x-ray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, A.M.; Joensen, K.D.; Hoeghoej, P.

    1996-01-01

    W/Si and Co/C multilayers have been deposited on epoxy- replicated Au mirrors from the ASTRO-E telescope project, SPectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) flight mirrors, DURAN glass substrates and Si witness wafers. A characterization of the multilayers with both hard x-rays and soft x-rays is presented. T...

  11. Design of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for ion rejection and wastewater effluent treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Oishi

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) membranes present a special class of nanostructured membranes which have potential applications in a variety of water treatment operations. These membranes are fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of alternately charged polyelectrolytes on commercial membrane surfaces. A large variety of polyelectrolytes and their varied deposition conditions (pH, number of bilayers etc.) allow very fine tuning of the membrane performance in terms of permeability and rejection. The first part of this thesis is about the application of PEM membranes to the removal of perchlorate ion from water. Being a monovalent ion, it is most effectively removed by a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. However, these membranes inherently have very low fluxes which lead to high pressure requirements. In our work, we modified the surface of a nanofiltration (NF) membrane by the LbL assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. The appropriate tuning of the LbL conditions led to the development of a membrane with significantly higher flux than RO membranes but with equivalent perchlorate rejection. This was one of the best trade-offs offered by PEM membranes for monovalent ion rejection as has been reported in literature so far. While PEM membranes have mostly shown great potential in ion-rejection studies, they have seldom been tested for real wastewater effluents. The second part of this thesis, therefore, deals with evaluating the applicability of PEM membranes to treating an electrocoagulation (EC)-treated high strength wastewater. Two types of very commonly used polyelectrolyte combinations were tried out -- one of which was an ionically crosslinked system and the other one was covalently crosslinked. Both the types of PEM membranes showed a high level of COD reduction from the feed stream with higher fluxes than commercial RO membranes. One major challenge in using membranes for wastewater treatment is their fouling propensity. Like many other

  12. A design philosophy for multi-layer neural networks with applications to robot control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiee, Nader; Jamshidi, MO

    1989-01-01

    A system is proposed which receives input information from many sensors that may have diverse scaling, dimension, and data representations. The proposed system tolerates sensory information with faults. The proposed self-adaptive processing technique has great promise in integrating the techniques of artificial intelligence and neural networks in an attempt to build a more intelligent computing environment. The proposed architecture can provide a detailed decision tree based on the input information, information stored in a long-term memory, and the adapted rule-based knowledge. A mathematical model for analysis will be obtained to validate the cited hypotheses. An extensive software program will be developed to simulate a typical example of pattern recognition problem. It is shown that the proposed model displays attention, expectation, spatio-temporal, and predictory behavior which are specific to the human brain. The anticipated results of this research project are: (1) creation of a new dynamic neural network structure, and (2) applications to and comparison with conventional multi-layer neural network structures. The anticipated benefits from this research are vast. The model can be used in a neuro-computer architecture as a building block which can perform complicated, nonlinear, time-varying mapping from a multitude of input excitory classes to an output or decision environment. It can be used for coordinating different sensory inputs and past experience of a dynamic system and actuating signals. The commercial applications of this project can be the creation of a special-purpose neuro-computer hardware which can be used in spatio-temporal pattern recognitions in such areas as air defense systems, e.g., target tracking, and recognition. Potential robotics-related applications are trajectory planning, inverse dynamics computations, hierarchical control, task-oriented control, and collision avoidance.

  13. Multilayer X-ray imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, D. L.; Hoover, R. B.; Gabardi, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment of the imaging properties of multilayer X-ray imaging systems with spherical surfaces has been made. A ray trace analysis was performed to investigate the effects of using spherical substrates (rather than the conventional paraboloidal/hyperboloidal contours) for doubly reflecting Cassegrain telescopes. These investigations were carried out for mirrors designed to operate at selected soft X-ray/XUV wavelengths that are of significance for studies of the solar corona/transition region from the Stanford/MSFC Rocket X-Ray Telescope. The effects of changes in separation of the primary and secondary elements were also investigated. These theoretical results are presented as well as the results of ray trace studies to establish the resolution and vignetting effects as a function of field angle and system parameters.

  14. An Evaluation of the Instruction Carried out with Printed Laboratory Materials Designed in Accordance with 5E Model: Reflection of Light and Image on a Plane Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaci, Hakan Sevki; Yildiz, Mehmet; Bakirci, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a print laboratory material based on 5E model of constructivist learning approach to teach reflection of light and Image on a Plane Mirror. The effect of the instruction which conducted with the designed print laboratory material on academic achievements of prospective science and technology teachers and their attitudes towards…

  15. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  16. Characterization of Mo/Si multilayer growth on stepped topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Toine; Louis, Eric; Zoethout, E.; Goldberg, K.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with nanoscale bilayer thicknesses have been deposited on stepped substrate topographies, using various deposition angles. The multilayer morphology at the step-edge region was studied by cross section transmission electron microscopy. A transition from a continuous- to

  17. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of X-Ray Multilayer Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David

    2015-01-01

    The project objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) position as a world leader in the design of innovative x-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures are absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of x-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever-increasing photon energies (i.e., up to 200 keV or higher), well beyond Chandra's (approx.10 keV) and NuStar's (approx.75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the x-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication, and design of innovative x-ray instrumentation, which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments. To this aim, a magnetron vacuum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film x-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and x-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  18. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance the MSFC's position as a world leader in the design of innovative X-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures is absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of X-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever increasing photon energies (i. e. up to 200 keV or higher); well beyond Chandra (approx. 10 keV) and NuStar's (approx. 75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the X-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication and design of innovative X-ray instrumentation which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments.To this aim, a magnetron vacum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film X-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and X-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  19. A new automatic design method to develop multilayer thin film devices for high power laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N.K.; Apparao, K.V.S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Optical thin film devices play a major role in many areas of frontier technology like development of various laser systems to the designing of complex and precision optical systems. Design and development of these devices are really challenging when they are meant for high power laser applications. In these cases besides desired optical characteristics, the devices are expected to satisfy a whole range of different needs like high damage threshold, durability etc. In the present work a novel completely automatic design method based on Modified Complex Method has been developed for designing of high power thin film devices. Unlike most of the other methods it does not need any suitable starting design. A quarterwave design is sufficient to start with. If required, it is capable of generating its own starting design. The computer code of the method is very simple to implement. This report discusses this novel automatic design method and presents various practicable output designs generated by it. The relative efficiency of the method along with other powerful methods has been presented while designing a broadband IR antireflection coating. The method is also incorporated with 2D and 3D electric field analysis programmes to produce high damage threshold designs. Some experimental devices developed using such designs are also presented in the report. (author). 36 refs., 41 figs

  20. Conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for a mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor. 12-month progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Baxi, C.B.; Rao, R.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the conceptual design and preliminary feasibility assessment for the hybrid blanket and power conversion system of the Mirror Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor. Existing gas-cooled fission reactor technology is directly applicable to the Mirror Hybrid Reactor. There are a number of aspects of the present conceptual design that require further design and analysis effort. The blanket and power conversion system operating parameters have not been optimized. The method of supporting the blanket modules and the interface between these modules and the primary loop helium ducting will require further design work. The means of support and containment of the primary loop components must be studied. Nevertheless, in general, the conceptual design appears quite feasible

  1. A blanket design, apparatus, and fabrication techniques for the mass production of multilayer insulation blankets for the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.; Otavka, J.G.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1989-09-01

    The multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film fabricated in the form of blankets and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 MLI blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator. Each blanket is nearly 17 meters long and 1.8 meters wide. This paper reports the blanket design, an apparatus, and the fabrication method used to mass produce pre-fabricated MLI blankets. Incorporated in the blanket design are techniques which automate quality control during installation of the MLI blankets in the SSC cryostat. The apparatus and blanket fabrication method insure consistency in the mass produced blankets by providing positive control of the dimensional parameters which contribute to the thermal performance of the MLI blanket. By virtue of the fabrication process, the MLI blankets have inherent features of dimensional stability three-dimensional uniformity, controlled layer density, layer-to-layer registration, interlayer cleanliness, and interlayer material to accommodate thermal contraction differences. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Design and fabrication of circular and rectangular components for electron-cyclotron-resonant heating of tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, B.; Calderon, M.O.; Chargin, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    The electron-cyclotron-resonant heating (ECRH) systems of rectangular waveguides on Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) operated with a overall efficiency of 50%, each system using a 28-GHz, 200-kW pulsed gyrotron. We designed and built four circular-waveguide systems with greater efficiency and greater power-handling capabilities to replace the rectangular waveguides. Two of these circular systems, at the 5-kG second-harmonic heating locations, have a total transmission efficiency of >90%. The two systems at the 10-kG fundamental heating locations have a total transmission efficiency of 80%. The difference in efficiency is due to the additional components required to launch the microwaves in the desired orientation and polarization with respect to magnetic-field lines at the 10-kG points. These systems handle the total power available from each gyrotron but do not have the arcing limitation problem of the rectangular waveguide. Each system requires several complex components. The overall physical layout and the design considerations for the rectangular and circular waveguide components are described here

  3. Design and fabrication of circular and rectangular components for electron-cyclotron-resonant heating of tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, B.; Calderon, M.O.; Chargin, A.K.; Coffield, F.E.; Lang, D.D.; Rubert, R.R.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Stallard, B.W.; Gallagher, N.C. Jr.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1983-11-18

    The electron-cyclotron-resonant heating (ECRH) systems of rectangular waveguides on Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) operated with a overall efficiency of 50%, each system using a 28-GHz, 200-kW pulsed gyrotron. We designed and built four circular-waveguide systems with greater efficiency and greater power-handling capabilities to replace the rectangular waveguides. Two of these circular systems, at the 5-kG second-harmonic heating locations, have a total transmission efficiency of >90%. The two systems at the 10-kG fundamental heating locations have a total transmission efficiency of 80%. The difference in efficiency is due to the additional components required to launch the microwaves in the desired orientation and polarization with respect to magnetic-field lines at the 10-kG points. These systems handle the total power available from each gyrotron but do not have the arcing limitation problem of the rectangular waveguide. Each system requires several complex components. The overall physical layout and the design considerations for the rectangular and circular waveguide components are described here.

  4. Tests of variable-band multilayers designed for investigating optimal signal-to-noise vs artifact signal ratios in Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography (DDSA) imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyers, D.; Ho, A.; Li, Q.; Piestrup, M.; Rice, M.; Tatchyn, R.

    1993-08-01

    In recent work, various design techniques were applied to investigate the feasibility of controlling the bandwidth and bandshape profiles of tungsten/boron-carbon (W/B 4 C) and tungsten/silicon (W/Si) multilayers for optimizing their performance in synchrotron radiation based angiographical imaging systems at 33 keV. Varied parameters included alternative spacing geometries, material thickness ratios, and numbers of layer pairs. Planar optics with nominal design reflectivities of 30%--94% and bandwidths ranging from 0.6%--10% were designed at the Stanford Radiation Laboratory, fabricated by the Ovonic Synthetic Materials Company, and characterized on Beam Line 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, in this paper we report selected results of these tests and review the possible use of the multilayers for determining optimal signal to noise vs. artifact signal ratios in practical Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography systems

  5. Mirror, mirror on the wall

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    RICH 2, one of the two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment, is being prepared to join the other detector elements ready for the first proton-proton collisions at LHC. The mirrors of the RICH2 detector are meticulously assembled in a clean room.In a large dark room, men in white move around an immense structure some 7 metres high, 10 metres wide and nearly 2.5 metres deep. Apparently effortlessly, they are installing the two large high-precision spherical mirrors. These mirrors will focus Cherenkov light, created by the charged particles that will traverse this detector, onto the photon detectors. Each spherical mirror wall is made up of facets like a fly's eye. Twenty-eight individual thin glass mirrors will all point to the same point in space to within a few micro-radians. The development of these mirrors has been technically demanding : Ideally they should be massless, sturdy, precise and have high reflectivity. In practice, though not massless, they are made from a mere 6 mm thin gl...

  6. Control of thermal deformation in dielectric mirrors using mechanical design and atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Nicholas T; Kim, Sangho S; Talghader, Joseph J

    2009-07-01

    A mechanical design technique for optical coatings that simultaneously controls thermal deformation and optical reflectivity is reported. The method requires measurement of the refractive index and thermal stress of single films prior to the design. Atomic layer deposition was used for deposition because of the high repeatability of the film constants. An Al2O3/HfO2 distributed Bragg reflector was deposited with a predicted peak reflectivity of 87.9% at 542.4 nm and predicted edge deformation of -360 nm/K on a 10 cm silicon substrate. The measured peak reflectivity was 85.7% at 541.7 nm with an edge deformation of -346 nm/K.

  7. Passive Radiation Shielding: Integrating Multilayer and Multipurpose Materials into Space Habitat Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The prospect of long-term human spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit poses a unique set of challenges for space habitat designers. One of those challenges is...

  8. Power-Aware Multi-Layer Translucent Network Design: an Integrated OPEX/CAPEX Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia; Resendo, Leandro C.; Ribeiro, Moisés R. N.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a three-phase network design model minimizing CAPEX and OPEX in IP-over-WDM architectures. By forbidding reconfiguration (accounting for 58\\% of the OPEX) we achieve only 4.2\\% increase in power consumption at no CAPEX expenses.......We propose a three-phase network design model minimizing CAPEX and OPEX in IP-over-WDM architectures. By forbidding reconfiguration (accounting for 58\\% of the OPEX) we achieve only 4.2\\% increase in power consumption at no CAPEX expenses....

  9. Design of broadband multilayer dichroic coating for a high-efficiency solar energy harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiachen, Wang; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil

    2015-05-20

    We report on the design and performance of a broadband dichroic coating for a solar energy conversion system. As a spectral beam splitter, the coating facilitates a hybrid system that combines a photovoltaic cell with a thermal collector. When positioned at a 45° angle with respect to incident light, the coating provides high reflectance in the 40-1100 nm and high transmission in the 1200-2000 nm ranges for a photovoltaic cell and a thermal collector, respectively. Numerical simulations show that our design leads to a sharp transition between the reflection and transmission bands, low ripples in both bands, and slight polarization dependence.

  10. [Mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  11. Thermal effects on beryllium mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinswig, S.

    1989-01-01

    Beryllium is probably the most frequently used material for spaceborne system scan mirrors. Beryllium's properties include lightweightedness, high Young's modulus, high stiffness value, high resonance value. As an optical surface, beryllium is usually nickel plated in order to produce a higher quality surface. This process leads to the beryllium mirror acting like a bimetallic device. The mirror's deformation due to the bimetallic property can possibly degrade the performance of the associated optical system. As large space borne systems are designed and as temperature considerations become more crucial in the instruments, the concern about temporal deformation of the scan mirrors becomes a prime consideration. Therefore, two sets of tests have been conducted in order to ascertain the thermal effects on nickel plated beryllium mirrors. These tests are categorized. The purpose of this paper is to present the values of the bimetallic effect on typical nickel plated beryllium mirrors

  12. Neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters and a phase-spin echo interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Toru; Tasaki, Seiji; Kawai, Takeshi; Hino, Masahiro; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Achiwa, Norio; Otake, Yoshie; Funahashi, Haruhiko.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron spin quantum precession by multilayer spin splitter has been demonstrated using a new spin interferometer. The multilayer spin splitter consists of a magnetic multilayer mirror on top, followed by a gap layer and a non magnetic multilayer mirror which are evaporated on a silicon substrate. Using the multilayer spin splitter, a polarized neutron wave in a magnetic field perpendicular to the polarization is split into two spin eigenstates with a phase shift in the direction of the magnetic field. The spin quantum precession is equal to the phase shift, which depends on the effective thickness of the gap layer. The demonstration experiments verify the multilayer spin splitter as a neutron spin precession device as well as the coherent superposition principle of the two spin eigenstates. We have developed a new phase-spin echo interferometer using the multilayer spin splitters. We present successful performance tests of the multilayer spin splitter and the phase-spin echo interferometer. (author)

  13. Mirror systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons, discovered in the monkey premotor cortex and in an anatomically connected area of the inferior parietal lobule, that activate both during action execution and action observation. They constitute a circuit dedicated to match actions made by others with the internal motor representations of the observer. It has been proposed that this matching system enables individuals to understand others' behavior and motor intentions. Here we will describe the main features of mirror neurons in monkeys. Then we will present evidence of the presence of a mirror system in humans and of its involvement in several social-cognitive functions, such as imitation, intention, and emotion understanding. This system may have several implications at a cognitive level and could be linked to specific social deficits in humans such as autism. Recent investigations addressed the issue of the plasticity of the mirror neuron system in both monkeys and humans, suggesting also their possible use in rehabilitation. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 22-38 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.89 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Design and Operation of a Calorimeter for Advanced Multilayer Insulation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chato, David; Johnson, Wesley; Dresar, Neil Van

    2016-01-01

    A calorimeter has been constructed to accurately measure insulation performance with a nominal 90K cold outer boundary and a 20K inner boundary. Unique features of this design include use of mechanical cryocoolers instead cryogens and measurement of the heat load with a calibrated rod to serve as a conduction path. The calorimeter is operational and has completed its first test series. The initial test series was designed to look for differences in performance between a single layer of aluminum foil and a sheet of double aluminized mylar (DAM). Although it has been speculated that the aluminum foil would perform better, since the mylar coating might not thick enough to stop the transmission of long wave length infrared radiation, our testing showed a higher heat load for the aluminum foil than the DAM. The aluminum foil showed a heat load of 132 mW at an 87 K outer temperature and 152 mW at a 107K outer temperature. Whereas the DAM showed a heat load of 66 mW at an 88 K outer temperature and 81 mW at 108 K.

  15. Fokker-Planck equation in mirror research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Open confinement systems based on the magnetic mirror principle depend on the maintenance of particle distributions that may deviate substantially from Maxwellian distributions. Mirror research has therefore from the beginning relied on theoretical predictions of non-equilibrium rate processes obtained from solutions to the Fokker-Planck equation. The F-P equation plays three roles: Design of experiments, creation of classical standards against which to compare experiment, and predictions concerning mirror based fusion power systems. Analytical and computational approaches to solving the F-P equation for mirror systems will be reviewed, together with results and examples that apply to specific mirror systems, such as the tandem mirror

  16. Tandem mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Carlson, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    A parametric analysis and a preliminary conceptual design for a 1000 MWe Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR) are described. The concept is sufficiently attractive to encourage further work, both for a pure fusion TMR and a low technology TMR Fusion-Fission Hybrid

  17. Conception and design of a control and monitoring system for the mirror alignment of the CBM RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendarouach, J

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures created in A+A collisions. For the SIS100 accelerator, the foreseen beam energy will range up to 11 AGeV for the heaviest nuclei. One of the key detector components required for the CBM physics program is the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector, which is developed for efficient and clean electron identification and pion suppression. An important aspect to guarantee a stable operation of the RICH detector is the alignment of the mirrors. A qualitative alignment control procedure for the mirror system has been implemented in the CBM RICH prototype detector and tested under real conditions at the CERN PS/T9 beamline. Collected data and results of image processing are reviewed and discussed. In parallel a quantitative method using recorded data has also been employed to compute mirror displacements of the RICH mirrors. Results based on simulated events and the limits of the method are presented and discussed as well. If mirror misalignment is detected, it can be subsequently included and rectified by correction routines. A first correction routine is presented and a comparison between misaligned, corrected and ideal geometries is shown. (paper)

  18. Conception and design of a control and monitoring system for the mirror alignment of the CBM RICH detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendarouach, J.

    2016-08-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures created in A+A collisions. For the SIS100 accelerator, the foreseen beam energy will range up to 11 AGeV for the heaviest nuclei. One of the key detector components required for the CBM physics program is the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector, which is developed for efficient and clean electron identification and pion suppression. An important aspect to guarantee a stable operation of the RICH detector is the alignment of the mirrors. A qualitative alignment control procedure for the mirror system has been implemented in the CBM RICH prototype detector and tested under real conditions at the CERN PS/T9 beamline. Collected data and results of image processing are reviewed and discussed. In parallel a quantitative method using recorded data has also been employed to compute mirror displacements of the RICH mirrors. Results based on simulated events and the limits of the method are presented and discussed as well. If mirror misalignment is detected, it can be subsequently included and rectified by correction routines. A first correction routine is presented and a comparison between misaligned, corrected and ideal geometries is shown.

  19. Physics of mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1982-05-01

    In recent years the emphasis in research on the magnetic mirror approach to fusion has been shifted to address what are essentially economically-motivated issues. The introduction of the Tandem Mirror idea solved in principal the problem of low Q (low fusion power gain) of mirror-based fusion systems. In order to optimize the tandem mirror idea from an economic standpoint, some important improvements have been suggested. These improvements include the thermal barrier idea of Baldwin and Logan and the axicell concept of Kesner. These new modifications introduce some special physics considerations. Among these are (1) The MHD stability properties of high energy electron components in the end cells; (2) The optimization of end-cell magnetic field configurations with the objective of minimizing equilibrium parallel currents; (3) The suppression of microstabilities by use of sloshing ion distributions. Following a brief outline of tandem mirror concepts, the above three topics are discussed, with illustrative examples taken from earlier work or from recent design studies

  20. Design and development of pressure and repressurization purge system for reusable space shuttle multilayer insulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The experimental determination of purge bag materials properties, development of purge bag manufacturing techniques, experimental evaluation of a subscale purge bag under simulated operating conditions and the experimental evaluation of the purge pin concept for MLI purging are discussed. The basic purge bag material, epoxy fiberglass bounded by skins of FEP Teflon, showed no significant permeability to helium flow under normal operating conditions. Purge bag small scale manufacturing tests were conducted to develop tooling and fabrication techniques for use in full scale bag manufacture. A purge bag material layup technique was developed whereby the two plys of epoxy fiberglass enclosed between skins of FEP Teflon are vacuum bag cured in an oven in a single operation. The material is cured on a tool with the shape of a purge bag half. Plastic tooling was selected for use in bag fabrication. A model purge bag 0.6 m in diameter was fabricated and subjected to a series of structural and environmental tests simulating various flight type environments. Pressure cycling tests at high (450 K) and low (200 K) temperature as well as acoustic loading tests were performed. The purge bag concept proved to be structurally sound and was used for the full scale bag detailed design model.

