WorldWideScience

Sample records for multilayer coating facility

  1. Multilayer coating facility for the HEFT hard x-ray telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Chen, Hubert

    2001-01-01

    A planar magnetron sputtering facility has been established at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI) for the production coating of depth graded multilayers on the thermally slumped glass segments which form the basis for the hard X-ray telescope on the HEFT balloon project. The facility...

  2. Ultrahard Multilayer Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzan, D.C.; Dugger, M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Friedman, Lawrence H.; Friedmann, T.A.; Knapp, J.A.; McCarty, K.F.; Medlin, D.L.; Mirkarimi, P.B.; Missert, N.; Newcomer, P.P.; Sullivan, J.P.; Tallant, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a new multilayer a-tC material that is thick stress-free, adherent, low friction, and with hardness and stiffness near that of diamond. The new a-tC material is deposited by J pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature, and fully stress-relieved by a short thermal anneal at 600 ampersand deg;C. A thick multilayer is built up by repeated deposition and annealing steps. We measured 88 GPa hardness, 1100 GPa Young's modulus, and 0.1 friction coefficient (under high load). Significantly, these results are all well within the range reported for crystalline diamond. In fact, this material, if considered separate from crystalline diamond, is the 2nd hardest material known to man. Stress-free a-tC also has important advantages over thin film diamond; namely, it is smooth, processed at lower temperature, and can be grown on a much broader range of substrates. This breakthrough will enable a host of applications that we are actively pursuing in MEMs, sensors, LIGA, etc

  3. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  4. Performance of multilayer coated silicon pore optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M. D.; Collon, M. J.; Jensen, C. P.; Christensen, F. E.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Marggraf, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Lumb, D.; Shortt, B.

    2010-07-01

    The requirements for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) telescope are very challenging in respect of angular resolution and effective area. Within a clear aperture with 1.7 m > R > 0.25 m that is dictated by the spacecraft envelope, the optics technology must be developed to satisfy simultaneously requirements for effective area of 2.5 m2 at 1.25 keV, 0.65 m2 at 6 keV and 150 cm2 at 30 keV. The reflectivity of the bare mirror substrate materials does not allow these requirements to be met. As such the IXO baseline design contains a coating layout that varies as a function of mirror radius and in accordance with the variation in grazing incidence angle. The higher energy photon response is enhanced through the use of depth-graded multilayer coatings on the inner radii mirror modules. In this paper we report on the first reflectivity measurements of wedged ribbed silicon pore optics mirror plates coated with a depth graded W/Si multilayer. The measurements demonstrate that the deposition and performance of the multilayer coatings is compatible with the SPO production process.

  5. Water transport in multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baukh, V.

    2012-01-01

    Coatings form the interface between structures and the environment in many application domains. They play a crucial role in providing protection, e.g. against corrosion, they form a barrier against an aggressive environment and they create the aesthetic appearance. To fulfill such functionalities,

  6. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  7. Progress at the ESRF multilayer facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawe, Ch; Peffen, J Ch; Friedrich, K; Osterhoff, M

    2013-01-01

    The ESRF multilayer (ML) deposition facility is fully operational since 2009. By the end of 2011, almost 50 ML projects were completed using the new machine, bringing the total number to 143 since 1998. Thanks to the new equipment and its improved performance the throughput could be significantly increased. The ESRF upgrade project caused strong demands for new ML optics, in particular dynamically bent KB focusing devices requiring very precise and steeply graded ML coatings. Thanks to this technology, the ESRF nano-imaging end-station ID22NI now provides the users with spot sizes of the order of 50×50 nm 2 at a photon flux of 10 12 ph/s. Among various in-house research and development activities the study of stress evolution during thin film and ML growth will be highlighted. Additional projects involving a PhD student and a PostDoc fellow cover the fields of wave optical simulations using curved MLs and the exposure of ML based monochromators to the white beam.

  8. Multilayer composition coatings for cutting tools: formation and performance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, Vladimir P.; Vereschaka, Anatoly S.; Vereschaka, Alexey A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper considers the concept of a multi-layer architecture of the coating in which each layer has a predetermined functionality. Latest generation of coatings with multi-layered architecture for cutting tools secure a dual nature of the coating, in which coatings should not only improve the mechanical and physical characteristics of the cutting tool material, but also reduce the thermo-mechanical effect on the cutting tool determining wear intensity. Here are presented the results of the development of combined methods of forming multi-layer coatings with improved properties. Combined method of forming coatings using a pulsed laser allowed reducing excessively high levels of compressive residual stress and increasing micro hardness of the multilayered coatings. The results in testing coated HSS tools showed that the use of additional pulse of laser processing increases tool life up to 3 times. Using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition for the generation of multilayer coatings based on TiAlN compound has increased the wear-resistance of carbide tools by 2 fold compared with tool life of cutting tool with commercial TiN coatings. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative methodological approach to the deposition of multilayer coatings for cutting tools with functional architectural selection, properties and parameters of the coating based on sound knowledge of coating failure in machining process.

  9. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating

  10. Effects of layer nanodefects on the light transmission by optical elements with multilayer interference coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekeshgazyi, Yi.V.; Syidenko, T.S.; Mitsa, O.V.; Barna, P.; Kyikyineshyi, O.Ye.

    2011-01-01

    The light transmission properties of optical elements with multilayer interference coatings have been studied. The reduction of transmittance maxima for optical elements with coating containing defects is found to be stronger for larger refractive indices of the substances that the defects are made of. The shape of transmittance curves is found to substantially depend on the defect dimensions along the direction of light propagation and the defect arrangement in the layer bulk. The results obtained are necessary for the developing of a technology aimed at manufacturing the optical elements with multilayer interference coatings for laser facilities and optical lenses.

  11. Stronger multilayer acrylic dielectric elastomer actuators with silicone gel coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; La, Thanh-Giang; Sheng-Wei Foong, Ervin; Shrestha, Milan

    2016-12-01

    Multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) perform worst off than single-layer DEAs due to higher susceptibility to electro-thermal breakdown. This paper presents a hot-spot model to predict the electro-thermal breakdown field of DEAs and its dependence on thermal insulation. To inhibit the electrothermal breakdown, silicone gel coating was applied as barrier coating to multilayer acrylic DEA. The gel coating helps suppress the electro-thermally induced puncturing of DEA membrane at the hot spot. As a result, the gel-coated DEAs, in either a single layer or a multilayer stack, can produce 30% more isometric stress change as compared to those none-coated. These gel-coated acrylic DEAs show great potential to make stronger artificial muscles.

  12. Stress in tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujada, B.R.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon (WC-DLC) multilayer coatings have been prepared by sputter deposition from a tungsten-carbide target and periodic switching on and off of the reactive acetylene gas flow. The stress in the resulting WC-DLC multilayers has been studied by substrate curvature.

  13. Multilayer DLC coatings via alternating bias during magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Fengji [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Zhang, Sam, E-mail: msyzhang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Kong Junhua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Zhang Yujuan [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Material, Henan University (China); Zhang Wali [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2011-05-31

    To combat the high residual stress problem in monolayer diamond-like carbon coatings, this paper fabricated multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings with alternate soft and hard layers via alternating bias during magnetron sputtering. The surface, cross sectional morphology, bonding structures and mechanical properties are investigated. The atomic force microscopy images indicate low bias results in rougher surface with large graphite clusters and voids suggesting low coating density. The multilayered coatings demonstrate relatively smooth surface stemming from higher bias. The cross sectional images from field emission scanning electron microscopy indicate coating thickness decreases as substrate bias increases and confirm that higher bias results in denser coating. Delamination is observed in monolayer coatings due to high residual stress. The trend of sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} fraction estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is consistent with that of I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratios from Raman spectra, indicating the change of bonding structure with change of substrate bias. Hardness of multilayer diamond-like carbon coating is comparable to the coatings deposited at low constant bias but the adhesion strength and toughness are significantly improved. Alternately biased sputtering deposition provides an alternative when combination of hardness, toughness and adhesion strength is needed in an all diamond-like carbon coating.

  14. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  15. Selective emission multilayer coatings for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockeram, Brian Vern

    2004-01-27

    Multilayer coating designs have been developed to provide selective emission for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator surface. These coatings increase the surface emissivity of a molybdenum TPV radiator substrate in the wavelength range that matches the bandgap of the TPV cells to increase the power density of the TPV system. Radiator emission at wavelengths greater than the bandgap energy of the TPV cells is greatly reduced through the use of these coatings, which significantly increases the efficiency of the TPV system. The use of this coating greatly improves the performance of a TPV system, and the coating can be tailored to match the bandgap of any practical TPV system.

  16. Nanolaminated TiN/Mo2N hard multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martev, I N; Dechev, D A; Ivanov, N P; Uzunov, T S D; Kashchieva, E P

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results on the synthesis of hard multilayer coatings consisting of titanium nitride and molybdenum nitride thin films with thickness of several nm. The TiN and Mo 2 N films were successively deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. These multilayer structures were investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cross-section scanning electron microscopy (CSSEM) and cross-section electron probe microanalysis (CSEPMA). The mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings, namely, hardness, Young's modulus and the coefficient of plastic deformation were measured. The adhesion was evaluated by the Rockwell-C-impact test. Coatings with different total thickness were examined with respect to adhesion to substrates of tool materials.

  17. ANTIREFLECTION MULTILAYER COATINGS WITH THIN METAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of anti-reflective coatings for metal surfaces of Al, Ti, N,i Cr is proposed. The coatings have the form of alternating layers of dielectric/metal/dielectric with the number of cells up to15. The method of calculation of such coatings is proposed. We have calculated the coatings of the type [HfO2/Cr/HfO2]15, [ZrO2/Ti/Al2O3]15, [ZrO2/Cr/ZrO2]15. It is shown that the proposed interference coatings provide reduction of the residual reflectance of the metal several times (from 3.5 to 6.0 in a wide spectral range (300-1000 nm. The proposed coatings can be recommended as anti-reflective coatings for energy saving solar systems and batteries, and photovoltaic cells.

  18. Characterization of multilayer anti-fog coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Pascale; Turgeon, Stéphane; Sarra-Bournet, Christian; Turcotte, Raphaël; Laroche, Gaétan

    2011-03-01

    Fog formation on transparent substrates constitutes a major challenge in several optical applications requiring excellent light transmission characteristics. Anti-fog coatings are hydrophilic, enabling water to spread uniformly on the surface rather than form dispersed droplets. Despite the development of several anti-fog coating strategies, the long-term stability, adherence to the underlying substrate, and resistance to cleaning procedures are not yet optimal. We report on a polymer-based anti-fog coating covalently grafted onto glass surfaces by means of a multistep process. Glass substrates were first activated by plasma functionalization to provide amino groups on the surface, resulting in the subsequent covalent bonding of the polymeric layers. The anti-fog coating was then created by the successive spin coating of (poly(ethylene-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) layers. PEMA acted as an interface by covalently reacting with both the glass surface amino functionalities and the PVA hydroxyl groups, while PVA added the necessary surface hydrophilicity to provide anti-fog properties. Each step of the procedure was monitored by XPS, which confirmed the successful grafting of the coating. Coating thickness was evaluated by profilometry, nanoindentation, and UV visible light transmission. The hydrophilic nature of the anti-fog coating was assessed by water contact angle (CA), and its anti-fog efficiency was determined visually and tested quantitatively for the first time using an ASTM standard protocol. Results show that the PEMA/PVA coating not only delayed the initial period required for fog formation but also decreased the rate of light transmission decay. Finally, following a 24 hour immersion in water, these PEMA/PVA coatings remained stable and preserved their anti-fog properties.

  19. Thermal stress prediction in mirror and multilayer coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianchao; Zhang, Lin; Morawe, Christian; Sanchez Del Rio, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Multilayer optics for X-rays typically consist of hundreds of periods of two types of alternating sub-layers which are coated on a silicon substrate. The thickness of the coating is well below 1 µm (tens or hundreds of nanometers). The high aspect ratio (∼10(7)) between the size of the optics and the thickness of the multilayer can lead to a huge number of elements (∼10(16)) for the numerical simulation (by finite-element analysis using ANSYS code). In this work, the finite-element model for thermal-structural analysis of multilayer optics has been implemented using the ANSYS layer-functioned elements. The number of meshed elements is considerably reduced and the number of sub-layers feasible for the present computers is increased significantly. Based on this technique, single-layer coated mirrors and multilayer monochromators cooled by water or liquid nitrogen are studied with typical parameters of heat-load, cooling and geometry. The effects of cooling-down of the optics and heating of the X-ray beam are described. It is shown that the influences from the coating on temperature and deformation are negligible. However, large stresses are induced in the layers due to the different thermal expansion coefficients between the layer and the substrate materials, which is the critical issue for the survival of the optics. This is particularly true for the liquid-nitrogen cooling condition. The material properties of thin multilayer films are applied in the simulation to predict the layer thermal stresses with more precision.

  20. Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes by blade coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Rong; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Lee, Kuan-Chen; Horng, Sheng-Fu

    2008-10-01

    Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes fabricated by blade coating are presented. Multilayer of polymers can be easily deposited by blade coating on a hot plate. The multilayer structure is confirmed by the total thickness and the cross section view in the scanning electron microscope. The film thickness variation is only 3.3% in 10cm scale and the film roughness is about 0.3nm in the micron scale. The efficiency of single layer poly(para-phenylene vinylene) copolymer Super Yellow and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO, deep blue) devices are 9 and 1.7cd/A, respectively, by blade coating. The efficiency of the PFO device is raised to 2.9cd/A with a 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenylyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) hole-blocking layer and to 2.3cd/A with a poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(4,4'-(N-(4-sec-butylphenyl))diphenylamine)] elec-tron-blocking layer added by blade coating.

  1. Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senf, F.; Bijkerk, Frederik; Eggenstein, F.; Gwalt, G.; Huang, Qiushi; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Kutz, O.; Lemke, S.; Louis, Eric; Mertin, M.; Packe, I.; Rudolph, I.; Schafers, F.; Siewert, F.; Sokolov, A.; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Waberski, C.; Wang, Z.; Wolf, J.; Zeschke, T.; Erko, A.

    2016-01-01

    For photon energies of 1 – 5 keV, blazed gratings with multilayer coating are ideally suited for the suppression of stray and higher orders light in grating monochromators. We developed and characterized a blazed 2000 lines/mm grating coated with a 20 period Cr/C- multilayer. The multilayer

  2. Multilayer ultra-high-temperature ceramic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, Ronald E [Albuquerque, NM; Corral, Erica L [Tucson, AZ

    2012-03-20

    A coated carbon-carbon composite material with multiple ceramic layers to provide oxidation protection from ultra-high-temperatures, where if the carbon-carbon composite material is uninhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then the first layer on the composite material is selected from ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2, onto which is coated a layer of SiC coated and if the carbon-carbon composite material is inhibited with B.sub.4C particles, then protection can be achieved with a layer of SiC and a layer of either ZrB.sub.2 and HfB.sub.2 in any order.

  3. Multilayer oxidation resistant coating for SiC coated carbon/carbon composites at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hejun; Jiao Gengsheng; Li Kezhi; Wang Chuang

    2008-01-01

    To prevent carbon/carbon (C/C) composites from oxidation, a multilayer coating based on molybdenum disilicide and titanium disilicide was formed using a two-step pack cementation technique in argon atmosphere. XRD and SEM analysis showed that the internal coating was a bond SiC layer that acts as a buffer layer, and that the external multilayer coating formed in the two-step pack cementation was composed of two MoSi 2 -TiSi 2 -SiC layers. This coating, which is characterized by excellent thermal shock resistance, could effectively protect the composites from exposure to an oxidizing atmosphere at 1773 K for 79 h. The oxidation of the coated C/C composites was primarily due to the reaction of C/C matrix and oxygen diffusing through the penetrable cracks in the coating

  4. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  5. Performance of multilayer coated silicon pore optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackermann, M. D.; Collon, M. J.; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.

    2010-01-01

    simultaneously requirements for effective area of 2.5 m2 at 1.25 keV, 0.65 m2 at 6 keV and 150 cm2 at 30 keV. The reflectivity of the bare mirror substrate materials does not allow these requirements to be met. As such the IXO baseline design contains a coating layout that varies as a function of mirror radius...

  6. Oxidation behavior of Ru–Al multilayer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Zheng, Zhi-Ting; Kai, Wu; Huang, Yu-Ren

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Ru{sub 0.63}Al{sub 0.37} multilayer coatings were fabricated using cosputtering. • Oxidation behavior of Ru{sub 0.63}Al{sub 0.37} coatings in 1% O{sub 2}–99% Ar was studied. • Internal oxidation of Ru{sub 0.63}Al{sub 0.37} coatings at 400–600 °C was multi stage parabolic. • External oxidation of Ru{sub 0.63}Al{sub 0.37} was conducted after annealing at 700–800 °C. - Abstract: Ru{sub 0.63}Al{sub 0.37} coatings were deposited through a cyclical gradient concentration deposition at 400 °C with a substrate-holder rotation speed of 1 rpm by direct current magnetron cosputtering. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the as-deposited coatings exhibited a multilayer structure along with the columnar structure. The oxidation behavior of the Ru{sub 0.63}Al{sub 0.37} coatings was examined through X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Oxidation kinetics was measured using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Internal oxidation was observed for Ru{sub 0.63}Al{sub 0.37} coatings annealed in a 1% O{sub 2}–99% Ar atmosphere at 400–600 °C accompanied with activation energies of 72–84 kJ/mol. By contrast, external oxidation was observed after annealing at 700–800 °C, resulting in the formation of a continuous alumina scale consisting of crystalline δ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} domains, which can be attributable to the outward diffusion of Al.

  7. Wolter type I x-ray focusing mirror using multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon, Kwon Su; Namba, Yoshiharu; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2006-01-01

    A multilayer coating is a useful addition to a mirror in the x-ray region and has been applied to normal incidence mirrors used with soft x rays. When a multilayer coating is used on grazing incidence optics, higher performance can be achieved than without it.Cr/Sc multilayers coated on a Wolter type I mirror substrate for a soft x-ray microscope are considered. The reflectivity and effective solid angle are calculated for Wolter type I mirrors with uniform and laterally graded multilayer coatings. The laterally graded multilayer mirror showed superior x-ray performance, and the multilayer tolerances were relaxed. This multilayer mirror could be especially useful in the soft x-ray microscope intended for biological applications

  8. Laser Processing of Multilayered Thermal Spray Coatings: Optimal Processing Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Zhang, Tao; Lee, Hwasoo; Sampath, Sanjay; Hwang, David; Longtin, Jon

    2017-12-01

    Laser processing offers an innovative approach for the fabrication and transformation of a wide range of materials. As a rapid, non-contact, and precision material removal technology, lasers are natural tools to process thermal spray coatings. Recently, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) was fabricated using thermal spray and laser processing. The TEG device represents a multilayer, multimaterial functional thermal spray structure, with laser processing serving an essential role in its fabrication. Several unique challenges are presented when processing such multilayer coatings, and the focus of this work is on the selection of laser processing parameters for optimal feature quality and device performance. A parametric study is carried out using three short-pulse lasers, where laser power, repetition rate and processing speed are varied to determine the laser parameters that result in high-quality features. The resulting laser patterns are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electrical isolation tests between patterned regions. The underlying laser interaction and material removal mechanisms that affect the feature quality are discussed. Feature quality was found to improve both by using a multiscanning approach and an optional assist gas of air or nitrogen. Electrically isolated regions were also patterned in a cylindrical test specimen.

  9. Zinc/manganese multilayer coatings for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenz, R.; Wolf, G.K.; Guzman, L.; Adami, M.

    2004-01-01

    Zn alloys are able to surpass the performance of electrogalvanised or hot-dip Zn (at same thickness) for corrosion protection of car bodies. In particular, vacuum deposited Zn alloy layers have higher protection power on non-painted steel surfaces as compared with pure Zn layers. In the present work the Zn-Mn system was investigated: Zn/Mn alloys of different compositions as well as Zn/Mn multilayers of 5-6 μm total thickness were prepared on low alloy steel by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The equipment contained two electron beam evaporators and a slit extraction ion source, delivering ions of 100-1500 eV energy. The corrosion behaviour of the samples was evaluated by standard salt spray tests (SST). The composition and microstructure of the coatings was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX-depth profiling. The behaviour of the coating/substrate system is discussed in comparison with 'state of the art' Zn-coatings (EZ) produced by electrogalvanizing. Generally speaking, the performance of the optimised coatings is as good or better than the reference standard

  10. Sprayed and Spin-Coated Multilayer Antireflection Coating Films for Nonvacuum Processed Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Uzum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the simple and cost-effective methods, spin-coated ZrO2-polymer composite/spray-deposited TiO2-compact multilayer antireflection coating film was introduced. With a single TiO2-compact film on the surface of a crystalline silicon wafer, 5.3% average reflectance (the reflectance average between the wavelengths of 300 nm and 1100 nm was observed. Reflectance decreased further down to 3.3% after forming spin-coated ZrO2 on the spray-deposited TiO2-compact film. Silicon solar cells were fabricated using CZ-Si p-type wafers in three sets: (1 without antireflection coating (ARC layer, (2 with TiO2-compact ARC film, and (3 with ZrO2-polymer composite/TiO2-compact multilayer ARC film. Conversion efficiency of the cells improved by a factor of 0.8% (from 15.19% to 15.88% owing to the multilayer ARC. Jsc was improved further by 2 mA cm−2 (from 35.3 mA cm−2 to 37.2 mA cm−2 when compared with a single TiO2-compact ARC.

  11. Structural and Morphological Difference Between Ti/TiN/TiCN Coatings Grown in Multilayer and Graded Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, E.; Baena, A.; Agudelo, C.; Castillo, H.; Devia, A.; Marino, A.

    2006-01-01

    Thin films can be grown in super-lattice, multilayers and graded form, having each one advantages and disadvantages. The difference between multilayer and graded coatings is the interface. In multilayers the interface is abrupt and in graded coatings it is diffuse. The interface influences many chemical and physical properties of the materials, and its choice depends on the application. Graded coatings have the advantage of having gradual properties such as thermal expansion coefficient and lattice parameter, avoiding adherence problems due to good match between their component materials. In this work the comparison between some properties of coatings grown as multilayer and graded is performed. The materials are produced using the sputtering DC technique because of its facility to control the deposition parameters and generate a slow growth. The target is a disc of titanium and the samples are made of stainless steel 304. The working gases are argon, nitrogen and methane, which are mixed according to the material to be produced, i.e. Ti layer is grown with argon, the TiN film is produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen, and the TiCN material is obtained mixing argon, nitrogen and methane. These materials are characterized with AFM in order to determine grain size and with XPS studying the chemical composition and performing depth profiles

  12. Multilayer Antireflection Coating for Triple Junction Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Feng; Wang Hai-Li; He Ji-Fang; Wang Juan; Huang She-Song; Ni Hi-Qiao; Niu Zhi-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    According to the theory of optical films, we simulate the reflectivity of antireflection coatings (ARCs) for solar cells of Ga 0.5 In 0.5 P/GaAs/Ge based on an optical transfer matrix. In order to provide sufficient consideration of the refractive index dispersion effect of multilayer ARCs, we use multi-dimensional matrix data for reliable simulation. After the reflection curves are obtained, the effective average reflectance R e is introduced to optimize the film system by minimizing R e . Optimization of single layer (Al 2 O 3 ), double layer (MgF 2 /ZnS) and triple layer (MgF 2 /Al 2 O 3 /ZnS) ARCs is realized by using this method for space and terrestrial applications. Effects of these ARCs are compared after optimization. These theoretical parameters can be used to guide experiments. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. Surface self-organization in multilayer film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, Gleb M.; Kostyrko, Sergey A.

    2017-12-01

    It is a recognized fact that during film deposition and subsequent thermal processing the film surface evolves into an undulating profile. Surface roughness affects many important aspects in the engineering application of thin film materials such as wetting, heat transfer, mechanical, electromagnetic and optical properties. To accurately control the morphological surface modifications at the micro- and nanoscale and improve manufacturing techniques, we design a mathematical model of the surface self-organization process in multilayer film materials. In this paper, we consider a solid film coating with an arbitrary number of layers under plane strain conditions. The film surface has a small initial perturbation described by a periodic function. It is assumed that the evolution of the surface relief is governed by surface and volume diffusion. Based on Gibbs thermodynamics and linear theory of elasticity, we present a procedure for constructing a governing equation that gives the amplitude change of the surface perturbation with time. A parametric study of the evolution equation leads to the definition of a critical undulation wavelength that stabilizes the surface. As a numerical result, the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on the morphological stability of an isotropic two-layered film coating is analyzed.

  14. Magnesium Diboride thin Films, multilayers, and coatings for SRF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xiaoxing [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities currently use low-temperature superconductor niobium, and the Nb SRF cavities have approached the performance levels predicted theoretically. Compared to Nb, MgB2 becomes superconducting at a much higher temperature and promises a better RF performance in terms of higher quality factor Q and higher acceleration capability. An MgB2 SRF technology can significantly reduce the operating costs of particle accelerators when these potentials are realized. This project aimed to advance the development of an MgB2 SRF technology. It had two main objectives: (1) materials issues of MgB2 thin films and multilayers related to their applications in SRF cavities; and (2) coating single-cell cavities for testing at RF frequencies. The key technical thrust of the project is the deposition of high quality clean MgB2 films and coatings by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique, which was developed in my group. We have achieved technical progress in each of the two areas. For the first objective, we have confirmed that MgB2 thin film coatings can be used to effectively enhance the vortex penetration field of an SRF cavity. A vortex is a normal region in the shape of spaghetti that threads through a superconductor. Its existence is due to an applied magnetic field that is greater than a so-called lower critical field, Hc1. Once a vortex enters the superconductor, its movement leads to loss. This has been shown to be the reason for an SRF cavity to break down. Thus, enhancing the magnetic field for a vortex to enter the superconductor that forms the SRF cavity has be a goal of intense research. To this end, Gurevich proposed that a coating of thin superconductor layer can impede the vortex entrance. In this project, we have done two important experiment to test this concept. One, we showed that the enhancement of Hc1 can be

  15. Characterization of multilayer nitride coatings by electron microscopy and modulus mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemmasani, Sai Pramod; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V.; Ramakrishna, M.; Valleti, Krishna; Gundakaram, Ravi C.; Joshi, Shrikant V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses multi-scale characterization of physical vapour deposited multilayer nitride coatings using a combination of electron microscopy and modulus mapping. Multilayer coatings with a triple layer structure based on TiAlN and nanocomposite nitrides with a nano-multilayered architecture were deposited by Cathodic arc deposition and detailed microstructural studies were carried out employing Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Electron Backscattered Diffraction, Focused Ion Beam and Cross sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy in order to identify the different phases and to study microstructural features of the various layers formed as a result of the deposition process. Modulus mapping was also performed to study the effect of varying composition on the moduli of the nano-multilayers within the triple layer coating by using a Scanning Probe Microscopy based technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt on modulus mapping of cathodic arc deposited nitride multilayer coatings. This work demonstrates the application of Scanning Probe Microscopy based modulus mapping and electron microscopy for the study of coating properties and their relation to composition and microstructure. - Highlights: • Microstructure of a triple layer nitride coating studied at multiple length scales. • Phases identified by EDS, EBSD and SAED (TEM). • Nanolayered, nanocomposite structure of the coating studied using FIB and TEM. • Modulus mapping identified moduli variation even in a nani-multilayer architecture

  16. Reflectivity and surface roughness of multilayer-coated substrate recovery layers for EUV lithographic optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedelcu, I.; van de Kruijs, R.W.E.; Yakshin, A. E.; von Blanckenhagen, G.; F. Bijkerk,

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the use of separation, or substrate recovery, layers (SRLs), to enable the reuse of optical substrates after the deposition of multilayer reflective coatings, in particular Mo/Si multilayers as used for EUV lithography. An organic material (polyimide), known from other work to reduce

  17. Enhanced corrosion protective PANI-PAA/PEI multilayer composite coatings for 316SS by spin coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Junaid Ali; Lu, Hongbin; Tang, Shaochun; Meng, Xiangkang, E-mail: mengxk@nju.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PANI-PAA/PEI multilayers with controllable thickness were fabricated by spin assembly. • PAA matrix results in the homogeneous dispersion of PANI in the composite coatings. • Spin coating combined with heating assures the linear increase in thickness with n. • The corrosion protection property of PANI-PAA/PEI coatings were optimized at n = 20. • Enhanced protection owing to multilayer structure that lengthens the diffusion pathway of ions. - Abstract: In the present study, polyaniline-polyacrylic acid/polyethyleneimine (PANI-PAA/PEI) composite coatings with a multilayer structure for corrosion protection of 316 stainless steels (316SS) were prepared by an alternate deposition. Spin coating combined with heating assists removal of residual water that result in a linear increase in thickness with layer number (n). The combination of PANI-PAA composite with PEI and their multilayer structure provides a synergistic enhancement of corrosion resistance properties as determined by electrochemical measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution. Importantly, the PANI-PAA/PEI coating with an optimized layer number of n = 20 shows improved corrosion protection. The superior performance was attributed to the formation of an interfacial oxide layer as well as the multilayer structure that extend the diffusion pathway of corrosive ions.

  18. Thick CrN/NbN multilayer coating deposited by cathodic arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano Avelar; Tschiptschin, Andre Paulo; Souza, Roberto Martins, E-mail: antschip@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Lima, Nelson Batista de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    The production of tribological nanoscale multilayer CrN/NbN coatings up to 6 μm thick by Sputtering/HIPIMS has been reported in literature. However, high demanding applications, such as internal combustion engine parts, need thicker coatings (>30 μm). The production of such parts by sputtering would be economically restrictive due to low deposition rates. In this work, nanoscale multilayer CrN/NbN coatings were produced in a high-deposition rate, industrial-size, Cathodic Arc Physical Vapor Deposition (ARC-PVD) chamber, containing three cathodes in alternate positions (Cr/ Nb/Cr). Four 30 μm thick NbN/CrN multilayer coatings with different periodicities (20, 10, 7.5 and 4 nm) were produced. The coatings were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The multilayer coating system was composed of alternate cubic rock salt CrN and NbN layers, coherently strained due to lattice mismatch. The film grew with columnar morphology through the entire stratified structure. The periodicities adopted were maintained throughout the entire coating. The 20 nm periodicity coating showed separate NbN and CrN peaks in the XRD patterns, while for the lower periodicity (≤10nm) coatings, just one intermediate lattice (d-spacing) was detected. An almost linear increase of hardness with decreasing bilayer period indicates that interfacial effects can dominate the hardening mechanisms. (author)

  19. Plasma Spray and Pack Cementation Process Optimization and Oxidation Behaviour of Novel Multilayered Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng

    The hot section components in gas turbines are subjected to a harsh environment with the temperature being increased continuously. The higher temperature has directly resulted in severe oxidation of these components. Monolithic coatings such as MCrAIY and aluminide have been traditionally used to protect the components from oxidation; however, increased operating temperature quickly deteriorates the coatings due to accelerated diffusion of aluminum in the coatings. To improve the oxidation resistance a group of multilayered coatings are developed in this study. The multilayered coatings consist of a Cr-Si co-deposited layer as the diffusion barrier, a plasma sprayed NiCrA1Y coating as the middle layer and an aluminized top layer. The Cr-Si and aluminized layers are fabricated using pack cementation processes and the NiCrA1Y coatings are produced using the Mettech Axial III(TM) System. All of the coating processes are optimized using the methodology of Design of Experiments (DOE) and the results are analyzed using statistical method. The optimal processes are adopted to fabricate the multilayered coatings for oxidation tests. The coatings are exposed in air at 1050°C and 1150°C for 1000 hr. The results indicate that a Cr layer and a silicon-rich barrier layer have formed on the interface between the Cr-Si coating and the NiCrA1Y coating. This barrier layer not only prevents aluminum and chromium from diffusing into the substrate, but also impedes the diffusion of other elements from the substrate into the coating. The results also reveal that, for optimal oxidation resistance at 1050°C, the top layer in a multilayered coating should have at least Al/Ni ratio of one; whereas the multilayered coating with the All Ni ratio of two in the top layer exhibits the best oxidation resistance at 1150°C. The DOE methodology provides an excellent means for process optimization and the selection of oxidation test matrix, and also offers a more thorough understanding of the

  20. Rocket flight of a multilayer coated high-density EUV toroidal grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva A. M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Davila, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    A multilayer coated high density toroidal grating was flown on a sounding rocket experiment in the Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) instrument. To our knowledge this is the first space flight of a multilayer coated grating. Pre-flight performance evaluation showed that the application of a 10-layer Ir/Si multilayer coating to the 3600 l/mm blazed toroidal replica grating produced a factor of 9 enhancement in peak efficiency near the design wavelength around 30 nm in first order over the standard gold coating, with a measured EUV efficiency that peaked at 3.3 percent. In addition, the grating's spectral resolution of better than 5000 was maintained. The region of enhanced grating efficiency due to the multilayer coating is clearly evident in the flight data. Within the bandpass of the multilayer coating, the recorded film densities were roughly equivalent to those obtained with a factor of six longer exposure on the previous flight of the SERTS instrument.

  1. Electrochemical Formation of Multilayer SnO2-Sb x O y Coating in Complex Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizelis, Antonina; Bairachniy, Boris

    2017-12-01

    The multilayer antimony-doped tin dioxide coating was obtained by cathodic deposition of multilayer metal-hydroxide coating with near 100-nm thickness layers on the alloy underlayer accompanied by the anodic oxidation of this coating. The potential regions of deposition of tin, antimony, tin-antimony alloy, and mixture of this metals and their hydroxides in the pyrophosphate-tartrate electrolyte were revealed by the cyclic voltammetric method. The possibility of oxidation of cathodic deposit consisting of tin and Sn(II) hydroxide compounds to the hydrated tin dioxide in the same electrolyte was demonstrated.The operations of alloy underlayer deposition and oxidation of multilayer metal-hydroxide coating were proposed to carry out in the diluted pyrophosphate-tartrate electrolyte, similar to the main electrolyte.The accelerated tests showed higher service life of the titanium electrode with multilayer antimony-doped tin dioxide coating compared to both electrode with single-layer electrodeposited coating and the electrode with the coating obtained using prolonged heat treatment step.

  2. Study of ion implantation in grown layers of multilayer coatings under ion-plasma vacuum deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodin, A.A.; Erokhin, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The model of ion implantation into growing layers of a multilayer coating produced with vacuum ion-plasma deposition was developed. The model takes into account a possibility for ions to pass through the growing layer and alloys to find the distribution of implanted atoms over the coating thickness. The experimental vitrification of the model was carried out on deposition of Ti and TiN coatings

  3. Multilayered Zn-Ni alloy coatings for better corrosion protection of mild steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadananda Rashmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple aqueous electrolyte for the deposition of anti-corrosive Zn-Ni alloy coatings was optimized using conventional Hull cell method. The corrosion protection value of the electrodeposited coatings at a current density (c.d. range of 2.0–5.0 A dm−2 has been testified in 5 wt% NaCl solution, as representative corrosion medium. The electrochemical behavior of the coatings towards corrosion was related to its surface topography, elemental composition and phase structure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses, respectively. Among the monolithic coatings developed at different c.d.’s, the coating obtained at 3.0 A dm−2 was found to be the best with least corrosion current (icorr value. Further, the corrosion protection efficacy of the monolayer coatings were improved to many folds through multilayer coating approach, by modulating the cyclic cathode current densities (CCCD’s. The composition modulated multilayer (CMM Zn-Ni alloy coating with 60 layers, developed from the combination of CCCD’s 3.0 and 5.0 A dm−2 was found to be the best with 3 fold enhancement in corrosion protection efficiency. The formation of multilayer coatings was confirmed using cross-sectional SEM, and the experimental results are discussed with tables and figures.

  4. Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Pivovaroff, Mike J.; Soufli, Regina; Alameda, Jennifer; Mirkarimi, Paul; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Baker, Sherry L.; McCarville, Tom; Ziock, Klaus; Hornback, Donald; Romaine, Suzanne; Bruni, Ric; Zhong, Zhong; Honkimäki, Veijo; Ziegler, Eric; Christensen, Finn E.; Jakobsen, Anders C.

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer coatings enhance x-ray mirror performance at incidence angles steeper than the critical angle, allowing for improved flux, design flexibility and facilitating alignment. In an attempt to extend the use of multilayer coatings to photon energies higher than previously achieved, we have developed multilayers with ultra-short periods between 1 and 2 nm based on the material system WC/SiC. This material system was selected because it possesses very sharp and stable interfaces. In this article, we show highlights from a series of experiments performed in order to characterize the stress, microstructure and morphology of the multilayer films, as well as their reflective performance at photon energies from 8 to 384 keV

  5. Improvement of corrosion resistance of transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver layers and transparent metal oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Katsuhiko; Yamazaki, Fumiharu; Okamura, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Shin

    2007-01-01

    An optical filter for plasma display panel (PDP) requires an electromagnetic shield with very high ability. The authors investigated a transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver (Ag) layers and transparent metal oxide layers. The durability of the multilayer sputter coating, including the silver layer, is very sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere. For example, after an exposure test they found discolored points on the multilayer sputter coatings, possibly caused by migration of silver atoms in the silver layers. In their investigation, they modified the top surface of the multilayer sputter coatings with transition metals to improve the corrosion resistance of the multilayer coating. Specifically, they deposited transition metals 0.5-2 nm thick on the top surface of the multilayer coatings by sputtering. They chose indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent metal oxide. They applied the multilayer sputter coatings of seven layers to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film substrate. A cross-sectional structure of the film with the multilayer coatings is PET film/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO. They evaluated the corrosion resistance of the films by a salt-water immersion test. In the test, they immersed the film with multilayer coatings into salt water, and then evaluated the appearance, transmittance, and electrical resistance of the multilayer coatings. They investigated several transition metals as the modifying material, and found that titanium and tantalum drastically improved the resistance of the multilayer coatings to the salt-water exposure without a significant decline in transmittance. They also investigated the relation between elapsed time after deposition of the modifying materials and resistance to the salt water. Furthermore, they investigated the effects of a heat treatment and an oxide plasma treatment on resistance to the salt water

  6. Microstructure, mechanical and tribological characterization of CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer coating with improved adhesive wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xudong; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Shuaituo; Yang, Jun; Hao, Junying

    2018-05-01

    Adhesive wear is one of the major reasons for the failure of components during various tribological application, especially for rubbing with viscous materials. This study presents CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer composite coatings prepared on a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) device with the close field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating (CFUBMSIP) technique. SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the structure of multilayer coatings. It was found that the multilayer coatings are composed by the alternating CrN and DLC layers. Compared with the single CrN coatings, the friction coefficient of the CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer coating decreases about more than seven times after sliding a distance of 500 m. This helps to reduce the adhesive wear of multilayer coatings. Compared with the single CrN and DLC coating, the wear rate of the CrN/DLC/Cr-DLC multilayer coating is reduced by an order of magnitude to 7.10 × 10-17 (sliding with AISI 440C) and 2.64 × 10-17 (sliding with TC4) m3/(N m). The improved tribological performance of multilayer coatings mainly attributes to the introduction of lubricant DLC and hard support CrN layers, the enhancement of crack propagation inhibition, and the increment of elastic recovery value We (71.49%) by multilayer design method.

  7. Lubricated sliding wear behaviour of Ni-P-W multilayered alloy coatings produced by pulse plating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagopoulos, C. N.; Papachristos, V. D.; Christoffersen, Lasse

    2000-01-01

    The lubricated sliding wear behaviour of Ni-P-W multilayered alloy coatings sliding against hardened steel discs was studied, in a pin-on-disc set-up. The multilayered coatings had been deposited on mild steel pins by pulse plating and they consisted of ternary Ni-P-W layers of high and low W con...... lubrication regimes. The wear mechanisms in each lubrication regime were studied and in mixed lubrication regime, the effect of normal load and sliding speed on wear volume and friction coefficient was also studied. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved....

  8. Development and production of a multilayer-coated x-ray reflecting stack for the Athena mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massahi, S.; Ferreira, D. D. M.; Christensen, F. E.; Shortt, B.; Girou, D. A.; Collon, M.; Landgraf, B.; Barriere, N.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Schreiber, S.

    2016-07-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High-Energy Astrophysics, Athena, selected as the European Space Agency's second large-mission, is based on the novel Silicon Pore Optics X-ray mirror technology. DTU Space has been working for several years on the development of multilayer coatings on the Silicon Pore Optics in an effort to optimize the throughput of the Athena optics. A linearly graded Ir/B4C multilayer has been deposited on the mirrors, via the direct current magnetron sputtering technique, at DTU Space. This specific multilayer, has through simulations, been demonstrated to produce the highest reflectivity at 6 keV, which is a goal for the scientific objectives of the mission. A critical aspect of the coating process concerns the use of photolithography techniques upon which we will present the most recent developments in particular related to the cleanliness of the plates. Experiments regarding the lift-off and stacking of the mirrors have been performed and the results obtained will be presented. Furthermore, characterization of the deposited thin-films was performed with X-ray reflectometry at DTU Space and in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II.

  9. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTIWEARABILITY STUDIES OF MULTILAYER THIN COATINGS ON CUTTING TOOLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The nanoindentation fracture of multilayer hard coatings, such as TiN, TiN/Ti(C,N)/TiC, TiN/Ti(C,N)/TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiC and TiN/Ti(C,N)/TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiC coatings, deposited on cemented carbide using a CVD technique are studied. It is found that these coatings have high hardness. Based on the analysis of the energy release in cracking, the fracture toughness of these coatings are calculated. The observations clearly establish a step occurs in the forcedisplacement curves at the onset of coating fracture and a straigh t line segment in the loadpenetration depth squared curves to identify the interfacial failure of coatings. The hardness, fracture toughness and antiwearability of these coatings are clearly compared. The results show that with the layes increasing, the fracture toughness and antiwearability are getting larger.

  10. Single layer and multilayer wear resistant coatings of (Ti,Al)N: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PalDey, S.; Deevi, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of (Ti,Al)N based coatings obtained by various physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques and compare their properties. PVD techniques based on sputtering and cathodic arc methods are widely used to deposit wear resistant (Ti,Al)N coatings. These techniques were further modified to improve the metal ionization rate and to eliminate macrodroplets from plasma streams. We summarize manufacture of target/cathode, substrate materials for deposition of coatings, deposition parameters, and the effect of deposition parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of (Ti,Al)N coatings. It is shown that (Ti,Al)N coatings by PVD enhance the wear, thermal, and oxidation resistance of a wide variety of tool materials. We discuss the wear resistant properties of (Ti,Al)N for various machining applications as compared with coatings such as TiN, Ti(C,N) and (Ti,Zr)N. High hardness (∼28-32 GPa), relatively low residual stress (∼5 GPa), superior oxidation resistance, high hot hardness, and low thermal conductivity make (Ti,Al)N coatings most desirable in dry machining and machining of abrasive alloys at high speeds. Multicomponent coatings based on different metallic and nonmetallic elements combine the benefit of individual components leading to a further refinement of coating properties. Alloying additions such as Cr and Y drastically improve the oxidation resistance, Zr and V improve the wear resistance, whereas, Si increases the hardness and resistance to chemical reactivity of the film. Addition of boron improves the abrasive wear behavior of Ti-Al based coatings due to the formation of TiB 2 and BN phases depending on the deposition conditions. Hafnium based nitrides and carbides have potential for resistance to flank and crater wear. The presence of a large number of interfaces between individual layers of a multilayered structure results in a drastic increase in hardness and strength. (Ti,Al)N multilayer super lattice coatings with lattice

  11. C/SiC/MoSi2-Si multilayer coatings for carbon/carbon composites for protection against oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yulei; Li Hejun; Qiang Xinfa; Li Kezhi; Zhang Shouyang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A C/SiC/MoSi 2 -Si multilayer coating was prepared on C/C by slurry and pack cementation. → Multilayer coating can protect C/C for 300 h at 1873 K or 103 h at 1873 K in air. → The penetration cracks in the coating result in the weight loss of the coated C/C. → The fracture of the coated C/C in wind tunnel result from the excessive local stress. - Abstract: To improve the oxidation resistance of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites, a C/SiC/MoSi 2 -Si multilayer oxidation protective coating was prepared by slurry and pack cementation. The microstructure of the as-prepared coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The isothermal oxidation and erosion resistance of the coating was investigated in electrical furnace and high temperature wind tunnel. The results showed that the multilayer coating could effectively protect C/C composites from oxidation in air for 300 h at 1773 K and 103 h at 1873 K, and the coated samples was fractured after erosion for 27 h at 1873 K h in wind tunnel. The weight loss of the coated specimens was considered to be caused by the formation of penetration cracks in the coating. The fracture of the coated C/C composites might result from the excessive local stress in the coating.

  12. Ion Diffusion-Directed Assembly Approach to Ultrafast Coating of Graphene Oxide Thick Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Weiwei; Yao, Weiquan; Jiang, Yanqiu; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2017-10-24

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly approach has been widely used to fabricate multilayer coatings on substrates with multiple cycles, whereas it is hard to access thick films efficiently. Here, we developed an ion diffusion-directed assembly (IDDA) strategy to rapidly make multilayer thick coatings in one step on arbitrary substrates. To achieve multifunctional coatings, graphene oxide (GO) and metallic ions were selected as the typical building blocks and diffusion director in IDDA, respectively. With diffusion of metallic ions from substrate to negatively charged GO dispersion spontaneously (i.e., from high-concentration region to low-concentration region), GO was assembled onto the substrate sheet-by-sheet via sol-gel transformation. Because metallic ions with size of subnanometers can diffuse directionally and freely in the aqueous dispersion, GO was coated on the substrate efficiently, giving rise to films with desired thickness up to 10 μm per cycle. The IDDA approach shows three main merits: (1) high efficiency with a μm-scale coating rate; (2) controllability over thickness and evenness; and (3) generality for substrates of plastics, metals and ceramics with any shapes and morphologies. With these merits, IDDA strategy was utilized in the efficient fabrication of functional graphene coatings that exhibit outstanding performance as supercapacitors, electromagnetic interference shielding textiles, and anticorrosion coatings. This IDDA approach can be extended to other building blocks including polymers and colloidal nanoparticles, promising for the scalable production and application of multifunctional coatings.

  13. Conducting polymer-based multilayer films for instructive biomaterial coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, John G; Li, Hetian; Chow, Jacqueline K; Geissler, Sydney A; McElroy, Austin B; Nguy, Lindsey; Hernandez, Derek S; Schmidt, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the design, fabrication and testing of conformable conducting biomaterials that encourage cell alignment. Materials & methods: Thin conducting composite biomaterials based on multilayer films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derivatives, chitosan and gelatin were prepared in a layer-by-layer fashion. Fibroblasts were observed with fluorescence microscopy and their alignment (relative to the dipping direction and direction of electrical current passed through the films)...

  14. Barrier mechanism of multilayers graphene coated copper against atomic oxygen irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijing; Ren, Siming; Pu, Jibin; Xue, Qunji

    2018-06-01

    Graphene has been demonstrated as a protective coating for Cu under ambient condition because of its high impermeability and light-weight oxidation barrier. However, it lacks the research of graphene as a protective coating in space environment. Here, we experimentally and theoretically study the oxidation behavior of graphene-coated Cu in vacuum atomic oxygen (AO) condition. After AO irradiation, the experimental results show multilayer graphene has better anti-oxidation than monolayer graphene. Meanwhile, the calculation results show the oxidation appeared on the graphene's grain boundaries or the film's vacancy defects for the monolayer graphene coated Cu foil. Moreover, the calculation results show the oxidation process proceeds slowly in multilayers because of the matched defects overlaps each other to form a steric hindrance to suppress the O atom diffusion in the vertical direction, and the mismatched defects generates potential energy barriers for interlayer to suppress the O atom diffusion in the horizontal direction. Hence, multilayer graphene films could serve as protection coatings to prevent diffusion of O atom.

  15. Multilayered and composite PVD-CVD coatings in cemented carbides manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, V.N.; Anikeev, A.I.; Anikin, V.N.; Vereshchaka, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Carbide cutting tools with wear-resistant coatings deposited by CVD process are widely employed in mechanical engineering to ensure a substantially longer service life of tool systems. However, the relatively high temperature and long time of the process make the substrate decarburise and, as a result, the bend strength and performance characteristics of a tool decrease. The present study suggests the problem of deteriorated strength of CVD-coated carbide tools be solved by the development of a technology that combines arc-PVD and CVD processes to deposit multilayered coatings of titanium and aluminium compounds. (author)

  16. Deconsolidation and combustion performance of thermally consolidated propellants deterred by multi-layers coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-gang Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Both heating and solvent-spray methods are used to consolidate the standard grains of double-base oblate sphere propellants plasticized with triethyleneglycol dinitrate (TEGDN (TEGDN propellants to high density propellants. The obtained consolidated propellants are deterred and coated with the slow burning multi-layer coating. The maximum compaction density of deterred and coated consolidated propellants can reach up to 1.39 g/cm3. Their mechanic, deconsolidation and combustion performances are tested by the materials test machine, interrupted burning set-up and closed vessel, respectively. The static compression strength of consolidated propellants deterred by multi-layer coating increases significantly to 18 MPa, indicating that they can be applied in most circumstances of charge service. And the samples are easy to deconsolidate in the interrupted burning test. Furthermore, the closed bomb burning curves of the samples indicate a two-stage combustion phenomenon under the condition of certain thickness of coated multi-layers. After the outer deterred multi-layer coating of consolidated samples is finished burning, the inner consolidated propellants continue to burn and breakup into aggregates and grains. The high burning progressivity can be carefully obtained by the smart control of deconsolidation process and duration of consolidated propellants. The preliminary results of consolidated propellants show that a rapid deconsolidation process at higher deconsolidation pressure is presented in the dynamic vivacity curves of closed bomb test. Higher density and higher macro progressivity of consolidated propellants can be obtained by the techniques in this paper.

  17. Study on the wear of TiN/Ti duplex and multilayer coatings in microabrasion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, M; De Las Heras, E; Ruelas, R; Rodriguez, E; Bautista, A; Pazos, L; Corengia, P

    2008-01-01

    Ionic nitriding, on steels, is used to harden the surface of components improving resistance to corrosion and wear and increasing the stress life. Duplex treatments are an alternative for resolving the limitations of very hard coatings on less hard substrates. In this case the duplex treatment consists of an ionic nitriding treatment followed by a single or multilayer coatings deposited by means of the PVD technique. This work presents the influence of the variation in the severity of contact on the kind of wear present in the microabrasion test used to measure the wear coefficient of duplex coatings, consisting of a layer nitrided by DC-pulsed plasma plus TiN coatings and multilayers of TiN/Ti deposited on non-nitrided and nitrided AISI 316L stainless steel and H13 steel. The severity of contact was modified by varying the charge (0.25 to 1 N). The abrasives used were a suspension of 0.1μm diameter diamond particles and a suspension of an average 5 μm diameter aluminum particles. The influence of the presence of relatively soft metallic layers on the determination of the wear coefficient was analyzed in the metal-ceramic multilayers. Two sphere revolving speeds of de 0.05 and 0.154 m/s were used on two microabrasion machines: one commercial and the other built in the UdeG laboratory. The wear marks were photographed and measured with an optic microscope. The value of the critical charge at which the transition occurs between the methods of wear of the substrates and the nitrited samples was determined. Resistance to the AISI 316L steel's microabrasive wear increases with the ionic nitriding treatment. The duplex coatings increase resistance to the wear from the nitrited samples. The wear resistance of the samples with multilayer coatings surpassed that of the duplex samples with multilayer coatings. The greater resistance of the multilayers may be explained by an increase in the resistance to the fracture and not by a increase in surface hardness. The transition

  18. Radiation Hard Multi-Layer Optical Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation space telescopes require advanced optical coatings to provide low loss transmission of light in a variety of spectral ranges and protect optical...

  19. Sintering Characteristics of Multilayered Thermal Barrier Coatings Under Thermal Gradient and Isothermal High Temperature Annealing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amarendra K.; Schmitt, Michael P.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochlore oxides have most of the relevant attributes for use as next generation thermal barrier coatings such as phase stability, low sintering kinetics and low thermal conductivity. One of the issues with the pyrochlore oxides is their lower toughness and therefore higher erosion rate compared to the current state-of-the-art TBC material, yttria (6 to 8 wt%) stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In this work, sintering characteristics were investigated for novel multilayered coating consisted of alternating layers of pyrochlore oxide viz Gd2Zr2O7 and t' low k (rare earth oxide doped YSZ). Thermal gradient and isothermal high temperature (1316 C) annealing conditions were used to investigate sintering and cracking in these coatings. The results are then compared with that of relevant monolayered coatings and a baseline YSZ coating.

  20. Structure, properties and wear behaviour of multilayer coatings consisting of metallic and covalent hard materials, prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schier, V.

    1995-12-01

    Novel multilayer coatings with metallic and covalent layer materials were prepared by magnetron sputtering and characterised concerning structure, properties and application behaviour. At first single layer coatings were deposited for the determination of the material properties. To evaluate relations between structure and properties of the multilayer coatings, different multilayer concepts were realised: - coatings consisting of at most 7 layers of metallic hard materials, - 100-layer coatings consisting of metallic and covalent hard materials, - TiN-TiC multilayer coatings with different numbers of layers (between 10 and 1000), - 150-layer coatings, based on TiN-TiC multilayers, with thin ( 4 C, AlN, SiC, a:C, Si 3 N 4 , SiAlON). X-rays and electron microscopic analysis indicate in spite of nonstoichiometric compositions single phase crystalline structures for nonreactively and reactively sputtered metastable single layer Ti(B,C)-, Ti(B,N)- and Ti(B,C,N)-coatings. These single layer coatings show excellent mechanical properties (e.g. hardness values up to 6000 HV0,05), caused by lattice stresses as well as by atomic bonding conditions similar to those in c:BN and B 4 C. The good tribological properties shown in pin-on-disk-tests can be attributed to the very high hardness of the coatings. The coatings consisting of at most 7 layers of metallic hard materials show good results mainly for the cutting of steel Ck45, due to the improved mechanical properties (e.g. hardness, toughness) of the multilayers compared to the single layer coatings. This improvement is caused by inserting the hard layer materials and the coherent reinforcement of the coatings. (orig.)

  1. The role of defects in laser damage of multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, M.R.; Chow, R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser induced damage to optical coatings is generally a localized phenomenon associated with coating defects. The most common of the defect types are the well-known nodule defect. This paper reviews the use of experiments and modeling to understand the formation of these defects and their interaction with laser light. Of particular interest are efforts to identify which defects are most susceptible to laser damage. Also discussed are possible methods for stabilizing these defects (laser conditioning) or preventing their initiation (source stabilization, spatter particle trapping)

  2. Formation and investigation of multilayer nanostructured coatings TiN/MoN for different layers thicknesses with c-pvd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebnyak, A.D.; Bondar, O.V.; Postol'nyj, B.A.; Andreev, A.A.; Abadias, G.; Beresnev, V.M.; Sobol', O.B.

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer coatings based on TiN/MoN were obtained using the vacuum arc evaporation cathode method (C-PVD). Multilayers thickness was in the range 6,7 ÷ 8,7 μm and monolayers thickness was 2, 10, 20 and 40 nm. Vacuum-arc unit Bulat 6 was used for depositions. For the analysis of multilayer structures and properties of nanostructured coatings XRD analysis method was used (D8 ADVANCE, Bruker). For elemental composition and morphology investigation of the surface layers and multilayered coatings SEM (JEOL-7001F) with EDX attachment was used. Also HRTEM method was used to analyze the phase composition. In addition, this article provides investigation of hardness by Micro-Hardness Tester CSM (Switzerland). AFM was used for additional analysis of the topography and surface roughness of these coatings. This investigation have revealed the relationship between the layers thicknesses, substrate potential, the annealing process, physical and mechanical properties of samples. (authors)

  3. Corrosion Resistance Of Electroless Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao G.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P multilayer coatings were prepared by deposition of Cu layer between two Ni–P layers. The Cu layer was deposited by metal displacement reaction between Cu2+ and Fe atoms. Corrosion behavior of single-layer Ni-P coatings, double-layer Ni-P/Cu coatings, and three-layer Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P coatings were investigated by electrochemical tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. The three-layer coatings exhibited more positive Ecorr and decreased Icorr compared with conventional single-layer Ni-P coatings, which indicated an improved corrosion resistance. The polarization curves of the three-layer coatings were characterized by two passive regions. The improved corrosion resistance was not only attributed to the function of the blocked pores of Cu. The Cu interlayer also acted as a sacrificial layer instead of a barrier in the coatings, which altered the corrosion mechanism and further improved the corrosion resistance of the coatings.

  4. Irradiated radiation dose measurements of multilayer mirrors and permanent magnets used at FELI facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, K.; Tongu, H.; Okuma, S.; Oshita, E.; Wakita, K.; Takii, T.; Tomimasu, Takio

    1997-01-01

    Recently the operation time of the free electron laser (FEL) user's facilities is close on three thousand hours per year. Cavity mirrors of their optical resonators and permanent magnets of their undulators are used under high intensity radiation field along their high current electron beam lines. Among these mirrors and permanent magnets, multilayer mirrors and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are not so strong against radiation damage compared with Au-coated copper mirrors and Sm-Co permanent magnets. A radiation damage on Ta 2 O 5 /SiO 2 mirrors was found for the first time after about fifty hours visible FEL operation at the FELI. The damage is due to irradiated bremsstrahlung and intracavity FEL. However, radiation damages on Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets were already reported compared with Sm-Co ones using high energy neutrons, protons, deuterons and 60 Coγ-rays. Mixed irradiation effects of 85-MeV electrons, bremsstrahlung and 60 Coγ-rays and of 17-MeV electrons and 60 Coγ-rays were also studied. The latest results show that the magnetic flux loss of Nd-Fe-B is 2% at an absorbed dose of 10 MGy. The present work was carried out to study the irradiated dose distributions near the multilayer mirrors and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). The irradiated dose to the cavity mirrors used in Linac-based FEL experiment is estimated to be 0.3 MGray for fifty hours irradiation. The irradiated dose to the Nd-Fe-B magnets is estimated to be 16 MGray for 2 thousand hours operation. The decrease of their magnetic flux due to 16 MGray is estimated to be about 3%. These dose monitorings are useful to reduce irradiated dosages to the mirrors and the permanent magnets as low as possible and to estimate their safety lifetimes. (author)

  5. Coating multilayer material with improved tribological properties obtained by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, A. O.; Mateescu, G.; Balasoiu, M.; Pompilian, G. O.; Lungu, M.

    2017-02-01

    This work is based on the Patent no. RO 128094 B1, granted by the Romanian State Office for Inventions and Trademarks. The goal of the work is to obtain for investigations tribological coatings with multilayer structure with improved tribological properties, deposited by magnetron sputtering process from three materials (sputtering targets). Starting from compound chemical materials (TiC, TiB2 and WC), as sputtering targets, by deposition in argon atmosphere on polished stainless steel, we have obtained, based on the claims of the above patent, thin films of multilayer design with promising results regarding their hardness, elastic modulus, adherence, coefficient of friction and wear resistance. The sputtering process took place in a special sequence in order to ensure better tribological properties to the coating, comparing to those of the individual component materials. The tribological properties, such as the coefficient of friction, are evaluated using the tribometer test.

  6. Preparation and properties of DLC/MoS2 multilayer coatings for high humidity tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Lu, Zhibin; Wu, Guizhi; Zhang, Guangan; Wang, Liping; Xue, Qunji

    2016-06-01

    The DLC/MoS2 multilayer coatings with different modulus ratios were deposited by magnetron sputtering in this study. The morphology, structure, composition, mechanical properties and tribological properties were investigated using several analytical techniques (FESEM, AFM, TEM, AES, XPS, nanoindentation and high humidity tribological test). The results showed that the well-defined multilayer coatings were composed of densely packed particles in which many nanocrystallines with some kinds of defects were distributed in matrix. The incorporation of oxygen into the lattice led to the degraded chemical stability. The coating’s hardness and elastic modulus were almost in the same range. Moderate improvement on the high humidity tribological properties were obtained, which was important for the extension of the service life of MoS2 in humid air.