  1. Wireless Interconnect in Multilayer Chip-Area-Networks for Future Multimaterial High-Speed Systems Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwole John Famoriji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless chip area network which enables wireless communication among chips fosters development in wireless communication and it is envisioned that future hardware system and developmental functionality will require multimaterial. However, the traditional system architecture is limited by channel bandwidth-limited interfaces, throughput, delay, and power consumption and as a result limits the efficiency and system performance. Wireless interconnect has been proposed to overcome scalability and performance limitations of multihop wired architectures. Characterization and modeling of channel become more important for specification of choice of modulation or demodulation techniques, channel bandwidths, and other mitigation techniques for channel distortion and interference such as equalization. This paper presents an analytical channel model for characterization, modeling, and analysis of wireless chip-to-chip or interchip interconnects in wireless chip area network with a particular focus on large-scale analysis. The proposed model accounts for both static and dynamic channel losses/attenuation in high-speed systems. Simulation and evaluation of the model with experimental data conducted in a computer desktop casing depict that proposed model matched measurement data very closely. The transmission of EM waves via a medium introduces molecular absorption due to various molecules within the material substance. This model is a representative of channel loss profile in wireless chip-area-network communication and good for future electronic circuits and high-speed systems design.

  2. What do mirror neurons mirror?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uithol, S.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Bekkering, H.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Single cell recordings in monkeys provide strong evidence for an important role of the motor system in action understanding. This evidence is backed up by data from studies of the (human) mirror neuron system using neuroimaging or TMS techniques, and behavioral experiments. Although the data

  3. Design of a prototype position actuator for the primary mirror segments of the European Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, A.; Morante, E.; Viera, T.; Núñez, M.; Reyes, M.

    2010-07-01

    European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) based in 984 primary mirror segments achieving required optical performance; they must position relatively to adjacent segments with relative nanometer accuracy. CESA designed M1 Position Actuators (PACT) to comply with demanding performance requirements of EELT. Three PACT are located under each segment controlling three out of the plane degrees of freedom (tip, tilt, piston). To achieve a high linear accuracy in long operational displacements, PACT uses two stages in series. First stage based on Voice Coil Actuator (VCA) to achieve high accuracies in very short travel ranges, while second stage based on Brushless DC Motor (BLDC) provides large stroke ranges and allows positioning the first stage closer to the demanded position. A BLDC motor is used achieving a continuous smoothly movement compared to sudden jumps of a stepper. A gear box attached to the motor allows a high reduction of power consumption and provides a great challenge for sizing. PACT space envelope was reduced by means of two flat springs fixed to VCA. Its main characteristic is a low linear axial stiffness. To achieve best performance for PACT, sensors have been included in both stages. A rotary encoder is included in BLDC stage to close position/velocity control loop. An incremental optical encoder measures PACT travel range with relative nanometer accuracy and used to close the position loop of the whole actuator movement. For this purpose, four different optical sensors with different gratings will be evaluated. Control strategy show different internal closed loops that work together to achieve required performance.

  4. Complex-oxide multilayers by design: a treasure trove of unusual ferroic functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhmanson, Serge

    2015-03-01

    While inheriting most of the traits of their parents, layered variations of ABO3 perovskites allow for a number of additional channels for property manipulation and fine-tuning. Their remarkable flexibility toward structural and chemical modification can be exploited for the design of new and advanced functionalities not originally present in the parent ABO3 compounds. With the help of first-principles-based computational techniques, we have predicted intriguing electroactive behavior in layered-perovskite compounds of the Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) type. Specifically, we showed that Goldstone-like states (collective, close to zero frequency excitations, requiring practically no consumption of energy) can be induced in a PbSr2Ti2O7 RP superlattice, manifesting themselves as easy rotations of the in-plane polarization vector. Examination of a fictitious epitaxial Ba2TiO4 RP compound demonstrated that it exhibits an assortment of competing incommensurate distortions, including ones that promote in-plane polarization. In this presentation we highlight the unusual behavior of a RP Ba2ZrO4 structure, which has already been synthesized as a bulk ceramic. An investigation of the properties of a (fictitious) epitaxial thin-film variant of this material reveals that under compression it undergoes a transition into an incommensurate state, while under tension it shows hints of a Goldstone-like polar instability, which surprisingly occurs without the presence of a lone-pair active ions like Pb or Sn. In both cases, we observe anomalies in the planar static dielectric susceptibility of the system, with large dielectric response predicted for the phase displaying the Goldstone-like instability.

  5. Mirror reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Bender, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Design studies of a fusion mirror reactor, a fusion-fission mirror reactor, and two small mirror reactors are summarized. The fusion reactor uses 150-keV neutral-beam injectors based on the acceleration of negative ions. The injectors provide over 1 GW of continuous power at an efficiency greater than 80%. The fusion reactor has three-stage, modularized, Venetian blind, plasma direct converter with a predicted efficiency of 59% and a new concept for removal of the lune-shaped blanket: a crane is brought between the two halves of the Yin-Yang magnet, which are separated by a float. The design has desirable features such as steady-state operation, minimal impurity problems, and low first-wall thermal stress. The major disadvantage is low Q resulting in high re-circulating power and hence high cost of electrical power. However, the direct capital cost per unit of gross electrical power is reasonable [$1000/kW(e)]. By contrast, the fusion-fission reactor design is not penalized by re-circulating power and uses relatively near-term fusion technology being developed for the fusion power program. New results are presented on the Th- 233 U and the U- 239 Pu fuel cycles. The purpose of this hybrid is fuel production, with projected costs at $55/g of Pu or $127/g of 233 U. Blanket and cooling system designs, including an emergency cooling system, by General Atomic Company, lead us to the opinion that the reactor can meet expected safety standards for licensing. The smallest mirror reactor having only a shield between the plasma and the coil is the 4.2-m long fusion engineering research facility (FERF) designed for material irradiation. The smallest mirror reactor having both a blanket and shield is the 7.5-m long experimental power reactor (EPR), which has both a fusion and a fusion-fission version. (author)

  6. Mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1985-12-01

    The physics of VUV and x-ray reflection is reviewed. The main functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are stated briefly and include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image of the source, focusing, and collimation. Methods of fabrication of optical surfaces are described. Types of imperfections are discussed, including, aberrations, surface figure inaccuracy, roughness, and degradation due to use. Calculation of the photon beam thermal load, including computer modelling, is considered. 50 refs., 7 figs

  7. U and Pu Gamma-Ray Measurements of Spent Fuel Using a Gamma-Ray Mirror Band-Pass Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, K.-P.; Kisner, R.; Melin, A.; Patton, B.; Alameda, J.; Brejnhold, N.; Decker, T.; Descalle, M.-A.; Fernandez-Perea, M.; Hill, R.; Ruz Armendariz, J.; Soufli, R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the use of grazing incidence gamma-ray mirrors as narrow band-pass filters for advanced non-destructive analysis of spent nuclear fuel. The mirrors limit radiation reaching an HPGe detector to narrow spectral bands around characteristic emission lines from fissile isotopes in the fuel. Ideally, these emissions could be used to determine the fuel's fissile content, but they are normally masked by the overwhelming radiation emitted by short-lived fission by-products. These latter emissions raise the overall background, making direct observation of the fuel with HPGe detectors virtually impossible. Such observations can only be performed using precise collimators that restrict the detector's field of view to very small solid angles. This results in impracticably long dwell times for safeguards measurements targeting the weak isotopic lines of interest. In a proof-ofconcept experiment, a set of simple flat gamma-ray mirrors was used to observe the atomic florescence lines from U and Pu from a spent nuclear fuel pin. For the measurements, the mirrors were placed at the egress of an access port in a hot cell wall. A coarse collimator in the port restricted radiation from a fuel pin placed in front of the port to fully illuminate the front surface of the mirror assembly (0:5 x 3:8 cm2). The mirrors, consisting of highly polished silicon substrates deposited with WC/SiC multilayer coatings, were successfully used to deflect the lines of interest onto an HPGe detector while the intense primary radiation from the spent fuel was blocked by a lead beam stop. The gamma-ray mirror multilayer coatings used here at ∼100 keV, have been experimentally tested at energies as high as 645 keV, indicating that direct observation of nuclear emission lines from 239Pu should be possible with an appropriately designed optic. (author)

  8. Damping Oriented Design of Thin-Walled Mechanical Components by Means of Multi-Layer Coating Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Catania

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The damping behaviour of multi-layer composite mechanical components, shown by recent research and application papers, is analyzed. A local dissipation mechanism, acting at the interface between any two different layers of the composite component, is taken into account, and a beam model, to be used for validating the known experimental results, is proposed. Multi-layer prismatic beams, consisting of a metal substrate and of some thin coated layers exhibiting variable stiffness and adherence properties, are considered in order to make it possible to study and validate this assumption. A dynamical model, based on a simple beam geometry but taking into account the previously introduced local dissipation mechanism and distributed visco-elastic constraints, is proposed. Some different application examples of specific multi-layer beams are considered, and some numerical examples concerning the beam free and forced response are described. The influence of the multilayer system parameters on the damping behaviour of the free and forced response of the composite beam is investigated by means of the definition of some damping estimators. Some effective multi-coating configurations, giving a relevant increase of the damping estimators of the coated structure with respect to the same uncoated structure, are obtained from the model simulation, and the results are critically discussed.

  9. Avoiding unstable regions in the design space of EUV mirror systems comprising high-order aspheric surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, O.; Bociort, F.; Braat, J.

    2004-01-01

    When Extreme Ultraviolet mirror systems having several high-order aspheric surfaces are optimized, the configurations often enter into highly unstable regions of the parameter space. Small changes of system parameters lead then to large changes in ray paths, and therefore optimization algorithms

  10. LLL mirror fusion program: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    During 1976, new Mirror Program plans have been laid out to take into account the significant advances during the last 18 months. The program is now focused on two new mirror concepts, field reversal and the tandem mirror, that can obtain high Q, defined as the ratio of fusion power output to the neutral-beam power injected to sustain the reaction. Theoretically, both concepts can attain Q = 5 or more, as compared to Q = 1 in previous mirror designs. Experimental planning for the next 5 years is complete in broad outline, and we are turning attention to what additional steps are necessary to reach our long-range goal of an experimental mirror reactor operating by 1990. Highlights of the events that have led to the above circumstance are listed, and experimental program plans are outlined

  11. MARS: Mirror Advanced Reactor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1984-01-01

    A recently completed two-year study of a commercial tandem mirror reactor design [Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS)] is briefly reviewed. The end plugs are designed for trapped particle stability, MHD ballooning, balanced geodesic curvature, and small radial electric fields in the central cell. New technologies such as lithium-lead blankets, 24T hybrid coils, gridless direct converters and plasma halo vacuum pumps are highlighted

  12. Compensation of X-ray mirror shape-errors using refractive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawhney, Kawal, E-mail: Kawal.sawhney@diamond.ac.uk; Laundy, David; Pape, Ian [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Dhamgaye, Vishal [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452012 (India)

    2016-08-01

    Focusing of X-rays to nanometre scale focal spots requires high precision X-ray optics. For nano-focusing mirrors, height errors in the mirror surface retard or advance the X-ray wavefront and after propagation to the focal plane, this distortion of the wavefront causes blurring of the focus resulting in a limit on the spatial resolution. We describe here the implementation of a method for correcting the wavefront that is applied before a focusing mirror using custom-designed refracting structures which locally cancel out the wavefront distortion from the mirror. We demonstrate in measurements on a synchrotron radiation beamline a reduction in the size of the focal spot of a characterized test mirror by a factor of greater than 10 times. This technique could be used to correct existing synchrotron beamline focusing and nanofocusing optics providing a highly stable wavefront with low distortion for obtaining smaller focus sizes. This method could also correct multilayer or focusing crystal optics allowing larger numerical apertures to be used in order to reduce the diffraction limited focal spot size.

  13. Leveraging multi-layer imager detector design to improve low-dose performance for megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-Houng; Rottmann, Joerg; Fueglistaller, Rony; Myronakis, Marios; Wang, Adam; Huber, Pascal; Shedlock, Daniel; Morf, Daniel; Baturin, Paul; Star-Lack, Josh; Berbeco, Ross

    2018-02-01

    While megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) provides many advantages over kilovoltage (kV) CBCT, clinical adoption is limited by its high doses. Multi-layer imager (MLI) EPIDs increase DQE(0) while maintaining high resolution. However, even well-designed, high-performance MLIs suffer from increased electronic noise from each readout, degrading low-dose image quality. To improve low-dose performance, shift-and-bin addition (ShiBA) imaging is proposed, leveraging the unique architecture of the MLI. ShiBA combines hardware readout-binning and super-resolution concepts, reducing electronic noise while maintaining native image sampling. The imaging performance of full-resolution (FR); standard, aligned binned (BIN); and ShiBA images in terms of noise power spectrum (NPS), electronic NPS, modulation transfer function (MTF), and the ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)—the detectability index (d‧)—are compared. The FR 4-layer readout of the prototype MLI exhibits an electronic NPS magnitude 6-times higher than a state-of-the-art single layer (SLI) EPID. Although the MLI is built on the same readout platform as the SLI, with each layer exhibiting equivalent electronic noise, the multi-stage readout of the MLI results in electronic noise 50% higher than simple summation. Electronic noise is mitigated in both BIN and ShiBA imaging, reducing its total by ~12 times. ShiBA further reduces the NPS, effectively upsampling the image, resulting in a multiplication by a sinc2 function. Normalized NPS show that neither ShiBA nor BIN otherwise affects image noise. The LSF shows that ShiBA removes the pixilation artifact of BIN images and mitigates the effect of detector shift, but does not quantifiably improve the MTF. ShiBA provides a pre-sampled representation of the images, mitigating phase dependence. Hardware binning strategies lower the quantum noise floor, with 2  ×  2 implementation reducing the

  14. Design of a plasmonic back reflector using Ag nanoparticles with a mirror support for an a-Si:H solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanse D. Hungerford

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanoparticles have unique optical properties and these properties are affected by any surrounding structures, or lack thereof. Nanoparticles are often added to a device without fully assessing the effect that each interface will have on the nanoparticle’s response. In this work, we simulate and fabricate devices utilizing hemispherical nanoparticles integrated into the back reflector of an amorphous silicon solar cell. 3D finite difference time domain simulations were used to calculate the optical absorption of a 300nm amorphous silicon layer as a function of the size of the nanoparticles, the distance between the nanoparticles and the active layer, and the distance between the nanoparticles and the mirror. Two transparent conducting oxides, aluminum doped zinc oxide and indium tin oxide, are investigated to determine the importance of the material properties between the nanoparticles and mirror. Silver hemispherical nanoparticles with a diameter of 150nm placed directly on the a-Si:H and a 60nm aluminum doped zinc oxide layer between the nanoparticles and the mirror lead to a maximum absorption increase of 7.2% in the 500nm to 800nm wavelength range. Experimental devices confirmed the trends predicted by theory but did not achieve enhancement, likely due to fabrication challenges. Fabricating a solar cell with the simulated design requires a high quality transparent conductive oxide and high control over the nanoparticle size distribution.

  15. A multi-layer bioinspired design with evolution of shish-kebab structures induced by controlled periodical shear field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of polymers, caused by flow fields in the melt, has been the subject of extensive studies for many years. In this study, we use periodical shear to induce polypropylene to form multi-layer structure, which is usually observed in plants. Two interesting points were found: firstly, the quest of mimicking natural structures was achieved by controlled periodical shear field; secondly, the evolution from nano to shish-kebab-like cylindrite structure was obtained in the multi-layer structure, which can be clarified by nuclei competition model. This study can be used to better understand the shear-induced crystallization of polymer. Here our intention is to place this new observation on the map, leaving a fuller presentation and discussion of the work to a future publication.

  16. A computer program (FUGI) for design and operation of a conveyor type irradiator with multi-tier and multi-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Tatsuo; Aggarwal, K.S.

    1976-10-01

    A computer program (FUGI) was established to facilitate the determination of factors related to design and operation of a conveyor type irradiator with multi-tier and multi-layer. The factors determined by this program are as follows: (1) maximum dose, minimum dose and dose uniformity in irradiated material; (2) dose rate distribution on the path of irradiated material; (3) mass flow rate of irradiated material; (4) requisite activity of source; (5) requisite speed of conveyor; (6) utilization efficiency. This program partly uses the program FUDGE 4A for determination of dose rate in irradiated material in static state by Galanter and Krishnamurthy. (auth.)

  17. Conception and design of a control and monitoring system for the mirror alignment of the CBM RICH detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Akishin, P.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Bendarouach, J.; Boldyreva, N.; Deveaux, C.; Dobyrn, V.; Dürr, M.; Eschke, J.; Förtsch, J.; Heep, J.; Höhne, C.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kochenda, L.; Kopfer, J.; Kravtsov, P.; Kres, I.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Leonova, E.; Linev, S.; Mahmoud, T.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Niebur, W.; Ovcharenko, E.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Pfeifer, D.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Reinecke, S.; Riabov, Y.; Roshchin, E.; Samsonov, V.; Schetinin, V.; Tarasenkova, O.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Vznuzdaev, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high net-baryon density and moderate temperature in A+A collisions. One of the key detectors of CBM to explore this physics program is a Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector for electron identification. For a high performance of the RICH detector precise mirror alignment is essential. A three-step correction cycle has been developed, which will be discussed: First a qualitative, fast check of the mirror positions, second a quantitative determination of possible misalignments and third a software correction routine, allowing a proper functioning of the RICH under misalignment conditions.

  18. Small d-spacing WC/SiC multilayers for future hard X-ray telescope designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C.P.; Madsen, K.K.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2005-01-01

    Multilayer coatings for reflecting hard X-rays up to 80keV, like W/Si and Pt/C, have been studied for several years. To go to higher energies, in the range of 100 keV to 250 keV, one needs coatings with smaller d-spacings than can currently be made with these material combinations, and a lower...

  19. Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser resistant multilayer high reflector coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, S R; Wolfe, J E; Monterrosa, A M; Feit, M D; Pistor, T V; STolz, C J

    2011-02-11

    Growing laser damage sites on multilayer high reflector coatings can limit mirror performance. One of the strategies to improve laser damage resistance is to replace the growing damage sites with pre-designed benign mitigation structures. By mitigating the weakest site on the optic, the large aperture mirror will have a laser resistance comparable to the intrinsic value of the multilayer coating. To determine the optimal mitigation geometry, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD) was used to quantify the electric-field intensification within the multilayer, at the presence of different conical pits. We find that the field intensification induced by the mitigation pit is strongly dependent on the polarization and the angle of incidence (AOI) of the incoming wave. Therefore the optimal mitigation conical pit geometry is application specific. Furthermore, our simulation also illustrates an alternative means to achieve an optimal mitigation structure by matching the cone angle of the structure with the AOI of the incoming wave, except for the p-polarization wave at a range of incident angles between 30{sup o} and 45{sup o}.

  20. Survey of mirror machine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condit, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Magnetic Mirror Fusion Program is one of the two main-line fusion efforts in the United States. Starting from the simple axisymmetric mirror concept in the 1950's, the program has successfully overcome gross flute-type instabilities (using minimum-B magnetic fields), and the most serious of the micro-instabilities which plagued it (the drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode). Dense plasmas approaching the temperature range of interest for fusion have been created (n/sub p/ = 10 14 /cc at 10 to 12 keV). At the same time, rather extensive conceptual design studies of possible mirror configurations have led to three principle designs of interest: the standard mirror fission-fusion hybrid, tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. The lectures will discuss these three concepts in turn. There will be no discussion of diagnostics for the mirror machine in these lectures, but typical plasma parameters will be given for each type of machine, and the diagnostic requirements will be apparent. In a working fusion reactor, diagnostics will be required for operational control, and remarks will be made on this subject

  1. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-01-01

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin

  2. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troussel, Ph., E-mail: philippe.troussel@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Dennetiere, D. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’orme des Merisiers, 91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Maroni, R. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S. [Xenocs SA, 19, rue François Blumet, F-38360 Sassenage (France); Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-11

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  3. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-12-01

    The "Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives" (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  4. Application of structural-mechanics methods to the design of large tandem-mirror fusion devices (MFTF-B). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, V.N.; Ng, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires state-of-the-art structural-mechanics methods to deal with access constraints for plasma heating and diagnostics, alignment requirements, and load complexity and variety. Large interactive structures required an integrated analytical approach to achieve a reasonable level of overall system optimization. The Tandem Magnet Generator (TMG) creates a magnet configuration for the EFFI calculation of electromagnetic-field forces that, coupled with other loads, form the input loading to magnet and vessel finite-element models. The analytical results provide the data base for detailed design of magnet, vessel, foundation, and interaction effects. 13 refs

  5. Dynamic characteristics of mirrors' kinematic mount

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wenkai; Du Qiang; Li Jingze; Chen Gang; Chen Xiaojuan; Xu Yuanli

    2002-01-01

    Applying exact constrain design principles, kinematic mount for precision positioning large aperture mirrors is designed; theoretical method is introduced to analyze its dynamic characteristics and the result of the experiment for mirrors, stability; accordingly, the methods to improve design are put forward

  6. Magnetic multilayer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Philipp; O'Sullivan, Eugene J.; Romankiw, Lubomyr T.; Wang, Naigang; Webb, Bucknell C.

    2016-07-05

    A mechanism is provided for an integrated laminated magnetic device. A substrate and a multilayer stack structure form the device. The multilayer stack structure includes alternating magnetic layers and diode structures formed on the substrate. Each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by a diode structure.

  7. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Jeon, Insu

    2014-09-01

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  8. Use of a mirror as the first optical component for an undulator beamline at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.; Khounsary, A.; Lai, B.; Gluskin, E.

    1992-09-01

    In the design of Sector II of the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI) CAT, an x-ray mirror with multiple coatings is chosen as the first optical component of the undulator beamline. Two significant advantages of using the mirror are: A significant reduction in the peak radiation heat flux and total power on the downstream monochromator, and (2) availability of the wide-bandpass undulator spectrum between 0--30 key to experimental stations with substantially reduced radiation shielding requirements. The second advantage also allows us to place the monochromator outside the first optics enclosure (FOE) at a large distance from the source to further reduce the peak heat flux on the monochromator. The combined effect is that the inclined crystal monochromator may not be necessary, and a multilayer monochromator can be used because the expected heat fluxes are less than the value that has been demonstrated for those monochromators

  9. Design and construction of a multi-layer CsI(Tl) telescope for high-energy reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, D.; Sun, Z.Y.; Yue, K.; Wang, S.T.; Zhang, X.H.; Yu, Y.H.; Chen, J.L.; Tang, S.W.; Fang, F.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Z.M.; Sun, Y.Z.

    2017-01-01

    A prototype of a new CsI(Tl) telescope, which will be used in the reaction studies of light isotopes with energy of several hundred AMeV, was constructed and tested at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The telescope has a multi-layer structure, and the range information was obtained to improve the particle identification performance. This prototype has seven layers of different thickness. An energy resolution of 5.0% (FWHM) was obtained for one of the layers in a beam test experiment. Positive improvement for the identification of 14 O and 15 O isotopes was achieved using the range information.

  10. Design and construction of a multi-layer CsI(Tl) telescope for high-energy reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, D.; Sun, Z.Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yue, K., E-mail: yueke@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, S.T.; Zhang, X.H.; Yu, Y.H.; Chen, J.L.; Tang, S.W.; Fang, F. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, Y.; Sun, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Z.M.; Sun, Y.Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-01-21

    A prototype of a new CsI(Tl) telescope, which will be used in the reaction studies of light isotopes with energy of several hundred AMeV, was constructed and tested at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The telescope has a multi-layer structure, and the range information was obtained to improve the particle identification performance. This prototype has seven layers of different thickness. An energy resolution of 5.0% (FWHM) was obtained for one of the layers in a beam test experiment. Positive improvement for the identification of {sup 14}O and {sup 15}O isotopes was achieved using the range information.

  11. Mirror reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Bender, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Design studies of a fusion mirror reactor, a fusion-fission mirror reactor, and two small mirror reactors are summarized. The fusion reactor uses 150-keV neutral-beam injectors based on the acceleration of negative ions. The injectors provide over 1 GW of continuous power at an efficiency greater than 80 percent. The fusion reactor has three-stage, modularized, Venetian blind, plasma direct converter with a predicted efficiency of 59 percent and a new concept for removal of the lune-shaped blanket: a crane is brought between the two halves of the Yin-Yang magnet, which are separated by a float. The design has desirable features such as steady-state operation, minimal impurity problems, and low first-wall thermal stress. The major disadvantage is low Q resulting in high recirculating power and hence high cost of electrical power. However, the direct capital cost per unit of gross electrical power is reasonable [$1000/kW(e)

  12. Magnets for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility: testing of the first Yin-Yang and the design and development of other magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozman, T.A.; Wang, S.T.; Chang, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Completed in May 1981, the first Yin-Yang magnet for the tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was successfully tested in February 1982 to its full design field (7.68 T) and current (5775 A). Since that time, the entire magnet array has been reconfigured - from the original A-cell to an axicell design. The MFTF-B magnet array now contains a total of 26 large superconducting coils: 2 sets of yin-yang pairs, 2 sets of transition magnets (each containing two coils), 2 sets of axicell magnets (each containing three coils), and 12 central-cell solenoids. This paper chronicles recent magnet history - from te testing of the initial yin-yang set, through the design of the axicell configuration, to the planned development of the system

  13. The design of a Li-ion full cell battery using a nano silicon and nano multi-layer graphene composite anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, KwangSup; Joshi, Tapesh; Bordes, Arnaud; Do, Inhwan; Fuller, Thomas F.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a Si-graphene composite, which is composed of nano Si particles and nano-sized multi-layer graphene particles, and micro-sized multi-layer graphene plate conductor, was used as the anode for Li-ion battery. The Si-graphene electrode showed the high capacity and stable cyclability at charge/discharge rate of C/2 in half cell tests. Nickel cobalt aluminum material (NCA) was used as a cathode in the full cell to evaluate the practicality of the new Si-graphene material. Although the Si-graphene anode has more capacity than the NCA cathode in this designed full cell, the Si-graphene anode had a greater effect on the full-cell performance due to its large initial irreversible capacity loss and continuous SEI formation during cycling. When fluoro-ethylene carbonate was added to the electrolyte, the cyclability of the full cell was much improved due to less SEI formation, which was confirmed by the decreases in the 1st irreversible capacity loss, overpotential for the 1st lithiation, and the resistance of the SEI.

  14. Design and Fabrication of a Large-Stroke Deformable Mirror Using a Gear-Shape Ionic-Conductive Polymer Metal Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Dung John Su

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional camera modules with image sensors manipulate the focus or zoom by moving lenses. Although motors, such as voice-coil motors, can move the lens sets precisely, large volume, high power consumption, and long moving time are critical issues for motor-type camera modules. A deformable mirror (DM provides a good opportunity to improve these issues. The DM is a reflective type optical component which can alter the optical power to focus the lights on the two dimensional optical image sensors. It can make the camera system operate rapidly. Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC is a promising electro-actuated polymer material that can be used in micromachining devices because of its large deformation with low actuation voltage. We developed a convenient simulation model based on Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. We divided an ion exchange polymer, also known as Nafion®, into two virtual layers in the simulation model: one was expansive and the other was contractive, caused by opposite constant surface forces on each surface of the elements. Therefore, the deformation for different IPMC shapes can be described more easily. A standard experiment of voltage vs. tip displacement was used to verify the proposed modeling. Finally, a gear shaped IPMC actuator was designed and tested. Optical power of the IPMC deformable mirror is experimentally demonstrated to be 17 diopters with two volts. The needed voltage was about two orders lower than conventional silicon deformable mirrors and about one order lower than the liquid lens.

  15. An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Mytnichenko, S V

    2001-01-01

    An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating, representing a thin grating placed on a multilayer mirror, is proposed. A high efficiency of grating diffraction can be obtained by the possibility of changing the phase shift of the wave diffracted from the multilayer under the Bragg and total external reflection conditions. A grazing incidence phase multilayer grating consisting of Pt grating stripes on a Ni/C multilayer and optimized for the hard X-ray range was fabricated. Its diffraction properties were studied at photon energies of 7 and 8 keV. The obtained maximum value of the diffraction efficiency of the +1 grating order was 9% at 7 keV and 6.5% at 8 keV. The data obtained are in a rather good accordance with the theory.

  16. Conceptual design for the thermal shield bridges and multilayer insulation in the interconnect region for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baritchi, D.; Nicol, T.; Boroski, W.

    1991-01-01

    The interconnect region serves as the connection area between magnets. In order to minimize radiant heat transfer in the interconnect area, the authors used shield bridges which span the 80K and 20K shield gap between adjacent magnets. A sliding joint between bridge sections on adjacent magnets accommodates contraction during cool-down. An investigation was done to determine which attachment schemes (riveted or bolted versus welded) are better for heat transfer. Each shield bridge is covered with the same multilayer insulation scheme used throughout the body of the magnet. These shield bridges also contain pressure reliefs for each shield in the event of an internal piping failure. The reliefs are located in the upper half of the shield section in order to prevent liquid spills from impinging directly onto the vacuum vessel wall

  17. Tailoring barrier properties of thermoplastic corn starch-based films (TPCS) by means of a multilayer design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra, María José; López-Rubio, Amparo; Cabedo, Luis; Lagaron, Jose M

    2016-12-01

    This work compares the effect of adding different biopolyester electrospun coatings made of polycaprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on oxygen and water vapour barrier properties of a thermoplastic corn starch (TPCS) film. The morphology of the developed multilayer structures was also examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results showed a positive linear relationship between the amount of the electrospun coatings deposited onto both sides of the TPCS film and the thickness of the coating. Interestingly, the addition of electrospun biopolyester coatings led to an exponential oxygen and water vapour permeability drop as the amount of the electrospun coating increased. This study demonstrated the versatility of the technology here proposed to tailor the barrier properties of food packaging materials according to the final intended use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of mirror and monochromator crystals for a high-resolution multiwavelength anomalous diffraction beam line on a bending magnet at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.; Ferrer, J.; Simon, J.; Geissler, E.

    1992-01-01

    High intensity for diffraction experiments with high-energy resolution on an intense x-ray beam, like the bending magnet beam lines at the ESRF, requires a strict control of the curvature of the optical elements placed in the beam for geometrical focusing and for wavelength monochromatization. Unwanted curvatures can come from nonuniform and variable heating of the optical elements produced by the absorption of x rays. To design the CRG/D2AM beam line described in the accompanying paper, some new techniques were developed to control these effects based on geometrical, i.e., topological, considerations. (1) Cooling of the entrance mirror: longitudinal curvature can be strongly reduced by cooling the mirror from the sides (and not from the rear) and only near the reflecting surface (i.e., not over the whole lateral surface). The cooling can be achieved for instance with an isothermal liquid Ga eutectic bath. (2) Cooling of the first single-crystal Si monochromator: because of the size of the crystal, only cooling from the rear is conceivable in this case. It can be shown by calculation that the curvature due to the front-to-rear gradient can be exactly compensated by the thermal expansion of a metallic layer at the rear of the crystal, having a larger expansion coefficient than Si

  19. Multilayer Nanoporous Graphene Membranes for Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-10

    While single-layer nanoporous graphene (NPG) has shown promise as a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination membrane, multilayer graphene membranes can be synthesized more economically than the single-layer material. In this work, we build upon the knowledge gained to date toward single-layer graphene to explore how multilayer NPG might serve as a RO membrane in water desalination using classical molecular dynamic simulations. We show that, while multilayer NPG exhibits similarly promising desalination properties to single-layer membranes, their separation performance can be designed by manipulating various configurational variables in the multilayer case. This work establishes an atomic-level understanding of the effects of additional NPG layers, layer separation, and pore alignment on desalination performance, providing useful guidelines for the design of multilayer NPG membranes.

  20. Evolution of the mirror machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the magnetic-mirror approach to a fusion reactor is primarily the history of our understanding and control of several crucial physics issues, coupled with progress in the technology of heating and confining a reacting plasma. The basic requirement of an MHD-stable plasma equilibrium was achieved following the early introduction of minimum-B multipolar magnetic fields. In refined form, the same magnetic-well principle carries over to our present experiments and to reactor designs. The higher frequency microinstabilities, arising from the non-Maxwellian particle distributions inherent in mirror machines, have gradually come under control as theoretical prescriptions for distribution functions have been applied in the experiments. Even with stability, the classical plasma leakage through the mirrors posed a serious question for reactor viability until the principle of electrostatic axial stoppering was applied in the tandem mirror configuration. Experiments to test this principle successfully demonstrated the substantial improvement in confinement predicted. Concurrent with advances in mirror plasma physics, development of both high-power neutral beam injectors and high-speed vacuum pumping techniques has played a crucial role in ongoing experiments. Together with superconducting magnets, cryogenic pumping, and high-power radiofrequency heating, these technologies have evolved to a level that extrapolates readily to meet the requirements of a tandem mirror fusion reactor

  1. Mirror research: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The tandem mirror program has evolved considerably in the last decade. Of significance is the viable reactor concept embodied in the MARS design. An aggressive experimental program culminating in the operation of MFTF-B in late 1986, will provide a firm basis for refining the MARS design as necessary for constructing a reactor prototype in the 1990s

  2. Centimeter-scale MEMS scanning mirrors for high power laser application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, F.; Hofmann, U.; v. Wantoch, T.; Mallas, C.; Janes, J.; Benecke, W.; Herwig, Patrick; Gawlitza, P.; Ortega-Delgado, M.; Grune, C.; Hannweber, J.; Wetzig, A.

    2015-02-01

    A higher achievable scan speed and the capability to integrate two scan axes in a very compact device are fundamental advantages of MEMS scanning mirrors over conventional galvanometric scanners. There is a growing demand for biaxial high speed scanning systems complementing the rapid progress of high power lasers for enabling the development of new high throughput manufacturing processes. This paper presents concept, design, fabrication and test of biaxial large aperture MEMS scanning mirrors (LAMM) with aperture sizes up to 20 mm for use in high-power laser applications. To keep static and dynamic deformation of the mirror acceptably low all MEMS mirrors exhibit full substrate thickness of 725 μm. The LAMM-scanners are being vacuum packaged on wafer-level based on a stack of 4 wafers. Scanners with aperture sizes up to 12 mm are designed as a 4-DOF-oscillator with amplitude magnification applying electrostatic actuation for driving a motor-frame. As an example a 7-mm-scanner is presented that achieves an optical scan angle of 32 degrees at 3.2 kHz. LAMM-scanners with apertures sizes of 20 mm are designed as passive high-Q-resonators to be externally excited by low-cost electromagnetic or piezoelectric drives. Multi-layer dielectric coatings with a reflectivity higher than 99.9 % have enabled to apply cw-laser power loads of more than 600 W without damaging the MEMS mirror. Finally, a new excitation concept for resonant scanners is presented providing advantageous shaping of intensity profiles of projected laser patterns without modulating the laser. This is of interest in lighting applications such as automotive laser headlights.

  3. Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, R.; Mora, M.B. de la; Tagueena-Martinez, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Rio, J.A. del [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Transferencia Tecnologica, Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnologia del Estado de Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    Two of the most important properties of a porous silicon multilayer for photonic applications are flat interfaces and a relative large refractive index contrast between layers in the optical wavelength range. In this work, we studied the effect of the current density and HF electrolyte concentration on the refractive index of porous silicon. With the purpose of increasing the refractive index contrast in a multilayer, the refractive index of porous silicon produced at low current was studied in detail. The current density applied to produce the low porosity layers was limited in order to keep the electrolyte flow through the multilayer structure and to avoid deformation of layer interfaces. We found that an electrolyte composed of hydrofluoric acid, ethanol and glycerin in a ratio of 3:7:1 gives a refractive index contrast around 1.3/2.8 at 600 nm. Several multilayer structures with this refractive index contrast were fabricated, such as dielectric Bragg mirrors and microcavities. Reflectance spectra of the structures show the photonic quality of porous silicon multilayers produced under these electrochemical conditions. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in a two year study of a 1200 MWe commercial tandem mirror reactor (MARS - Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) has reached the point where major reactor system technologies are identified. New design features of the magnets, blankets, plug heating systems and direct converter are described. With the innovation of radial drift pumping to maintain low plug density, reactor recirculating power fraction is reduced to 20%. Dominance of radial ion and impurity losses into the halo permits gridless, circular direct converters to be dramatically reduced in size. Comparisons of MARS with the Starfire tokamak design are made

  5. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  6. [Motion control of moving mirror based on fixed-mirror adjustment in FTIR spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-bing; Xu, Xian-ze; Le, Yi; Xu, Feng-qiu; Li, Jun-wei

    2012-08-01

    The performance of the uniform motion of the moving mirror, which is the only constant motion part in FTIR spectrometer, and the performance of the alignment of the fixed mirror play a key role in FTIR spectrometer, and affect the interference effect and the quality of the spectrogram and may restrict the precision and resolution of the instrument directly. The present article focuses on the research on the uniform motion of the moving mirror and the alignment of the fixed mirror. In order to improve the FTIR spectrometer, the maglev support system was designed for the moving mirror and the phase detection technology was adopted to adjust the tilt angle between the moving mirror and the fixed mirror. This paper also introduces an improved fuzzy PID control algorithm to get the accurate speed of the moving mirror and realize the control strategy from both hardware design and algorithm. The results show that the development of the moving mirror motion control system gets sufficient accuracy and real-time, which can ensure the uniform motion of the moving mirror and the alignment of the fixed mirror.

  7. Thermo-mechanical analysis of ITER first mirrors and its use for the ITER equatorial visible/infrared wide angle viewing system optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanny, M.; Salasca, S.; Dapena, M.; Cantone, B.; Travère, J. M.; Thellier, C.; Fermé, J. J.; Marot, L.; Buravand, O.; Perrollaz, G.; Zeile, C.

    2012-01-01

    ITER first mirrors (FMs), as the first components of most ITER optical diagnostics, will be exposed to high plasma radiation flux and neutron load. To reduce the FMs heating and optical surface deformation induced during ITER operation, the use of relevant materials and cooling system are foreseen. The calculations led on different materials and FMs designs and geometries (100 mm and 200 mm) show that the use of CuCrZr and TZM, and a complex integrated cooling system can limit efficiently the FMs heating and reduce their optical surface deformation under plasma radiation flux and neutron load. These investigations were used to evaluate, for the ITER equatorial port visible/infrared wide angle viewing system, the impact of the FMs properties change during operation on the instrument main optical performances. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  8. Infrared diffractive filtering for extreme ultraviolet multilayer Bragg reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; van den Boogaard, Toine; van der Meer, R.; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Krivtsun, V.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We report on the development of a hybrid mirror realized by integrating an EUV-reflecting multilayer coating with a lamellar grating substrate. This hybrid irror acts as an efficient Bragg reflector for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation at a given wavelength while simultaneously

  9. Wrapped Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    New NASA vehicles, such as Earth Departure Stage (EDS), Orion, landers, and orbiting fuel depots, need improved cryogenic propellant transfer and storage for long-duration missions. Current cryogen feed line multilayer insulation (MLI) performance is 10 times worse per area than tank MLI insulation. During each launch, cryogenic piping loses approximately 150,000 gallons (equivalent to $300,000) in boil-off during transfer, chill down, and ground hold. Quest Product Development Corp., teaming with Ball Aerospace, developed an innovative advanced insulation system, Wrapped MLI (wMLI), to provide improved thermal insulation for cryogenic feed lines. wMLI is high-performance multilayer insulation designed for cryogenic piping. It uses Quest's innovative discrete-spacer technology to control layer spacing/ density and reduce heat leak. The Phase I project successfully designed, built, and tested a wMLI prototype with a measured heat leak 3.6X lower than spiral-wrapped conventional MLI widely used for piping insulation. A wMLI prototype had a heat leak of 7.3 W/m2, or 27 percent of the heat leak of conventional MLI (26.7 W/m2). The Phase II project is further developing wMLI technology with custom, molded polymer spacers and advancing the product toward commercialization via a rigorous testing program, including developing advanced vacuuminsulated pipe for ground support equipment.

  10. Optimizations of Pt/SiC and W/Si multilayers for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K. K.; Harrison, F. A.; Mao, P. H.

    2009-01-01

    function to control the shape of the desired effective area. The NuSTAR multilayers are depth graded with a power-law, di = a/(b + i)c, and we optimize over the total number of bi-layers, N, c, and the maximum bi-layer thickness, dmax. The result is a 10 mirror group design optimized for a flat even energy......The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, NuSTAR, is a NASA funded Small Explorer Mission, SMEX, scheduled for launch in mid 2011. The spacecraft will fly two co-aligned conical approximation Wolter-I optics with a focal length of 10 meters. The mirrors will be deposited with Pt/SiC and W....../Si multilayers to provide a broad band reflectivity from 6 keV up to 78.4 keV. To optimize the mirror coating we use a Figure of Merit procedure developed for gazing incidence optics, which averages the effective area over the energy range, and combines an energy weighting function with an angular weighting...

  11. Tritium system design for the mirror reactors FPD-I, FPD-II, and FPD-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The tritium system design for the Fusion Power Demonstration Reactor (FPD-I, II, and III) is described. The device operates at 25% availability. For FPD-II, an engineering mode using tritium neutral beams is part of the design

  12. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon

  13. Soft X-ray imaging of thick carbon-based materials using the normal incidence multilayer optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukov, I A; Feschenko, R M; Vinogradov, A V; Bugayev, Ye A; Devizenko, O Y; Kondratenko, V V; Kasyanov, Yu S; Hatano, T; Yamamoto, M; Saveliev, S V

    2010-10-01

    The high transparency of carbon-containing materials in the spectral region of "carbon window" (lambda approximately 4.5-5nm) introduces new opportunities for various soft X-ray microscopy applications. The development of efficient multilayer coated X-ray optics operating at the wavelengths of about 4.5nm has stimulated a series of our imaging experiments to study thick biological and synthetic objects. Our experimental set-up consisted of a laser plasma X-ray source generated with the 2nd harmonics of Nd-glass laser, scandium-based thin-film filters, Co/C multilayer mirror and X-ray film UF-4. All soft X-ray images were produced with a single nanosecond exposure and demonstrated appropriate absorption contrast and detector-limited spatial resolution. A special attention was paid to the 3D imaging of thick low-density foam materials to be used in design of laser fusion targets.

  14. Mirror Neurons and Mirror-Touch Synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkovski, Omer; Katzin, Naama; Salti, Moti

    2016-05-30

    Since mirror neurons were introduced to the neuroscientific community more than 20 years ago, they have become an elegant and intuitive account for different cognitive mechanisms (e.g., empathy, goal understanding) and conditions (e.g., autism spectrum disorders). Recently, mirror neurons were suggested to be the mechanism underlying a specific type of synesthesia. Mirror-touch synesthesia is a phenomenon in which individuals experience somatosensory sensations when seeing someone else being touched. Appealing as it is, careful delineation is required when applying this mechanism. Using the mirror-touch synesthesia case, we put forward theoretical and methodological issues that should be addressed before relying on the mirror-neurons account. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Topological mirror superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Kane, C L; Mele, E J

    2013-08-02

    We demonstrate the existence of topological superconductors (SCs) protected by mirror and time-reversal symmetries. D-dimensional (D=1, 2, 3) crystalline SCs are characterized by 2(D-1) independent integer topological invariants, which take the form of mirror Berry phases. These invariants determine the distribution of Majorana modes on a mirror symmetric boundary. The parity of total mirror Berry phase is the Z(2) index of a class DIII SC, implying that a DIII topological SC with a mirror line must also be a topological mirror SC but not vice versa and that a DIII SC with a mirror plane is always time-reversal trivial but can be mirror topological. We introduce representative models and suggest experimental signatures in feasible systems. Advances in quantum computing, the case for nodal SCs, the case for class D, and topological SCs protected by rotational symmetries are pointed out.