  7. Improving the tribological and corrosive properties of MoS2-based coatings by dual-doping and multilayer construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kedong; Zheng, Shaoxian; Ren, Siming; Pu, Jibin; He, Dongqing; Liu, Shuan

    2018-04-01

    The pure MoS2 coating always performs high friction coefficient and short service life when used in high humidity or after long-time storage in humid atmospheric environment. In this study, the MoS2/Pb-Ti composite and MoS2/Pb-Ti multilayer coatings are deposited to improve the corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution and tribological performance in high humidity condition. The electrochemical impedance spectra and salt spray test shown that the MoS2/Pb-Ti composite and multilayer coatings can inhibit the permeation of oxygen and other corrosive elements, thus resulting a high corrosion resistance. Furthermore, compared with pure MoS2 coating, the tribological performance of the MoS2/Pb-Ti composite and multilayer coatings is also improved significantly owing to the high mechanical properties and compact structure. Moreover, the heterogenous interfaces in MoS2/Pb-Ti multilayer coating play an important role to improve the corrosion resistance and tribological performance of coatings. Overall, the dual-doping and multilayer construction are promising approaches to design the MoS2 coatings as the environmentally adaptive lubricants.

  8. Substrate and coating defect planarization strategies for high-laser-fluence multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Wolfe, Justin E.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Folta, James A.; Adams, John J.; Menor, Marlon G.; Teslich, Nick E.; Soufli, Regina; Menoni, Carmen S.; Patel, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Planarizing or smoothing over nodular defects in multilayer mirrors can be accomplished by a discrete deposit-and-etch process that exploits the angle-dependent etching rate of optical materials. Typically, nodular defects limit the fluence on mirrors irradiated at 1064 nm with 10 ns pulse lengths due to geometrically- and interference-induced light intensification. Planarized hafina/silica multilayer mirrors have demonstrated > 125 J/cm 2 laser resistance for single-shot testing and 50 J/cm 2 for multi-shot testing for nodular defects originating on the substrate surface. Two planarization methods were explored: thick planarization layers on the substrate surface and planarized silica layers throughout the multilayer in which only the silica layers that are below one half of the incoming electric field value are etched. This paper also describes the impact of planarized defects that are buried within the multilayer structure compared to planarized substrate particulate defects. - Highlights: • Defect planarization significantly improves multilayer mirror laser resistance • Substrate and coating defects have both been effectively planarized • Single and multishot laser resistance improvement was demonstrated

  9. Characterizations of multilayer ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO multilayer thin films are deposited on glass substrate using sol-gel spin coating technique and the effect of these multilayer films on optical, electrical and structural properties are investigated. It is observed that these multilayer films have great impact on the properties of ZnO. X-ray Diffraction (XRD confirms that ZnO has hexagonal wurtzite structure. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM showed the crack-free films which have uniformly distributed grains structures. Both micro and nano particles of ZnO are present on thin films. Four point probe measured the electrical properties showed the decreasing trend between the average resistivity and the number of layers. The optical absorption spectra measured using UV–Vis. showed the average transmittance in the visible region of all films is 80% which is good for solar spectra. The performance of the multilayer as transparent conducting material is better than the single layer of ZnO. This work provides a low cost, environment friendly and well abandoned material for solar cells applications. Keywords: Multilayer films, Semiconductor, ZnO, XRD, SEM, Optoelectronic properties

  10. Multilayer coatings containing diamond and other hard materials on hardmetal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepf, A.; Haubner, R.; Lux, B.

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of hardmetal cutting tools, coatings of hard materials were established. Especially the production of multilayer coatings, which combine useful properties of different materials was a topic of industrial and academic research. The present work examined the possibilities of combining diamond as basic layer with protective CVD layers of TiC, TiN, Ti(C,N) and Al 2 O 3 . All these combinations could be realized and some showed quite good adherence under strain, which offers possibilities for technical applications. (author)

  11. Recyclability of PET/WPI/PE Multilayer Films by Removal of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Coatings with Enzymatic Detergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Cinelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer plastic films provide a range of properties, which cannot be obtained from monolayer films but, at present, their recyclability is an open issue and should be improved. Research to date has shown the possibility of using whey protein as a layer material with the property of acting as an excellent barrier against oxygen and moisture, replacing petrochemical non-recyclable materials. The innovative approach of the present research was to achieve the recyclability of the substrate films by separating them, with a simple process compatible with industrial procedures, in order to promote recycling processes leading to obtain high value products that will beneficially impact the packaging and food industries. Hence, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET/polyethylene (PE multi-layer film was prepared based on PET coated with a whey protein layer, and then the previous structure was laminated with PE. Whey proteins, constituting the coating, can be degraded by enzymes so that the coating films can be washed off from the plastic substrate layer. Enzyme types, dosage, time, and temperature optima, which are compatible with procedures adopted in industrial waste recycling, were determined for a highly-efficient process. The washing of samples based on PET/whey and PET/whey/PE were efficient when performed with enzymatic detergent containing protease enzymes, as an alternative to conventional detergents used in recycling facilities. Different types of enzymatic detergents tested presented positive results in removing the protein layer from the PET substrate and from the PET/whey/PE multilayer films at room temperature. These results attested to the possibility of organizing the pre-treatment of the whey-based multilayer film by washing with different available commercial enzymatic detergents in order to separate PET and PE, thus allowing a better recycling of the two different polymers. Mechanical properties of the plastic substrate, such as stress at

  12. Recyclability of PET/WPI/PE Multilayer Films by Removal of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Coatings with Enzymatic Detergents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Patrizia; Schmid, Markus; Bugnicourt, Elodie; Coltelli, Maria Beatrice; Lazzeri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer plastic films provide a range of properties, which cannot be obtained from monolayer films but, at present, their recyclability is an open issue and should be improved. Research to date has shown the possibility of using whey protein as a layer material with the property of acting as an excellent barrier against oxygen and moisture, replacing petrochemical non-recyclable materials. The innovative approach of the present research was to achieve the recyclability of the substrate films by separating them, with a simple process compatible with industrial procedures, in order to promote recycling processes leading to obtain high value products that will beneficially impact the packaging and food industries. Hence, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET)/polyethylene (PE) multi-layer film was prepared based on PET coated with a whey protein layer, and then the previous structure was laminated with PE. Whey proteins, constituting the coating, can be degraded by enzymes so that the coating films can be washed off from the plastic substrate layer. Enzyme types, dosage, time, and temperature optima, which are compatible with procedures adopted in industrial waste recycling, were determined for a highly-efficient process. The washing of samples based on PET/whey and PET/whey/PE were efficient when performed with enzymatic detergent containing protease enzymes, as an alternative to conventional detergents used in recycling facilities. Different types of enzymatic detergents tested presented positive results in removing the protein layer from the PET substrate and from the PET/whey/PE multilayer films at room temperature. These results attested to the possibility of organizing the pre-treatment of the whey-based multilayer film by washing with different available commercial enzymatic detergents in order to separate PET and PE, thus allowing a better recycling of the two different polymers. Mechanical properties of the plastic substrate, such as stress at yield, stress and

  13. Improving the oxidation resistance and stability of Ag nanoparticles by coating with multilayered reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yahui; Zhang, Huayu; Wu, Bowen; Guo, Zhuo

    2017-12-01

    A kind of coating nanostructure, Ag nanoparticles coated with multilayered reduced graphene oxide (RGO), is fabricated by employing a three-step reduction method in an orderly manner, which is significantly different from the conventional structures that are simply depositing or doping with Ag nanoparticles on RGO via chemical reduction. The as-prepared nanostructure is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electronic diffraction (SEAD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that the obtained Ag/RGO nanostructure is observed to be a perfect coating structure with well dispersed Ag particles, which is responsible for the remarkable oxidation resistance. The results of XPS spectra indicate the content of metallic Ag is far greater than that of Ag oxides despite of prolonged exposure to the air, which fully demonstrate the excellent stability of thus coating nanostructure.

  14. Multilayer stacks obtained by ion assisted EB PVD aimed at thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Lyutovich, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2010-07-01

    Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) using Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition (EB PVD) is widely implemented, especially for aero-engine turbine blades. Generally, multilayer stacks are used for these aims. For the additional improvement of intermediate layers with graded transitions to the initial Ni-based alloy, the use of accelerated ions in the EBPVD-process is advantageous. The effect of the substrate bias potential, ion current density and deposition temperature on the structure and properties of Ti and Zr intermediate layers are investigated. The morphology of the films is studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is found that the surface morphology becomes smoother with rising bias potential and decreasing ion current density. Measurements of Vicker's micro-hardness performed on these coatings have shown its increase with higher values of the bias and its reduction with the growing temperature. This effect is caused by the observed decrease in grain size and higher porosity of the films. A multilayer coating system Ni (based substrate)-Si-Si{sub x}Al{sub y}-Al with graded transitions between the layers is obtained using ion assisted EBPVD. Architecture of a multilayer stack for TBC with graded transitions is proposed. (orig.)

  15. Process for preparing multilayer enzyme coating on a fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    A process for preparing high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials is disclosed and processes for using the same. The process involves coating of a material or fiber with enzymes and enzyme aggregate providing a material or fiber with high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environments. In one illustrative approach, enzyme "seeds" are covalently attached to polymer nanofibers followed by treatment with a reagent that crosslinks additional enzyme molecules to the seed enzymes forming enzyme aggregates thereby improving biocatalytic activity due to increased enzyme loading and enzyme stability. This approach creates a useful new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with potential applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  16. The anti-corrosion behavior under multi-factor impingement of Hastelloy C22 coating prepared by multilayer laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Bai, Shu-Lin

    2018-04-01

    Hastelloy C22 coating was prepared on substrate of Q235 steel by high power multilayer laser cladding. The microstructure, hardness and anti-corrosion properties of coating were investigated. The corrosion tests in 3.5% NaCl solution were carried out with variation of impingement angle and velocity, and vibration frequency of sample. The microstructure of coating changes from equiaxed grain at the top surface to dendrites oriented at an angle of 60° to the substrate inside the coating. The corrosion rate of coating increases with the increase of impingement angle and velocity, and vibrant frequency of sample. Corrosion mechanisms relate to repassivation and depassivation of coating according to electrochemical measurements. Above results show that multilayer laser cladding can endow Hastelloy C22 coating with fine microstructures, high hardness and good anti-corrosion performances.

  17. Multilayer (TiN, TiAlN) ceramic coatings for nuclear fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alat, Ece, E-mail: exa179@psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Motta, Arthur T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Comstock, Robert J.; Partezana, Jonna M. [Westinghouse Electric Co., Beulah Rd, Pittsburgh, PA 1332 (United States); Wolfe, Douglas E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, 119 Materials Research Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    In an attempt to develop an accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) that can delay the deleterious consequences of loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA), multilayer coatings were deposited onto ZIRLO{sup ®} coupon substrates by cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD). Coatings were composed of alternating TiN (top) and Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N (2-layer, 4-layer, 8-layer and 16-layer) layers. The minimum TiN top coating thickness and coating architecture were optimized for good corrosion and oxidation resistance. Corrosion tests were performed in static pure water at 360 °C and 18.7 MPa for up to 90 days. The optimized coatings showed no spallation/delamination and had a maximum of 6 mg/dm{sup 2} weight gain, which is 6 times smaller than that of a control sample of uncoated ZIRLO{sup ®} which showed a weight gain of 40.2 mg/dm{sup 2}. The optimized architecture features a ∼1 μm TiN top layer to prevent boehmite phase formation during corrosion and a TiN/TiAlN 8-layer architecture which provides the best corrosion performance. - Highlights: • The first study on multilayer TiAlN and TiN ceramic coatings on ZIRLO{sup ®} coupons. • Corrosion tests were performed at 360°C and 18.7 MPa for up to 90 days. • Coatings adhered well to the substrate, and showed no spallation/delamination. • Weight gains were six times lower than those of uncoated ZIRLO{sup ®} samples. • Longer and higher temperature corrosion tests will be discussed in a further paper.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructure multilayer CrN/Cr coatings on titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecinski, Piotr; Smolik, Jerzy; Garbacz, Halina; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J.

    2011-01-01

    Five different nanostructured, multilayer coatings (CrN/Cr)x8 with different thickness ratio of Cr and CrN layers were deposited by PAPVD (Plasma Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition) vacuum arc method on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The microstructure, chemical and phase composition of the CrN and Cr sub-layers were characterized by SEM with EDX and Cs-corrected dedicated STEM on cross-sections prepared by focus ion beam. Besides, hardness and Young's modulus of the (Cr/CrN)x8 coatings has been measured. The adhesion has been tested by scratch test method. The obtained (CrN/Cr) multilayer coatings, 5-6 μm in thickness, have homogeneous and nanocrystalline structure, free of pores and cracks. The microstructures of Cr and CrN layers consist of columnar grains below 100 nm in diameter. The hardness and Young's modulus of these coatings depend linearly on thickness ratio of Cr and CrN layers. The decrease of the thickness ratio Cr/CrN 0.81 to 0.15 results in the increase of hardness from 1275 HV to 1710 HV and Young's modulus from 260 GPa to 271 GPa.

  19. Fiber/matrix interfaces for SiC/SiC composites: Multilayer SiC coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, H.; Curtin, W.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on composites of CVI SiC matrix reinforced with 2-d Nicalon fiber cloth, with either pyrolitic carbon or multilayer CVD SiC coatings [Hypertherm High-Temperature Composites Inc., Huntington Beach, CA.] on the fibers. To investigate the role played by the different interfaces, several types of measurements are made on each sample: (i) unload-reload hysteresis loops, and (ii) acoustic emission. The pyrolitic carbon and multilayer SiC coated materials are remarkably similar in overall mechanical responses. These results demonstrate that low-modulus, or compliant, interface coatings are not necessary for good composite performance, and that complex, hierarchical coating structures may possibly yield enhanced high-temperature performance. Analysis of the unload/reload hysteresis loops also indicates that the usual {open_quotes}proportional limit{close_quotes} stress is actually slightly below the stress at which the 0{degrees} load-bearing fibers/matrix interfaces slide and are exposed to atmosphere.

  20. High Temperature Multilayer Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Bryan James; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Si-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments to avoid rapid material loss. Candidate EBC materials have use temperatures only marginally above current technology, but the addition of a columnar oxide topcoat can substantially increase the durability. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) allows application of these multilayer EBCs in a single process. The PS-PVD technique is a unique method that combines conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, allowing for tailoring of thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures by varying deposition conditions. Multilayer coatings were deposited on CMC specimens and assessed for durability under high heat flux and load. Coated samples with surface temperatures ranging from 2400-2700F and 10 ksi loads using the high heat flux laser rigs at NASA Glenn. Coating morphology was characterized in the as-sprayed condition and after thermomechanical loading using electron microscopy and the phase structure was tracked using X-ray diffraction.

  1. Design Multilayer Antireflection Coatings for Terrestrial Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the influence of methods to design antireflection coatings (ARCs on reflectivity of broadband solar cells, we provide detailed analyses about the ARC coupled with a window layer and the refractive index dispersion effect of each layer. By multidimensional matrix data simulation, two methods were employed to measure the composite reflection of a SiO2/ZnS double-layer ARC within the spectral ranges of 300–870 nm (dual junction and 300–1850 nm (triple junction under AM1.5 solar radiation. A comparison study, between the results obtained from the commonly used weighted average reflectance method (WAR and that from the introduced effective average reflectance method (EAR, shows that the optimization of ARC by EAR method is convenient and feasible.

  2. Plastic Deformation Induced by Nanoindentation Test Applied on ZrN/Si3N4 Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ZrN/Si3N4 multilayer coating that alternates with either nanocrystalline ZrN or amorphous Si3N4 interlayers was fabricated by reactively magnetron sputtering in an Ar-N2 mixture atmosphere. The thicknesses of the nanocrystalline ZrN and the amorphous Si3N4 interlayers are ~12.5 and 2.5 nm, respectively. The ZrN/Si3N4 coating exhibits a promoted hardness of 28.6 ± 1.2 GPa when compared to the binary ZrN. Microstructure evolution just underneath the nanoindentation impression of the ZrN/Si3N4 multilayer coating has been investigated. The result indicates that both ZrN nanograin rotations and plastic flow of the Si3N4 interlayers contribute to the permanent deformation of the multilayer coating induced by the nanoindentation. In addition, the introduction of the a-Si3N4 interlayers hinders both the initiation and propagation of microcracks when the multilayer coating was applied to the scratch test. The propagation deflection of the microcracks was observed attributed to the heterogenous interface, which produces the hardness promotion of the multilayer coating eventually.

  3. Searching for optimal mitigation geometries for laser resistant multilayer high reflector coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, S R; Wolfe, J E; Monterrosa, A M; Feit, M D; Pistor, T V; STolz, C J

    2011-02-11

    Growing laser damage sites on multilayer high reflector coatings can limit mirror performance. One of the strategies to improve laser damage resistance is to replace the growing damage sites with pre-designed benign mitigation structures. By mitigating the weakest site on the optic, the large aperture mirror will have a laser resistance comparable to the intrinsic value of the multilayer coating. To determine the optimal mitigation geometry, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD) was used to quantify the electric-field intensification within the multilayer, at the presence of different conical pits. We find that the field intensification induced by the mitigation pit is strongly dependent on the polarization and the angle of incidence (AOI) of the incoming wave. Therefore the optimal mitigation conical pit geometry is application specific. Furthermore, our simulation also illustrates an alternative means to achieve an optimal mitigation structure by matching the cone angle of the structure with the AOI of the incoming wave, except for the p-polarization wave at a range of incident angles between 30{sup o} and 45{sup o}.

  4. A mechanical and tribological study of Cr/CrN multilayer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, D.F., E-mail: diegomas@gmail.com [Grupo GEMA, Universidad Católica de Pereira, Pereira (Colombia); Gómez, A. [Laboratório de Fenômenos de Superficie, Escola Politécnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali (Colombia); Vélez, J.M. [Escuela de Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín (Colombia); Souza, R.M. [Laboratório de Fenômenos de Superficie, Escola Politécnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Olaya, J.J. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Mecatrónica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    Multilayer Cr/CrN coatings with different periodicities were grown on silicon substrates by means of a magnetron sputtering technique. Thin films with only Cr or CrN were also grown, in order to use them as reference samples. Structural, morphological, mechanical and tribological characterization were carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nanohardness and nanoscratch techniques, respectively. The characterization results were analyzed as a function of the bilayer thickness (period). In general, the multilayer hardness value increased with the decrease in period. In addition, the validity of the Hall-Petch relationship was confirmed for grain sizes and period values greater than 146 nm and 333 nm, respectively. The coefficient of friction (COF) increased with increasing load, which indicates the contribution of the adhesion to the COF. - Highlights: • Multilayer Cr/CrN coatings with layer thickness between 200 and 1000 nm were grown. • Neither bias voltage not temperature were applied during deposition. • The hardness improves with the increase of the number of bilayers. • The wear rate decreases with the increase of the number of bilayers.

  5. Friction Modifier Using Adherent Metallic Multilayered or Mixed Element Layer Conversion Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor); Starks, Lloyd L., Sr. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process for creating conversion coatings and spin, drawing, and extrusion finishes for surfaces, wherein the conversion coatings and spin, drawing, and extrusion finishes contain potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, and one or more non-alkaline metals and/or one or more metalloids. The process comprises forming an aqueous solution of water, phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide, an alkali metal hydroxide, and one or more non-alkaline metals and/or one or more metalloids. The aqueous solution forms an anti-friction multilayer conversion and/or mixed element coating or a spin, drawing, and extrusion finish on a surface when applied to the surface, either directly without the use of applied external electromotive force, or as an additive in lubricating fluids.

  6. The confinement of phonon propagation in TiAlN/Ag multilayer coatings with anomalously low heat conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, A. I.; Wainstein, D. L., E-mail: d-wainstein@sprg.ru [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, Radio Str., 23/9, Bld. 2, Off. 475, CNIICHERMET, 105005 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rashkovskiy, A. Yu. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, Radio Str., 23/9, Bld. 2, Off. 475, CNIICHERMET, 105005 Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy pr-t, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gago, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Soldera, F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Endrino, J. L. [School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing (SATM), Surface Engineering and Nanotechnology Institute, Cranfield University, College Road, Cranfield, MK43 0AL Bedfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-30

    TiAlN/Ag multilayer coatings with a different number of bilayers and thicknesses of individual layers were fabricated by DC magnetron co-sputtering. Thermal conductivity was measured in dependence of Ag layer thickness. It was found anomalous low thermal conductivity of silver comparing to TiAlN and Ag bulk standards and TiAlN/TiN multilayers. The physical nature of such thermal barrier properties of the multilayer coatings was explained on the basis of reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy. The analysis shows that nanostructuring of the coating decreases the density of states and velocity of acoustic phonons propagation. At the same time, multiphonon channels of heat propagation degenerate. These results demonstrate that metal-dielectric interfaces in TiAlN/Ag coatings are insurmountable obstacles for acoustic phonons propagation.

  7. High-temperature oxidation of CrN/AlN multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardi, U.; Chenakin, S.P.; Ghezzi, F.; Giolli, C.; Goruppa, A.; Lavacchi, A.; Miorin, E.; Pagura, C.; Tolstogouzov, A.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments are reported on sputter depth profiling of CrN/AlN multilayer abrasive coatings by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) coupled with sample current measurements (SCM). The coatings were deposited by a closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. It is shown that after oxidation tests, performed in air at 900 deg. C for 2 h and at 1100 deg. C for 4 h, the layered structure begins to degrade but is not destroyed completely. Oxidation at 1100 deg. C for 20 h causes total destruction of the coatings that can be attributed to a fast diffusion of oxygen, nickel, manganese and other elements along defect paths (grain boundaries, dislocations, etc.) in the coating. There are practically no nitrides in the near-surface layer after such a treatment and all the metallic components are in the oxidized form as follows from the data obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). According to XPS and mass-resolved ion scattering spectrometry (MARISS), the surface content of Al in the heat-treated coatings has decreased in comparison with the as-received sample and that of Cr increased. Both XPS and MARISS data exhibit real increase in superficial concentration of the substrate materials (Mn and Ni) that is controversial if using SIMS alone. SCM turned out to be an informative depth profiling method complementary to more expensive and complicated SIMS, being particularly useful for structures with different secondary electron emission properties of the layers. SCM with predetermined SIMS calibration allows a routine characterization of coatings and other multilayer structures, particularly, in situations where the expenses of analysis can be justified

  8. A hard X-ray telescope/concentrator design based on graded period multilayer coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Joensen, K. D.; Gorenstein, P.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that compact designs of multifocus, conical approximations to highly nested Wolter I telescopes, as well as single reflection concentrators, employing realistic graded period W/Si or Ni/C multilayer coatings, allow one to obtain more than 1000 cm2 of on-axis effective area at 40 ke...... that it is smaller than roughly 1 mm. The design can be realized with foils as thin (≤0.4 mm) as used for ASCA and SODART or with closed, slightly thicker (∼1.0 mm) mirror shells as used for JET-X and XMM. The effect of an increase of the inner radius is quantified on the effective area for multilayered mirrors up...

  9. Solution Coating of Pharmaceutical Nanothin Films and Multilayer Nanocomposites with Controlled Morphology and Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Elizabeth M; Kafle, Prapti; Zhang, Fengjiao; Zhang, Yifu; Kenis, Paul J A; Diao, Ying

    2018-03-28

    Nanosizing is rapidly emerging as an alternative approach to enhance solubility and thus the bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Although numerous techniques have been developed to perform nanosizing of API crystals, precise control and modulation of their size in an energy and material efficient manner remains challenging. In this study, we present meniscus-guided solution coating as a new technique to produce pharmaceutical thin films of nanoscale thickness with controlled morphology. We demonstrate control of aspirin film thickness over more than 2 orders of magnitude, from 30 nm to 1.5 μm. By varying simple process parameters such as the coating speed and the solution concentration, the aspirin film morphology can also be modulated by accessing different coating regimes, namely the evaporation regime and the Landau-Levich regime. Using ellipticine-a poorly water-soluble anticancer drug-as another model compound, we discovered a new polymorph kinetically trapped during solution coating. Furthermore, the polymorphic outcome can be controlled by varying coating conditions. We further performed layer-by-layer coating of multilayer nanocomposites, with alternating thin films of ellipticine and a biocompatible polymer, which demonstrate the potential of additive manufacturing of multidrug-personalized dosage forms using this approach.

  10. Crack Driving Forces in a Multilayered Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the top coating thickness, modulus and shrinkage strains on the crack driving forces for a baseline multilayer Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia/Mullite/Si thermal and environment barrier coating (TEBC) system for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates are determined for gas turbine applications. The crack driving forces increase with increasing modulus, and a low modulus thermal barrier coating material (below 10 GPa) will have no cracking issues under the thermal gradient condition analyzed. Since top coating sintering increases the crack driving forces with time, highly sintering resistant coatings are desirable to maintain a low tensile modulus and maintain a low crack driving force with time. Finite element results demonstrated that an advanced TEBC system, such as ZrO2/HfO2, which possesses improved sintering resistance and high temperature stability, exhibited excellent durability. A multi-vertical cracked structure with fine columnar spacing is an ideal strain tolerant coating capable of reducing the crack driving forces to an acceptable level even with a high modulus of 50 GPa.

  11. Tantalum-based multilayer coating on cobalt alloys in total hip and knee replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagna, C., E-mail: cristina.balagna@polito.it [Institute of Materials Engineering and Physics, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24,10129 Torino (Italy); Faga, M.G. [Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali Ceramici, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino (Italy); Spriano, S. [Institute of Materials Engineering and Physics, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24,10129 Torino (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys are widely used in total hip and knee joint replacement, due to high mechanical properties and resistance to wear and corrosion. They are able to form efficient artificial joints by means of coupling metal-on-polymer or metal-on-metal contacts. However, a high concentration of stress and direct friction between surfaces leads to the formation of polyethylene wear debris and the release of toxic metal ions into the human body, limiting, as a consequence, the lifetime of implants. The aim of this research is a surface modification of CoCrMo alloys in order to improve their biocompatibility and to decrease the release of metal ions and polyethylene debris. Thermal treatment in molten salts was the process employed for the deposition of tantalum-enriched coating. Tantalum and its compounds are considered biocompatible materials with low ion release and high corrosion resistance. Three different CoCrMo alloys were processed as substrates. An adherent coating of about 1 {mu}m of thickness, with a multilayer structure consisting of two tantalum carbides and metallic tantalum was deposited. The substrates and modified layers were characterized by means of structural, chemical and morphological analysis. Moreover nanoindentation, scratch and tribological tests were carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the substrates and coating. The hardness of the coated samples increases more than double than the untreated alloys meanwhile the presence of the coating reduced the wear volume and rate of about one order of magnitude. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal treatment in molten salts deposits a Ta-based coating on Co-based alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coating is composed by one or two tantalum carbides and/or metallic tantalum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating structure depends on thermal temperature and substrates carbon content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coating is able to

  12. Deformation sensor based on polymer-supported discontinuous graphene multi-layer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenuto, G.; Schiavo, L.; Romeo, V.; Nicolais, L.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene can be conveniently used in the modification of polymer surfaces. Graphene macromolecules are perfectly transparent to the visible light and electrically conductive, consequently these two properties can be simultaneously provided to polymeric substrates by surface coating with thin graphene layers. In addition, such coating process provides the substrates of: water-repellence, higher surface hardness, low-friction, self-lubrication, gas-barrier properties, and many other functionalities. Polyolefins have a non-polar nature and therefore graphene strongly sticks on their surface. Nano-crystalline graphite can be used as graphene precursor in some chemical processes (e.g., graphite oxide synthesis by the Hummer method), in addition it can be directly applied to the surface of a polyolefin substrate (e.g., polyethylene) to cover it by a thin graphene multilayer. In particular, the nano-crystalline graphite perfectly exfoliate under the application of a combination of shear and friction forces and the produced graphene single-layers perfectly spread and adhere on the polyethylene substrate surface. Such polymeric materials can be used as ITO (indium-tin oxide) substitute and in the fabrication of different electronic devices. Here the fabrication of transparent resistive deformation sensors based on low-density polyethylene films coated by graphene multilayers is described. Such devices are very sensible and show a high reversible and reproducible behavior

  13. A multilayer innovative solution to improve the adhesion of nanocrystalline diamond coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulon-Quintin, A., E-mail: poulon@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Faure, C.; Teulé-Gay, L.; Manaud, J.P. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of the NCD adhesion on WC-12%Co substrates for tooling applications using a multi-interlayer additional system. • Reduction of the graphite layer thickness and continuity at the interface with the diamond. • Transmission electron microscopy study for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) films grown under negative biased substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are widely used as surface overlay coating onto cermet WC-Co cutting tools to get better performances. To improve the diamond adhesion to the cermet substrate, suitable multi-layer systems have been added. They are composed of a cobalt diffusion barrier close to the substrate (single and sequenced nitrides layers) coated with a nucleation extra layer to improve the nucleus density of diamond during CVD processing. For all systems, before and after diamond deposition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been performed for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces and to evaluate the presence of graphitic species at the interface with the diamond. Innovative multilayer system dedicated to the regulation of cobalt diffusion coated with a bilayer system optimized for the carbon diffusion control, is shown as an efficient solution to significantly reduce the graphite layer formation at the interface with the diamond down to 10 nm thick and to increase the adhesion of NCD diamond layer as scratch-tests confirm.

  14. Cast iron cutting with nano TiN and multilayer TiN-CrN coated inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perucca, M; Durante, S; Semmler, U; Rüger, C; Fuentes, G G; Almandoz, E

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade great success has been achieved in the development of duplex and multilayer multi-functional surface systems. Among these surface systems outstanding properties have nanoscale multilayer coatings. Within the framework of the M3-2S project funded in the 7th European Framework Programme, several nanoscale multilayer coatings have been developed and investigated for experimental and industrial validation. This paper shows the performance of TiN and TiN/CrN nanoscale multilayer coatings on WC cutting inserts when machining GJL250 cast iron. The thin films have been deposited by cathodic arc evaporation in an industrial PVD system. The multilayer deposition characteristic and its properties are shown. The inserts have been investigated in systematic cutting experiments of cast iron bars on a turning machine specifically equipped for force measurements, accompanied by wear determination. Furthermore, equivalent experiments have been carried out on an industrial turning unit. Industrial validation criteria have been applied to assess the comparative performance of the coatings. The choice of the material and the machined parts is driven by an interest in automotive applications. The industrial tests show the need to further optimise the multi-scale modelling approach in order to reduce the lead time of the coating development as well as to improve simulation reliability.

  15. Cast iron cutting with nano TiN and multilayer TiN-CrN coated inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucca, M.; Durante, S.; Semmler, U.; Rüger, C.; Fuentes, G. G.; Almandoz, E.

    2012-09-01

    During the past decade great success has been achieved in the development of duplex and multilayer multi-functional surface systems. Among these surface systems outstanding properties have nanoscale multilayer coatings. Within the framework of the M3-2S project funded in the 7th European Framework Programme, several nanoscale multilayer coatings have been developed and investigated for experimental and industrial validation. This paper shows the performance of TiN and TiN/CrN nanoscale multilayer coatings on WC cutting inserts when machining GJL250 cast iron. The thin films have been deposited by cathodic arc evaporation in an industrial PVD system. The multilayer deposition characteristic and its properties are shown. The inserts have been investigated in systematic cutting experiments of cast iron bars on a turning machine specifically equipped for force measurements, accompanied by wear determination. Furthermore, equivalent experiments have been carried out on an industrial turning unit. Industrial validation criteria have been applied to assess the comparative performance of the coatings. The choice of the material and the machined parts is driven by an interest in automotive applications. The industrial tests show the need to further optimise the multi-scale modelling approach in order to reduce the lead time of the coating development as well as to improve simulation reliability.

  16. Scattering by a conducting elliptic cylinder with a multilayer dielectric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caorsi, Salvatore; Pastorino, Matteo; Raffetto, Mirco

    1997-11-01

    A solution to the electromagnetic scattering of a transverse magnetic plane wave due to a perfectly conducting elliptic cylinder coated by a lossless, nonmagnetic, and elliptic multilayer dielectric is proposed. Despite the lack of orthogonality of the eigenfunctions of the field inside different layers, an efficient recursive procedure for the computation of the solution is devised. It is based on series expansions of the fields in terms of Mathieu functions and on a Galerkin approach. An outline of the procedure is given, and some numerical results, concerning both the field quantities and the radar cross section per unit length, are provided.

  17. Multilayer supermirrors: broadband reflection coatings for the 15- to 100-keV range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Gorenstein, P.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    reflectivity for X-rays. For hard X-rays (>= 15 keV), the absorption, however, is low enough that it is possible to design supermirrors with 10 - 70% reflectivity in a band approximately equals 3 times the width of the total reflection regime. Supermirrors of W/Si and Ni/C have been successfully fabricated...... and characterized. The measured X-ray reflectivities are well accounted for by the standard dynamical theories of multilayer reflection. Hard X-ray applications that could benefit from X-ray supermirror coatings include focusing and imaging instrumentation for astrophysics, and collimating and focusing device...

  18. Multi-layer coatings for bipolar rechargeable batteries with enhanced terminal voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Kaschmitter, James; Pierce, Steve

    2017-06-06

    A method for producing a multi-layer bipolar coated cell according to one embodiment includes applying a first active cathode material above a substrate to form a first cathode; applying a first solid-phase ionically-conductive electrolyte material above the first cathode to form a first electrode separation layer; applying a first active anode material above the first electrode separation layer to form a first anode; applying an electrically conductive barrier layer above the first anode; applying a second active cathode material above the anode material to form a second cathode; applying a second solid-phase ionically-conductive electrolyte material above the second cathode to form a second electrode separation layer; applying a second active anode material above the second electrode separation layer to form a second anode; and applying a metal material above the second anode to form a metal coating section. In another embodiment, the anode is formed prior to the cathode. Cells are also disclosed.

  19. Simulation of an electrolytic bath for electrodeposition of multilayer shielding coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolmatova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the work galvanic bath of Cu/(Ni+Cu multilayer shielding coatings formation from an acetate electrolyte containing 0,03 mol/L of CuAc2, 0,3 mol/L of NiAc2 and 1,66 mol/L of acetic acid. According to the results of polarization studies values of coatings deposition pulse mode current density have been chosen and current efficiency of copper and nickel during deposition of Cu-Ni alloy has been determined. To ensure a constant formulation of the electrolyte it has been proposed to use insoluble anodes made of stainless steel and continuous circulation of the electrolyte. The scheme of steams enabling the adjustment of the solution formulation with the use of an additional collecting vessel has been developed. The formulation of the correcting stream continuously fed into the collecting vessel has been calculated.

  20. Low-emissivity coating of amorphous diamond-like carbon/Ag-alloy multilayer on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kageyama, Takashi; Oda, Hironori

    2005-01-01

    Transparent low-emissivity (low-e) coatings comprising dielectrics of amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) and Ag-alloy films are investigated. All films have been prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. An index of refraction of the DLC film deposited in a gas mixture of Ar/H 2 (4%) shows n = 1.80 + 0.047i at 500 nm wavelength. A multilayer stack of DLC (70 nm thick)/Ag 87.5 Cu 12.5 -alloy (10 nm)/DLC (140 nm)/Ag 87.5 Cu 12.5 -alloy (10 nm)/DLC (70 nm) has revealed clear interference spectra with spectra selectivity. This coating performs low emittance less than 0.1 for black body radiation at 297 K, exhibiting a transparent heat mirror property embedded in DLC films

  1. Spin coating and plasma process for 2.5D integrated photonics on multilayer polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebda, A.; Camberlein, L.; Beche, B.; Gaviot, E.; Beche, E.; Duval, D.; Zyss, J.; Jezequel, G.; Solal, F.; Godet, C.

    2008-01-01

    Polymer spin coating, surface plasma treatment and selective UV-lithography processes have been developed to realize 2.5D photonic micro-resonators, made of disk- or ring-shaped upper rib waveguides, using common polymers such as SU8 (biphenol A ether glycidyl), PS233 (polymeric silane) and SOG (siloxane Spin on Glass). Both oxygen and argon plasma treatments, applied to PS233 and SOG before spin-coating the SU8, improve substantially the grip of multilayer devices (SU8 / PS233 or SU8 / SOG). Surface energy components derived from contact angle measurements have been used to optimize the processing conditions. In such integrated photonic devices, the both single-electromagnetic-modes called transverse electric (TE 00 ) and transverse magnetic (TM 00 ) have been excited in a SU8 micro-disk, with a single mode propagation strongly localized near the edge of the disk (i.e. the so called whispering gallery modes)

  2. Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings - Part 2: Corrosion and protection mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadormanesh, Behrouz; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    The Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings CMMCs were electrodeposited from a single bath by switching the deposition current density. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied and compared with that of monolayers of Ni-P and Zn-Ni alloys via Tafel polarization, EIS and salt spray tests. Characterization of corrosion products by means of EDS and XRD revealed more details from the corrosion mechanism of the monolayers and multilayers. The corrosion current density of Ni-P/Zn-Ni CMMCs were around one tenth of Zn-Ni monolayer. The CMMC with incomplete layers performed lower polarization resistance and higher corrosion current density compared to the CMMC with complete layers. The electrical circuit that was proposed for modeling the corrosion process based on the EIS spectrum, proved that layering reduces the porosity and consequently improves the barrier properties. Although, layering of Zn-Ni layers with Ni-P deposits increased the time to red rust in salt spray test, the time for white rust formation decreased. The corrosion mechanism of both Zn-Ni and Ni-P (containing small amount of Zn) was preferential dissolution of Zn and the corrosion products were comprised of mainly Zn hydroxychloride and Zn hydroxycarbonate. Also, Ni and P did not take part in the corrosion products. Based on the electrochemical character of the layers and the morphology of the corroded surface, the corrosion mechanism of multilayers was discussed.

  3. High temperature tribological performance of CrAlYN/CrN nanoscale multilayer coatings deposited on ?-TiAl

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.C.; Ross, I.M.; Reinhard, C.; Rainforth, W.M.; Hovsepian, P.Eh.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the effect of temperature on the frictional behaviour of highly novel CrAlYN/CrN multilayer coatings, deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) on a Titanium Aluminide alloy used as fan blade material in the aerospace and a turbo-charger wheel in the automotive industries. The work was the first to discover the high temperature oxide 'glaze' layer formation which occurred on CrN multilayer-type coatings at higher temperatures and has received significant...

  4. Optimization of Ni-Based WC/Co/Cr Composite Coatings Produced by Multilayer Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Angelastro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a surface coating technique, laser cladding (LC has been developed for improving wear, corrosion, and fatigue properties of mechanical components. The main advantage of this process is the capability of introducing hard particles such as SiC, TiC, and WC as reinforcements in the metallic matrix such as Ni-based alloy, Co-based alloy, and Fe-based alloy to form ceramic-metal composite coatings, which have very high hardness and good wear resistance. In this paper, Ni-based alloy (Colmonoy 227-F and Tungsten Carbides/Cobalt/Chromium (WC/Co/Cr composite coatings were fabricated by the multilayer laser cladding technique (MLC. An optimization procedure was implemented to obtain the combination of process parameters that minimizes the porosity and produces good adhesion to a stainless steel substrate. The optimization procedure was worked out with a mathematical model that was supported by an experimental analysis, which studied the shape of the clad track generated by melting coaxially fed powders with a laser. Microstructural and microhardness analysis completed the set of test performed on the coatings.

  5. Performance of Ti-multilayer coated tool during machining of MDN431 alloyed steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiger, Pradeep V.; Desai, Vijay; Ramesh, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    Turbine forgings and other components are required to be high resistance to corrosion and oxidation because which they are highly alloyed with Ni and Cr. Midhani manufactures one of such material MDN431. It's a hard-to-machine steel with high hardness and strength. PVD coated insert provide an answer to problem with its state of art technique on the WC tool. Machinability studies is carried out on MDN431 steel using uncoated and Ti-multilayer coated WC tool insert using Taguchi optimisation technique. During the present investigation, speed (398-625rpm), feed (0.093-0.175mm/rev), and depth of cut (0.2-0.4mm) varied according to Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, subsequently cutting forces and surface roughness (Ra) were measured. Optimizations of the obtained results are done using Taguchi technique for cutting forces and surface roughness. Using Taguchi technique linear fit model regression analysis carried out for the combination of each input variable. Experimented results are compared and found the developed model is adequate which supported by proof trials. Speed, feed and depth of cut are linearly dependent on the cutting force and surface roughness for uncoated insert whereas Speed and depth of cut feed is inversely dependent in coated insert for both cutting force and surface roughness. Machined surface for coated and uncoated inserts during machining of MDN431 is studied using optical profilometer.

  6. Wear behaviour of wear-resistant adaptive nano-multilayered Ti-Al-Mo-N coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergevnin, V. S.; Blinkov, I. V.; Volkhonskii, A. O.; Belov, D. S.; Kuznetsov, D. V.; Gorshenkov, M. V.; Skryleva, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Coating samples in the Ti-Al-Mo-N system were obtained by arc-PVD method at variable bias voltage Ub applied to the substrate, and the partial pressure of nitrogen P(N2) used as a reaction gas. The deposited coatings were characterized by a nanocrystalline structure with an average grain size of 30-40 nm and multilayered architecture with alternating layers of (Ti,Al)N nitride and Mo-containing phases with a thickness comparable to the grain size. Coatings of (Ti,Al)N-Mo-Mo2N and (Ti,Al)N-Mo2N compositions were obtained by changing deposition parameters. The obtained coatings had hardness of 40 GPa and the relative plastic deformation under microindentation up to 60%. (Ti,Al)N-Mo2N coatings demonstrated better physicomechanical characteristics, showing high resistance to crack formation and destruction through the plastic deformation mechanism without brittle fracturing, unlike (Ti,Al)N-Mo-Mo2N. The friction coefficient of the study coatings (against Al2O3 balls under dry condition using a pin-on-disc method) reached the values of 0.35 and 0.5 at 20 °C and 500 °C respectively, without noticeable wear within this temperature range. These tribological properties were achieved by forming MoO3 acting as a solid lubricant. At higher temperatures the deterioration in the tribological properties is due to the high rate of MoO3 sublimation from friction surfaces.

  7. Electrochemical behavior of hydroxyapatite/TiN multi-layer coatings on Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Ju [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative Science and Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of hydroxyapatite (HA) and titanium nitride (TiN) multi-layer coatings on Ti–Nb–Zr alloys was investigated by a variety of surface analytical methods. The HA/TiN layers were deposited using a magnetron sputtering system. The HA target was made of human tooth-ash sintered at 1300 °C for 1 h and had an average Ca/P ratio of 1.9. From X-ray diffraction patterns, the Ti–29Nb–5Zr alloy was composed entirely of equiaxed β-phase exhibiting the principal (110) reflection, and the coating exhibited the (111) and (200) reflections for TiN and the (112) and (202) reflections for HA. At the coating surface the HA films consisted of granular particles, and the surface roughness was 4.22 nm. The thickness of the coating layers increased in the order of HA/TiN (lowest), TiN, and HA (highest). Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the corrosion current density was the lowest, and the corrosion potential and polarization resistance the highest, when the Ti–29Nb–5Zr surface was covered by the HA/TiN film, compared to solely HA or TiN films. - Highlights: • HA/TiN films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on a Ti–29Nb–5Zr biomedical alloy. • The corrosion current density for the HA/TiN films was lower than that of the non-coated alloy. • The polarization resistance of the HA/TiN films was higher than that of the non-coated alloy.

  8. Electrochemical behavior of hydroxyapatite/TiN multi-layer coatings on Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of hydroxyapatite (HA) and titanium nitride (TiN) multi-layer coatings on Ti–Nb–Zr alloys was investigated by a variety of surface analytical methods. The HA/TiN layers were deposited using a magnetron sputtering system. The HA target was made of human tooth-ash sintered at 1300 °C for 1 h and had an average Ca/P ratio of 1.9. From X-ray diffraction patterns, the Ti–29Nb–5Zr alloy was composed entirely of equiaxed β-phase exhibiting the principal (110) reflection, and the coating exhibited the (111) and (200) reflections for TiN and the (112) and (202) reflections for HA. At the coating surface the HA films consisted of granular particles, and the surface roughness was 4.22 nm. The thickness of the coating layers increased in the order of HA/TiN (lowest), TiN, and HA (highest). Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the corrosion current density was the lowest, and the corrosion potential and polarization resistance the highest, when the Ti–29Nb–5Zr surface was covered by the HA/TiN film, compared to solely HA or TiN films. - Highlights: • HA/TiN films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on a Ti–29Nb–5Zr biomedical alloy. • The corrosion current density for the HA/TiN films was lower than that of the non-coated alloy. • The polarization resistance of the HA/TiN films was higher than that of the non-coated alloy

  9. Single layer and multilayer vacuum-arc coatings based on the nitride TiAlSiYN: composition, structure, properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresnev, V.M.; Litovchenko, S.V.; Nemchenko, U.S.; Srebnyuk, P.A.; Mazilin, B.A.; Sobol, O.V.; Mejlekhov, A.A.; Barmin, A.E.; Serenko, TA.; Pogrebnyak, A.D.; Ivanov, O.N.; Kritsyna, E.V.; Stolbovoj, V.A.; Novikov, V.Yu.; Malikov, L.V.

    2017-01-01

    Using high-technological vacuum-arc evaporation in the atmosphere of nitrogen with ion bombardment, single- and multilayer coatings based on TiAlSiYN with high mechanical characteristics were obtained: hardness of the coatings reached 49.5 GPa, resistance to wear, with the value of the critical point L_C_5 reaching 184.92 N. The peculiarities of radiation-induced effect at applying bias potential U_b were found: formation of nitride coatings based on fcc metallic lattice with the preferred orientation of crystallites with the texture axis [111], as well as simultaneous growth of hardness. Hardness of both single- and multilayer coatings increases by 40...50% at the increase of U_b from 50 to 200 V. Formation of silicon-containing layers of TiAlSiYN during the deposition contributes to reaching increased hardness, which, in the case of single-layer coating obtained at U_b = -200 V is 49.5 GPa, which corresponds to superhard state. The mechanisms of structure formation, defining the resulting mechanical characteristics of single- and multi-layer coatings based on TiAlSiYN nitride have been discussed.

  10. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; Zoestbergen, E; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,AI)N was deposited using a

  11. Multilayer Protective Coatings for High-Level Nuclear Waste Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Michael

    , as opposed to bare, mild steel. Passivation and passive breakdown was largely unaffected by the coating materials. Activation parameters were determined for corrosion rates and passive breakdown potential based on measurements performed between 20°C and 80°C to simulate elevated waste canister temperatures due to decay heat. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the metal-electrolyte interface and the passive film formed on types 304 and 316 stainless steel. Capacitance values were calculated by utilizing the constant phase element and a conversion technique proposed in the literature. This method was shown to remove the frequency dependence of the capacitance that is often seen in electrochemical analysis. The dielectric constant was estimated from impedance and potentiostatic current measurements, and film defect densities were calculated to be on the order of 1020 cm-3, which is consistent with highly-doped semiconductive films. EIS was also employed to study reactively-sputtered TiO2 films on stainless steel type 304, which was substantially thicker than initial TiO2 coatings. The impedance spectra of TiO2-coated stainless steel exhibited several distinctions from its uncoated counterpart and were clearly dominated by the dielectric coating material. Film defect density was on the order of 1017 cm-3, which is several orders of magnitude lower than the bare steel and is more consistent with solid-state semiconductors. This research shows the potential of these coating materials to alter the corrosion behavior of the outer surface of a HLW storage canister. Although the initial single layered coatings had little effect on the corrosion and passivity of the stainless steel substrates, it is possible that with a thicker multi-layered coating system the substrate may be sufficiently isolated from the environment. Moreover, the thin single layer coatings were able to reduce corrosion of A36 steel, showing the promise of these coating

  12. High-Reflectivity Multi-Layer Coatings for the CLASP Sounding Rocket Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Kubo, Masahito; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kobiki, Toshihiko; Giono, Gabriel; Auchere, Frederic; hide

    2015-01-01

    We are planning an international rocket experiment Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is (2015 planned) that Lyman alpha line (Ly alpha line) polarization spectroscopic observations from the sun. The purpose of this experiment, detected with high accuracy of the linear polarization of the Ly alpha lines to 0.1% by using a Hanle effect is to measure the magnetic field of the chromosphere-transition layer directly. For polarization photometric accuracy achieved that approximately 0.1% required for CLASP, it is necessary to realize the monitoring device with a high throughput. On the other hand, Ly alpha line (vacuum ultraviolet rays) have a sensitive characteristics that is absorbed by the material. We therefore set the optical system of the reflection system (transmission only the wavelength plate), each of the mirrors, subjected to high efficiency of the multilayer coating in accordance with the role. Primary mirror diameter of CLASP is about 30 cm, the amount of heat about 30,000 J is about 5 minutes of observation time is coming mainly in the visible light to the telescope. In addition, total flux of the sun visible light overwhelmingly large and about 200 000 times the Ly alpha line wavelength region. Therefore, in terms of thermal management and 0.1% of the photometric measurement accuracy achieved telescope, elimination of the visible light is essential. We therefore, has a high reflectivity (greater than 50%) in Ly alpha line, visible light is a multilayer coating be kept to a low reflectance (less than 5%) (cold mirror coating) was applied to the primary mirror. On the other hand, the efficiency of the polarization analyzer required chromospheric magnetic field measurement (the amount of light) Conventional (magnesium fluoride has long been known as a material for vacuum ultraviolet (MgF2) manufactured ellipsometer; Rs = 22%) about increased to 2.5 times were high efficiency reflective polarizing element analysis. This device, Bridou et al

  13. Tunable thick porous silica coating fabricated by multilayer-by-multilayer bonding of silica nanoparticles for open-tubular capillary chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qishu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Shi, Wenjun; Yan, Chao; Tang, Xiaoqing

    2015-06-19

    A simple coating procedure employing a multilayer-by-multilayer process to modify the inner surface of bare fused-silica capillaries with silica nanoparticles was established. The silica nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the capillary wall via a strong electrostatic interaction between amino functional groups and silica particles. The thickness of the coating could be tuned from 130 to 600 nm by increasing the coating cycles from one to three. Both the retention factor and the resolution were greatly increased with increasing coating cycles. The loading capacity determined by naphthalene in the column with three coating cycles is 152.1 pmol. The effects of buffer concentration and pH value on the stability of the coating were evaluated. The retention reproducibility of the separation of toluene was 0.8, 1.2, 2.3, and 4.5%, respectively, for run-to-run, day-to-day, column-to-column, and batch-to-batch, respectively. The chromatographic performance of these columns was evaluated by both capillary liquid chromatography and open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). Separation of aromatic hydrocarbons in the column with three coating cycles provided high theoretical plate numbers (up to 269,280 plates m(-1) for toluene) and short separation time (<15 min) by using OT-CEC mode. The method was also used to separate egg white proteins. Both acidic and basic proteins as well as four glycoisoforms were separated in a single run. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Obtention and characterization of TiO2/TiN multilayers coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Nano science has emerged in recent years as one of the most important areas for future technological developments, especially in the area of electronic devices. Nanotechnology has an interdisciplinary character which includes knowledge from physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. This technology is being used in the manufacture of microprocessors, pumps for dose of medicine, and coating materials, among others. The MOCVD technique has been used recently to obtain nanocrystalline coatings, and provide films of better quality than those obtained by conventional CVD or physical methods. Furthermore, the MOCVD technique presents itself as a competitive alternative because it is relatively inexpensive and easy to deploy compared to physical deposition methods. In this work multilayer coatings of TiO 2 /TiN were produced. During the experiment, the opening and closing of the valves of gases admission, requires from the operator manual ability to trigger the valve and controlling the deposition time, which creates the possibility of errors, leading directly into the thickness of each layer. Thus, the need of reducing the influence of the operator, and the possibility of using time intervals of less than a minute in the growths, created the opportunity to develop a computer program to manage the whole system. The software was developed using the 'State machine' concept for the process control and Hardware in the loop simulation. (author)

  15. GOLD's coating and testing facilities for ISSIS-WSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larruquert, Juan I.; Méndez, José Antonio; Aznárez, José Antonio; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; García-Cortés, Sergio; Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis; Fernández-Perea, Mónica

    2011-09-01

    ISSIS imager has been thought as an open purpose instrument within the World Space Observatory (WSO) international space mission. The highest priorities of ISSIS, an instrument to be developed by Spain, are to guarantee high spatial resolution and high sensitivity down to the far ultraviolet (FUV). The paper displays the capacities of GOLD for multilayer deposition and FUV reflectometry, among other metrologies, for ISSIS optical elements. Deposition of coatings for ISSIS-WSO will be carried out in a new UHV system with a 75-cm diameter deposition chamber. The purpose of the new laboratory is the deposition of coatings satisfying the constraints for FUV space optics. The first target coating to be developed in this new laboratory is Al protected with MgF2, with optimum reflectance down to ˜120 nm. GOLD's existing reflectometer is able to characterize flat pieces both by transmittance and reflectance, and the latter from near-normal to grazing incidence, in the range from 12 to 200 nm. Other metrologies that will be available at GOLD for ISSIS's coatings and filters include optical thickness of filters to assure parfocality, filter wedge, and coating and filter scattering.

  16. Failure Analysis of Multilayered Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Rocchio-Heller, R.; Liu, J.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-02-01

    Improvement in the performance of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is one of the key objectives for further development of gas turbine applications. The material most commonly used as TBC topcoat is yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). However, the usage of YSZ is limited by the operating temperature range which in turn restricts the engine efficiency. Materials such as pyrochlores, perovskites, rare earth garnets are suitable candidates which could replace YSZ as they exhibit lower thermal conductivity and higher phase stability at elevated temperatures. The objective of this work was to investigate different multilayered TBCs consisting of advanced topcoat materials fabricated by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). The investigated topcoat materials were YSZ, dysprosia-stabilized zirconia, gadolinium zirconate, and ceria-yttria-stabilized zirconia. All topcoats were deposited by TriplexPro-210TM plasma spray gun and radial injection of suspension. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue and thermal shock testing. Microstructure analysis of as-sprayed and failed specimens was performed with scanning electron microscope. The failure mechanisms in each case have been discussed in this article. The results show that SPS could be a promising route to produce multilayered TBCs for high-temperature applications.

  17. Synthesis of dense TiO2 nanoparticle multilayers using spin coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, L. Ajith; Thakurdesai, Madhavi; Bandara, T. M. W. J.; Preston, Joshua; Johnson, Wyatt; Gaquere-Parker, Anne; Survase, Smita

    2018-04-01

    A stack of nine layers is prepared by sequential spun casting of commercially available colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles of average size of 10-15 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is employed to investigate the surface morphology of the multilayers. SEM micrographs exhibit formation of highly uniform and dense TiO2 nanoparticle layers. The uniformity and density is found to be increasing with layer thickness. Structural characterization is carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. XRD spectra indicate improvement in crystalline quality of all the layers with increasing layer thickness. All the layers are having mainly the anatase phase of TiO2. Optical characterization is carried out by UV-visible spectroscopy. The value of bandgap estimated on the basis of absorption coefficient is found to be 3.26 eV and approximately remains the same for the layers. The electrical characterization suggests that multilayer resistivity increases with increasing layer thickness. The good quality spin coated thin dense TiO2 layers have many applications in optoelectronics.

  18. Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, M.; Schröder, S.; Lin, C. C.; Duparré, A.; Tünnermann, A.

    2012-09-01

    Optical components for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) face stringent requirements for surface finish, because even small amounts of surface and interface roughness can cause significant scattering losses and impair image quality. In this paper, we investigate the roughness evolution of Mo/Si multilayers by analyzing the scattering behavior at a wavelength of 13.5 nm as well as taking atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements before and after coating. Furthermore, a new approach to measure substrate roughness is presented, which is based on light scattering measurements at 405 nm. The high robustness and sensitivity to roughness of this method are illustrated using an EUV mask blank with a highspatial frequency roughness of as low as 0.04 nm.

  19. NuSTAR calibration facility and multilayer reference database: Optic response model comparison to NuSTAR on-ground calibration data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai

    . To couple the as-coated multilayer to the actual optics, ray tracing is carried out in a detailed geometric model of the optic, including in-situ measured figure error for the mounted substrates. The effective area as a function of energy estimated from ray tracing is compared to NuSTAR on......The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission carrying the first focusing hard X-ray telescope (5 − 80 keV ) to orbit. NuSTAR is slated for launch in 2012. Through a leap in sensitivity, the realization of focusing optics holds promise of heralding in a golden...... the optic response for both on- and off-axis NuSTAR observations, detailed knowledge of the as-coated multilayer is required. The purpose of this thesis is to establish a multilayer reference database. As an integral part of this effort, a hard X-ray calibration facility was designed and constructed. Each...

  20. Flame Retardant Multilayered Coatings on Acrylic Fabrics Prepared by One-Step Deposition of Chitosan/Montmorillonite Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Carosio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Multilayered coatings deposited using the layer-by-layer (LbL assembly technique have attracted great interest in recent years as a sustainable and efficient solution for conferring flame retardant properties to fabrics. The unique structure and interaction established upon the coating assembly are the key factors for successful flame retardant properties. In this study we aimed at the deposition of multilayered coatings comprising chitosan and montmorillonite with a LbL-like structure and interactions by the simple processing of compacted chitosan/montmorillonite complexes obtained by the direct mixing of an oppositely charged solution/suspension. Upon drying, the prepared complex yielded a continuous coating characterized by a brick-and-mortar multi-layered structure, in which oriented clay nanoplatelets were held together by a continuous chitosan matrix. When deposited on acrylic fabrics these coatings were able to suppress the melt-dripping phenomenon, and at 10 and 20% add-ons achieved self-extinguishing behavior within a few seconds after ignition. Cone calorimetry testing revealed an increase in time to ignition (up to +46% and considerable reductions of the rates at which heat is released (up to −62 and −49% for peak of heat release rate and total heat release, respectively. A reduction in the total smoke release (up to −49% was also observed.

  1. Roughness Influence On Macro- And Micro-Tribology Of Multi-Layered Hard Coatings On Carbon Fibre Polymer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackner J.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal of this work is the investigation of roughness influences on the abrasive wear behaviour of magnetron sputtered multi-layered, low-friction coatings on carbon-fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP. Higher coating roughness at similar CFRP quality was realized by higher deposition rates, leading to increased heat flux to the substrates during deposition. Thermal expansion of the epoxy matrix on the micro scale results in a wavy, wrinkled surface topography. Both in scratch and reciprocal sliding testing against alumina, the friction coefficients are lower for the smooth coatings, but their wear rate is higher due to low-cycle fatigue caused abrasion.

  2. Oxidation protection of multilayer CVD SiC/B/SiC coatings for 3D C/SiC composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongsheng; Cheng Laifei; Zhang Litong; Wu Shoujun; Li Duo; Xu Yongdong

    2007-01-01

    A CVD boron coating was introduced between two CVD SiC coating layers. EDS and XRD results showed that the CVD B coating was a boron crystal without other impurity elements. SEM results indicated that the CVD B coating was a flake-like or column-like crystal with a compact cross-section. The crack width in the CVD SiC coating deposited on CVD B is smaller than that in a CVD SiC coating deposited on CVD SiC coating. After oxidation at 700 deg. C and 1000 deg. C, XRD results indicated that the coating was covered by product B 2 O 3 or B 2 O 3 .xSiO 2 film. The cracks were sealed as observed by SEM. There was a large amount of flake-like material on hybrid coating surface after oxidation at 1300 deg. C. Oxidation weight loss and residual flexural strength results showed that hybrid SiC/B/SiC multilayer coating provided better oxidation protection for C/SiC composite than a three layer CVD SiC coating at temperatures from 700 deg. C to 1000 deg. C for 600 min, but worse oxidation protection above 1000 deg. C due to the large amount of volatilization of B 2 O 3 or B 2 O 3 .xSiO 2

  3. Structural, mechanical and tribocorrosion behaviour in artificial seawater of CrN/AlN nano-multilayer coatings on F690 steel substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuliang; Li, Jinlong; Zeng, Zhixiang; Gao, Yimin

    2018-01-01

    The CrN monolayer and CrN/AlN nano-multilayer coating were successfully fabricated by reactive magnetron sputtering on F690 steel. The results show that CrN monolayer exhibits a face centered cubic crystalline structure with (111) preferred orientation and CrN/AlN nano-multilayer coating has a (200) preferred orientation. This design of the nano-multilayer can interrupt the continuous growth of columnar crystals making the coating denser. The CrN/AlN nano-multilayer coating has a better wear resistance and corrosion resistance compared with the CrN monolayer coating. The tribocorrosion tests reveal that the evolution of potential and current density of F690 steel and CrN monolayer or CrN/AlN nano-multilayer coating see an opposite trend under the simultaneous action of wear and corrosion, which is attributed to that F690 steel is a non-passive material and PVD coatings is a passive material. The nano-multilayer structure has a good ;Pore Sealing Effect;, and the corrosive solution is difficult to pass through the coating to corrode the substrate.