  16. InPhoCUS (Inflated Photovoltaic Ultra-light Mirror Concentrators): First Results Of The Project And Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Mauro; Barbato, Maurizio; Cooper, Thomas; Pedretti, Andrea; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2011-12-01

    InPhoCUS (Inflated PhotovoltaiC Ultra-light mirror concentratorS) is a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) project funded by the Swiss Confederation's Innovation Promotion Agency (CTI) and developed by Airlight Energy Holding SA, the University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. The proposed novel concentrating system has already been patented for concentrated solar power applications: it is made by unconventional pneumatic multilayer polymeric mirrors, has an innovative fibre-reinforced concrete structure and an original tilting mechanism to track the sun. The innovative CPV solar collector is profitable for electric power plants both for the sun-belt region and in the Mediterranean. In this paper the authors present the novel CPV system and preliminary results on cost analysis, optical design and thermal modelling.

  17. Design scoping study of the 12T Yin-Yang magnet system for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The overall objective of this engineering study was to determine the feasibility of designing a Yin-Yang magnet capable of producing a peak field in the windings of 12T for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS) program. As part of this technical study, a rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost estimate of the winding for this magnet was undertaken. The preferred approach to the winding design of the TMNS plug coil utilizes innovative design concepts to meet the structural, electrical and thermodynamic requirements of the magnet system. Structurally, the coil is radially partitioned into four sections, preventing the accumulation of the radial loads and reacting them into the structural case. To safely dissipate the 13.34 GJ of energy stored in each Yin-Yang magnet, the winding has been electrically subdivided into parallel or nested coils, each having its own power supply and protection circuitry. This arrangement effectively divides the total stored energy of the coils into manageable subsystems. The windings are cooled with superfluid helium II, operated at 1.8K and 1.2 atmospheres. The superior cooling capabilities of helium II have enabled the overall winding envelope to be minimized, providing a current density of 2367 A/CM 2 , excluding substructure

  18. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.H.; Hodges, A.J.; Van Sant, J.H.; Hinkle, R.E.; Horvath, J.A.; Hintz, R.E.; Dalder, E.; Baldi, R.; Tatro, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is the largest of the mirror program experiments for magnetic fusion energy. It seeks to combine and extend the near-classical plasma confinement achieved in 2XIIB with the most advanced neutral-beam and magnet technologies. The product of ion density and confinement time will be improved more than an order of magnitude, while the superconducting magnet weight will be extrapolated from the 15 tons in Baseball II to 375 tons in MFTF. Recent reactor studies show that the MFTF will traverse much of the distance in magnet technology towards the reactor regime. Design specifics of the magnet are given

  19. Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, V F

    1997-01-01

    Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Dar...

  20. Analytic solution for a quartic electron mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straton, Jack C., E-mail: straton@pdx.edu

    2015-01-15

    A converging electron mirror can be used to compensate for spherical and chromatic aberrations in an electron microscope. This paper presents an analytical solution to a diode (two-electrode) electrostatic mirror including the next term beyond the known hyperbolic shape. The latter is a solution of the Laplace equation to second order in the variables perpendicular to and along the mirror's radius (z{sup 2}−r{sup 2}/2) to which we add a quartic term (kλz{sup 4}). The analytical solution is found in terms of Jacobi cosine-amplitude functions. We find that a mirror less concave than the hyperbolic profile is more sensitive to changes in mirror voltages and the contrary holds for the mirror more concave than the hyperbolic profile. - Highlights: • We find the analytical solution for electron mirrors whose curvature has z4 dependence added to the usual z{sup 2} – r{sup 2}/2 terms. • The resulting Jacobi cosine-amplitude function reduces to the well-known cosh solution in the limit where the new term is 0. • This quartic term gives a mirror designer additional flexibility for eliminating spherical and chromatic aberrations. • The possibility of using these analytical results to approximately model spherical tetrode mirrors close to axis is noted.

  1. Monte Carlo design and simulation of a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator for radiotherapy: feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae-Suk [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In order to confirm the possibility of field application of a different type collimator with a multileaf collimator (MLC), we constructed a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator (GTPC) by using a Monte Carlo n-particle simulation (MCNPX). In this research, a number of factors related to the performance of the GPTC were evaluated using simulated output data of a basic MLC model. A layer was comprised of a 1024-pixel collimator (5.0 x 5.0 mm{sup 2}) which could operate individually as a grid-type collimator (32 x 32). A 30-layer collimator was constructed for a specific portal form to pass radiation through the opening and closing of each pixel cover. The radiation attenuation level and the leakage were compared between the GTPC modality simulation and MLC modeling (tungsten, 17.50 g/cm{sup 3}, 5.0 x 70.0 x 160.0 mm{sup 3}) currently used for a radiation field. Comparisons of the portal imaging, the lateral dose profile from a virtual water phantom, the dependence of the performance on the increase in the number of layers, the radiation intensity modulation verification, and the geometric error between the GTPC and the MLC were done using the MCNPX simulation data. From the simulation data, the intensity modulation of the GTPC showed a faster response than the MLC's (29.6%). In addition, the agreement between the doses that should be delivered to the target region was measured as 97.0%, and the GTPC system had an error below 0.01%, which is identical to that of MLC. A Monte Carlo simulation of the GTPC could be useful for verification of application possibilities. Because the line artifact is caused by the grid frame and the folded cover, a lineal dose transfer type is chosen for the operation of this system. However, the result of GTPC's performance showed that the methods of effective intensity modulation and the specific geometric beam shaping differed with the MLC modality.

  2. Monte Carlo design and simulation of a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator for radiotherapy: Feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk

    2014-05-01

    In order to confirm the possibility of field application of a different type collimator with a multileaf collimator (MLC), we constructed a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator (GTPC) by using a Monte Carlo n-particle simulation (MCNPX). In this research, a number of factors related to the performance of the GPTC were evaluated using simulated output data of a basic MLC model. A layer was comprised of a 1024-pixel collimator (5.0 × 5.0 mm2) which could operate individually as a grid-type collimator (32 × 32). A 30-layer collimator was constructed for a specific portal form to pass radiation through the opening and closing of each pixel cover. The radiation attenuation level and the leakage were compared between the GTPC modality simulation and MLC modeling (tungsten, 17.50 g/cm3, 5.0 × 70.0 × 160.0 mm3) currently used for a radiation field. Comparisons of the portal imaging, the lateral dose profile from a virtual water phantom, the dependence of the performance on the increase in the number of layers, the radiation intensity modulation verification, and the geometric error between the GTPC and the MLC were done using the MCNPX simulation data. From the simulation data, the intensity modulation of the GTPC showed a faster response than the MLC's (29.6%). In addition, the agreement between the doses that should be delivered to the target region was measured as 97.0%, and the GTPC system had an error below 0.01%, which is identical to that of MLC. A Monte Carlo simulation of the GTPC could be useful for verification of application possibilities. Because the line artifact is caused by the grid frame and the folded cover, a lineal dose transfer type is chosen for the operation of this system. However, the result of GTPC's performance showed that the methods of effective intensity modulation and the specific geometric beam shaping differed with the MLC modality.

  3. Monte Carlo design and simulation of a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator for radiotherapy: feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Do-Kun; Jung, Joo-Young; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility of field application of a different type collimator with a multileaf collimator (MLC), we constructed a grid-type multi-layer pixel collimator (GTPC) by using a Monte Carlo n-particle simulation (MCNPX). In this research, a number of factors related to the performance of the GPTC were evaluated using simulated output data of a basic MLC model. A layer was comprised of a 1024-pixel collimator (5.0 x 5.0 mm 2 ) which could operate individually as a grid-type collimator (32 x 32). A 30-layer collimator was constructed for a specific portal form to pass radiation through the opening and closing of each pixel cover. The radiation attenuation level and the leakage were compared between the GTPC modality simulation and MLC modeling (tungsten, 17.50 g/cm 3 , 5.0 x 70.0 x 160.0 mm 3 ) currently used for a radiation field. Comparisons of the portal imaging, the lateral dose profile from a virtual water phantom, the dependence of the performance on the increase in the number of layers, the radiation intensity modulation verification, and the geometric error between the GTPC and the MLC were done using the MCNPX simulation data. From the simulation data, the intensity modulation of the GTPC showed a faster response than the MLC's (29.6%). In addition, the agreement between the doses that should be delivered to the target region was measured as 97.0%, and the GTPC system had an error below 0.01%, which is identical to that of MLC. A Monte Carlo simulation of the GTPC could be useful for verification of application possibilities. Because the line artifact is caused by the grid frame and the folded cover, a lineal dose transfer type is chosen for the operation of this system. However, the result of GTPC's performance showed that the methods of effective intensity modulation and the specific geometric beam shaping differed with the MLC modality.

  4. Technology of mirror machines: LLL facilities for magnetic mirror fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.

    1977-01-01

    Significant progress in plasma confinement and temperature has been achieved in the 2XIIB facility at Livermore. These encouraging results, and their theoretical corroboration, have provided a firm basis for the design of a new generation of magnetic mirror experiments, adding support to the mirror concept of a fusion reactor. Two new mirror experiments have been proposed to succeed the currently operating 2XIIB facility. The first of these called TMX (Tandem Mirror Experiment) has been approved and is currently under construction. TMX is designed to utilize the intrinsic positive plasma potential of two strong, and relatively small, minimum B mirror cells to enhance the confinement of a much larger, magnetically weaker, centrally-located mirror cell. The second facility, MFTF (Mirror Fusion Test Facility), is currently in preliminary design with line item approval anticipated for FY 78. MFTF is designed primarily to exploit the experimental and theoretical results derived from 2XIIB. Beyond that, MFTF will develop the technology for the transition from the present small mirror experiments to large steady-state devices such as the mirror FERF/FTR. The sheer magnitude of the plasma volume, magnetic field, neutral beam power, and vacuum pumping capacity, particularly in the case of MFTF, has placed new and exciting demands on engineering technology. An engineering overview of MFTF, TMX, and associated MFE activities at Livermore will be presented

  5. The mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2009-05-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of neurons, originally discovered in the premotor cortex of monkeys, that discharge both when individuals perform a given motor act and when they observe others perform that same motor act. Ample evidence demonstrates the existence of a cortical network with the properties of mirror neurons (mirror system) in humans. The human mirror system is involved in understanding others' actions and their intentions behind them, and it underlies mechanisms of observational learning. Herein, we will discuss the clinical implications of the mirror system.

  6. Superconductivity in multilayer perovskite. Weak coupling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koikegami, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the superconductivity of a three-dimensional d-p model with a multilayer perovskite structure on the basis of the second-order perturbation theory within the weak coupling framework. Our model has been designed with multilayer high-T c superconducting cuprates in mind. In our model, multiple Fermi surfaces appear, and the component of a superconducting gap function develops on each band. We have found that the multilayer structure can stabilize the superconductivity in a wide doping range. (author)

  7. Long-Lived Glass Mirrors For Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.; Heggen, Philip M.

    1988-01-01

    Paper summarizes available knowledge about glass mirrors for use in outer space. Strengths and weaknesses of various types of first and second reflective surfaces identified. Second-surface glass mirrors used in outer space designed to different criteria more stringent for terrestrial mirrors. Protons, electrons, cosmic rays, meteorites, and orbiting space debris affect longevities of components. Contamination also factor in space.

  8. High-energy x-ray microscopy with multilayer reflectors (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the x rays emitted by the hot plasma region is a key element in the study of the physical processes occurring in laser-produced plasmas and complements other diagnostics such as spectroscopy and temporal studies. X-ray microscopy with reflection microscopes offers the most direct means of obtaining this information. Until recently, the two types of microscopes that had been developed for this purpose, the Kirkpatrick--Baez and the Wolter, operated at relatively low energies (about 4--5 keV) and had very little spectral selectivity, relying on filters for coarse spectral resolution. With the development of x-ray reflecting multilayer mirrors, the energy response of such microscopes can be extended to 10 keV or higher, with good spectral selectivity. In addition, it is possible to reduce some of the optical aberrations to obtain improved spatial resolution. This paper describes some of the recent progress in making and evaluating x-ray reflectors, and outlines the optical design considerations for multilayer-coated microscopes. Results from a prototype multilayer K--B microscope are presented

  9. Dialogue Design for a Robot-Based Face-Mirroring Game to Engage Autistic Children with Emotional Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalier, Pauline; Li, Jamy Jue; Ainger, Eloise; Alcorn, Alyssa M.; Babovic, Snezana; Charisi, Vicky; Petrovic, Suncica; Schadenberg, Bob Rinse; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Evers, Vanessa; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Yoshida, Eiichi; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Suzuki, Kenji; Cabibihan, John-John; Eyssel, Friederike; He, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    We present design strategies for Human Robot Interaction for school-aged autistic children with limited receptive language. Applying these strategies to the DE-ENIGMA project (large EU project addressing emotion recognition in autistic children) supported development of a new activity for in facial

  10. MINIMARS tandem mirror reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.; Logan, B.G.; Doggett, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    During 1985-1986, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., in partnership with the Fusion Engineering Design Center of Oak Ridge National Lab., the Univ. of Wisconsin, TRW, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, General Dynamics/Convair, Argonne National Lab., and the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, has conducted the conceptual design of MINIMARS, a small commercial tandem mirror reactor with novel octopole end plugs. With a net electric output of 600 MW(e), MINIMARS is expressly designed for short (∼4- to 5-yr) construction time, factory-built modules, and a passively safe blanket and thermal cycle. In this way, we intend to achieve a small reactor based on the tandem mirror principle that will minimize utility financial risk, thereby providing an attractive alternative to the more conventional large fusion plant designs encountered to date

  11. Coating considerations for mirrors of CPV devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmauder, Torsten; Sauer, Peter; Ickes, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    One of the different optical concepts for concentrator devices is to place a focussing primary mirror behind a transparent front plate. In addition (also in case of Fresnel-diffractive main optics), further 'secondary' reflectors may be used further along the beam path. Such mirrors are usually implemented as coating stacks of a highly reflective metal - usually silver - and protective layers. The protective layers are preferably designed as reflection enhancing interference stack. The design of such protective layer stacks yields two difficulties, which are addressed in this paper: (a) vacuum coating of three-dimensional parts will result in a thickness distribution and the optical design of the stack should thus be tolerant to layer thickness variations, and (b) different places of the mirror will have different angle-of-incidence of the sunlight under operating conditions. As result, the layer stack has a different design at different places of the mirror

  12. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jasveer, E-mail: kaurjasveer89@gmail.com; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India); Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder, E-mail: raminder-k-saini@yahoo.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  13. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  14. Multilayer roughness and image formation in the Schwarzschild objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the effect of multilayer-surface-roughness-induced scattering in the image formation of the Schwarzschild objective (SO) used in the spectromicroscope MAXIMUM. The two mirrors comprising the SO are coated with Ru/B 4 C multilayers that have a peak reflectivity at 130 eV. We had long observed that a diffuse x-ray background surrounds the focused x-ray spot. The spatial resolution remains at 0.1 μm in spite of this. However, since a significant fraction of the flux is lost to the background, since too large an area of the sample is illuminated, and since the S/N ratio is degraded, the origins of this effect merit investigation. This diffuse background resulting from x-ray scattering at the surface of the mirrors was mapped out using bidirectional knife edge scans. Complementary surface roughness simulations were carried out with the ray-tracing program SHADOW. AFM experiments were also done to directly measure the surface roughness and power spectrum of representative multilayers. Following curve fitting, it was possible to classify Gaussian components in both the measured and simulated profiles as arising from scattering occurring at either the convex primary mirror or the concave secondary mirror. Together with geometrical analysis, these techniques permitted us to track the image formation process of an actual optical system in the presence of surface roughness. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  16. Modeling and optimization of operating parameters for a test-cell option of the Fusion Power Demonstration-II tandem mirror design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, S.W.; Fenstermacher, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Models of tandem mirror devices operated with a test-cell insert have been used to calculate operating parameters for FPD-II+T, an upgrade of the Fusion Power Demonstration-II device. Two test-cell configurations were considered, one accommodating two 1.5 m blanket test modules and the other having four. To minimize the cost of the upgrade, FPD-II+T utilizes the same coil arrangement and machine dimensions outside of the test cell as FPD-II, and the requirements on the end cell systems have been held near or below those for FPD-II. The maximum achievable test cell wall loading found for the short test-cell was 3.5 MW/m 2 while 6.0 MW/m 2 was obtainable in the long test-cell configuration. The most severe limitation on the achievable wall loading is the upper limit on test-cell beta set by MHD stability calculations. Modification of the shape of the magnetic field in the test-cell by improving the magnet design could raise this beta limit and lead to improved test-cell performance

  17. Mirrors in the PDB: left-handed alpha-turns guide design with D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annavarapu, Srinivas; Nanda, Vikas

    2009-09-22

    Incorporating variable amino acid stereochemistry in molecular design has the potential to improve existing protein stability and create new topologies inaccessible to homochiral molecules. The Protein Data Bank has been a reliable, rich source of information on molecular interactions and their role in protein stability and structure. D-amino acids rarely occur naturally, making it difficult to infer general rules for how they would be tolerated in proteins through an analysis of existing protein structures. However, protein elements containing short left-handed turns and helices turn out to contain useful information. Molecular mechanisms used in proteins to stabilize left-handed elements by L-amino acids are structurally enantiomeric to potential synthetic strategies for stabilizing right-handed elements with D-amino acids. Propensities for amino acids to occur in contiguous alpha(L) helices correlate with published thermodynamic scales for incorporation of D-amino acids into alpha(R) helices. Two backbone rules for terminating a left-handed helix are found: an alpha(R) conformation is disfavored at the amino terminus, and a beta(R) conformation is disfavored at the carboxy terminus. Helix capping sidechain-backbone interactions are found which are unique to alpha(L) helices including an elevated propensity for L-Asn, and L-Thr at the amino terminus and L-Gln, L-Thr and L-Ser at the carboxy terminus. By examining left-handed alpha-turns containing L-amino acids, new interaction motifs for incorporating D-amino acids into right-handed alpha-helices are identified. These will provide a basis for de novo design of novel heterochiral protein folds.

  18. Mirrors in the PDB: left-handed α-turns guide design with D-amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Vikas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorporating variable amino acid stereochemistry in molecular design has the potential to improve existing protein stability and create new topologies inaccessible to homochiral molecules. The Protein Data Bank has been a reliable, rich source of information on molecular interactions and their role in protein stability and structure. D-amino acids rarely occur naturally, making it difficult to infer general rules for how they would be tolerated in proteins through an analysis of existing protein structures. However, protein elements containing short left-handed turns and helices turn out to contain useful information. Molecular mechanisms used in proteins to stabilize left-handed elements by L-amino acids are structurally enantiomeric to potential synthetic strategies for stabilizing right-handed elements with D-amino acids. Results Propensities for amino acids to occur in contiguous αL helices correlate with published thermodynamic scales for incorporation of D-amino acids into αR helices. Two backbone rules for terminating a left-handed helix are found: an αR conformation is disfavored at the amino terminus, and a βR conformation is disfavored at the carboxy terminus. Helix capping sidechain-backbone interactions are found which are unique to αL helices including an elevated propensity for L-Asn, and L-Thr at the amino terminus and L-Gln, L-Thr and L-Ser at the carboxy terminus. Conclusion By examining left-handed α-turns containing L-amino acids, new interaction motifs for incorporating D-amino acids into right-handed α-helices are identified. These will provide a basis for de novo design of novel heterochiral protein folds.

  19. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  20. Soft X-ray multilayers and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Zhan Shan; Tang Wei Xing; Qin Shuji; Zhou Bing; Chen Ling Ya

    2002-01-01

    The periodic and non-periodic multilayers were designed by using a random number to change each layer and a suitable merit function. Ion beam sputtering and magnetron sputtering were used to fabricate various multilayers and beam splitters in soft X-ray range. The characterization of multilayers by small angle X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and reflectivity illustrated the multilayers had good structures and smooth interlayers. The reflectivity and transmission of a beam splitter is about 5%. The fabrication and transmission properties of Ag, Zr were studied. The Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy were used to investigate the contents and distributions of impurities and influence on qualities of filters. The attenuation coefficients were corrected by the data obtained by measurements

  1. Mirror neurons: from origin to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-04-01

    This article argues that mirror neurons originate in sensorimotor associative learning and therefore a new approach is needed to investigate their functions. Mirror neurons were discovered about 20 years ago in the monkey brain, and there is now evidence that they are also present in the human brain. The intriguing feature of many mirror neurons is that they fire not only when the animal is performing an action, such as grasping an object using a power grip, but also when the animal passively observes a similar action performed by another agent. It is widely believed that mirror neurons are a genetic adaptation for action understanding; that they were designed by evolution to fulfill a specific socio-cognitive function. In contrast, we argue that mirror neurons are forged by domain-general processes of associative learning in the course of individual development, and, although they may have psychological functions, they do not necessarily have a specific evolutionary purpose or adaptive function. The evidence supporting this view shows that (1) mirror neurons do not consistently encode action "goals"; (2) the contingency- and context-sensitive nature of associative learning explains the full range of mirror neuron properties; (3) human infants receive enough sensorimotor experience to support associative learning of mirror neurons ("wealth of the stimulus"); and (4) mirror neurons can be changed in radical ways by sensorimotor training. The associative account implies that reliable information about the function of mirror neurons can be obtained only by research based on developmental history, system-level theory, and careful experimentation.

  2. Secondary mirror system for the European Solar Telescope (EST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaller, L.; Siegel, B.; Prieto, G.; Hernandez, E.; Casalta, J. M.; Mercader, J.; Barriga, J.

    2010-07-01

    The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a European collaborative project to build a 4m class solar telescope in the Canary Islands, which is now in its design study phase. The telescope will provide diffraction limited performance for several instruments observing simultaneously at the Coudé focus at different wavelengths. A multi-conjugated adaptive optics system composed of a tip-tilt mirror and several deformable mirrors will be integrated in the telescope optical path. The secondary mirror system is composed of the mirror itself (Ø800mm), the alignment drives and the cooling system needed to remove the solar heat load from the mirror. During the design study the feasibility to provide fast tip-tilt capabilities at the secondary mirror to work as the adaptive optics tip-tilt mirror is also being evaluated.

  3. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  4. Light-weight spherical mirrors for Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Crateri, R; Cusanno, F; De Leo, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Giuliani, F; Gricia, M; Iodice, M; Iommi, R; Lagamba, L; Lucentini, M; Mostarda, A; Nappi, E; Pierangeli, L; Santavenere, F; Urciuoli, G M; Vernin, P

    2003-01-01

    Light-weight spherical mirrors have been appositely designed and built for the gas threshold Cherenkov detectors of the two Hall A spectrometers. The mirrors are made of a 1 mm thick aluminized plexiglass sheet, reinforced by a rigid backing consisting of a phenolic honeycomb sandwiched between two carbon fiber mats epoxy glued. The produced mirrors have a thickness equivalent to 0.55% of radiation length, and an optical slope error of about 5.5 mrad. These characteristics make these mirrors suitable for the implementation in Cherenkov threshold detectors. Ways to improve the mirror features are also discussed in view of their possible employment in RICH detectors.

  5. Multilayer perceptron classification of unknown volatile chemicals from the firing rates of insect olfactory sensory neurons and its application to biosensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, Luqman R; Unsworth, Charles P; Newcomb, Richard D; Crampin, Edmund J

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we use the firing rates from an array of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to train an artificial neural network (ANN) to distinguish different chemical classes of volatile odorants. Bootstrapping is implemented for the optimized networks, providing an accurate estimate of a network's predicted values. Initially a simple linear predictor was used to assess the complexity of the data and was found to provide low prediction performance. A nonlinear ANN in the form of a single multilayer perceptron (MLP) was also used, providing a significant increase in prediction performance. The effect of the number of hidden layers and hidden neurons of the MLP was investigated and found to be effective in enhancing network performance with both a single and a double hidden layer investigated separately. A hybrid array of MLPs was investigated and compared against the single MLP architecture. The hybrid MLPs were found to classify all vectors of the validation set, presenting the highest degree of prediction accuracy. Adjustment of the number of hidden neurons was investigated, providing further performance gain. In addition, noise injection was investigated, proving successful for certain network designs. It was found that the best-performing MLP was that of the double-hidden-layer hybrid MLP network without the use of noise injection. Furthermore, the level of performance was examined when different numbers of OSNs used were varied from the maximum of 24 to only 5 OSNs. Finally, the ideal OSNs were identified that optimized network performance. The results obtained from this study provide strong evidence of the usefulness of ANNs in the field of olfaction for the future realization of a signal processing back end for an artificial olfactory biosensor.

  6. The Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror: A Magnetic Mirror Concept Game Changer Magnet Mirror Status Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.; Cohen, R.; Correll, D.; Fowler, K.; Post, D.; Berk, H.; Horton, W.; Hooper, E.B.; Fisch, N.; Hassam, A.; Baldwin, D.; Pearlstein, D.; Logan, G.; Turner, B.; Moir, R.; Molvik, A.; Ryutov, D.; Ivanov, A.A; Kesner, J.; Cohen, B.; McLean, H.; Tamano, T.; Tang, X.Z.; Imai, T.

    2008-01-01

    experiments have confirmed the physics of effluent plasma stabilization predicted by theory. The plasma had a mean ion energy of 10 keV and a density of 5e19m-3. If successful, the axisymmetric tandem mirror extension of the GDT idea could lead to a Q ∼ 10 power plant of modest size and would yield important applications at lower Q. In addition to the GDT method, there are four other ways to augment stability that have been demonstrated; including: plasma rotation (MCX), diverter coils (Tara), pondermotive (Phaedrus and Tara), and end wall funnel shape (Nizhni Novgorod). There are also 5 stabilization techniques predicted, but not yet demonstrated: expander kinetic pressure (KSTM-Post), Pulsed ECH Dynamic Stabilization (Post), wall stabilization (Berk), non-paraxial end mirrors (Ryutov), and cusp ends (Kesner). While these options should be examined further together with conceptual engineering designs. Physics issues that need further analysis include: electron confinement, MHD and trapped particle modes, analysis of micro stability, radial transport, evaluation and optimization of Q, and the plasma density needed to bridge to the expansion-region. While promising all should be examined through increased theory effort, university-scale experiments, and through increased international collaboration with the substantial facilities in Russia and Japan The conventional wisdom of magnetic mirrors was that they would never work as a fusion concept for a number of reasons. This conventional wisdom is most probably all wrong or not applicable, especially for applications such as low Q (DT Neutron Source) aimed at materials testing or for a Q ∼ 3-5 fusion neutron source applied to destroying actinides in fission waste and breeding of fissile fuel

  7. The Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror: A Magnetic Mirror Concept Game Changer Magnet Mirror Status Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T; Cohen, R; Correll, D; Fowler, K; Post, D; Berk, H; Horton, W; Hooper, E B; Fisch, N; Hassam, A; Baldwin, D; Pearlstein, D; Logan, G; Turner, B; Moir, R; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Ivanov, A A; Kesner, J; Cohen, B; McLean, H; Tamano, T; Tang, X Z; Imai, T

    2008-10-24

    experiments have confirmed the physics of effluent plasma stabilization predicted by theory. The plasma had a mean ion energy of 10 keV and a density of 5e19m-3. If successful, the axisymmetric tandem mirror extension of the GDT idea could lead to a Q {approx} 10 power plant of modest size and would yield important applications at lower Q. In addition to the GDT method, there are four other ways to augment stability that have been demonstrated; including: plasma rotation (MCX), diverter coils (Tara), pondermotive (Phaedrus & Tara), and end wall funnel shape (Nizhni Novgorod). There are also 5 stabilization techniques predicted, but not yet demonstrated: expander kinetic pressure (KSTM-Post), Pulsed ECH Dynamic Stabilization (Post), wall stabilization (Berk), non-paraxial end mirrors (Ryutov), and cusp ends (Kesner). While these options should be examined further together with conceptual engineering designs. Physics issues that need further analysis include: electron confinement, MHD and trapped particle modes, analysis of micro stability, radial transport, evaluation and optimization of Q, and the plasma density needed to bridge to the expansion-region. While promising all should be examined through increased theory effort, university-scale experiments, and through increased international collaboration with the substantial facilities in Russia and Japan The conventional wisdom of magnetic mirrors was that they would never work as a fusion concept for a number of reasons. This conventional wisdom is most probably all wrong or not applicable, especially for applications such as low Q (DT Neutron Source) aimed at materials testing or for a Q {approx} 3-5 fusion neutron source applied to destroying actinides in fission waste and breeding of fissile fuel.

  8. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and method are described for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell

  9. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T. Kenneth

    1978-11-14

    Apparatus and method for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell.

  10. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanSant, J.H.; Kozman, T.A.; Bulmer, R.H.; Ng, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, R.H. Bulmer of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) discussed a proposed tandem-mirror magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at the 8th symposium on Engineering Problems in Fusion Research. Since then, Congress has voted funds for expanding LLNL's MFTF to a tandem-mirror facility (designated MFTF-B). The new facility, scheduled for completion by 1985, will seek to achieve two goals: (1) Energy break-even capability (Q or the ratio of fusion energy to plasma heating energy = 1) of mirror fusion, (2) Engineering feasibility of reactor-scale machines. Briefly stated, 22 superconducting magnets contained in a 11-m-diam by 65-m-long vacuum vessel will confine a fusion plasma fueled by 80 axial streaming-plasma guns and over 40 radial neutral beams. We have already completed a preliminary design of this magnet system

  11. Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jingtao; Zhou Sika; Li Haochuan; Huang Qiushi; Wang Zhanshan; Le Guen, Karine; Hu, Min-Hui; Andre, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe

    2010-07-10

    Mg-based multilayers, including SiC/Mg, Co/Mg, B4C/Mg, and Si/Mg, are investigated for solar imaging and a He II calibration lamp at a 30.4 nm wavelength. These multilayers were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering method and characterized by x-ray reflection. The reflectivities of these multilayers were measured by synchrotron radiation. Near-normal-incidence reflectivities of Co/Mg and SiC/Mg multilayer mirrors are as high as 40.3% and 44.6%, respectively, while those of B4C/Mg and Si/Mg mirrors are too low for application. The measured results suggest that SiC/Mg, Co/Mg multilayers are promising for a 30.4 nm wavelength.

  12. Mirror advanced reactor study (MARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The agenda for the meeting is as follows: (1) basic Tandem Mirror approach, (2) baseline design, (3) transition and Yin-Yang coils, (4) drift pump physics, (5) drift pump coil, (6) Fokker-Planck analysis, (7) ignition-alpha pumping, (8) neutral beam status, (9) axicell layout, (10) axicell radiation levels, (11) ICRH system, (12) central cell cost optimization, (13) central cell coil design, (14) gridless direct converter, (15) direct converter directions, (16) end cell structure, (17) corrosion-double wall HX, (18) central cell maintenance, (19) radioactivity, (20) PbLi blanket design, and (21) MARS schedule

  13. Tandem mirror next step: remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Hanson, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    This study of the next proposed experiment in the Mirror Fusion Program, the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS), has included serious consideration of the maintenance requirements of such a large source of high energy neutrons with its attendant throughput of tritium. Although maintenance will be costly in time and money, our conclusion is that with careful attention to a design for maintenance plan such a device can be reliably operated

  14. Angular and energy dependence of ion bombardment of Mo/Si multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voorma, H.J.; Louis, E.; Bijkerk, F.

    1997-01-01

    The process of ion bombardment is investigated for the fabrication of Mo/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors using e-beam evaporation. The ion treatment is applied immediately after deposition of each of the Si layers to smoothen the layers by removing an additional thickness of the Si layer. In this stu......, the angular dependence of the etch yield, obtained from the in situ reflectivity measurements, is investigated in order o determine the optimal ion beam parameters for the production of multilayer mirrors on curved substrates....

  15. A comparison of performance of lightweight mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung K.; Richard, Ralph M.; Hileman, Edward A.

    1990-01-01

    Four lightweight solid contoured back mirror shapes (a double arch, a single arch, a modified single arch, and a double concave mirror) and a cellular sandwich lightweight meniscus mirror, have been considered for the primary mirror of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). A parametric design study using these shapes for the SIRTF 40 inch primary mirror with a focal ratio f/2 is presented. Evaluations of the optical performance and fundamental frequency analyses are performed to compare relative merits of each mirror configuration. Included in these are structural, optical, and frequency analyses for (1) different back contour shapes, (2) different number and location of the support points, and (3) two gravity orientations (ZENITH and HORIZON positions). The finite element program NASTRAN is used to obtain the structural deflections of the optical surface. For wavefront error analysis, FRINGE and PCFRINGE programs are used to evaluate the optical performance. A scaling law relating the optical and structural performance for various mirror contoured back shapes is developed.

  16. Magneto-hydrodynamically stable axisymmetric mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Cohen, B. I.; Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Berk, H. L. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Simonen, T. C. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Making axisymmetric mirrors magnetohydrodynamically (MHD) stable opens up exciting opportunities for using mirror devices as neutron sources, fusion-fission hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors. This is also of interest from a general physics standpoint (as it seemingly contradicts well-established criteria of curvature-driven instabilities). The axial symmetry allows for much simpler and more reliable designs of mirror-based fusion facilities than the well-known quadrupole mirror configurations. In this tutorial, after a summary of classical results, several techniques for achieving MHD stabilization of the axisymmetric mirrors are considered, in particular: (1) employing the favorable field-line curvature in the end tanks; (2) using the line-tying effect; (3) controlling the radial potential distribution; (4) imposing a divertor configuration on the solenoidal magnetic field; and (5) affecting the plasma dynamics by the ponderomotive force. Some illuminative theoretical approaches for understanding axisymmetric mirror stability are described. The applicability of the various stabilization techniques to axisymmetric mirrors as neutron sources, hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors are discussed; and the constraints on the plasma parameters are formulated.

  17. Interfacial effects in multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general

  18. Optical fabrication of lightweighted 3D printed mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harrison; Segal, Jacob; Smith, Jeremy; Bates, Richard; Calis, Jacob; De La Torre, Alyssa; Kim, Dae Wook; Mici, Joni; Mireles, Jorge; Stubbs, David M.; Wicker, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) 3D printing technologies were utilized to create lightweight, optical grade mirrors out of AlSi10Mg aluminum and Ti6Al4V titanium alloys at the University of Arizona in Tucson. The mirror prototypes were polished to meet the λ/20 RMS and λ/4 P-V surface figure requirements. The intent of this project was to design topologically optimized mirrors that had a high specific stiffness and low surface displacement. Two models were designed using Altair Inspire software, and the mirrors had to endure the polishing process with the necessary stiffness to eliminate print-through. Mitigating porosity of the 3D printed mirror blanks was a challenge in the face of reconciling new printing technologies with traditional optical polishing methods. The prototypes underwent Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) and heat treatment to improve density, eliminate porosity, and relieve internal stresses. Metal 3D printing allows for nearly unlimited topological constraints on design and virtually eliminates the need for a machine shop when creating an optical quality mirror. This research can lead to an increase in mirror mounting support complexity in the manufacturing of lightweight mirrors and improve overall process efficiency. The project aspired to have many future applications of light weighted 3D printed mirrors, such as spaceflight. This paper covers the design/fab/polish/test of 3D printed mirrors, thermal/structural finite element analysis, and results.

  19. Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yafei

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer Integrated Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators mainly introduces the theory, design, fabrication technology and application of a recently developed new type of device, multilayer integrated film bulk acoustic resonators, at the micro and nano scale involving microelectronic devices, integrated circuits, optical devices, sensors and actuators, acoustic resonators, micro-nano manufacturing, multilayer integration, device theory and design principles, etc. These devices can work at very high frequencies by using the newly developed theory, design, and fabrication technology of nano and micro devices. Readers in fields of IC, electronic devices, sensors, materials, and films etc. will benefit from this book by learning the detailed fundamentals and potential applications of these advanced devices. Prof. Yafei Zhang is the director of the Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory for Thin Films and Microfabrication Technology, PRC; Dr. Da Chen was a PhD student in Prof. Yafei Zhang’s research group.

  20. Classical mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2018-01-01

    This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...

  1. Robust optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of dielectric mirrors for high power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorel, Marine; Lanternier, Thomas; Lavastre, Éric; Bonod, Nicolas; Bousquet, Bruno; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-30

    We report on a numerical optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of multi-dielectric high reflection mirrors in the sub-picosecond regime. We highlight the interplay between the electric field distribution, refractive index and intrinsic laser induced damage threshold of the materials on the overall laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the multilayer. We describe an optimization method of the multilayer that minimizes the field enhancement in high refractive index materials while preserving a near perfect reflectivity. This method yields a significant improvement of the damage resistance since a maximum increase of 40% can be achieved on the overall LIDT of the multilayer.

  2. Manufacturability of compact synchrotron mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Gary M.

    1997-11-01

    While many of the government funded research communities over the years have put their faith and money into increasingly larger synchrotrons, such as Spring8 in Japan, and the APS in the United States, a viable market appears to exist for smaller scale, research and commercial grade, compact synchrotrons. These smaller, and less expensive machines, provide the research and industrial communities with synchrotron radiation beamline access at a portion of the cost of their larger and more powerful counterparts. A compact synchrotron, such as the Aurora-2D, designed and built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. of japan (SHI), is a small footprint synchrotron capable of sustaining 20 beamlines. Coupled with a Microtron injector, with 150 MeV of injection energy, an entire facility fits within a 27 meter [88.5 ft] square floorplan. The system, controlled by 2 personal computers, is capable of producing 700 MeV electron energy and 300 mA stored current. Recently, an Aurora-2D synchrotron was purchased from SHI by the University of Hiroshima. The Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations Beamline Optics Group was approached by SHI with a request to supply a group of 16 beamline mirrors for this machine. These mirrors were sufficient to supply 3 beamlines for the Hiroshima machine. This paper will address engineering issues which arose during the design and manufacturing of these mirrors.

  3. Mirror plasma apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma

  4. Mesmerising mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Mirror neurons have been hailed as the key to understanding social cognition. I argue that three currents of thought-relating to evolution, atomism and telepathy-have magnified the perceived importance of mirror neurons. When they are understood to be a product of associative learning, rather than an adaptation for social cognition, mirror neurons are no longer mesmerising, but they continue to raise important questions about both the psychology of science and the neural bases of social cognition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Near-field flat focusing mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2018-03-01

    This article reviews recent progress towards the design of near-field flat focusing mirrors, focusing/imaging light patterns in reflection. An important feature of such flat focusing mirrors is their transverse invariance, as they do not possess any optical axis. We start with a review of the physical background to the different focusing mechanisms of near- and far-field focusing. These near-field focusing devices like flat lenses and the reviewed near-field focusing mirrors can implement planar focusing devices without any optical axis. In contrast, various types of far-field planar focusing devices, such as high-contrast gratings and metasurfaces, unavoidably break the transverse invariance due to their radially symmetrical structures. The particular realizations of near-field flat focusing mirrors including Bragg-like dielectric mirrors and dielectric subwavelength gratings are the main subjects of the review. The first flat focusing mirror was demonstrated with a chirped mirror and was shown to manage an angular dispersion for beam focusing, similar to the management of chromatic dispersion for pulse compression. Furthermore, the reviewed optimized chirped mirror demonstrated a long near-field focal length, hardly achieved by a flat lens or a planar hyperlens. Two more different configurations of dielectric subwavelength gratings that focus a light beam at normal or oblique incidence are also reviewed. We also summarize and compare focusing performance, limitations, and future perspectives between the reviewed flat focusing mirrors and other planar focusing devices including a flat lens with a negative-index material, a planar hyperlens, a high-contrast grating, and a metasurface.

  6. Wedged multilayer Laue lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, Ray; Liu Chian; Qian Jun; Kewish, Cameron M.; Macrander, Albert T.; Yan Hanfei; Maser, Joerg; Kang, Hyon Chol; Stephenson, G. Brian

    2008-01-01

    A multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is an x-ray focusing optic fabricated from a multilayer structure consisting of thousands of layers of two different materials produced by thin-film deposition. The sequence of layer thicknesses is controlled to satisfy the Fresnel zone plate law and the multilayer is sectioned to form the optic. An improved MLL geometry can be created by growing each layer with an in-plane thickness gradient to form a wedge, so that every interface makes the correct angle with the incident beam for symmetric Bragg diffraction. The ultimate hard x-ray focusing performance of a wedged MLL has been predicted to be significantly better than that of a nonwedged MLL, giving subnanometer resolution with high efficiency. Here, we describe a method to deposit the multilayer structure needed for an ideal wedged MLL and report our initial deposition results to produce these structures

  7. Performance of multilayer coated silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackermann, M. D.; Collon, M. J.; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.

    2010-01-01

    simultaneously requirements for effective area of 2.5 m2 at 1.25 keV, 0.65 m2 at 6 keV and 150 cm2 at 30 keV. The reflectivity of the bare mirror substrate materials does not allow these requirements to be met. As such the IXO baseline design contains a coating layout that varies as a function of mirror radius...

  8. Rise to SUMMIT: the Sydney University Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Anna M.; Davis, John

    2000-07-01

    The Sydney University Multiple Mirror Telescope (SUMMIT) is a medium-sized telescope designed specifically for high resolution stellar spectroscopy. Throughout the design emphasis has been placed on high efficiency at low cost. The telescope consists of four 0.46 m diameter mirrors mounted on a single welded steel frame. Specially designed mirror cells support and point each mirror, allowing accurate positioning of the images on optical fibers located at the foci of the mirrors. Four fibers convey the light to the future location of a high resolution spectrograph away from the telescope in a stable environment. An overview of the commissioning of the telescope is presented, including the guidance and automatic mirror alignment and focussing systems. SUMMIT is located alongside the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer at the Paul Wild Observatory, near Narrabri, Northern New South Wales.

  9. Simulation of reflectivity spectrum for non-absorbing multilayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reflectivity simulation is an essential tool for the design and optimization of optical thin ... with the experimental results of the multilayer optical thin films grown by electron-beam evaporation ... beam splitters [4] and various optical filters. ... thickness (QWOT) layer AR coating and multilayer HR coating using electron- beam ...

  10. Mirroring the videos of Anonymous:cloud activism, living networks, and political mimesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fish, Adam Richard

    2016-01-01

    Mirrors describe the multiplication of data across a network. In this article, I examine the politics of mirroring as practiced on videos by the hacktivist network Anonymous. Mirrors are designed to retain visibility on social media platforms and motivate viewers towards activism. They emerge from a particular social structure and propagate a specific symbolic system. Furthermore, mirrors are not exact replicas nor postmodern representations. Rather, mirroring maps a contestation over visibil...

  11. Cryogenic Active Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort seeks to develop active mirrors that can correct for thermally-induced figure deformations upon cooling from room-temperature at the time of manufacture,...