  4. The structure and mechanical properties of multilayer nanocrystalline TiN/ZrN coatings obtained by vacuum-arc deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Demchyshyn

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiN/ZrN multilayered condensates on BK-8 carbide tips substrates (62 HRC were produced by the vacuumarc deposition technique, using Ti and Zr plasma flows in reactive nitrogen gas medium with working pressure of 6.6·10–1 Pa. The TiN/ZrN multilayered condensates consist of TiN and ZrN sublayers, which have a thickness of ~100 nm, controlled by the processing parameters of the used deposition technique. The obtained coatings have hardness of 45 GPa and Young’s modulus of 320 GPa. The obtained results show that mechanical properties of such multilayered composites are considerably improved in comparison to those for the single-component coatings, TiN and ZrN. The dependence of hardness and Young’s modulus of the composites on sublayer thickness within a range of 100 nm was determined. The investigated structure and improved mechanical properties of the TiN/ZrN multilayered condensates would be very good platform for finding their industrial application, such as hard coatings with different purposes.

  5. Damping Oriented Design of Thin-Walled Mechanical Components by Means of Multi-Layer Coating Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Catania

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The damping behaviour of multi-layer composite mechanical components, shown by recent research and application papers, is analyzed. A local dissipation mechanism, acting at the interface between any two different layers of the composite component, is taken into account, and a beam model, to be used for validating the known experimental results, is proposed. Multi-layer prismatic beams, consisting of a metal substrate and of some thin coated layers exhibiting variable stiffness and adherence properties, are considered in order to make it possible to study and validate this assumption. A dynamical model, based on a simple beam geometry but taking into account the previously introduced local dissipation mechanism and distributed visco-elastic constraints, is proposed. Some different application examples of specific multi-layer beams are considered, and some numerical examples concerning the beam free and forced response are described. The influence of the multilayer system parameters on the damping behaviour of the free and forced response of the composite beam is investigated by means of the definition of some damping estimators. Some effective multi-coating configurations, giving a relevant increase of the damping estimators of the coated structure with respect to the same uncoated structure, are obtained from the model simulation, and the results are critically discussed.

  6. Multi-layered silicides coating for vanadium alloys for generation IV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, S.; Chaia, N.; Vilasi, M.; Le Flem, M.

    2012-01-01

    The halide-activated pack-cementation technique was employed to fabricate a diffusion coating that is resistant both to isothermal and to cyclic oxidation in air at 650 degrees C on the surface of the V-4Cr-4Ti vanadium alloy that is a potential core component of future nuclear systems. A thermodynamic assessment determined the deposit conditions in terms of master alloy, activator, filler and temperature. The partial pressures of the main gaseous species (SiCl 4 , SiCl 2 and VCl 2 ) in the pack were calculated with the master alloy Si and the mixture VSi 2 + Si. The VSi 2 + Si master alloy was used to limit vanadium loss from the surface. The obtained coating consisted of multi-layered V x Si y silicides with an outer layer of VSi 2 . This silicide developed a protective layer of silica at 650 degrees C in air and was not susceptible to the pest phenomenon, unlike other refractory silicides (MoSi 2 , NbSi 2 ). We suggest that VSi 2 exhibits no risk of rapid degradation in the gas fast reactor (GFR) conditions. (authors)

  7. Electrically driven ion separations and nanofiltration through membranes coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films deposited using the layer-by-layer (LBL) method are attractive for their simple deposition, tailorable nature, scalability, and charge or size-based selectivity for solutes. This dissertation explores ion separations in electrodialysis (ED) and solute removal through nanofiltration with PEMs deposited on polymer membranes. ED membranes typically exhibit modest selectivities between monovalent and divalent ions. In contrast, this work shows that K+/Mg 2+ ED selectivities reach values >1000 when using Nafion 115 cation-exchange membranes coated with multilayer poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/protonated poly(allylamine) (PAH) films. For comparison, the corresponding K+ /Mg2+ selectivity of bare Nafion 115 is salt concentrations, the K+ transference number approaches unity and the K+/Mg2+ selectivity is >20,000, presumably because the applied current is below the limiting value for K+ and H+ transport is negligible at this high K+ concentration. The high selectivities of these membranes may enable electrodialysis applications such as purification of salts that contain divalent or trivalent ions. The high ED selectivities of (PAH/PSS)5PAH-coated Nafion membranes translate to separations with Li+/Co2+ and K +/La3+. Even with adsorption of only 3 polyelectrolyte layers, Nafion membranes exhibit a Li+/Co2+ selectivity >23. However, the resistance to monovalent-ion passage does not decrease significantly with fewer polyelectrolyte layers. At overlimiting currents, hydroxides from water splitting form insoluble metal hydroxides to foul the membrane. With 0.1 M source-phase salt concentrations, transference numbers for monovalent cations approach unity and selectivities are >5000 because the diffusion-limited K+ or Li+ currents exceed the applied current. However, ED selectivities gradually decline with time. Thus, future research should aim to increase membrane stability and limiting currents to fully exploit the remarkable selectivity

  8. Elemental profiling of laser cladded multilayer coatings by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.; Filippov, M. N.; Grishin, M. Ya.; Filichkina, V. A.; Stavertiy, A. Ya.; Tretyakov, R. S.; Bunkin, A. F.; Pershin, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Multilayer tungsten carbide wear resistant coatings were analyzed by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Coaxial laser cladding technique was utilized to produce tungsten carbide coating deposited on low alloy steel substrate with additional inconel 625 interlayer. EDX and LIBS techniques were used for elemental profiling of major components (Ni, W, C, Fe, etc.) in the coating. A good correlation between EDX and LIBS data was observed while LIBS provided additional information on light element distribution (carbon). A non-uniform distribution of tungsten carbide grains along coating depth was detected by both LIBS and EDX. In contrast, horizontal elemental profiling showed a uniform tungsten carbide particles distribution. Depth elemental profiling by layer-by-layer LIBS analysis was demonstrated to be an effective method for studying tungsten carbide grains distribution in wear resistant coating without any sample preparation.

  9. Mechanical properties of multilayer Ni-Fe and Ni-Fe-Al2O3 nanocomposite coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torabinejad, V.; Aliofkhazraei, M.; Rouhaghdam, A. Sabour

    2017-01-01

    properties and wear resistance of composite coatings were studied. The shear punch testing method was employed to evaluate the room temperature mechanical properties. It was shown that increasing the pulse frequency and decreasing the pulse duty cycle improved the mechanical properties of monolithic coatings......A sulfate-based electrolyte was used for synthesis of multilayer (ML) and monolithic Ni-Fe-Al2O3 coatings. The ML electrodeposits were achieved by consecutive alteration of duty cycle of pulsed current between two values of 20% and 90%. The influences of the ML microstructure on mechanical....... The electrodeposited ML coatings exhibited a pronounced improvement in microhardness, shear strength and wear resistance in comparison to the monolithic coatings. Pin-on-disk sliding wear tests revealed that the main mechanisms of wear are plastic deformation, fatigue crack of deformed layers and delamination....

  10. Nitrogen doped silicon-carbon multilayer protective coatings on carbon obtained by TVA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupina, Victor; Vasile, Eugeniu; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Lungu, Cristian P.; Vladoiu, Rodica; Jepu, Ionut; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Caraiane, Aureliana; Nicolescu, Virginia; Cupsa, Ovidiu; Dinca, Paul; Zaharia, Agripina

    2017-08-01

    Protective nitrogen doped Si-C multilayer coatings on carbon, used to improve the oxidation resistance of carbon, were obtained by Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method. The initial carbon layer having a thickness of 100nm has been deposed on a silicon substrate in the absence of nitrogen, and then a 3nm Si thin film to cover carbon layer was deposed. Further, seven Si and C layers were alternatively deposed in the presence of nitrogen ions, each having a thickness of 40nm. In order to form silicon carbide at the interface between silicon and carbon layers, all carbon, silicon and nitrogen ions energy has increased up to 150eV . The characterization of microstructure and electrical properties of as-prepared N-Si-C multilayer structures were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, STEM) techniques, Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) and electrical measurements. Oxidation protection of carbon is based on the reaction between oxygen and silicon carbide, resulting in SiO2, SiO and CO2, and also by reaction involving N, O and Si, resulting in silicon oxynitride (SiNxOy) with a continuously variable composition, and on the other hand, since nitrogen acts as a trapping barrier for oxygen. To perform electrical measurements, 80% silver filled two-component epoxy-based glue ohmic contacts were attached on the N-Si-C samples. Electrical conductivity was measured in constant current mode. The experimental data show the increase of conductivity with the increase of the nitrogen content. To explain the temperature behavior of electrical conductivity we assumed a thermally activated electric transport mechanism.

  11. Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) materials coating evaluation, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Weightless Environment Training Facility Material Coating Evaluation project has included preparing, coating, testing, and evaluating 800 test panels of three differing substrates. Ten selected coating systems were evaluated in six separate exposure environments and subject to three tests for physical properties. Substrate materials were identified, the manner of surface preparation described, and exposure environments defined. Exposure environments included immersion exposure, cyclic exposure, and field exposure. Cyclic exposures, specifically QUV-Weatherometer and the KTA Envirotest were found to be the most agressive of the environments included in the study when all three evaluation criteria are considered. This was found to result primarily from chalking of the coatings under ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Volumes 2 and 3 hold the 5 appendices to this report.

  12. Multi-layered electroless Ni-P coatings on powder-sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhong; Ng, Alice; Yi Jianzhang; Chen Xingfu

    2006-01-01

    This paper has shown a successful protective coating scheme for powder-sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet using multi-layered electroless nickel (EN) deposition. A low-phosphorus nickel layer is plated with an alkaline EN solution first, followed by a high-phosphorus nickel layer plated with an acidic solution. An additional topcoat by medium-phosphorus nickel on the high-phosphorus coating is also explored. It is shown that the high-phosphorus nickel layer coated in acidic solution provides the best corrosion protection because of its dense amorphous structure. The medium phosphorus topcoat is also dense and is able to provide reasonable corrosion resistance. The low-phosphorus layer itself does not have enough corrosion resistance; its main role is to provide an intermediate coating on the powder-sintered magnet. X-ray diffraction measurement shows that the low-phosphorus coating consists of nano-crystallines, and the high- and the medium-phosphorus coatings are dominated by amorphous structure. Microscopic observation and scratch test on these composite coatings demonstrate good adhesion between the magnet and the coatings. Remanence and coercivity of the plated magnet decrease with the applied coatings, but measured values are still very attractive for practical applications among known hard magnets

  13. Antimicrobial coatings on polyethylene terephthalate based on curcumin/cyclodextrin complex embedded in a multilayer polyelectrolyte architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlar, Ilya; Droby, Samir; Rodov, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Bacterial contamination is a growing concern worldwide. The aim of this work was to develop an antimicrobial coating based on curcumin-cyclodextrin inclusion complex and using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film as a support matrix. After a pre-treatment aimed to provide sufficient electric charge to the PET surface, it was electrostatically coated with repeated multilayers comprising alternately deposited positively-charged poly-l-lysine (PLL) and negatively-charged poly-l-glutamic acid (PLGA) and carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CMBCD). The coatings had an architecture (PLL-PLGA) 6 -(PLL-PLGA-PLL-CMBCD) n , with the number of repeated multilayers n varying from 5 to 20. The CMBCD molecules were either covalently cross-linked using carbodiimide crosslinker chemistry or left unbound. The surface morphology, structure and elemental composition of the coatings were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. To impart antimicrobial properties to the coatings they were loaded with a natural phenolic compound curcumin forming inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. The non-cross-linked coatings showed bactericidal activity towards Escherichia coli in the dark, and this activity was further enhanced upon illumination with white light. Curcumin was released from the non-cross-linked coatings into an aqueous medium in the form of cyclodextrin inclusion complex. After the cross-linking, the coating lost its dark antimicrobial activity but retained the photodynamic properties. Stabilized cross-linked curcumin-loaded coatings can serve a basis for developing photoactivated antimicrobial surfaces controlling bacterial contamination and spread. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tribological Behavior of Multilayered WC-Ti1-xAlxN Coatings Deposited by Cathodic Arc Deposition Process on High Speed Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Gu; Hwang, Woon Suk

    2006-01-01

    Recently, much of the current development in surface modification engineering are focused on multilayered coatings. Multilayered coatings have the potential to improve the tribological properties. Four different multilayered coatings were deposited on AISI D2 steel. The prepared samples are designed as WC-Ti 0.6 Al 0.4 N, WC-Ti 0.53 Al 0.47 N, WC-Ti 0.5 Al 0.5 N and WC-Ti 0.43 Al 0.57 N. The multilayered coatings were investigated with respect to coating surface and cross-sectional morphology, roughness, adhesion, hardness, porosity and tribological behavior. Especially, wear tests of four multilayered coatings were preformed by using a ball-on-disc configuration with a linear sliding speed of 0.017 m/sec, 5.38 N load. The tests were carried out at room temperature in air by employing AISI 52100 steel ball (H R = 66) having a diameter of 10 mm. The surface morphology, and topography of the wear scars of samples and balls have been determined by using scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM). Results have showed an improved wear resistance of the WC-Ti 1-x 6Al x N coatings with increasing of Al concentration. WC-Ti 0.43 Al 0.57 N coating with the lower surface roughness and porosity with good adhesion enhanced wear resistance

  15. Heparin-mimicking multilayer coating on polymeric membrane via LbL assembly of cyclodextrin-based supramolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Liu, Xinyue; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Shi, Wenbin; Nie, Chuanxiong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-12-10

    In this study, multifunctional and heparin-mimicking star-shaped supramolecules-deposited 3D porous multilayer films with improved biocompatibility were fabricated via a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method on polymeric membrane substrates. Star-shaped heparin-mimicking polyanions (including poly(styrenesulfonate-co-sodium acrylate; Star-PSS-AANa) and poly(styrenesulfonate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate; Star-PSS-EGMA)) and polycations (poly(methyl chloride-quaternized 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate; Star-PMeDMA) were first synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based cores. Then assembly of 3D porous multilayers onto polymeric membrane surfaces was carried out by alternating deposition of the polyanions and polycations via electrostatic interaction. The surface morphology and composition, water contact angle, blood activation, and thrombotic potential as well as cell viability for the coated heparin-mimicking films were systematically investigated. The results of surface ATR-FTIR spectra and XPS spectra verified successful deposition of the star-shaped supramolecules onto the biomedical membrane surfaces; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations revealed that the modified substrate had 3D porous surface morphology, which might have a great biological influence on the biointerface. Furthermore, systematic in vitro investigation of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, human platelet factor 4 (PF4, indicates platelet activation), activate partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, indicates blood coagulant)), and blood-related complement activation (C3a and C5a, indicates inflammation potential) confirmed that the heparin-mimicking multilayer coated membranes exhibited ultralow blood component activations and excellent hemocompatibility. Meanwhile, after surface coating

  16. Multifunctional zirconium nitride/copper multilayer coatings on medical grade 316L SS and titanium substrates for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D Dinesh; Kaliaraj, Gobi Saravanan

    2018-01-01

    Protecting from wear and corrosion of many medical devices in the biomedical field is an existing scientific challenge. Surface modification with multilayer ZrN/Cu coating was deposited on medical grade stainless steel (SS) and titanium substrates to enhance their surface properties. Structural results revealed that the ZrN/Cu coatings are highly crystalline and uniform microstructure on both the substrates. Dry and wet tribological measurements of the coated titanium substrate exhibit enhanced wear resistance and low friction coefficient due to the improved microstructure. Similarly, the corrosion resistance was exceptionally improved on titanium substrates, resulting from the high inertness of coating to the SBF electrolyte solution. Antibacterial activity and epifluorescence results signify the effective killing of pathogens by means of ion release killing as well as contact killing mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Error Analysis of Indirect Broadband Monitoring of Multilayer Optical Coatings using Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Z. V.; Labusov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Results of studying the errors of indirect monitoring by means of computer simulations are reported. The monitoring method is based on measuring spectra of reflection from additional monitoring substrates in a wide spectral range. Special software (Deposition Control Simulator) is developed, which allows one to estimate the influence of the monitoring system parameters (noise of the photodetector array, operating spectral range of the spectrometer and errors of its calibration in terms of wavelengths, drift of the radiation source intensity, and errors in the refractive index of deposited materials) on the random and systematic errors of deposited layer thickness measurements. The direct and inverse problems of multilayer coatings are solved using the OptiReOpt library. Curves of the random and systematic errors of measurements of the deposited layer thickness as functions of the layer thickness are presented for various values of the system parameters. Recommendations are given on using the indirect monitoring method for the purpose of reducing the layer thickness measurement error.

  18. Morphologies of laser-induced damage in hafnia-silica multilayer mirror and polarizer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, F.Y.; Stolz, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    Hafnium-silica multilayer mirrors and polarizers were deposited by e-beam evaporation onto BK7 glass substrates. The mirrors and polarizers were coated for operation at 1053 nm at 45 degree and at Brewster's angle (56 degree), respectively. They were tested with a single 3-ns laser pulse. Morphology of the laser-induced damage was characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Four distinct damage morphologies were found: pits, flatbottom pits, scalds, and delaminates. The pits and flat bottom pits ( 2 ). The pits seemed to result from ejection of nodular defects by causing local enhancement of the electric field. Scalds and delaminates could be observed at higher fluences (above 13 J/cm 2 ) and seemed to result from the formation of plasmas on the surface. These damage types often originated at pits and were less than 300 μm diameter; their size increased almost linearly with fluence. Finally, effects of the damage on the beam (reflectivity degradation and phase modulations) were measured

  19. Multilayer four-flux model for the optical degradation of thermal control coatings in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, C.; Rozé, C.; Girasole, T.; Duvignacq, Carole

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the four-flux radiative transfer model to the case of a multilayer medium. An application is presented with the study of the optical degradation of a white paint in simulated space environment. This paint is constituted of a mixing a zinc oxide and a silicone resin. A sample was irradiated with 45 keV protons and reflectance measurements were achieved in situ after each step of irradiation in order to see the evolution of the thermo-optical properties of the coating. These tests were completed after irradiation by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize the structure of the material and to detect possible structural changes due to the irradiation. This experimental investigation allowed us to define hypothesis to be introduced in the model. In particular, we assume that the optical degradation centered on 410 nm is due to a variation a-/+ of the imaginary part of the refractive index of zinc oxide in the damaged layer. The generalized four-flux model was validated by comparing numerical calculation with experiment.

  20. Multilayer CVD Diamond Coatings in the Machining of an Al6061-15 Vol % Al2O3 Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadmehdi Shabani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic cutting inserts coated with ten-fold alternating micro- and nanocrystalline diamond (MCD/NCD layers grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD were tested in the machining of an Al based metallic matrix composite (MMC containing 15 vol % Al2O3 particles. Inserts with total coating thicknesses of approximately 12 µm and 24 µm were produced and used in turning: cutting speed (v of 250 to 1000 m·min−1; depth of cut (DOC from 0.5 to 3 mm and feed (f between 0.1 and 0.4 mm·rev−1. The main cutting force increases linearly with DOC (ca. 294 N per mm and with feed (ca. 640 N per mm·rev−1. The thicker coatings work within the following limits: DOC up to 1.5 mm and maximum speeds of 750 m·min−1 for feeds up to 0.4 mm·rev−1. Flank wear is predominant but crater wear is also observed due to the negative tool normal rake. Layer-by-layer wear of the tool rake, and not total delamination from the substrate, evidenced one of the advantages of using a multilayer design. The MCD/NCD multilayer diamond coated indexable inserts have longer tool life than most CVD diamond systems and behave as well as most polycrystalline diamond (PCD tools.

  1. Microstructure and interfacial evaluation of Co-based alloy coating on copper by pulsed Nd:YAG multilayer laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hua; Wang Aihua; Xu Kaidong; Wang Wenyan; Huang Zaowen

    2010-01-01

    Laser cladding defect-free coatings on copper is rather difficult. The purpose of this study is to fabricate high quality Co-based alloy coating on copper substrate by laser cladding. Powder preplacement with a thickness of 0.7 mm improves the absorptivity of copper substrate to laser effectively and generates defect-free coating. Microstructures, phase constitutions and wear properties are investigated by means of scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with X-ray energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), as well as dry sliding wear test. Experimental results show that α-Co solution, Cr 23 C 6 , Ni 17 W 3 and Cr 4 Ni 15 W are the main phases in the Co-based coating. The Ni-based solid solutions (α-Co, Ni) and (Ni, Cu) are formed at interface, which generate metallurgical bonding by diffusion between Co-based coating and copper substrate. The average microhardness of the coating is 478HV 0.1 . Wear resistance of copper is significantly improved by laser cladding Co-based alloy multilayer coating.

  2. High-precision MoSi multilayer coatings for radial and 2D designs on curved optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriese, Michael D.; Li, Yang; Platonov, Yuriy Y.

    2017-10-01

    The development of industrial infrastructure for EUV lithography requires a wide array of optics beyond the mask and the scanner optics, which include optics for critical instruments such as exposure testing and actinic inspection. This paper will detail recent results in the production of a variety of high-precision multilayer coatings achieved to support this development. It is critical that the optical designs factor in the capabilities of the achievable multilayer gradients and the associated achievable precision, including impact to surface distortion from the added figure error of the multilayer coating, which adds additional requirements of a specific shape to the period distribution. For example, two different coatings may achieve a ±0.2% variation in multilayer period, but have considerably different added figure error. Part I of the paper will focus on radially-symmetric spherical and aspherical optics. Typical azimuthal uniformity (variation at a fixed radius) achieved is less than ±0.005nm total variation, including measurement precision, on concave optics up to 200mm diameter. For highly curved convex optics (radius of curvature less than 50mm), precision is more challenging and the total variation increases to ±0.01nm total variation for optics 10-30mm in diameter. Total added figure error achieved has been as low as 0.05nm. Part II of the paper will focus on multilayer designs graded in two directions, rather than radially, in order to accommodate the increased complexity of elliptical, toroidal and hyperbolic surfaces. In most cases, the symmetry of the required multilayer gradient does not match the symmetry of the optical surface, and this interaction must be countered via the process design. Achieving such results requires additional flexibility in the design of the deposition equipment, and will be discussed with several examples in the paper, such as the use of variable velocity of an inline substrate carrier in conjunction with a shaped

  3. Fretting wear behaviour of TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiN multi-layer coatings at elevated temperature in gross slip regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanwei; Huang Kunpeng; Zhu Minhao; Zhou Zhongrong

    2005-01-01

    Tic/Ti(C,N)/TiN multi-layer coatings are prepared on the 1Cr13 stainless steel substrate by the technique of Chemical Vapour Deposition, and the fretting wear behaviour of 1Cr13 stainless steel and TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiN coatings are investigated and studied controversially from 25 degree C to 400 degree C in the gross slip regime. It shows that the temperature has great influence on the fretting wear in the gross slip regime for the 1Cr13 stainless steel but little for Ti/C/Ti(C,N)/TiN multi-layer coatings. With the temperature increasing, the friction coefficient and the wear volume of the 1Cr13 alloy decreases and the wear volume of TiC/Ti(C, N)/TiN multi-layer coatings is invariant. TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiN multi-layer coatings have better wear-resistant capability than the 1Cr13 stainless steel, but the wear volume of the substrate increases greatly because of the grain-abrasion resulted from hard debris when TiC/Ti(C,N)/TiN multi-layer coatings are ground off. (authors)

  4. Facility for continuous CVD coating of ceramic fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    The development of new and improved ceramic fibers has spurred the development and application of ceramic composites with improved strength, strength/weight ratio, toughness, and durability at increasingly high temperatures. For many systems, the ceramic fibers can be used without modification because their properties are adequate for the chosen application. However, in order to take maximum advantage of the fiber properties, it is often necessary to coat the ceramic fibers with materials of different composition and properties. Examples include (1) boron nitride coatings on a ceramic fiber, such as Nicalon silicon carbide, to prevent reaction with the ceramic matrix during fabrication and to enhance fiber pullout and increase toughness when the ceramic composite is subjected to stress; (2) boron nitride coatings on ceramic yarns, such as Nicalon for use as thermal insulation panels in an aerodynamic environment, to reduce abrasion of the Nicalon and to inhibit the oxidation of free carbon contained within the Nicalon; and (3) ceramic coatings on carbon yarns and carbon-carbon composites to permit use of these high-strength, high-temperature materials in oxidizing environments at very high temperatures. This paper describes a pilot-plant-sized CVD facility for continuous coating of ceramic fibers and some of the results obtained so far with this equipment

  5. MULTILAYER COATINGS Ti/TiN, Cr/CrN AND W/WN DEPOSITED BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ADHESION TO BASE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Horník

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of single and multilayer layer PVD coatings based on Cr and Ti widely used in tool application. Additionally, W and WN based coating which are not so widespread were designed and deposited as functionally graded material. The coatings properties were evaluated from the point of view of hardness and adhesion. The hardness measuring was carried out using nanoindentation method. The scratch test was performed to test adhesion. Moreover, the presence of metallic interlayer in functionally graded materials further increases the coating adhesion by gradually approaching its composition to the substrate. Coatings consisting of W and WN have showed very good adhesion. With regard to the results of the scratch test, the multilayer coatings of CrN, TiN and WN have increased adhesion and can be assumed to have their protective function improved. Results will be appliedin development of functionally graded layers for functionally graded materials.

  6. Theoretical comparison of light scattering and guided wave coupling in multilayer coated optical components with random interface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, we use first-order perturbation theory to calculate and then compare the (1) angular distribution of incident light scattered from a multilayer-coated optical component and (2) the angular distribution of incident light coupled into guided waves supported by the multilayer component. The incident beam is assumed to be a monochromatic plane wave and the scattering/coupling is assumed to be caused by roughness at the interfaces of the optical component. Numerical results show that for high quality (low root mean square roughness) optical components, comparison of the relative amounts of incident energy (1) scattered out of the specular beam and (2) coupled into guided waves are comparable. It follows that the guided wave energy will further contribute to the scattered field via radiative decay or be converted to heat. Thus, this work can help provide an estimation of when guided wave coupling can occur along with the expected magnitude. (orig.)

  7. Facile fabrication of multilayer separators for lithium-ion battery via multilayer coextrusion and thermal induced phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Pu, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/polyethylene (PE) multilayer separators with cellular-like submicron pore structure for lithium-ion battery are efficiently fabricated by the combination of multilayer coextrusion (MC) and thermal induced phase separation (TIPS). The as-prepared separators, referred to as MC-TIPS PP/PE, not only show efficacious thermal shutdown function and wider shutdown temperature window, but also exhibit higher thermal stability than the commercial separator with trilayer construction of PP and PE (Celgard® 2325). The dimensional shrinkage of MC-TIPS PP/PE can be negligible until 160 °C. In addition, compared to the commercial separator, MC-TIPS PP/PE exhibits higher porosity and electrolyte uptake, leading to higher ionic conductivity and better battery performances. The above-mentioned fascinating characteristics with the convenient preparation process make MC-TIPS PP/PE a promising candidate for the application as high performance lithium-ion battery separators.

  8. Contact damage and fracture micromechanisms of multilayered TiN/CrN coatings at micro- and nano-length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, J.J.; Jiménez-Piqué, E.; Martínez, R.; Ramírez, G.; Tarragó, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, systematic nanomechanical and micromechanical studies have been conducted in three multilayer TiN/CrN systems with different bilayer periods (8, 19 and 25 nm). Additionally, experimental work has been performed on corresponding TiN and CrN single layers, for comparison purposes. The investigation includes the use of different indenter tip geometries as well as contact loading conditions (i.e. indentation/scratch) such to induce different stress field and damage scenarios within the films. The surface and subsurface damage under the different indentation imprints and scratch tracks have been observed by atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam. Multilayer TiN/CrN coated systems are found to exhibit higher adhesion strength (under sliding contact load) and cracking resistance (under spherical indentation) than those coated with reference TiN and CrN monolayers. The main reason behind these findings is the effective development of microstructurally-driven deformation and cracking resistant micromechanisms: rotation of columnar grains (and associated distortion of bilayer period) and crack deflection of interlayer thickness length scale, respectively. - Highlights: • Nanomechanical and micromechanical study in TiN/CrN systems • TiN/CrN coated systems exhibit higher adhesion strength and cracking resistance. • Main deformation and cracking micromechanisms: columnar grain rotation and crack deflection

  9. Contact damage and fracture micromechanisms of multilayered TiN/CrN coatings at micro- and nano-length scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, J.J., E-mail: joan.josep.roa@upc.edu [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C. Pasqual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jiménez-Piqué, E. [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C. Pasqual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, R. [Centro de Ingeniería Avanzada de Superfícies, Asociación de la Industria Navarra — AIN, Crta. Pamplona, 1, Edificio AIN, 31191 Cordovilla (Spain); Ramírez, G. [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Tarragó, J.M. [CIEFMA — Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Eng. Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, C. Pasqual i Vila 15, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2014-11-28

    In this study, systematic nanomechanical and micromechanical studies have been conducted in three multilayer TiN/CrN systems with different bilayer periods (8, 19 and 25 nm). Additionally, experimental work has been performed on corresponding TiN and CrN single layers, for comparison purposes. The investigation includes the use of different indenter tip geometries as well as contact loading conditions (i.e. indentation/scratch) such to induce different stress field and damage scenarios within the films. The surface and subsurface damage under the different indentation imprints and scratch tracks have been observed by atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam. Multilayer TiN/CrN coated systems are found to exhibit higher adhesion strength (under sliding contact load) and cracking resistance (under spherical indentation) than those coated with reference TiN and CrN monolayers. The main reason behind these findings is the effective development of microstructurally-driven deformation and cracking resistant micromechanisms: rotation of columnar grains (and associated distortion of bilayer period) and crack deflection of interlayer thickness length scale, respectively. - Highlights: • Nanomechanical and micromechanical study in TiN/CrN systems • TiN/CrN coated systems exhibit higher adhesion strength and cracking resistance. • Main deformation and cracking micromechanisms: columnar grain rotation and crack deflection.

  10. Niobium–niobium oxide multilayered coatings for corrosion protection of proton-irradiated liquid water targets for ["1"8F] production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skliarova, Hanna; Renzelli, Marco; Azzolini, Oscar; Felicis, Daniele de; Bemporad, Edoardo; Johnson, Richard R.; Palmieri, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Chemically inert coatings on Havar"® entrance foils of the targets for ["1"8F] production via proton irradiation of enriched water at pressurized conditions are needed to decrease the amount of ionic contaminants released from Havar"®. During current investigation, magnetron sputtered niobium and niobium oxide were chosen as the candidates for protective coatings because of their superior chemical resistance. Aluminated quartz substrates allowed us to verify the protection efficiency of the desirable coatings as diffusion barriers. Two modeling corrosion tests based on the extreme susceptibility of aluminum to liquid gallium and acid corrosion were applied. As far as niobium coatings obtained by magnetron sputtering are columnar, the grain boundaries provide a fast diffusion path for active species of corrosive media to penetrate and to corrode the substrate. Amorphous niobium oxide films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering showed superior barrier properties according to the corrosion tests performed. In order to prevent degrading of brittle niobium oxide at high pressures, multilayers combining high ductility of niobium with superior diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium oxide were proposed. The intercalation of niobium oxide interlayers was proved to interrupt the columnar grain growth of niobium during sputtering, resulting in improved diffusion barrier efficiency of obtained multilayers. The thin layer multilayer coating architecture with 70 nm bi-layer thickness was found preferential because of higher thermal stability. - Highlights: • Diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium, niobium oxide and their multilayers was studied. • The intercalation of niobium oxide layers interrupted the columnar grain growth of niobium. • The bilayer architectures influenced the stability of the multilayer coatings. • The thin layer multilayer coating with 70 nm double-layer was found superior.

  11. Niobium–niobium oxide multilayered coatings for corrosion protection of proton-irradiated liquid water targets for [{sup 18}F] production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliarova, Hanna, E-mail: Hanna.Skliarova@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Renzelli, Marco, E-mail: marco.renzelli@uniroma3.it [University of Rome “Roma TRE”, Via della Vasca Navale, 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Azzolini, Oscar, E-mail: Oscar.Azzolini@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Felicis, Daniele de, E-mail: daniele.defelicis@uniroma3.it [University of Rome “Roma TRE”, Via della Vasca Navale, 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Bemporad, Edoardo, E-mail: edoardo.bemporad@uniroma3.it [University of Rome “Roma TRE”, Via della Vasca Navale, 79, 00146 Rome (Italy); Johnson, Richard R., E-mail: richard.johnson@teambest.com [BEST Cyclotron Systems Inc., 8765 Ash Street Unit 7, Vancouver BC V6P 6T3 (Canada); Palmieri, Vincenzo, E-mail: Vincenzo.Palmieri@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell' Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); University of Padua, Padua (Italy)

    2015-09-30

    Chemically inert coatings on Havar{sup ®} entrance foils of the targets for [{sup 18}F] production via proton irradiation of enriched water at pressurized conditions are needed to decrease the amount of ionic contaminants released from Havar{sup ®}. During current investigation, magnetron sputtered niobium and niobium oxide were chosen as the candidates for protective coatings because of their superior chemical resistance. Aluminated quartz substrates allowed us to verify the protection efficiency of the desirable coatings as diffusion barriers. Two modeling corrosion tests based on the extreme susceptibility of aluminum to liquid gallium and acid corrosion were applied. As far as niobium coatings obtained by magnetron sputtering are columnar, the grain boundaries provide a fast diffusion path for active species of corrosive media to penetrate and to corrode the substrate. Amorphous niobium oxide films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering showed superior barrier properties according to the corrosion tests performed. In order to prevent degrading of brittle niobium oxide at high pressures, multilayers combining high ductility of niobium with superior diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium oxide were proposed. The intercalation of niobium oxide interlayers was proved to interrupt the columnar grain growth of niobium during sputtering, resulting in improved diffusion barrier efficiency of obtained multilayers. The thin layer multilayer coating architecture with 70 nm bi-layer thickness was found preferential because of higher thermal stability. - Highlights: • Diffusion barrier efficiency of niobium, niobium oxide and their multilayers was studied. • The intercalation of niobium oxide layers interrupted the columnar grain growth of niobium. • The bilayer architectures influenced the stability of the multilayer coatings. • The thin layer multilayer coating with 70 nm double-layer was found superior.

  12. Preparation of multi-layer film consisting of hydrogen-free DLC and nitrogen-containing DLC for conductive hard coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yushi; Harigai, Toru; Isono, Ryo; Degai, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Yasui, Haruyuki; Kaneko, Satoru; Kunitsugu, Shinsuke; Kamiya, Masao; Taki, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Conductive hard-coating films have potential application as protective films for contact pins used in the electrical inspection process for integrated circuit chips. In this study, multi-layer diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared as conductive hard-coating films. The multi-layer DLC films consisting of DLC and nitrogen-containing DLC (N-DLC) film were prepared using a T-shape filtered arc deposition method. Periodic DLC/N-DLC four-layer and eight-layer films had the same film thickness by changing the thickness of each layer. In the ball-on-disk test, the N-DLC mono-layer film showed the highest wear resistance; however, in the spherical polishing method, the eight-layer film showed the highest polishing resistance. The wear and polishing resistance and the aggressiveness against an opponent material of the multi-layer DLC films improved by reducing the thickness of a layer. In multi-layer films, the soft N-DLC layer between hard DLC layers is believed to function as a cushion. Thus, the tribological properties of the DLC films were improved by a multi-layered structure. The electrical resistivity of multi-layer DLC films was approximately half that of the DLC mono-layer film. Therefore, the periodic DLC/N-DLC eight-layer film is a good conductive hard-coating film.

  13. Improved irradiation tolerance of reactive gas pulse sputtered TiN coatings with a hybrid architecture of multilayered and compositionally graded structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Yang, Jijun; Zhang, Feifei; Lu, Chenyang; Wang, Lumin; Liao, Jiali; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the improved irradiation tolerance of reactive gas pulse (RGP) sputtered TiN coatings which has hybrid architecture of multilayered and compositionally graded structures. The multilayered RGP-TiN coating is composed of hexagonal close-packed Ti phase and face-centred cubic TiN phase sublayers, where the former sublayer has a compositionally graded structure and the latter one maintains constant stoichiometric atomic ratio of Ti:N. After 100 keV He ion irradiation, the RGP-TiN coating exhibits improved irradiation resistance compared with its single layered (SL) counterpart. The size and density of He bubbles are smaller in the RGP-TiN coating than in the SL-TiN coating. The irradiation-induced surface blistering of the coatings shows a similar tendency. Meanwhile, the irradiation hardening and adhesion strength of the RGP-TiN coatings were not greatly affected by He irradiation. Moreover, the irradiation damage tolerance of the coatings can be well tuned by changing the undulation period number of N2 gas flow rate. Detailed analysis suggested that this improved irradiation tolerance could be related to the combined contribution of the multilayered and compositionally graded structures.

  14. Intelligent saline enabled self-healing of multilayer coatings and its optimization to achieve redox catalytically provoked anti-corrosion ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Junaid Ali; Tang, Shaochun; Meng, Xiangkang, E-mail: mengxk@nju.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Multilayer coatings were prepared with good self-healing and anti-corrosion ability. • The lifespan of SS is much improved and it is stable even after 120 h in 3.5% NaCl. • Multilayer structure with redox catalytic and self-healing ability leads to high P{sub e}. • Saline-triggered self-healing and anti-corrosion mechanisms were envisaged. - Abstract: To obtain a coating with both self-healing and redox catalytic ability to protect a metal substrate from corrosion under aggressive environment is strongly desired. Herein, we report the design and fabrication of intelligent polyaniline-polyacrylic acid/polyethyleneimine (PANI-PAA/PEI) multilayer composite coatings by spin assembly. The main influencing factors, including solution concentration (c) and disk rotating speed (ω) were studied in order to gain excellent performance. The resulting multilayer coatings with thickness in a range from 0.47 to 2.94 μm can heal severe structural damages and sustain a superior anti-corrosive performance for 120 h in 3.5% NaCl. The PANI-PAA layer enhances the anti-corrosion property and PEI layer contributes to the self-healing ability as well as their multilayer combination strengthens them. The improved self-healing ability is attributed to the rearrangement and reversible non-covalent interactions of the PANI-PAA and PEI layers that facilitates electrostatic repairing.

  15. Finite Element Analysis of Multilayered and Functionally Gradient Tribological Coatings With Measured Material Properties (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    gradient coatings with diamond like carbon (DLC) coating on 440C stainless steel substrate were assumed as a series of perfectly bonded layers with...resistance and low friction. Ti1-xCx (0≤ x ≤1) gradient coatings with diamond like carbon (DLC) coating on 440C stainless steel substrate were...indenter tip was used for the FEA model. Each coating sample consists of 1 μm thick coating and 440C stainless steel substrate. The area function for

  16. Determination of the fatigue properties of multilayer PVD coatings on various substrates, based on the impact test and its FEM simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzakis, K.D.; Vidakis, N. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Mech. Eng.; Leyendecker, T.; Erkens, G.; Wenke, R.

    1997-10-31

    The coating impact test, in combination with its finite elements method (FEM) simulation, is used to quantitatively characterize the fatigue behaviour of thin hard physical vapour deposited (PVD) coatings as well as of multilayer ones. Successive impacts of a cemented carbide ball onto a plane coated specimen induce severe contact loads and strain superficially the layered compound. The fatigue failure mode of each specimen is classified by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations, microspectral analyses and profilometry. FEM simulating models of the impact test are used to determine the critical stress components, which introduce coating fatigue failure. The FEM computational results are correlated to the experimental ones and used to interpret them quantitatively. Herewith, critical values for stress components, responsible for distinctive fatigue failure modes of the coating substrate compounds are obtained and the fatigue limits of the examined multilayer coatings are inserted in general applicable Smith diagrams. Furthermore, the derived critical stresses are verified by investigating the same multilayer coatings on different substrates. (orig.) 14 refs.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Multilayered and Functionally Gradient Tribological Coatings With Measured Material Properties (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Young S; Sharma, Shashi K; Sanders, Jeffrey H; Voevodin, Andrey A

    2006-01-01

    ...) gradient coatings with diamond like carbon (DLC) coating on 440C stainless steel substrate were assumed as a series of perfectly bonded layers with unique material properties and layer thickness...

  18. Structure, mechanical and tribological properties of self-toughening TiSiN/Ag multilayer coatings on Ti6Al4V prepared by arc ion plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Chaoqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Li, Jinlong, E-mail: lijinlong11@126.com [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Yue; Chen, Jianmin [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Hardness and elastic modulus of TiSiN coating (C1) and TiSiN/Ag multilayer coatings with different thickness of individual Ag layers of 33.87 nm (C2), 30.01 nm (C3), 26.67 nm (C4), 22.22 nm (C5) and 10.67 nm (C6), together with SEM micrographs of indention morphologies after Vickers indentation tests. Display Omitted - Highlights: • TiSiN/Ag multilayer coatings design for microstructure was shown by cross-sectional SEM micrographs. • The TiSiN/Ag multilayer coatings showed a significantly improved toughness compared with the TiSiN coating. • The individual Ag layers as a self-lubricating. • TiSiN/Ag multilayer coating (individual Ag layers of 22.22 nm) exhibits high hardness, H/E and H{sup 3}/E{sup *2} values and excellent wear resistance. - Abstract: The TiSiN/Ag multilayer coatings deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate using the multi-arc ion plating system. All multilayer coatings had a same total thickness of about 2.5 μm, and the TiSiN layer had a fixed thickness and the Ag layer had different thicknesses. Evidence concluded from X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopies, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that nanocrystallites and amorphous microstructure of nc-TiN and amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} for individual TiSiN layers, where amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} around nanocrystallites TiN boundaries, and ductile nanocrystallites silver clusters and metallic silver for individual Ag layers which can limit continuous growth of single (200) preferential orientation coarse columnar TiN crystal. In addition, the TiN grain size presented a decreasing trend with the decrease of the thickness of Ag layers. The TiSiN/Ag multilayer coatings showed a significantly improved toughness compared with the TiSiN coating. The individual Ag layers of nano-multilayer coatings, not only as a self-lubricating but also as a barrier which inhibited micro cracks propagation, the formation of threading defects throughout all coatings, cause

  19. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, Hunter [School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Li, Yana [Mechanical Engineering College, Wuhan Polytechnic University (China); Almenar, Eva, E-mail: ealmenar@msu.edu [School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface tension between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film modified by MDI. • Better wettability between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film by increasing MDI. • Increased breaking strength by increasing MDI due to the increased H-bonding. • Increased number of physical entanglements between PLA/CS coating and PLA film. • Development of a suitable bio-based multilayer film for food packaging applications. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41–35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228–303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  20. In Vivo Expansion of Melanoma-Specific T Cells Using Microneedle Arrays Coated with Immune-Polyelectrolyte Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Gammon, Joshua M; Tostanoski, Lisa H; Chiu, Yu-Chieh; Jewell, Christopher M

    2017-02-13

    Microneedles (MNs) are micron-scale polymeric or metallic structures that offer distinct advantages for vaccines by efficiently targeting skin-resident immune cells, eliminating injection-associated pain, and improving patient compliance. These advantages, along with recent studies showing therapeutic benefits achieved using traditional intradermal injections in human cancer patients, suggest MN delivery might enhance cancer vaccines and immunotherapies. We recently developed a new class of polyelectrolyte multilayers based on the self-assembly of model peptide antigens and molecular toll-like receptor agonists (TLRa) into ultrathin, conformal coatings. Here, we reasoned that these immune polyelectrolyte multilayers (iPEMs) might be a useful platform for assembling cancer vaccine components on MN arrays for intradermal delivery from these substrates. Using conserved human melanoma antigens and a potent TLRa vaccine adjuvant, CpG, we show that iPEMs can be assembled on MNs in an automated fashion. These films, prepared with up to 128 layers, are approximately 200 nm thick but provide cancer vaccine cargo loading >225 μg/cm 2 . In cell culture, iPEM cargo released from MNs is internalized by primary dendritic cells, promotes activation of these cells, and expands T cells during coculture. In mice, application of iPEM-coated MNs results in the codelivery of tumor antigen and CpG through the skin, expanding tumor-specific T cells during initial MN applications and resulting in larger memory recall responses during a subsequent booster MN application. This study support MNs coated with PEMs built from tumor vaccine components as a well-defined, modular system for generating tumor-specific immune responses, enabling new approaches that can be explored in combination with checkpoint blockade or other combination cancer therapies.

  1. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartner, Hunter; Li, Yana; Almenar, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface tension between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film modified by MDI. • Better wettability between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film by increasing MDI. • Increased breaking strength by increasing MDI due to the increased H-bonding. • Increased number of physical entanglements between PLA/CS coating and PLA film. • Development of a suitable bio-based multilayer film for food packaging applications. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41–35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228–303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film

  2. Electrochemical behavior of single layer CrN, TiN, TiAlN coatings and nanolayered TiAlN/CrN multilayer coatings prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William Grips, V.K.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Selvi, V. Ezhil; Kalavati; Rajam, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion behaviors of single layer TiN, CrN, TiAlN and multilayer TiAlN/CrN coatings, deposited on steel substrate using a multi-target reactive direct current magnetron sputtering process, were studied in 3.5% NaCl solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The total thickness of the coatings was about 1.5 μm. About 0.5 μm thick chromium interlayer was used for improved adhesion of the coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that for all the coatings the corrosion potential shifted to higher values as compared to the uncoated substrate. Similarly, the corrosion current density decreased for coated samples, indicating better corrosion resistance of the coated samples. The multilayer coatings of TiAlN/CrN exhibited superior corrosion behavior as compared to the single layer coatings. The Nyquist and the Bode plots obtained from the EIS measurements were fitted by appropriate equivalent circuits to calculate the pore resistance, the charge transfer resistance and the capacitance. These studies revealed that the pore resistance was lowest for TiN coatings, which increased for TiAlN coatings. TiAlN/CrN multilayer coatings exhibited highest pore resistance. No significant change in the capacitive behavior of the coatings was observed, suggesting minimal morphological changes as a result of immersion in the electrolyte. This could be attributed to shorter immersion durations. These studies were confirmed by examining the corroded samples under scanning electron microscope. Preliminary experiments conducted with additional interlayer of electroless nickel (5.0 μm thick) have shown significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of the coatings

  3. An in vivo study on the effect of coating stability on osteointegration performance of collagen/hyaluronic acid multilayer modified titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Haiyong; Zong, Jiajia; Nie, Yanjiao; Wan, Yizao; Zheng, Xiebin

    2018-03-01

    Aseptic loosening of implant is one of the main causes of Ti-based implant failure. In our previous work, a novel stable collagen/hyaluronic acid (Col/HA) multilayer modified titanium coatings (TCs) was developed by layer-by-layer (LBL) covalent immobilization technique, which showed enhanced biological properties compared with TCs that were physically absorbed with Col/HA multilayer in vitro . In this study, a rabbit model with femur condyle defect was employed to compare the osteointegration performance of them. Results indicated that Col/HA multilayer with favourable stability could better facilitate osteogenesis around implants and bone-implant contact. The Col/HA multilayer covalent-immobilized TC may reduce aseptic loosening of implant.

  4. Improvement of Wear Performance of Nano-Multilayer PVD Coatings under Dry Hard End Milling Conditions Based on Their Architectural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahereen Chowdhury

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The TiAlCrSiYN-based family of PVD (physical vapor deposition hard coatings was specially designed for extreme conditions involving the dry ultra-performance machining of hardened tool steels. However, there is a strong potential for further advances in the wear performance of the coatings through improvements in their architecture. A few different coating architectures (monolayer, multilayer, bi-multilayer, bi-multilayer with increased number of alternating nano-layers were studied in relation to cutting-tool life. Comprehensive characterization of the structure and properties of the coatings has been performed using XRD, SEM, TEM, micro-mechanical studies and tool-life evaluation. The wear performance was then related to the ability of the coating layer to exhibit minimal surface damage under operation, which is directly associated with the various micro-mechanical characteristics (such as hardness, elastic modulus and related characteristics; nano-impact; scratch test-based characteristics. The results presented exhibited that a substantial increase in tool life as well as improvement of the mechanical properties could be achieved through the architectural development of the coatings.

  5. Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Perea, M.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Soufli, R.

    2013-01-01

    developed multilayers with ultra-shortperiods between 1 and 2 nm based on the material system WC/SiC. This material system was selected because it possesses very sharp and stable interfaces. In this article, we show highlights from a series of experiments performed in order to characterize the stress...

  6. Effect of electroless nickel interlayer on the electrochemical behavior of single layer CrN, TiN, TiAlN coatings and nanolayered TiAlN/CrN multilayer coatings prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grips, V.K. William; Ezhil Selvi, V.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Rajam, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of single layer TiN, CrN, TiAlN and multilayer TiAlN/CrN coatings, deposited on steel substrates using a multi-target reactive direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering process, was studied in 3.5% NaCl solution. The total thickness of the coatings was about 1.5 μm. About 0.5 μm thick chromium interlayer was used to improve adhesion of the coatings. With an aim to improve the corrosion resistance, an additional interlayer of approximately 5 μm thick electroless nickel (EN) was deposited on the substrate. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to study the corrosion behavior of the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the corroded samples. The potentiodynamic polarization tests showed lower corrosion current density and higher polarization resistance (R p ) for the coatings with EN interlayer. For example, the corrosion current density of TiN coated steel was decreased by a factor of 10 by incorporating 5 μm thick EN interlayer. Similarly, multilayer coatings of TiAlN/CrN with EN interlayer showed about 30 times improved corrosion resistance as compared to the multilayers without EN interlayer. The porosity values were calculated from the potentiodynamic polarization data. The Nyquist and the Bode plots obtained from the EIS data were fitted by appropriate equivalent circuits. The pore resistance (R pore ), the charge transfer resistance (R ct ), the coating capacitance (Q coat ) and the double layer capacitance (Q dl ) of the coatings were obtained from the equivalent circuit. Multilayer coatings showed higher R pore and R ct values as compared to the single layer coatings. Similarly, the Q coat and Q dl values decreased from uncoated substrate to the multilayer coatings, indicating a decrease in the defect density by the addition of EN interlayer. These studies were confirmed by examining the corroded samples under

  7. Structure of multilayered Cr(Al)N/SiO{sub x} nanocomposite coatings fabricated by differential pumping co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [JEOL USA Inc., 11 Dearborn Road, Peabody, Massachusetts 01960 (United States); Nose, Masateru [Faculty of Art and Design, University of Toyama, 180 Futagami-machi, Takaoka 933-8588 (Japan); Onishi, Ichiro [JEOL Ltd. 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Shiojiri, Makoto [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2013-11-11

    A Cr(Al)N/38 vol. % SiO{sub x} hard coating was prepared on a (001) Si substrate at 250 °C in a differential pumping co-sputtering system, which has two chambers for radio frequency (RF) sputtering and a substrate holder rotating on the chambers. The composite coating was grown by alternate sputter-depositions from CrAl and SiO{sub 2} targets with flows of N{sub 2}+Ar and Ar at RF powers of 200 and 75 W, respectively, on transition layers grown on the substrate. Analytical electron microscopy reveled that the Cr(Al)N/SiO{sub x} coating had a multilayered structure of Cr(Al)N crystal layers ∼1.6 nm thick and two-dimensionally dispersed amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}) particles with sizes of ∼1 nm or less. The a-SiO{sub x} particles were enclosed with the Cr(Al)N layers. The coating had a low indentation hardness of ∼25 GPa at room temperature, due to a high oxide fraction of 38 vol. % and a low substrate rotational speed of 1 rpm. Faster rotation and lower oxide fraction would make a-SiO{sub x} particles smaller, resulting in the formation of Cr(Al)N crystal including the very fine a-SiO{sub x} particles with small number density. They would work as obstacles for the lattice deformation of the Cr(Al)N crystals. We have fabricated a superhard coating of Cr(Al)N/17 vol. % SiO{sub x} with a hardness of 46 GPa prepared at 12 rpm.

  8. Absorbing Property of Multi-layered Short Carbon Fiber Absorbing Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhaohui; Tao, Rui; Ban, Guodong; Luo, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The radar absorbing coating was prepared with short carbon fiber asabsorbent and waterborne polyurethane (WPU) as matrix resin. The coating’s absorbing property was tested with vectornetwork analyzer, using aramid honeycomb as air layer which was matched withcarbon fiber coating. The results demonstrate that the single-layered carbonfiber absorbing coating presented relatively poor absorbing property when thelayer was thin, and the performance was slightly improved after the matched airlayer ...

  9. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian; Hummel, Helga; Bruns, Michael; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N'-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  10. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Peters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N’-Di(1-naphthyl-N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline-(4-phenylphenoxyaluminum, originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  11. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.raupp@kit.edu; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm [Institute of Thermal Process Engineering, Thin Film Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hummel, Helga [Philips Technologie GmbH Innovative Technologies, Aachen (Germany); Bruns, Michael [Institute for Applied Materials and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N’-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1’-biphenyl)-4,4’-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  12. Continuous blade coating for multi-layer large-area organic light-emitting diode and solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Chang, Hao-Wen; Chang, Yu-Fan; Chang, Bo-Jie; Lin, Yuan-Sheng; Jian, Pei-Siou; Yeh, Han-Cheng; Chien, Hung-Ta; Chen, En-Chen; Chao, Yu-Chiang; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Hao-Wu; Horng, Sheng-Fu; Cheng, Yen-Ju; Yen, Feng-Wen; Lin, I.-Feng; Yang, Hsiu-Yuan; Huang, Kuo-Jui; Tseng, Mei-Rurng

    2011-11-01

    A continuous roll-to-roll compatible blade-coating method for multi-layers of general organic semiconductors is developed. Dissolution of the underlying film during coating is prevented by simultaneously applying heating from the bottom and gentle hot wind from the top. The solvent is immediately expelled and reflow inhibited. This method succeeds for polymers and small molecules. Uniformity is within 10% for 5 cm by 5 cm area with a mean value of tens of nanometers for both organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and solar cell structure with little material waste. For phosphorescent OLED 25 cd/A is achieved for green, 15 cd/A for orange, and 8 cd/A for blue. For fluorescent OLED 4.3 cd/A is achieved for blue, 9 cd/A for orange, and 6.9 cd/A for white. For OLED with 2 cm by 3 cm active area, the luminance variation is within 10%. Power conversion efficiency of 4.1% is achieved for polymer solar cell, similar to spin coating using the same materials. Very-low-cost and high-throughput fabrication of efficient organic devices is realized by the continuous blade-only method.

  13. Self-sealing multilayer coating for SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraris, M.; Appendino Montorsi, M.; Salvo, M.; Isola, C.; Kohyama, A.

    1997-01-01

    A double layer coating for SiC/SiC for fusion applications is proposed: the first layer consists in a homogeneous, crack free, glass-ceramic with high characteristic temperatures and thermal expansion coefficient compatible to the composite one; the second layer is amorphous and shows self-sealing properties above 700degC. The glass and the glass-ceramic materials used for this double layer coating do not contain lithium and boron oxide, making them particularly interesting for thermonuclear fusion applications. The self-sealing property of the double layer coating was valued by inducing cracks on the coatings and observing their reparation after heating. (author)

  14. Improving the properties of mild steel by ternary multilayer composite coating via electrodeposition route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S.I. Fayomi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of metal-oxides exhibit fascinating properties and multiple functionalities that could address challenge of physical and mechanical deterioration of materials in service. In this study, Zn-ZrO2, Zn-SiC and Zn-ZrO2-SiC composite coating was fabricated from zinc based sulphate electrolyte at constant current density, depth of immersion, distance between anode and cathode with time of deposition. The effect of particle on the physical behaviour of the coating was examined by coating gauge tester for the coating thickness and coating texture. The mechanical properties in term of hardness and wear characteristics were examined using high diamond micro-hardness tester and three body abrasive MTR-300 testers with dry sand rubber wheel apparatus with 5 N and 15 N, respectively. The coating stability in harsh region was examined with isothermal furnace at 200 oC for 4 h. The structural behaviour was investigated using scanning electron microscope attached with energy dispersion spectroscopy (SEM/EDS. The result shows that significant improvements in wear and hardness properties are linked to the microstructural modification of the coating as a result of the embedded particulate. The strengthening behaviour was improved with about 98% of coating efficiency. The progression of the coating thickness and texture were in line with other results obtained.

  15. Nitrogen doped silicon-carbon multilayer protective coatings on carbon obtained by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupinǎ, Victor; Vasile, Eugeniu; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Vladoiu, Rodica; Mandes, Aurelia; Dinca, Virginia; Nicolescu, Virginia; Manu, Radu; Dinca, Paul; Zaharia, Agripina

    2018-02-01

    To obtain protective nitrogen doped Si-C multilayer coatings on carbon, used to improve the oxidation resistance of carbon, was used TVA method. The initial carbon layer has been deposed on a silicon substrate in the absence of nitrogen, and then a 3nm Si thin film to cover carbon layer was deposed. Further, seven Si and C layers were alternatively deposed in the presence of nitrogen ions. In order to form silicon carbide at the interface between silicon and carbon layers, all carbon, silicon and nitrogen ions energy has increased up to 150eV. The characterization of microstructure and electrical properties of as-prepared N-Si-C multilayer structures were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, STEM) techniques, Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) and electrical measurements. The retention of oxygen in the protective layer of N-Si-C is due to the following phenomena: (a) The reaction between oxygen and silicon carbide resulting in silicon oxide and carbon dioxide; (b) The reaction involving oxygen, nitrogen and silicon resulting silicon oxinitride with a variable composition; (c) Nitrogen acts as a trapping barrier for oxygen. To perform electrical measurements, ohmic contacts were attached on the N-Si-C samples. Electrical conductivity was measured in constant current mode. To explain the temperature behavior of electrical conductivity we assumed a thermally activated electric transport mechanism.

  16. Spin coating and plasma process for 2.5D and hybrid 3D micro-resonators on multilayer polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bêche, B.; Gaviot, E.; Godet, C.; Zebda, A.; Potel, A.; Barbe, J.; Camberlein, L.; Vié, V.; Panizza, P.; Loas, G.; Hamel, C.; Zyss, J.; Huby, N.

    2009-05-01

    We have designed and realized three integrated photonic families of micro-resonators (MR) on multilayer organic materials. Such so-called 2.5D-MR and 3D-MR structures show off radius values ranging from 40 to 200μm. Both first and second families are especially designed on organic multilayer materials and shaped as ring- and disk-MR organics structures arranged upon (and coupled with) a pair of SU8-organic waveguides. The third family is related to hybrid 3D-MR structures composed of spherical glass-MR coupled to organic waveguides by a Langmuir-Blodgett lipid film about three nanometers in thickness. At first, polymer spin coating, surface plasma treatment and selective UV-lithography processes have been developed to realize 2.5D photonic micro-resonators. Secondly, we have designed and characterized photonic-quadripoles made of 3D-glass-MR arranged upon a pair of SU8 waveguides. Such structures are defined by a 4-ports or 4-waveguides coupled by the spherical glass-MR. We have achieved an evanescent photonic coupling between the 3D-MR and the 4-ports structure. Spectral resonances have been measured for 4-whispering gallery-modes (WGM) into such 3D-structures respectively characterized by a 0.97 nm free spectral range (FSR) and a high quality Q-factor up to 4.104.

  17. An acoustic metamaterial composed of multi-layer membrane-coated perforated plates for low-frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Shu-yi; Ding, Jin; Li, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Hui

    2015-04-01

    Insulating against low-frequency sound (below 500 Hz ) remains challenging despite the progress that has been achieved in sound insulation and absorption. In this work, an acoustic metamaterial based on membrane-coated perforated plates is presented for achieving sound insulation in a low-frequency range, even covering the lower audio frequency limit, 20 Hz . Theoretical analysis and finite element simulations demonstrate that this metamaterial can effectively block acoustic waves over a wide low-frequency band regardless of incident angles. Two mechanisms, non-resonance and monopolar resonance, operate in the metamaterial, resulting in a more powerful sound insulation ability than that achieved using periodically arranged multi-layer solid plates.