  12. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  13. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  14. Mirror fermions and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg

    1984-07-01

    Extended supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein theory and family unification all suggest the existence of mirror fermions, with same quantum numbers but opposite helicities from ordinary fermions. The laboratory and especially cosmological implications of such particles are reviewed and summarized. (author)

  15. Mirror reactor surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.L.; Damm, C.C.; Futch, A.H.; Hiskes, J.R.; Meisenheimer, R.G.; Moir, R.W.; Simonen, T.C.; Stallard, B.W.; Taylor, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included

  16. The obsidian mirror The obsidian mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Reis Amorin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The author James Norman is an American who has always lived in Mexico during the summer. He seems to love Mexican - Indian traditions and he is well acquainted with the pre-historic culture as it is shown in his book: "The Obsidian Mirror". "The Obsidian Mirror" is a mysterious story about an archeologist: Quigley that lives in a small village in Mexico-San Marcos. He is searching for antiques that belong to some tribes of pre-historic Indians in order to find out their mysteries. Quigley becomes so engaged in his work that his mind has reached a stage that is impossible to separate between Quigley the archeologist, and Quigley as an ancient Indian. The culture, the myth, the sensation of Omen - characteristics of the Indians are within himself. As a result, Quigley acts sometimes as a real Indian. The author James Norman is an American who has always lived in Mexico during the summer. He seems to love Mexican - Indian traditions and he is well acquainted with the pre-historic culture as it is shown in his book: "The Obsidian Mirror". "The Obsidian Mirror" is a mysterious story about an archeologist: Quigley that lives in a small village in Mexico-San Marcos. He is searching for antiques that belong to some tribes of pre-historic Indians in order to find out their mysteries. Quigley becomes so engaged in his work that his mind has reached a stage that is impossible to separate between Quigley the archeologist, and Quigley as an ancient Indian. The culture, the myth, the sensation of Omen - characteristics of the Indians are within himself. As a result, Quigley acts sometimes as a real Indian.

  17. Layer-by-layer strippable Ag multilayer films fabricated by modular assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Qianqian; Song, Kai; Wang, Shihui; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Yu; Jiao, Yong-Hua; Sun, Ting; Liu, Fu-Chun; Han, En-Hou

    2014-01-21

    We have developed a new method to fabricate multilayer films, which uses prepared thin films as modular blocks and transfer as operation mode to build up multilayer structures. In order to distinguish it from the in situ fabrication manner, this method is called modular assembly in this study. On the basis of such concept, we have fabricated a multilayer film using the silver mirror film as the modular block and poly(lactic acid) as the transfer tool. Due to the special double-layer structure of the silver mirror film, the resulting multilayer film had a well-defined stratified architecture with alternate porous/compact layers. As a consequence of the distinct structure, the interaction between the adjacent layers was so weak that the multilayer film could be layer-by-layer stripped. In addition, the top layer in the film could provide an effective protection on the morphology and surface property of the underlying layers. This suggests that if the surface of the film was deteriorated, the top layer could be peeled off and the freshly exposed surface would still maintain the original function. The successful preparation of the layer-by-layer strippable silver multilayer demonstrates that modular assembly is a feasible and effective method to build up multilayer films capable of creating novel and attractive micro/nanostructures, having great potential in the fabrication of nanodevices and coatings.

  18. Geometry of mirror manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspinwall, P.S.; Luetken, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    We analyze the mirror manifold hypothesis in one and three dimensions using the simplest available representations of the N = 2 superconformal algebra. The symmetries of these tensor models can be divided out to give an explicit representation of the mirror, and we give a simple group theoretical algorithm for determining which symmetries should be used. We show that the mirror of a superconformal field theory does not always have a geometrical interpretation, but when it does, deformations of complex structure of one manifold are reflected in deformations of the Kaehler form of the mirror manifold, and we show how the large radius limit of a manifold corresponds to a large complex structure limit in the mirror manifold. The mirror of the Tian-Yau three generation model is constructed both as a conformal field theory and as an algebraic variety with Euler number six. The Hodge numbers of this manifolds are fixed, but the intersection numbes are highly ambiguous, presumably reflected a rich structure of multicritical points in the moduli space of the field theory. (orig.)

  19. Directional radiative cooling thermal compensation for gravitational wave interferometer mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin Kamp, Carl [Department of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: carl.kamp@chalmers.se; Kawamura, Hinata [Yokoyama Junior High School, Sanda, Hachioji, Tokyo 193-0832 (Japan); Passaquieti, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Universita' di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); DeSalvo, Riccardo [LIGO Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2009-08-21

    The concept of utilizing directional radiative cooling to correct the problem of thermal lensing in the mirrors of the LIGO/VIRGO gravitational wave detectors has been shown and has prospects for future use. Two different designs utilizing this concept, referred to as the baffled and parabolic mirror solutions, have been proposed with different means of controlling the cooling power. The technique takes advantage of the power naturally radiated by the mirror surfaces at room temperature to prevent their heating by the powerful stored laser beams. The baffled solution has been simulated via COMSOL Multiphysics as a design tool. Finally, the parabolic mirror concept was experimentally validated with the results falling in close agreement with theoretical cooling calculations. The technique of directional radiative thermal correction can be reversed to image heat rings on the mirrors periphery to remotely and dynamically correct their radius of curvature without subjecting the mirror to relevant perturbations.

  20. Study on the materials for mirrors and back mirror reflectors of thermonuclear reactors and their testing in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunke, B.; Voytsenya, V.; Gil, C.; Lipa, M.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma diagnostics using visible or ultra-violet or infra-red radiations require mirrors to probe the plasma. These mirrors have to sustain very hostile environment and despite that must maintain good optical properties. Mirror samples made of 3 different metals: copper, stainless steel and molybdenum have been designed and installed in Tore Supra tokamak and will be exposed to plasmas till mid 2004. This project will allow fusion engineers to assess the impact of plasma ion bombardment on mirror reflectivity. Optical properties and parameters concerning the surface state of the samples have been measured before the installation in Tore Supra and are presented in the paper. Simulations with a Monte-Carlo code predict the particle flux and spectra near the samples. A specific back mirror reflector has been designed to probe mirror reflectivity changes. (A.C.)

  1. Development and characterization of La/B{sub 4}C multilayer systems as X-ray mirrors in the energy range 100-200 eV; Entwicklung und Charakterisierung von La/B{sub 4}C-Multischichtsystemen als Roentgenspiegel im Energiebereich 100-200 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendel, Stefan

    2009-01-15

    The main topics of this thesis are the development and characterization of La/B{sub 4}C multilayer systems. For this these materials were evaluated and characterized for the applied electron-beam evaporation. For the monitoring of the evaporation process two separate in-situ layer thicknesses were available. For periodic multilayer systems the X-ray reflectometry used for Mo/Si multilayers was accepted. Because of the change from Mo/Si on La/B{sub 4}C the driving of the evaporation process had to be material-conditionedly further developed and optimized. For the fabrication of aperiodic La/B{sub 4}C multilayer systems additionally an in-situ ellipsometer was taken into operation. Furthermore a decreasement of the interface roughnesses and by this following increasement of the reflectivities of La/B{sub 4}C multilayers by polishing of the single layers with accelerated ions during the fabrication shall be studied. The fabricated multilayers are characterized and evaluated concerning roughnesses, reflectivities, ans spectral band width. [German] Im Mittelpunkt dieser Arbeit stehen die Entwicklung und Charakterisierung von La/B{sub 4}C-Multischichtsystemen. Dazu wurden diese Materialien fuer die verwendete Elektronenstrahlverdampfung evaluiert und charakterisiert. Fuer die Ueberwachung des Aufdampfprozesses standen zwei separate In-situ Schichtdickenkontrollen zur Verfuegung. Fuer periodische Multischichtsysteme wurde die fuer Mo/Si-Multischichten genutzte Roentgenreflektometrie uebernommen. Aufgrund des Wechsels von Mo/Si auf La/B{sub 4}C musste materialbedingt die Steuerung des Verdampfungsprozesses weiterentwickelt und optimiert werden. Fuer die Herstellung aperiodischer La/B{sub 4}C-Multischichtsysteme wurde zusaetzlich ein In-situ Ellipsometer in Betrieb genommen. Des Weiteren soll eine Senkung der Grenzflaechenrauigkeiten und damit einhergehende Erhoehung der Reflektivitaeten von La/B{sub 4}C-Multischichten durch das Polieren mit beschleunigten Ionen der

  2. Performance evaluations of the ATST secondary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung K.; DeVries, Joseph; Hansen, Eric

    2007-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has a 4.24m off-axis primary mirror designed to deliver diffraction-limited images of the sun. Its baseline secondary mirror (M2) design uses a 0.65m diameter Silicon Carbide mirror mounted kinematically by a bi-pod flexure mechanism at three equally spaced locations. Unlike other common telescopes, the ATST M2 is to be exposed to a significant solar heat loading. A thermal management system will be developed to accommodate the solar loading and minimize "mirror seeing effect" by controlling the temperature difference between the M2 optical surface and the ambient air at the site. Thermo-elastic analyses for steady state thermal behaviors of the ATST secondary mirror was performed using finite element analysis by I-DEAS TM and PCFRINGE TM for the optical analysis. We examined extensive heat transfer simulation cases and their results are discussed. The goal of this study is to evaluate the optical performances of M2 using thermal models and mechanical models. Thermal responses from the models enable us to manipulate time dependent thermal loadings to synthesize the operational environment for the design and development of TMS.

  3. Helically linked mirror arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, P.

    1986-08-01

    A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average β and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned

  4. Base Metal Co-Fired Multilayer Piezoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectrics have been widely used in different kinds of applications, from the automobile industry to consumer electronics. The novel multilayer piezoelectrics, which are inspired by multilayer ceramic capacitors, not only minimize the size of the functional parts, but also maximize energy efficiency. Development of multilayer piezoelectric devices is at a significant crossroads on the way to achieving low costs, high efficiency, and excellent reliability. Concerning the costs of manufacturing multilayer piezoelectrics, the trend is to replace the costly noble metal internal electrodes with base metal materials. This paper discusses the materials development of metal co-firing and the progress of integrating current base metal chemistries. There are some significant considerations in metal co-firing multilayer piezoelectrics: retaining stoichiometry with volatile Pb and alkaline elements in ceramics, the selection of appropriate sintering agents to lower the sintering temperature with minimum impact on piezoelectric performance, and designing effective binder formulation for low pO2 burnout to prevent oxidation of Ni and Cu base metal.

  5. Corrugated grating on organic multilayer Bragg reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Sylvain; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2007-08-01

    Polymeric multilayer Bragg structures are combined with diffractive gratings to produce artificial visual color effects. A particular effect is expected due to the angular reflection dependence of the multilayer Bragg structure and the dispersion caused by the grating. The combined effects can also be used to design particular filter functions and various resonant structures. The multilayer Bragg structure is fabricated by spin-coating of two different low-cost polymer materials in solution on a cleaned glass substrate. These polymers have a refractive index difference of about 0.15 and permit multilayer coatings without interlayer problems. Master gratings of different periods are realized by laser beam interference and replicated gratings are superimposed on the multilayer structure by soft embossing in a UV curing glue. The fabrication process requires only polymer materials. The obtained devices are stable and robust. Angular dependent reflection spectrums for the visible are measured. These results show that it is possible to obtain unexpected reflection effects. A rich variety of color spectra can be generated, which is not possible with a single grating. This can be explained by the coupling of transmission of grating orders and the Bragg reflection band. A simple model permits to explain some of the spectral vs angular dependence of reflected light.

  6. Elliptically Bent X-ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Church, Matthew; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; McKinney, Wayne R.; Kirschman, Jonathan; Morrison, Greg; Noll, Tino; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We present details of design of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors developed and successfully used at the Advanced Light Source for submicron focusing. A distinctive feature of the mirror design is an active temperature stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directly to the mirror body. The design and materials have been carefully optimized to provide high heat conductance between the mirror body and substrate. We describe the experimental procedures used when assembling and precisely shaping the mirrors, with special attention paid to laboratory testing of the mirror-temperature stabilization. For this purpose, the temperature dependence of the surface slope profile of a specially fabricated test mirror placed inside a temperature-controlled container was measured. We demonstrate that with active mirror-temperature stabilization, a change of the surrounding temperature by more than 3K does not noticeably affect the mirror figure. Without temperature stabilization, the surface slope changes by approximately 1.5 ?mu rad rms (primarily defocus) under the same conditions.

  7. Elliptically Bent X-Ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.; Church, M.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Celestre, R.S.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.; Padmore, H.A.; Goldberg, K.A.; Kirschman, J.; Noll, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present details of design of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors developed and successfully used at the advanced light source for submicron focusing. A distinctive feature of the mirror design is an active temperature stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directly to the mirror body. The design and materials have been carefully optimized to provide high heat conductance between the mirror body and substrate. We describe the experimental procedures used when assembling and precisely shaping the mirrors, with special attention paid to laboratory testing of the mirror-temperature stabilization. For this purpose, the temperature dependence of the surface slope profile of a specially fabricated test mirror placed inside a temperature-controlled container was measured. We demonstrate that with active mirror-temperature stabilization, a change of the surrounding temperature by more than 3 K does not noticeably affect the mirror figure. Without temperature stabilization, the rms slope error is changed by approximately 1.5 μrad (primarily defocus) under the same conditions

  8. Controlling light with plasmonic multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Iorsh, Ivan V.

    2014-01-01

    metamaterials and describe their use for light manipulation at the nanoscale. While demonstrating the recently emphasized hallmark effect of hyperbolic dispersion, we put special emphasis to the comparison between multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials and more broadly defined plasmonic-multilayer metamaterials...

  9. Field-reversed mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor design is a multicell arrangement wherein a series of field-reversed plasma layers are arranged along the axis of a long superconducting solenoid which provides the background magnetic field. Normal copper mirror coils and Ioffe bars placed at the first wall radius provide shallow axial and radial magnetic wells for each plasma layer. Each of 11 plasma layers requires the injection of 3.6 MW of 200 keV deuterium and tritium and produces 20 MW of fusion power. The reactor has a net electric output of 74 MWe and an estimated direct capital cost of $1200/kWe

  10. PARTITION EFFICIENCY OF NEWLY DESIGNED LOCULAR MULTILAYER COIL FOR COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF PROTEINS USING SMALL-SCALE CROSS-AXIS COIL PLANET CENTRIFUGE WITH AQUEOUS-AQUEOUS POLYMER PHASE SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Countercurrent chromatographic performance of the locular multilayer coil separation column newly designed in our laboratory was evaluated in terms of theoretical plate number, peak resolution and retention of the stationary phase in protein separation with an aqueous polymer phase system using the small-scale cross-axis coil planet centrifuge (X-axis CPC) fabricated in our laboratory. The locular column was made from 1.0 mm I.D., 2.0 mm O.D. or 1.5 mm I.D., 2.5 mm O.D. PTFE tubing compressed with a pair of hemostat at 2 or 4 cm intervals. The protein separation was performed using a set of stable proteins including cytochrome C, myoglobin and lysozyme with the 12.5% (w/w) polyethylene glycol 1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate system under 1000 rpm of column revolution. The 1.5 mm I.D., 2.5 mm O.D. locular tubing compressed at 2 cm intervals yielded better partition efficiencies than the non-clamped tubing using both lower and upper mobile phases with satisfactory retention of the stationary phase. The overall results suggest that the newly designed locular multilayer coil is useful to the preparative separation of proteins with aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system using our small-scale X-axis CPC.

  11. A Conceptual Mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    The multilevel interactions between a mentor and her/his learner could exchange various conceptions between them that are supported by their own conceptualisations. Producing the own realisation of a world and developing it in the context of interactions could be said to be the most valuable prod...... will analyse the logical dependencies between learner and men- tor and will check their reflectional symmetrical relationship in a conceptual mirror. The conceptual mirror is a phenomenon that represents the meeting point of the mentor’s and the learner’s conceptual knowledge....

  12. A Smart Home Center Platform Solution Based on Smart Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xibo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the popularization of the concept of smart home, people have raised requirements on the experience of smart living. A smart home platform center solution is put forward in order to solve the intelligent interoperability and information integration of smart home, which enable people to have a more intelligent and convenient life experience. This platform center is achieved through the Smart Mirror. The Smart Mirror refers to a smart furniture, on the basis of the traditional concept of mirror, combining Raspberry Pi, the application of one-way mirror imaging principle, the touch-enabled design, voice and video interaction. Smart Mirror can provide a series of intelligent experience for the residents, such as controlling all the intelligent furniture through Smart Mirror; accessing and displaying the weather, time, news and other life information; monitoring the home environment; remote interconnection operation.

  13. Dynamic range of low-voltage cascode current mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Shah, Peter Jivan

    1995-01-01

    Low-voltage cascode current mirrors are reviewed with respect to the design limitations imposed if all transistors in the mirror are required to operate in the saturation region. It is found that both a lower limit and an upper limit exist for the cascode transistor bias voltage. Further, the use....... The proposed configuration has the advantage of simplicity combined with a complete elimination of the need for fixed bias voltages or bias currents in the current mirror. A disadvantage is that it requires a higher input voltage to the current mirror...

  14. Variable area manifolds for ring mirror heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Albert; Senterfitt, Donald R.

    1988-05-01

    A laser ring mirror assembly is disclosed which supports and cools an annular ring mirror of a high powered laser with a cooling manifold which has a coolant flow design which is intended to reduce thermal distortions of the ring mirror by minimizing azimuthal variations in temperature around its circumference. The cooling manifold has complementary pairs of cooling passages each of which conduct coolant in opposite flow directions. The manifold also houses adjusters which vary the depth between the annular ring mirror and each cooling, and which vary the flow area of the cooling passage to produce a control over the cooling characteristics of the cooling manifold.

  15. Evolution of the mirror approach to fusion: some conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Some possible directions for the future evolution of the mirror approach to fusion are outlined, in the context of economically-motivated criteria. Speculations are given as to the potential advantages, economic and otherwise, of the use of axially-symmetric systems, operated in semi-collisional regimes of lower Q (fusion power balance ratio) than that projected for present-day tandem mirror designs. These regims include barely tandem modes, and ion-heated modes, in association with higher efficiency direct conversion. Another possible economically advantageous approach mentioned is the use of a tandem mirror plasma to stabilize a FRM (field-reversed mirror) plasma, with potential synergistic advantages

  16. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage threshold on hybrid mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Jan; Muresan, Mihai-George; Bilek, Vojtech; Sebek, Matej; Hanus, Martin; Lucianetti, Antonio; Rostohar, Danijela; Mocek, Tomas; Škoda, Václav

    2017-11-01

    So-called hybrid mirrors, consisting of broadband metallic surface coated with dielectric reflector designed for specific wavelength, becoming more important with progressing development of broadband mid-IR sources realized using parametric down conversion system. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage on such mirrors was tested by method s-on-1, where s stands for various numbers of pulses. We show difference in damage threshold between common protected silver mirrors and hybrid silver mirrors prepared by PVD technique and their variants prepared by IAD. Keywords: LIDT,

  17. Thermal performance of the ATST secondary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung K.; DeVries, Joe; Hansen, Eric

    2007-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) has a 4.24m off-axis primary mirror designed to deliver diffractionlimited images of the sun. Its baseline secondary mirror (M2) design uses a 0.65m diameter Silicon Carbide mirror mounted kinematically by a bi-pod flexure mechanism at three equally spaced locations. Unlike other common telescopes, the ATST M2 is to be exposed to a significant solar heat loading. A thermal management system (TMS) will be developed to accommodate the solar loading and minimize "mirror seeing effect" by controlling the temperature difference between the M2 optical surface and the ambient air at the site. Thermo-elastic analyses for steady state thermal behaviors of the ATST secondary mirror was performed using finite element analysis by I-DEAS TM and PCRINGE TM for the optical analysis. We examined extensive heat transfer simulation cases and their results were discussed. The goal of this study is to establish thermal models by I-DEAS for an adequate thermal environment. These thermal models will be useful for estimating segment thermal responses. Current study assumes a few sample time dependent thermal loadings to synthesize the operational environment.

  18. Fatigue expectations in a molybdenum/silicon multilayer under pulsed soft X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.J.; Kassner, M.E.; Stearns, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    The temperature rise in a Mo/a-Si multilayer x-ray reflective film due to radiation absorption is modeled for the first condenser mirror in a projection lithography system such as the one designed by the Advanced Microtechnology Program at LLNL. The radiation load is pulsed at 1000 Hz with a time average intensity of 500mW/cm 2 . This intensity is the expected maximum on the first condenser mirror. The temperature rise is calculated using the integral transform technique. The film is assumed to have the thermal properties of its poorly conducting substrate, yielding a more conservative (higher) temperature estimate. The surface temperature rise is found to range between 35.6 degrees C and 76.3 degrees C. The stress due to this rise is greatest in the molybdenum film and ranges between 73MPa and 166MPa compressive. This fluctuating stress level, however, is believed to be insufficient, by a factor of five or so, to cause fatigue failure of the film

  19. Amorphous Metals and Composites as Mirrors and Mirror Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Davis, Gregory L. (Inventor); Agnes, Gregory S. (Inventor); Shapiro, Andrew A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A mirror or mirror assembly fabricated by molding, pressing, assembling, or depositing one or more bulk metal glass (BMG), bulk metal glass composite (BMGMC), or amorphous metal (AM) parts and where the optical surface and backing of the mirror can be fabricated without machining or polishing by utilizing the unique molding capabilities of this class of materials.

  20. Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Hawaii ,Institute for Astronomy,640 North A‘ohoku Place, #209 , Hilo ,HI,96720-2700 8. PERFORMING...Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors Christ Ftaclas1,2, Aglae Kellerer2 and Mark Chun2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

  1. Mirror reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Barmore, W.L.; Bender, D.J.; Doggett, J.N.; Galloway, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The general requirements of a breeding blanket for a mirror reactor are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) facility layout and blanket maintenance, (2) heat transfer and thermal conversion system, (3) materials, (4) tritium containment and removal, and (5) nuclear performance

  2. Minimal mirror twin Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Riccardo [Institute of Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich,CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke [Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-11-29

    In a Mirror Twin World with a maximally symmetric Higgs sector the little hierarchy of the Standard Model can be significantly mitigated, perhaps displacing the cutoff scale above the LHC reach. We show that consistency with observations requires that the Z{sub 2} parity exchanging the Standard Model with its mirror be broken in the Yukawa couplings. A minimal such effective field theory, with this sole Z{sub 2} breaking, can generate the Z{sub 2} breaking in the Higgs sector necessary for the Twin Higgs mechanism. The theory has constrained and correlated signals in Higgs decays, direct Dark Matter Detection and Dark Radiation, all within reach of foreseen experiments, over a region of parameter space where the fine-tuning for the electroweak scale is 10-50%. For dark matter, both mirror neutrons and a variety of self-interacting mirror atoms are considered. Neutrino mass signals and the effects of a possible additional Z{sub 2} breaking from the vacuum expectation values of B−L breaking fields are also discussed.

  3. Physics of mirror fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experimental results with the 2XIIB mirror machine at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory have demonstrated the stable confinement of plasmas at fusion temperatures and with energy densities equaling or exceeding that of the confining fields. The physics of mirror confinement is discussed in the context of these new results. Some possible approaches to further improving the confinement properties of mirror systems and the impact of these new approaches on the prospects for mirror fusion reactors are discussed

  4. Mirror fusion test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    The MFTF is a large new mirror facility under construction at Livermore for completion in 1981--82. It represents a scaleup, by a factor of 50 in plasma volume, a factor of 5 or more in ion energy, and a factor of 4 in magnetic field intensity over the Livermore 2XIIB experiment. Its magnet, employing superconducting NbTi windings, is of Yin-Yang form and will weigh 200 tons. MFTF will be driven by neutral beams of two levels of current and energy: 1000 amperes of 20 keV (accelerating potential) pulsed beams for plasma startup; 750 amperes of 80 keV beams of 0.5 second duration for temperature buildup and plasma sustainment. Two operating modes for MFTF are envisaged: The first is operation as a conventional mirror cell with n/sup tau/ approximately equal to 10 12 cm -3 sec, W/sub i/ = 50 keV, where the emphasis will be on studying the physics of mirror cells, particularly the issues of improved techniques of stabilization against ion cyclotron modes and of maximization of the electron temperature. The second possible mode is the further study of the Field Reversed Mirror idea, using high current neutral beams to sustain the field-reversed state. Anticipating success in the coming Livermore Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) MFTF has been oriented so that it could comprise one end cell of a scaled up TM experiment. Also, if MFTF were to succeed in achieving a FR state it could serve as an essentially full-sized physics prototype of one cell of a FRM fusion power plant

  5. Design and characterization for absolute x-ray spectrometry in the 100-10,000 eV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, B.L.

    1986-08-01

    Reviewed here are the design and characterization procedures used in our program for developing absolute x-ray spectrometry in the 100 to 10,000 eV region. Described are the selection and experimental calibration of the x-ray filters, mirror momochromators, crystal/multilayer analyzers, and the photographic (time integrating) and photoelectric (time resolving) position-sensitive detectors. Analytical response functions have been derived that characterize the energy dependence of the mirror and crystal/multilayer reflectivities and of the photographic film and photocathode sensitivities. These response functions permit rapid, small-computer reduction of the experimental spectra to absolute spectra (measured in photons per stearadian from the source for radiative transitions at indicated photon energies). Our x-ray spectrographic systems are being applied to the diagnostics of pulsed, high temperature plasma sources in laser fusion and x-ray laser research. 15 refs., 27 figs

  6. Tandem mirror magnet system for the mirror fusion test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, R.H.; Van Sant, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will be a large magnetic fusion experimental facility containing 22 supercounducting magnets including solenoids and C-coils. State-of-the-art technology will be used extensively to complete this facility before 1985. Niobium titanium superconductor and stainless steel structural cases will be the principle materials of construction. Cooling will be pool boiling and thermosiphon flow of 4.5 K liquid helium. Combined weight of the magnets will be over 1500 tonnes and the stored energy will be over 1600 MJ. Magnetic field strength in some coils will be more than 8 T. Detail design of the magnet system will begin early 1981. Basic requirements and conceptual design are disclosed in this paper

  7. An Nd:YLF laser Q-switched by a monolayer-graphene saturable-absorber mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matía-Hernando, Paloma; Guerra, José Manuel; Weigand, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate Q-switched operation of a transversely diode-pumped Nd:YLF (yttrium lithium fluoride) laser using chemical vapour deposition-grown large-area monolayer graphene transferred to a dielectric saturable-absorber mirror (G-SAM). The resulting compact design operates at 1047 nm with 2.5 μs pulses in a 100% modulation Q-switch regime with an average and very stable output power of 0.5 W. Different cavity lengths have been employed and the results are compared against a theoretical model based on rate equations, evidencing the role of transverse pumping in the system. The model also reveals that monolayer graphene effectively leads to shorter and more powerful pulses compared to those with multilayer graphene. These results establish the potential of single-layer graphene for providing a reliable and efficient Q-switch mechanism in solid-state lasers. (paper)

  8. The Mirror DBMS at TREC-8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.P.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    The database group at University of Twente participates in TREC8 using the Mirror DBMS, a prototype database system especially designed for multimedia and web retrieval. From a database perspective, the purpose has been to check whether we can get sufficient performance, and to prepare for the very

  9. The Mirror DBMS at TREC-9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.P.; Voorhees, E.M; Harman, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    The Mirror DBMS is a prototype database system especially designed for multimedia and web retrieval. From a database perspective, this year's purpose has been to check whether we can get suffcient effciency on the larger data set used in TREC-9. From an IR perspective, the experiments are limited to

  10. Non magnetic neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitter and a phase-spin echo interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebisawa, T.; Tasaki, S.; Kawai, T.; Akiyoshi, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Achiwa, N.; Hino, M.; Otake, Y.; Funahashi, H.

    1996-08-01

    The authors have developed cold neutron optics and interferometry using multilayer mirrors. The advantages of the multilayer mirrors are their applicability to long wavelength neutrons and a great variety of the mirror performance. The idea of the present spin interferometry is based on nonmagnetic neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters. The equation for polarized neutrons means that the polarized neutrons are equivalent to the coherent superposition of two parallel spin eigenstates. The structure and principle of a multilayer spin splitter are explained, and the nonmagnetic gap layer of the multilayer spin splitter gives rise to neutron spin quantum precession. The performance test of the multilayer spin splitter were made with a new spin interferometer, which is analogous optically to a spin echo system with vertical precession field. The spin interferometers were installed at Kyoto University research reactor and the JRR-3. The testing method and the results are reported. The performance tests on a new phase-spin echo interferometer are described, and its applications to the development of a high resolution spin echo system and a Jamin type cold neutron interferometer are proposed. (K.I.)

  11. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  12. Mirror image agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2014-10-01

    Gnosis is a modality-specific ability to access semantic knowledge of an object or stimulus in the presence of normal perception. Failure of this is agnosia or disorder of recognition. It can be highly selective within a mode. self-images are different from others as none has seen one's own image except in reflection. Failure to recognize this image can be labeled as mirror image agnosia or Prosopagnosia for reflected self-image. Whereas mirror agnosia is a well-recognized situation where the person while looking at reflected images of other objects in the mirror he imagines that the objects are in fact inside the mirror and not outside. Five patients, four females, and one male presented with failure to recognize reflected self-image, resulting in patients conversing with the image as a friend, fighting because the person in mirror is wearing her nose stud, suspecting the reflected self-image to be an intruder; but did not have prosopagnosia for others faces, non living objects on self and also apraxias except dressing apraxia in one patient. This phenomena is new to our knowledge. Mirror image agnosia is an unique phenomena which is seen in patients with parietal lobe atrophy without specificity to a category of dementing illness and seems to disappear as disease advances. Reflected self-images probably have a specific neural substrate that gets affected very early in posterior dementias specially the ones which predominantly affect the right side. At that phase most patients are mistaken as suffering from psychiatric disorder as cognition is moderately preserved. As disease becomes more widespread this symptom becomes masked. A high degree of suspicion and proper assessment might help physicians to recognize the organic cause of the symptom so that early therapeutic interventions can be initiated. Further assessment of the symptom with FMRI and PET scan is likely to solve the mystery of how brain handles reflected self-images. A new observation involving failure

  13. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeylikovich, I.; Xu, M., E-mail: mxu@fairfield.edu [Physics Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation.

  14. Neutral beams for mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    An important demonstration of negative ion technology is proposed for FY92 in the MFTF-α+T, an upgrade of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This facility calls for 200-keV negative ions to form neutral beams that generate sloshing ions in the reactor end plugs. Three different beam lines are considered for this application. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  15. Examples of electrostatic electron optics: The Farrand and Elektros microscopes and electron mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    The role of Gertrude Rempfer in the design of the Farrand and Elektros microscopes is evoked. The study of electron mirror optics, aberration correction using mirrors and the development of microscopes employing electron mirrors are recapitulated, accompanied by a full bibliography, of earlier publications in particular.

  16. Deeply-etched DBR mirrors for photonic integrated circuits and tunable lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docter, B.

    2009-01-01

    Deeply-etched Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) mirrors are a new versatile building block for Photonic Integrated Circuits that allows us to create more complex circuits for optical telecommunication applications. The DBR mirrors increase the device design flexibility because the mirrors can be

  17. Mirror-Image Equivalence and Interhemispheric Mirror-Image Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C

    2018-01-01

    Mirror-image confusions are common, especially in children and in some cases of neurological impairment. They can be a special impediment in activities such as reading and writing directional scripts, where mirror-image patterns (such as b and d ) must be distinguished. Treating mirror images as equivalent, though, can also be adaptive in the natural world, which carries no systematic left-right bias and where the same object or event can appear in opposite viewpoints. Mirror-image equivalence and confusion are natural consequences of a bilaterally symmetrical brain. In the course of learning, mirror-image equivalence may be established through a process of symmetrization, achieved through homotopic interhemispheric exchange in the formation of memory circuits. Such circuits would not distinguish between mirror images. Learning to discriminate mirror-image discriminations may depend either on existing brain asymmetries, or on extensive learning overriding the symmetrization process. The balance between mirror-image equivalence and mirror-image discrimination may nevertheless be precarious, with spontaneous confusions or reversals, such as mirror writing, sometimes appearing naturally or as a manifestation of conditions like dyslexia.

  18. Mirror-Image Equivalence and Interhemispheric Mirror-Image Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Corballis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirror-image confusions are common, especially in children and in some cases of neurological impairment. They can be a special impediment in activities such as reading and writing directional scripts, where mirror-image patterns (such as b and d must be distinguished. Treating mirror images as equivalent, though, can also be adaptive in the natural world, which carries no systematic left-right bias and where the same object or event can appear in opposite viewpoints. Mirror-image equivalence and confusion are natural consequences of a bilaterally symmetrical brain. In the course of learning, mirror-image equivalence may be established through a process of symmetrization, achieved through homotopic interhemispheric exchange in the formation of memory circuits. Such circuits would not distinguish between mirror images. Learning to discriminate mirror-image discriminations may depend either on existing brain asymmetries, or on extensive learning overriding the symmetrization process. The balance between mirror-image equivalence and mirror-image discrimination may nevertheless be precarious, with spontaneous confusions or reversals, such as mirror writing, sometimes appearing naturally or as a manifestation of conditions like dyslexia.

  19. Porous germanium multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garralaga Rojas, Enrique; Hensen, Jan; Brendel, Rolf [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany); Carstensen, Juergen; Foell, Helmut [Chair for General Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    We present the reproducible fabrication of porous germanium (PGe) single- and multilayers. Mesoporous layers form on heavily doped 4'' p-type Ge wafers by electrochemical etching in highly concentrated HF-based electrolytes with concentrations in a range of 30-50 wt.%. Direct PGe formation is accompanied by a constant dissolution of the already-formed porous layer at the electrolyte/PGe interface, hence yielding a thinner substrate after etching. This effect inhibits multilayer formation as the starting layer is etched while forming the second layer. We avoid dissolution of the porous layer by alternating the etching bias from anodic to cathodic. PGe formation occurs during anodic etching whereas the cathodic step passivates pore walls with H-atoms and avoids electropolishing. The passivation lasts a limited time depending on the etching current density and electrolyte concentration, necessitating a repetition of the cathodic step at suitable intervals. With optimized alternating bias mesoporous multilayer production is possible. We control the porosity of each single layer by varying the etching current density and the electrolyte (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Multilayer scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Doral, M Nedim; Karlsson, Jon; Egol, Kenneth A; Jazrawi, Laith M; Coelho, Paulo G; Martinez, Amaury; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Owens, Brett D; Ochi, Mitsuo; Hurwitz, Shepard R; Atala, Anthony; Fu, Freddie H; Lu, Helen H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the recent developments in the field of tissue engineering as they relate to multilayer scaffold designs in musculoskeletal regeneration. Clinical and basic research studies that highlight the current knowledge and potential future applications of the multilayer scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering were evaluated and the best evidence collected. Studies were divided into three main categories based on tissue types and interfaces for which multilayer scaffolds were used to regenerate: bone, osteochondral junction and tendon-to-bone interfaces. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the use of stratified scaffolds composed of multiple layers with distinct compositions for regeneration of distinct tissue types within the same scaffold and anatomic location is feasible. This emerging tissue engineering approach has potential applications in regeneration of bone defects, osteochondral lesions and tendon-to-bone interfaces with successful basic research findings that encourage clinical applications. Present data supporting the advantages of the use of multilayer scaffolds as an emerging strategy in musculoskeletal tissue engineering are promising, however, still limited. Positive impacts of the use of next generation scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering can be expected in terms of decreasing the invasiveness of current grafting techniques used for reconstruction of bone and osteochondral defects, and tendon-to-bone interfaces in near future.

  1. Photo-crosslinkable polymers for fabrication of photonic multilayer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Maria; Hayward, Ryan C.

    2013-03-01

    We have used photo-crosslinkable polymers to fabricate photonic multilayer sensors. Benzophenone is utilized as a covalently incorporated pendent photo-crosslinker, providing a convenient means of fabricating multilayer films by sequential spin-coating and crosslinking processes. Colorimetric temperature sensors were designed from thermally-responsive, low-refractive index poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and high-refractive index poly(para-methyl styrene) (P pMS). Copolymer chemistries and layer thicknesses were selected to provide robust multilayer sensors which show color changes across nearly the full visible spectrum due to changes in temperature of the hydrated film stack. We have characterized the uniformity and interfacial broadening within the multilayers, the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling, and the reversibility over multiple hydration/dehydration cycles. We also describe how the approach can be extended to alternative sensor designs through the ability to tailor each layer independently, as well as to additional stimuli by selecting alternative copolymer chemistries.

  2. Multilayer Insulation Ascent Venting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, R. W.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Johnson, W. L.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal and venting transient experienced by tank-applied multilayer insulation (MLI) in the Earth-to-orbit environment is very dynamic and not well characterized. This new predictive code is a first principles-based engineering model which tracks the time history of the mass and temperature (internal energy) of the gas in each MLI layer. A continuum-based model is used for early portions of the trajectory while a kinetic theory-based model is used for the later portions of the trajectory, and the models are blended based on a reference mean free path. This new capability should improve understanding of the Earth-to-orbit transient and enable better insulation system designs for in-space cryogenic propellant systems.

  3. Paraboloidal X-ray telescope mirror for solar coronal spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. A.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Franks, A.; Stedman, M.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The telescope mirror for the X-ray Spectrograph Spectrometer Telescope System is a sixty degree sector of an extreme off-axis paraboloid of revolution. It was designed to focus a coronal region 1 by 10 arc seconds in size on the entrance slit of the spectrometer after reflection from the gold surface. This paper discusses the design, manufacture, and metrology of the mirror, the methods of precision mechanical metrology used to focus the system, and the mounting system which locates the mirror and has proven itself through vibration tests. In addition, the results of reflection efficiency measurements, alignment tolerances, and ray trace analysis of the effects of misalignment are considered.

  4. UHV mirror mounts for photophysics beamline at Indus-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi Raja Rao, P.; Bhattacharya, S.S.; Das, N.C.; Rajasekhar, B.N.; Roy, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Photophysics beamline makes use of a combination of two toroidal mirrors and one meter Seya-Namioka Monochromator in its fore optics. The fore optics monochromatises and steers the synchrotron radiation source (SRS) beam from its tangent point to the sample situated at a distance of about five meters. Slit widths of the monochromator are of the order of 100μ and the sample size is one mm 2 . Hence it is essential to impart precision rotational and translational movements of the same order of magnitude to the mirrors with the use of appropriate mirror mounts. Since Indus-1 operates at a pressure -9 mbar, the mirror mounts should be UHV compatible and the movements should be actuated under UHV. The mirrors along with the mirror mounts are enclosed in UHV chambers. The mirror chambers have been fabricated at Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) workshops and tested up to a pressure of 10 -9 mbar. The mirror mounts are designed, fabricated and leak checked (He leak rate -10 std cc/s) The precision movements are achieved with the help of bellow sealed shaft mechanism and adjustable screws provided with the kinematic mount of the mirror frame. The performance of the mirror mount was tested at atmospheric pressure by using a laser beam and found to be good. The minimum displacement of the laser beam at slit and sample positions is ∼ 70μ which is quite adequate for optical alignment. The performance of the mirror mount under UHV conditions is being evaluated. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  5. A novel mirror diversity receiver for indoor MIMO visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Ki-Hong; Alheadary, Wael G.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and study a non-imaging receiver design reducing the correlation of channel matrix for indoor multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) systems. Contrary to previous works, our proposed mirror

  6. Topological Crystalline Superconductivity in Locally Noncentrosymmetric Multilayer Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohiro; Sigrist, Manfred; Yanase, Youichi

    2015-07-10

    Topological crystalline superconductivity in locally noncentrosymmetric multilayer superconductors (SCs) is proposed. We study the odd-parity pair-density wave (PDW) state induced by the spin-singlet pairing interaction through the spin-orbit coupling. It is shown that the PDW state is a topological crystalline SC protected by a mirror symmetry, although it is topologically trivial according to the classification based on the standard topological periodic table. The topological property of the mirror subsectors is intuitively explained by adiabatically changing the Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian. A subsector of the bilayer PDW state reduces to the two-dimensional noncentrosymmetric SC, while a subsector of the trilayer PDW state is topologically equivalent to the spinless p-wave SC. Chiral Majorana edge modes in trilayers can be realized without Cooper pairs in the spin-triplet channel and chemical potential tuning.

  7. Adaptive metal mirror for high-power CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, Uwe-Klaus

    1996-08-01

    Spherical mirrors with a variable radius of curvature are used inside laser resonators as well as in the beam path between the laser and the workpiece. Commercially-available systems use piezoelectric actuators, or the pressure of the coolant, to deform the mirror surface. In both cases, the actuator and the cooling system influence each other. This interaction is avoided through the integration of the cooling system with the flexible mirror membrane. A multi- channel design leads to an optimized cooling effect, which is necessary for high power applications. The contour of the variable metal mirror depends on the mounting between the membrane and the mirror body and on the distribution of forces. Four cases of deformation can be distinguished for a circular elastic membrane. The realization of an adaptive metal mirror requires a technical compromise to be made. A mechanical construction is presented which combines an elastic hinge with the inlet and outlet of the coolant. For the deformation of the mirror membranes two actuators with different character of deformation are used. The superposition of the two deformations results in smaller deviations from the spherical surface shape than can be achieved using a single actuator. DC proportional magnets have been introduced as cheap and rigid actuators. The use of this adaptive mirror, either in a low pressure atmosphere of a gas laser resonator, or in an extra-cavity beam path is made possible through the use of a ventilation system.

  8. Mirror symmetry II

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Brian R

    1997-01-01

    Mirror symmetry has undergone dramatic progress during the last five years. Tremendous insight has been gained on a number of key issues. This volume surveys these results. Some of the contributions in this work have appeared elsewhere, while others were written specifically for this collection. The areas covered are organized into 4 sections, and each presents papers by both physicists and mathematicians. This volume collects the most important developments that have taken place in mathematical physics since 1991. It is an essential reference tool for both mathematics and physics libraries and for students of physics and mathematics.

  9. Introduction: Mirrors of Passing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge; Willerslev, Rane

    How is death, time, and materiality interconnected? How to approach an understanding of the world of the dead? In this introduction, we seek to understand how the experience of material decay, of the death of those around us, makes us aware of the passing of time. Through the literary lens of Neil...... Gaiman’s The Graveyard Book, we explore how the world of the dead and the world of the living can intersect; how time and materiality shifts and changes depending on who experiences it. These revelations, based on fiction, provide a mirror through which the reader can experience the varied chapters...

  10. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  11. Trieste lectures on mirror symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, K [Department of Physics and Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-08-15

    These are pedagogical lectures on mirror symmetry given at the Spring School in ICTP, Trieste, March 2002. The focus is placed on worldsheet descriptions of the physics related to mirror symmetry. We start with the introduction to general aspects of (2,2) supersymmetric field theories in 1 + 1 dimensions. We next move on to the study and applications of linear sigma model. Finally, we provide a proof of mirror symmetry in a class of models. (author)

  12. Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1978-01-01

    A large, new Mirror Fusion Test Facility is under construction at LLL. Begun in FY78 it will be completed at the end of FY78 at a cost of $94.2M. This facility gives the mirror program the flexibility to explore mirror confinement principles at a signficant scale and advances the technology of large reactor-like devices. The role of MFTF in the LLL program is described here

  13. Digital multilayer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueber, C.; Klose, K.J.; Thelen, M.

    1991-01-01

    With digital multilayer tomography a sequence of projection images is recorded by an image intensifier television system and stored as digital data during a linear run of a layer sequence. Using this data record, tomograms of the examined body region can be computed for any layer thickness by shifts and superimposition of the single projections later at a digital workstation. The qualities of digital and conventional tomograms are basically comparable. A drawback of digital tomography is its lower local resolution (512 x 512 image matrix), advantages are a lower radiation exposure, a shorter patient examination time, and the facilities of digital image processing (later processing, archive setup, transmission). (orig.) [de

  14. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Bill; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust producing plasma. Currently, the MSFC GDM is constructed in three segments. The vacuum chamber mirror segment, the plasma injector mirror segment, and the main plasma chamber segment. Enough magnets are currently available to construct up to three main plasma chamber segments. The mirror segments are also segmented such that they can be expanded to accommodate new end plugging strategies with out requiring the disassembly of the entire mirror segment. The plasma for the experiment is generated in a microwave cavity located between the main magnets and the mirror magnets. Ion heating is accomplished through ambipolar diffusion. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the stability characteristics of the gasdynamic mirror and to map a region of parameter space within which the plasma can be confined in a stable steady state configuration. The mirror ratio, plasma density, and plasma "b" will be varied over a range of values and measurements subsequently taken to determine the degree of plasma stability.