  18. On the interdiffusion in multilayered silicide coatings for the vanadium-based alloy V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaia, N., E-mail: nabil.chaia@usp.br [Escola de Engenharia de Lorena, Universidade de São Paulo, Pólo Urbo-Industrial Gleba AI-6, 12602-810 Lorena, SP (Brazil); Portebois, L., E-mail: leo.portebois@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, Cedex (France); Mathieu, S., E-mail: stephane.mathieu@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, Cedex (France); David, N., E-mail: nicolas.david@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, Cedex (France); Vilasi, M., E-mail: michel.vilasi@univ-lorraine.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, UMR7198, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, Cedex (France)

    2017-02-15

    To provide protection against corrosion at high temperatures, silicide diffusion coatings were developed for the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, which can be used as the fuel cladding in next-generation sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. The multilayered coatings were prepared by halide-activated pack cementation using MgF{sub 2} as the transport agent and pure silicon (high activity) as the master alloy. Coated pure vanadium and coated V-4Cr-4Ti alloy were studied and compared as substrates. In both cases, the growth of the silicide layers (V{sub 3}Si, V{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, V{sub 6}Si{sub 5} and VSi{sub 2}) was controlled exclusively by solid-state diffusion, and the growth kinetics followed a parabolic law. Wagner's analysis was adopted to calculate the integrated diffusion coefficients for all silicides. The estimated values of the integrated diffusion coefficients range from approximately 10{sup −9} to 10{sup −13} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}. Then, a diffusion-based numerical approach was used to evaluate the growth and consumption of the layers when the coated substrates were exposed at critical temperatures. The estimated lifetimes of the upper VSi{sub 2} layer were 400 h and 280 h for pure vanadium and the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, respectively. The result from the numeric simulation was in good agreement with the layer thicknesses measured after aging the coated samples at 1150 °C under vacuum. - Highlights: • The pack cementation technique is implemented to study interdiffusion in V/Si and V-4Cr-4Ti/Si couples. • Interdiffusion coefficients of vanadium silicides were experimentally determined within the range 1100–1250 °C. • For either V/Si or V-4Cr-4Ti/Si couples, the VSi{sub 2} layer has the highest growth rate. • The Cr and Ti alloying elements mainly modified the V{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and V{sub 6}Si{sub 5} growth rate. • Numerical simulation allows for a confident assessment of the VSi{sub 2} coating lifetime on V-4Cr-4Ti.

  19. Design of broadband multilayer dichroic coating for a high-efficiency solar energy harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiachen, Wang; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil

    2015-05-20

    We report on the design and performance of a broadband dichroic coating for a solar energy conversion system. As a spectral beam splitter, the coating facilitates a hybrid system that combines a photovoltaic cell with a thermal collector. When positioned at a 45° angle with respect to incident light, the coating provides high reflectance in the 40-1100 nm and high transmission in the 1200-2000 nm ranges for a photovoltaic cell and a thermal collector, respectively. Numerical simulations show that our design leads to a sharp transition between the reflection and transmission bands, low ripples in both bands, and slight polarization dependence.

  20. The (PrS/HGF-pDNA) multilayer films for gene-eluting stent coating: Gene-protecting, anticoagulation, antibacterial properties, and in vivo antirestenosis evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao; Ren, Ke-feng; Zhang, He; Wang, Jin-lei; Wang, Bai-liang; Ji, Jian

    2015-02-01

    Vascular gene-eluting stents (GES) is a promising strategy for treatment of cardiovascular disease. Very recently, we have proved that the (protamine sulfate/plasmid DNA encoding hepatocyte growth factor) (PrS/HGF-pDNA) multilayer can serve as a powerful tool for enhancing competitiveness of endothelial cell over smooth muscle cell, which opens perspectives for the regulation of intercellular competitiveness in the field of interventional therapy. However, before the gene multilayer films could be used in vascular stents for real clinical application, the preservation of gene bioactivity during the industrial sterilization and the hemocompatibility of film should be taken into account. Actually, both are long been ignored issues in the field of gene coating for GES. In this study, we demonstrate that the (PrS/HGF-pDNA) multilayer film exhibits the good gene-protecting abilities, which is confirmed by using the industrial sterilizations (gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide) and a routine storage condition (dry state at 4°C for 30 days). Furthermore, hemocompatible measurements (such as platelet adhesion and whole blood coagulation) and antibacterial assays (bacteria adhesion and growth inhibition) indicate the good anticoagulation and antibacterial properties of the (PrS/HGF-pDNA) multilayer film. The in vivo preliminary data of angiography and histological analysis suggest that the (PrS/HGF-pDNA) multilayer coated stent can reduce the in-stent restenosis. This work reveals that the (PrS/HGF-pDNA) multilayer film could be a promising candidate as coating for GES, which is of great potential in future clinic application. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Design of a high-efficiency grazing incidence monochromator with multilayer-coated laminar gratings for the 1-6 keV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masato; Ishino, Masahiko; Sasai, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    A grazing incidence objective monochromator consisting of a spherical mirror, a varied-line-spacing plane grating with multilayered coating, a movable plane multilayered mirror, and a fixed exit slit for the 1-6 keV region has been designed. The included angle at the grating was chosen to satisfy the grating equation and extended Bragg condition simultaneously. The aberration was corrected by means of a hybrid design method. A spectral resolving power of ∼600-∼6000 and a throughput of ∼2%-∼40% is expected for the monochromator when used in an undulator beamline

  2. Facile preparation of hierarchically porous polymer microspheres for superhydrophobic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiefeng; Wong, Julia Shuk-Ping; Hu, Mingjun; Li, Wan; Li, Robert. K. Y.

    2013-12-01

    A facile method, i.e., nonsolvent assisted electrospraying, is proposed to fabricate hierarchically porous microspheres. The pore size on the microsphere surface ranges from a few tens to several hundred nanometers. Thermally and nonsolvent induced phase separation as well as breath figure is responsible for the formation of the hierarchical structures with different nano-sized pores. The nonsolvent could not only induce phase separation, but also stabilize the interface between the droplet and air, which can prevent the droplet from strong deformation, and is therefore beneficial to the formation of regular and uniform microspheres. On the other hand, solvent evaporation, polymer diffusion and Coulomb fission during electrospraying influence the morphology of finally obtained products. In this paper, the influence of polymer concentration, the weight ratio between nonsolvent and polymer and the flowing rate on the morphology of the porous microsphere is carefully studied. The hierarchically porous microsphere significantly increases the surface roughness and thus the hydrophobicity, and the contact angle can reach as high as 152.2 +/- 1.2°. This nonsolvent assisted electrospraying opens a new way to fabricate superhydrophobic coating materials.A facile method, i.e., nonsolvent assisted electrospraying, is proposed to fabricate hierarchically porous microspheres. The pore size on the microsphere surface ranges from a few tens to several hundred nanometers. Thermally and nonsolvent induced phase separation as well as breath figure is responsible for the formation of the hierarchical structures with different nano-sized pores. The nonsolvent could not only induce phase separation, but also stabilize the interface between the droplet and air, which can prevent the droplet from strong deformation, and is therefore beneficial to the formation of regular and uniform microspheres. On the other hand, solvent evaporation, polymer diffusion and Coulomb fission during

  3. Development of multilayer coatings for forming dies and tools of aluminium alloy from liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, E; Ugues, D; Brytan, Z; Perucca, M

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a nanocomposite (Cr,Al) x N 1-x /Si 3 N 4 coating system was deposited on H11 hot work tool steel, using the Lateral Arc Rotating Cathodes (LARC (registered) ) deposition system and modulating the chemical composition of the chromium and aluminium-silicon content. Structural characterizations were performed using scanning electron microscopy, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy probe, and applying x-ray diffraction, for the evaluation of phase constitution and crystallite size. In addition to the structural features, the coatings' resistance to cyclic immersions in molten aluminium alloy was evaluated. The deposited CrAlSiN coatings exhibited an fcc-Cr 1-x Al x N type structure with different aluminium contents, which directly influence hardness and wear and fatigue resistance in cyclic immersion tests. The main failure modes that occurred on the coatings' surface were soldering and thermal fatigue cracks mainly in the form of heat checks. The aluminium rich coatings were able to withstand about 15 000 cycles, whereas the decrease in the aluminium content in the coatings results in a decrease in the resistance to the immersion in molten aluminium bath. It is worthwhile to note that uncoated H11, subjected to similar testing conditions, withstood at maximum 5000 cycles.

  4. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Hunter; Li, Yana; Almenar, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41-35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228-303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  5. The electrochemical synthesis and corrosion behaviour of TiO2/poly(indole-co-aniline multilayer coating: Experimental and theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Toprak Döşlü

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to protect stainless steel against corrosion via poly (indole-co-aniline with the help of titanium dioxide pre-coating. Different monomer ratios (1:1 and 1:9 were applied in order to determine the suitable chain composition to synthesize the copolymer in lithium perchlorate containing acetonitrile. The structures, morphologies, electrochemical properties and corrosion resistances of the mono and multi-layer coatings were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic polarization. Furthermore the geometric structure and electronic properties of indole, aniline, and indole-co-aniline (dimmer molecules have been investigated by quantum calculations. The results indicated that corrosion protection of copolymers was increased via titanium dioxide pre-coating. The 1:1 copolymer coating showed better corrosion prevention than 1:9 coating. The correlation was determined between experimental and theoretical parameters.

  6. MULTILAYER COMPOSITE PLASMA COATINGS ON SCREEN PROTECTION ELEMENTS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of investigations pertaining to an influence of plasma jet parameters (current, spraying distance, consumption of plasma formation gas (nitrogen, fractional composition of initial powder and degree of cooling with compressed air on anti-meteoric coating characteristics. Optimum modes (arc current 600 A; spray distance of 110 mm; consumption of plasma formation gas (nitrogen – 50 l/min; fractional composition of zirconium dioxide powder <50 μm; compressed air consumption for cooling – 1 m3/min; p = 4 bar make it possible to obtain anti-meteoric coatings based on zirconium dioxide with material utilization rate of 62 %, total ceramic layer porosity of 6 %. After exposure of compression plasma flows on a coating in the nitrogen atmosphere a cubic modification of zirconium oxide is considered as the main phase being present in the coating. The lattice parameter of cubic zirconium oxide modification is equal to 0.5174 nm. Taking into consideration usage of nitrogen as plasma formation substance its interaction with zirconium coating atoms occurs and zirconium nitride (ZrN is formed with a cubic crystal lattice (lattice parameter 0.4580 nm. Melting of pre-surface layer takes place and a depth of the melted layer is about 8 μm according to the results of a scanning electron microscopy. Pre-surface layer being crystallized after exposure to compression plasma flows is characterized by a homogeneous distribution of ele-ments and absence of pores formed in the process of coating formation. The coating structure is represented by a set of lar- ge (5–7 μm and small (1–2 μm zirconium oxide particles sintered against each other. Melting of coating surface layer and speed crystallization occur after the impact of compression plasma flows on the formed coating. Cracking of the surface layer arises due to origination of internal mechanical stresses in the crystallized part. While using a scanning electron microscopy a

  7. Compositionally modulated multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings with AlTiSi multi-doping by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Jingmao; Kwon, Se-Hun; Wang, Qimin

    2017-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with AlTiSi multi-doping were prepared by a reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering with using a gas mixture of Ar and C2H2 as precursor. The composition, microstructure, compressive stress, and mechanical property of the as-deposited DLC coatings were studied systemically by using SEM, XPS, TEM, Raman spectrum, stress-tester, and nanoindentation as a function of the Ar fraction. The results show that the doping concentrations of the Al, Ti and Si atoms increased as the Ar fraction increased. The doped Ti and Si preferred to bond with C while the doped Al mainly existed in oxidation state without bonding with C. As the doping concentrations increased, TiC carbide nanocrystals were formed in the DLC matrix. The microstructure of coatings changed from an amorphous feature dominant AlTiSi-DLC to a carbide nanocomposite AlTiSi-DLC with TiC nanoparticles embedding. In addition, the coatings exhibited the compositionally modulated multilayer consisting of alternate Al-rich layer and Al-poor layer due to the rotation of the substrate holder and the diffusion behavior of the doped Al which tended to separate from C and diffuse towards the DLC matrix surface owing to its weak interactions with C. The periodic Al-rich layer can effectively release the compressive stress of the coatings. On the other hand, the hard TiC nanoparticles were conducive to the hardness of the coatings. Consequently, the DLC coatings with relatively low residual stress and high hardness could be acquired successfully through AlTiSi multi-doping. It is believed that the AlCrSi multi-doping may be a good way for improving the comprehensive properties of the DLC coatings. In addition, we believe that the DLC coatings with Al-rich multilayered structure have a high oxidation resistance, which allows the DLC coatings application in high temperature environment.

  8. Stability analysis of SiO2/SiC multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhiqiang; Jean-Charles, R.

    2006-01-01

    The stability behaviours of SiC coatings and SiO 2 /SiC coatings in helium with little impurities are studied by HSC Chemistry 4.1, the software for analysis of Chemical reaction and equilibrium in multi-component complex system. It is found that in helium with a low partial pressure of oxidative impurities under different total pressure, the key influence factor controlling T cp of SiC depends is the partial pressure of oxidative impurities; T cp of SiC increases with the partial pressure of oxidative impurities. In helium with a low partial pressure of different impurities, the key influence factor of T cs of SiO 2 are both the partial pressure of impurities and the amount of impurities for l mol SiO 2 ; T cs of SiO 2 increases with the partial pressure of oxidative impurities at the same amount of the impurities for 1 mol SiO 2 while it decreases with the amount of the impurities for 1 mm SiO 2 at the same partial pressure of the impurities. The influence of other impurities on T cp of SiC in He-O 2 is studied and it is found that CO 2 , H 2 O and N-2 increase T cp of SiC in He-O 2 while H 2 , CO and CH 4 decrease T cp of SiC He-O 2 . When there exist both oxidative impurities and reductive impurities, their effect on T cs of SiO 2 can be suppressed by the other. In HTR-10 operation atmosphere, SiO 2 /SiC coatings can keep stable status at higher temperature than SiC coatings, so SiO 2 /SiC coatings is more suitable to improve the oxidation resistance of graphite in HTR-10 operation atmosphere compared with SiC coatings. (authors)

  9. Design of multi-layer anti-reflection coating for terrestrial solar panel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To date, there is no ideal anti-reflection (AR) coating available on solar glass which can effectively transmit the incident light within the visible wavelength range. However, there is a need to develop multifunctional coatingwith superior anti-reflection properties and self-cleaning ability meant to be used for solar glass panels.

  10. Osseointegration of layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte multilayers loaded with IGF1 and coated on titanium implant under osteoporotic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing H

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Helin Xing,1,* Xing Wang,2,* Saisong Xiao,3,* Guilan Zhang,1 Meng Li,1 Peihuan Wang,1 Quan Shi,1 Pengyan Qiao,1 Lingling E,1 Hongchen Liu1 1Institute of Stomatology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 2Hospital of Stomatology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, 3Department of Anesthesia, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Titanium implant is a widely used method for dental prosthesis restoration. Nevertheless, in patients with systemic diseases, including osteoporosis, diabetes, and cancer, the success rate of the implant is greatly reduced. This study investigates a new implant material loaded with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1, which could potentially improve the implant success rate, accelerate the occurrence of osseointegration, and provide a new strategy for implant treatment in osteoporotic patients. Materials and methods: Biofunctionalized polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs with polyethylenimine as the excitation layer and gelatin/chitosan loaded with IGF1 were prepared on the surface of titanium implant by layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The physical and chemical properties of the biofunctionalized PEMs, the biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs, and bone implant contact correlation test indexes were detected and analyzed in vitro and in vivo using osteoporosis rat model. Results: PEMs coatings loaded with IGF1 (TNS-PEM-IGF1-100 implant promoted the early stage of BMMSCs adhesion. Under the action of body fluids, the active coating showed sustained release of growth factors, which in turn promoted the proliferation and differentiation of BMMSCs and the extracellular matrix. At 8 weeks from implant surgery, the new bone around the implants was examined using micro-CT and acid fuchsin/methylene blue staining. The new bone formation increased with time in each group, while the TNS-PEM-IGF1

  11. Residual stress, mechanical and microstructure properties of multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN coating produced by R.F Magnetron discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaouina, B., E-mail: b.bouaouina@gmail.com [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Besnard, A. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech—LaBoMaP, 71250 Cluny (France); Abaidia, S.E. [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Haid, F. [CDTA, Plasma discharges Group, Baba hassen, Algers (Algeria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Depositing of crystallized molybdenum nitride and chromium nitride multilayer at room temperature. • Correlation between stress measurement and the shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N. • Studied the effect of the bi-layer thickness on the mechanical properties. - Abstract: We have investigated the effect of the period thickness of the multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN deposited on Si substrate produced by reactive magnetron sputtering. Mo{sub 2}N presents a face centered cubic structure and CrN an orthorhombic one. The residual stress of the coatings was determined by the measurement of the substrate curvature. The microstructure of the multilayer was investigated from the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (cross section images). The residual stresses resulting from the deposition of the different bi-layer thickness were measured and correlated to the structural properties of the coating as well as the nanoindentation analysis of the coating. The stresses are compressive and tensile for the individual Mo{sub 2}N and CrN layer respectively. The result shows that an increase of the multilayer coatings Mo{sub 2}N/CrN thicknesses induce an increase of the hardness and the elastic modulus, in the other hand the tensile stress increases. The shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N at high angle which means the reduction of the residual stress is in good agreement with the residual stresses measurements.

  12. Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Architectures Utilizing Rare Earth Doped YSZ and Rare Earth Pyrochlores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    To allow for increased gas turbine efficiencies, new insulating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be developed to protect the underlying metallic components from higher operating temperatures. This work focused on using rare earth doped (Yb and Gd) yttria stabilized zirconia (t' Low-k) and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlores (GZO) combined with novel nanolayered and thick layered microstructures to enable operation beyond the 1200 C stability limit of current 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) coatings. It was observed that the layered system can reduce the thermal conductivity by approximately 45 percent with respect to YSZ after 20 hr of testing at 1316 C. The erosion rate of GZO is shown to be an order to magnitude higher than YSZ and t' Low-k, but this can be reduced by almost 57 percent when utilizing a nanolayered structure. Lastly, the thermal instability of the layered system is investigated and thought is given to optimization of layer thickness.

  13. Enhancement of mechanical and tribological properties in AISI D3 steel substrates by using a non-isostructural CrN/AlN multilayer coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, G. [Thin Film Group, Universidad del Valle in Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, J.C., E-mail: jcaicedoangulo@gmail.com [Thin Film Group, Universidad del Valle in Cali (Colombia); Amaya, C. [Thin Film Group, Universidad del Valle in Cali (Colombia); Laboratory of Hard Coatings, CDT-ASTIN SENA in Cali (Colombia); Yate, L. [Department de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Munoz Saldana, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro (Mexico); Prieto, P. [Thin Film Group, Universidad del Valle in Cali (Colombia); Center of Excellence for Novel Materials - CENM, Calle 13 100-00 320-026, Cali (Colombia)

    2011-02-15

    Enhancement of mechanical and tribological properties on AISI D3 steel surfaces coated with CrN/AlN multilayer systems deposited in various bilayer periods ({Lambda}) via magnetron sputtering has been studied in this work exhaustively. The coatings were characterized in terms of structural, chemical, morphological, mechanical and tribological properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron dispersive spectrograph, atomic force microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation, pin-on-disc and scratch tests. The failure mode mechanisms were observed via optical microscopy. Results from X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal structure of CrN/AlN multilayer coatings has a NaCl-type lattice structure and hexagonal structure (wurtzite-type) for CrN and AlN, respectively, i.e., made was non-isostructural multilayers. An enhancement of both hardness and elastic modulus up to 28 GPa and 280 GPa, respectively, was observed as the bilayer periods ({Lambda}) in the coatings were decreased. The sample with a bilayer period ({Lambda}) of 60 nm and bilayer number n = 50 showed the lowest friction coefficient ({approx}0.18) and the highest critical load (43 N), corresponding to 2.2 and 1.6 times better than those values for the coating deposited with n = 1, respectively. The best behavior was obtained when the bilayer period ({Lambda}) is 60 nm (n = 50), giving the highest hardness 28 GPa and elastic modulus of 280 GPa, the lowest friction coefficient ({approx}0.18) and the highest critical load of 43 N. These results indicate an enhancement of mechanical, tribological and adhesion properties, comparing to the CrN/AlN multilayer systems with 1 bilayer at 28%, 21%, 40%, and 30%, respectively. This enhancement in hardness and toughness for multilayer coatings could be attributed to the different mechanisms for layer formation with nanometric thickness such as the Hall-Petch effect and the number of interfaces that act as obstacles for the

  14. Adhesive and tribocorrosive behavior of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl multilayers sputtered coatings over CoCrMo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, C. E.; Andrade, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Alemón, B.; Flores, M.

    2017-09-01

    The tribocorrosion resistance and adherence of multilayer coatings of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl synthesized by PVD reactive magnetron sputtering over a CoCrMo alloy substrate in 10 periods of 30 min each were analyzed and compared to those of the substrate alone and to that of a TiAlPtN single layer coating of the same thickness. The objective of the present work was to create multilayers with different amounts of Pt in order to enhance the tribocorrosion resistance of a biomedical alloy of CoCrMo. Tribocorrosion tests were performed using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) at typical body temperature with a tribometer in a pin on disk test. The elemental composition and thickness of the coating which behave better at the tribocorrosion tests were evaluated by means of RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy) IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) technique, using an alpha particles beam of 1.8 MeV, before and after the reciprocating motion in the tribocorrosion test. In order to simulate the elemental profile of the samples, the SIMNRA simulation computer code was used. Measurements of the adhesion of the coatings to the substrate were carried on by means of a scratch test using a tribometer. By taking micrographs of the produced tracks, the critical loads at which the coatings are fully separated from the substrate were determined. From these tests it was observed that a coating with 10 min of TiAlPtN in a TiAlPtN/TiAl period of 30 min in multilayers of 10 periods and with an average thickness of 145 nm for the TiAlPtN nanolayers had the best tribocorrosion resistance behavior, compared to that of the CoCrMo alloy. The RBS experiments showed a reduction of the thickness of the films along with some loss of the multilayer structure after the reciprocating motion. The adhesion tests indicated that the multilayer with the average TiAlPtN thickness of 145 nm displayed the highest critical load. These results indicate a high correlation between the adherence and the tribocorrosion behavior.

  15. Non-Leaching, Benign Antifouling Multilayer Polymer Coatings for Marine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    oriented. It is caused by the accumulation and settlement of barnacles, macroalgae, microbial slimes, and other micro and macro scale organisms on man...figure 12) (10, 11). Glass test slides for biofouling tests of the green alga Ulva were soaked in a 30 mL tank of recirculating deionized water at...on the experimental coatings was compared with the settlement rates of the controls. Barnacles are then cultivated to a mature size (over two to four

  16. Optimisation of mechanical properties of plasma deposited graded multilayer diamond-like carbon coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršíková, V.; Sobota, Jaroslav; Fořt, Tomáš; Grossman, Jan; Stoica, A.; Buršík, Jiří; Klapetek, P.; Peřina, Vratislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2008), s. 3229-3232 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : nanostructured coatings * DLC * hardness * adhesion * intrisic stress * fracture toughness * dynamic impact test Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2008

  17. Multilayer Ti-Cr-N Coatings Produced by the Vacuum-Arc Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunchenko, Yu.V.; Kunchenko, V.V.; Neklyudov, I.M.; Kartmazov, G.N.; Andreev, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    A possibility is demonstrated for nanolayer TiN x /CrN x coating formation by the method of vacuum-arc deposition on the substrate, which being rotated around the 'Bulat'-type chamber axis intercepts sequentially the plasma flows generated by three evaporators. The model for calculating the coating deposition rate (thickness) was used to determine the geometrical parameters that provide the formation of layer structures in the nanometer range. The variations of phase-structure characteristics, compression microstresses (σ) microhardness (H v ) of the coating formed have been investigated as functions of nitrogen pressure (P N =0.001...1.0 Pa), bias voltage (U=-100...-300 V) and condensation temperature (T C =330...750 degree C) at focusing magnetic field strength H F =0; 35 and 100 Oe. The mentioned field strengths were responsible for the ion current densities (j∼5,8...10 and ≥15 mA/cm 2 ). A nonmonotonic behaviour of H v as a function of condensation temperature and of vacuum annealing temperature has been established. The maximum H v values (∼35...37 GPa) were observed in the 450...500 degree C range

  18. Facile Synthesis of Photofunctional Nanolayer Coatings on Titanium Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Hoon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a two-step chemical bonding process using photosensitizer molecules to fabricate photofunctional nanolayer coatings on hematoporphyrin- (HP- coated Ti substrates. In the first step, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was covalently functionalized onto the surface of the Ti substrates to provide heterogeneous sites for immobilizing the HP molecules. Then, HP molecules with carboxyl groups were chemically attached to the amine-terminated nanolayer coatings via a carbodiimide coupling reaction. The microstructure and elemental and phase composition of the HP-coated Ti substrates were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The photophysical properties of the photofunctional nanolayer coatings were confirmed using reflectance ultraviolet-visible absorption and emission spectrophotometry. The singlet oxygen generation efficiency of the photofunctional nanolayer coatings was determined using the decomposition reaction of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran. The HP-coated Ti substrates exhibited good biocompatibility without any cytotoxicity, and these nanolayer coatings generated singlet oxygen, which can kill microorganisms using only visible light.

  19. Healable, Transparent, Room-Temperature Electronic Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotube Network-Coated Polyelectrolyte Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shouli; Sun, Chaozheng; Yan, Hong; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhang, Han; Luo, Liang; Lei, Xiaodong; Wan, Pengbo; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-11-18

    Transparent and conductive film based electronics have attracted substantial research interest in various wearable and integrated display devices in recent years. The breakdown of transparent electronics prompts the development of transparent electronics integrated with healability. A healable transparent chemical gas sensor device is assembled from layer-by-layer-assembled transparent healable polyelectrolyte multilayer films by developing effective methods to cast transparent carbon nanotube (CNT) networks on healable substrates. The healable CNT network-containing film with transparency and superior network structures on self-healing substrate is obtained by the lateral movement of the underlying self-healing layer to bring the separated areas of the CNT layer back into contact. The as-prepared healable transparent film is assembled into healable transparent chemical gas sensor device for flexible, healable gas sensing at room temperature, due to the 1D confined network structure, relatively high carrier mobility, and large surface-to-volume ratio. The healable transparent chemical gas sensor demonstrates excellent sensing performance, robust healability, reliable flexibility, and good transparency, providing promising opportunities for developing flexible, healable transparent optoelectronic devices with the reduced raw material consumption, decreased maintenance costs, improved lifetime, and robust functional reliability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Electrical performance of multilayer MoS2 transistors on high-κ Al2O3 coated Si substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical performance of MoS2 can be engineered by introducing high-κ dielectrics, while the interactions between high-κ dielectrics and MoS2 need to be studied. In this study, multilayer MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs with a back-gated configuration were fabricated on high-κ Al2O3 coated Si substrates. Compared with MoS2 FETs on SiO2, the field-effect mobility (μFE and subthreshold swing (SS were remarkably improved in MoS2/Al2O3/Si. The improved μFE was thought to result from the dielectric screening effect from high-κ Al2O3. When a HfO2 passivation layer was introduced on the top of MoS2/Al2O3/Si, the field-effect mobility was further enhanced, which was thought to be concerned with the decreased contact resistance between the metal and MoS2. Meanwhile, the interface trap density increased from 2.4×1012 eV−1cm−2 to 6.3×1012 eV−1cm−2. The increase of the off-state current and the negative shift of the threshold voltage may be related to the increase of interface traps.

  1. Focusing X-rays to a 1-{mu}m spot using elastically bent, graded multilayer coated mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, J.H.; Thompson, A.C.; Kortright, J.B. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In the x-ray fluorescent microprobe at beamline 10.3.1, the ALS bending magnet source is demagnified by a factor of several hundred using a pair of mirrors arranged in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. These are coated with multilayers to increase reflectivity and limit the pass band of the x-rays striking the sample. The x-rays excite characteristic fluorescent x-rays of elements in the sample, which are analyzed by an energy dispersive Si-Li detector, for a sensitive assay of the elemental content. By scanning the focal spot the spatial distribution of the elements is determined; the spatial resolution depends on the size of this spot. When spherical mirrors are used, the spatial resolution is limited by aberrations to 5 or 10 {mu}m. This has been improved to 1 {mu}m through the use of an elliptical mirror formed by elastically bending a plane mirror of uniform width and thickness with the optimum combination of end couples.

  2. Focusing X-rays to a 1-μm spot using elastically bent, graded multilayer coated mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, J.H.; Thompson, A.C.; Kortright, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    In the x-ray fluorescent microprobe at beamline 10.3.1, the ALS bending magnet source is demagnified by a factor of several hundred using a pair of mirrors arranged in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. These are coated with multilayers to increase reflectivity and limit the pass band of the x-rays striking the sample. The x-rays excite characteristic fluorescent x-rays of elements in the sample, which are analyzed by an energy dispersive Si-Li detector, for a sensitive assay of the elemental content. By scanning the focal spot the spatial distribution of the elements is determined; the spatial resolution depends on the size of this spot. When spherical mirrors are used, the spatial resolution is limited by aberrations to 5 or 10 μm. This has been improved to 1 μm through the use of an elliptical mirror formed by elastically bending a plane mirror of uniform width and thickness with the optimum combination of end couples

  3. The effect of ion irradiation and elevated temperature on the microstructure and the properties of C/W/C/B multilayer coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcak, Petr, E-mail: petr.vlcak@fs.cvut.cz

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • C/W/C/B multilayer PVD coating was treated by 45 keV nitrogen ion irradiation. • The effect of ion irradiation and elevated temperature on microstructure was analyzed. • Formation of new compounds and degradation of carbon fraction were observed. • The causes of the observed changes in surface properties were discussed. - Abstract: C/W/C/B multi-layer PVD coating with a layer period of 10 nm and 500 nm in thickness was irradiated with 45 keV N ions at fluence of 1 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2}. Ion irradiation was performed at room temperature or at an elevated temperature of 500 °C. The microstructure was investigated by X-ray diffraction, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and by Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that implanted N ions bond both with W atoms and with C atoms. N ion irradiation induced the formation of WC and WC{sub 1−x} phases. The energetic ions transformed the C bonds in defect sp{sup 2} and defect sp{sup 3} hybridizations, resulting in graphitization of the carbon fraction in the multilayer coating. Ion irradiation reduced the cohesive strength of the monolayers, reduced hardness of the C/W/C/B coating, increased its surface roughness and increased its friction coefficient. An elevated temperature during ion irradiation caused a better arrangement of the WC phase and further graphitization of the carbon fraction, in comparison with a coating treated by ion irradiation at room temperature. There is discussion of the causes of the observed changes in surface properties.

  4. Tribological and mechanical properties of Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN nanoscale multilayer PVD coatings deposited on AISI H11 hot work tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Bukhaiti, M.A., E-mail: m.albukhaiti@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Sana’a University, Sana’a 12544 (Yemen); Al-hatab, K.A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Sana’a University, Sana’a 12544 (Yemen); Tillmann, W.; Hoffmann, F.; Sprute, T. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universitat Dortmund, Leonhard-Euler-Str.2, 44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • New Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN multilayer coating was developed. • It showed low wear rates (10{sup −16} m{sup 3}/N m), low friction coefficients (μ ∼ 0.25), and good hardness (17–20 GPa). • Friction coefficients and wear rates decrease and increase, respectively, with the increase in normal load and sliding velocity. • The coating/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pair showed superior wear resistance and low friction coefficient in comparison to coating/100Cr6 pair. - Abstract: A new [Ti/TiAlN/TiAlCN]{sub 5} multilayer coatings were deposited onto polished substrate AISI H11 (DIN 1.2343) steel by an industrial magnetron sputtering device. The tribological performance of the coated system was investigated by a ball-on-disk tribometer against 100Cr6 steel and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} balls. The friction coefficients and specific wear rates were measured at various normal loads (2, 5, 8, and 10 N) and sliding velocities (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 m/s) in ambient air and dry conditions. The phase structure, composition, wear tracks morphologies, hardness, and film/substrate adhesion of the coatings were characterized by light-microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), 3D-surface analyzer, nanoindentation, and scratch tests. Results showed that the deposited coatings showed low wear rates in the scale of 10{sup −15} m{sup 3}/N m, low friction coefficients against 100Cr6 and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} balls in the range of 0.25–0.37, and good hardness in the range of 17–20 GPa. Results also revealed that the friction coefficients and disc wear rates decrease and increase, respectively with the increase in normal load and sliding velocity for both coating/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and coating/100Cr6 sliding system. Compared with the uncoated-H11 substrate, the deposited coating exhibited superior tribological and mechanical properties. The dominant wear mechanism was abrasive wear for coating/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pair, while

  5. Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Film Coated Silver Nanorods: An Effective Carrier System for Externally Activated Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, Gokul; Sharma, Varsha; Sundaramurthy, Anandhakumar

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticle anisotropy offers unique functions and features in comparison with spherical nanoparticles (NPs) and makes anisotropic nanoparticles (ANPs) promising candidates in applications like drug delivery, imaging, biosensing and theranostics. Presence of surface active groups (e.g. amine, and carboxylate groups) on their surface provides binding sites for ligands or other biomolecules, and hence, this could be targeted for specific part or cells in our body. In the quest of such surface modification, functionalization of ANPs along Layer-by-Layer (LbL) coating of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (PE) reduces cellular toxicity and promotes easy encapsulation of drugs. In this work, we report the silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesis by adsorbate directed synthetic approach using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The formed ANPs is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy revealing the shaping of AgNRs of 3-16 nm aspect ratio with some presence of triangles. These NRs were further coated with bio polymers of chitosan (CH) and dextran sulphate (DS) through LbL approach and used for encapsulation of water soluble anti-bacterial drugs like ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CFH). The encapsulation of drugs and profiles of drug release were investigated and compared to that of spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The added advantages of the proposed drug delivery system (DDS) can be externally activated to release the loaded drug and used as contrast agents for biological imaging under exposure to NIR light. Such system shows unique and attractive characteristics required for drug delivery and bioimaging thus offering the scope for further development as theranostic material.

  6. Status of Optical Coatings for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, C J; Weinzapfel, C; Rogowski, G T; Smith, D; Rigatti, A; Oliver, J; Taniguchi, J; Gunten, M von; Bevis, R; Smith, M; Ivan, V

    2001-01-01

    Optical coatings are a crucial part of the pulse trapping and extraction in the NIF multipass amplifiers. Coatings also steer the 192 beams from four linear arrays to four converging cones entering the target chamber. There are a total of 1600 physical vapor deposited coatings on NIF consisting of 576 mirrors within the multipass cavity, 192 polarizers that work in tandem with a Pockels cell to create an optical switch, and 832 transport mirrors. These optics are of sufficient size so that they are not aperture-limiting for the 40-cm x 40 cm beams over an incident range of 0 to 56.4 degrees. These coatings must withstand laser fluences up to 25 J/cm 2 at 1053 nm (1 ω) and 3-ns pulse length and are the 1ω fluence-limiting component on NIF. The coatings must have a minimal impact on the beam wavefront and phase to maintain beam focusability, minimize scattered loss, and minimize nonlinear damage mechanisms. This is achieved by specifications ranging from 99.5% and >99% for mirrors and polarizers, respectively, and T>98% for polarizers

  7. Preparation and characterization of carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating for carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leilei, Zhang; Hejun, Li; Kezhi, Li; Shouyang, Zhang; Qiangang, Fu; Yulei, Zhang; Jinhua, Lu; Wei, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CSH coatings were prepared by combination of magnetron sputter ion plating, CVD and UECD. • Na + and CO 3 2− were developed to co-substitute hydroxyapatite. • SiC nanowires were introduced into Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. • CSH coatings showed excellent cell activity and cell proliferation behavior. - Abstract: A carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating (CSH coating) was prepared on carbon/carbon composites using a combination method of magnetron sputter ion plating, chemical vapor deposition and ultrasound-assisted electrochemical deposition procedure. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the CSH coating was consisted of three components: carbon layer, SiC nanowires and Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. The carbon layer provided a dense and uniform surface structure for the growth of SiC nanowires. The SiC nanowires exhibited a porous structure, favoring the infiltration of Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals. The Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite could infiltrate into the pores of SiC nanowires and finally cover the SiC nanowires entirely with a needle shape. The osteoblast-like MG63 cells were employed to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of the CSH coating. The MG63 cells favorably spread and grew well across the CSH coating surface with plenty of filopods and microvilli, exhibiting excellent cell activity. Moreover, the CSH coating elicited higher cell proliferation as compared to bare carbon/carbon composites. In conclusion, the CSH offers great potential as a coating material for future medical application in hard tissue replacement

  8. Preparation and characterization of carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating for carbon/carbon composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leilei, Zhang, E-mail: zhangleilei1121@aliyun.com; Hejun, Li; Kezhi, Li; Shouyang, Zhang; Qiangang, Fu; Yulei, Zhang; Jinhua, Lu; Wei, Li

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • CSH coatings were prepared by combination of magnetron sputter ion plating, CVD and UECD. • Na{sup +} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} were developed to co-substitute hydroxyapatite. • SiC nanowires were introduced into Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. • CSH coatings showed excellent cell activity and cell proliferation behavior. - Abstract: A carbon/SiC nanowire/Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite multilayer coating (CSH coating) was prepared on carbon/carbon composites using a combination method of magnetron sputter ion plating, chemical vapor deposition and ultrasound-assisted electrochemical deposition procedure. The morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the CSH coating was consisted of three components: carbon layer, SiC nanowires and Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite. The carbon layer provided a dense and uniform surface structure for the growth of SiC nanowires. The SiC nanowires exhibited a porous structure, favoring the infiltration of Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals. The Na-doped carbonated hydroxyapatite could infiltrate into the pores of SiC nanowires and finally cover the SiC nanowires entirely with a needle shape. The osteoblast-like MG63 cells were employed to assess the in vitro biocompatibility of the CSH coating. The MG63 cells favorably spread and grew well across the CSH coating surface with plenty of filopods and microvilli, exhibiting excellent cell activity. Moreover, the CSH coating elicited higher cell proliferation as compared to bare carbon/carbon composites. In conclusion, the CSH offers great potential as a coating material for future medical application in hard tissue replacement.

  9. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically synthesized on AZO/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated polyethersulfone substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yoo, Chanho; No, Youngsoo; Kim, Suyoun; Kim, Taewhan; Cho, Woonjo; Kim, Jinyoung

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were formed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates at low temperature by using an electrochemical deposition method. The resistivity of the AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer films decreased with increasing thickness of the Ag film. X-ray diffraction patterns for the ZnO nanostructures showed that the crystal structure of the ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite and that the orientation was along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the ZnO nanostructures grown at current densities of - 1.0 and - 1.5 mA/cm 2 were ZnO nanorods with diameters of 150 nm and ZnO nanoflowers with a planar dimension, respectively. Photoluminescence spectra showed that the band-edge emission peak of the ZnO nanostructures dominantly appeared in the ultraviolet region. These results showed that ZnO nanorods and nanoflowers with high quality were synthesized on AZO/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated PES substrates.

  10. Corrosion behaviour in saline environments of single-layer titanium and aluminium coatings, and of Ti/Al alternated multi-layers elaborated by a multi-beam PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merati, Abdenacer

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis reports the characterization of anti-corrosion titanium and aluminium coatings deposited on a 35CD4 steel under the form of mono-metallic layers or alternated Ti/Al multi-layers, and obtained by a multibeam PVD technique. The influence of different parameters is studied: single-layer thickness (5, 15 or 30 micro-metres), multi-layer distribution (5 to 6) and substrate (smooth or threaded). Layer nature and microstructure are studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as corrosion toughness in aqueous saline environments. Coated threaded samples have been studied after tightening tests. It appears that titanium layers are denser and more uniform than aluminium layers, and that multi-layer coatings provide a better protection than single-layer coatings. The best behaviour is obtained when titanium is in contact with steel, and aluminium is the outer layer in contact with the corroding environment [fr

  11. Carbon-coated Si nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide multilayer anchored to nanostructured current collector as lithium-ion battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhengjiao; Guo, Pengqian; Liu, Boli; Xie, Wenhe; Liu, Dequan; He, Deyan, E-mail: hedy@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-02-28

    Silicon is the most promising anode material for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation and low intrinsic conductivity hamper its electrochemical performance. Here we report a well-designed LIB anode in which carbon-coated Si nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (Si/rGO) multilayer was anchored to nanostructured current collector with stable mechanical support and rapid electron conduction. Furthermore, we improved the integral stability of the electrode through introducing amorphous carbon. The designed anode exhibits superior cyclability, its specific capacity remains above 800 mAh g{sup −1} after 350 cycles at a current density of 2.0 A g{sup −1}. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the fact that the Si/rGO multilayer is reinforced by the nanostructured current collector and the formed amorphous carbon, which can maintain the structural and electrical integrities of the electrode.

  12. AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN multilayer coatings: Effects of structure and surface composition on tribological behavior under dry and lubricated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faga, Maria Giulia; Gautier, Giovanna; Cartasegna, Federico; Priarone, Paolo C.; Settineri, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The demand for high performance nanostructured coatings has been increasing. • AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN nanocomposite coatings were deposited by PVD technique. • Coatings were analyzed in terms of structure, hardness and adhesion. • Tribological properties under dry and lubricated conditions were studied. • The effects of surface and bulk properties on friction evolution were assessed. - Abstract: Nanocomposite coatings have been widely studied over the last years because of their high potential in several applications. The increased interest for these coatings prompted the authors to study the tribological properties of two nanocomposites under dry and lubricated conditions (applying typical MQL media), in order to assess the influence of the surface and bulk properties on friction evolution. To this purpose, multilayer and nanocomposite AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN coatings were deposited onto tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) samples. Uncoated WC-Co materials were used as reference. Coatings were analyzed in terms of hardness and adhesion. The structure of the samples was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the surface composition was studied by XPS analysis. Friction tests were carried out under both dry and lubricated conditions using an inox ball as counterpart. Both coatings showed high hardness and good adhesion to the substrate. As far as the friction properties are concerned, in dry conditions the surface properties affect the sliding contact at the early beginning, while bulk structure and tribolayer formation determine the main behavior. Only AlSiTiN coating shows a low and stable coefficient of friction (COF) under dry condition, while the use of MQL media results in a rapid stabilization of the COF for all the materials.

  13. Deposition and characterisation of multilayer hard coatings. Ti/TiNδ/TiCxNy/(TiC) a-C:H/(Ti) a-C:H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinprakhon, T.

    2001-02-01

    Multilayer hard coatings containing Ti, TiNδ, TiC x N y , (TiC m ) a-C:H, (TiC n ) a-C:H, and (Ti) a-C:H were deposited on commercially pure titanium substrates by using an asymmetric bipolar pulsed-dc reactive magnetron sputtering of a titanium target, with Ar, Ar+N 2 , Ar+N 2 +CH 4 , and Ar+CH 4 gas mixtures. The microstructures, elemental compositions and bonding states of the interlayers and the coating surfaces were studied by using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The microstructure development of the multilayer coating was strongly influenced by target poisoning. As a result of the complete poisoning of the titanium target during the deposition of TiNδ and TiC x N y interlayers, the a-C:H interlayers containing graded titanium and nitrogen contents were found to develop successively to the TiC x N y interlayer without the formation of near-stoichiometric TiC. The (TiC m ) a-C:H interlayer consisted of nano-particles of distorted fcc crystal structure embedded in the a-C:H matrix. The (TiC n ) a-C:H and (Ti) a-C:H top layers were found to be a-C:H matrix without nano-particles. In the (Ti) a-C:H top layer there was no measurable amount of Ti observed, regardless of the variation of CH 4 concentration between 37.5 and 60 % flow rate in Ar+-CH4 gas mixture. The top layer (Ti) a-C:H was found to contain approximately 10 atomic % nitrogen, due to N 2 contamination during deposition caused by low conductance of N 2 through the nominally closed valve of the mass flow controller. The change of the CH 4 concentration during deposition of the top layer (Ti) a-C:H, however, showed a strong influence on the hydrogen content. The comparison of the fluorescence background of the Raman spectra revealed that hydrogen-less (Ti) a-C:H was deposited at a CH 4 concentration of less than 50 % flow rate in Ar. The hardness

  14. Efficiency calibration of the first multilayer-coated holographic ion-etched flight grating for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, M P; Barbee, T W; Heidemann, K F; Gursky, H; Rife, J C; Hunter, W R; Fritz, G G; Cruddace, R G

    1999-11-01

    We have fabricated the four flight gratings for a sounding rocket high-resolution spectrometer using a holographic ion-etching technique. The gratings are spherical (4000-mm radius of curvature), large (160 mm x 90 mm), and have a laminar groove profile of high density (3600 grooves/mm). They have been coated with a high-reflectance multilayer of Mo/Si. Using an atomic force microscope, we examined the surface characteristics of the first grating before and after multilayer coating. The average roughness is approximately 3 A rms after coating. Using synchrotron radiation, we completed an efficiency calibration map over the wavelength range 225-245 A. At an angle of incidence of 5 degrees and a wavelength of 234 A, the average efficiency in the first inside order is 10.4 +/- 0.5%, and the derived groove efficiency is 34.8 +/- 1.6%. These values exceed all previously published results for a high-density grating.

  15. A survey of strippable and tie-down coatings for use in the decommissioning of alpha-active facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Worrall, G.; Dalton, J.T.

    1987-04-01

    The paper concerns temporary coatings for use in decommissioning operations of alpha-active facilities. The various temporary coating options are described with respect to: decontamination by removal of a previously applied protective coating, and the in-situ application of a coating for tie-down or decontamination duties. The specifications for coating systems to be used in active areas are defined in general terms. A survey of currently available temporary coating material is given, as well as the suitability of commercially available coating systems. (U.K.)

  16. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  17. New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and κ-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Luciano; Della Betta, Fabiana; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Vaz, Fernando Antonio Simas; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Fávere, Valfredo T; Micke, Gustavo A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new multilayer coating with crosslinked quaternary ammonium chitosan (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan; HACC) and κ-carrageenan for use in capillary electrophoresis. A new semi-permanent multilayer coating was formed using the procedure developed and the method does not require the presence of polymers in the background electrolyte (BGE). The new capillary multilayer coating showed a cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) of around 30×10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) which is pH-independent in the range of pH 2 to 10. The enhanced EOF at low pH obtained contributed significantly to the development of a fast method of separation. The multilayer coating was then applied in the development of a fast separation method to determine betaine and methionine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The BGE used to determine the betaine and methionine concentrations was composed of 10 mmol L(-1) tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, 40 mmol L(-1) phosphoric acid and 10% (v/v) ethanol, at pH 2.1. A fused-silica capillary of 32 cm (50 µm ID×375 µm OD) was used in the experiments and samples and standards were analyzed employing the short-end injection procedure (8.5 cm effective length). The instrumental analysis time of the optimized method was 1.53 min (approx. 39 runs per hour). The validation of the proposed method for the determination of betaine and methionine showed good linearity (R(2)>0.999), adequate limit of detection (LOD <8 mg L(-1)) for the concentration in the samples and inter-day precision values lower than 3.5% (peak area and time migration). The results for the quantification of the amino acids in the samples determined by the CZE-UV method developed were statistically equal to those obtained with the comparative LC-MS/MS method according to the paired t-test with a confidence level of 95%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tribological behavior at elevated temperature of multilayer TiCN/TiC/TiN hard coatings produced by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Mingdong; Xu Xuebo; Zhang Haijun; Liu Xiaoping; Tian Linhai; Zeng Zhaoxin; Song Yubin

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer hard coatings of TiCN/TiC/TiN on high speed steel substrates were deposited using a chemical vapor deposition system. Evaluations of microstructure, wear morphology of coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. Friction coefficient and wear rates of coatings were investigated using ball-on-disk tester sliding against a WC ball at a constant load of 20 N. Tribological behavior of the coatings at room and elevated temperature were discussed. Different changing tendency of friction coefficient were observed from ball-on-disc experiments. Results showed that the friction coefficient of coatings increased gradually to a highest value, then to a relatively constant value at room temperature dry sliding wear. The friction coefficient exhibited a reverse variation tendency at temperature of 550 °C. It got a higher value at the first sliding friction cycles. Then the value of friction coefficient decreased, suffered irregular oscillations and kept a relatively lower value with increasing sliding time. Reasons of the variation of friction coefficient with sliding time and wear mechanism were analyzed and discussed at room and elevated temperatures, respectively.

  19. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Razavi, Mehdi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Vashaee, Daryoosh [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra [Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Rajadas, Jayakumar [Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: lobat.tayebi@marquette.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Developmental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG coating was applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. • Mg scaffold/PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG presented improved biodegradation resistance. • Mg scaffold coated with the PCL-BaG layer indicated better bioactivity. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability.

  20. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG coating was applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. • Mg scaffold/PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG presented improved biodegradation resistance. • Mg scaffold coated with the PCL-BaG layer indicated better bioactivity. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability

  1. Assessment of a polyelectrolyte multilayer film coating loaded with BMP-2 on titanium and PEEK implants in the rabbit femoral condyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, R.; Pignot-Paintrand, I.; Lavaud, J.; Decambron, A.; Bourgeois, E.; Josserand, V.; Logeart-Avramoglou, D.; Viguier, E.; Picart, C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of titanium implants (Ti-6Al-4V, noted here TA6V) and poly(etheretherketone) PEEK implants induced by a BMP-2-delivering surface coating made of polyelectrolyte multilayer films. The in vitro bioactivity of the polyelectrolyte film-coated implants was assessed using the alkaline phosphatase assay. BMP-2-coated TA6V and PEEK implants with a total dose of 9.3 µg of BMP-2 were inserted into the femoral condyles of New Zealand white rabbits and compared to uncoated implants. Rabbits were sacrificed 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. Histomorphometric analyses on TA6V and PEEK implants and microcomputed tomography on PEEK implants revealed that the bone-to-implant contact and bone area around the implants were significantly lower for the BMP-2-coated implants than for the bare implants. This was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy imaging. This difference was more pronounced at 4 weeks in comparison to the 8-week time point. However, bone growth inside the hexagonal upper hollow cavity of the screws was higher in the case of the BMP-2 coated implants. Overall, this study shows that a high dose of BMP-2 leads to localized and temporary bone impairment, and that the dose of BMP-2 delivered at the surface of an implant needs to be carefully optimized. PMID:26965394

  2. Multilayer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-dexamethasone and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate-carbon nanotubes coatings on glassy carbon microelectrode arrays for controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Elisa; Carli, Stefano; Vomero, Maria; Scarpellini, Alice; Prato, Mirko; Goshi, Noah; Fadiga, Luciano; Kassegne, Sam; Ricci, Davide

    2017-07-13

    The authors present an electrochemically controlled, drug releasing neural interface composed of a glassy carbon (GC) microelectrode array combined with a multilayer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) coating. The system integrates the high stability of the GC electrode substrate, ideal for electrical stimulation and electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters, with the on-demand drug-releasing capabilities of PEDOT-dexamethasone compound, through a mechanically stable interlayer of PEDOT-polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)-carbon nanotubes (CNT). The authors demonstrate that such interlayer improves both the mechanical and electrochemical properties of the neural interface, when compared with a single PEDOT-dexamethasone coating. Moreover, the multilayer coating is able to withstand 10 × 10 6 biphasic pulses and delamination test with negligible change to the impedance spectra. Cross-section scanning electron microscopy images support that the PEDOT-PSS-CNT interlayer significantly improves the adhesion between the GC substrate and PEDOT-dexamethasone coating, showing no discontinuities between the three well-interconnected layers. Furthermore, the multilayer coating has superior electrochemical properties, in terms of impedance and charge transfer capabilities as compared to a single layer of either PEDOT coating or the GC substrate alone. The authors verified the drug releasing capabilities of the PEDOT-dexamethasone layer when integrated into the multilayer interface through repeated stimulation protocols in vitro, and found a pharmacologically relevant release of dexamethasone.

  3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of nano-multilayered Zr-O/Al-O coatings deposited by cathodic vacuum arc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitomirsky, V.N.; Kim, S.K.; Burstein, L.; Boxman, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    Nano-multilayered Zr-O/Al-O coatings with alternating Zr-O and Al-O layers having a bi-layer period of 6-7 nm and total coating thickness of 1.0-1.2 μm were deposited using a cathodic vacuum arc plasma process on rotating Si substrates. Plasmas generated from two cathodes, Zr and Al, were deposited simultaneously in a mixture of Ar and O 2 background gases. The Zr-O/Al-O coatings, as well as bulk ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 reference samples, were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS spectra were analyzed on the surface and after sputtering with a 4 kV Ar + ion gun. High resolution angle resolved spectra were obtained at three take-off angles: 15 o , 45 o and 75 o relative to the sample surface. It was shown that preferential sputtering of oxygen took place during XPS of bulk reference ZrO 2 samples, producing ZrO and free Zr along with ZrO 2 in the XPS spectra. In contrast, no preferential sputtering was observed with Al 2 O 3 reference samples. The Zr-O/Al-O coatings contained a large amount of free metals along with their oxides. Free Zr and Al were observed in the coating spectra both before and after sputtering, and thus cannot be due solely to preferential sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Zr-O/Al-O coatings had a nano-multilayered structure with well distinguished alternating layers. However, both of the alternating layers of the coating contained of a mixture of aluminum and zirconium oxides and free Al and Zr metals. The concentration of Zr and Al changed periodically with distance normal to the coating surface: the Zr maximum coincided with the Al minimum and vice versa. However the concentration of Zr in both alternating layers was significantly larger than that of Al. Despite the large free metal concentration, the Knoop hardness, 21.5 GPa, was relatively high, which might be attributed to super-lattice formation or formation of a metal-oxide nanocomposite within the layers.

  4. Materials selection of surface coatings in an advanced size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.L.; Younger, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    A materials selection test program was conducted to characterize optimum interior surface coatings for an advanced size reduction facility. The equipment to be processed by this facility consists of stainless steel apparatus (e.g., glove boxes, piping, and tanks) used for the chemical recovery of plutonium. Test results showed that a primary requirement for a satisfactory coating is ease of decontamination. A closely related concern is the resistance of paint films to nitric acid - plutonium environments. A vinyl copolymer base paint was the only coating, of eight paints tested, with properties that permitted satisfactory decontamination of plutonium and also performed equal to or better than the other paints in the chemical resistance, radiation stability, and impact tests

  5. A facile method to prepare superhydrophobic fluorinated polysiloxane/ZnO nanocomposite coatings with corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yongquan; Yang, Chuanning; Hu, Chuanbo; Zheng, Yansheng; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating fluorinated polysiloxane/ZnO nanocomposite coatings on the steel substrates. The surface wettability and topology of coating were characterized by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The results showed that the hydrophobic sbnd CH3 and sbnd CH2sbnd groups were introduced into ZnO particles via modification, the ZnO nanoparticles were modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. When the weight ratio of modified-ZnO to fluorinated polysiloxane was 13:7, the contact angle of nanocomposite coating was 166°, and a sliding angle of 4°, coating surface with hierarchical micro/nano-structures. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has excellent durability and corrosion resistance. It is believed that the facile and low-cost method offer an effective strategy and promising industrial applications for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on steel materials.

  6. Laser-induced damage threshold tests of ultrafast multilayer dielectric coatings in various environmental conditions relevant for operation of ELI beamlines laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurák, Michal; Velpula, Praveen Kumar; Kramer, Daniel; Cupal, Josef; Medřík, Tomáš; Hřebíček, Jan; Golasowski, Jiří; Peceli, Davorin; Kozlová, Michaela; Rus, Bedřich

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the laser-induced damage resistance of optical components is one of the major challenges in the development of Peta-watt (PW) class laser systems. The extreme light infrastructure (ELI) beamlines project will provide ultrafast laser systems with peak powers up to 10 PW available every minute and PW class beams at 10 Hz complemented by a 5-TW, 1-kHz beamline. Sustainable performance of PW class laser systems relies on the durability of the employed optical components. As part of an effort to evaluate the damage resistance of components utilized in ELI beamlines systems, damage thresholds of several optical multilayer dielectric coatings were measured with different laser parameters and in different environments. Three coatings were tested with 10 Hz and 1 kHz pulse repetition rates, and the effect of a cleaning treatment on their damage resistance was examined. To explore the damage threshold behavior at different vacuum levels, one coating was subject to tests at various residual gas pressures. No change of damage threshold in a high vacuum with respect to ambient pressure was recorded. The effect of the cleaning treatment was found to be inconsistent, suggesting that development of the optimal cleaning treatment for a given coating requires consideration of its specific properties.

  7. A contribution to the study of high Tc superconducting coatings and multi-layer coatings electromagnetic properties: surface impedance measurement with a tunnel diode oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omari, A.

    1993-01-01

    A surface impedance measurement system for conducting or superconducting thin films have been developed through the electromagnetic coupling of these films to a tunnel diode oscillator. The electromagnetic response of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconducting films and of id/La 2-x Sr x Cu O 4 multilayers, is studied, showing the 'granular' type of these materials. The intergranular coupling is of the SIS type for the films and of the SNS type for the multilayers. A resistance increase is observed when the temperature decreases in the superconducting phase. 120 p., 45 fig., 60 ref

  8. Multilayer coating for higher accelerating fields in superconducting radio-frequency cavities: a review of theoretical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2017-02-01

    The theory of the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) multilayer structure for application in superconducting accelerating cavities is reviewed. The theoretical field limit, optimum layer thicknesses and material combination, and surface resistance are discussed for the SIS structure and are also reviewed for the superconductor-superconductor bilayer structure.

  9. Multilayer coating for higher accelerating fields in superconducting radio-frequency cavities: a review of theoretical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Theory of the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (S-I-S) multilayer structure in superconducting accelerating cavity application is reviewed. The theoretical field limit, optimum layer thicknesses and material combination, and surface resistance are discussed. Those for the S-S bilayer structure are also reviewed.

  10. Investigation on hard coating of pivot-jewel bearing and wearing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Kun; Dai Xingjian

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of high speed rotating machine is related to the anti-wear properties of pivot jewel bearing used in the system. To reduce its wearing process, hard coating method is used on the steel pivot. Through the wearing test on specialized facilities, its founded that the TiN coating shows better performance than DLC coating, and multi-layer TiN coating can slow down the pivot's wearing process obviously compared to other methods. (authors)

  11. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability.

  12. Facile Fabrication of a Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Coating with Aluminate Coupling Agent Modified Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A superhydrophobic coating was fabricated from the dispersion of unmodified kaolin particles and aluminate coupling agent in anhydrous ethanol. Through surface modification, water contact angle of the coating prepared by modified kaolin particles increased dramatically from 0° to 152°, and the sliding angle decreased from 90° to 3°. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology. A structure composed of micro-nano hierarchical component, combined with the surface modification by aluminate coupling agent which reduced the surface energy greatly, was found to be responsible for the superhydrophobicity. The method adopted is relatively simple, facile, and cost-effective and can potentially be applied to large water-repellent surface coatings.

  13. Qualification of Coatings for Launch Facilities and Ground Support Equipment Through the NASA Corrosion Technology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Calle, Luz Marina

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion protection at NASA's Kennedy Space Center is a high priority item. The launch facilities at the Kennedy Space Center are located approximately 1000 feet from the Atlantic Ocean where they are exposed to salt deposits, high humidity, high UV degradation, and acidic exhaust from solid rocket boosters. These assets are constructed from carbon steel, which requires a suitable coating to provide long-term protection to reduce corrosion and its associated costs.

  14. Synergistic insecticidal and repellent effects of combined pyrethroid and repellent-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating multi-layer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Nehring, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    New and improved strategies for malaria control and prevention are urgently needed. As a contribution to an optimized personal protection strategy, a novel long-lasting insecticide and repellent-treated net (LLIRN) has been designed by binding combinations of permethrin plus N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or insect repellent 3535 (IR3535), and etofenprox plus DEET, onto fibres of bed net fabric employing a new multi-layer polymer-coating technique. Protective repellent efficacy, toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of 12 LLIRN types have been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti. The novel multi-layer LLIRN design allowed simultaneous embedding at concentrations up to 5,930 mg/m(2) for DEET, 3,408 mg/m(2) for IR3535, 2,296 mg/m(2) for permethrin and 2,349 mg/m(2) for etofenprox, respectively. IR3535 layers prevented co-binding of additional pyrethroid-containing polymer layers, thus making pyrethroids plus DEET LLIRNs an ideal combination. All LLIRNs revealed synergistic insecticidal effects which, when measured against concentration controls of the isolated compounds, were significant in all LLIRN types designed. DEET in DEET plus permethrin LLIRNs significantly (p time from 55 to 75 %, the corresponding 100 % kill time (p time of etofenprox from 42 to 50 % (p = 0.004), the 100 % kill time from 25 to 38 % (p biting protection, even at low concentrations. One hundred percent biting and probing protection of stored LLIRNs was preserved for 83 weeks with the 5,930 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,139 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 72 weeks with the 5,002 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,349 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 63 weeks with the 3,590 mg/m(2) DEET and 1,208 mg/m(2) permethrin LLRN, and for 61 weeks with the 4,711 mg/m(2) DEET and 702 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN. Because 100 % bite protection with up to 75 % quicker contact toxicity of pyrethroids were documented, synergistic toxicological and repellent effects of multi-layer polymer-coating

  15. Influence of Food with High Moisture Content on Oxygen Barrier Property of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/Vermiculite Nanocomposite Coated Multilayer Packaging Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Min; Lee, Min Hyeock; Ko, Jung A; Kang, Dong Ho; Bae, Hojae; Park, Hyun Jin

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the potential complications in applying nanoclay-based waterborne coating to packaging films for food with high moisture content. Multilayer packaging films were prepared by dry laminating commercially available polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/vermiculite nanocomposite coating films and linear low-density polyethylene film, and the changes in oxygen barrier properties were investigated according to different relative humidity using 3 types of food simulants. When the relative humidity was above 60%, the oxygen permeability increased sharply, but this was reversible. Deionized water and 3% acetic acid did not cause any large structural change in the PVA/vermiculite nanocomposite but caused a reversible deterioration of the oxygen barrier properties. In contrast, 50% ethanol, a simulant for the semifatty food, induced irreversible structural changes with deterioration of the oxygen barrier property. These changes are due to the characteristics of PVA rather than vermiculite. We believe this manuscript would be of interest to the wide group of researchers, organizations, and companies in the field of developing nanoclay-based gas barrier packaging for foods with high moisture content. Hence, we wish to diffuse our knowledge to the scientific community. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Facile Synthesis Polyethylene Glycol Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles for High Colloidal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Foong Tai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG is one of the most frequently used synthetic polymers for surface modifications of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs to provide a new opportunity for constructing high colloidal stability. Herein, a facile in situ coprecipitation technique is described for the synthesis of PEG coated MNPs using ammonium hydroxide as the precipitating agent. The structure and morphology of the prepared PEG coated MNPs samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. In this study, all samples demonstrated hydrodynamic size in the range of 32 to 43 nm with narrow size distribution. In addition, the magnetic properties of resultant samples were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM to reveal the superparamagnetic behaviour with saturation magnetization. The saturation magnetization of PEG coated MNPs samples was in the range of 63 to 66 emu/g at 300 K. Interestingly, it was found that 1.0 g of PEG coated MNPs exhibited high colloidal stability in a basic solution (pH = 10 and nitrile (NBR latex up to 21 days as compared to the unmodified MNPs during the sedimentation test.

  17. Influence of Thickness of Multilayered Nano-Structured Coatings Ti-TiN-(TiCrAlN and Zr-ZrN-(ZrCrNbAlN on Tool Life of Metal Cutting Tools at Various Cutting Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Vereschaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the influence of thickness of multilayered nano-structured coatings Ti-TiN-(TiCrAlN and Zr-ZrN-(ZrCrNbAlN on tool life of metal cutting tools at various cutting speeds (vc = 250, 300, 350 and 400 m·min−1. The paper investigates the basic mechanical parameters of coatings and the mechanism of coating failure in scratch testing depending on thickness of coating. Cutting tests were conducted in longitudinal turning of steel C45 with tools with the coatings under study of various thicknesses (3, 5, and 7 µm, with an uncoated tool and with a tool with a “reference” coating of TiAlN. The relationship of “cutting speed vc—tool life T” was built and investigated; and the mechanisms were found to determine the selection of the optimum coating thickness at various cutting speeds. Advantages of cutting tools with these coatings are especially obvious at high cutting speeds (in particular, vc = 400 m·min−1. If at lower cutting speeds, the longest tool life is shown by tools with thicker coatings (of about 7 μm, then with an increase in cutting speed (especially at vc = 400 m·min−1 the longest tool life is shown by tools with thinner coating (of about 3 μm.

  18. Production and characterization of multilayer coatings of Ti/TiN on AISI 316L stainless steel by the PVD technique of cathodic arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forlerer, Elena; Rodriguez, Fernando; Mingolo, Norma

    2006-01-01

    Multilayer coatings were produced from bi-layers (compound layers) of Ti/TiN in a PVD reactor of cathodic arc ion plating. The process was carried out at an Argon gas pressure of 5x10 -3 Torr for the interlayer of Ti and a nitrogen + argon pressure of 2x10 -2 Torr for the deposit of TiN and a Bias voltage of -500V for the Ti layer and -100V for the TiN layer. The arc current held constant at 80 amp. The samples were kept at high temperatures ≥ 300 o C, mounted on a rotating system that held the test piece 15-25 cm from the Ti electrode. Certified composition AISI 316L and AISI 410 stainless steel were used for the substrate. Coatings with one or two compound layers with similar thicknesses were made. The coatings were characterized mechanically by adherence, thickness and microhardness by Vickers indentation with 25g loads. The texture was studied by X-ray diffraction and present phases and residual tensions were determined. The results of the X-ray diffraction show the presence of the mostly TiN phase, with fcc structure in the mono-layer and the bi-layer. Residual tensions are compressive and elevated due to the expansion of the TiN network during the deposition process. Measurements of the bi-layers at different angles showed a relaxing of the tensions close to the surface, which could be due to the effect of the second interlayer of Ti. Preferential orientations associated with the growth process of the layers and the developed microstructure were detected in the TiN (CW)

  19. (SiC/AlN)2 multilayer film as an effective protective coating for sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yu; Li, Heqin; Huang, Yiqin; Tang, Qiong; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jun

    2017-08-01

    SiC/AlN and (SiC/AlN)2 multilayer films with a well-arranged bilayer structure and a four-layer structure are prepared respectively on NdFeB substrates by a magnetron sputtering method. Crystal phase and microstructures of the SiC/AlN and (SiC/AlN)2 films are investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). It is observed that the surface of the (SiC/AlN)2 four-layer film is much denser and smoother than that of the SiC/AlN bilayer film. Corrosion behaviors of the NdFeB substrates coated with SiC/AlN and (SiC/AlN)2 films as well as the bare NdFeB substrate are evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curve tests. It is revealed that the lateral growth structures developed in interfaces are favorable for an enhanced corrosion resistance. Corrosion current densities of the (SiC/AlN)2 coated NdFeB measured in acid, alkali and salt solutions are 2.796  ×  10-9, 3.65  ×  10-6, and 2.912  ×  10-6 A cm-2, respectively, which are much lower than those of the bare NdFeB and the SiC/AlN coated NdFeB.

  20. Explosion symmetry improvement of polyimide-coated tungsten wire in vacuum on negative discharge facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Wu, Jian; Lu, Yihan; Li, Xingwen; Li, Yang; Qiu, Mengtong

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten wire explosion is very asymmetric when fast current rate and insulated coatings are both applied on negative discharge facility using a 24-mm-diameter cathode geometry, which is commonly used on mega-ampere facilities. It is inferred, based on an analytical treatment of the guiding center drift and COMSOL simulations, that the large negative radial electric field causes early voltage breakdown and terminates energy deposition into the wire core on the anode side of the wire. After the anode side is short circuited, the radial electric field along the wire surface on the cathode side will change its polarity and thus leading to additional energy deposition into the wire core. This change causes ˜10 times larger energy deposition and ˜14 times faster explosion velocity in the cathode side than the anode side. In order to reduce this asymmetry, a hollow cylindrical cathode geometry was used to reverse the polarity of radial electric field and was optimized to use on multi-MA facilities. In this case, fully vaporized polyimide-coated tungsten wire with great symmetry improvement was achieved with energy deposition of ˜8.8 eV/atom. The atomic and electronic density distributions for the two different load geometries were obtained by the double-wavelength measurement.

  1. FORMATION AND RESEARCH OF MULTI-LAYER COMPOSITE PLASMA OXIDE COATINGS BASED ON ELEMENTS OF SCREEN METEROID PTOTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Okovity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research for influence of plasma jet parameters (current, spraying distance, plasmasupporting nitrogen gas consumption, fractional composition of an initial powder and cooling degree by compressed air on characteristics of anti-meteorite coatings, subsequent processing modes by pulsed plasma. Properties of the obtained coatings and results of ballistic tests have been given in the paper. The proposed methodology has been based on complex metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic investigations of anti-meteorite aluminum oxide coating. Optimization of air plasma spraying parameters for NiAl and Al2O3 materials has been carried out in the paper. The spraying parameters optimization has been executed on the basis of obtaining maximum materials utilization factor. Surface treatment of model screen elements with a double-layer composite coating (adhesive metal NiAl layer and hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 layer has been fulfilled while using compression plasma stream. Nitrogen has been used as working gas. Composite hard ceramic oxide Al2O3 coating is represented by porous structure consisting of 10–15 µm-size fused Al2O3 particles. Metallic inclusions formed due to erosion of plasmatron electrodes have been observed in the space between the particles. Surface of bilayer composite coatings has been processed by a compression plasma stream and due to nonsteady processes of melting and recrystallization high strength polycrystalline layer has been formed on their surface. In this context, those areas of the polycrystalline layer which had metal inclusions have appeared to be painted in various colors depending on chemical composition of the inclusions.

  2. Study of the mechanical properties of single- layer and multi-layer metallic coatings with protective-decorative applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherneva Sabina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Single thin coating of matt nickel (Nimat, a mirror bright copper (Cubright, a mirror bright nickel (Nibright and their combinations were electrochemically deposited on brass substrate with thickness 500 μm. The basic aim was electrodeposition of two-layer Cubright/Nimat and Nibright/Cubright systems, and three-layer Nibright Cubrigh/Nimat system, which are among the most widely applied protective and decorative systems in light and medium operating conditions of corrosion. The thicknesses of the obtained films varied from 1 μm to 3.25 μm. They were investigated via nanoindentation experiments, in order to characterize their basic physical and mechanical characteristics, related with their good adhesion and corrosion protective ability, as well as ensuring the integrity of the system “protective coating/substrate” to possible mechanical, dynamic and/or thermal stresses. As a result, load-displacement curves were obtained and indentation hardness and indentation modulus were calculated using the Oliver & Pharr approximation method. The dependence of the indentation modulus and the indentation hardness on the depth of the indentation, surface morphology and structure of the obtained coatings, their texture and surface roughness were investigated too. The obtained results showed that the three-layer Nibright/Cubright /Niimat/CuZn37 system has highest indentation modulus and indentation hardness, following by two-layer Nibright/Cubright system and single layer coatings.

  3. Layers and Multilayers of Self-Assembled Polymers: Tunable Engineered Extracellular Matrix Coatings for Neural Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michael J; Rollet, Frédéric-Guillaume; Kennedy, Timothy E; Barrett, Christopher J

    2018-03-12

    Growing primary cells and tissue in long-term cultures, such as primary neural cell culture, presents many challenges. A critical component of any environment that supports neural cell growth in vivo is an appropriate 2-D surface or 3-D scaffold, typically in the form of a thin polymer layer that coats an underlying plastic or glass substrate and aims to mimic critical aspects of the extracellular matrix. A fundamental challenge to mimicking a hydrophilic, soft natural cell environment is that materials with these properties are typically fragile and are difficult to adhere to and stabilize on an underlying plastic or glass cell culture substrate. In this review, we highlight the current state of the art and overview recent developments of new artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) surfaces for in vitro neural cell culture. Notably, these materials aim to strike a balance between being hydrophilic and soft while also being thick, stable, robust, and bound well to the underlying surface to provide an effective surface to support long-term cell growth. We focus on improved surface and scaffold coating systems that can mimic the natural physicochemical properties that enhance neuronal survival and growth, applied as soft hydrophilic polymer coatings for both in vitro cell culture and for implantable neural probes and 3-D matrixes that aim to enhance stability and longevity to promote neural biocompatibility in vivo. With respect to future developments, we outline four emerging principles that serve to guide the development of polymer assemblies that function well as artificial ECMs: (a) design inspired by biological systems and (b) the employment of principles of aqueous soft bonding and self-assembly to achieve (c) a high-water-content gel-like coating that is stable over time in a biological environment and possesses (d) a low modulus to more closely mimic soft, compliant real biological tissue. We then highlight two emerging classes of thick material coatings that

  4. Study and modeling of the ironing process on a multi-layered polymer coated low-carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles Canto, Miguel Angel

    The ironing process is the most crucial step in the manufacture of cans. Sheet steel covered by three polymer layers can be used as the starting material, but this coating must neither break nor fail in any manner in order to be considered as a viable and effective alternative to traditional practice. During ironing, the deformations are severe and high pressures exist at the tool-workpiece interface. Thickness reductions inherent in ironing require a large amount of surface generation. Deterioration of the coating in this delicate operation might enable direct contact of the stored food or drink with the metal. As can be appreciated, the key to the use of polymer-coated steel sheets in the manufacture of cans lies in the survival of these layers during the ironing process. Another important issue is the roughness of the newly-generated surface, because it should be possible to decorate the can without any difficulty. Changing the traditional manufacture of metallic containers such as cans and using this new coated material permits great reduction in environmental contaminants produced as a result of avoiding the formation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) during the manufacture of the polymer layers. This reduction is even greater because of not using additional lubricants due to the self-lubricanting property of the solid polymer coating layers during the drawing process. These objectives, together with the improvement of the mechanical characteristics and the adhesion of the painting or decorative priming, are realized by the use of the proposed material. In the existing bibliography about ironing processes on coated materials, some authors propose the use of the Upper Bound Theorem for modeling the material behavior. The present research shows for the first time the modeling of the ironing process on a three-layer polymer coated material. In addition, it takes into account the cases in which successful ironing is produced and those in which ones the ironing

  5. A novel class of potential prion drugs: preliminary in vitro and in vivo data for multilayer coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai Tran, Hoang Ngoc; Sousa, Fernanda; Moda, Fabio; Mandal, Subhra; Chanana, Munish; Vimercati, Chiara; Morbin, Michela; Krol, Silke; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Legname, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles coated with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, such as polyallylamine hydrochloride and polystyrenesulfonate, were examined for potential inhibition of prion protein aggregation and prion (PrPSc) conversion and replication. Different coatings, finishing with a positive or negative layer, were tested, and different numbers of layers were investigated for their ability to interact and reduce the accumulation of PrPSc in scrapie prion infected ScGT1 and ScN2a cells. The particles efficiently hampered the accumulation of PrPSc in ScN2a cells and showed curing effects on ScGT1 cells with a nanoparticle concentration in the picomolar range. Finally, incubation periods of prion-infected mice treated with nanomolar concentrations of gold nanoparticles were significantly longer compared to untreated controls.

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF CORROSION PROTECTION OF PETROLEUM FACILITIES BY THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW HIGH-POTENTIAL COATING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaoua-Nazef, M.; Daouadji, M.

    2007-07-01

    Corrosion affects many oil and gas facilities. It is the principal cause of leaks of products and rupture of storage tanks and pipelines, resulting sometimes in catastrophic damages (human damages, pollution of the natural environment, additional costs for repair, prolonged stop of pumping). Growing environmental concerns regarding the use of heavy metals in anti-corrosion coating formulations led to a new coating strategy using intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) as key components. (ICPs) as a new materials class provides a unique set of new properties and coatings based on these polymers are able to meet high demands and are outperforming even the best conventional anti-corrosion coating systems. This new generation of high-potential coatings can provide a significant cost reduction for the oil and gas industry, due to the specific properties of the ICPs which can work indefinitely as a redox catalysts and provide continuous protection as long as the mechanical integrity of the polymer films remains intact. Our paper focuses on the development of a nonconventional coating based on a specific conducting polymer which is never used before in any coating formulations. The developed coating is able to provide high anticorrosion performances with safety, environmental benefits and costs reduction. (auth)

  7. A Facile Fabrication of Silver-Coated Copper Nanowires by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a general strategy to fabricate silver-coated copper nanowires by a galvanic replacement, which is guided by the chemical principle that metal ions (silver ions with a relatively high reduction potential can galvanically etch nanostructure made from a less metal (copper. Well-dispersed and high-yielded copper nanowires were initially synthesized and then introduced into silver-ammonia solution for the growth of silver nanocrystals on the nanowire surfaces under vigorous oscillation. The results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope revealed that the silver nanocrystals were uniformly distributed on the copper nanowire surfaces to form Cu-Ag heterostructures. The concentration of silver-ammonia solution and the time of replacement reaction determine the size and density of the silver nanocrystals. Our investigation might pave the way to the synthesis of other bimetallic nanostructures via a facile, fast, and economical route.

  8. Facile synthesis of Ni-decorated multi-layers graphene sheets as effective anode for direct urea fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yousef

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of urea-containing wastewater is produced as a by-product in the fertilizer industry, requiring costly and complicated treatment strategies. Considering that urea can be exploited as fuel, this wastewater can be treated and simultaneously exploited as a renewable energy source in a direct urea fuel cell. In this study, multi-layers graphene/nickel nanocomposites were prepared by a one-step green method for use as an anode in the direct urea fuel cell. Typically, commercial sugar was mixed with nickel(II acetate tetrahydrate in distilled water and then calcined at 800 °C for 1 h. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were employed to characterize the final product. The results confirmed the formation of multi-layers graphene sheets decorated by nickel nanoparticles. To investigate the influence of metal nanoparticles content, samples were prepared using different amounts of the metal precursor; nickel acetate content was changed from 0 to 5 wt.%. Investigation of the electrochemical characterizations indicated that the sample prepared using the original solution with 3 wt.% nickel acetate had the best current density, 81.65 mA/cm2 in a 0.33 M urea solution (in 1 M KOH at an applied voltage 0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl. In a passive direct urea fuel cell based on the optimal composition, the observed maximum power density was 4.06 × 10−3 mW/cm2 with an open circuit voltage of 0.197 V at room temperature in an actual electric circuit. Overall, this study introduces a cheap and beneficial methodology to prepare effective anode materials for direct urea fuel cells.

  9. Table sugar as preparation and carbon coating reagent for facile synthesis and coating of rod-shaped MnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Ahmed M., E-mail: ahmedh242@yahoo.co [National Research Centre, Inorganic Chemistry Department, Behoes St., Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Abuzeid, Hanaa M. [National Research Centre, Inorganic Chemistry Department, Behoes St., Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Nikolowski, Kristian; Ehrenberg, Helmut [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-05-14

    Rod-shaped {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} has been synthesized by a novel and facile wet chemical method using simple sugar and potassium permanganate. Redox reaction between KMnO{sub 4} and sucrose is carried out in an acidic medium. Acidic medium provides a reducing character to sucrose through its decomposition to elemental carbon. Carbon coating process was done using simple sugar also as a source for carbon in an absolute ethanol with heating the mixture of {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and sugar at 350 {sup o}C for an hour in an ambient atmosphere. A single phase of cryptomelane-like phase MnO{sub 2} was observed from XRD patterns for bare and carbon coated samples. TGA analysis shows the presence of carbon layer through more weight loss percent of carbon coated sample in comparison with that of carbon free MnO{sub 2}. Both virgin and carbon coated MnO{sub 2} have high thermal stability due to high percent of K inside the tunnel determined from ICP analysis. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) showed a rod-shaped crystal for both the parent and carbon coated {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and confirmed the presence of a thin film of carbon around MnO{sub 2} particles. Both XRD and TEM investigations show that the prepared powders are in nano-scale. Initial capacity of about 140 mAh/g was obtained for the parent and carbon coated samples. The results show also that carbon coating process improves the capacity retention and the efficiency of {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} in comparison with that carbon free sample.

  10. New facilities for Al+MgF2 coating for 2-m class mirrors for UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhupanov, Valery; Vlasenko, Oleg; Sachkov, Mikhail; Fedoseev, Viktor

    2014-07-01

    above 120 nm [19] with reflectivity more than 90% at wavelength longer than 200 nm, but the spectral range from 700 to 900 nm, where it's lowest value of reflectivity is 86% at 850 nm. That makes aluminum one of the best coating materials in the creating a mirror for operations in vacuum ultraviolet. However, the aluminum membrane is prone to oxidization, so applying the protecting coating is essential. Magnesium fluoride is one of the few materials transparent in the UV range [20]. In this contribution, capacities of new facilities in LUCH company that are created for World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) project are described in Section 2, the process of applying Al + MgF2 coating workout is presented in Section 3, results of applying Al+MgF2 coating for WSO-UV primary mirror are presented in Section 4 and a brief summary are provided in the concluding Section 5.

  11. Plasma-Assisted Deposition of Au/SiO2 Multi-layers as Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Red-Colored Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyene, H. T.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Verheijen, M. A.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Creatore, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the expanding thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition in combination with radio frequency magnetron sputtering is used to deposit dielectric/metal multi-layers with controlled size and density of nanoparticles. The multi-layer structure serves the purpose of increasing the

  12. Plasma assisted deposition of Au/SiO2 multi-layers as surface plasmon resonance-based red colored coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takele Beyene, H.T.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Verheijen, M.A.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Creatore, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the expanding thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition in combination with radio frequency magnetron sputtering is used to deposit dielectric/metal multi-layers with controlled size and density of nanoparticles. The multi-layer structure serves the purpose of increasing the

  13. Facile Fabrication of a PDMS@Stearic Acid-Kaolin Coating on Lignocellulose Composites with Superhydrophobicity and Flame Retardancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The disadvantages such as swelling after absorbing water and flammability restrict the widespread applications of lignocellulose composites (LC. Herein, a facile and effective method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with flame retardancy on LC has been investigated by coating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and stearic acid (STA modified kaolin (KL particles. The as-prepared coatings on the LC exhibited a good repellency to water (a contact angle = 156°. Owing to the excellent flame retardancy of kaolin particles, the LC coated with PDMS@STA-KL displayed a good flame retardancy during limiting oxygen index and cone calorimeter tests. After the coating treatment, the limiting oxygen index value of the LC increased to 41.0. Cone calorimetry results indicated that the ignition time of the LC coated with PDMS@STA-KL increased by 40 s compared with that of uncoated LC. Moreover, the peak heat release rate (PHRR and the total heat release (THR of LC coated with PDMS@STA-KL reduced by 18.7% and 19.2% compared with those of uncoated LC, respectively. This LC coating with improved water repellency and flame retardancy can be considered as a potential alternative to protect the lignocellulose composite.

  14. Corrosion behaviour of sintered NdFeB coated with Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayers by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Shoudong; Yang Hengxiu; Huang Feng; Xie Tingting [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Ningbo 315201 (China); Song Zhenlun, E-mail: songzhenlun@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayers were deposited on sintered NdFeB magnets to improve the corrosion resistance. The amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were used to periodically interrupt the columnar growth of the Al layers. The structure of the multilayers was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that the columnar structure was effectively inhibited in the multilayers. Subsequent corrosion testing by potentiodynamic polarization in 3.5 wt.% NaCl and neutral salt spray test (NSS) revealed that the Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayers had much better corrosion resistance than the Al single layer. Furthermore, for multilayers with similar thickness, the corrosion resistance was improved as the period decreased.

  15. Preliminary coating design and coating developments for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2011-01-01

    We present initial novel coating design for ATHENA. We make use of both simple bilayer coatings of Ir and B4C and more complex constant period multilayer coatings to enhance the effective area and cover the energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. We also present the coating technology used...... for these designs and present test results from coatings....

  16. Facile template-directed synthesis of carbon-coated SnO2 nanotubes with enhanced Li-storage capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaoshu; Zhu, Jingyi; Yao, Yinan; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen; Wu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Herein, a novel type of carbon-coated SnO 2 nanotubes has been designed and synthesized through a facile two-step hydrothermal approach by using ZnO nanorods as templates. During the synthetic route, SnO 2 nanocrystals and carbon layer have been uniformly deposited on the rod-like templates in sequence, meanwhile ZnO nanorods could be in situ dissolved owing to the generated alkaline and acidic environments during hydrothermal coating of SnO 2 nanocrystals and hydrothermal carbonization of glucose, respectively. When utilized as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries, the carbon-coated SnO 2 nanotubes manifests markedly enhanced Li-storage capabilities in terms of specific capacity and cycling stability in comparison with bare SnO 2 nanocrystals. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • C-coated SnO 2 nanotubes prepared via facile ZnO-nanorod-templated hydrothermal route. • Unique morphological and structural features toward lithium storage. • Enhanced Li-storage performance in terms of specific capacity and cycling stability

  17. Simulation of reflectivity spectrum for non-absorbing multilayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reflectivity simulation is an essential tool for the design and optimization of optical thin ... with the experimental results of the multilayer optical thin films grown by electron-beam evaporation ... beam splitters [4] and various optical filters. ... thickness (QWOT) layer AR coating and multilayer HR coating using electron- beam ...

  18. Uniformity of the soft-x-ray emissions from gold foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams determined by a two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, John F.; Boehly, Thomas; Pien, Gregory; Bradley, David

    1998-01-01

    A two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings was used to image the soft-x-ray emissions from planar foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams. The bandpass of the multilayer coatings was centered at a wavelength of 48.3 Angstrom (257-eV energy) and was 0.5 Angstrom wide. Five overlapping OMEGA beams, without beam smoothing, were typically incident on the gold foils. The total energy was 1500 J, and the focused intensity was 6x10 13 Wcm -2 . The 5.8x magnified images were recorded by a gated framing camera at various times during the 3-ns laser pulse. A pinhole camera imaged the x-ray emission in the energy range of >2 keV. On a spatial scale of 10 μm, it was found that the soft-x-ray images at 257 eV were quite uniform and featureless. In contrast, the hard-x-ray images in the energy range of >2 kev were highly nonuniform with numerous features of size 150 μm. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  19. Tunable photonic multilayer sensors from photo-crosslinkable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Maria; Hayward, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    The fabrication of tunable photonic multilayer sensors from stimuli-responsive, photo-crosslinkable polymers will be described. Benzophenone is covalently incorporated as a pendent photo-crosslinker, allowing for facile preparation of multilayer films by sequential spin-coating and crosslinking processes. Copolymer chemistries and layer thicknesses are selected to provide robust multilayer sensors which can show color changes across nearly the full visible spectrum due to the specific stimulus-responsive nature of the hydrated film stack. We will describe how this approach is extended to alternative sensor designs by tailoring the thickness and chemistry of each layer independently, allowing for the preparation of sensors which depend not only on the shift in wavelength of a reflectance peak, but also on the transition between Bragg mirrors and filters. Device design is optimized by photo-patterning sensor arrays on a single substrate, providing more efficient fabrication time as well as multi-functional sensors. Finally, radiation-sensitive multilayers, designed by choosing polymers which will preferentially degrade or crosslink under ionizing radiation, will also be described.

  20. Corrosion Control of Central Vehicle Wash Facility Pump Components Using Alternative Alloy Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    bles near the metal/solution interface that is especially prevalent in pump impellers (Fontana 1986). When the bubbles implode due to high pressure...defective in total area). The coatings were nonsacrificial protective materials of the sort that ASTM B537 is in- tended to evaluate. In addition, cavitation...be considered detrimental, but not a protec- tion defect. The new pump coatings are protective, non-sacrificial coatings of the sort that ASTM B537 is

  1. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  2. The Yttrium Effect on Nanoscale Structure, Mechanical Properties, and High-Temperature Oxidation Resistance of (Ti0.6Al0.4)1- x Y x N Multilayer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Yazdi, Mohammad Arab Pour; Lomello, Fernando; Billard, Alain; Kovács, András; Schuster, Frédéric; Guet, Claude; White, Timothy J.; Wouters, Yves; Pascal, Céline; Sanchette, Frédéric; Dong, ZhiLi

    2017-09-01

    As machine tool coating specifications become increasingly stringent, the fabrication of protective titanium aluminum nitride (Ti-Al-N) films by physical vapor deposition (PVD) is progressively more demanding. Nanostructural modification through the incorporation of metal dopants can enhance coating mechanical properties. However, dopant selection and their near-atomic-scale role in performance optimization is limited. Here, yttrium was alloyed in multilayered Ti-Al-N films to tune microstructures, microchemistries, and properties, including mechanical characteristics, adhesion, wear resistance, and resilience to oxidation. By regulating processing parameters, the multilayer period (Λ) and Y content could be adjusted, which, in turn, permitted tailoring of grain nucleation and secondary phase formation. With the composition fixed at x = 0.024 in (Ti0.6Al0.4)1- x Y x N and Λ increased from 5.5 to 24 nm, the microstructure transformed from acicular grains with 〈111〉 preferred orientation to equiaxed grains with 〈200〉 texture, while the hardness (40.8 ± 2.8 GPa to 29.7 ± 4.9 GPa) and Young's modulus (490 ± 47 GPa to 424 ± 50 GPa) concomitantly deteriorated. Alternately, when Λ = 5.5 nm and x in (Ti0.6Al0.4)1- x Y x N was raised from 0 to 0.024, the hardness was enhanced (28.7 ± 7.3 GPa to 40.8 ± 2.8 GPa) while adhesion and wear resistance were not compromised. The Ti-Al-N adopted a rock-salt type structure with Y displacing either Ti or Al and stabilizing a secondary wurtzite phase. Moreover, Y effectively retarded coating oxidation at 1073 K (800 °C) in air by inhibiting grain boundary oxygen diffusion.

  3. Development of silver coating process and facilities for ITER thermal shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D.K. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, R.G. [COTEC Corp., Changwon 641-846 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, K., E-mail: kwnam@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, C.H.; Chung, W. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, D.C. [COTEC Corp., Changwon 641-846 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, K.; Baek, J.P. [SFA Engineering Corp., Asan 336-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes both the test results of the bath type silver coating and the design of the bath to construct the silver coating plant for ITER thermal shield. The tests of small specimens made of SS304L and SS304LN were carried out to investigate the effect of the nitrogen content in SS304LN on the silver coating quality. The effect of different degreasing agents was also investigated to improve silver coating process. Small mock-up was tested to find a proper dipping direction during the electroplating process. Finally, noble bath design was conceived and structurally validated. Overall layout of silver coating plant is also shown in this paper.

  4. Facile Synthesis of Smart Nanocontainers as Key Components for Construction of Self-Healing Coating with Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Wang, MingDong; Wang, Cheng; Feng, Jing; Li, JianSheng; Wang, LianJun; Fu, JiaJun

    2016-12-01

    SiO2-imidazoline nanocomposites (SiO2-IMI) owning high loading capacity of corrosion inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMID), and a special acid/alkali dual-stimuli-accelerated release property have been synthesized via a one-step modified Stöber method. SiO2-IMI were uniformly distributed into the hydrophobic SiO2 sol to construct "host"-"guest" feedback active coating with a superhydrophobic surface (SiO2-IMI@SHSC) on aluminium alloy, AA2024, by dip-coating technique. SiO2-IMI as "guest" components have good compatibility with "host" sol-gel coating, and more importantly, once localized corrosion occurs on the surface of AA2024, SiO2-IMI can simultaneously respond to the increase in environmental pH around corrosive micro-cathodic regions and decrease in pH near micro-anodic regions, promptly releasing HMID to form a compact molecular film on the damaged surface, inhibiting corrosion spread and executing a self-healing function. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) was applied to illustrate the suppression process of cathodic/anodic corrosion activities. Furthermore, benefiting from the superhydrophobic surface, SiO2-IMI@SHSC remained its protective ability after immersion in 0.5 M NaCl solution for 35 days, which is far superior to the conventional sol-gel coating with the same coating thickness. The facile fabrication method of SiO2-IMI simplifies the construction procedure of SiO2-IMI@SHSC, which have great potential to replace non-environmental chromate conversion coatings for practical use.

  5. Facile Synthesis of Smart Nanocontainers as Key Components for Construction of Self-Healing Coating with Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Wang, MingDong; Wang, Cheng; Feng, Jing; Li, JianSheng; Wang, LianJun; Fu, JiaJun

    2016-04-01

    SiO2-imidazoline nanocomposites (SiO2-IMI) owning high loading capacity of corrosion inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMID), and a special acid/alkali dual-stimuli-accelerated release property have been synthesized via a one-step modified Stöber method. SiO2-IMI were uniformly distributed into the hydrophobic SiO2 sol to construct "host"-"guest" feedback active coating with a superhydrophobic surface (SiO2-IMI@SHSC) on aluminium alloy, AA2024, by dip-coating technique. SiO2-IMI as "guest" components have good compatibility with "host" sol-gel coating, and more importantly, once localized corrosion occurs on the surface of AA2024, SiO2-IMI can simultaneously respond to the increase in environmental pH around corrosive micro-cathodic regions and decrease in pH near micro-anodic regions, promptly releasing HMID to form a compact molecular film on the damaged surface, inhibiting corrosion spread and executing a self-healing function. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) was applied to illustrate the suppression process of cathodic/anodic corrosion activities. Furthermore, benefiting from the superhydrophobic surface, SiO2-IMI@SHSC remained its protective ability after immersion in 0.5 M NaCl solution for 35 days, which is far superior to the conventional sol-gel coating with the same coating thickness. The facile fabrication method of SiO2-IMI simplifies the construction procedure of SiO2-IMI@SHSC, which have great potential to replace non-environmental chromate conversion coatings for practical use.

  6. Formulation, selection and application of coatings for radio-active facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.

    1988-01-01

    The use of appropriate coatings on materials involved in the handling radioactivity substantially reduces the effort required for decontamination. Development and performance are demonstrated for materials of choice. Future directions and requirements are indicated

  7. Obtention and characterization of TiO{sub 2}/TiN multilayers coatings; Obtencao e caracterizacao de revestitimentos compostos de multicamadas TiO{sub 2}/TiN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Andre

    2010-07-01

    Nano science has emerged in recent years as one of the most important areas for future technological developments, especially in the area of electronic devices. Nanotechnology has an interdisciplinary character which includes knowledge from physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. This technology is being used in the manufacture of microprocessors, pumps for dose of medicine, and coating materials, among others. The MOCVD technique has been used recently to obtain nanocrystalline coatings, and provide films of better quality than those obtained by conventional CVD or physical methods. Furthermore, the MOCVD technique presents itself as a competitive alternative because it is relatively inexpensive and easy to deploy compared to physical deposition methods. In this work multilayer coatings of TiO{sub 2}/TiN were produced. During the experiment, the opening and closing of the valves of gases admission, requires from the operator manual ability to trigger the valve and controlling the deposition time, which creates the possibility of errors, leading directly into the thickness of each layer. Thus, the need of reducing the influence of the operator, and the possibility of using time intervals of less than a minute in the growths, created the opportunity to develop a computer program to manage the whole system. The software was developed using the 'State machine' concept for the process control and Hardware in the loop simulation. (author)

  8. Facile Fabrication of a Hierarchical Superhydrophobic Coating with Aluminate Coupling Agent Modified Kaolin

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li; Mengnan Qu; Zhe Sun; Jinmei He; Anning Zhou

    2013-01-01

    A superhydrophobic coating was fabricated from the dispersion of unmodified kaolin particles and aluminate coupling agent in anhydrous ethanol. Through surface modification, water contact angle of the coating prepared by modified kaolin particles increased dramatically from 0° to 152°, and the sliding angle decreased from 90° to 3°. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the surface morphology. A structure composed of micro-nano hierarchical component, combined with the surface modi...

  9. Facile approach in the development of icephobic hierarchically textured coatings as corrosion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momen, G., E-mail: gmomen@uqac.ca; Farzaneh, M.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A superhydrophobic coating is developed via a simple environmental-friendly method. • This coating can be used on the surface of various metals such as copper, magnesium. • The superhydrophobic aluminum surface showed the excellent corrosion resistance. • The fabricated surface revealed a drastically reduction of ice adhesion strength. • Such surfaces can advantageously be used in cold climate regions. - Abstract: An anti-corrosion superhydrophobic film with water contact angle greater than 160° on aluminum alloy 6061 substrate was fabricated simply through the spin-coating method applied to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles doped in silicone rubber solution. The as-obtained sample was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle/surface energy measurement. The corrosion behaviour of such coating in the NaCl solutions was investigated using the potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the developed superhydrophobic surface is improved greatly due to the composite wetting states or interfaces with numerous air pockets between its surface and the NaCl solution. This superhydrophobic coating could serve as an effective barrier against aggressive medium. Ice adhesion strength of the as-prepared superhydrophobic coating was also evaluated by measuring its ice adhesion force which was found to have reduced by 4.8 times compared to that of aluminum substrate as reference test.

  10. SiC Nanoparticles Toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC Multilayer Functionally Graded Oxidation Protective Coating for Carbon Materials at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Ehsani, Naser; Valefi, Zia; Khalifesoltani, Ali

    2017-05-01

    A SiC nanoparticle toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC functionally graded oxidation protective coating on graphite was prepared by reactive melt infiltration (RMI) at 1773 and 1873 K under argon atmosphere. The phase composition and anti-oxidation behavior of the coatings were investigated. The results show that the coating was composed of MoSi2, α-SiC and β-SiC. By the variations of Gibbs free energy (calculated by HSC Chemistry 6.0 software), it could be suggested that the SiC coating formed at low temperatures by solution-reprecipitation mechanism and at high temperatures by gas-phase reactions and solution-reprecipitation mechanisms simultaneously. SiC nanoparticles could improve the oxidation resistance of SiC/MoSi2-SiC multiphase coating. Addition of SiC nanoparticles increases toughness of the coating and prevents spreading of the oxygen diffusion channels in the coating during the oxidation test. The mass loss and oxidation rate of the SiC nanoparticle toughened-SiC/MoSi2-SiC-coated sample after 10-h oxidation at 1773 K were only 1.76% and 0.32 × 10-2 g/cm3/h, respectively.

  11. A facile method for emulsified oil-water separation by using polyethylenimine-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ting; Qi, Dongming; Zhang, Dong; Lü, Yulan; Zhao, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    Oil spills and oily wastewater discharges from ships and industrial activities have serious impacts on the environment and human health. In this study, a class of easy-to-synthesize polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was successfully synthesized via a one-step coprecipitation method. The synthesized PEI-coated Fe3O4 MNPs were characterized by using multiple technologies and applied in emulsified oil-water separation for the first time. It was found that the PEI effectively tuned the surface charge and wettability of MNPs. As a result, the PEI-coated MNPs could successfully assemble at the oil-water interface and promote the coalescence of oil droplets, thereby facilitating the subsequent magnetic separation. Results showed that the oil-water separation performance was superior and enhanced with the increase of ionic strength. Recycling experiment indicated that the PEI-coated MNPs could be reused up to six times without showing a significant decrease in separation efficiency. All of these results suggested that the PEI-coated MNP could potentially be used as a class of promising nanomaterials for emulsified oil-water separation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Facile approach in fabricating superhydrophobic ZnO/polystyrene nanocomposite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yongquan; Zheng, Yansheng; Hu, Chuanbo; Wang, Yong; He, Yi; Gong, Yong; Mo, Qian

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we report a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating modified-ZnO/polystyrene superhydrophobic surface on the cotton textiles. The surface wettability and topology of coating were characterized by contact angle measurement, Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The results showed that the hydrophobic CH3 and CF2 group was introduced into ZnO particles via modification, the ZnO nanoparticles were modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. When the weight ratio of modified-ZnO to polystyrene was 7:3, the ZnO/polystyrene composite coating contact angle was 158°, coating surface with hierarchical micro/nano structures. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic cotton texiles have a very extensive application prospect in water-oil separation.

  13. Facile Photoimmobilization of Proteins onto Low-Binding PEG-Coated Polymer Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2014-01-01

    was verified for both enzymes and antibodies, and their presence on the surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Conjugation of capture antibody onto the PEG coating was employed for a simplified ELISA protocol without the need for blocking uncoated...... surface areas, showing ng/mL sensitivity to a cytokine antigen target. Moreover, spatially patterned attachment of fluorescently labeled protein onto the low-binding PEG-coated surface was achieved with a projection lithography system that enabled the creation of micrometer-sized protein features....

  14. Digital multilayer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueber, C.; Klose, K.J.; Thelen, M.

    1991-01-01

    With digital multilayer tomography a sequence of projection images is recorded by an image intensifier television system and stored as digital data during a linear run of a layer sequence. Using this data record, tomograms of the examined body region can be computed for any layer thickness by shifts and superimposition of the single projections later at a digital workstation. The qualities of digital and conventional tomograms are basically comparable. A drawback of digital tomography is its lower local resolution (512 x 512 image matrix), advantages are a lower radiation exposure, a shorter patient examination time, and the facilities of digital image processing (later processing, archive setup, transmission). (orig.) [de

  15. The use of modern engineered polymer coatings and products in decommissioning of nuclear facilities and plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, K.; Harris, C.W.; Morris, O.P.; Atkinson, P.

    2014-01-01

    During decommissioning of nuclear plant, problems can arise whereby leaks and cracks appear which may require repair or remediation. Following clean-up processes radionuclides may be exposed in concrete or structures such ponds which require sealing to prevent atmospheric release and to obtain a reduction in operator dose. There are a number of polymer based products on the market which with care and skillful selection can be utilised to aid decommissioning and to add reassurance to regulators that radionuclide release cannot occur. Choosing between them is difficult due to the fact that the standard coating tests cannot reliably distinguish between the various products since these modern polymers are all significantly tougher than previous generations of coating technologies. There is therefore a need to develop new bespoke tests which replicate the likely failure modes of the plant and which demonstrate which products are likely to perform well in real life situations. (authors)

  16. Demonstration of Antimicrobial Corrosion-Resisting Interior Coating Systems for Military Facilities in Warm, Humid Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of Defense...was unexpectedly upgraded soon after the demonstration coatings were applied, apparently due to a scheduling change or miscommunication re- lated...oils and grease, so no cleaning solution was needed. Sherwin Williams ProMar 200 acrylic primer was used to prime all gyp- sum surfaces that were

  17. Properties of CdSe quantum dots coated with silica fabricated in a facile way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yufeng; Li Wenjiang; He Sailing

    2007-01-01

    High quality quantum dots (QDs) CdSe were prepared using a novel and non-TOP method. Quantum dots of different sizes ranging from 2 to 4 nm could be obtained by removing aliquots of the reaction solution at different time intervals or by adjusting some reaction conditions. The CdSe quantum dots (core) were directly coated with silica (shell) using a microemulsion method. The design and preparation of a model QD/silica was described and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence and laser confocal scanning microscopy. TEM images confirmed the well-monodispersed QDs and the silica shell around the CdSe core, respectively; laser confocal microscope images, UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra clearly indicated that both the original QDs and the silica-coated QDs had good fluorescence properties. The quantum dots coated with silica shells were stable, water-soluble and less toxic (due to the silica shells), and are anticipated to be used as fluorescent probes for biosensing and imaging applications

  18. In situ preparation of multilayer coated capillary column with HKUST-1 for separation of neutral small organic molecules by open tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin-Yin; Lv, Wen-Juan; Ren, Cui-Ling; Niu, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Hong-Li; Chen, Xing-Guo

    2018-01-12

    The popularity of novel nanoparticles coated capillary column has aroused widespread attention of researchers. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) with special structure and chemical properties have received great interest in separation sciences. This work presents the investigation of HKUST-1 (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology-1, called Cu 3 (BTC) 2 or MOF-199) nanoparticles as a new type of coating material for capillary electrochromatography. For the first time, three layers coating (3-LC), five layers coating (5-LC), ten layers coating (10-LC), fifteen layers coating (15-LC), twenty layers coating(20-LC) and twenty-five layers coating (25-LC) capillary columns coated with HKUST-1 nanoparticles were synthesized by covalent bond with in situ, layer-by-layer self-assembly approach. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) indicated that HKUST-1 was successfully grafted on the inner wall of the capillary. The separating performances of 3-LC, 5-LC, 10-LC, 15-LC, 20-LC and 25-LC open tubular (OT) capillary columns were studied with some neutral small organic molecules. The results indicated that the neutral small organic molecules were separated successfully with 10-LC, 15-LC and 20-LC OT capillary columns because of the size selectivity of lattice aperture and hydrophobicity of organic ligands. In addition, 10-LC and 15-LC OT capillary columns showed better performance for the separation of certain phenolic compounds. Furthermore, 10-LC, 15-LC and 20-LC OT capillary columns exhibited good intra-day repeatability with the relative standard deviations (RSDs; %) of migration time and peak areas lying in the range of 0.3-1.2% and 0.5-4.2%, respectively. For inter-day reproducibility, the RSDs of the three OT capillary columns were found to be lying in the range of 0.3-5.5% and 0.3-4.5% for migration time and peak area, respectively. The RSDs of retention times for column

  19. Multilayer thin films: sequential assembly of nanocomposite materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Decher, Gero; Schlenoff, Joseph B

    2003-01-01

    ... polymeric or nanoparticulate building blocks, understanding the polymer physical chemistry of multilayers, or characterizing their optical, electrical or biological activities. The reasons for the intense interest in the field are also clearly evident: multilayers bridge the gap between monolayers and spun-on or dip-coated films, ...

  20. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  1. Corrosion resistance of ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite multilayer thin films coated on carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Lateef, Hany M., E-mail: Hany_shubra@yahoo.co.uk; Khalaf, Mai M., E-mail: Mai_kha1@yahoo.com

    2015-10-15

    This work reports the achievement of preparing of x% zirconia (ZrO{sub 2})–titania (TiO{sub 2}) composite coatings with different ZrO{sub 2} percent on the carbon steel by dipping substrates in sol–gel solutions. The prepared coated samples were investigated by various surface techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Open-circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods were employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coated carbon steel substrates in 1.0 M HCl solution at 50 °C. The data showed that, the corrosion protection property is not always proportional to the percent of ZrO{sub 2}. It can be inferred that there is an optimum percent (10%ZrO{sub 2}) for beneficial effects of loading ZrO{sub 2} on the protection efficiency (98.70%), while higher loading percent of ZrO{sub 2} in the sol–gel coating leads to the formation of a fragile film with poor barrier properties. EDAX/SEM suggests that the metal surface was protected through coating with ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} composite films. - Highlights: • Sol–gel TiO{sub 2} doped with ZrO{sub 2} films deposited on carbon steel substrate • XRD measurements of x wt.% ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} showed the (101) peaks broader than that of TiO{sub 2}. • SEM results proved that, the cracking decreases with the number of layers. • The prepared films can improve the corrosion resistance of the carbon steel substrate. • 10%ZrO{sub 2} loading is the optimal percent for useful effects on the corrosion resistance.

  2. Modernization of serial facility 'BULAT-6' for synthesis of vacuum-arc coatings by the method of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition as well as ion hydrogen-free nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulaev, V.M.; Andreev, A.A.; Rudenko, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The model of laboratory vacuum-arc facility for realization of the method of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition is worked out by means modernization of serial industrial facility 'BULAT-6'. The facility is suitable for surface modification of instrumental steel items, including the low-alloyed steels with low temperatures of tempering. The low-temperature deposition of coatings on the preliminary nitrided surface of instrument permits obtaining dense coating with minimum maintenance of macroparticles, as well as with coatings superhigh adhesion to the substrate and with superhardness. The coatings possess high property stableness in time.

  3. Magnetic multilayer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Philipp; O'Sullivan, Eugene J.; Romankiw, Lubomyr T.; Wang, Naigang; Webb, Bucknell C.

    2016-07-05

    A mechanism is provided for an integrated laminated magnetic device. A substrate and a multilayer stack structure form the device. The multilayer stack structure includes alternating magnetic layers and diode structures formed on the substrate. Each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by a diode structure.

  4. Facile synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles with organosilicone-coated surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Lijin; Yi Sijia; Lenaghan, Scott C.; Zhang Mingjun, E-mail: mjzhang@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2012-07-15

    In this study, a simple method for one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles has been developed using an organosilicone surfactant, Silwet L-77, as both a reducing and capping agent. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using this method is rapid and can be conducted conveniently at ambient temperature. Further refinement of the method, through the addition of sodium hydroxide and/or silver nitrate, allowed fine control over the size of spherical nanoparticles produced. Coated on the surface with organosilicone, the as-prepared gold nanoparticles were biocompatible and stable over the pH range from 5 to 12, and have been proven effective at transportation into MC3T3 osteoblast cells. The proposed method is simple, fast, and can produce size-controlled gold nanoparticles with unique surface properties for biomedical applications.

  5. Facile synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles with organosilicone-coated surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lijin; Yi Sijia; Lenaghan, Scott C.; Zhang Mingjun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a simple method for one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles has been developed using an organosilicone surfactant, Silwet L-77, as both a reducing and capping agent. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using this method is rapid and can be conducted conveniently at ambient temperature. Further refinement of the method, through the addition of sodium hydroxide and/or silver nitrate, allowed fine control over the size of spherical nanoparticles produced. Coated on the surface with organosilicone, the as-prepared gold nanoparticles were biocompatible and stable over the pH range from 5 to 12, and have been proven effective at transportation into MC3T3 osteoblast cells. The proposed method is simple, fast, and can produce size-controlled gold nanoparticles with unique surface properties for biomedical applications.

  6. Facile synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles with organosilicone-coated surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lijin; Yi, Sijia; Lenaghan, Scott C.; Zhang, Mingjun

    2012-07-01

    In this study, a simple method for one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles has been developed using an organosilicone surfactant, Silwet L-77, as both a reducing and capping agent. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using this method is rapid and can be conducted conveniently at ambient temperature. Further refinement of the method, through the addition of sodium hydroxide and/or silver nitrate, allowed fine control over the size of spherical nanoparticles produced. Coated on the surface with organosilicone, the as-prepared gold nanoparticles were biocompatible and stable over the pH range from 5 to 12, and have been proven effective at transportation into MC3T3 osteoblast cells. The proposed method is simple, fast, and can produce size-controlled gold nanoparticles with unique surface properties for biomedical applications.

  7. Simultaneous multilayer formation of the polymer solar cell stack using roll-to-roll double slot-die coating from water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andreasen, Birgitta; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2012-01-01

    zinc oxide that was processed by single slot-die coating from water. The active layer comprised poly-3-hexylthiophene:Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) as a dispersion of nanoparticles with a radius of 46 nm in water characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission...... electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The HTL was a dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in water. The films were analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) as chemical probe and X-ray reflectometry......), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.24 V, 0.5 mA cm−2, 25%, and 0.03%, respectively, for the best double slot-die coated cell. A single slot-die coated cell using the same aqueous inks and device architecture yielded a Voc, Jsc, FF, and PCE of 0.45 V, 1.95 mA cm−2, 33.1%, and 0...

  8. A novel and facile strategy for highly flame retardant polymer foam composite materials: Transforming silicone resin coating into silica self-extinguishing layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Li; Li, Shi-Neng; Wu, Lian-Bin; Jiang, Jian-Xiong; Tang, Long-Cheng

    2017-08-15

    In this study, a novel strategy was developed to fabricate highly flame retardant polymer foam composite materials coated by synthesized silicone resin (SiR) polymer via a facile dip-coating processing. Applying the SiR polymer coating, the mechanical property and thermal stability of SiR-coated polymer foam (PSiR) composites are greatly enhanced without significantly altering their structure and morphology. The minimum oxygen concentration to support the combustion of foam materials is greatly increased, i.e. from LOI 14.6% for pure foam to LOI 26-29% for the PSiR composites studied. Especially, adjusting pendant group to SiOSi group ratio (R/Si ratio) of SiRs produces highly flame retardant PSiR composites with low smoke toxicity. Cone calorimetry results demonstrate that 44-68% reduction in the peak heat release rate for the PSiR composites containing different R/Si ratios over pure foam is achieved by the presence of appropriate SiR coating. Digital and SEM images of post-burn chars indicate that the SiR polymer coating can be transformed into silica self-extinguishing porous layer as effective inorganic barrier effect, thus preserving the polymer foam structure from fire. Our results show that the SiR dip-coating technique is a promising strategy for producing flame retardant polymer foam composite materials with improved mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nondestructive diagnosis of multilayer electronic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvienko, A.N.; Savin, D.O.; Yas'ko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Methods of non-destructive tomographic investigation into multilayer printed plates using x radiation are described. Mathematic problem setting is given, experimental facility and methods for source data ecquisition are described. A special attention is paid to the consideration of the main factors differing the actual problem setting from the idealized one. Methods for accounting and correction of these factors are described. The efficiency of the approach proposed is demonstrated using the actual problems of reducing separate layers of multilayer printed plate metallization. The method developed is useful when exersizing control over multilayer printed plate production

  10. Facile coating of manganese oxide on tin oxide nanowires with high-performance capacitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Khoo, Eugene; Sumboja, Afriyanti; Lee, Pooi See

    2010-07-27

    In this paper, a very simple solution-based method is employed to coat amorphous MnO2 onto crystalline SnO2 nanowires grown on stainless steel substrate, which utilizes the better electronic conductivity of SnO2 nanowires as the supporting backbone to deposit MnO2 for supercapacitor electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods have been carried out to study the capacitive properties of the SnO2/MnO2 composites. A specific capacitance (based on MnO2) as high as 637 F g(-1) is obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s(-1) (800 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1)) in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution. The energy density and power density measured at 50 A g(-1) are 35.4 W h kg(-1) and 25 kW kg(-1), respectively, demonstrating the good rate capability. In addition, the SnO2/MnO2 composite electrode shows excellent long-term cyclic stability (less than 1.2% decrease of the specific capacitance is observed after 2000 CV cycles). The temperature-dependent capacitive behavior is also discussed. Such high-performance capacitive behavior indicates that the SnO2/MnO2 composite is a very promising electrode material for fabricating supercapacitors.

  11. Effects of sintering temperature on the pyrochlore phase in PZT nanotubes and their transformation to the perovskite phase by coating with PbO multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin Kyu; Choi, Yong Chan; Jeon, Do Hyen; Lee, Min Ku; Bu, Sang Don

    2014-11-01

    We report the phase evolution of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 nanotubes (PZT-NTs), from the pyrochlore to perovskite phase, with an outer diameter of about 420 nm and a wall thickness of about 10 nm. The PZT-NTs were fabricated in pores of porous anodic alumina membrane (PAM) using a spin coating of PZT sol-gel solution and subsequent annealing at 500-700 degrees C in oxygen gas. The pyrochlore phase was found to be formed at 500 degrees C, and also found not to be transformed into the perovskite phase, even though annealing was performed at higher temperatures to 700 degrees C. Elementary distribution analysis of PZT-NTs embedded in PAM reveal that Pb diffusion from nanotubes into pore walls of PAM is one of the main reasons. By employing firstly an additional PbO coating on the pyrochlore nanotubes and then subsequent annealing at 700 degrees C, we have successfully achieved an almost pure perovskite phase in nanotubes. These results suggest that PbO acts as a Pb-compensation agent in the Pb- deficient PZT-NTs. Moreover, our method can be used in the synthesis of all metal-oxide materials, including volatile elements.

  12. Facile and eco-friendly fabrication of AgNPs coated silk for antibacterial and antioxidant textiles using honeysuckle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyang; Tang, Ren-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing trend towards the functionalization of silk through nanotechnology for the prevention of fiber damage from microbial attack and the enhancement of hygienic aspects. Considering sustainable development and environmental protection, the eco-friendly fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-modified silk using natural extracts has currently become a hot research area. This study presents a facile strategy for the fabrication of colorful and multifunctional silk fabric using biogenic AgNPs prepared by honeysuckle extract as natural reductant and stabilizing agents. The influences of pH and reactant concentrations on the AgNPs synthesis were investigated. The color characteristics and functionalities of AgNPs treated silk were evaluated. The results revealed that the particle size of AgNPs decreased with increasing pH. The diameter of AgNPs decreased with increasing amount of honeysuckle extract and reducing amount of silver nitrate. The transmission electron microscopy image showed that the AgNPs were spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution. The treated silk showed excellent antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus, and certain antioxidant activity. Both of the antibacterial and antioxidant activities were well maintained even after 30 washing cycles. This work provides a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to the fabrication of AgNPs coated silk for colorful and long-term multifunctional textiles using honeysuckle extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Corrugated grating on organic multilayer Bragg reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Sylvain; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2007-08-01

    Polymeric multilayer Bragg structures are combined with diffractive gratings to produce artificial visual color effects. A particular effect is expected due to the angular reflection dependence of the multilayer Bragg structure and the dispersion caused by the grating. The combined effects can also be used to design particular filter functions and various resonant structures. The multilayer Bragg structure is fabricated by spin-coating of two different low-cost polymer materials in solution on a cleaned glass substrate. These polymers have a refractive index difference of about 0.15 and permit multilayer coatings without interlayer problems. Master gratings of different periods are realized by laser beam interference and replicated gratings are superimposed on the multilayer structure by soft embossing in a UV curing glue. The fabrication process requires only polymer materials. The obtained devices are stable and robust. Angular dependent reflection spectrums for the visible are measured. These results show that it is possible to obtain unexpected reflection effects. A rich variety of color spectra can be generated, which is not possible with a single grating. This can be explained by the coupling of transmission of grating orders and the Bragg reflection band. A simple model permits to explain some of the spectral vs angular dependence of reflected light.

  14. Fabrication of mullite-bonded porous SiC ceramics from multilayer-coated SiC particles through sol-gel and in-situ polymerization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimpour, Omid

    In this work, mullite-bonded porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics were prepared via a reaction bonding technique with the assistance of a sol-gel technique or in-situ polymerization as well as a combination of these techniques. In a typical procedure, SiC particles were first coated by alumina using calcined powder and alumina sol via a sol-gel technique followed by drying and passing through a screen. Subsequently, they were coated with the desired amount of polyethylene via an in-situ polymerization technique in a slurry phase reactor using a Ziegler-Natta catalyst. Afterward, the coated powders were dried again and passed through a screen before being pressed into a rectangular mold to make a green body. During the heating process, the polyethylene was burnt out to form pores at a temperature of about 500°C. Increasing the temperature above 800°C led to the partial oxidation of SiC particles to silica. At higher temperatures (above 1400°C) derived silica reacted with alumina to form mullite, which bonds SiC particles together. The porous SiC specimens were characterized with various techniques. The first part of the project was devoted to investigating the oxidation of SiC particles using a Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus. The effects of particle size (micro and nano) and oxidation temperature (910°C--1010°C) as well as the initial mass of SiC particles in TGA on the oxidation behaviour of SiC powders were evaluated. To illustrate the oxidation rate of SiC in the packed bed state, a new kinetic model, which takes into account all of the diffusion steps (bulk, inter and intra particle diffusion) and surface oxidation rate, was proposed. Furthermore, the oxidation of SiC particles was analyzed by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. The effect of different alumina sources (calcined Al2O 3, alumina sol or a combination of the two) on the mechanical, physical, and crystalline structure of mullite-bonded porous SiC ceramics was studied in the

  15. Standard practice for qualification of journeyman painters for application of coatings to concrete surfaces of safety-related areas in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This practice provides a standard qualifying method for journeyman painters to verify their proficiency and ability to attain the required quality for application of specified coatings to concrete surfaces in safety-related areas in a nuclear facility. Variations or simplifications of the practice set forth herein may be appropriate for special coating work such as maintenance. It is not the intent of this practice to mandate a singular basis for all qualifications. Evaluation of the journeyman painter being qualified in accordance with this practice, shall be by qualified agents as specified in 4.1. Reports shall be prepared as specified in Section 5, and qualification as specified in Section 6. It is the intent of this practice to judge only the ability of the journeyman painter to apply specified coatings with the proper tools and equipment

  16. Standard practice for qualification of journeyman painters for application of coatings to steel surfaces of safety-related areas in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This practice provides a standard qualifying method for journeyman painters to verify their proficiency and ability to attain the required quality for application of specified coatings to steel surfaces in safety-related areas in a nuclear facility. Variations or simplifications of the practice set forth herein may be appropriate for special coating work such as maintenance or qualifications of equipment suppliers shop personnel. It is not the intent of this practice to mandate a singular basis for all qualifications. Evaluation of the journeyman painter being qualified in accordance with this practice, shall be by qualified agents as specified in 4.1. Reports shall be prepared as specified in Section 5, and certification as specified in Section 6. It is the intent of this practice to judge only the ability of the journeyman painter to apply specified coatings with the proper tools and equipment. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment

  17. Development of antireflection coatings with a sup 6 LiF/ sup 6 sup 2 Ni multilayer converter for ultracold neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Maier-Komor, P; Bergmaier, A; Dollinger, G; Paul, S; Schott, W

    2002-01-01

    High efficiency detectors for ultracold neutrons (UCN) are needed at the new high flux neutron source, Forschungsreaktor Muenchen II. In the development described, silicon PIN diodes were chosen to detect the alpha-particles or the tritons created in the reaction sup 6 Li(n,alpha)t. The high reflectance of UCN on sup 6 Li with its positive optical potential must be compensated by a material with negative optical potential. The isotope sup 6 sup 2 Ni was chosen for this. To avoid problems due to chemical reactions of Li with humidity, the compound sup 6 LiF was chosen. One hundred and fifty double layers of sup 6 LiF/ sup 6 sup 2 Ni had to be deposited by physical vapor deposition on silicon PIN diodes which had already been coated with 88 nm approx 77 mu g/cm sup 2 of sup 5 sup 8 Ni for reflection of the UCN. The theoretical optimal thickness of the sup 6 sup 2 Ni layers is 3 nm, and that of sup 6 LiF is 6 nm. Since expensive isotopes were involved, a small source-to-substrate distance had to be used, but wit...

  18. Influence of microstructure on laser damage threshold of IBS coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, C.J.; Genin, F.Y.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Long, D.; Lalazari, R.; Wu, Z.L.; Kuo, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-beam sputtering (IBS) coatings were developed for the laser gyro industry to meet significantly different requirements than those of fusion lasers. Laser gyro mirrors are small ( 26 J/cm 2 at 1,064 nm with 3-ns pulses). As part of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) coating development effort, IBS coatings are being studied to explore the possible benefits of this technology to NIF optics. As an initial step to achieving the NIF size and damage threshold requirements, the coating process is being scaled to uniformly coat a 20 x 40 cm 2 area with reduced spectral, reflected wavefront, and laser damage threshold requirements. Here, multilayer coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering with amorphous layers were found to have lower damage thresholds at 1,064 nm than similar coatings with crystalline layers. Interestingly, at higher fluences the damage was less severe for the amorphous coatings. The magnitude of the difference in damage thresholds between the two different microstructures was strongly influenced by the size of the tested area. To better understand the microstructure effects, single layers of HfO 2 with different microstructures were studied using transmission electron microscopy, ellipsometry, and a photothermal deflection technique. Since the laser damage initiated at defects, the influence of thermal diffusivity on thermal gradients in nodular defects is also presented

  19. Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikang Deng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model for calculating the Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers with a coating is proposed, and validated by a three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE model using ANSYS parametric design language (APDL and atomic force microscopy (AFM characterization. Compared with typical theoretical models (Rayleigh-Ritz model, Euler-Bernoulli (E-B beam model and spring mass model, the proposed theoretical model can obtain Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers more precisely. Also, the influences of coating’s geometric dimensions on Young’s modulus and resonant frequency of microcantilevers are discussed. The thickness of coating has a great influence on Young’s modulus and resonant frequency of multi-layer microcantilevers, and the coating should be considered to calculate Young’s modulus more precisely, especially when fairly thicker coating is employed.

  20. A facile electrode preparation method for accurate electrochemical measurements of double-side-coated electrode from commercial Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ge; Wang, Qiyu; Wang, Shuo; Ling, Shigang; Zheng, Jieyun; Yu, Xiqian; Li, Hong

    2018-04-01

    The post mortem electrochemical analysis, including charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, are critical steps for revealing the failure mechanisms of commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). These post measurements usually require the reassembling of coin-cell with electrode which is often double-side-coated in commercial LIBs. It is difficult to use such double-side-coated electrode to perform accurate electrochemical measurements because the back side of the electrode is coated with active materials, rather than single-side-coated electrode that is often used in coin-cell measurements. In this study, we report a facile tape-covering sample preparation method, which can effectively suppress the influence of back side of the double-side-coated electrodes on capacity and EIS measurements in coin-cells. By tape-covering the unwanted side, the areal capacity of the desired investigated side of the electrode has been accurately measured with an experimental error of about 0.5% at various current densities, and accurate EIS measurements and analysis have been conducted as well.

  1. Exposure to space radiation of high-performance infrared multilayer filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J. S.; Hawkins, G. J.; Hunneman, R.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Reading experiment exposed IR interference filters and crystal substrates on identical earth facing and leading-edge sites of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Filters mostly comprised multilayer coatings of lead telluride (PbTe)/II-IV on germanium (Ge) and other substrates: crystals comprised CdTe, MgF2, sapphire, quartz, silicon, and some softer materials. Identical control samples were maintained in the laboratory throughout the experiment. The filters were novel in their design, construction and manufacture, and categorized high-performance because of their ability to resolve emission spectra of the important atmospheric gases for various purposes in remote sensing. No significant changes were found in the spectra of the hard-coated filters or in the harder crystals (the softer materials were degraded to an extent). By virtue of this well-documented and long exposure in LDEF, the qualification of the filter type is significantly improved for its future requirements.

  2. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  3. Anhydrous polymer-based coating with sustainable controlled release functionality for facile, efficacious impregnation, and delivery of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kaiyang; Saravanan, Rathi; Chong, Kelvin K L; Goh, Sharon H M; Chua, Ray R Y; Tambyah, Paul A; Chang, Matthew W; Kline, Kimberly A; Leong, Susanna S J

    2018-04-17

    Anhydrous polymers are actively explored as alternative materials to overcome limitations of conventional hydrogel-based antibacterial coating. However, the requirement for strong organic solvent in polymerization reactions often necessitates extra protection steps for encapsulation of target biomolecules, lowering encapsulation efficiency, and increasing process complexity. This study reports a novel coating strategy that allows direct solvation and encapsulation of antimicrobial peptides (HHC36) into anhydrous polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer-based dual layer coating. A thin 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) film is layered onto the peptide-impregnated PCL as a diffusion barrier, to modulate and enhance release kinetics. The impregnated peptides are eventually released in a controlled fashion. The use of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), as polymerization and solvation medium, induces the impregnated peptides to adopt highly stable turned conformation, conserving peptide integrity, and functionality during both encapsulation and subsequent release processes. The dual layer coating showed sustained antibacterial functionality, lasting for 14 days. In vivo assessment using an experimental mouse wounding model demonstrated good biocompatibility and significant antimicrobial efficacy of the coating under physiological conditions. The coating was translated onto silicone urinary catheters and showed promising antibacterial efficacy, even outperforming commercial silver-based Dover cather. This anhydrous polymer-based platform holds immense potential as an effective antibacterial coating to prevent clinical device-associated infections. The simplicity of the coating process enhances its industrial viability. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Facile fabrication of core-shell Pr6O11-ZnO modified silane coatings for anti-corrosion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeva Jothi, K.; Palanivelu, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a facile and inexpensive method to fabricate anti-corrosive and hydrophobic surface with hierarchical micro and nano structures. We demonstrate for the first time the use of praseodymium oxide doped zinc oxide (Pr6O11-ZnO) nanocomposites loaded in a hybrid sol-gel (SiOx/ZrOx) layer, to effectively protect the underlying steel substrate from corrosion attack. The influence of Pr6O11-ZnO gives the surprising aspects based on active anti-corrosion and hydrophobic coatings. The spherical SiO2 particles have been successfully coated with Pr6O11-ZnO layer through sol-gel process. The resulted SiO2@Pr6O11-ZnO core-shell was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The barrier properties of the intact coatings were assessed by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The fabrication of SiO2@Pr6O11-ZnO shows dual properties of hydrophobic and anti-corrosion micro/nanostructured sol-gel coatings follows a single/simple step coating procedure. This study has led to a better understanding factor influencing the anti-corrosion performance with embedded nanocomposites. These developments are particularly for silane network@ Pr6O11-ZnO for self-healing and self-cleaning behavior which can be designed for new protective coating system.

  5. Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Yan, H.; Stephenson, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated partial Multilayer Laue Lens (MLL) linear zone plate structures with thousands of alternating WSi 2 and Si layers and various outermost zone widths according to the Fresnel zone plate formula. Using partial MLL structures, we were able to focus hard X-rays to line foci with a width of 30 nm and below. Here, we describe challenges and approaches used to bond these multilayers to achieve line and point focusing. Bonding was done by coating two multilayers with AuSn and heating in a vacuum oven at 280-300 o C. X-ray reflectivity measurements confirmed that there was no change in the multilayers after heating to 350 o C. A bonded MLL was polished to a 5-25 μm wedge without cracking. SEM image analyses found well-positioned multilayers after bonding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a bonded full MLL for focusing hard X-rays

  6. Latest Developments in PVD Coatings for Tooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Strnad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the recent developments in the field of PVD coating for manufacturing tools. A review of monoblock, multilayer, nanocomposite, DLC and oxinitride coatings is discussed, with the emphasis on coatings which enables the manufacturers to implement high productivity processes such as high speed cutting and dry speed machining.

  7. Durable Corrosion Resistance of Copper Due to Multi-Layer Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Tiwari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-thin graphene coating has been reported to provide considerable resistance against corrosion during short-term exposures, however, there is great variability in the corrosion resistance due to graphene coating in different studies. It may be possible to overcome the problem of hampered corrosion protection ability of graphene that is caused due to defective single layer graphene by applying multilayer graphene. Systematic electrochemical characterization showed that the multilayer graphene coating developed in the study provided significant corrosion resistance in a chloride solution and the corrosion resistance was sustained for long durations (~400 h, which is attributed to the multilayer graphene.

  8. Status and limitations of multilayer X-ray interference structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Trends in the performance of x-ray multilayer interference structures with periods ranging from 9 to 130 (angstrom) are reviewed. Analysis of near-normal incidence reflectance data vs photon energy reveals that the effective interface with σ in a static Debye-Waller model, describing interdiffusion and roughness, decreases as the multilayer period decreases, and reaches a lower limit of roughly 2 (angstrom). Specular reflectance and diffuse scattering from uncoated and multilayer-coated substrates having different roughness suggest that this lower limit results largely from substrate roughness. The increase in interface width with period thus results from increasing roughness of interdiffusion as the layer thickness increases

  9. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jasveer, E-mail: kaurjasveer89@gmail.com; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India); Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder, E-mail: raminder-k-saini@yahoo.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  10. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  11. Demonstration of Smart Fluorescent and Self-Healing Coatings for Severely Corrosive Environments at Vehicle Wash Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    as well as pipe and tank exteriors providing early detection of coating erosion, cracks , and intercoat blistering. A fluorescing coating used ERDC...poor with widespread areas of peeling and cracking on the exterior siding. Areas of exposed galvanizing were rusting. Structural steel elements...and application of TT-P-86 Type 2 red lead paint and red and white colored alkyd enamel topcoats. The average dry film thickness on the exterior

  12. Spectral tailoring of nanoscale EUV and soft x-ray multilayer optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiushi; Medvedev, Viacheslav; van de Kruijs, Robbert; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Fred

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray (XUV) multilayer optics have experienced significant development over the past few years, particularly on controlling the spectral characteristics of light for advanced applications like EUV photolithography, space observation, and accelerator- or lab-based XUV experiments. Both planar and three dimensional multilayer structures have been developed to tailor the spectral response in a wide wavelength range. For the planar multilayer optics, different layered schemes are explored. Stacks of periodic multilayers and capping layers are demonstrated to achieve multi-channel reflection or suppression of the reflective properties. Aperiodic multilayer structures enable broadband reflection both in angles and wavelengths, with the possibility of polarization control. The broad wavelength band multilayer is also used to shape attosecond pulses for the study of ultrafast phenomena. Narrowband multilayer monochromators are delivered to bridge the resolution gap between crystals and regular multilayers. High spectral purity multilayers with innovated anti-reflection structures are shown to select spectrally clean XUV radiation from broadband X-ray sources, especially the plasma sources for EUV lithography. Significant progress is also made in the three dimensional multilayer optics, i.e., combining micro- and nanostructures with multilayers, in order to provide new freedom to tune the spectral response. Several kinds of multilayer gratings, including multilayer coated gratings, sliced multilayer gratings, and lamellar multilayer gratings are being pursued for high resolution and high efficiency XUV spectrometers/monochromators, with their advantages and disadvantages, respectively. Multilayer diffraction optics are also developed for spectral purity enhancement. New structures like gratings, zone plates, and pyramids that obtain full suppression of the unwanted radiation and high XUV reflectance are reviewed. Based on the present achievement

  13. Development of multilayer coatings for mechanical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Portinha, Aníbal Jorge Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências (Especialidade em Física) Este trabalho consiste essencialmente no desenvolvimento, produção e caracterização de revestimentos para aplicações mecânicas de alta temperatura. Desta forma desenvolveram-se novos revestimentos nanoestructurados, nanolaminados, multicamada e graduados à base de zirconia (ZrO2) parcial e totalmente estabilizada para protecção de componentes metálicos que operam a alta temperatura, tais como em turbinas a gás de ...

  14. Grazing incidence Fe-line telescopes using W/B4C multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Gorenstein, P.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1995-01-01

    The loss of throughput observed at higher energies for traditional grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes coated with high-Z elements can be partly countered by employing multilayers on the outermost reflectors. Using 8-keV reflectivity data from a periodic W/B4C multilayer, the expected performance...

  15. Fabrication of anticorrosive multilayer onto magnesium alloy substrates via spin-assisted layer-by-layer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Kaiyong, E-mail: Kaiyong_cai@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Sui Xiaojing; Hu Yan [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhao Li [China National Centre for Biotechnology Development, No. 16, Xi Si Huan Zhong Lu, Haidian District, Beijing 100036 (China); Lai Min; Luo Zhong; Liu Peng; Yang Weihu [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2011-12-01

    To improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy, we reported a novel approach for the fabrication of anticorrosive multilayers onto AZ91D substrates. The multilayers were composed of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ). They were deposited onto AZ91D substrates via a spin-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The multilayered structure was stabilized with glutaraldehyde (GA) as crossing linker. It was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Surface morphologies and elemental compositions of the formed anticorrosive multilayers were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The corrosion performance of the multilayer coated AZ91D substrates was characterized by hydrogen evolution. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements suggested that the multilayered coating improved the corrosion resistance of AZ91D substrates. In vitro study revealed that the multilayered coating was cytocompatible. The study provides a potential alternative for the fabrication of corrosion resistant magnesium alloy-based implants. Highlights: {yields} Corrosion protective multilayers have been constructed onto AZ91D substrates via layer by layer technique. {yields} The multilayered structured containing 8-hydroxyquinoline highly improves the corrosion resistance of AZ91D substrates. {yields} The novel multilayered coating is potentially important for developing corrosion resistant magnesium alloy-based implants.

  16. Fabrication of anticorrosive multilayer onto magnesium alloy substrates via spin-assisted layer-by-layer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Kaiyong; Sui Xiaojing; Hu Yan; Zhao Li; Lai Min; Luo Zhong; Liu Peng; Yang Weihu

    2011-01-01

    To improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy, we reported a novel approach for the fabrication of anticorrosive multilayers onto AZ91D substrates. The multilayers were composed of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ). They were deposited onto AZ91D substrates via a spin-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The multilayered structure was stabilized with glutaraldehyde (GA) as crossing linker. It was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Surface morphologies and elemental compositions of the formed anticorrosive multilayers were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The corrosion performance of the multilayer coated AZ91D substrates was characterized by hydrogen evolution. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements suggested that the multilayered coating improved the corrosion resistance of AZ91D substrates. In vitro study revealed that the multilayered coating was cytocompatible. The study provides a potential alternative for the fabrication of corrosion resistant magnesium alloy-based implants. Highlights: → Corrosion protective multilayers have been constructed onto AZ91D substrates via layer by layer technique. → The multilayered structured containing 8-hydroxyquinoline highly improves the corrosion resistance of AZ91D substrates. → The novel multilayered coating is potentially important for developing corrosion resistant magnesium alloy-based implants.

  17. Facile and Low-Temperature Fabrication of Thermochromic Cr2O3/VO2 Smart Coatings: Enhanced Solar Modulation Ability, High Luminous Transmittance and UV-Shielding Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianci; Cao, Xun; Li, Ning; Long, Shiwei; Gao, Xiang; Dedon, Liv R; Sun, Guangyao; Luo, Hongjie; Jin, Ping

    2017-08-09

    In the pursuit of energy efficient materials, vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) based smart coatings have gained much attention in recent years. For smart window applications, VO 2 thin films should be fabricated at low temperature to reduce the cost in commercial fabrication and solve compatibility problems. Meanwhile, thermochromic performance with high luminous transmittance and solar modulation ability, as well as effective UV shielding function has become the most important developing strategy for ideal smart windows. In this work, facile Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 bilayer coatings on quartz glasses were designed and fabricated by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures ranging from 250 to 350 °C as compared with typical high growth temperatures (>450 °C). The bottom Cr 2 O 3 layer not only provides a structural template for the growth of VO 2 (R), but also serves as an antireflection layer for improving the luminous transmittance. It was found that the deposition of Cr 2 O 3 layer resulted in a dramatic enhancement of the solar modulation ability (56.4%) and improvement of luminous transmittance (26.4%) when compared to single-layer VO 2 coating. According to optical measurements, the Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 bilayer structure exhibits excellent optical performances with an enhanced solar modulation ability (ΔT sol = 12.2%) and a high luminous transmittance (T lum,lt = 46.0%), which makes a good balance between ΔT sol and T lum for smart windows applications. As for UV-shielding properties, more than 95.8% UV radiation (250-400 nm) can be blocked out by the Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 structure. In addition, the visualized energy-efficient effect was modeled by heating a beaker of water using infrared imaging method with/without a Cr 2 O 3 /VO 2 coating glass.

  18. Multilayer Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiana, Michael; Muldoon, Sarah Feldt

    2018-01-01

    The field of neuroscience is facing an unprecedented expanse in the volume and diversity of available data. Traditionally, network models have provided key insights into the structure and function of the brain. With the advent of big data in neuroscience, both more sophisticated models capable of characterizing the increasing complexity of the data and novel methods of quantitative analysis are needed. Recently, multilayer networks, a mathematical extension of traditional networks, have gained increasing popularity in neuroscience due to their ability to capture the full information of multi-model, multi-scale, spatiotemporal data sets. Here, we review multilayer networks and their applications in neuroscience, showing how incorporating the multilayer framework into network neuroscience analysis has uncovered previously hidden features of brain networks. We specifically highlight the use of multilayer networks to model disease, structure-function relationships, network evolution, and link multi-scale data. Finally, we close with a discussion of promising new directions of multilayer network neuroscience research and propose a modified definition of multilayer networks designed to unite and clarify the use of the multilayer formalism in describing real-world systems.

  19. Interfacial effects in multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general

  20. A facile dip-coating process for preparing highly durable superhydrophobic surface with multi-scale structures on paint films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhe; Yin, Long; Wang, Qingjun; Ding, Jianfu; Chen, Qingmin

    2009-09-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with multi-scale nano/microstructures have been prepared on epoxy paint surfaces using a feasible dip-coating process. The microstructures with 5-10 microm protuberances were first prepared on epoxy paint surface by sandblast. Then the nanostructures were introduced on the microstructure surface by anchoring 50-100 nm SiO(2) particles (nano-SiO(2)) onto the sandblasted paint surface, which was completed by dip-coating with a nano-SiO(2)/epoxy adhesive solution (M1). At last the surface was further modified for enhancing hydrophobicity by another dip-coating with a solution of a low surface energy polymer, aminopropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (ATPS) modified epoxy adhesive (M2). The water contact angle of the as-prepared samples reached as high as 167.8 degrees and the sliding angle was 7 degrees. The prepared superhydrophobic surface exhibited excellent durability to the high speed scouring test and high stability in neutral and basic aqueous solutions and some common organic solvents. In addition, this method can be adopted to fabricate large scale samples with a good homogeneity of the whole surface at very low cost.

  1. Photo-crosslinkable polymers for fabrication of photonic multilayer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappelli, Maria; Hayward, Ryan C.

    2013-03-01

    We have used photo-crosslinkable polymers to fabricate photonic multilayer sensors. Benzophenone is utilized as a covalently incorporated pendent photo-crosslinker, providing a convenient means of fabricating multilayer films by sequential spin-coating and crosslinking processes. Colorimetric temperature sensors were designed from thermally-responsive, low-refractive index poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and high-refractive index poly(para-methyl styrene) (P pMS). Copolymer chemistries and layer thicknesses were selected to provide robust multilayer sensors which show color changes across nearly the full visible spectrum due to changes in temperature of the hydrated film stack. We have characterized the uniformity and interfacial broadening within the multilayers, the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling, and the reversibility over multiple hydration/dehydration cycles. We also describe how the approach can be extended to alternative sensor designs through the ability to tailor each layer independently, as well as to additional stimuli by selecting alternative copolymer chemistries.

  2. Wedged multilayer Laue lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, Ray; Liu Chian; Qian Jun; Kewish, Cameron M.; Macrander, Albert T.; Yan Hanfei; Maser, Joerg; Kang, Hyon Chol; Stephenson, G. Brian

    2008-01-01

    A multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is an x-ray focusing optic fabricated from a multilayer structure consisting of thousands of layers of two different materials produced by thin-film deposition. The sequence of layer thicknesses is controlled to satisfy the Fresnel zone plate law and the multilayer is sectioned to form the optic. An improved MLL geometry can be created by growing each layer with an in-plane thickness gradient to form a wedge, so that every interface makes the correct angle with the incident beam for symmetric Bragg diffraction. The ultimate hard x-ray focusing performance of a wedged MLL has been predicted to be significantly better than that of a nonwedged MLL, giving subnanometer resolution with high efficiency. Here, we describe a method to deposit the multilayer structure needed for an ideal wedged MLL and report our initial deposition results to produce these structures

  3. Infrared diffractive filtering for extreme ultraviolet multilayer Bragg reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedev, Viacheslav; van den Boogaard, Toine; van der Meer, R.; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Krivtsun, V.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We report on the development of a hybrid mirror realized by integrating an EUV-reflecting multilayer coating with a lamellar grating substrate. This hybrid irror acts as an efficient Bragg reflector for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation at a given wavelength while simultaneously

  4. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  5. Multilayer heterostructures and their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott R; Reese, Matthew; Rupert, Benjamin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Clavin; Olson, Dana; Ginley, David S

    2015-11-04

    A method of synthesizing multilayer heterostructures including an inorganic oxide layer residing on a solid substrate is described. Exemplary embodiments include producing an inorganic oxide layer on a solid substrate by a liquid coating process under relatively mild conditions. The relatively mild conditions include temperatures below 225.degree. C. and pressures above 9.4 mb. In an exemplary embodiment, a solution of diethyl aluminum ethoxide in anhydrous diglyme is applied to a flexible solid substrate by slot-die coating at ambient atmospheric pressure, and the diglyme removed by evaporation. An AlO.sub.x layer is formed by subjecting material remaining on the solid substrate to a relatively mild oven temperature of approximately 150.degree. C. The resulting AlO.sub.x layer exhibits relatively high light transmittance and relatively low vapor transmission rates for water. An exemplary embodiment of a flexible solid substrate is polyethylene napthalate (PEN). The PEN is not substantially adversely affected by exposure to 150.degree. C

  6. A facile method for the preparation of Covalent Triazine Framework coated monoliths as catalyst support - applications in C1 catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bavykina, Anastasiya V.

    2017-07-17

    A quasi Chemical Vapour Deposition method for the manufacturing of well-defined Covalent Triazine Framework (CTF) coatings on cordierite monoliths is reported. The resulting supported porous organic polymer is an excellent support for the immobilisation of two different homogeneous catalysts: 1) an IrIIICp*-based catalyst for the hydrogen production from formic acid, and 2) a PtII-based for the direct activation of methane via Periana chemistry. The immobilised catalysts display a much higher activity in comparison with the unsupported CTF operated in slurry because of improved mass transport. Our results demonstrate that CTF based catalysts can be further optimised by engineering at different length-scales.

  7. A facile method for the preparation of Covalent Triazine Framework coated monoliths as catalyst support - applications in C1 catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bavykina, Anastasiya V.; Olivos Suarez, Alma Itzel; Osadchii, Dmitrii; Valecha, Rahul; Franz, Robert; Makkee, Michiel; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    A quasi Chemical Vapour Deposition method for the manufacturing of well-defined Covalent Triazine Framework (CTF) coatings on cordierite monoliths is reported. The resulting supported porous organic polymer is an excellent support for the immobilisation of two different homogeneous catalysts: 1) an IrIIICp*-based catalyst for the hydrogen production from formic acid, and 2) a PtII-based for the direct activation of methane via Periana chemistry. The immobilised catalysts display a much higher activity in comparison with the unsupported CTF operated in slurry because of improved mass transport. Our results demonstrate that CTF based catalysts can be further optimised by engineering at different length-scales.

  8. Facile synthesis of gold coated copper(II) hydroxide pine-needle-like micro/nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kailin; Du, Deyang; Luo, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Weiwei; Wu, Zhangting; Si, Lifang; Qiu, Teng

    2014-08-01

    This work reports a facile method to fabricate gold coated copper(II) hydroxide pine-needle-like micro/nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) application. The effects of reaction parameters on the shape, size and surface morphology of the products are systematically investigated. The as-prepared 3D hierarchical structures have the advantage of a large surface area available for the formation of hot spots and the adsorption of target analytes, thus dramatically improving the Raman signals. The finite difference time domain calculations indicate that the pine-needle-like model pattern may demonstrate a high quality SERS property owing to the high density and abundant hot spot characteristic in closely spaced needle-like arms.

  9. Facile Synthesis of Carbon-Coated Zn2SnO4 Nanomaterials as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxu Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-coated Zn2SnO4 nanomaterials have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in which as-prepared Zn2SnO4 was used as the precursor and glucose as the carbon source. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and electrochemical measurement. The first discharge/charge capacity of carbon-coated Zn2SnO4 was about 1248.8 mAh/g and 873.2 mAh/g at a current density of 200 mA/g in the voltage range of 0.05 V–3.0 V, respectively, corresponding to Coulombic efficiency of 69.92%. After 40 cycles, the capacity retained 400 mAh/g, which is much better than bare Zn2SnO4.

  10. A facile method for synthesis of graphene-coated hexagonal ZnO photocatalyst with enhanced photodegradation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Zhang, Yuzhi

    2017-12-01

    A kind of hexagonal ZnO (HZO) was synthesized in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)/H2O mixed solvent for a high exposure of polar ±(0001) facets to get a high-efficiency photocatalyst. The amine-functionalized HZO particles were coated with graphene oxide (GO) by electrostatic force-induced self-assemby and thermal reduction to form HZO@Gr core/shell structure. The as-prepared HZO and HZO@Gr were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis/DRS). The results indicate that the graphene on HZO@Gr remains high quality and the optical properties of the composite change a lot with sunlight absorption improving, bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) intensity decreasing. The obtained HZO photocatalyst shows good photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) under UV-visible irradiation. Furthermore, the HZO@Gr photocatalyst exhibits the best photodegradation rate of MB reaching up to 98.2% within 50 minutes. The graphene-coated HZO structure could offer new directions which would further extend the scope for synthesis of various ZnO/graphene composites with improved properties useful for various applications.

  11. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-01-01

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin

  12. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troussel, Ph., E-mail: philippe.troussel@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Dennetiere, D. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’orme des Merisiers, 91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Maroni, R. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S. [Xenocs SA, 19, rue François Blumet, F-38360 Sassenage (France); Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-11

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  13. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-12-01

    The "Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives" (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  14. A novel multilayer model with controllable mechanical properties for magnesium-based bone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juncen; Huang, Wanru; Li, Qing; She, Zuxin; Chen, Funan; Li, Longqin

    2015-04-01

    Proper mechanical properties are essential for the clinical application of magnesium-based implants. In the present work, a novel multilayer model composed of three layers with desirable features was developed. The modulus of the multilayer model can be adjusted by changing the thickness of each layer. To combine three layers and improve the corrosion resistance of the whole multilayer model, the polycaprolactone coating was employed. In the immersion test, pH values, the concentration of released magnesium ions, and weight loss indicate that the corrosion rate of multilayer models is considerable lower than that of the one-layer bare substrate. The three-point bending test, which is used to examine models' mechanical properties, shows that the flexural modulus of multilayer models is reduced effectively. In addition, the mechanical degradation of multilayer models is more stable, compared to the one-layer substrate.

  15. Facile preparation of polyethylenimine-tannins coated SiO2 hybrid materials for Cu2+ removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Zhao, Jiao; Chen, Junyu; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Hongye; Tian, Jianwen; Wen, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2018-01-01

    Polyethylenimine-tannins coated SiO2 (SiO2@PEI-TA) hybrid materials have been prepared via a single-step multifunctional coating with polyethylenimine (PEI) and tannins (TA), and characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as-prepared SiO2@PEI-TA composites were examined as adsorbents to remove the Cu2+ from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial Cu2+ concentration, solution pH and temperature, on Cu2+ adsorption have been investigated. The results show that the adsorption of Cu2+ onto SiO2@PEI-TA is dependent on the contact time, Cu2+ concentration, pH and temperature. The SiO2@PEI-TA composites show a 2.4-fold increase in adsorption capacity, implying that the introduction of PEI-TA coating is in favor of the Cu2+ adsorption. Based on the analysis of kinetic data, the kinetics of Cu2+ adsorption is more accurately described by the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium data are analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Results of isotherms show that the better agreement is Freundlich isotherm model with correlation coefficient of 0.9914, which suggests that the adsorption of Cu2+ onto SiO2@PEI-TA is mainly a heterogeneous adsorption process. Thermodynamic analyses show that the adsorption interaction is actually a spontaneous and endothermic chemical process, which might involve the chemical chelation between Cu2+ and functional groups (amine and carboxyl groups) on the surface of SiO2@PEI-TA. In addition, the Cu2+ ions could desorb from SiO2@PEI-TA by using acid solution and the adsorption efficiency remains at high level after five adsorption-desorption recycles. These results provide potential applications of these novel adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal Cu2+ from aqueous solution and also provide strong evidence to support the adsorption mechanism proposed in the study.

  16. The Impedance of Multi-layer Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, L

    2003-01-01

    Many components of the LHC vacuum chamber have multi-layered walls : the copper coated cold beam screen, the titanium coated ceramic chamber of the dump kickers, the ceramic chamber of the injection kickers coated with copper stripes, only to name a few. Theories and computer programs are available for some time already to evaluate the impedance of these elements. Nevertheless, the algorithm developed in this paper is more convenient in its application and has been used extensively in the design phase of multi-layer LHC vacuum chamber elements. It is based on classical transmission line theory. Closed expressions are derived for simple layer configurations, while beam pipes involving many layers demand a chain calculation. The algorithm has been tested with a number of published examples and was verified with experimental data as well.

  17. Operation and experience of a 2 km coated conductor REEL – to – REEL copper pulse plating facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floegel-Delor, U; Riedel, T; Wippich, D; Rothfeld, R; Schirrmeister, P; Koenig, R; Werfel, F N; Usoskin, A; Rutt, A

    2014-01-01

    Bruker HTS manufactures YBCO based superconducting wires of the second generation on low- cost Stainless Steel substrate (100 μm thick). With 250 – 500 A/cm@77 K, SF, 650 MPa tensile strength and 6 mm bending radius excellent electrical and mechanical properties are achieved. As complementation of the 2G fabrication technology an automated 2 km copper pulse plating facility has been installed in 2012. We report here the operation requirements and the experiences of the copper plating technique.

  18. Controlling light with plasmonic multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Iorsh, Ivan V.

    2014-01-01

    metamaterials and describe their use for light manipulation at the nanoscale. While demonstrating the recently emphasized hallmark effect of hyperbolic dispersion, we put special emphasis to the comparison between multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials and more broadly defined plasmonic-multilayer metamaterials...

  19. Facile Fabrication and Characterization of a PDMS-Derived Candle Soot Coated Stable Biocompatible Superhydrophobic and Superhemophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, R; Majhy, B; Sen, A K

    2017-09-13

    We report a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and one-step method for the fabrication of a stable and biocompatible superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface. The proposed surface comprises candle soot particles embedded in a mixture of PDMS+n-hexane serving as the base material. The mechanism responsible for the superhydrophobic behavior of the surface is explained, and the surface is characterized based on its morphology and elemental composition, wetting properties, mechanical and chemical stability, and biocompatibility. The effect of %n-hexane in PDMS, the thickness of the PDMS+n-hexane layer (in terms of spin coating speed) and sooting time on the wetting property of the surface is studied. The proposed surface exhibits nanoscale surface asperities (average roughness of 187 nm), chemical compositions of soot particles, very high water and blood repellency along with excellent mechanical and chemical stability and excellent biocompatibility against blood sample and biological cells. The water contact angle and roll-off angle is measured as 160° ± 1° and 2°, respectively, and the blood contact angle is found to be 154° ± 1°, which indicates that the surface is superhydrophobic and superhemophobic. The proposed superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface offers significantly improved (>40%) cell viability as compared to glass and PDMS surfaces.

  20. Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachev, S A; Chkhalo, N I; Kuzin, S V; Pariev, D E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Shestov, S V; Zuev, S Y

    2016-03-20

    We provide an analysis of contemporary multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar astronomy in the wavelength ranges: λ=12.9-13.3  nm, λ=17-21  nm, λ=28-33  nm, and λ=58.4  nm. We found new material pairs, which will make new spaceborne experiments possible due to the high reflection efficiencies, spectral resolution, and long-term stabilities of the proposed multilayer coatings. In the spectral range λ=13  nm, Mo/Be multilayer mirrors were shown to demonstrate a better ratio of reflection efficiency and spectral resolution compared with the commonly used Mo/Si. In the spectral range λ=17-21  nm, a new multilayer structure Al/Si was proposed, which had higher spectral resolution along with comparable reflection efficiency compared with the commonly used Al/Zr multilayer structures. In the spectral range λ=30  nm, the Si/B4C/Mg/Cr multilayer structure turned out to best obey reflection efficiency and long-term stability. The B4C and Cr layers prevented mutual diffusion of the Si and Mg layers. For the spectral range λ=58  nm, a new multilayer Mo/Mg-based structure was developed; its reflection efficiency and long-term stability have been analyzed. We also investigated intrinsic stresses inherent for most of the multilayer structures and proposed possibilities for stress elimination.

  1. Facile functionalized of SBA-15 via a biomimetic coating and its application in efficient removal of uranium ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jun-Kai [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Hou, Li-An; Zhang, Guang-Hui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gu, Ping, E-mail: guping@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Dopamine-functionalized SBA-15 (DMS) was developed via a biomimetic coating. • The modification approach was simple, facile and cost-effective. • The DMS was firstly used to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution. • Large adsorption capacity and rapid separation were obtained. - Abstract: A novel dopamine-functionalized mesoporous silica (DMS), synthesized by grafting dopamine onto a mesoporous molecular sieve (SBA-15), was developed as a sorbent to extract U(VI) from aqueous solution. The method used to modify SBA-15 was simple, facile and cost-effective. The DMS was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and BET, showing that the material had an ordered mesoporous structure and a large surface area. The effect of contact time, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and solid–liquid ratio on the sorption process was investigated. It was demonstrated that the adsorption of U(VI) by DMS was fast and that it can be described by the pseudo-second order-equation where the equilibrium time was 20 min. Additionally, the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well by the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of DMS of 196 mg/g at pH 6.0. Furthermore, the influence of the K{sup +} and Na{sup +} concentrations and solid-to-liquid ratio on the sorption was very weak, and the values of the thermodynamic parameters revealed that the sorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. All the results suggested that the DMS could be used as an excellent adsorbent to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  2. Enhancement of surface mechanical properties by using TiN[BCN/BN]{sub n}/c-BN multilayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, H. [Laboratorio de Recubrimientos Duros, CDT-ASTIN SENA, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, J.C., E-mail: Jcesarca@calima.univalle.edu.co [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Amaya, C. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Munoz-Saldana, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Mexico (Mexico); Yate, L.; Esteve, J. [Department de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Prieto, P. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, CENM, Cali (Colombia)

    2010-11-15

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel substrates by using a TiN[BCN/BN]{sub n}/c-BN multilayer system as a protective coating. TiN[BCN/BN]{sub n}/c-BN multilayered coatings via reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering technique were grown, systematically varying the length period ({Lambda}) and the number of bilayers (n) because one bilayer (n = 1) represents two different layers (t{sub BCN} + t{sub BN}), thus the total thickness of the coating and all other growth parameters were maintained constant. The coatings were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showing bands associated with h-BN bonds and c-BN stretching vibrations centered at 1400 cm{sup -1} and 1100 cm{sup -1}, respectively. Coating composition and multilayer modulation were studied via secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed a reduction in grain size and roughness when the bilayer number (n) increased and the bilayer period decreased. Finally, enhancement of mechanical properties was determined via nanoindentation measurements. The best behavior was obtained when the bilayer period ({Lambda}) was 80 nm (n = 25), yielding the relative highest hardness ({approx}30 GPa) and elastic modulus (230 GPa). The values for the hardness and elastic modulus are 1.5 and 1.7 times greater than the coating with n = 1, respectively. The enhancement effects in multilayered coatings could be attributed to different mechanisms for layer formation with nanometric thickness due to the Hall-Petch effect; because this effect, originally used to explain increased hardness with decreasing grain size in bulk polycrystalline metals, has also been used to explain hardness enhancements in multilayered coatings taking into account the thickness reduction at individual single layers that make up the multilayered system. The Hall-Petch model based on dislocation motion within layered and across layer interfaces has been successfully applied to

  3. Enhancement of surface mechanical properties by using TiN[BCN/BN] n/c-BN multilayer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, H.; Caicedo, J. C.; Amaya, C.; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.; Yate, L.; Esteve, J.; Prieto, P.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel substrates by using a TiN[BCN/BN] n/c-BN multilayer system as a protective coating. TiN[BCN/BN] n/c-BN multilayered coatings via reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering technique were grown, systematically varying the length period ( Λ) and the number of bilayers ( n) because one bilayer ( n = 1) represents two different layers ( tBCN + tBN), thus the total thickness of the coating and all other growth parameters were maintained constant. The coatings were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showing bands associated with h-BN bonds and c-BN stretching vibrations centered at 1400 cm -1 and 1100 cm -1, respectively. Coating composition and multilayer modulation were studied via secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed a reduction in grain size and roughness when the bilayer number ( n) increased and the bilayer period decreased. Finally, enhancement of mechanical properties was determined via nanoindentation measurements. The best behavior was obtained when the bilayer period ( Λ) was 80 nm ( n = 25), yielding the relative highest hardness (˜30 GPa) and elastic modulus (230 GPa). The values for the hardness and elastic modulus are 1.5 and 1.7 times greater than the coating with n = 1, respectively. The enhancement effects in multilayered coatings could be attributed to different mechanisms for layer formation with nanometric thickness due to the Hall-Petch effect; because this effect, originally used to explain increased hardness with decreasing grain size in bulk polycrystalline metals, has also been used to explain hardness enhancements in multilayered coatings taking into account the thickness reduction at individual single layers that make up the multilayered system. The Hall-Petch model based on dislocation motion within layered and across layer interfaces has been successfully applied to multilayered coatings to explain this

  4. Enhancement of surface mechanical properties by using TiN[BCN/BN]n/c-BN multilayer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, H.; Caicedo, J.C.; Amaya, C.; Munoz-Saldana, J.; Yate, L.; Esteve, J.; Prieto, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the mechanical properties of AISI 4140 steel substrates by using a TiN[BCN/BN] n /c-BN multilayer system as a protective coating. TiN[BCN/BN] n /c-BN multilayered coatings via reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering technique were grown, systematically varying the length period (Λ) and the number of bilayers (n) because one bilayer (n = 1) represents two different layers (t BCN + t BN ), thus the total thickness of the coating and all other growth parameters were maintained constant. The coatings were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showing bands associated with h-BN bonds and c-BN stretching vibrations centered at 1400 cm -1 and 1100 cm -1 , respectively. Coating composition and multilayer modulation were studied via secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed a reduction in grain size and roughness when the bilayer number (n) increased and the bilayer period decreased. Finally, enhancement of mechanical properties was determined via nanoindentation measurements. The best behavior was obtained when the bilayer period (Λ) was 80 nm (n = 25), yielding the relative highest hardness (∼30 GPa) and elastic modulus (230 GPa). The values for the hardness and elastic modulus are 1.5 and 1.7 times greater than the coating with n = 1, respectively. The enhancement effects in multilayered coatings could be attributed to different mechanisms for layer formation with nanometric thickness due to the Hall-Petch effect; because this effect, originally used to explain increased hardness with decreasing grain size in bulk polycrystalline metals, has also been used to explain hardness enhancements in multilayered coatings taking into account the thickness reduction at individual single layers that make up the multilayered system. The Hall-Petch model based on dislocation motion within layered and across layer interfaces has been successfully applied to multilayered coatings to explain this

  5. Biocolloids with ordered urease multilayer shells as enzymatic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvov, Y; Caruso, F

    2001-09-01

    The preparation of biocolloids with organized enzyme-containing multilayer shells for exploitation as colloidal enzymatic nanoreactors is described. Urease multilayers were assembled onto submicrometer-sized polystyrene spheres by the sequential adsorption of urease and polyelectrolyte, in a predetermined order, utilizing electrostatic interactions for layer growth. The catalytic activity of the biocolloids increased proportionally with the number of urease layers deposited on the particles, demonstrating that biocolloid particles with tailored enzymatic activities can be produced. It was further found that precoating the latex spheres with nanoparticles (40-nm silica or 12-nm magnetite) enhanced both the stability (with respect to adsorption) and enzymatic activity of the urease multilayers. The presence of the magnetite nanoparticle coating also provided a magnetic function that allowed the biocolloids to be easily and rapidly separated with a permanent magnet. The fabrication of such colloids opens new avenues for the application of bioparticles and represents a promising route for the creation of complex catalytic particles.

  6. The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Biancarosa, J.; Shen, Q.; Boas, L.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The NSLS-II(1) program has a requirement for an unprecedented level of x-ray nanofocusing and has selected the wedged multilayer Laue lens(2,3) (MLL) as the optic of choice to meet this goal. In order to fabricate the MLL a deposition system is required that is capable of depositing depth-graded and laterally-graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, with total film growth in one run up to 100 m thick or greater. This machine design expounds on the positive features of a rotary deposition system(4) constructed previously for MLLs and will contain multiple stationary, horizontally-oriented magnetron sources where a transport will move a substrate back and forth in a linear fashion over shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating.

  7. Modeling Macroscopic Shape Distortions during Sintering of Multi-layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye

    as to help achieve defect free multi-layer components. The initial thickness ratio between the layers making the multi-layer has also significant effect on the extent of camber evolution depending on the material systems. During sintering of tubular bi-layer structures, tangential (hoop) stresses are very...... large compared to radial stresses. The maximum value of hoop stress, which can generate processing defects such as cracks and coating peel-offs, occurs at the beginning of the sintering cycle. Unlike most of the models defining material properties based on porosity and grain size only, the multi...... (firing). However, unintended features like shape instabilities of samples, cracks or delamination of layers may arise during sintering of multi-layer composites. Among these defects, macroscopic shape distortions in the samples can cause problems in the assembly or performance of the final component...

  8. Facile dip coating processed 3D MnO2-graphene nanosheets/MWNT-Ni foam composites for electrochemical supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Shuying; Cheng, Kui; Ouyang, Tian; Gao, Yinyi; Ye, Ke; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2017-01-01

    Carbon materials, especially graphene nanosheets (GNS) and/or multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT), have been widely used as electrode materials for supercapacitor due to their advantages of higher specific surface area and electronic conductivity, but the relatively low specific capacitance thus results in low energy density hindering their large applications. On the contrary, MnO 2 exhibits higher energy density but poor electrical conductivity. In order to obtain high performance supercapacitor electrode, here, combining the advantages of these materials, we have designed a facile two-step strategy to prepare 3D MnO 2 -GNS-MWNT-Ni foam (MnO 2 -GM-Ni) electrode. First, GNS and MWNT is wrapped on the surface of Ni foam (GM-Ni) via a “dip & dry” method by using an organic dye as a co-dispersant. Then, by using this 3D GM-Ni as substrate, MnO 2 nanoflakes are in-situ supporting on the surface of GNS and MWNT through a hydrothermal reaction. The specific capacitances of MnO 2 -GM-Ni electrode reach as high as 470.5 F g −1 at 1 A g −1 . Furthermore, we have successfully fabricated an asymmetric supercapacitor with MnO 2 -GM-Ni and GM-Ni as the positive and negative electrodes, respectively. The MnO 2 -GM-Ni//GM-Ni asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 35.3 Wh kg −1 at a power density of 426 W kg −1 and also a favorable cycling performance that 83.8% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. These results show manageable and high-performance which offer promising future for practical applications.

  9. Azide photochemistry for facile modification of graphitic surfaces: preparation of DNA-coated carbon nanotubes for biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, Minoo J; Yang Wenrong; Bojarski, Barbara; Gengenbach, Thomas R; Gao Mei; Zareie, Hadi; McCall, Maxine J

    2012-01-01

    A facile, two-step method for chemically attaching single-stranded DNA to graphitic surfaces, represented here by carbon nanotubes, is reported. In the first step, an azide-containing compound, N-5-azido-nitrobenzoyloxy succinimide (ANB-NOS), is used to form photo-adducts on the graphitic surfaces in a solid-state photochemical reaction, resulting in active ester groups being oriented for the subsequent reactions. In the second step, pre-synthesized DNA strands bearing a terminal amine group are coupled in an aqueous solution with the active esters on the photo-adducts. The versatility of the method is demonstrated by attaching pre-synthesized DNA to surfaces of carbon nanotubes in two platforms—as vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a solid support and as tangled single-walled carbon nanotubes in mats. The reaction products at various stages were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two different assays were used to check that the DNA strands attached to the carbon nanotubes were able to bind their partner strands with complementary base sequences. The first assay, using partner DNA strands tethered to gold nanoparticles, enabled the sites of DNA attachment to the carbon nanotubes to be identified in TEM images. The second assay, using radioactively labelled partner DNA strands, quantified the density of functional DNA strands attached to the carbon nanotubes. The diversity of potential applications for these DNA-modified carbon-nanotube platforms is exemplified here by the successful use of a DNA-modified single-walled carbon-nanotube mat as an electrode for the specific detection of metal ions. (paper)

  10. Porous germanium multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garralaga Rojas, Enrique; Hensen, Jan; Brendel, Rolf [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany); Carstensen, Juergen; Foell, Helmut [Chair for General Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    We present the reproducible fabrication of porous germanium (PGe) single- and multilayers. Mesoporous layers form on heavily doped 4'' p-type Ge wafers by electrochemical etching in highly concentrated HF-based electrolytes with concentrations in a range of 30-50 wt.%. Direct PGe formation is accompanied by a constant dissolution of the already-formed porous layer at the electrolyte/PGe interface, hence yielding a thinner substrate after etching. This effect inhibits multilayer formation as the starting layer is etched while forming the second layer. We avoid dissolution of the porous layer by alternating the etching bias from anodic to cathodic. PGe formation occurs during anodic etching whereas the cathodic step passivates pore walls with H-atoms and avoids electropolishing. The passivation lasts a limited time depending on the etching current density and electrolyte concentration, necessitating a repetition of the cathodic step at suitable intervals. With optimized alternating bias mesoporous multilayer production is possible. We control the porosity of each single layer by varying the etching current density and the electrolyte (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Second-Order Learning Methods for a Multilayer Perceptron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.; Purehvdorzh, B.; Puzynin, I.V.

    1994-01-01

    First- and second-order learning methods for feed-forward multilayer neural networks are studied. Newton-type and quasi-Newton algorithms are considered and compared with commonly used back-propagation algorithm. It is shown that, although second-order algorithms require enhanced computer facilities, they provide better convergence and simplicity in usage. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Multilayer bioactive glass/zirconium titanate thin films in bone tissue engineering and regenerative dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Salahinejad, Erfan; Shabafrooz, Vahid; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification, particularly coatings deposition, is beneficial to tissue-engineering applications. In this work, bioactive glass/zirconium titanate composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating method. The surface features of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and spectroscopic reflection analyses. The results show that uniform and sound multilayer thin films were successfully prepared through the optimization of the process variables and the application of carboxymethyl cellulose as a dispersing agent. Also, it was found that the thickness and roughness of the multilayer coatings increase nonlinearly with increasing the number of the layers. This new class of nanocomposite coatings, comprising the bioactive and inert components, is expected not only to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility, but also to protect the surface of metallic implants against wear and corrosion. PMID:23641155

  13. [Method of multilayer assembly as alternative to antibacterial coverings of medicobiological implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospanova, A K; Omarova, R A; Abdurazakov, U A; Zhartybaev, R N; Iskakova, M K; Savdenbekova, B E; Amkhadova, M A

    2016-01-01

    Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics Almaty Kazakh Medical University of Continuing Education; 4. Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute, Russia Resume: in this report we present the results on the use of the method of layer-by-layer (LbL) for obtaining antimicrobial coatings for biomedical implants. As the substrates were used silicon titanium implants and silicon plate. For the obtaining multilayer coatings on the surfaces of the samples were used as the polycation--chitosan and polyanion--carboxymethylcellulose sodium. On the surface multilayer were deposited antibacterial preparations: Triclosan-2,4,4'trichloro-2' hydroxyphenyl ether, silver ions and iodine. Microbiological studies were conducted on the museum strains: E. coli, Candida and Staf. Preliminary antibacterial studies on these microorganisms showed high activity multilayer coating containing triclosan.

  14. Corrosion surface protection by using titanium carbon nitride/titanium-niobium carbon nitride multilayered system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caicedo, J.C., E-mail: jcesarca@calima.univalle.edu.co [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Amaya, C. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Laboratorio de Recubrimientos Duros, CDT-ASTIN SENA, Cali (Colombia); Cabrera, G. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Esteve, J. [Department de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Aperador, W. [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada Bogota D.C (Colombia); Gomez, M.E. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Prieto, P. [Grupo de Peliculas Delgadas, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, CENM, Calle 13 100-00 Edificio 320, espacio 1026, Cali (Colombia)

    2011-07-29

    The aim of this work is the improvement of the electrochemical behavior of 4140 steel substrate using TiCN/TiNbCN multilayered system as a protective coating. We have grown [TiCN/TiNbCN]{sub n} multilayered via reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering technique in which was varied systematically the bilayer period ({Lambda}), and the bilayer number (n), maintaining constant the total thickness of the coatings ({approx} 3 {mu}m). The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy assisted with selected area electron diffraction. The electrochemical properties were studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Tafel curves. XRD results showed a preferential growth in the face-centered cubic (111) crystal structure for [TiCN/TiNbCN]{sub n} multilayered coatings [1]. In this work was obtained the maximum corrosion resistance for the coating with ({Lambda}) equal to 15 nm, corresponding to n = 200 bilayered. The polarization resistance and corrosion rate were around 8.6 kOhm cm{sup 2} and 7.59 . 10{sup -4} mm/year, these values were 8.6 and 0.001 times better than those showed by the uncoated 4140 steel substrate (1.0 kOhm and 0.57 mm/year), respectively. The improvement of the electrochemical behavior of the 4140 coated with this TiCN/TiNbCN multilayered system can be attributed to the presence of several interfaces that act as obstacles for the inward and outward diffusions of Cl{sup -} ion species, generating an increment in the energy or potential required for translating the corrosive ions across the coating/substrate interface. Moreover, the interface systems affect the means free path on the ions toward the metallic substrate, due to the decreasing of the defects presented in the multilayered coatings.

  15. Corrosion surface protection by using titanium carbon nitride/titanium-niobium carbon nitride multilayered system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo, J.C.; Amaya, C.; Cabrera, G.; Esteve, J.; Aperador, W.; Gomez, M.E.; Prieto, P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is the improvement of the electrochemical behavior of 4140 steel substrate using TiCN/TiNbCN multilayered system as a protective coating. We have grown [TiCN/TiNbCN] n multilayered via reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering technique in which was varied systematically the bilayer period (Λ), and the bilayer number (n), maintaining constant the total thickness of the coatings (∼ 3 μm). The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy assisted with selected area electron diffraction. The electrochemical properties were studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Tafel curves. XRD results showed a preferential growth in the face-centered cubic (111) crystal structure for [TiCN/TiNbCN] n multilayered coatings [1]. In this work was obtained the maximum corrosion resistance for the coating with (Λ) equal to 15 nm, corresponding to n = 200 bilayered. The polarization resistance and corrosion rate were around 8.6 kOhm cm 2 and 7.59 . 10 -4 mm/year, these values were 8.6 and 0.001 times better than those showed by the uncoated 4140 steel substrate (1.0 kOhm and 0.57 mm/year), respectively. The improvement of the electrochemical behavior of the 4140 coated with this TiCN/TiNbCN multilayered system can be attributed to the presence of several interfaces that act as obstacles for the inward and outward diffusions of Cl - ion species, generating an increment in the energy or potential required for translating the corrosive ions across the coating/substrate interface. Moreover, the interface systems affect the means free path on the ions toward the metallic substrate, due to the decreasing of the defects presented in the multilayered coatings.

  16. Ferroelectric properties of PZT/BFO multilayer thin films prepared using the sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2012-01-05

    In this study, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/BiFeO3 [PZT/BFO] multilayer thin films were fabricated using the spin-coating method on a Pt(200 nm)/Ti(10 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/p-Si(100) substrate alternately using BFO and PZT metal alkoxide solutions. The coating-and-heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All PZT/BFO multilayer thin films show a void-free, uniform grain structure without the presence of rosette structures. The relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the six-coated PZT/BFO [PZT/BFO-6] thin film were approximately 405 and 0.03%, respectively. As the number of coatings increased, the remanent polarization and coercive field increased. The values for the BFO-6 multilayer thin film were 41.3 C/cm2 and 15.1 MV/cm, respectively. The leakage current density of the BFO-6 multilayer thin film at 5 V was 2.52 × 10-7 A/cm2.

  17. Graphene: corrosion-inhibiting coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Dhiraj; Tuberquia, Juan Carlos; Harl, Robert R; Jennings, G Kane; Rogers, Bridget R; Bolotin, Kirill I

    2012-02-28

    We report the use of atomically thin layers of graphene as a protective coating that inhibits corrosion of underlying metals. Here, we employ electrochemical methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper and nickel by either growing graphene on these metals, or by mechanically transferring multilayer graphene onto them. Cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that the graphene coating effectively suppresses metal oxidation and oxygen reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that while graphene itself is not damaged, the metal under it is corroded at cracks in the graphene film. Finally, we use Tafel analysis to quantify the corrosion rates of samples with and without graphene coatings. These results indicate that copper films coated with graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition are corroded 7 times slower in an aerated Na(2)SO(4) solution as compared to the corrosion rate of bare copper. Tafel analysis reveals that nickel with a multilayer graphene film grown on it corrodes 20 times slower while nickel surfaces coated with four layers of mechanically transferred graphene corrode 4 times slower than bare nickel. These findings establish graphene as the thinnest known corrosion-protecting coating.

  18. Coatings for the NuSTAR mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Brejnholt, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    The NuSTAR mission will be the first mission to carry a hard X-ray(5-80 keV) focusing telescope to orbit. The optics are based on the use of multilayer coated thin slumped glass. Two different material combinations were used for the flight optics, namely W/Si and Pt/C. In this paper we describe...... the entire coating effort including the final coating design that was used for the two flight optics. We also present data on the performance verification of the coatings both on Si witness samples as well as on individual flight mirrors....

  19. Interfacial behaviour of biopolymer multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstens, Meinou N.; Osorio Caltenco, Lilia A.; Vries, de Renko; Schroën, Karin; Berton-Carabin, Claire C.

    2017-01-01

    Although multilayered emulsions have been related to reduced lipolysis, the involved interfacial phenomena have never been studied directly. In this work, we systematically built multilayers of whey protein and pectin, which we further subjected to digestive conditions, using two different

  20. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  1. Magnetic metallic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, R.Q.

    1994-04-01

    Utilizing self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations, several aspects of multilayers and interfaces are explored: enhancement and reduction of the local magnetic moments, magnetic coupling at the interfaces, magnetic arrangements within each film and among non-neighboring films, global symmetry of the systems, frustration, orientation of the various moments with respect to an outside applied field, and magnetic-field induced transitions. Magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic-normal-metal multilayers is found by solving the Boltzmann equation. Results explain the giant negative magnetoresistance encountered in these systems when an initial antiparallel arrangement is changed into a parallel configuration by an external magnetic field. The calculation depends on (1) geometric parameters (thicknesses of layers), (2) intrinsic metal parameters (number of conduction electrons, magnetization, and effective masses in layers), (3) bulk sample properties (conductivity relaxation times), (4) interface scattering properties (diffuse scattering versus potential scattering at the interfaces, and (5) outer surface scattering properties (specular versus diffuse surface scattering). It is found that a large negative magnetoresistance requires considerable asymmetry in interface scattering for the two spin orientations. Features of the interfaces that may produce an asymmetrical spin-dependent scattering are studied: varying interfacial geometric random roughness with no lateral coherence, correlated (quasi-periodic) roughness, and varying chemical composition of the interfaces. The interplay between these aspects of the interfaces may enhance or suppress the magnetoresistance, depending on whether it increases or decreases the asymmetry in the spin-dependent scattering of the conduction electrons

  2. Wrapped Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    New NASA vehicles, such as Earth Departure Stage (EDS), Orion, landers, and orbiting fuel depots, need improved cryogenic propellant transfer and storage for long-duration missions. Current cryogen feed line multilayer insulation (MLI) performance is 10 times worse per area than tank MLI insulation. During each launch, cryogenic piping loses approximately 150,000 gallons (equivalent to $300,000) in boil-off during transfer, chill down, and ground hold. Quest Product Development Corp., teaming with Ball Aerospace, developed an innovative advanced insulation system, Wrapped MLI (wMLI), to provide improved thermal insulation for cryogenic feed lines. wMLI is high-performance multilayer insulation designed for cryogenic piping. It uses Quest's innovative discrete-spacer technology to control layer spacing/ density and reduce heat leak. The Phase I project successfully designed, built, and tested a wMLI prototype with a measured heat leak 3.6X lower than spiral-wrapped conventional MLI widely used for piping insulation. A wMLI prototype had a heat leak of 7.3 W/m2, or 27 percent of the heat leak of conventional MLI (26.7 W/m2). The Phase II project is further developing wMLI technology with custom, molded polymer spacers and advancing the product toward commercialization via a rigorous testing program, including developing advanced vacuuminsulated pipe for ground support equipment.

  3. Chemical interactions at the interfaces of Mo/B4C/Si/B4C multilayers upon low-temperature annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyabero, S.L.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Interactions at interfaces in thin films and multilayers play an important role for present day nano-scaled devices. For example, reducing thermally induced interdiffusion between Mo and Si layers is a key challenge in developing Mo/Si multilayers as reflective coatings for projection lithography

  4. Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Peter C.; Min, Younjin; Huang, Bonnie; Kramer, Joshua A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Barouch, Dan H.; Hammond, Paula T.; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2013-04-01

    DNA vaccines have many potential benefits but have failed to generate robust immune responses in humans. Recently, methods such as in vivo electroporation have demonstrated improved performance, but an optimal strategy for safe, reproducible, and pain-free DNA vaccination remains elusive. Here we report an approach for rapid implantation of vaccine-loaded polymer films carrying DNA, immune-stimulatory RNA, and biodegradable polycations into the immune-cell-rich epidermis, using microneedles coated with releasable polyelectrolyte multilayers. Films transferred into the skin following brief microneedle application promoted local transfection and controlled the persistence of DNA and adjuvants in the skin from days to weeks, with kinetics determined by the film composition. These ‘multilayer tattoo’ DNA vaccines induced immune responses against a model HIV antigen comparable to electroporation in mice, enhanced memory T-cell generation, and elicited 140-fold higher gene expression in non-human primate skin than intradermal DNA injection, indicating the potential of this strategy for enhancing DNA vaccination.

  5. Finite element analysis of multilayer coextrusion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Schunk, Peter Randall; Baer, Thomas A. (Proctor & Gamble Company, West Chester, OH); Mrozek, Randy A. (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Collins, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2011-09-01

    Multilayer coextrusion has become a popular commercial process for producing complex polymeric products from soda bottles to reflective coatings. A numerical model of a multilayer coextrusion process is developed based on a finite element discretization and two different free-surface methods, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh implementation and an Eulerian level set method, to understand the moving boundary problem associated with the polymer-polymer interface. The goal of this work is to have a numerical capability suitable for optimizing and troubleshooting the coextrusion process, circumventing flow instabilities such as ribbing and barring, and reducing variability in layer thickness. Though these instabilities can be both viscous and elastic in nature, for this work a generalized Newtonian description of the fluid is used. Models of varying degrees of complexity are investigated including stability analysis and direct three-dimensional finite element free surface approaches. The results of this work show how critical modeling can be to reduce build test cycles, improve material choices, and guide mold design.

  6. Polymer multilayer tattooing for enhanced DNA vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuth, Peter C.; Min, Younjin; Huang, Bonnie; Kramer, Joshua A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Barouch, Dan H.; Hammond, Paula T.; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccines have many potential benefits but have failed to generate robust immune responses in humans. Recently, methods such as in vivo electroporation have demonstrated improved performance, but an optimal strategy for safe, reproducible, and pain-free DNA vaccination remains elusive. Here we report an approach for rapid implantation of vaccine-loaded polymer films carrying DNA, immune-stimulatory RNA, and biodegradable polycations into the immune-cell-rich epidermis, using microneedles coated with releasable polyelectrolyte multilayers. Films transferred into the skin following brief microneedle application promoted local transfection and controlled the persistence of DNA and adjuvants in the skin from days to weeks, with kinetics determined by the film composition. These “multilayer tattoo” DNA vaccines induced immune responses against a model HIV antigen comparable to electroporation in mice, enhanced memory T-cell generation, and elicited 140-fold higher gene expression in non-human primate skin than intradermal DNA injection, indicating the potential of this strategy for enhancing DNA vaccination. PMID:23353628

  7. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  8. Architecture and assembly of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Marco; Carroll, Alicia Monroe; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spores are encased in a multilayer, proteinaceous self-assembled coat structure that assists in protecting the bacterial genome from stresses and consists of at least 70 proteins. The elucidation of Bacillus spore coat assembly, architecture, and function is critical to determining mechanisms of spore pathogenesis, environmental resistance, immune response, and physicochemical properties. Recently, genetic, biochemical and microscopy methods have provided new insight into spore coat architecture, assembly, structure and function. However, detailed spore coat architecture and assembly, comprehensive understanding of the proteomic composition of coat layers, and specific roles of coat proteins in coat assembly and their precise localization within the coat remain in question. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to probe the coat structure of Bacillus subtilis wild type and cotA, cotB, safA, cotH, cotO, cotE, gerE, and cotE gerE spores. This approach provided high-resolution visualization of the various spore coat structures, new insight into the function of specific coat proteins, and enabled the development of a detailed model of spore coat architecture. This model is consistent with a recently reported four-layer coat assembly and further adds several coat layers not reported previously. The coat is organized starting from the outside into an outermost amorphous (crust) layer, a rodlet layer, a honeycomb layer, a fibrous layer, a layer of "nanodot" particles, a multilayer assembly, and finally the undercoat/basement layer. We propose that the assembly of the previously unreported fibrous layer, which we link to the darkly stained outer coat seen by electron microscopy, and the nanodot layer are cotH- and cotE- dependent and cotE-specific respectively. We further propose that the inner coat multilayer structure is crystalline with its apparent two-dimensional (2D) nuclei being the first example of a non-mineral 2D nucleation crystallization

  9. Architecture and Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Marco; Carroll, Alicia Monroe; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spores are encased in a multilayer, proteinaceous self-assembled coat structure that assists in protecting the bacterial genome from stresses and consists of at least 70 proteins. The elucidation of Bacillus spore coat assembly, architecture, and function is critical to determining mechanisms of spore pathogenesis, environmental resistance, immune response, and physicochemical properties. Recently, genetic, biochemical and microscopy methods have provided new insight into spore coat architecture, assembly, structure and function. However, detailed spore coat architecture and assembly, comprehensive understanding of the proteomic composition of coat layers, and specific roles of coat proteins in coat assembly and their precise localization within the coat remain in question. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to probe the coat structure of Bacillus subtilis wild type and cotA, cotB, safA, cotH, cotO, cotE, gerE, and cotE gerE spores. This approach provided high-resolution visualization of the various spore coat structures, new insight into the function of specific coat proteins, and enabled the development of a detailed model of spore coat architecture. This model is consistent with a recently reported four-layer coat assembly and further adds several coat layers not reported previously. The coat is organized starting from the outside into an outermost amorphous (crust) layer, a rodlet layer, a honeycomb layer, a fibrous layer, a layer of “nanodot” particles, a multilayer assembly, and finally the undercoat/basement layer. We propose that the assembly of the previously unreported fibrous layer, which we link to the darkly stained outer coat seen by electron microscopy, and the nanodot layer are cotH- and cotE- dependent and cotE-specific respectively. We further propose that the inner coat multilayer structure is crystalline with its apparent two-dimensional (2D) nuclei being the first example of a non-mineral 2D nucleation crystallization

  10. A study of DLC coatings for ironing of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    severe lubrication conditions by adopting strip reduction testing to replicate industrial ironing production of deep drawn, stainless steel cans. Three DLC coatings are investigated; multi-layer, double layer and single layer. Experiments revealed that the double layer coating worked successful, i...

  11. A facile method to enhance the uniformity and adhesion properties of water-based ceramic coating layers on hydrophobic polyethylene separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoogil; Jeon, Hyunkyu; Gong, Seokhyeon; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2018-01-01

    To enhance the uniformity and adhesion properties of water-based ceramic coating layers on hydrophobic polyethylene (PE) separators, their surfaces were treated with thin and hydrophilic polydopamine layers. As a result, an aqueous ceramic coating slurry consisting of Al2O3 particles, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) binders, and water solvent was easily spread on the separator surface, and a uniform ceramic layer was formed after solvent drying. Moreover, the ceramic coating layer showed greatly improved adhesion properties to the PE separator surface. Whereas the adhesion strength within the bulk coating layer (Fmid) ranged from 43 to 86 N m-1 depending on the binder content of 1.5-3.0 wt%, the adhesion strength at the interface between the ceramic coating layer and PE separator (Fsepa-Al2O3) was 245-360 N m-1, a value equivalent to an increase of four or five times. Furthermore, an additional ceramic coating layer of approximately 7 μm did not degrade the ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of the bare PE separators. Thus, all the LiMn2O4/graphite cells with ceramic-coated separators delivered an improved cycle life and rate capability compared with those of the control cells with bare PE separators.

  12. Manufacturing issues which affect coating erosion performance in wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, E.; Sánchez, F.; Domenech, L.; Olivares, A.; Young, T. M.; O'Carroll, A.; Chinesta, F.

    2017-10-01

    Erosion damage, caused by repeated rain droplet impact on the leading edges of wind turbine blades, is a major cause for cost concern. Resin Infusion (RI) is used in wind energy blades where low weight and high mechanical performance materials are demanded. The surface coating plays a crucial role in the manufacturing and performance response. The Leading Edge coating is usually moulded, painted or sprayed onto the blade surface so adequate adhesion in the layers' characterization through the thickness is required for mechanical performance and durability reasons. In the current work, an investigation has been directed into the resulting rain erosion durability of the coating was undertaken through a combination of mass loss testing measurements with manufacturing processing parameter variations. The adhesion and erosion is affected by the shock wave caused by the collapsing water droplet on impact. The stress waves are transmitted to the substrate, so microestructural discontinuities in coating layers and interfaces play a key role on its degradation. Standard industrial systems are based on a multilayer system, with a high number of interfaces that tend to accelerate erosion by delamination. Analytical and numerical models are commonly used to relate lifetime prediction and to identify suitable coating and composite substrate combinations and their potential stress reduction on the interface. In this research, the input parameters for the appropriate definition of the Cohesive Zone Modelling (CZM) of the coating-substrate interface are outlined by means of Pull off testing and Peeling testing results. It allowed one to optimize manufacturing and coating process for blades into a knowledge-based guidance for leading edge coating material development. It was achieved by investigating the erosion degradation process using both numerical and laboratory techniques (Pull off, Peeling and Rain Erosion Testing in a whirling arm rain erosion test facility).

  13. Diamond coating in accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.

    1998-08-01

    The future accelerators with 1 GeV/m gradient will give rise to hundreds of degrees instantaneous temperature rise on the copper surface. Due to its extraordinary thermal and electric properties, diamond coating on the surface is suggested to remedy this problem. Multi-layer structure, with the promise of even more temperature reduction, is also discussed, and a proof of principle experiment is being carried out

  14. Neutron optics with multilayer monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, A.M.; Majkrzak, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    A multilayer monochromator is made by depositing thin films of two materials in an alternating sequence on a glass substrate. This makes a multilayer periodic in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the films, with a d-spacing equal to the thickness of one bilayer. Neutrons of wavelength λ incident on a multilayer will be reflected at an angle phi given by the Bragg relation nλ = 2d sinphi, where n is the order of reflection. The use of thin-film multilayers for monochromating neutrons is discussed. Because of the low flux of neutrons, the samples have to be large, and the width of the incident beam can be as much as 2 cm. Multilayers made earlier were fabricated by resistive heating of the materials in a vacuum chamber. Because of geometrical constraints imposed by the size of the vacuum chamber, limits on the amount of material that can be loaded in a boat, and finite life of the boats, this method of preparation limits the length of a multilayer to ∼ 15 cm and the total number of bilayers in a multilayer to about 200. This paper discusses a thin-film deposition system using RF sputtering for depositing films

  15. CEMS of nitride coatings in agressive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanžel, D.; Agudelo, A. C.; Gancedo, J. R.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Marco, J. F.

    1998-12-01

    The corrosion properties of single layered TiN and CrN films have been compared to bi-layered and multi-layered Ti/TiN films. XPS has showed that in humid SO2 atmosphere the best corrosion properties have been achieved by a multi-layered Ti/TiN coating. Cyclic voltammetry in acetate buffer has been applied to measure the porousity and corrosion resistance of coatings. The best results have been achieved by multi-layered Ti/TiN and CrN films. Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy has been used to study the changes in the interface Fe/TiN during thermal treatment in UHV. It has been shown that the amount of iron nitrides in the interface increases with increasing temperature.

  16. CEMS of nitride coatings in agressive environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzel, D.; Agudelo, A.C.; Gancedo, J.R.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Marco, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The corrosion properties of single layered TiN and CrN films have been compared to bi-layered and multi-layered Ti/TiN films. XPS has showed that in humid SO 2 atmosphere the best corrosion properties have been achieved by a multi-layered Ti/TiN coating. Cyclic voltammetry in acetate buffer has been applied to measure the porousity and corrosion resistance of coatings. The best results have been achieved by multi-layered Ti/TiN and CrN films. Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to study the changes in the interface Fe/TiN during thermal treatment in UHV. It has been shown that the amount of iron nitrides in the interface increases with increasing temperature

  17. CEMS of nitride coatings in agressive environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzel, D. [University of Ljubljana, J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Agudelo, A.C.; Gancedo, J.R. [Instituto de Quimica-Fisica ' Rocasolano' , CSIC (Spain); Lakatos-Varsanyi, M. [Eoetvoes University, Department of Physical Chemistry (Hungary); Marco, J.F. [Instituto de Quimica-Fisica ' Rocasolano' , CSIC (Spain)

    1998-12-15

    The corrosion properties of single layered TiN and CrN films have been compared to bi-layered and multi-layered Ti/TiN films. XPS has showed that in humid SO{sub 2} atmosphere the best corrosion properties have been achieved by a multi-layered Ti/TiN coating. Cyclic voltammetry in acetate buffer has been applied to measure the porousity and corrosion resistance of coatings. The best results have been achieved by multi-layered Ti/TiN and CrN films. Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy has been used to study the changes in the interface Fe/TiN during thermal treatment in UHV. It has been shown that the amount of iron nitrides in the interface increases with increasing temperature.

  18. Integrated Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Integrated multilayer insulation (IMLI) is being developed as an improved alternative to conventional multilayer insulation (MLI), which is more than 50 years old. A typical conventional MLI blanket comprises between 10 and 120 metallized polymer films separated by polyester nets. MLI is the best thermal- insulation material for use in a vacuum, and is the insulation material of choice for spacecraft and cryogenic systems. However, conventional MLI has several disadvantages: It is difficult or impossible to maintain the desired value of gap distance between the film layers (and consequently, it is difficult or impossible to ensure consistent performance), and fabrication and installation are labor-intensive and difficult. The development of IMLI is intended to overcome these disadvantages to some extent and to offer some additional advantages over conventional MLI. The main difference between IMLI and conventional MLI lies in the method of maintaining the gaps between the film layers. In IMLI, the film layers are separated by what its developers call a micro-molded discrete matrix, which can be loosely characterized as consisting of arrays of highly engineered, small, lightweight, polymer (typically, thermoplastic) frames attached to, and placed between, the film layers. The term "micro-molded" refers to both the smallness of the frames and the fact that they are fabricated in a process that forms precise small features, described below, that are essential to attainment of the desired properties. The term "discrete" refers to the nature of the matrix as consisting of separate frames, in contradistinction to a unitary frame spanning entire volume of an insulation blanket.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of multilayered BaTiO3/NiFe2O4 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Bajac

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented research was focused on the fabrication of multiferroic thin film structures, composed of ferrielectric barium titanate perovskite phase and magnetostrictive nickel ferrite spinel phase. The applicability of different, solution based, deposition techniques (film growth from solution, dip coating and spin coating for thefabrication of multilayered BaTiO3 /NiFe2O4 thin films was investigated. It was shown that only spin coating produces films of desired nanostructure, thickness and smooth and crackfree surfaces.

  20. Subwavelength single layer absorption resonance antireflection coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, S. P.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Yakshin, A. E.; Zoethout, E.; Boller, K.-J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2014-01-01

    We present theoretically derived design rules for an absorbing resonance antireflection coating for the spectral range of 100 &\\#x02013; 400 nm, applied here on top of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer mirror (Mo/Si MLM) as commonly used in extreme ultraviolet lithography. The design rules for

  1. Subwavelength single layer absorption resonance antireflection coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, Sebastiaan; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Zoethout, E.; Boller, Klaus J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    We present theoretically derived design rules for an absorbing resonance antireflection coating for the spectral range of 100−400 nm, applied here on top of a molybdenum-silicon multilayer mirror (Mo/Si MLM) as commonly used in extreme ultraviolet lithography. The design rules for optimal

  2. Microneedle arrays coated with charge reversal pH-sensitive copolymers improve antigen presenting cells-homing DNA vaccine delivery and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Huu Thuy Trang; Kim, Nak Won; Thambi, Thavasyappan; Giang Phan, V H; Lee, Min Sang; Yin, Yue; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Doo Sung

    2018-01-10

    Successful delivery of a DNA vaccine to antigen-presenting cells and their subsequent stimulation of CD4 + and CD8 + T cell immunity remains an inefficient process. In general, the delivery of prophylactic vaccines is mainly mired by low transfection efficacy, poor immunogenicity, and safety issues from the materials employed. Currently, several strategies have been exploited to improve immunogenicity, but an effective strategy for safe and pain-free delivery of DNA vaccines is complicated. Herein, we report the rapid delivery of polyplex-based DNA vaccines using microneedle arrays coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly of charge reversal pH-responsive copolymer and heparin. The charge reversal pH-responsive copolymer, composed of oligo(sulfamethazine)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(amino urethane) (OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU), was used as a triggering layer in the polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly on microneedles. Charge reversal characteristics of this copolymer, that is, the OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU copolymer exhibit, positive charge at low pH (pH4.03) and becoming negative charge when exposed to physiological pH conditions (pH7.4), allowing the facile assembly and disassembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers. The electrostatic repulsion between heparin and OSM-b-PEG-b-PAEU charge reversal copolymer triggered the release of DNA vaccines. DNA vaccines laden on microneedles are effectively transfected into RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. Vaccination of BALB/c mice by DNA vaccine-loaded microneedle arrays coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer generated antigen-specific robust immune responses. These findings provide potential strategy of charge reversal pH-responsive copolymers coated microneedles for DNA vaccine delivery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Metal-carbide multilayers for molten Pu containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, T.S.E.; Curtis, P.G.; Juntz, R.S.; Krueger, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    Multilayers composed of nine or ten alternating layers of Ta or W and TaC were studied for the feasibility of their use in containing molten plutonium (Pu) at 1200 degrees C. Single layers of W and TaC were also investigated. A two-source electron beam evaporation process was developed to deposit these coatings onto the inside surface of hemispherical Ta cups about 38 mm in diameter. Pu testing was done by melting Pu in the coated hemispherical cups and holding them under vacuum at 1200 degrees C for two hours. Metallographic examination and microprobe analysis of cross sections showed that Pu had penetrated to the Ta substrate in all cases to some extent. Full penetration to the outer surface of the Ta substrate, however, occurred in only a few of the samples. The fact that full penetration occurred in any of the samples suggests that it would have occurred in uncoated Ta under these testing conditions which in turn suggests that the multilayer coatings do afford some protection against Pu attack. The TaC used for these specimens was wet by Pu under these testing conditions, and following testing, Pu was found uniformly distributed throughout the carbide layers which appeared to be rather porous. Pu was seen in the W and Ta layers only when exposed directly to molten Pu during testing or near defects suggesting that Pu penetrated the multilayers at defects in the coating and traveled parallel to the layers along the carbide layers. These results indicate that the use of alternating metal and ceramic layers for Pu containment should be possible through the use of nonporous ceramic that is not wet by molten Pu and defect-free films

  4. A study of the annealing and mechanical behaviour of electrodeposited Cu-Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickup, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    The mechanical strength of electrodeposited Cu-Ni multilayers is known to vary with deposition wavelength. Since layered coatings are harder and more resistant to wear and abrasion than non-layered coatings, this technique is of industrial interest. Optimisation of the process requires a better understanding of the strengthening mechanisms and the microstructural changes which affect such mechanisms. The work presented in this thesis presents the characterisation a series of Cu-Ni multilayers, covering a wide range of thicknesses of the individual layers in the multilayer, using X-ray diffraction, cross-section TEM, hardness testing and tensile testing. Further, the effects of high temperature annealing on interdiffusion and on changes in internal stresses are documented. (au). 176 refs.

  5. A study of the annealing and mechanical behaviour of electrodeposited Cu-Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickup, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    The mechanical strength of electrodeposited Cu-Ni multilayers is known to vary with deposition wavelength. Since layered coatings are harder and more resistant to wear and abrasion than non-layered coatings, this technique is of industrial interest. Optimisation of the process requires a better understanding of the strengthening mechanisms and the microstructural changes which affect such mechanisms. The work presented in this thesis presents the characterisation a series of Cu-Ni multilayers, covering a wide range of thicknesses of the individual layers in the multilayer, using X-ray diffraction, cross-section TEM, hardness testing and tensile testing. Further, the effects of high temperature annealing on interdiffusion and on changes in internal stresses are documented. (au)

  6. Large optics for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baisden, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser with its 192 independent laser beams is not only the world's largest laser, it is also the largest optical system ever built. With its 192 independent laser beams, the NIF requires a total of 7648 large-aperture (meter-sized) optics. One of the many challenges in designing and building NIF has been to carry out the research and development on optical materials, optics design, and optics manufacturing and metrology technologies needed to achieve NIF's high output energies and precision beam quality. This paper describes the multiyear, multi-supplier, development effort that was undertaken to develop the advanced optical materials, coatings, fabrication technologies, and associated process improvements necessary to manufacture the wide range of NIF optics. The optics include neodymium-doped phosphate glass laser amplifiers; fused silica lenses, windows, and phase plates; mirrors and polarizers with multi-layer, high-reflectivity dielectric coatings deposited on BK7 substrates; and potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystal optics for fast optical switches, frequency conversion, and polarization rotation. Also included is a discussion of optical specifications and custom metrology and quality-assurance tools designed, built, and fielded at supplier sites to verify compliance with the stringent NIF specifications. In addition, a brief description of the ongoing program to improve the operational lifetime (i.e., damage resistance) of optics exposed to high fluence in the 351-nm (3ω) is provided.

  7. Large optics for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisden, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser with its 192 independent laser beams is not only the world’s largest laser, it is also the largest optical system ever built. With its 192 independent laser beams, the NIF requires a total of 7648 large-aperture (meter-sized) optics. One of the many challenges in designing and building NIF has been to carry out the research and development on optical materials, optics design, and optics manufacturing and metrology technologies needed to achieve NIF’s high output energies and precision beam quality. This paper describes the multiyear, multi-supplier, development effort that was undertaken to develop the advanced optical materials, coatings, fabrication technologies, and associated process improvements necessary to manufacture the wide range of NIF optics. The optics include neodymium-doped phosphate glass laser amplifiers; fused silica lenses, windows, and phase plates; mirrors and polarizers with multi-layer, high-reflectivity dielectric coatings deposited on BK7 substrates; and potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystal optics for fast optical switches, frequency conversion, and polarization rotation. Also included is a discussion of optical specifications and custom metrology and quality-assurance tools designed, built, and fielded at supplier sites to verify compliance with the stringent NIF specifications. In addition, a brief description of the ongoing program to improve the operational lifetime (i.e., damage resistance) of optics exposed to high fluence in the 351-nm (3ω) is provided.

  8. Anti-wetting Cu/Cr coating with micro-posts array structure fabricated by electrochemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yufeng; Hang, Tao; Li, Feng; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Microposts structured Cu/Cr multilayer coating was prepared by a simple two-step approach combining electroless and electro deposition. Surface morphologies of the as-prepared Cu/Cr multilayer coating characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy show that this multilayer coating exhibits micro-posts arrayed structure with a layer of Cr uniformly covering the circular conical surface of Cu micro-cones array. The wettability test shows that the contact angle of Cu/Cr multilayer surface with water drop can be greater than 140° by optimizing the electrodeposition time of Cr. The mechanism of hydrophobicity of both the micro-cones arrayed and micro-posts arrayed structures was briefly discussed by comparing two different wetting modes. Due to its good anti-wetting property and unique structure, the micro-posts arrayed Cu/Cr multilayer coating is expected for extensive practical applications.

  9. Layer-by-layer strippable Ag multilayer films fabricated by modular assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Qianqian; Song, Kai; Wang, Shihui; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Yu; Jiao, Yong-Hua; Sun, Ting; Liu, Fu-Chun; Han, En-Hou

    2014-01-21

    We have developed a new method to fabricate multilayer films, which uses prepared thin films as modular blocks and transfer as operation mode to build up multilayer structures. In order to distinguish it from the in situ fabrication manner, this method is called modular assembly in this study. On the basis of such concept, we have fabricated a multilayer film using the silver mirror film as the modular block and poly(lactic acid) as the transfer tool. Due to the special double-layer structure of the silver mirror film, the resulting multilayer film had a well-defined stratified architecture with alternate porous/compact layers. As a consequence of the distinct structure, the interaction between the adjacent layers was so weak that the multilayer film could be layer-by-layer stripped. In addition, the top layer in the film could provide an effective protection on the morphology and surface property of the underlying layers. This suggests that if the surface of the film was deteriorated, the top layer could be peeled off and the freshly exposed surface would still maintain the original function. The successful preparation of the layer-by-layer strippable silver multilayer demonstrates that modular assembly is a feasible and effective method to build up multilayer films capable of creating novel and attractive micro/nanostructures, having great potential in the fabrication of nanodevices and coatings.

  10. High efficiency multilayer blazed gratings for EUV and soft X-rays: Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, Dmitriy; Ahn, Minseung; Anderson, Erik; Cambie, Rossana; Chang, Chih-Hao; Goray, Leonid; Gullikson, Eric; Heilmann, Ralf; Salmassi, Farhad; Schattenburg, Mark; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Multilayer coated blazed gratings with high groove density are the best candidates for use in high resolution EUV and soft x-ray spectroscopy. Theoretical analysis shows that such a grating can be potentially optimized for high dispersion and spectral resolution in a desired high diffraction order without significant loss of diffraction efficiency. In order to realize this potential, the grating fabrication process should provide a perfect triangular groove profile and an extremely smooth surface of the blazed facets. Here we report on recent progress achieved at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in fabrication of high quality multilayer coated blazed gratings. The blazed gratings were fabricated using scanning beam interference lithography followed by wet anisotropic etching of silicon. A 200 nm period grating coated with a Mo/Si multilayer composed with 30 bi-layers demonstrated an absolute efficiency of 37.6percent in the 3rd diffraction order at 13.6 nm wavelength. The groove profile of the grating was thoroughly characterized with atomic force microscopy before and after the multilayer deposition. The obtained metrology data were used for simulation of the grating efficiency with the vector electromagnetic PCGrate-6.1 code. The simulations showed that smoothing of the grating profile during the multilayer deposition is the main reason for efficiency losses compared to the theoretical maximum. Investigation of the grating with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a complex evolution of the groove profile in the course of the multilayer deposition. Impact of the shadowing and smoothing processes on growth of the multilayer on the surface of the sawtooth substrate is discussed.

  11. Multilayer sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes and methods of making and repairing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, J. Douglas; Hatlevik, Oyvind

    2014-07-15

    The invention relates to thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from multi-layers of palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports, methods of making these membranes, methods of repairing layers of these membranes and devices that incorporate these membranes.

  12. Imprinting of metal receptors into multilayer polyelectrolyte films: fabrication and applications in marine antifouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puniredd, S.R.; Janczewski, D.; Go, D.P.; Zhu, X.; Guo, S.; Teo, S.L-M.; Lee, S.S.C.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric films constructed using the layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication process were employed as a platform for metal ion immobilization and applied as a marine antifouling coating. The novel Cu2+ ion imprinting process described is based on the use of metal ion templates and LbL multilayer covalent

  13. A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high-energy x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; WESTERGAARD, NJ

    1992-01-01

    A high energy telescope design is presented which combines grazing incidence geometry with Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multilayer coating to obtain significant sensitivity up to --6O keV. The concept utilizes total reflection and first order Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multi...

  14. FDTD-based quantitative analysis of terahertz wave detection for multilayered structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wanli; Zhong, Shuncong; Shen, Yaochun; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Ligang

    2014-10-01

    Experimental investigations have shown that terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) is able to quantitatively characterize a range of multilayered media (e.g., biological issues, pharmaceutical tablet coatings, layered polymer composites, etc.). Advanced modeling of the interaction of terahertz radiation with a multilayered medium is required to enable the wide application of terahertz technology in a number of emerging fields, including nondestructive testing. Indeed, there have already been many theoretical analyses performed on the propagation of terahertz radiation in various multilayered media. However, to date, most of these studies used 1D or 2D models, and the dispersive nature of the dielectric layers was not considered or was simplified. In the present work, the theoretical framework of using terahertz waves for the quantitative characterization of multilayered media was established. A 3D model based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is proposed. A batch of pharmaceutical tablets with a single coating layer of different coating thicknesses and different refractive indices was modeled. The reflected terahertz wave from such a sample was computed using the FDTD method, assuming that the incident terahertz wave is broadband, covering a frequency range up to 3.5 THz. The simulated results for all of the pharmaceutical-coated tablets considered were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results obtained using a commercial TPI system. In addition, we studied a three-layered medium to mimic the occurrence of defects in the sample.

  15. Development and production of hard X-ray multilayer optics for HEFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koglin, J.E; Christensen, Finn Erland; Chonko, J.

    2002-01-01

    approximation Wolter-I design. The segmented mirrors that form these layers are made of thermally formed glass substrates coated with depth-graded multilayer films for enhanced reflectivity. The mirrors are assembled using an over-constraint method that forces the overall shape of the nominally cylindrical...

  16. Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Peter H.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Platonov, Yuriy Y.

    1997-01-01

    on the inside surface of a quarter cylinder section. We found that interfacial roughness (σ) in the multilayers was typically between 3.5 and 4.0 Å on DESAG glass, and between 4.5 and 5.0 Å on the ERAFs. Also, we found that coatings deposited on glass that has been thermally formed into a cylindrical shape...

  17. Gold-supported two-dimensional cobalt oxyhydroxide (CoOOH) and multilayer cobalt oxide islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fester, Jakob; Walton, Alexander; Li, Zheshen

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the facile conversion of Co-O bilayer islands on a Au(111) surface into preferentially O-Co-O trilayers in an oxygen atmosphere and O-Co-O-Co-O multilayers at elevated temperature. We characterize and compare the island morphologies with scanning tunneling...... microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and valence band spectroscopy, and show that the cobalt oxidation state changes from Co2+ in bilayers to purely Co3+ in trilayers and a mixture of Co2+ and Co3+ in the multilayer morphology. In contrast to bilayers and multilayers, the trilayer structure...

  18. Cellulose multilayer Membranes manufacture with Ionic liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Livazovic, Sara

    2015-05-09

    Membrane processes are considered energy-efficient for water desalination and treatment. However most membranes are based on polymers prepared from fossil petrochemical sources. The development of multilayer membranes for nanofiltration and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions in tetrahydrofuran, followed by solvent evaporation and cellulose regeneration by acid treatment; (ii) casting from solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolum acetate ([C2mim]OAc), an ionic liquid, followed by phase inversion in water. By these methods porous supports could be easily coated with semi-crystalline cellulose. The membranes were hydrophilic with contact angles as low as 22.0°, molecular weight cut-off as low as 3000 g mol-1 with corresponding water permeance of 13.8 Lm−2 h−1 bar−1. Self-standing cellulose membranes were also manufactured without porous substrate, using only ionic liquid as green solvent. This membrane was insoluble in water, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and N,N-dimethylacetamide.

  19. A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickworth, L. A., E-mail: pickworth1@llnl.gov; McCarville, T.; Decker, T.; Pardini, T.; Ayers, J.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Izumi, N.; Mirkarimi, P.; Pivovaroff, M.; Smalyuk, V.; Vogel, J.; Walton, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Current pinhole x ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is limited in resolution and signal throughput to the detector for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications, due to the viable range of pinhole sizes (10–25 μm) that can be deployed. A higher resolution and throughput diagnostic is in development using a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope system (KBM). The system will achieve <9 μm resolution over a 300 μm field of view with a multilayer coating operating at 10.2 keV. Presented here are the first images from the uncoated NIF KBM configuration demonstrating high resolution has been achieved across the full 300 μm field of view.

  20. Characterization of casein and poly-l-arginine multilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Kilan, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P.

    2014-06-01

    Thin films containing casein appear to be a promising material for coatings used in the medical area to promote biomineralization. alfa- and beta-casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films were formed by the layer-by layer technique and their thickness and mass were analyzed by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). We investigated the effect of the type of casein used for the film formation and of the polyethyleneimine anchoring layer on the thickness and mass of adsorbed films. The analysis of the mass of films during their post-treatment with the solutions of various ionic strength and pH provided the information concerning films stability, while the XPS elemental analysis confirmed binding of calcium ions by the casein embedded in the multilayers.

  1. Multilayer graphene rubber nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Bernhard; Frasca, Daniele; Schulze, Dietmar; Wachtendorf, Volker; Krafft, Bernd; Morys, Michael; Böhning, Martin; Rybak, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer Graphene (MLG), a nanoparticle with a specific surface of BET = 250 m2/g and thus made of only approximately 10 graphene sheets, is proposed as a nanofiller for rubbers. When homogenously dispersed, it works at low loadings enabling the replacement of carbon black (CB), increase in efficiency, or reduction in filler concentration. Actually the appropriate preparation yielded nanocomposites in which just 3 phr are sufficient to significantly improve the rheological, curing and mechanical properties of different rubbers, as shown for Chlorine-Isobutylene-Isoprene Rubber (CIIR), Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Natural Rubber (NR), and Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR). A mere 3 phr of MLG tripled the Young's modulus of CIIR, an effect equivalent to 20 phr of carbon black. Similar equivalents are observed for MLG/CB mixtures. MLG reduces gas permeability, increases thermal and electrical conductivities, and retards fire behavior. The later shown by the reduction in heat release rate in the cone calorimeter. The higher the nanofiller concentration is (3 phr, 5 phr, and 10 phr was investigated), the greater the improvement in the properties of the nanocomposites. Moreover, the MLG nanocomposites improve stability of mechanical properties against weathering. An increase in UV-absorption as well as a pronounced radical scavenging are proposed and were proved experimentally. To sum up, MLG is interesting as a multifunctional nanofiller and seems to be quite ready for rubber development.

  2. Mo/Si multilayers with enhanced TiO II- and RuO II-capping layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulin, Sergiy; Benoit, Nicolas; Feigl, Torsten; Kaiser, Norbert; Fang, Ming; Chandhok, Manish

    2008-03-01

    The lifetime of Mo/Si multilayer-coated projection optics is one of the outstanding issues on the road of commercialization of extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). The application of Mo/Si multilayer optics in EUVL requires both sufficient radiation stability and also the highest possible normal-incidence reflectivity. A serious problem of conventional high-reflective Mo/Si multilayers capped by silicon is the considerable degradation of reflective properties due to carbonization and oxidation of the silicon surface layer under exposure by EUV radiation. In this study, we focus on titanium dioxide (TiO II) and ruthenium dioxide (RuO II) as promising capping layer materials for EUVL multilayer coatings. The multilayer designs as well as the deposition parameters of the Mo/Si systems with different capping layers were optimized in terms of maximum peak reflectivity at the wavelength of 13.5 nm and longterm stability under high-intensive irradiation. Optimized TiO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with an initial reflectivity of 67.0% presented a reflectivity drop of 0.6% after an irradiation dose of 760 J/mm2. The reflectivity drop was explained by the partial oxidation of the silicon sub-layer. No reflectivity loss after similar irradiation dose was found for RuO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors having initial peak reflectivity of 66%. In this paper we present data on improved reflectivity of interface-engineered TiO II- and RuO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors due to the minimization of both interdiffusion processes inside the multilayer stack and absorption loss in the oxide layer. Reflectivities of 68.5% at the wavelength of 13.4 nm were achieved for both TiO II- and RuO II-capped Mo/Si multilayer mirrors.

  3. Self-stratifying antimicrobial coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagci, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Today, antimicrobial polymers/coatings are widely used in various areas, such as biomedical devices, pharmaceuticals, hospital buildings, textiles, food processing, and contact lenses, where sanitation is needed. Such wide application facilities have made antimicrobial materials very attractive for

  4. Coating optimization for the ATHENA+ mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2013-01-01

    The ATHENA mission concept, now called ATHENA+, continues to be refined to address important questions in modern astrophysics. Previous studies have established that the requirement for effective area can be achieved using a combination of bi-layer coatings and/or simple graded multilayers. We find...... that further coating developments can improve on the baseline specifications and present here preliminary results on the optimization of coating design based on the new specifications of the ATHENA+ mission. The performances of several material combinations are investigated with the goal of maximizing...

  5. Steam initiated hydrotalcite conversion coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    A facile process of exploiting high-temperature steam to deposit nvironmentally friendly hydrotalcite (HT) coatings on Al alloy 6060 was developed in a spray system. Scanning electron microscopy showed the formationf a continuous and conformal coating comprised of a compact mass of crystallites. ...

  6. Preparation and characterization of iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyethylenimine through a facile one-pot deposition route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Isa; Aghazadeh, Mustafa; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Doroudi, Taher; Kolivand, Peir Hossein

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we report the electrochemical synthesis and simultaneous in situ coating of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylenimine (PEI). The cathodic deposition was carried out through electro-generation of OH- on the surface of cathode. An aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3·9H2O (3.4 g/L) and FeCl2·4H2O (1.6 g/L) was used as the deposition bath. The electrochemical precipitation experiments were performed in the direct current mode under a 10 mA cm-2 current density for 30 min. Polymer coating was performed in an identical deposition bath containing of 0.5 g PVP and 0.5 g PEI. The deposited uncoated and PVP-PEI coated MNPs were characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and field-emission scanning and transmission electron microscopies (FE-SEM and TEM). Structural XRD and IR analyses revealed both samples to be composed of pure crystalline magnetite (Fe3O4). Morphological observations through FE-SEM and TEM proved the product to be spherical nanoparticles in the range of 10-15 nm. The presence of two coating polymers (i.e. PVP and PEI) on the surface of the electro-synthesized MNPs was proved by FTIR and DLS results. The percentage of the polymer coating (31.8%) on the MNPs surface was also determined based on DSC-TGA data. The high magnetization value, coercivity and remanence values measured by VSM indicated the superparamagnetic nature of both prepared MNPs. The obtained results confirmed that the prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles had suitable physico-chemical and magnetic properties for biomedical applications.

  7. Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties in steel surfaces by using titanium-aluminum/titanium-aluminum nitride multilayered system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipaz, L., E-mail: leoipazc@gmail.com [Thin Films Group, Physics departament, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 100-00, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, J.C. [Thin Films Group, Physics departament, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 100-00, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Esteve, J. [Department de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Espinoza-Beltran, F.J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 76230 (Mexico); Zambrano, G. [Thin Films Group, Physics departament, Universidad del Valle, Calle 13 100-00, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2012-02-01

    Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties on AISI D3 steel surfaces coated with [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N]{sub n} multilayer systems deposited in various bilayer periods ({Lambda}) via magnetron co-sputtering pulsed d.c. method, from a metallic binary target; has been studied in this work exhaustively. The multilayer coatings were characterized in terms of structural, chemical, morphological, mechanical and tribological properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, pin-on-disc and scratch tests, respectively. The failure mode mechanisms were studied by optical microscopy. Results from X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal structure of TiAl/TiAlN multilayer coatings has a tetragonal and FCC NaCl-type lattice structures for Ti-Al and Ti-Al-N, respectively, i.e., it was found to be non-isostructural multilayers. An enhancement of both hardness and elastic modulus up to 29 GPa and 260 GPa, respectively, was observed as the bilayer periods ({Lambda}) in the coatings were decreased. The sample with a bilayer period ({Lambda}) of 25 nm and bilayer number n = 100 showed the lowest friction coefficient ({approx}0.28) and the highest critical load (45 N), corresponding to 2.7 and 1.5 times better than those values for the coating deposited with n = 1, respectively. These results indicate an enhancement of mechanical, tribological and adhesion properties, comparing to the [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N]{sub n} multilayer systems with 1 bilayer at 26%, 63% and 33%, respectively. This enhancement in hardness and toughness for multilayer coatings could be attributed to the different mechanisms for layer formation with nanometric thickness such as the novel Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N effect and the number of interfaces that act as obstacles for the crack deflection and dissipation of crack energy.

  8. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Graphene/Epoxy Resin Composite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zijun; Zhang, Tianchi; Qiao, Sen; Zhang, Luyihang

    2017-11-01

    The multilayer graphene powder as filler, epoxy modified silicone resin as film-forming agent, anticorrosion composite coating has been created using sand dispersion method, the electrochemical performance was compared with different content of graphene composite coating and pure epoxy resin coating. The open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization curves (Tafel Plot) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were tested. The test results showed that the anti-corrosion performance of multilayer graphene added has improved greatly, and the content of the 5% best corrosion performance of graphene composite coating.

  9. Sectioning of multilayers to make a multilayer Laue lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyon Chol; Stephenson, G. Brian; Liu Chian; Conley, Ray; Khachatryan, Ruben; Wieczorek, Michael; Macrander, Albert T.; Yan Hanfei; Maser, Joerg; Hiller, Jon; Koritala, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    We report a process to fabricate multilayer Laue lenses (MLL's) by sectioning and thinning multilayer films. This method can produce a linear zone plate structure with a very large ratio of zone depth to width (e.g., >1000), orders of magnitude larger than can be attained with photolithography. Consequently, MLL's are advantageous for efficient nanofocusing of hard x rays. MLL structures prepared by the technique reported here have been tested at an x-ray energy of 19.5 keV, and a diffraction-limited performance was observed. The present article reports the fabrication techniques that were used to make the MLL's

  10. Nanomechanical properties of TiCN and TiCN/Ti coatings on Ti prepared by Filtered Arc Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yong; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Hailiang; Kiet Tieu, A.; Su, Lihong; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Hongtao; Kong, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Monolayer TiCN and multilayer TiCN/Ti coatings were deposited on the surface of Ti using the Filtered Arc Deposition System (FADS). Nanoindentation tests were performed on both coatings. The multilayer TiCN/Ti coating exhibited better ductility than the monolayer TiCN coating. The lattice constants of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the fracture behavior of the coatings. Inter-columnar, inclined and lateral cracks were found to be the dominant crack modes in the monolayer TiCN coatings while small bending crack and radial crack were the dominant crack modes in the multilayer TiCN/Ti coatings. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to simulate the indentation process. It was found that the Ti interlayer in the multilayer TiCN/Ti coating could efficiently suppress the fracture, which is responsible for the improved ductility of the multilayer TiCN/Ti coating

  11. Advanced coatings for next generation lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujok, P.; Yulin, S.; Kaiser, N.; Tünnermann, A.

    2015-03-01

    Beyond EUV lithography at 6.X nm wavelength has a potential to extend EUVL beyond the 11 nm node. To implement B-based mirrors and to enable their industrial application in lithography tools, a reflectivity level of > 70% has to be reached in near future. The authors will prove that transition from conventional La/B4C to promising LaN/B4C multilayer coatings leads to enhanced optical properties. Currently a near normal-incidence reflectivity of 58.1% @ 6.65 nm is achieved by LaN/B4C multilayer mirrors. The introduction of ultrathin diffusion barriers into the multilayer design to reach the targeted reflectivity of 70% was also tested. The optimization of multilayer design and deposition process for interface-engineered La/C/B4C multilayer mirrors resulted in peak reflectivity of 56.8% at the wavelength of 6.66 nm. In addition, the thermal stability of several selected multilayers was investigated and will be discussed.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloy multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cortés, J.F.; San Juan, J.; López, G.A.; Nó, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Among active materials, shape memory alloys are well recognized for their work output density. Because of that, these alloys have attracted much attention to be used in micro/nano electromechanical systems. In the present work, the electron beam evaporation technique has been used to growth, by a multilayer method, two shape memory alloy thin films with different Cu–Al–Ni composition. Multilayers have been further thermally treated to produce the alloys by solid solution diffusion. The produced multilayers have been characterized and the presence of the martensite phase in the obtained thin films was studied. Furthermore, the influence of two different coatings onto the Si substrates, namely Si/SiO 2 and Si/Si 3 N 4 , was investigated. Mechanically stable, not detaching from the substrates, Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloy thin films, about 1 micrometre thick, showing a martensitic transformation have been produced. - Highlights: ► Multilayer thin films of Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloys produced by e-beam evaporation. ► SiN X 200 nm thick coating is good for high quality Cu–Al–Ni shape memory thin films. ► Thermal treatment renders Cu–Al–Ni multilayer in homogeneous martensite thin film

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloy multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Cortés, J.F. [Dpt. Física Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); San Juan, J., E-mail: jose.sanjuan@ehu.es [Dpt. Física Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); López, G.A.; Nó, M.L. [Dpt. Física Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    Among active materials, shape memory alloys are well recognized for their work output density. Because of that, these alloys have attracted much attention to be used in micro/nano electromechanical systems. In the present work, the electron beam evaporation technique has been used to growth, by a multilayer method, two shape memory alloy thin films with different Cu–Al–Ni composition. Multilayers have been further thermally treated to produce the alloys by solid solution diffusion. The produced multilayers have been characterized and the presence of the martensite phase in the obtained thin films was studied. Furthermore, the influence of two different coatings onto the Si substrates, namely Si/SiO{sub 2} and Si/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, was investigated. Mechanically stable, not detaching from the substrates, Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloy thin films, about 1 micrometre thick, showing a martensitic transformation have been produced. - Highlights: ► Multilayer thin films of Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloys produced by e-beam evaporation. ► SiN{sub X} 200 nm thick coating is good for high quality Cu–Al–Ni shape memory thin films. ► Thermal treatment renders Cu–Al–Ni multilayer in homogeneous martensite thin film.

  14. The possibility of giant dielectric materials for multilayer ceramic capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tatsuya; Endo, Makoto; Masuda, Kenichiro; Ishida, Keisuke

    2013-02-11

    There have been numerous reports on discovery of giant dielectric permittivity materials called internal barrier layer capacitor in the recent years. We took particular note of one of such materials, i.e., BaTiO 3 with SiO 2 coating. It shows expressions of giant electric permittivity when processed by spark plasma sintering. So we evaluated various electrical characteristics of this material to find out whether it is applicable to multilayer ceramic capacitors. Our evaluation revealed that the isolated surface structure is the sole cause of expressions of giant dielectric permittivity.

  15. Preparation and characterization of iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyethylenimine through a facile one-pot deposition route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimzadeh, Isa [Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Khatam ol Anbia Specialty and Subspecialty Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghazadeh, Mustafa, E-mail: maghazadeh@aeoi.org.ir [NFCRS, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), P.O. Box 14395-834, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Doroudi, Taher; Kolivand, Peir Hossein [Shefa Neuroscience Research Center, Khatam ol Anbia Specialty and Subspecialty Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • MNPs were prepared by cathodic electrodeposition. • In situ double polymer coating was achieved during electrodeposition. • The prepared MNPs have proper size and properties for biomedical applications. - Abstract: In this article, we report the electrochemical synthesis and simultaneous in situ coating of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylenimine (PEI). The cathodic deposition was carried out through electro-generation of OH{sup −} on the surface of cathode. An aqueous solution of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O (3.4 g/L) and FeCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O (1.6 g/L) was used as the deposition bath. The electrochemical precipitation experiments were performed in the direct current mode under a 10 mA cm{sup −2} current density for 30 min. Polymer coating was performed in an identical deposition bath containing of 0.5 g PVP and 0.5 g PEI. The deposited uncoated and PVP-PEI coated MNPs were characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and field-emission scanning and transmission electron microscopies (FE-SEM and TEM). Structural XRD and IR analyses revealed both samples to be composed of pure crystalline magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Morphological observations through FE-SEM and TEM proved the product to be spherical nanoparticles in the range of 10–15 nm. The presence of two coating polymers (i.e. PVP and PEI) on the surface of the electro-synthesized MNPs was proved by FTIR and DLS results. The percentage of the polymer coating (31.8%) on the MNPs surface was also determined based on DSC-TGA data. The high magnetization value, coercivity and remanence values measured by VSM indicated the superparamagnetic nature of both prepared MNPs. The obtained results confirmed that the prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles had suitable physico

  16. Design and fabrication of heat resistant multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, J.M.; Knight, L.V.; Peterson, B.G.; Perkins, R.T.; Gray, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many promising applications of multilayer x-ray optical elements subject them to intense radiation. This paper discusses the selection of optimal pairs of materials to resist heat damage and presents simulations of multilayer performance under extreme heat loadings

  17. Self-assembled hemocompatible coating on poly (vinyl chloride) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha Zhengbao; Ma Yan; Yue Xiuli; Liu Meng [Nanobiotechnology Division, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, School of Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai Zhifei, E-mail: zhifei.dai@hit.edu.cn [Nanobiotechnology Division, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resources and Environment, School of Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-11-15

    A stable hemocompatible coating was fabricated by consecutive alternating adsorption of iron (III) and two kinds of polysaccharides, heparin (Hep) and dextran sulfate (DS), onto poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces via electrostatic interaction. The fluctuation of contact angles with the alternative deposition of iron (III) and polysaccharides verified the progressive buildup of the mulitilayer coating onto the PVC surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the PVC surfaces were completely masked by iron-polysaccharides multilayer coatings. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay showed that both Hep/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep and DS/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coated PVC were less thrombogenic than the uncoated one. Chromogenic assay for heparin activity proved definitively that the inhibition of locally produced thrombin was ascribed to the thromboresistance of the surface-bound heparin. Compared with the unmodified PVC surfaces, iron-polysaccharide multilayer coating presented a drastically reduced adhesion in vitro of platelets, polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Interestingly, the DS/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coating was found to exhibit higher hydrophilicity and stability, hence lower non-specific protein adsorption in comparison with Hep/Fe{sup 3+}/Hep coating due to the incorporation of dextran sulfate into the multilayer coating.

  18. Transfer matrices for multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquero, R.

    1988-08-01

    We consider four of the transfer matrices defined to deal with multilayer structures. We deduce algorithms to calculate them numerically, in a simple and neat way. We illustrate their application to semi-infinite systems using SGFM formulae. These algorithms are of fast convergence and allow a calculation of bulk-, surface- and inner-layers band structure in good agreement with much more sophisticated calculations. Supermatrices, interfaces and multilayer structures can be calculated in this way with a small computational effort. (author). 10 refs

  19. X-ray Multilayers and Thin-Shell Substrate Surface-Figure Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, David

    We propose a comprehensive experimental research program whose two main goals are (a) to improve the performance of hard X-ray multilayer coatings and (b) to develop a high-throughput method to correct mid-frequency surface errors in thin-shell mirror substrates. Achieving these goals will enable the cost-effective construction of light- weight, highly-nested X-ray telescopes having greater observational sensitivity, wider energy coverage, and higher angular resolution than can be achieved at present. The realization of this technology will thus benefit the development of a variety of Explorer- class NASA X-ray astronomy missions now being formulated for both the soft and hard X-ray bands, and will enable the construction of future facility-class X-ray missions that will require both high sensitivity and high resolution. Building on the success of our previous APRA-funded research, we plan to investigate new thin-film growth techniques, new materials, and new aperiodic coating designs in order to develop new hard X-ray multilayers that have higher X-ray reflectance, wider energy response, lower film stress, and good stability, and that can be produced more quickly, at reduced cost. Additionally, we propose to build upon our extensive experience in sub-nm film-thickness control using velocity modulation and masked deposition techniques, and in the recent development of low-roughness, low-stress films grown by reactive sputtering, in order to develop new methods for correcting mid-frequency surface errors in thin-shell mirror substrates using both differential deposition and ion-beam figuring, either alone or in combination. These two surface-correction techniques already being used for sub-nm figuring of precision optics in a variety of disciplines, including diffraction-limited EUV lithography and synchrotron applications requiring sub-micron focusing are ideally suited for controlling mm-scale surface errors in the thin-shell substrates used for astronomical X

  20. "m=1" coatings for neutron guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.P.; Vorobiev, A.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2014-01-01

    A substantial part of the price for a neutron guide is the shielding needed because of the gamma ray produced when neutrons are absorbed. This absorption occurs in the coating and the substrate of the neutron guides. Traditional m=1 coatings have been made of Ni and if reflectivity over...... the critical angle of Ni is needed one has used Ni58 or Ni/Ti multilayer coatings. Ni has one of the highest neutron scattering density but it also has a fairly high absorption cross section for cold and thermal neutrons and when a neutron is absorbed it emits a lot of gamma rays, some with energies above 9 Me...... of diamond coatings to show the potential for using these coatings in neutron guides....

  1. Overview of PVD wear resistant coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeter, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The combined functionality of wear-resistant and low-friction multilayer coatings has widened application possibilities for a new generation of coated tools. For the first time tool wear mechanisms are comprehensively addressed both at the cutting edge and contact areas away from the edge where chip evacuation is facilitated. Since its recent market introduction a combined TiA1N and WC/C PVD coating has been proven to increase cutting performance in various metal cutting operations, notably drilling and tapping of steels and aluminum alloys. Significant improvements have been obtained under dry as well as with coolant conditions. The results of laboratory metal cutting tests and field trials to date will be described. Correlations between chip formation / wear mechanisms and coating properties are given to explain the effectiveness of this coating. (author)

  2. An experimental estimation of the resistance against a high-temperature gas corrosion of C/C composite materials with protective plasma coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babin, S.V.; Khripakov, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    Materials with well-defined structure has been proposed as corrosion- and erosion-resistant coating from the carbon-carbon composite. Experiments on heat and erosion resistance of plasma coatings at carbon-carbon composite materials demonstrate availability of multilayer with upper erosion resistant layer on the basis of aluminium oxide, intermediate layer on the basis of boron-containing components with aluminium additions and damping layer of silicon carbide. Multilayer protective coats offer demand service characteristics of details [ru

  3. On the influence of internal interfaces and properties of multiphase hard material coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilz, G.

    1992-04-01

    In the system TiC-TiB 2 -B 4 C-SiC coatings with different amounts of phase boundaries were prepared by magnetron sputtering: multilayer coatings with 10, 100 and 1000 individual layers and a total thickness of 5 μm as well as single layer multiphase coatings deposited from multiphase targets on heated and unheated substrates. To know the influence of internal interfaces in those coatings, structure and properties of the corresponding single phase coatings were studied also. TEM examinations of cross-section samples showed that B 4 C and SiC coatings are amorphous whereas TiC and TiB 2 coatings are crystalline with a texture which depends on deposition parameters and is developed with growing thickness of the coating. Therefore the texture of TiC and TiB 2 layers in multilayer coatings depends on the thickness of the individual layer. While the texture of single layers in multilayer SiC-TiC, SiC-TiB 2 , B 4 C-TiB 2 , and B 4 C-SiC coatings corresponds to the structure of single phase coatings of the same thickness, in TiC-TiB 2 coatings the texture of the individual layers is also influenced by the texture of the previous layer. The occurence of mixing zones between the layers depends on the materials, but also on the crystallinity of the previous layer. (orig.(MM) [de

  4. Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niese, Sven; Krüger, Peter; Kubec, Adam; Laas, Roman; Gawlitza, Peter; Melzer, Kathleen; Braun, Stefan; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2014-01-01

    Diffractive optics for hard X-rays feature superior properties in terms of resolution and efficiency, if volume diffraction effects are exploited all-over the aperture. For multilayer Laue lenses, preferably a wedged geometry is required to obtain this effect. We present an approach utilizing an additional stress layer to realize the necessary geometrical modifications where each lens can be customized to a selected photon energy independently of the given multilayer deposition. The quality of the deposition of the stress layer is evaluated using a laboratory X-ray microscope prior to its application at synchrotron radiation facilities with a special approach to measure the relative layer tilt at high spatial resolution. - Highlights: • Wedged multilayer Laue lenses were fabricated using an additional stress layer. • Each lens can be customized to any photon energy independently of the multilayer. • The relative layer tilt is measured using laboratory X-ray microscopy

  5. Multilayer roughness and image formation in the Schwarzschild objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1996-01-01

    We present a study of the effect of multilayer-surface-roughness-induced scattering in the image formation of the Schwarzschild objective (SO) used in the spectromicroscope MAXIMUM. The two mirrors comprising the SO are coated with Ru/B 4 C multilayers that have a peak reflectivity at 130 eV. We had long observed that a diffuse x-ray background surrounds the focused x-ray spot. The spatial resolution remains at 0.1 μm in spite of this. However, since a significant fraction of the flux is lost to the background, since too large an area of the sample is illuminated, and since the S/N ratio is degraded, the origins of this effect merit investigation. This diffuse background resulting from x-ray scattering at the surface of the mirrors was mapped out using bidirectional knife edge scans. Complementary surface roughness simulations were carried out with the ray-tracing program SHADOW. AFM experiments were also done to directly measure the surface roughness and power spectrum of representative multilayers. Following curve fitting, it was possible to classify Gaussian components in both the measured and simulated profiles as arising from scattering occurring at either the convex primary mirror or the concave secondary mirror. Together with geometrical analysis, these techniques permitted us to track the image formation process of an actual optical system in the presence of surface roughness. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. ENCAPSULATION OF ANTITUBERCULAR DRUGS BY BIOPOLYMERS AND POLYELECTROLYTE MULTILAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Mussabayeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment is complex and urgent: the standardof treatment includes the oral administration of six names of antibiotics, i.e. up totwenty tablets a day by the patient. This causes severe side effects, including those appeareddue to the formation of toxic products of drug interactions in the body. Therefore, itis important that some drugs dissolve in a stomach, and others – in the intestine, which willlead to increased bioavailability, reduced dosage and toxicity. The development of targeteddelivery systems for drugs with controlled release, targeted delivery and minimization ofside effects are of interest. One of the promising methods is polyelectrolytic multilayersand the technology of creating such layers by a step-by-step adsorption of heterogeneouslycharged polyelectrolytes.The aim of this article is the microencapsulation of anti-tuberculousdrugs into biopolymers coated with polyelectrolytic multilayers, and the solubilitystudy of microcapsules at pH values simulating various parts of the gastrointestinal tract.Materials and methods. Drugs as isoniazide, pyrazinamide, moxifloxacin, and biopolymers:gellan, pectin and sodium alginate, chitosan and dextran sulfate, as well as EudragitS are used to prepare microcapsules. The obtained microcapsules are studied by a methodof scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative determination of the effectiveness of the inclusionof drugs in microcapsules was carried out using pharmacopoeial methods.Results and discussion. The inclusion efficiency rises with an increase of biopolymer concentration. The inclusion efficiency increases in the row isoniazide coating with polyelectrolytic multilayers is shown.At pH = 7.4, the degree of release of the drugs from microcapsules without applied multilayersfor 12 hours was

  7. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  8. New developments in Ni/Ti multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I; Hoghoj, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    It is now 20 years since super-mirrors were first used as a neutron optical element. Since then the field of multilayer neutron-optics has matured with multilayers finding their way to application in many neutron scattering instruments. However, there is still room for progress in terms of multilayer quality, performance and application. Along with work on multilayers for neutron polarisation Ni/Ti super-mirrors have been optimised. The state-of-the-art Ni/Ti super-mirror performance and the results obtained in two neutron-optics applications of Ni/Ti multilayers are presented. (author).

  9. Enhancement of growth and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells via facile surface functionalization of polylactide membrane with chitooligosaccharide based on polydopamine adhesive coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huihua; Luo, Chuang; Luo, Binghong; Wen, Wei; Wang, Xiaoying; Ding, Shan; Zhou, Changren

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • COS was conveniently immobilized on PDLLA membrane based on PDOPA adhesive layer. • The hydrophilicity of PDLLA membrane was improved by modified with PDOPA and COS. • COS-functionalized PDLLA membrane is favorable to cell adhesion and proliferation. • COS-coated PDLLA membrane notably promote osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1. - Abstract: To develop a chitooligosaccharide(COS)-functionalized poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) membrane to enhance growth and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, firstly a thin polydopamine (PDOPA) layer was adhered to the PDLLA membrane via the self-polymerization and strong adhesion behavior of dopamine. Subsequently, COS was immobilized covalently on the resultant PDLLA/PDOPA composite membrane by coupling with PDOPA active coating. The successful immobilization of the PDOPA and COS was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results indicated that the surface topography and roughness of the membranes were changed, and the root mean square increased from 0.613 nm to 6.96 and 7.12 nm, respectively after coating PDOPA and COS. Water contact angle and surface energy measurements revealed that the membrane hydrophilicity was remarkably improved by surface modification. In vitro cells culture results revealed that the PDOPA- and COS-functionalized surfaces showed a significant increase in MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and alkaline phosphate activity compared to the pristine PDLLA substrate. Furthermore the COS-functionalized PDLLA membrane was more effectively at enhancing osteoblast activity than the PDOPA-functionalized PDLLA membrane.

  10. Optical coating preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, P.; Sabary, F.; Marcel, C.

    2003-01-01

    In order to optimize the properties of optical components, thin film deposition with controlled thickness and refractive index is often needed. Two different deposition techniques are proposed in this article and illustrated with examples: physical vapor deposition (PVD) and liquid sol-gel process (LSG). PVD and LSG techniques are equivalent as far as the following topics are concerned: elaboration of oxide or composite coated material, optical performance, mechanical performance, and laser performance. PVD is better for the elaboration of metallic films, the design of multi-layers or complex pile-up of layers. LSG is better for the treatment of large surfaces, for substrates with complicated shapes and for its low cost. PVD technique has been widely used so it benefited from an industrial maturity and a clean technology concerning wastes and effluents. On the contrary LSG is a new technique not yet widely used in industrial processes but that looks promising. (A.C.)

  11. Development of a low activation concrete shielding wall by multi-layered structure for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi; Maegawa, Toshio; Yoshimatsu, Kenji; Sato, Koichi; Nonaka, Akira; Takakura, Kosuke; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara

    2011-01-01

    A multi-layered concrete structure has been developed to reduce induced activity in the shielding for neutron generating facilities such as a fusion reactor. The multi-layered concrete structure is composed of: (1) an inner low activation concrete, (2) a boron-doped low activation concrete as the second layer, and (3) ordinary concrete as the outer layer of the neutron shield. With the multi-layered concrete structure the volume of boron is drastically decreased compared to a monolithic boron-doped concrete. A 14 MeV neutron shielding experiment with multi-layered concrete structure mockups was performed at FNS and several reaction rates and induced activity in the mockups were measured. This demonstrated that the multi-layered concrete effectively reduced low energy neutrons and induced activity.

  12. High performance EUV multilayer structures insensitive to capping layer optical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzo, Maria Guglielmina; Suman, Michele; Monaco, Gianni; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Windt, David L

    2008-09-15

    We have designed and tested a-periodic multilayer structures containing protective capping layers in order to obtain improved stability with respect to any possible changes of the capping layer optical properties (due to oxidation and contamination, for example)-while simultaneously maximizing the EUV reflection efficiency for specific applications, and in particular for EUV lithography. Such coatings may be particularly useful in EUV lithographic apparatus, because they provide both high integrated photon flux and higher stability to the harsh operating environment, which can affect seriously the performance of the multilayer-coated projector system optics. In this work, an evolutive algorithm has been developed in order to design these a-periodic structures, which have been proven to have also the property of stable performance with respect to random layer thickness errors that might occur during coating deposition. Prototypes have been fabricated, and tested with EUV and X-ray reflectometry, and secondary electron spectroscopy. The experimental results clearly show improved performance of our new a-periodic coatings design compared with standard periodic multilayer structures.

  13. Diagnostics of transparent polymer coatings of metal items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varepo, L. G.; Ermakova, I. N.; Nagornova, I. V.; Kondratov, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    The methods of visual and instrumental express diagnostics of safety critical defects and non-uniform thickness of transparent mono- and multilayer polyolefin surface coating of metal items are analyzed in the paper. The instrumental diagnostics method relates to colorimetric measuring based on effects, which appear in the polarized light for extrusion polymer coatings. A color coordinates dependence (in the color system CIE La*b*) on both HDPE / PVC coating thickness fluctuation values (from average ones) and coating interlayer or adhesion layer delaminating is shown. A variation of color characteristics in the polarized light at a liquid penetration into delaminated polymer layers is found. Measuring parameters and critical uncertainties are defined.

  14. Nanomechanical Behavior of High Gas Barrier Multilayer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humood, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Shahla; Song, Yixuan; Tzeng, Ping; Grunlan, Jaime C; Polycarpou, Andreas A

    2016-05-04

    Nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were performed on thin multilayer films manufactured using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. These films are known to exhibit high gas barrier, but little is known about their durability, which is an important feature for various packaging applications (e.g., food and electronics). Films were prepared from bilayer and quadlayer sequences, with varying thickness and composition. In an effort to evaluate multilayer thin film surface and mechanical properties, and their resistance to failure and wear, a comprehensive range of experiments were conducted: low and high load indentation, low and high load scratch. Some of the thin films were found to have exceptional mechanical behavior and exhibit excellent scratch resistance. Specifically, nanobrick wall structures, comprising montmorillonite (MMT) clay and polyethylenimine (PEI) bilayers, are the most durable coatings. PEI/MMT films exhibit high hardness, large elastic modulus, high elastic recovery, low friction, low scratch depth, and a smooth surface. When combined with the low oxygen permeability and high optical transmission of these thin films, these excellent mechanical properties make them good candidates for hard coating surface-sensitive substrates, where polymers are required to sustain long-term surface aesthetics and quality.

  15. Multilayer graphene as an effective corrosion protection coating for copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Vasumathy; Ramaprabhu, S.; Jaiswal, Manu

    2018-04-01

    Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been studied as a protective layer against corrosion of copper. The layer number dependence on the protective nature of graphene has been investigated using techniques such as Tafel analysis and Electroimpedance Spectroscopy. Multiple layers of graphene were achieved by wet transfer above CVD grown graphene. Though this might cause grain boundaries, the sites where corrosion is initiated, to be staggered, wet transfer inherently carries the disadvantage of tearing of graphene, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy measurements. However, Electroimpedance Spectroscopy (EIS) reflects that graphene protected copper has a layer dependent resistance to corrosion. Decrease in corrosion current (Icorr) for graphene protected copper is presented. There is only small dependence of corrosion current on the layer number, Tafel plots clearly indicate passivation in the presence of graphene, whether it be single layer or multiple layers. Notwithstanding the crystallite size, defect free layers of graphene with staggered grain boundaries combined with passivation could offer good corrosion protection for metals.

  16. Tribosystems based on multilayered micro/nanocrystalline CVD diamond coatings =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Mohammadmehdi

    A combinacao das caracteristicas do diamante microcristalino (MCD) e nanocristalino (NCD), tais como elevada adesao do MCD e a baixa rugosidade superficial e baixo coeficiente de atrito do NCD, e ideal para aplicacoes tribologicas exigentes. Deste modo, o presente trabalho centrou-se no desenvolvimento de revestimentos em multicamada MCD/NCD. Filmes com dez camadas foram depositados em amostras de cerâmicos de Si3N4 pela tecnica de deposicao quimica em fase vapor assistida por filamento quente (HFCVD). A microestrutura, qualidade do diamante e adesao foram investigadas usando tecnicas como SEM, AFM, espectroscopia Raman, DRX, indentacao Brale e perfilometria otica 3D. Diversas geometrias para aplicacoes distintas foram revestidas: discos e esferas para testes tribologicos a escala laboratorial, e para testes em servico, aneis de empanques mecânicos e pastilhas de corte para torneamento. Nos ensaios tribologicos esfera-sobre-plano em movimento reciproco, sob 10-90% de humidade relativa (RH), os valores medios dos coeficientes de atrito maximo e em estado estacionario sao de 0,32 e 0,09, respetivamente. Em relacao aos coeficientes de desgaste, observou-se um valor minimo de cerca de 5,2x10-8 mm3N-1m-1 para valores intermedios de 20-25% de RH. A humidade relativa tem um forte efeito sobre o valor da carga critica que triplica a partir de 40 N a 10% RH para 120 N a 90% de RH. No intervalo de temperaturas 50-100 °C, as cargas criticas sao semelhantes as obtidas em condicoes de baixa RH ( 10-25%). A vida util das ferramentas com revestimento de dez camadas alternadas MCD/NCD e 24 mum de espessura total no torneamento de um composito de matriz metalica Al- 15 vol% Al2O3 (Al-MMC) e melhor do que a maioria das ferramentas de diamante CVD encontradas na literatura, e semelhante a maioria das ferramentas de diamante policristalino (PCD). A formacao de cratera ocorre por desgaste sucessivo das varias camadas, atrasando a delaminacao total do revestimento de diamante do substrato, ao contrario do que acontece com os revestimentos monocamada. Os aneis de empanque testados com biodiesel apresentaram coeficientes de desgaste (4,1x10-10 mm3N-1m-1) duas ordens de grandeza menores do que em ensaios esfera-sobre-plano em movimento reciproco (k = 5,0x10-8 mm3N-1m-1), mas nao foi possivel obter vedacao completa devido a sobreaquecimento do fluido. Esta condicao foi obtida com agua sob pressao, para condicoes P.V na gama 0,72-5,3 MPa.ms-1. Um coeficiente de atrito em estado estacionario de 0,04 e um valor de coeficiente de desgaste de 6,0x10-10 mm3N-1m-1, caracteristico de um regime desgaste ultra-suave, revelam o alto desempenho deste tribossistema.

  17. Nanostructured functional multilayer coatings incorporating biomimetic macromolecules for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rui Filipe Ramos da

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento do Programa Doutoral em Engenharia Biomédica The modification of surfaces has been a key aspect in biology and biotechnology, for applications including cell expansion, biomaterials development and preparation of substrates for regenerative medicine. In this thesis, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was employed in the modification of surfaces for multiple purposes, namely for films with improved adhesiveness, enhanced cell adhesion, drug delivery capsules...

  18. Progress in short period multilayer coatings for water window applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullikson, E.M.; Salmassi, F.; Aquila, A.L.; Dollar, F.

    2006-01-01

    Absolute photoionization cross-section measurements for a mixture of ground and metastable states of Xe4+, Xe5+, and Xe6+ are reported in the photon energy range of 4d-nf transitions, which occur within or adjacent to the 13.5 nm window for extreme ultraviolet lithography light source development. The reported values allow the quantification of opacity effects in xenon plasmas due to these 4d-4f autoionizing states. The oscillator strengths for the 4d-4f and 4d-5f transitions in Xeq+ (q=1-6) ions are calculated using nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock and random phase approximations. These are compared with published experimental values for Xe+ to Xe3+ and with the values obtained from the present experimental cross-section measurements for Xe4+ to Xe6+. The calculations assisted in the determination of the metastable content in the ion beams for Xe5+T and Xe6+. The experiments were performed by merging a synchrotron photon beam generated by an undulator beamline of the Advanced Light Source with an ion beam produced by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

  19. EUV multilayer mirror, optical system including a multilayer mirror and method of manufacturing a multilayer mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Qiushi; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik; de Boer, Meint J.; von Blanckenhagen, G.

    2016-01-01

    A multilayer mirror (M) reflecting extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from a first wave-length range in a EUV spectral region comprises a substrate (SUB) and a stack of layers (SL) on the substrate, the stack of layers comprising layers comprising a low index material and a high index material, the

  20. Structural evolution of Ti/TiC multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, I.; Frage, N.; Dariel, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Hard coatings based on metal/ceramic multilayers with periods in the nanometer range have been shown to possess some potential for improved tribological and mechanical properties. The present work is concerned with the structural evolution of (Ti/TiC) multilayers. Two kinds of multilayers consisting of 30 equithick (40 nm)TiC layers and 20 and 60 nm thick Ti layers, respectively, were sputter deposited on Mo substrates. The structural and the compositional evolution of these multilayers were examined by x-ray diffraction, transition electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, Auger electron microscopy spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis (DTA), in the as-deposited state and after various heat treatments up to 500 deg. C. Initially, the Ti layers had a crystalline columnar grain structure displaying a (002) texture. The TiC layers displayed weak crystallinity with a pronounced (111) texture. In the course of the heat treatments, carbon diffused from the carbide layer into the adjacent Ti layers transforming the latter into off-stoichiometric TiC x with x≅0.5 and simultaneously depleting the carbon content of the initial carbide layer. The formed TiC x layers maintained the textural relationship with the neighboring TiC layers, consistent with a transformation that involved only a ABAB to ABC stacking change of the Ti sublattice. Increased mobility of the Ti atoms in carbon-depleted original TiC layers led to their full or partial recrystallization. The thermal effects associated both with the transformation of Ti layers into TiC, due to the influx of carbon atoms, and with the recrystallization of the original TiC layers were clearly revealed by the DTA measurements

  1. Contribution of Titanium, Chromium and Carbon Buffer Interlayers to Bio-Tribological Properties of Multilayer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Ł

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies on bio-tribological protective coatings of titanium, chromium and carbon based have been performed. Thin films were fabricated by hybrid PLD technique (PLD supported by magnetron sputtering. Coatings consisted of two parts; the inner part (first from the substrate in each case was formed by titanium or chromium/titanium nitride or chromium nitride (Ti/TiN or Cr/Cr2N. The outer part was formed by pure DLC or multilayer DLC/Ti or Cr. No delamination was found at the interface. Titanium or chromium metallic layer was deposited as a first layer directly on the metallic substrate to avoid delamination. All individual layers were built of columnar nano-crystallites. Mechanisms of the mechanical wear of analyzed systems were presented, focusing on the cracking propagation in ball-on-disc tests using an 1 N and 5 N applied loads for 5 000 cycles. Complex microstructure analysis of presented nano-multilayer coatings, before and after mechanical tests, were performed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The highest stress concentration during mechanical uploading was moved through the multilayer coating by breaking only one layer at the time. The microstructure characterization revealed that cracking propagating in the outer part of the coating was stopped at the interface. In the case of the inner part of the coating Ti/TiN; Cr/Cr2N, ceramic layers showed brittle cracking, while metallic (Ti or Cr ones deformed plastically. Fabricated coatings were subjected under the analysis in the biomechanical system optimized to test for the direct contact with a human whole blood. The study considered physiological conditions mainly related to the temperature and humidity and the frequency of cyclic deformation of the artificial vessel into which the tested sample was introduced.

  2. Small d-spacing WC/SiC multilayers for future hard X-ray telescope designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C.P.; Madsen, K.K.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2005-01-01

    Multilayer coatings for reflecting hard X-rays up to 80keV, like W/Si and Pt/C, have been studied for several years. To go to higher energies, in the range of 100 keV to 250 keV, one needs coatings with smaller d-spacings than can currently be made with these material combinations, and a lower...

  3. Conformal bi-layered perovskite/spinel coating on a metallic wire network for solid oxide fuel cells via an electrodeposition-based route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Beom-Kyeong; Song, Rak-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Bok; Lim, Tak-Hyoung; Park, Seok-Joo; Jung, WooChul; Lee, Jong-Won

    2017-04-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) require low-cost metallic components for current collection from electrodes as well as electrical connection between unit cells; however, the degradation of their electrical properties and surface stability associated with high-temperature oxidation is of great concern. It is thus important to develop protective conducting oxide coatings capable of mitigating the degradation of metallic components under SOFC operating conditions. Here, we report a conformal bi-layered coating composed of perovskite and spinel oxides on a metallic wire network fabricated by a facile electrodeposition-based route. A highly dense, crack-free, and adhesive bi-layered LaMnO3/Co3O4 coating of ∼1.2 μm thickness is conformally formed on the surfaces of wires with ∼100 μm diameter. We demonstrate that the bi-layered LaMnO3/Co3O4 coating plays a key role in improving the power density and durability of a tubular SOFC by stabilizing the surface of the metallic wire network used as a cathode current collector. The electrodeposition-based technique presented in this study offers a low-cost and scalable process to fabricate conformal multi-layered coatings on various metallic structures.

  4. Cr/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burcklen, C.; Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A.; Rossi, S. de; Delmotte, F. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique Graduate School, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Soufli, R. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique Graduate School, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dennetiere, D.; Polack, F.; Capitanio, B.; Thomasset, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, BP 48F-91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Gullikson, E. [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    We present an experimental study of the effect of layer interfaces on the x-ray reflectance in Cr/B{sub 4}C multilayer interference coatings with layer thicknesses ranging from 0.7 nm to 5.4 nm. The multilayers were deposited by magnetron sputtering and by ion beam sputtering. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry, soft x-ray reflectometry, and transmission electron microscopy reveal asymmetric multilayer structures with a larger B{sub 4}C-on-Cr interface, which we modeled with a 1–1.5 nm thick interfacial layer. Reflectance measurements in the vicinity of the Cr L{sub 2,3} absorption edge demonstrate fine structure that is not predicted by simulations using the currently tabulated refractive index (optical constants) values for Cr.

  5. Atmospheric plasma assisted PLA/microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) multilayer biocomposite for sustainable barrier application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meriçer, Çağlar; Minelli, Matteo; Angelis, Maria G De

    2016-01-01

    Fully bio-based and biodegradable materials, such as polylactic acid (PLA) and microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), are considered in order to produce a completely renewable packaging solution for oxygen barrier applications, even at medium-high relative humidity (R.H.). Thin layers of MFC were coated...... on different PLA substrates by activating film surface with an atmospheric plasma treatment, leading to the fabrication of robust and transparent multilayer composite films, which were then characterized by different experimental techniques. UV transmission measurements confirmed the transparency of multilayer...... films (60% of UV transmission rate), while SEM micrographs showed the presence of a continuous, dense and defect free layer of MFC on PLA surface. Concerning the mechanical behavior of the samples, tensile tests revealed that the multilayer films significantly improved the stress at break value of neat...

  6. Construction of multilayers of bare and Pd modified gold nanoclusters and their electrocatalytic properties for oxygen reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Harada, Hidenori Noguchi, Nikolas Zanetakis, Satoru Takakusagi, Wenbo Song and Kohei Uosaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilayers of gold nanoclusters (GNCs coated with a thin Pd layer were constructed using GNCs modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of mercaptoundecanoic acid and a polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH multilayer assembly, which has been reported to act as a three-dimensional electrode. SAMs were removed from GNCs by electrochemical anodic decomposition and then a small amount of Pd was electrochemically deposited on the GNCs. The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR on the Pd modified GNC/PAH multilayer assembly was studied using a rotating disk electrode, and a significant increase in the ORR rate was observed after Pd deposition. Electrocatalytic activities in alkaline and acidic solutions were compared both for the GNC multilayer electrode and Pd modified GNC electrode.

  7. Development of a thermal fatigue test method for thermal barrier coatings by laser excitation using a laser thermal shock facility; Entwicklung eines Pruefverfahrens zur laserinduzierten thermischen Ermuedung thermischer Schutzschichten mittels einer Laser-Thermoschockpruefeinrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, Daniel

    2012-07-13

    The finite nature of fossil fuel supply and the growing environmental awareness become increasingly stronger motivations for the development of efficient gas turbines and jet engines for power generation or as engines for land-, sea- and water-based vehicles. One concept developed for this purpose are thermal barrier coatings, where the thermal load of components is reduced by applying a ceramic coating onto the components. In this work the possibility to use a laser thermal shock facility for thermo-cyclic testing of thermal barrier coatings is examined. A focused laser beam is used for heating the sample and a homogeneous temperature distribution on the sample surface is achieved by the used trajectory and radial adjusted laser power. The required improvements of the existing testing facility are explained, including the development of a new sample holder and of the testing and evaluation routines for the experiments. For the assessment of the initiation and evolution of damages, acoustic emission and thermographic methods are used. The possibilities and limits of these methods are assessed during the experiments. The work also includes an extensive temperature dependent characterisation of the ceramic material used for the thermal barrier coating. In this part, the measurement of the Young's modulus by a dynamic method is to be highlighted, as this is a rarely used technique. The characterisations show the expected values, except for a lower porosity as expected by the manufacturer and no significant phase changes during isothermal heat treatments. To reach sample surface temperatures above 1000 C, it is necessary to increase the absorption by an additional coating of magnetite. The temperature distribution on the surface is measured by an infrared camera, which is calibrated for this purpose. With the incorporated active air cooling of the sample backside, the temperature gradient can be controlled, but still leaves room for improvements. Already without

  8. Mechanical property evaluations of an amorphous metallic/ceramic multilayer and its role in improving fatigue properties of 316L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheng-Min [Nano Technology Center, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Jeng, R.J.; Yu, Chia-Chi; Chang, Chia-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Li, Chia-Lin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Chu, Jinn P., E-mail: jpchu@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Nano Technology Center, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    We have used nanoindentation to investigate mechanical properties of 200-nm-thick amorphous multilayer consisting of alternating layers of Zr-based thin film metallic glass (TFMG) and holmium scandium oxide (HSO). Nanoindentation results show that TFMG/HSO multilayer exhibits the high hardness and Young's modulus. Owing to its high hardness, smooth surface, and good adhesion properties, TFMG/HSO multilayer is then employed as a protective coating to improve the four-point bending fatigue properties of 316L stainless steel. With coating, the fatigue life is increased from 2.4×10{sup 5} to 4.9×10{sup 6} cycles, at the stress of 700 MPa. A crack retardation mechanism has been proposed to explain the role of TFMG/HSO multilayer in improving fatigue properties of 316L stainless steel substrate.

  9. Quantitative Mapping of Mechanisms for Photoinitiated Coating Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2015-01-01

    be used toimplement the various effects of water on the degradation mechanisms of cross-linked coatings is also presented and experiments to test the approach are suggested. Additionally, simulations with an existing degradation model for an epoxy–amine coating are used to map the influence of model......This work concerns the mathematical modeling of photoinitiated coating degradation. Using experimental evidence available, some of the most importantassumptions underlying existing models for the rmoset coatings are analyzed and suggestions for further work provided. A modeling approach that can...... parameters on the lag time (i.e., the time passing prior to the onset of erosion) and the stable erosion rate. The simulation results can be used in the optimization of UV radiation-induced intercoat adhesion losses, which are often observed in multilayer coating systems based on top coated epoxy coatings...

  10. Crack resistance of pvd coatings : Influence of surface treatment prior to deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoestbergen, E; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    The crack resistance of three different PVD coatings, TiN, Ti(C,N), and a multilayer system of alternating TiN and TiAlN, have been investigated. The three coating systems were deposited onto substrates with a different surface roughness to study the influence of this pretreatment on the crack

  11. Thermally induced delamination of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Sarraute, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    1998-01-01

    Steady-state delamination of multilayered structures, caused by stresses arising during processing due to thermal expansion mismatch, is analyzed by a fracture mechanics model based on laminate theory. It is found that inserting just a few interlayers with intermediate thermal expansion coefficie...... coefficients may be an effective way of reducing the delamination energy release rate. Uneven layer thickness and increasing elastic mismatch are shown to raise the energy release rate. Experimental work confirms important trends of the model.......Steady-state delamination of multilayered structures, caused by stresses arising during processing due to thermal expansion mismatch, is analyzed by a fracture mechanics model based on laminate theory. It is found that inserting just a few interlayers with intermediate thermal expansion...

  12. Anomalous magnetoresistance in Fibonacci multilayers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, L. D.; Bezerra, C. G.; Correa, M. A.; Chesman, C.; Pearson, J. E.; Hoffmann, A. (Materials Science Division); (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte)

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigated magnetoresistance curves in quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers for two different growth directions, namely, [110] and [100]. We considered identical ferromagnetic layers separated by nonmagnetic layers with two different thicknesses chosen based on the Fibonacci sequence. Using parameters for Fe/Cr multilayers, four terms were included in our description of the magnetic energy: Zeeman, cubic anisotropy, bilinear coupling, and biquadratic coupling. The minimum energy was determined by the gradient method and the equilibrium magnetization directions found were used to calculate magnetoresistance curves. By choosing spacers with a thickness such that biquadratic coupling is stronger than bilinear coupling, unusual behaviors for the magnetoresistance were observed: (i) for the [110] case, there is a different behavior for structures based on even and odd Fibonacci generations, and, more interesting, (ii) for the [100] case, we found magnetic field ranges for which the magnetoresistance increases with magnetic field.

  13. Mathematical Formulation of Multilayer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Manlio; Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Cozzo, Emanuele; Kivelä, Mikko; Moreno, Yamir; Porter, Mason A.; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2013-10-01

    A network representation is useful for describing the structure of a large variety of complex systems. However, most real and engineered systems have multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity, and the data produced by such systems are very rich. Achieving a deep understanding of such systems necessitates generalizing “traditional” network theory, and the newfound deluge of data now makes it possible to test increasingly general frameworks for the study of networks. In particular, although adjacency matrices are useful to describe traditional single-layer networks, such a representation is insufficient for the analysis and description of multiplex and time-dependent networks. One must therefore develop a more general mathematical framework to cope with the challenges posed by multilayer complex systems. In this paper, we introduce a tensorial framework to study multilayer networks, and we discuss the generalization of several important network descriptors and dynamical processes—including degree centrality, clustering coefficients, eigenvector centrality, modularity, von Neumann entropy, and diffusion—for this framework. We examine the impact of different choices in constructing these generalizations, and we illustrate how to obtain known results for the special cases of single-layer and multiplex networks. Our tensorial approach will be helpful for tackling pressing problems in multilayer complex systems, such as inferring who is influencing whom (and by which media) in multichannel social networks and developing routing techniques for multimodal transportation systems.

  14. Wear evaluation of WC inserts coated with TiN/TiAlN multinanolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, L. H.; Ciacedo, J. C.; Martinez, F.; Bejarano, G.; Battaille, T. S.; Prieto, P.

    2010-01-01

    TiN/TiAlN multilayers were deposited by radio frequency, r.f., reactive magnetron sputtering by using titanium and aluminum targets with 10 cm diameter and 99.99% purity in an argon/nitrogen atmosphere, applying a substrate temperature of 300 ºC. WC inserts were used as substrates to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of TiN/TiAlN multilayered coatings compared to other types of coatings like TiAlN monolayers and to manage greater efficiency of these coatings in different indu...

  15. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanocoils coated with highly controlled magnetic materials by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guizhen; Gao, Zhe; Tang, Shiwei; Chen, Chaoqiu; Duan, Feifei; Zhao, Shichao; Lin, Shiwei; Feng, Yuhong; Zhou, Lei; Qin, Yong

    2012-12-21

    In this work, atomic layer deposition is applied to coat carbon nanocoils with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) or Ni. The coatings have a uniform and highly controlled thickness. The coated nanocoils with coaxial multilayer nanostructures exhibit remarkably improved microwave absorption properties compared to the pristine carbon nanocoils. The enhanced absorption ability arises from the efficient complementarity between complex permittivity and permeability, chiral morphology, and multilayer structure of the products. This method can be extended to exploit other composite materials benefiting from its convenient control of the impedance matching and combination of dielectric-magnetic multiple loss mechanisms for microwave absorption applications.

  16. Plastic deformation in nano-scale multilayer materials — A biomimetic approach based on nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Juergen M., E-mail: juergen.lackner@joanneum.at [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsges.m.b.H., Institute for Surface Technologies and Photonics, Functional Surfaces, Leobner Strasse 94, A-8712 Niklasdorf (Austria); Waldhauser, Wolfgang [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsges.m.b.H., Institute for Surface Technologies and Photonics, Functional Surfaces, Leobner Strasse 94, A-8712 Niklasdorf (Austria); Major, Boguslaw; Major, Lukasz [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences, IMIM-PAN, ul. Reymonta 25, PL-30059 Krakow (Poland); Kot, Marcin [University of Science and Technology, AGH, Aleja Adama Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-05-01

    The paper reports about a biomimetic based comparison of deformation in magnetron sputtered multilayer coatings based on titanium (Ti), titanium nitride (TiN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers and the deformation mechanisms in nacre of mollusc shells. Nacre as highly mineralized tissue combines high stiffness and hardness with high toughness, enabling resistance to fracture and crack propagation during tensile loading. Such behaviour is based on a combination of load transmission by tensile stressed aragonite tablets and shearing in layers between the tablets. Shearing in these polysaccharide and protein interlayers demands hydrated conditions. Otherwise, nacre has similar brittle behaviour to aragonite. To prevent shear failure, shear hardening occurs by progressive tablet locking due to wavy dovetail-like surface geometry of the tablets. Similar effects by shearing and strain hardening mechanisms were found for Ti interlayers between TiN and DLC layers in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies, performed in deformed zones beneath spherical indentations. 7 nm thin Ti films are sufficient for strong toughening of the whole multi-layered coating structure, providing a barrier for propagation of cracks, starting from tensile-stressed, hard, brittle TiN or DLC layers. - Highlights: • Biomimetic approach to TiN-diamond-like carbon (DLC) multilayers by sputtering • Investigation of deformation in/around hardness indents by HR-TEM • Plastic deformation with shearing in 7-nm thick Ti interlayers in TiN–DLC multilayers • Biomimetically comparable to nacre deformation.

  17. “m=1” coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, C.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Beaucour, J.

    For neutrons the critical angle of Ni is defined as m=1. If one needs a coating with reflectivity above m=1, people have traditionally used Ni58 or Ni-based multilayers. The reason to use Ni is the high neutron scattering density and the fact that it is easy to coat Ni using magnetron sputtering....... For a neutron guide the cost of shielding around the guide is a substantial part of the total cost of the guide. We are therefore looking at other materials than Ni for m=1 coatings. Both Be and diamond have the same or higher neutron scattering density than Ni, and have a much smaller absorption cross section....... Because of the lower absorption cross section, and because of fewer emitted gamma ray photons when a neutron is absorbed, these coatings are producing much less gamma radiation and therefore reduce the shielding costs. Be is frequently used in a wide range of science and technology applications. The only...

  18. Investigation of sol-gel antireflective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, A.; Guardalben, M.; Chipp, T.

    1984-03-01

    Very high power laser systems present material design challenges which often approach the inherent optical survival strength of components. Optical coatings in the UV region suffer from anomalously high absorption and scattering in the deposited layers. The losses caused by these effects are often unacceptable or, in the case of absorption, usually fatal to the absorbing coatings. Unfortunately, no metals exist that have high enough reflectivities in the UV to serve as uncoated mirrors as they normally do in the CO 2 region of the infrared. Adequate multilayer dielectric coatings are therefore critically important for the development and utilization of UV lasers. The same could be said for relfection suppressing antireflective coatings in that wavelength range. Antireflective properties of gradientindex designs have been rediscovered and their potential for resolving UV laser design difficulties has been vigorously tested. These antireflective properties have been attained on glass or fused silica surfaces by chemical surface treatments

  19. FIRE-RESISTANT SHIELDING COATING BASED ON SHUNGITE-CONTAINING PAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELOUSOVA Elena Sergeevna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Today when specific shielded facilities are designed the construction materials and shields should meet a range of fire safety requirements. A composite coating on the basis of a water-based fire-resistant paint filled with shungite nanopowder can be applied onto walls, floors, ceilings and other surfaces in the shielded areas to reduce electromagnetic radiation and simultaneously to ensure fire safety. Shungit is a mineral with multilayer carbon fullerene globules which diameter is 10–30 nm. Due to the high conductivity shungite is able to weaken electromagnetic radiation. A coating made of schungite-containing paint on a cellulose substrate was subjected to the open flame under the temperature of 1700° C for 3 minutes and 40 seconds. That resulted in the formation of insulating foam layer without mechanical damage of the substrate. The XRD diffraction analysis of the powder obtained in the process of flame influence on the coating showed the formation of the such substances as orthoclase, barite, rutile, etc. Carbon contained in shungit and used as a filler for the fireproof paint wasn’t detected. This fact indicates carbon oxidation as the result of its burning out. The shielding efficiency of the composite coating after open flame exposure was measured for the frequency range 8…12 GHz with the use of the panoramic attenuation meter and voltage standing wave ratio meter YA2R-67-61 with a sweep generator and waveguides. After that the reflection and transmission coefficients were calculated. The results of measurements and calculations showed decrease of the reflection and transmission coefficients due to conductivity decrease and dielectric losses changes of the composite coating provided by silica content increase and carbon percentage decrease.

  20. Functionalization of multilayer fullerenes (carbon nano-onions) using diazonium compounds and "click" chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Kevin; Chaur, Manuel N; Echegoyen, Luis; Giordani, Silvia

    2010-02-19

    A novel versatile approach for the functionalization of multilayer fullerenes (carbon nano-onions) has been developed, which involves the facile introduction of a variety of simple functionalities onto their surface by treatment with in situ generated diazonium compounds. This approach is complemented by use of "click" chemistry which was used for the covalent introduction of more complex porphyrin molecules.

  1. Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

    2014-11-18

    In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

  2. Analysis of buried interfaces in multilayer mirrors using grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry near resonance edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertsu, M G; Nardello, M; Giglia, A; Corso, A J; Maurizio, C; Juschkin, L; Nicolosi, P

    2015-12-10

    Accurate measurements of optical properties of multilayer (ML) mirrors and chemical compositions of interdiffusion layers are particularly challenging to date. In this work, an innovative and nondestructive experimental characterization method for multilayers is discussed. The method is based on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity measurements performed on a wide grazing incidence angular range at an energy near the absorption resonance edge of low-Z elements in the ML components. This experimental method combined with the underlying physical phenomenon of abrupt changes of optical constants near EUV resonance edges enables us to characterize optical and structural properties of multilayers with high sensitivity. A major advantage of the method is to perform detailed quantitative analysis of buried interfaces of multilayer structures in a nondestructive and nonimaging setup. Coatings of Si/Mo multilayers on a Si substrate with period d=16.4  nm, number of bilayers N=25, and different capping structures are investigated. Stoichiometric compositions of Si-on-Mo and Mo-on-Si interface diffusion layers are derived. Effects of surface oxidation reactions and carbon contaminations on the optical constants of capping layers and the impact of neighboring atoms' interactions on optical responses of Si and Mo layers are discussed.

  3. Effect of a hard coat layer on buckle delamination of thin ITO layers on a compliant elasto-plastic substrate: an experimental–numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der O.; Abdallah, Amir; Bouten, P.C.P.; Timmermans, P.H.M.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; With, de G.

    2011-01-01

    Layer buckling and delamination is a common interfacial failure phenomenon in thin film multi-layer structures that are used in flexible display applications. Typically, the substrate is coated on both sides with a hybrid coating, calleda hard coat (HC), which acts as a gas barrier and also

  4. Facile synthesis of nano cauliflower and nano broccoli like hierarchical superhydrophobic composite coating using PVDF/carbon soot particles via gelation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Bichitra Nanda; Balasubramanian, Kandasubramanian

    2014-12-15

    We have elucidated a cost effective fabrication technique to produce superhydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF/DMF/candle soot particle and PVDF/DMF/camphor soot particle composite) porous materials. The water repellent dry composite was formed by the interaction of non-solvent (methanol) into PVDF/carbon soot particles suspension in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). It is seen that longer quenching time effectively changes the surface morphology of dry composites. The nano broccoli like hierarchical microstructure with micro or nano scaled roughen surface was obtained for PVDF/DMF/camphor soot particle, which reveals water contact angle of 172° with roll off angle of 2°. However, composite coating of PVDF/DMF/candle soot particle shows nano cauliflower like hierarchical, which illustrates water contact angle of 169° with roll off angle of 3°. To elucidate the enhancement of water repellent property of PVDF composites, we further divulge the evolution mechanism of nano cauliflower and nano broccoli structure. In order to evaluate the water contact angle of PVDF composites, surface diffusion of water inside the pores is investigated. Furthermore, the addition of small amount of carbon soot particles in composite not only provides the crystallization of PVDF, but also leads to dramatical amendment of surface morphology which increases the surface texture and roughness for superhydrophobicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-Corrosion Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    SuperSpan RM 8000 is an anti-corrosion coating which effectively counteracts acid degradation, abrasive wear, and cracking in power industry facilities. It was developed by RM Industrial Products Company, Inc. with NERAC assistance. It had previously been necessary to shut down plants to repair or replace corroded duct-work in coal burning utilities. NASA-developed technology was especially useful in areas relating to thermoconductivity of carbon steel and the bonding characteristics of polymers. The product has sold well.

  6. Recent developments in laser-fusion target coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, R.J.; Catlett, D.S.; Fossey, D.; Mayer, A.; McCreary, W.J.; Powell, B.W.; Simonsic, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques to fabricate hollow, spherical, multilayered laser-fusion targets are described. The first is a glow discharge polymerization process for plastic coating. A chemical vapor deposition process for depositing Mo/Re alloys is also discussed along with some new techniques for electrodeless plating and for electroplating a wide variety of metals

  7. Multifunctional transparent protective coatings on polycarbonates prepared using PECVD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mocanu, V.; Stoica, A.; Kelar, L.; Franta, D.; Bursíková, V.; Mikšová, Romana; Peřina, Vratislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, SI5 (2012), s. 1460-1464 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : multilayered coatings * protective * transparent * polycarbonate Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.453, year: 2012

  8. Imprinting of metal receptors into multilayer polyelectrolyte films: fabrication and applications in marine antifouling

    OpenAIRE

    Puniredd, S.R.; Janczewski, D.; Go, D.P.; Zhu, X.; Guo, S.; Teo, S.L-M.; Lee, S.S.C.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric films constructed using the layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication process were employed as a platform for metal ion immobilization and applied as a marine antifouling coating. The novel Cu2+ ion imprinting process described is based on the use of metal ion templates and LbL multilayer covalent cross-linking. Custom synthesized, peptide mimicking polycations composed of histidine grafted poly(allylamine) (PAH) to bind metal ions, and methyl ester containing polyanions for convenient cross...

  9. Matrix solution to longitudinal impedance of multi-layer circular structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn,H.

    2008-10-01

    A matrix method in which radial wave propagation is treated in analogy to longitudinal transmission lines is presented and applied to finding the longitudinal coupling impedance of axially symmetric multi-layer beam tubes. The method is demonstrated in the case of a Higher Order Mode ferrite absorber with an inserted coated ceramic beam tube. The screening of the ferrite damping properties by the dielectric beam tube is discussed.

  10. Multi-chamber and multi-layer thiol-ene microchip for cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, H. Y.; Hemmingsen, Mette; Lafleur, Josiane P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a multi-layer and multi-chamber microfluidic chip fabricated using two different thiol-ene mixtures. Sandwiched between the thiol-ene chip layers is a commercially available membrane whose morphology has been altered with coatings of thiol-ene mixtures. Experiments have been conducted ...... with the microchip and shown that the fabricated microchip is suitable for long term cell culture....

  11. Magnetoresistive multilayers deposited on the AAO membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkinski, Leszek M.; Chalastaras, Athanasios; Vovk, Andriy; Jung, Jin-Seung; Kim, Eun-Mee; Jun, Jong-Ho; Ventrice, Carl A.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon and GaAs wafers are the most commonly used substrates for deposition of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) multilayers. We explored a new type of a substrate, prepared electrochemically by anodization of aluminum sheets, for deposition of GMR multilayers. The surface of this AAO substrate consists of nanosized hemispheres organized in a regular hexagonal array. The current applied along the substrate surface intersects many magnetic layers in the multilayered structure, which results in enhancement of giant magnetoresistance effect. The GMR effect in uncoupled Co/Cu multilayers was significantly larger than the magnetoresistance of similar structures deposited on Si

  12. Beam Tests of a Multilayer LumiCal Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Borysov, O

    2018-01-01

    LumiCal is a sampling electromagnetic calorimeter designed for the precise measurement of in- tegrated luminosity in electron positron linear collider experiments. The present report contains a description and results of the first beam test of a multilayer LumiCal prototype with four sili- con detector planes. A 5 GeV electron beam from the CERN PS T9 facility was used to study the performance of the LumiCal prototype. Presented results are mainly focused on the trans- verse structure of the observed electromagnetic shower and the Molière radius measurement. A comparison with MC simulation is also discussed.

  13. Construction of a fucoidan/laminin functional multilayer to direction vascular cell fate and promotion hemocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Changrong; Wang, Yan; Su, Hong; Yang, Ping; Huang, Nan; Maitz, Manfred F.; Zhao, Anshan

    2016-01-01

    Surface biofunctional modification of cardiovascular stents is a versatile approach to reduce the adverse effects after implantation. In this work, a novel multifunctional coating was fabricated by coimmobilization of the sulfated polysaccharide of brown algae fucoidan and laminin to biomimic the vascular intimal conditions in order to support rapid endothelialization, prevent restenosis and improve hemocompatibility. The surface properties of the coating such as hydrophilicity, bonding density of biomolecules and stability were evaluated and optimized. According to the biocompatibility tests, the fucoidan/laminin multilayer coated surface displayed less platelet adhesion with favorable anticoagulant property. In addition, the fucoidan/laminin complex showed function to selectively regulate vascular cells growth behavior. The proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) on the fucoidan/laminin biofunctional coating was significantly promoted. For the smooth muscle cells (SMCs), inhibitory effects on cell adhesion and proliferation were observed. In conclusion, the fucoidan/laminin biofunctional coating was successfully fabricated with desirable anticoagulant and endothelialization properties which show a promising application in the vascular devices such as vascular stents or grafts surface modification. - Highlights: • Construction of fucoidan/laminin functional multilayer to biomimic the basement membrane of vascular • The fucoidan/laminin complex demonstrates anti-coagulation property. • The fucoidan/laminin complex can selectively regulate EC and SMC growth behavior to prevent restenosis.

  14. Construction of a fucoidan/laminin functional multilayer to direction vascular cell fate and promotion hemocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Changrong; Wang, Yan; Su, Hong; Yang, Ping; Huang, Nan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Technology of Ministry of Education, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Maitz, Manfred F. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Zhao, Anshan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Technology of Ministry of Education, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Surface biofunctional modification of cardiovascular stents is a versatile approach to reduce the adverse effects after implantation. In this work, a novel multifunctional coating was fabricated by coimmobilization of the sulfated polysaccharide of brown algae fucoidan and laminin to biomimic the vascular intimal conditions in order to support rapid endothelialization, prevent restenosis and improve hemocompatibility. The surface properties of the coating such as hydrophilicity, bonding density of biomolecules and stability were evaluated and optimized. According to the biocompatibility tests, the fucoidan/laminin multilayer coated surface displayed less platelet adhesion with favorable anticoagulant property. In addition, the fucoidan/laminin complex showed function to selectively regulate vascular cells growth behavior. The proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) on the fucoidan/laminin biofunctional coating was significantly promoted. For the smooth muscle cells (SMCs), inhibitory effects on cell adhesion and proliferation were observed. In conclusion, the fucoidan/laminin biofunctional coating was successfully fabricated with desirable anticoagulant and endothelialization properties which show a promising application in the vascular devices such as vascular stents or grafts surface modification. - Highlights: • Construction of fucoidan/laminin functional multilayer to biomimic the basement membrane of vascular • The fucoidan/laminin complex demonstrates anti-coagulation property. • The fucoidan/laminin complex can selectively regulate EC and SMC growth behavior to prevent restenosis.

  15. Design and development of the multilayer optics for the new hard x-ray mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Civitani, M.; Raimondi, L.; Sironi, G.; Cotroneo, V.; Negri, B.; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, F.; Borghi, G.; Orlandi, A.; Vernani, D.; Valsecchi, G.; Binda, R.; Romaine, S.; Gorenstein, P.; Attinà, P.

    2017-11-01

    The New Hard X-ray Mission (NHXM) project will be operated by 2017 and is currently undergoing a Phase B study, under the coordination of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The project is being proposed by an international team in the context of the ESA Call CV M3 as a Small Mission program, with a large Italian participation. It is based on 4 hard X-ray optics modules, each formed by 60 evenly spaced multilayer coated Wolter I mirror shells. An extensible bench is used to reach the 10 m focal length. The Wolter I monolithic substrates with multilayer coating are produced in NiCo by electroforming replication. Three of the mirror modules will host in the focal plane a hybrid a detector system (a soft X-ray Si DEPFET array plus a high energy CdTe detector). The detector of the fourth telescope will be a photoelectric polarimeter with imaging capabilities, operating from 2 up to 35 keV. The total on axis effective area of the three telescopes at 1 keV and 30 kev is of 1500 cm2 and 350 cm2 respectively, with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec HEW at 30 keV. In this paper we report on the design and development of the multilayer coated X-ray mirrors based on NiCo shells.

  16. Compressible and Recyclable Monolithic g-C3N4/Melamine Sponge: A Facile Ultrasonic-coating Approach and Enhanced Visible-light Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Ruiyang; Ran, Tao; Wan, Wenchao; Zhou, Ying

    2018-05-01

    Powdery photocatalysts seriously restrict their practical application due to the difficult recycle and low photocatalytic activity. In this work, a monolithic g-C3N4/melamine sponge (g-C3N4/MS) was successfully fabricated by a cost-effective ultrasonic-coating route, which is easy to achieve the uniform dispersion and firm loading of g-C3N4 on MS skeleton. The monolithic g-C3N4/MS entirely inherits the porous structure of MS and results in a larger specific surface area (SSA) than its powdery counterpart. Benefit from this monolithic structure, g-C3N4/MS gains more exposed active sites, enhanced visible-light absorption and separation of photogenerated carriers, thus achieving noticeable photocatalytic activity on nitric oxide (NO) removal, rhodamine B (RhB) degradation and CO2 reduction. Specifically, NO removal ratio is as high as 78.6% which is 4.5 times higher than that of the powdery g-C3N4, while RhB degradation rate reaches 97.88%, and yield rate of CO and CH4 attains 7.48 and 3.93 μmol g-1 h-1. Importantly, the features of low-density, high porosity, good elasticity and firmness, not only endow g-C3N4/MS with flexibility in various environmental applications, but also make it easy to recycle and stable for long-time application. Our work provides a feasible approach to fabricate novel monolithic photocatalysts with large-scale production and application.

  17. Nonhydrolytic sol-gel approach to facile creation of surface-bonded zirconia organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for sample preparation. Ι. Capillary microextraction of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhendal, Abdullah; Mengis, Stephanie; Matthews, Jacob; Malik, Abdul

    2016-10-14

    Nonhydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) route was used for the creation of novel zirconia-polypropylene oxide (ZrO 2 -PPO) sol-gel hybrid sorbents in the form of surface coatings for the extraction and preconcentration of catecholamine neurotransmitters and molecules structurally related to their deaminated metabolites. In comparison to other sorbents made of inorganic transition metal oxides, the presented hybrid organic-inorganic sorbents facilitated reversible sorption properties that allowed for efficient desorption of the extracted analytes by LC-MS compatible mobile phases. The presented sol-gel hybrid sorbents effectively overcame the major drawbacks of traditional silica- or polymer-based sorbents by providing superior pH stability (pH range: 0-14), and a variety of intermolecular interactions. Nonaqueous sol-gel treatment of PPO with ZrCl 4 was employed for the derivatization of the terminal hydroxyl groups on PPO, providing zirconium trichloride-containing end groups characterized by enhanced sol-gel reactivity. NHSG ZrO 2 -PPO sorbent provided excellent microextraction performance for catecholamines, low detection limits (5.6-9.6pM), high run-to-run reproducibility (RSD 0.6-5.1%), high desorption efficiency (95.0-99.5%) and high enrichment factors (∼1480-2650) for dopamine and epinephrine, respectively, extracted from synthetic urine samples. The presented sol-gel sorbents provided effective alternative to conventional extraction media providing unique physicochemical characteristics and excellent extraction capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Facile spray-coating process for the fabrication of tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces with heterogeneous chemical compositions used for selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jing, Zhijiao; Zha, Fei; Yang, Yaoxia; Wang, Qingtao; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-06-11

    In this paper, tunable adhesive superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces have been fabricated successfully by spraying ZnO nanoparticle (NP) suspensions onto desired substrates. We regulate the spray-coating process by changing the mass percentage of hydrophobic ZnO NPs (which were achieved by modifying hydrophilic ZnO NPs with stearic acid) in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic ZnO NP mixtures to control heterogeneous chemical composition of the ZnO surfaces. Thus, the water adhesion on the same superhydrophobic ZnO surface could be effectively tuned by controlling the surface chemical composition without altering the surface morphology. Compared with the conventional tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, on which there were only three different water sliding angle values: lower than 10°, 90° (the water droplet is firmly pinned on the surface at any tilted angles), and the value between the two ones, the water adhesion on the superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces has been tuned effectively, on which the sliding angle is controlled from 2 ± 1° to 9 ± 1°, 21 ± 2°, 39 ± 3°, and 90°. Accordingly, the adhesive force can be adjusted from extremely low (∼2.5 μN) to very high (∼111.6 μN). On the basis of the different adhesive forces of the tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces, the selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes was achieved, which has never been reported before. In addition, we demonstrated a proof of selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes for application in the droplet-based microreactors via our tunable adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces for the quantitative detection of AgNO3 and NaOH. The results reported herein realize the selective transportation of microdroplets with different volumes and we believe that this method would potentially be used in many important applications, such as selective water droplet transportation, biomolecular quantitative detection and droplet-based biodetection.

  19. A facile and efficient method of enzyme immobilization on silica particles via Michael acceptor film coatings: immobilized catalase in a plug flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Genc, Aysenur; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Ince, Ahmet; Bicak, Niyazi

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for facile immobilization of enzymes on silica surfaces. Herein, we describe a single-step strategy for generating of reactive double bonds capable of Michael addition on the surfaces of silica particles. This method was based on reactive thin film generation on the surfaces by heating of impregnated self-curable polymer, alpha-morpholine substituted poly(vinyl methyl ketone) p(VMK). The generated double bonds were demonstrated to be an efficient way for rapid incorporation of enzymes via Michael addition. Catalase was used as model enzyme in order to test the effect of immobilization methodology by the reactive film surface through Michael addition reaction. Finally, a plug flow type immobilized enzyme reactor was employed to estimate decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide. The highly stable enzyme reactor could operate continuously for 120 h at 30 °C with only a loss of about 36 % of its initial activity.

  20. Mechanical behavior of SiCf/SiC composites with alternating PyC/SiC multilayer interphases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haijiao; Zhou, Xingui; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Huaxin; Zhang, Changrui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Superior combination of flexural strength and fracture toughness of the 3D SiC/SiC composite was achieved by interface tailoring. ► Resulted composite possesses a much higher flexural strength and fracture toughness than its counterparts in literatures. ► Mechanisms that PyC/SiC multilayer coatings improve the mechanical properties were illustrated. -- Abstract: In order to tailor the fiber–matrix interface of continuous silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiC f /SiC) composites for improved fracture toughness, alternating pyrolytic carbon/silicon carbide (PyC/SiC) multilayer coatings were applied to the KD-I SiC fibers using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Three dimensional (3D) KD-I SiC f /SiC composites reinforced by these coated fibers were fabricated using a precursor infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) process. The interfacial characteristics were determined by the fiber push-out test and microstructural examination using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of interface coatings on composite mechanical properties was evaluated by single-edge notched beam (SENB) test and three-point bending test. The results indicate that the PyC/SiC multilayer coatings led to an optimum interfacial bonding between fibers and matrix and greatly improved the fracture toughness of the composites.

  1. Investigation on surface, electrical and optical properties of ITO-Ag-ITO coated glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan Necdet; Sen, Tuba; Coruhlu Turgay; Senturk Kenan; Keskin Sinan; Seker Sedat; Dobrovolskiy Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the optical and electrical properties of thick ITO-Ag-ITO multilayer coating onto glass. ITO-Ag-ITO coatings with thickness of ITO layers 110 nm, 185 nm and intermediate Ag layer thickness 40 nm were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The optical, electrical and atomic properties of the coating were examined by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy

  2. Development of wear-resistant coatings for cobalt-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-01-01

    The level of nuclear plant radiation exposure due to activated cobalt wear debris could potentially be reduced by covering the cobalt-base materials with a wear resistant coating. Laboratory pin-on-disc and rolling contact wear tests were used to evaluate the wear performance of several coatings. Based on the results of these tests, multilayer Cr-nitride coatings and ion nitriding are the most promising approaches

  3. Preparation and Properties of Ti-TiN-Zr-ZrN Multilayer Films on Titanium Alloy Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Song-sheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available 24 cycles Ti-TiN-Zr-ZrN soft-hard alternating multilayer film was deposited on TC11 titanium alloy by vacuum cathodic arc deposition method. The structure and performance of the multilayer film, especially wear and sand erosion resistance were investigated by various analytical methods including pin on disc wear tester, sand erosion tester, 3D surface topography instrument, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction(XRD, micro-hardness tester and scratch adhesion tester. The results indicate that the Vickers-hardness of the multilayer film with thickness of 5.8μm can reach up to 28.10GPa. The adhesive strength of these coatings can be as high as 56N. Wear rate of the multilayer coated alloy is one order of magnitude smaller than bare one, which decreased from 7.06×10-13 m3·N-1·m-1 to 3.03×10-14m3·N-1·m-1. Multilayer films can play the role in hindering the extension of cracks, and thus sand erosion properties of the TC11 titanium alloy substrates are improved.

  4. Surface Modification of Titanium with Heparin-Chitosan Multilayers via Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Y.; Zou, J.; Ou, G.; Wang, L.; Li, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM), like biomimetic surface modification of titanium implants, is a promising method for improving its biocompatibility. In this paper chitosan (Chi) and heparin (Hep) multilayer was coated on pure titanium using a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The Hep-Chi multilayer growth was carried out by first depositing a single layer of positively charged poly-L-lysine (PLL) on the NaOH-treated titanium substrate (negatively charged surface), followed by alternate deposition of negatively charged Hep and positively charged Chi, and terminated by an outermost layer of Chi. The multilayer was characterized by DR-FTIR, SEM, and AFM, and osteoblasts were cocultured with the modified titanium and untreated titanium surfaces, respectively, to evaluate their cytocompatibility in vitro. The results confirmed that Hep-Chi multilayer was fabricated gradually on the titanium surface. The Hep-Chi multilayer-coated titanium improved the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Thus, the approach described here may provide a basis for the preparation of modified titanium surfaces for use in dental or orthopedic implants

  5. Bioinspired design of dental multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M; Wang, R; Thompson, V; Rekow, D; Soboyejo, W O

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the use of bioinspired functionally graded structures in the design of dental multi-layers that are more resistant to sub-surface crack nucleation. Unlike existing dental crown restorations that give rise to high stress concentration, the functionally graded layers (between crown materials and the joins that attach them to dentin) are shown to promote significant reductions in stress and improvements in the critical crack size. Special inspiration is drawn from the low stress concentrations associated with the graded distributions in the dentin-enamel-junction (DEJ). The implications of such functionally graded structures are also discussed for the design of dental restorations.

  6. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...... periods are not significantly long. Finally, better alignment between the RRC Connected and Idle mobility procedures is observed, guarantying significant decrease of handovers/reselections and potential battery life savings by minimizing the Inter-Frequency (IF) measurement rate in the RRC Idle....

  7. Thermal behavior variations in coating thickness using pulse phase thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Chung, Yoonjae; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a study on the use of pulsed phase thermography in the measurement of thermal barrier coating thickness with a numerical simulation. A multilayer heat transfer model was used to analyze the surface temperature response acquired from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging. The test sample comprised four layers: the metal substrate, bond coat, thermally grown oxide and the top coat. The finite element software, ANSYS, was used to model and predict the temperature distribution in the test sample under an imposed heat flux on the exterior of the TBC. The phase image was computed with the use of the software MATLAB and Thermofit Pro using a Fourier transform. The relationship between the coating thickness and the corresponding phase angle was then established with the coating thickness being expressed as a function of the phase angle. The method is successfully applied to measure the coating thickness that varied from 0.25 mm to 1.5 mm.

  8. Optical coatings material aspects in theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Optical coatings, i.e. multilayer stacks composed from a certain number of thin individual layers, are an essential part of any optical system necessary to tailor the properties of the optical surfaces. Hereby, the performance of any optical coating is defined by a well-balanced interplay between the properties of the individual coating materials and the geometrical parameters (such as film thickness) which define their arrangement. In all scientific books dealing with the performance of optical coatings, the main focus is on optimizing the geometrical coating parameters, particularly the number of individual layers and their thickness. At the same time, much less attention is paid to another degree of freedom in coating design, namely the possibility to tailor optical material properties to an optimum relevant for the required specification. This book, on the contrary, concentrates on the material aside of the problem. After a comprehensive review of the basics of thin film theory, traditional optical coatin...

  9. Simple Technique of Exfoliation and Dispersion of Multilayer Graphene from Natural Graphite by Ozone-Assisted Sonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zaw; Karthik, Paneer Selvam; Hada, Masaki; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Hayashi, Yasuhiko

    2017-05-27

    Owing to its unique properties, graphene has attracted tremendous attention in many research fields. There is a great space to develop graphene synthesis techniques by an efficient and environmentally friendly approach. In this paper, we report a facile method to synthesize well-dispersed multilayer graphene (MLG) without using any chemical reagents or organic solvents. This was achieved by the ozone-assisted sonication of the natural graphite in a water medium. The frequency or number of ozone treatments plays an important role for the dispersion in the process. The possible mechanism of graphene exfoliation and the introduction of functional groups have been postulated. The experimental setup is unique for ozone treatment and enables the elimination of ozone off-gas. The heat generated by the dissipation of ultrasonic waves was used as it is, and no additional heat was supplied. The graphene dispersion was stable, and no evidence of aggregation was observed---even after several months. The characterization results show that well-dispersed MLG was successfully synthesized without any significant damage to the overall structure. The graphene obtained by this method has potential applications in composite materials, conductive coatings, energy storage, and electronic devices.

  10. Simple Technique of Exfoliation and Dispersion of Multilayer Graphene from Natural Graphite by Ozone-Assisted Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaw Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its unique properties, graphene has attracted tremendous attention in many research fields. There is a great space to develop graphene synthesis techniques by an efficient and environmentally friendly approach. In this paper, we report a facile method to synthesize well-dispersed multilayer graphene (MLG without using any chemical reagents or organic solvents. This was achieved by the ozone-assisted sonication of the natural graphite in a water medium. The frequency or number of ozone treatments plays an important role for the dispersion in the process. The possible mechanism of graphene exfoliation and the introduction of functional groups have been postulated. The experimental setup is unique for ozone treatment and enables the elimination of ozone off-gas. The heat generated by the dissipation of ultrasonic waves was used as it is, and no additional heat was supplied. The graphene dispersion was stable, and no evidence of aggregation was observed---even after several months. The characterization results show that well-dispersed MLG was successfully synthesized without any significant damage to the overall structure. The graphene obtained by this method has potential applications in composite materials, conductive coatings, energy storage, and electronic devices.

  11. Robust giant magnetoresistive effect type multilayer sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssen, K.M.H.; Kuiper, A.E.T.; Roozeboom, F.

    2002-01-01

    A robust Giant Magneto Resistive effect type multilayer sensor comprising a free and a pinned ferromagnetic layer, which can withstand high temperatures and strong magnetic fields as required in automotive applications. The GMR multi-layer has an asymmetric magneto-resistive curve and enables

  12. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  13. Multilayer Graphene for Waveguide Terahertz Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We study terahertz to infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene/dielectric artificial medium and present a novel concept of terahertz modulation at midinfrared wavelengths. This approach allows the realization of high-speed electrically controllable terahertz modulators based...... on hollow waveguide sections filled with multilayer graphene....

  14. Facile functionalized of SBA-15 via a biomimetic coating and its application in efficient removal of uranium ions from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun-Kai; Hou, Li-An; Zhang, Guang-Hui; Gu, Ping

    2015-04-09

    A novel dopamine-functionalized mesoporous silica (DMS), synthesized by grafting dopamine onto a mesoporous molecular sieve (SBA-15), was developed as a sorbent to extract U(VI) from aqueous solution. The method used to modify SBA-15 was simple, facile and cost-effective. The DMS was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and BET, showing that the material had an ordered mesoporous structure and a large surface area. The effect of contact time, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and solid-liquid ratio on the sorption process was investigated. It was demonstrated that the adsorption of U(VI) by DMS was fast and that it can be described by the pseudo-second order-equation where the equilibrium time was 20 min. Additionally, the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well by the Langmuir model with the maximum adsorption capacity of DMS of 196 mg/g at pH 6.0. Furthermore, the influence of the K(+) and Na(+) concentrations and solid-to-liquid ratio on the sorption was very weak, and the values of the thermodynamic parameters revealed that the sorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. All the results suggested that the DMS could be used as an excellent adsorbent to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase and structural transformations in annealed copper coatings in relation to oxide whisker growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorogov, M.V.; Priezzheva, A.N. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Vlassov, S., E-mail: vlassovs@ut.ee [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Kink, I.; Shulga, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dorogin, L.M. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); ITMO University, Kronverkskiy 49, 197101 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lõhmus, R. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Tyurkov, M.N.; Vikarchuk, A.A. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Romanov, A.E. [Togliatti State University, Belorusskaya 14, 445667 Togliatti (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); ITMO University, Kronverkskiy 49, 197101 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 194021 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Coatings prepared by Cu microparticle electrodeposition. • Structural and phase transformation in Cu coatings annealed at 400 °C. • Annealing is accompanied by intensive growth of CuO whiskers. • Layered oxide phases (Cu{sub 2}O and CuO) in the coating are characterized. • Formation of volumetric defects in the coating is demonstrated. - Abstract: We describe structural and phase transformation in copper coatings made of microparticles during heating and annealing in air in the temperature range up to 400 °C. Such thermal treatment is accompanied by intensive CuO nanowhisker growth on the coating surface and the formation of the layered oxide phases (Cu{sub 2}O and CuO) in the coating interior. X-ray diffraction and focused ion beam (FIB) are employed to characterize the multilayer structure of annealed copper coatings. Formation of volumetric defects such as voids and cracks in the coating is demonstrated.

  16. Formation of hydrotalcite coating on the aluminum alloy 6060 in spray system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Coatings with the composition of Li-Al-NO3 hydrotalcite were formed on the Al alloy 6060 using a spray system. The coatings consist of crystals with a typical hydrotalcite structure. Dense, uniform and blade-like flakes cover completely the surface of the Al substrate. The coatings display a multi......-layer structure with average thickness of ∼1000 nm. The hydrotalcite-coated samples performed better than those without coatings in salt-spray and filiform-corrosion tests, and further treatment involving sealing with a Mg acetate solution and dipping in a H2O2 + Ce-based solution improved the corrosion...

  17. Multilayer Nanoporous Graphene Membranes for Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-10

    While single-layer nanoporous graphene (NPG) has shown promise as a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination membrane, multilayer graphene membranes can be synthesized more economically than the single-layer material. In this work, we build upon the knowledge gained to date toward single-layer graphene to explore how multilayer NPG might serve as a RO membrane in water desalination using classical molecular dynamic simulations. We show that, while multilayer NPG exhibits similarly promising desalination properties to single-layer membranes, their separation performance can be designed by manipulating various configurational variables in the multilayer case. This work establishes an atomic-level understanding of the effects of additional NPG layers, layer separation, and pore alignment on desalination performance, providing useful guidelines for the design of multilayer NPG membranes.

  18. Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, V F

    1997-01-01

    Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Dar...

  19. Multilayered architecture of graphene nanosheets and MnO2 nanowires as an electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Lin, Chih-Jui; Ho, Chia-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multilayered architecture of the graphene/MnO 2 electrode is fabricated. ► The composite provides horizontal and vertical channels for electrolyte access. ► Graphene (GN) layer provides fast electron conduction in the composite. ► MnO 2 nanowire layer on the GN layer suppresses the oxygen evolution reaction. ► Capacitance behavior is enhanced by the multilayered architecture of GN/MnO 2 . - Abstract: Multilayered graphene/MnO 2 nanocomposite electrode prepared by anodic electrodeposition and electrophoresis exhibited superior capacitive behavior compared to the bare MnO 2 and graphene electrodes. The multilayered architecture provided both the horizontal and vertical channels for electrolyte access during fast charging and discharging. The graphene layer turned out to play an important role in enhancing the electron conduction in the multilayered architecture. Therefore, the improved electrochemical behavior might result from the significantly improved ion transport and electron conduction in the multilayered architecture of the graphene/MnO 2 composite electrode. Furthermore, the MnO 2 nanowire layer coated on the graphene layer could significantly suppress the oxygen evolution reaction, broadening the potential window of water stability.

  20. Development of wear-resistant coatings for cobalt-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-01-01

    The costs and hazards resulting from nuclear plant radiation exposure with activated cobalt wear debris could potentially be reduced by covering the cobalt-base materials with a wear resistant coating. However, the hardnesses of many cobalt-base wear alloys are significantly lower than conventional PVD hard coatings, and mechanical support of the hard coating is a concern. Four approaches have been taken to minimize the hardness differences between the substrate and PVD hard coating: (1) use a thin Cr-nitride hard coating with layers that are graded with respect to hardness, (2) use a thicker, multilayered coating (Cr-nitride or Zr-nitride) with graded layers, (3) use nitriding to harden the alloy subsurface followed by application of a