  15. Optical Analysis of an Ultra-High resolution Two-Mirror Soft X-Ray Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, Cheng; Hoover, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    This work has summarized for a Schwarzschild microscope some relationships between numerical aperture (NA), magnification, diameter of the primary mirror, radius of curvature of the secondary mirror, and the total length of the microscope. To achieve resolutions better than a spherical Schwarzschild microscope of 3.3 Lambda for a perfectly aligned and fabricated system. it is necessary to use aspherical surfaces to control higher-order aberrations. For an NA of 0.35, the aspherical Head microscope provides diffraction limited resolution of 1.4 Lambda where the aspherical surfaces differ from the best fit spherical surface by approximately 1 micrometer. However, the angle of incidence varies significantly over the primary and the secondary mirrors, which will require graded multilayer coatings to operate near peak reflectivities. For higher numerical apertures, the variation of the angle of incidence over the secondary mirror surface becomes a serious problem which must be solved before multilayer coatings can be used for this application. Tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has shown that water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance for operations with 130 A radiation. Surface contour errors have been shown to have a significant impact on the MTF and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror.

  16. X-ray photographs of a solar active region with a multilayer telescope at normal incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J. H.; Bruner, M. E.; Haisch, B. M.; Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    An astronomical photograph was obtained with a multilayer X-ray telescope. A 4-cm tungsten-carbon multilayer mirror was flown as part of an experimental solar rocket payload, and successful images were taken of the sun at normal incidence at a wavelength of 44 A. Coronal Si XII emission from an active region was recorded on film; as expected, the structure is very similar to that observed at O VIII wavelengths by the Solar Maximum Mission flat-crystal spectrometer at the same time. The small, simple optical system used in this experiment appears to have achieved a resolution of 5 to 10 arcsec.

  17. Piezoelectric multilayer actuator life test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Jones, Christopher M; Aldrich, Jack B; Blodget, Chad J; Moore, James D; Carson, John W; Goullioud, Renaud

    2011-04-01

    Potential NASA optical missions such as the Space Interferometer Mission require actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of nanometers. Commercially available multilayer piezoelectric stack actuators are being considered for driving these precision mirror positioning mechanisms. These mechanisms have potential mission operational requirements that exceed 5 years for one mission life. To test the feasibility of using these commercial actuators for these applications and to determine their reliability and the redundancy requirements, a life test study was undertaken. The nominal actuator requirements for the most critical actuators on the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) in terms of number of cycles was estimated from the Modulation Optics Mechanism (MOM) and Pathlength control Optics Mechanism (POM) and these requirements were used to define the study. At a nominal drive frequency of 250 Hz, one mission life is calculated to be 40 billion cycles. In this study, a set of commercial PZT stacks configured in a potential flight actuator configuration (pre-stressed to 18 MPa and bonded in flexures) were tested for up to 100 billion cycles. Each test flexure allowed for two sets of primary and redundant stacks to be mechanically connected in series. The tests were controlled using an automated software control and data acquisition system that set up the test parameters and monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The samples were driven between 0 and 20 V at 2000 Hz to accelerate the life test and mimic the voltage amplitude that is expected to be applied to the stacks during operation. During the life test, 10 primary stacks were driven and 10 redundant stacks, mechanically in series with the driven stacks, were open-circuited. The stroke determined from a strain gauge, the temperature and humidity in the chamber, and the temperature of each individual stack were recorded. Other properties of the stacks, including the

  18. Interfacial behaviour of biopolymer multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstens, Meinou N.; Osorio Caltenco, Lilia A.; Vries, de Renko; Schroën, Karin; Berton-Carabin, Claire C.

    2017-01-01

    Although multilayered emulsions have been related to reduced lipolysis, the involved interfacial phenomena have never been studied directly. In this work, we systematically built multilayers of whey protein and pectin, which we further subjected to digestive conditions, using two different

  19. Influence of core design, production technique, and material selection on fracture behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal fixed dental prostheses produced using different multilayer techniques: split-file, over-pressing, and manually built-up veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood DJH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Deyar Jallal Hadi Mahmood, Ewa H Linderoth, Ann Wennerberg, Per Vult Von Steyern Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden Aim: To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP fixed dental prostheses (FDPs with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. Materials and methods: A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1–7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8–11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. Results: There was a significant difference (P<0.05 between the core designs, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS® (1,806±165 N and e.max® ZirPress (1,854±115 N and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM® 9 (1,849±150 N demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. Conclusion: The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed

  20. Ultrahard Multilayer Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzan, D.C.; Dugger, M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Friedmann, T.A.; Knapp, J.A.; McCarty, K.F.; Medlin, D.L.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Missert, N.; Newcomer, P.P.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tallant, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a new multilayer a-tC material that is thick stress-free, adherent, low friction, and with hardness and stiffness near that of diamond. The new a-tC material is deposited by J pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature, and fully stress-relieved by a short thermal anneal at 600 ampersand deg;C. A thick multilayer is built up by repeated deposition and annealing steps. We measured 88 GPa hardness, 1100 GPa Young's modulus, and 0.1 friction coefficient (under high load). Significantly, these results are all well within the range reported for crystalline diamond. In fact, this material, if considered separate from crystalline diamond, is the 2nd hardest material known to man. Stress-free a-tC also has important advantages over thin film diamond; namely, it is smooth, processed at lower temperature, and can be grown on a much broader range of substrates. This breakthrough will enable a host of applications that we are actively pursuing in MEMs, sensors, LIGA, etc

  1. Magnetic metallic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, R.Q.

    1994-04-01

    Utilizing self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations, several aspects of multilayers and interfaces are explored: enhancement and reduction of the local magnetic moments, magnetic coupling at the interfaces, magnetic arrangements within each film and among non-neighboring films, global symmetry of the systems, frustration, orientation of the various moments with respect to an outside applied field, and magnetic-field induced transitions. Magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic-normal-metal multilayers is found by solving the Boltzmann equation. Results explain the giant negative magnetoresistance encountered in these systems when an initial antiparallel arrangement is changed into a parallel configuration by an external magnetic field. The calculation depends on (1) geometric parameters (thicknesses of layers), (2) intrinsic metal parameters (number of conduction electrons, magnetization, and effective masses in layers), (3) bulk sample properties (conductivity relaxation times), (4) interface scattering properties (diffuse scattering versus potential scattering at the interfaces, and (5) outer surface scattering properties (specular versus diffuse surface scattering). It is found that a large negative magnetoresistance requires considerable asymmetry in interface scattering for the two spin orientations. Features of the interfaces that may produce an asymmetrical spin-dependent scattering are studied: varying interfacial geometric random roughness with no lateral coherence, correlated (quasi-periodic) roughness, and varying chemical composition of the interfaces. The interplay between these aspects of the interfaces may enhance or suppress the magnetoresistance, depending on whether it increases or decreases the asymmetry in the spin-dependent scattering of the conduction electrons

  2. Mirror profile optimization for nano-focusing KB mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Baker, Robert; Barrett, Ray; Cloetens, Peter; Dabin, Yves

    2010-01-01

    A KB focusing mirror width profile has been optimized to achieve nano-focusing for the nano-imaging end-station ID22NI at the ESRF. The complete mirror and flexure bender assembly has been modeled in 3D with finite element analysis using ANSYS. Bender stiffness, anticlastic effects and geometrical non-linear effects have been considered. Various points have been studied: anisotropy and crystal orientation, stress in the mirror and bender, actuator resolution and the mirror-bender adhesive bonding... Extremely high performance of the mirror is expected with residual slope error smaller than 0.6 μrad, peak-to-valley, compared to the bent slope of 3000 μrad.

  3. Developmental long trace profiler using optimally aligned mirror based pentaprism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Buchheim, Jana; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A low-budget surface slope measuring instrument, the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP), was recently brought into operation at the Advanced Light Source Optical Metrology Laboratory (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 616, 212-223 (2010)). The instrument is based on a precisely calibrated autocollimator and a movable pentaprism. The capability of the DLTP to achieve sub-microradian surface slope metrology has been verified via cross-comparison measurements with other high-performance slope measuring instruments when measuring the same high-quality test optics. In the present work, a further improvement of the DLTP is achieved by replacing the existing bulk pentaprism with a specially designed mirror based pentaprism. A mirror based pentaprism offers the possibility to eliminate systematic errors introduced by inhomogeneity of the optical material and fabrication imperfections of a bulk pentaprism. We provide the details of the mirror based pentaprism design and describe an original experimental procedure for precision mutual alignment of the mirrors. The algorithm of the alignment procedure and its efficiency are verified with rigorous ray tracing simulations. Results of measurements of a spherically curved test mirror and a flat test mirror using the original bulk pentaprism are compared with measurements using the new mirror based pentaprism, demonstrating the improved performance.

  4. Carbon Fiber Mirror for a CubeSat Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Soo; Jang, Jeong Gyun; Kim, Jihun; Nam, Uk Won

    2017-08-01

    Telescope mirrors made by carbon fibers have been increasingly used especially for space applications, and they may replace the traditional glass mirrors. Glass mirrors are easy to fabricate, but needed to be carefully handled as they are brittle. Other materials have also been considered for telescope mirrors, such as metals, plastics, and liquids even. However glass and glass ceramics are still commonly and dominantly used.Carbon fiber has mainly been used for mechanical supports like truss structure and telescope tubes, as it is stiff and light-weight. It can also be a good material for telescope mirrors, as it has additional merits of non-brittle and very low thermal expansion. Therefore, carbon fiber mirror would be suitable for space telescopes which should endure the harsh vibration conditions during launch.A light-weight telescope made by carbon fiber has been designed for a small satellite which would have much less weight than conventional ones. In this poster, mirror materials are reviewed, and a design of carbon fiber telescope is presented and discussed.

  5. Adaptive aberration correction using a triode hyperbolic electron mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, J.P.S.; Word, R.C.; Koenenkamp, R.

    2011-01-01

    A converging electron mirror can be used to compensate spherical and chromatic aberrations in an electron microscope. This paper presents an analytical solution to a novel triode (three electrode) hyperbolic mirror as an improvement to the well-known diode (two electrode) hyperbolic mirror for aberration correction. A weakness of the diode mirror is a lack of flexibility in changing the chromatic and spherical aberration coefficients independently without changes in the mirror geometry. In order to remove this limitation, a third electrode can be added. We calculate the optical properties of the resulting triode mirror analytically on the basis of a simple model field distribution. We present the optical properties-the object/image distance, z 0 , and the coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration, C s and C c , of both mirror types from an analysis of electron trajectories in the mirror field. From this analysis, we demonstrate that while the properties of both designs are similar, the additional parameters in the triode mirror improve the range of aberration that can be corrected. The triode mirror is also able to provide a dynamic adjustment range of chromatic aberration for fixed spherical aberration and focal length, or any permutation of these three parameters. While the dynamic range depends on the values of aberration correction needed, a nominal 10% tuning range is possible for most configurations accompanied by less than 1% change in the other two properties. -- Highlights: → Electrostatic aberration correction for chromatic and spherical aberration in electron optics. → Simultaneous correction of spherical and chromatic aberrations over a wide, adjustable range. → Analytic and quantitative description of correction parameters.

  6. Mirror benders for high thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.; Vickery, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal conditions in high power mirrors can be very complex and the exact calculation of their thermal behaviour requires very detailed calculations. However by making some simplifying assumptions it is possible to make an analysis which indicates the sort of performance that can be expected. Further by consideration of the simplifying assumptions it is possible to see how the design may contain features to mitigate the effects that occur in the real world. A simple treatment of thermal perturbations in mirror benders is presented. The design features which can help a bender to operate with a high thermal flux are looked at. In conclusion, the way to proceed to higher thermal loadings when passive methods prove inadequate is suggested. (author)

  7. Six-strut arrangements for cartesian movements of mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, T.; Zeschke, Th.; Reichardt, G.; Lammert, H.; Gudat, W.

    2001-01-01

    At BESSY a new six-strut arrangement for general small travel mirror adjustment mechanisms has been developed. This patented (Patent DE 10042802.5) arrangement allows very simple movements in all six linear and rotational degrees of freedom. The movements of the mirror are simply determined by moving either one drive, or up to three drives by the same amount. The first mirror adjustment systems of this design is successfully in operation since the start of BESSY II. Their performance and reliability is very satisfactory. This contribution will present the concepts

  8. Virtual Mirror gaming in libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, M.; Kröse, B.; Nijholt, A.; Poppe, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study on a natural interface game in the context of a library. We developed a camera-based Virtual Mirror (VM) game, in which the player can see himself on the screen as if he looks at a mirror image. We present an overview of the different aspects of VM games and technologies

  9. TCV mirrors cleaned by plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Marot

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic mirrors exposed in TCV tokamak were cleaned by plasma in laboratory. A gold (Au mirror was deposited with 185–285nm of amorphous carbon (aC:D film coming from the carbon tiles of TCV. Another molybdenum (Mo mirror had a thicker deposit due to a different location within the tokamak. The thickness measurements were carried out using ellipsometry and the reflectivity measurements performed by spectrophotometry revealed a decrease of the specular reflectivity in the entire range (250–2500nm for the Mo mirror and specifically in the visible spectrum for the Au. Comparison of the simulated reflectivity using a refractive index of 1.5 and a Cauchy model for the aC:D gives good confidence on the estimated film thickness. Plasma cleaning using radio frequency directly applied to a metallic plate where the mirrors were fixed demonstrated the ability to remove the carbon deposits. A mixture of 50% hydrogen and 50% helium was used with a −200V self-bias. Due to the low sputtering yield of He and the low chemical erosion of hydrogen leading to volatile molecules, 20h of cleaning were needed for Au mirror and more than 60h for Mo mirror. Recovery of the reflectivity was not complete for the Au mirror most likely due to damage of the surface during tokamak exposure (breakdown phenomena.

  10. Conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for a mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor. Addendum 1. Alternate concepts. 12-month progress report addendum, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Dee, J.B.; Backus, G.A.; Culver, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    During the course of the Mirror Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor study several alternate concepts were considered for various reactor components. Several of the alternate concepts do appear to exhibit features with potential advantage for use in the mirror hybrid reactor. These are described and should possibly be investigated further in the future

  11. Mirroring patients – or not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann

    2015-01-01

    on studies of imitative behaviour within linguistics and psychology, we argue that interactional mirroring is an important aspect of displaying implicit mentalization. We aimed to explore if, and in that case how, mirroring is displayed by general practitioners (GPs) and psychiatrists in consultations...... with patients with depression. We wanted to see how implicit mentalizing unfolds in physician–patient interactions. Consultations were videorecorded and analysed within the framework of conversation analysis. GPs and psychiatrists differed substantially in their propensity to mirror body movements and verbal...... and acoustic features of speech. GPs mirrored their patients more than psychiatrists in all modalities and were more flexible in their interactional behaviour. Psychiatrists seemed more static, regardless of the emotionality displayed by patients. Implicitly mirroring and attuning to patients could signify...

  12. Introduction to tandem mirror physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.; Gerver, M.J.; Lane, B.G.; McVey, B.D.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.

    1983-09-01

    This monograph, prepared jointly by the MIT Plasma Fusion Center Mirror Fusion group and SAI, Boulder, Colorado, presents a review of the development of mirror fusion theory from its conception some thirty years ago to the present. Pertinent historic experiments and their contribution are discussed to set the stage for a detailed analysis of current experiments and the problems which remain to be solved in bringing tandem mirror magnetic confinement fusion to fruition. In particular, Chapter III discusses in detail the equilibrium and stability questions which must be dealt with before tandem mirror reactors become feasible, while Chapters IV and V discuss some of the current machines and those under construction which will help to resolve critical issues in both physics and engineering whose solutions are necessary to the commercialization of tandem mirror fusion

  13. Potential measurements in tandem mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowienka, J.C.

    1985-11-01

    The US mirror program has begun conducting experiments with a thermal barrier tandem mirror configuration. This configuration requires a specific axial potential profile and implies measurements of potential for documentation and optimization of the configuration. This report briefly outlines the motivation for the thermal barrier tandem mirror and then outlines the techniques used to document the potential profile in conventional and thermal barrier tandem mirrors. Examples of typical data sets from the world's major tandem mirror experiments, TMX and TMX-U at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Gamma 10 at Tsukuba University in Japan, and the current interpretation of the data are discussed together with plans for the future improvement of measurements of plasma potential

  14. Influence of core design, production technique, and material selection on fracture behavior of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal fixed dental prostheses produced using different multilayer techniques: split-file, over-pressing, and manually built-up veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Deyar Jallal Hadi; Linderoth, Ewa H; Wennerberg, Ann; Vult Von Steyern, Per

    2016-01-01

    To investigate and compare the fracture strength and fracture mode in eleven groups of currently, the most commonly used multilayer three-unit all-ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the choice of core material, veneering material area, manufacturing technique, design of connectors, and radii of curvature of FDP cores. A total of 110 three-unit Y-TZP FDP cores with one intermediate pontic were made. The FDP cores in groups 1-7 were made with a split-file design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain, computer-aided design-on veneers, and over-pressed veneers. Groups 8-11 consisted of FDPs with a state-of-the-art design, veneered with manually built-up porcelain. All the FDP cores were subjected to simulated aging and finally loaded to fracture. There was a significant difference (Pdesigns, but not between the different types of Y-TZP materials. The split-file designs with VITABLOCS(®) (1,806±165 N) and e.max(®) ZirPress (1,854±115 N) and the state-of-the-art design with VITA VM(®) 9 (1,849±150 N) demonstrated the highest mean fracture values. The shape of a split-file designed all-ceramic reconstruction calls for a different dimension protocol, compared to traditionally shaped ones, as the split-file design leads to sharp approximal indentations acting as fractural impressions, thus decreasing the overall strength. The design of a framework is a crucial factor for the load bearing capacity of an all-ceramic FDP. The state-of-the-art design is preferable since the split-file designed cores call for a cross-sectional connector area at least 42% larger, to have the same load bearing capacity as the state-of-the-art designed cores. All veneering materials and techniques tested in the study, split-file, over-press, built-up porcelains, and glass-ceramics are, with a great safety margin, sufficient for clinical use both anteriorly and posteriorly. Analysis of the fracture pattern shows

  15. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Congenital mirror movement disorder Congenital mirror movement disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital mirror movement disorder is a condition in which intentional movements ...

  16. Thermal-mechanical behavior of high precision composite mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. P.; Lou, M. C.; Rapp, D.

    1993-01-01

    Composite mirror panels were designed, constructed, analyzed, and tested in the framework of a NASA precision segmented reflector task. The deformations of the reflector surface during the exposure to space enviroments were predicted using a finite element model. The composite mirror panels have graphite-epoxy or graphite-cyanate facesheets, separated by an aluminum or a composite honeycomb core. It is pointed out that in order to carry out detailed modeling of composite mirrors with high accuracy, it is necessary to have temperature dependent properties of the materials involved and the type and magnitude of manufacturing errors and material nonuniformities. The structural modeling and analysis efforts addressed the impact of key design and materials parameters on the performance of mirrors.

  17. Thermal-mechanical behavior of high precision composite mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, C.P.; Lou, M.C.; Rapp, D.

    1993-01-01

    Composite mirror panels were designed, constructed, analyzed, and tested in the framework of a NASA precision segmented reflector task. The deformations of the reflector surface during the exposure to space enviroments were predicted using a finite element model. The composite mirror panels have graphite-epoxy or graphite-cyanate facesheets, separated by an aluminum or a composite honeycomb core. It is pointed out that in order to carry out detailed modeling of composite mirrors with high accuracy, it is necessary to have temperature dependent properties of the materials involved and the type and magnitude of manufacturing errors and material nonuniformities. The structural modeling and analysis efforts addressed the impact of key design and materials parameters on the performance of mirrors. 4 refs.

  18. Long-trace profiler for neutron focusing mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.; Ice, Gene E.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    A long-trace profiler (LTP) optimized for measuring the shape of large neutron supermirrors has been designed and built. This LTP can measure 1.6 m long mirrors in both vertically and horizontally deflecting geometries, which is essential to achieve best performance from bendable mirrors. The LTP suppresses the influence of angular deviations of the linear-stage carriage during translation with a pentaprism and a cylindrical lens. The stationary optical head and the carriage-mounted pentaprism are precisely aligned to rotate about the optical axis between the two components. This feature allows measurements to be made on mirrors mounted vertically, horizontally or at any angle in between. The LTP software allows for rapid optimization of parameters for dynamically bent elliptical mirrors. Here we describe the motivation for the LTP, the design, and a first application of the LTP to study the effect of gravity on a bent microfocusing neutron supermirror.

  19. Application of silicon carbide to synchrotron-radiation mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Hursman, T.L.; Williams, J.T.

    1983-09-01

    Damage to conventional mirror materials exposed to the harsh synchrotron radiation (SR) environment has prompted the SR user community to search for more suitable materials. Next-generation insertion devices, with their attendant flux increases, will make the problem of mirror design even more difficult. A parallel effort in searching for better materials has been underway within the laser community for several years. The technology for dealing with high thermal loads is highly developed among laser manufacturers. Performance requirements for laser heat exchangers are remarkably similar to SR mirror requirements. We report on the application of laser heat exchanger technology to the solution of typical SR mirror design problems. The superior performance of silicon carbide for laser applications is illustrated by various material trades studies, and its superior performance for SR applications is illustrated by means of model calculations

  20. High index of refraction films for dielectric mirrors prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    A wide variety of metal oxides with high index of refraction can be prepared by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. We present some recent optical and laser damage results on oxide films prepared by MOCVD which could be used in a multilayer structure for highly reflecting (HR) dielectric mirror applications. The method of preparation affects both optical properties and laser damage threshold. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs