WorldWideScience

Sample records for multilateral security governance

  1. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  2. Norway and the arctic: between multilateral governance and geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flikke, Geir

    2013-03-01

    The article analyzes Norwegian politics in the high north in light of multilateral institutions and new security challenges. The author maintains that Norway's politics is based on functional multilateral organizations and continuity and predictability in the UN framework. This can become more of a challenge if the competition for resource access hardens and the Arctic is defined as a strategically valuable area for one or more states.(Author)

  3. The European Union and Multilateral Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    BARROSO, José Manuel Durão

    2010-01-01

    The Global Governance Programme at the EUI. The world faces increasingly complex problems that have taken on global significance - including conflict and peace-building, humanitarian crises and intervention, international economic inequality and instability, and global environmental change. Global Governance points to the international framework of principles, processes and rules - and the set of institutions that uphold them - which are needed to tackle global problems. ‘Global governance’ h...

  4. Sponsoring Asia-Pacific Security: PACOM’s Role in Reconciling Bilateral and Multilateral Security Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    regional security order according to realist or liberal-institutionalist international relations theory.3 Realists emphasize the deep-seated...other states has motivated party officials to pursue multilateralism to impress international society with the country’s peaceful rise. 10 The...simultaneous pursuit ofbilateralism and multilateralism within Asia "amounts to outsourcing of great power management ofregional security order in two

  5. European Security through EU-Russian Relations: Towards a New Multilateral Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernandes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, the EU and Russia have managed to create an original framework for institutionalised cooperation despite asymmetric characteristics. Yet, the way these two main security actors interact has an impact on the (non-resolution of security issues in Europe, ranging from ‘‘frozen conflicts’’ to the discussion of the security architecture. Since the second mandate of President Putin, the relation has been characterised by two paradoxical features. On the one hand, the methodology and the domains of cooperation have reached a high degree of achievement. On the other hand, the political quality of the relationship has deteriorated and it is not able to achieve the desired ‘‘strategic partnership’’ that should be based on a common set of values and principles. This article aims to define multilateralism as a paradigm applicable to EU-Russian relations. It examines their relationship in the security and defence realm and the Union’s reactions to a new security approach by Russia since the 2008 Medvedev proposal. The article questions how the EU-Russian political dialogue impacts on multilateralism in the security field. The conclusion considers EU-Russian relations as a peculiar multilateral playground addressing common security challenges, which still needs to be developed further in order to be instrumental in the search for collective and legitimate solutions.

  6. Government Procurement : Market Access, Transparency, and Multilateral Trade Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.; Hoekman, Bernard M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examine the effects on national welfare and market access of two public procurement practices-discrimination against foreign suppliers of goods and services and nontransparency of the procedures used to allocate government contracts to firms. Both types of policies have become prominent in international trade negotiations, including the Doha Round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) trade talks. Traditionally, the focus of international trade agreements has been on market access...

  7. Diverse Multilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wuthnow, Joel; Li, Xin; Qi, Lingling

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses Chinas multilateral diplomacy by identifying four distinct strategies: watching, engaging, circumventing, and shaping. The typology builds on two literatures: power transition theory, and the more recent “assertiveness” discourse in the West. Drawing from a range of cases...... in both the economic and security domains, the article argues that China’s multilateralism is diverse, and that it cannot be un-problematically characterized as either status-quo or revisionist in nature. However, the general trend appears to be towards engagement, but with an assertive tact as China...

  8. INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENT SECURITIES: SPECIFIC FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Versal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It’s disclosed the features of the international government securities market during 1993 – 2012: main players are the developed countries (Western Europe, Canada, USA with the increasing role of developing countries; debt crises have the negative impact as on the development of the international government securities market, but also on the international capital market as a whole; debt crises are not a spontaneous phenomenon, and usually occur as a result of inadequate growth in GDP increasing government debt.

  9. Governing for Enterprise Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, Julia

    2005-01-01

    ... business. If an organization's management -- including boards of directors, senior executives, and all managers -- does not establish and reinforce the business need for effective enterprise security...

  10. A thirsty dragon. Rising Chinese crude oil demand and prospects for multilateral energy security cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causevic, Amar

    2012-07-01

    The Chinese appetite for energy could potentially result in two scenarios. Each of these will systematically be developed and examined in the course of this paper. The pessimistic scenario foresees energy-driven foreign policy placing China in a dangerous confrontation with the U.S., Japan, the EU and India. American, Indian and Chinese navies are already competing across the Indian Ocean, with participants upgrading their naval forces, building deep-sea ports, constructing military bases and forging alliances across the Indian Ocean. They have not yet entered into conflict, but as their naval presence increases, the possibility of an armed clash grows. This scenario represents a 'nightmare option' that could have grave consequences for the entire globe, as the U.S., China, India and two EU members are all states armed with nuclear weapons. Conversely, an opposite scenario can be envisaged. A liberal integrationist perspective offers huge potential for multilateral energy security cooperation. Despite all tensions, China, the West and India are oil importers, and, as consumers, they could work together in fostering common strategies. What is more, their economies are mutually intertwined, and any conflict would bring about fatal collateral damage to the economic well-being of all parties. In short, China and America and potentially India could synchronize approaches to energy issues and address worries about growing global competition for crude oil. Being that as it may, China's further integration into multilateral energy organizations - notably the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Energy Agency (IEA) - will not be an easy task. Introduction of the new standards and requirements could be a burden for Chinese economic development. Membership in the IEA would reduce freedom in energy policy-making as it requires intelligencesharing, market liberalization and surrendering a certain degree of national

  11. Security in the Americas: A Move to Multilateralism in a Unilateral World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boudreau, George

    2000-01-01

    A "wave of democracy" has swept through Latin America and the Caribbean Basin. In order to keep pace with the changing environment, multilateralism has replaced the historic unilateral stance with regard to U.S...

  12. Can fuel services supply be secured? Building trust in a multi-lateral approach to nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine, B. [Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room E40-261, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rodriguez-Vieitez, E. [Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, One Brattle Sq., Room 503, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Global climate change and concerns about energy supply security fuelling the nuclear desires of an increasing number of states, there is growing interest within the nonproliferation community to promote the establishment of an international system for the provision of nuclear fuel cycle services that would be 'equitable and accessible to all users of nuclear energy' (Rauf, 2008) while reducing proliferation risks. Although the idea was already voiced on the cradle of civilian use of nuclear energy (Baruch, 1946), the IAEA director's 2003 call for a group of international experts to examine the issue (ElBaradei, 2003) triggered renewed interest that resulted in up to twelve different proposals for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle arrangements (Rauf, 2008; Simpson, 2008). Nonproliferation experts have examined the conditions under which equitable and accessible access to enrichment, reprocessing and spent fuel disposal services can be granted to all users (Rauf, 2008; Braun 2006; Pellaud and al 2005). They suggested putting together multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA) that could consist in the establishment of mechanisms to assure fuel cycle services, or the shared ownership by recipient and host countries of fuel services facilities through either the creation of new multilateral centers or the conversion of existing national facilities into multinational enterprises. While countries that possess nuclear fuel facilities would benefit from the increased global security and strengthened non-proliferation situation that would result from the establishment of these MNAs, they would also be baited into participating by possible attraction of foreign investments as well as the opportunity to export high value services (Rushkin, 2006). Yet, what incentives would there be for a recipient non-nuclear state to participate in an arrangement that would intrinsically strip it of its sovereign right to ensure its fuel supply security? In addition to the economic

  13. Spain and Mediterranean Security Governance: Neighbours, Spaces and Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wolff

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1999 Tampere Summit marked the start of the development of the external dimension of the European Union’s policy of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA. This external dimension has been reflected in the inclusion of JHA in agreements with third countries, and particularly with Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the European NeighbourhoodPolicy (ENP, in addition to bilateral and multilateral programmes, confirmed the transformation of the JHA policy into one of the EU’s foreign policy objectives. In the light of this evolution, this article examines Spain’s role in the development of the Mediterraneandimension of the JHA policy: firstly, it covers the stance of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero’s government toward the JHA policy and its external dimension; secondly, it explores the new parameters of governance in the area of security and the Spanish case through three main factors: the neighbours, spaces and actors that define this governance. Lastly, and within a context of a multiplicity of governance actors on security, it focuses on the Canary Islands,which have acquired a central importance with respect to the management of borders and the policy of development for Africa. The analysis of this period helps to explain the new security perceptions that define Spain’s policy in the Mediterranean.

  14. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Atun, Rifat

    2013-05-10

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes.

  15. Multilateral cooperation for literacy promotion under stress: governance and management issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J. Limage

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses recent organizational change and governance in UNESCO. The Organization has given priority to the promotion of universal literacy since its inception in 1946. It has persisted in its dual approach to universal literacy through both universal primary education and literacy learning opportunities through formal provision and non-formal learning opportunities for adults and out-of-school youth. A major policy shift in 2006 to abandon systematic and programmatic concern for literacy at UNESCO Headquarters drastically changed priorities. That decision is analysed in the broader UN system setting, United States’ policies since its return to UNESCO, and the recent internal governing dynamics of the agency.

  16. Food security governance: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candel, J.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The role of governance has been receiving increasing attention from food security scholars in recent years. However, in spite of the recognition that governance matters, current knowledge of food security governance is rather fragmented. To provide some clarity in the debate about the role of

  17. Information Security Governance: When Compliance Becomes More Important than Security

    OpenAIRE

    Tan , Terence C. C.; Ruighaver , Anthonie B.; Ahmad , Atif

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Current security governance is often based on a centralized decision making model and still uses an ineffective 20th century risk management approach to security. This approach is relatively simple to manage since it needs almost no security governance below the top enterprise level where most decisions are made. However, while there is a role for more corporate governance, new regulations, and improved codes of best practice to address current weak organizational secu...

  18. Governing for Enterprise Security (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    governance/stakeholder.html © 2005 by Carnegie Mellon University page 16 Adequate Security and Operational Risk “Appropriate business security is that which...Sherwood 03] Sherwood, John; Clark; Andrew; Lynas, David. “Systems and Business Security Architecture.” SABSA Limited, 17 September 2003. Available at

  19. Food security governance in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Candel, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    In spite of major advances in recent decades, food insecurity continues to be a pressing concern to policymakers across the world. Food security governance (FSG) relates to the formal and informal rules and processes through which interests are articulated, and decisions relevant to food security

  20. Multilateral disarmament verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persbo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-governmental organisations, such as VERTIC (Verification Research, Training and Information Centre), can play an important role in the promotion of multilateral verification. Parties involved in negotiating nuclear arms accords are for the most part keen that such agreements include suitable and robust provisions for monitoring and verification. Generally progress in multilateral arms control verification is often painstakingly slow, but from time to time 'windows of opportunity' - that is, moments where ideas, technical feasibility and political interests are aligned at both domestic and international levels - may occur and we have to be ready, so the preparatory work is very important. In the context of nuclear disarmament, verification (whether bilateral or multilateral) entails an array of challenges, hurdles and potential pitfalls relating to national security, health, safety and even non-proliferation, so preparatory work is complex and time-greedy. A UK-Norway Initiative was established in order to investigate the role that a non-nuclear-weapon state such as Norway could potentially play in the field of nuclear arms control verification. (A.C.)

  1. Exogenous shocks and governing energy security

    OpenAIRE

    Diriöz, Ali Oğuz

    2017-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (Ph.D.): Bilkent University, Department of International Relations, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2017. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 219-248). The research examines how governments maintain energy security when faced with exogenous shocks. The main focus of inquiry examines the relative influence of markets vs. geopolitics in the area of energy security using the comparative case studies of Turkey, France, and Netherl...

  2. New government to make social security cutbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2003-01-01

    In May 2003, a new coalition government of the Christian Democrats and two liberal parties, VVD and D66, took office in the Netherlands. The parties' coalition agreement provides for major cutbacks in public spending, largely targeted on social security expenditure. The trade unions are fiercely

  3. 17 CFR 404.5 - Securities counts by registered government securities brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... registered government securities brokers and dealers. 404.5 Section 404.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... AND PRESERVATION OF RECORDS § 404.5 Securities counts by registered government securities brokers and dealers. (a) Securities counts. Every registered government securities broker or dealer shall comply with...

  4. United Nations and Multilateralism: Appraising USA's Unilateralism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    global peace and security, as well as the survival of the United Nations. This is because ... Key Words: United Nations, multilateralism, United States, unilateralism, national interest, UN Charter ..... Lebanon, Iraq, Turkey, Egypt, Jordan, etc.

  5. 17 CFR 240.15Ca2-3 - Registration of successor to registered government securities broker or government securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business of a government securities broker or government securities dealer registered pursuant to section... the registration of the successor if the successor, within 30 days after such succession, files an... securities broker or government securities dealer succeeds to and continues the business of a predecessor...

  6. Security implications and governance of cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosal, Margaret E; Huang, Jonathan Y

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, significant efforts have been made toward elucidating the potential of the human brain. Spanning fields as disparate as psychology, biomedicine, computer science, mathematics, electrical engineering, and chemistry, research venturing into the growing domains of cognitive neuroscience and brain research has become fundamentally interdisciplinary. Among the most interesting and consequential applications to international security are the military and defense community's interests in the potential of cognitive neuroscience findings and technologies. In the United States, multiple governmental agencies are actively pursuing such endeavors, including the Department of Defense, which has invested over $3 billion in the last decade to conduct research on defense-related innovations. This study explores governance and security issues surrounding cognitive neuroscience research with regard to potential security-related applications and reports scientists' views on the role of researchers in these areas through a survey of over 200 active cognitive neuroscientists.

  7. Communication received from the Resident Representatives of Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom to the Agency concerning multilateral cooperation on energy security in support of Article IV of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter dated 13 September 2007 from the Resident Representatives of Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, attaching a declaration concerning multilateral cooperation on energy security in support of Article IV of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The letter and, as requested therein, the declaration, are herewith circulated for information

  8. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    I. Status of conventions in the field of nuclear energy as of December 2012: Non-proliferation and nuclear security (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty); Nuclear safety and emergency response (Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management); Liability and compensation for nuclear damage (Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Brussels Supplementary Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Protocol to Amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage). II. Status of conventions in the field of environmental protection/assessment which affect nuclear energy use as of December 2012: Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention), Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention), Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kiev Protocol), Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR). III. OECD member country participation in the nuclear energy treaties/conventions and in the

  9. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    I. Status of treaties and conventions in the field of nuclear energy as of November 2013: Non-proliferation and nuclear security (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty); Nuclear safety and emergency response (Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management); Liability and compensation for nuclear damage (Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Brussels Supplementary Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Protocol to Amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention); Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; II. Status of conventions in the field of environmental protection/assessment which affect nuclear energy use as of December 2011: Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters - Aarhus Convention (Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention), Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment to the Espoo Convention (Kiev Protocol), Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR)); III. Participation in the nuclear energy treaties

  10. Legitimacy and Force in International Security : A Regionalist Approach on Multilateralism and the Role of Legitimacy in the Modern World

    OpenAIRE

    Arnesen, Ketil Vike

    2008-01-01

    This thesis will address the issue of legitimacy within international security, with a focus on the use of force by states. Using military force against other actors in the international system will initiate a debate on its perceived legitimacy by several different audiences. This investigation uses the Regional Security Complex Theory of Buzan and Wæver and the assumptions of Idealism to instigate the analytical framework on legitimacy. This thesis will analyse the role and importance of le...

  11. 12 CFR 208.37 - Government securities sales practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Government securities sales practices. 208.37... Securities-Related Activities § 208.37 Government securities sales practices. (a) Scope. This subpart is... dealer. (d) Recommendations to customers. In recommending to a customer the purchase, sale or exchange of...

  12. Information security governance simplified from the boardroom to the keyboard

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Security practitioners must be able to build cost-effective security programs while also complying with government regulations. Information Security Governance Simplified: From the Boardroom to the Keyboard lays out these regulations in simple terms and explains how to use control frameworks to build an air-tight information security (IS) program and governance structure. Defining the leadership skills required by IS officers, the book examines the pros and cons of different reporting structures and highlights the various control frameworks available. It details the functions of the security d

  13. The challenges of multi-layered security governance in Ituri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen

    governance is that the inclusion of local non-state actors in security governance will improve security provision to people because they have more legitimacy. But in reality ‘multi-layered’ security governance is often marked by conflict and competition as much as by collaboration and common solutions......There has been a slow, but growing awareness among external actors that some local non-state security actors should be involved in security governance in conflict-affected situations. Already in 2006, the OECD published a report that called for a ‘multi-layered’ approach to reforming actors...... and institutions that provide security and justice services (Scheye and McLean, 2006). Often these actors consist of local authorities, such as customary chiefs, village elders, or business people working in collaboration with different kinds of self-defense groups. The idea behind ‘multi-layered’ security...

  14. Governing for Enterprise Security (GES) Implementation Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westby, Jody R; Allen, Julia H

    2007-01-01

    .... If an organization's management does not establish and reinforce the business need for effective enterprise security, the organization's desired state of security will not be articulated, achieved, or sustained...

  15. Security and Peace Mechanisms for Good Governance in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, governments at all levels have intensified efforts to address issues bordering on insecurity with a view to building security and peace for good governance. It is however, disheartening that despite various security measures put in place to tackle the problem, Nigeria is yet to be free from recurrent cases of armed ...

  16. Multilateral Disarmament: Conspiracy for Common Sense. Occasional Paper 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, C. Maxwell

    This paper outlines the danger of continuing the conventional and nuclear arms races and offers alternatives to ensure both peace and security. There are five major sections to the paper. In the first section, "Mulitlateral Approach," global multilateral accomplishments, regional multilateral activities, and bilateral negotiations are discussed.…

  17. Information Governance: A Model for Security in Medical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A.H. Williams

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Information governance is becoming an important aspect of organisational accountability. In consideration that information is an integral asset of most organisations, the protection of this asset will increasingly rely on organisational capabilities in security.  In the medical arena this information is primarily sensitive patient-based information. Previous research has shown that application of security measures is a low priority for primary care medical practice and that awareness of the risks are seriously underestimated. Consequently, information security governance will be a key issue for medical practice in the future. Information security governance is a relatively new term and there is little existing research into how to meet governance requirements. The limited research that exists describes information security governance frameworks at a strategic level. However, since medical practice is already lagging in the implementation of appropriate security, such definition may not be practical although it is obviously desirable. This paper describes an on-going action research project undertaken in the area of medical information security, and presents a tactical approach model aimed at addressing information security governance and the protection of medical data. 

  18. E-Commerce and Security Governance in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, Ali.; Rajabion, Lila

    Security is very often mentioned as one of the preconditions for the faster growth of e-commerce. Without a secure and reliable internet, customer will continue to be reluctant to provide confidential information online, such as credit card number. Moreover, organizations of all types and sizes around the world rely heavily on technologies of electronic commerce (e-commerce) for conducting their day-to-day business transaction. Providing organizations with a secure e-commerce environment is a major issue and challenging one especially in Middle Eastern countries. Without secure e-commerce, it is almost impossible to take advantage of the opportunities offered by e-commerce technologies. E-commerce can create opportunities for small entrepreneurs in Middle Eastern countries. This requires removing infrastructure blockages in telecommunications and logistics alongside the governance of e-commerce with policies on consumer protection, security of transactions, privacy of records and intellectual property. In this paper, we will explore the legal implications of e-commerce security governance by establishing who is responsible for ensuring compliance with this discipline, demonstrating the value to be derived from information security governance, the methodology of applying information security governance, and liability for non-compliance with this discipline. Our main focus will be on analyzing the importance and implication of e-commerce security governance in developing countries.

  19. East Asia’s energy needs: The impact on security and guidelines for regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pareja Alcaraz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The last three decades have witnessed a spectacular (and not easily sustainable increase in the global demand for energy. This trend has a particular significance in East Asia owing to its heavy industrialisation, which is promoting intense regional growth, on top of the already delicate balance of security in the region and the traditional refusal by the region’s states to delegate power and management to supranational bodies. The aim of this article is to analyse the impact of East Asia’s energy needs on security and on the instruments of order and governance that have been developed in the region up until the present time. Thus, the article is divided into two parts; the first analyses East Asia’s energy programme and its most significant features: 1 a high dependence on oil imports from other regions, especially the Middle East; 2 a persistence of high dependency on pollutant fossil fuels; and 3 a high degree of energy insecurity. Meanwhile, the second part assesses the impact of energy on regional relations in different areas of security and guidelines for regional government: 1 the securitisation of energy and of the environment; 2 the reactivation of certain maritime conflicts; 3 the transformation of certain threats, and conventional and non-conventional challenges to regional security; 4 the rise of non-state actors (mainly environmental businesses and NGOs in East Asia’s international relations; 5 the maintaining of bilateralism and the promotion of multilateral initiatives; and 6 the emergence of new extra-regional geopolitical links and balances.

  20. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    ..., %%Strategy for Victory," the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists...

  1. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The Administration is claiming success in reversing the deterioration in security that had become acute by the end of 2006, attributing the gains to a troop surge strategy announced by President Bush on January 10, 2007...

  2. Just Security and the Crisis of Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Durch, W.; Larik, J.; Ponzio, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pursuing security and justice jointly in global governance will be vital to human progress in the twenty-first century. Humanity lives and operates simultaneously in three spaces critical to contemporary life and governance: public, transactional and ecological. Failures in one space can cascade into others. Managing them so as to avoid such failures is an essential function of global governance. Public space is the home of governance (formal and informal) and of rights-exercising groups and ...

  3. Ten years of effective multilateralism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    The EU Strategy against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction - WMD - ('the Strategy') has just marked its tenth anniversary. This document, which was adopted by the European Council at the Thessalonica Summit on 12 December 2003, constitutes an historic yardstick in the old world for at least two reasons: on the one hand, it is the first of its kind; on the other, it is both the formulation of a vision, a framework, and common means aiming to make the European Union a global actor in the fight against proliferation, something that the Europeans could not hitherto have claimed to be, however much they may have wished to. It is important to recall the context of the Strategy's adoption. Two years earlier, attacks on an unprecedented scale had been carried out on American soil, confirming the perception of a terrorist threat of mass destruction; the existence of a proliferation network run by the Pakistani Abdul Qadeer Khan was confirmed in 2003 (following Iranian discoveries and Libyan revelations), while Washington accused Baghdad of not having abandoned its WMD programme; the Bush Administration launched military attacks in Afghanistan and Iraq and was victorious in both. Overall, WMD directly and indirectly became a threat to peace and security during the 1990's, as the statement by the President of the United Nations Security Council in January 1992 affirmed and in spite of significant progress on the multi-lateral arms control front during the first post-Cold War decade (op cit. the adoption in 1993 and entry into force in 1997 of the Chemical Weapons Convention, and the adoption in 1996 of a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty). In the face of what have been dubbed 'new threats', EU member States were yet to respond collectively. A European policy was emerging but the Iraq war launched in the spring of 2003 unearthed profound disagreements. The question that needed to be answered at the beginning of the century was the following one: do the

  4. THE GENESIS OF THE FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT DEBT SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Osetskyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Government borrowings appear at a certain stage of development the economic system. Governments used loans many centuries ago because there are often occurred situations when borrowings were the only way to attract additional financial resources. The preconditions for government loans from the position of creditors are also important. These, in particular, include: the availability of subjects that have the temporarily available funds; investor confidence in the state, that stimulating their interest in buying government debt securities; state’s ability to repay its obligations and so on. Thus, the article deals with the basic prerequisites of the government securities market and its function at different stages of develop-ment of economic relations. So, it was found, that the main functions of local borrowing in XIV-XX centuries include the following: fiscal, public debt management, improved economic situation in some areas and repayment of previously issued loans. In modern conditions the functions of government securities have expanded and include: regulation of the money market and stock market, smoothing unevenness of funds flow to the budget, funding various pro-grams, support the liquidity of financial institutions. The author also highlights that objective necessity of using government borrowing associated with the presence of contradictions between the existing needs of society and the state’s capacity to satisfy them within existing financial re-sources. And in such situations government securities are a means of mobilizing additional financial resources to the state budget.

  5. Just Security and the Crisis of Global Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durch, W.; Larik, J.; Ponzio, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pursuing security and justice jointly in global governance will be vital to human progress in the twenty-first century. Humanity lives and operates simultaneously in three spaces critical to contemporary life and governance: public, transactional and ecological. Failures in one space can cascade

  6. 17 CFR 405.3 - Notification provisions for certain registered government securities brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certain registered government securities brokers and dealers. 405.3 Section 405.3 Commodity and Securities... REPORTS AND AUDIT § 405.3 Notification provisions for certain registered government securities brokers and dealers. (a) Every registered government securities broker or dealer, other than a government securities...

  7. Patching security governance : an empirical view of emergent governance mechanisms for cybersecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The issue of cybersecurity has been cast as the focal point of a fight between two conflicting governance models: the nation-state model of national security and the global governance model of multi-stakeholder collaboration, as seen in forums like IGF, IETF, ICANN, etc. There is a

  8. RETHINKING THE GOVERNANCE OF SECURITY: THE PROBLEM OF UNCONSCIOUS CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS SOLAR FORNAZZARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Friesendorf and Daase, both researchers from the Peace Reasearch Institute Frankfurt (PRIF, establish in Rethinking Security Governance the problem of unforeseen consequences that are the result of the implementation of almost any security policy. The results of this book confirm that many, but not all, consequences are problematic, due in part to the fact that the effects of a security policy have become contingent on an infinity of factors that make it highly complex to attribute to what extent success was due or the failure of a particular policy.

  9. Government/Industry Partnership on the Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cefus, Greg; Colhoun, Stefan C.; Freier, Keith D.; Wright, Kyle A.; Herdes, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, industry radiation protection programs were built almost exclusively around radiation safety and the minimization of radiation dose exposure to employees. Over the last decade, and especially the last few years, the emphasis has shifted to include the physical security and enhanced control of radioactive materials. The threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism is a genuine international security concern. In May 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration unveiled the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) to respond to a growing international concern for the proper control and security of radioactive and nuclear materials. An integral part of the GTRI, the International Radiological Threat Reduction (IRTR) Program, was established in February 2002, originally as a Task Force. The IRTR Program is foremost a government-to-government cooperative program with the mission to reduce the risk posed by vulnerable radioactive materials that could be used in a Radioactive Dispersal Device (RDD). However, governments alone cannot prevent the misuse and illicit trafficking of radioactive sources. By expanding the role of private industry as a partner, existing government regulatory infrastructures can be enhanced by formulating and adopting industry self-regulation and self-policing measures. There is international concern regarding the security and control of the vast number of well-logging sources used during oil exploration operations. The prevalence of these sources, coupled with their portability, is a legitimate security concern. The energy exploration industry has well established safety and security protocols and the IRTR Program seeks to build on this foundation. However, the IRTR Program does not have sufficient resources to address the issue without industry assistance, so it is looking to the oil and gas industry to help identify alternative means for accomplishing our mutual objectives. This paper describes

  10. Water Security and Climate Change: The Need for Adaptive Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Honkonen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will bring about unprecedented economic, social and environmental effects, which require both the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to its adverse effects. Water is the main element through which the impacts of climate change will be felt. Climate change results in increased uncertainties, complexities, stress and potential for conflicts within water management, both among and within states. New forms of governance are needed if the world is to respond to the need to adapt to changes in freshwater supply and to manage water security risks. This paper suggests that adaptive governance should to be main-streamed into all water regulation to ensure the availability of and access to safe water resources and to prevent water-related conflicts. The paper discusses the concept of water security in the context of climate change, the threats that climate change poses to water security, and the concept and implications of adaptive governance as a possible solution. The application of adaptive governance requires a certain degree of institutional and normative flexibility, instruments and institutions that can respond and adapt to changes and manage the level of uncertainty associated with the impacts of climate change. The governance institutions, methods and instruments should be responsive to new information and different kinds of uncertainties, while reflecting the vulnerabilities, capacities, needs and priorities of both societies and ecosystems in the face of climate change. Water security risks could be reduced by increased hydrosolidarity among states, which would present the challenges posed by climate change on water governance and security as primarily an opportunity for new forms of cooperation.

  11. 48 CFR 832.202-4 - Security for Government financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accepted accounting principles and must be audited and certified by an independent public accountant or an... for Government financing. An offeror's financial condition may be considered adequate security to... offeror's financial condition, the contracting officer may obtain, to the extent required, the following...

  12. 48 CFR 232.202-4 - Security for Government financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financing. 232.202-4 Section 232.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Commercial Item Purchase Financing 232.202-4 Security for Government financing. (a)(2) When determining whether an offeror...

  13. 48 CFR 432.202-4 - Security for Government financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financing. 432.202-4 Section 432.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Commercial Item Purchase Financing 432.202-4 Security for Government financing. Prior to determining that an offeror's financial condition is adequate...

  14. Reforming Security Sector Governance South Asia | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In South Asia, security discourse has traditionally been confined to government circles, with no room for voices from civil society. ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international ...

  15. Energy Technology Initiatives - Implementation Through Multilateral Co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    New technologies will be critical in addressing current global energy challenges such as energy security. More must be done, however, to push forward the development and deployment of the technologies we need today and will need in the future. Government leaders have repeatedly underlined the crucial role of industry and businesses in advancing energy technologies and the importance of strong collaboration among all stakeholders to accelerate technology advances. To attain these goals, increased co-operation between industries, businesses and government energy technology research is indispensable. The public and private sectors must work together, share burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes. The 42 multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements) supported by the IEA are a flexible and effective framework for IEA member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-government organisations to research breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants, to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes -- in short to encourage technology-related activities that support energy security, economic growth and environmental protection. This publication highlights the significant accomplishments of the IEA Implementing Agreements.

  16. The International multilateral relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, M.; Lacoste, A.C.; Gauvain, J.; Scherrer, J.; Baer, A.J.; Thiebaud, Ph.; Delattre, D.; Domaratzki, Z.; Pretre, S.; Serviere, G.; Currie, J.; Martin, A.; Bye, R.; Williams, L.; Lacoste, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Great multilateral organizations, at the end of the fifties to promote nuclear energy for peaceful uses, made structures in charge of promoting the exchanges in the field of safety. The Safety Authority takes part in numerous activities of these organisms with the double objective to know the practices of other ones and to make their own practices known. However, its limited means oblige to make choices among these ones that are proposed, on taking into account the specificities of each organism and on seeing not to be implied in promoting activities for nuclear energy. After the Chernobyl accident, the international community needed to conclude incentive conventions reminding of the liabilities of states in matter of nuclear safety. The first meeting of contracting parts at the Convention on nuclear safety in april 1999 has shown the high level of opening in which the countries considered their obligations. (N.C.)

  17. Multilateral and bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Finland has made both multilateral and bilateral agreements on the exchange of information related to radiation safety. The first arrangements for international agreements and exchange of information were made after the Chernobyl accident. In 1987, Finland joined the convention on early notification of a nuclear power accident coordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency. The convention is applied to accidents that cause of may cause emissions of radioactive substances that might affect the radiation safety of another country. Besides the convention on early notification, some other individual agreements have also been made. These include the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) system and power companies own information exchange systems. Finland has conducted bilateral agreements with the Nordic countries and the Soviet Union on the notification of accidents and exchange of nuclear power plant information. Today, Russia answers for the Soviet Union's contractual obligations. (orig.)

  18. The government as a client for security support services. A commercial security contractor's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a look at the challenges confronting security management personnel contracting with the U.S. government to provide security and related support services. From the corporate decision to enter the ''Big Leagues'' via proposal submission, through commitments and required expertise necessary to achieve ''outstanding'' ratings, this paper is an overview of a broad spectrum of security related topics including: the proposal process, the first step; oral review boards and ''Catch-22'' dilemmas; contractual requirements vs. court orders; personnel, the human factor; the carousel approach to fiscal accountability; and avoiding communication barriers

  19. Open Government Partnership as a Platform for Advancing Open Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondol, Jan; Allen, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    An exciting new avenue for establishing and expanding national commitments to open education has emerged through the Open Government Partnership (OGP), a multilateral initiative that aims to secure commitments from governments to make their governance more open, accountable and responsive to citizens. In the past, there has not been a strong link…

  20. ASSIMILATION OF INVESTMENT POTENTIAL OF INSURANCE COMPANIES THROUGH GOVERNMENT SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela TIMUS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Investments in fixed capital and human capital represent a reliable way to the economicdevelopment of the Republic of Moldova. The acceleration of investments can be achieved through anactive and viable financial market. The stimulation of institutional investors and of the process ofsecurities issuing and trading is a strategic development tool for the country. The purpose of the study isto analyze insurance companies as institutional investors and to present opportunities for investment instate securities. Markowitz and Sharpe’s theories of efficient investment portfolios selection based onprofitability and risk formed the theoretical and methodological framework. The research is based on datafrom the National Commission for Financial Markets, on the reports of Moldova’s Ministry of Financeand on the statistics from National Bank a National Bureau of Statistics. For secondary analysis, datareports from international organization such as OECD and Insurance Europe and International MonetaryFund have been used. The study was conducted by classical methods of the economic and financialanalysis. The results of research have shown that government securities are the most profitable of allsecurities issued on the primary financial market in the Republic of Moldova. In recent years, interestrates at the state securities are extremely attractive, more attractive than returns on investment in otherareas. State securities are the safest investment because the guarantor of this investment is government.That is why state securities are a very attractive investment area for insurance companies. The stimulationof the investment activity in the state can be achieved by using the primary market of governmentsecurities as an investment tool for capitalization of the investment potential of the insurance market.

  1. 75 FR 65881 - Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security-Based Swap Clearing Agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... it determines they are necessary or appropriate to improve the governance of, or to mitigate systemic... Part IV Securities and Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 242 Ownership Limitations and Governance... Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security- Based Swap Clearing Agencies, Security-Based...

  2. 75 FR 4626 - Order Granting a Temporary Exemption From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Order Granting a Temporary Exemption From Certain Government Securities... Department of the Treasury (Treasury) is issuing a temporary exemption from certain Government Securities Act... accommodate customer clearing of credit default swaps that reference government securities. Treasury is also...

  3. Water Security at Local Government Level: What do People Think?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Meissner_2016.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2853 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Meissner_2016.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Water Security at Local... Government Level: What do People Think? By Dr. Richard Meissner Integrated Water Assessment Group Natural Resources and the Environment Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Presented at the Sustainable Water Seminar 2016, CSIR ICC, 2...

  4. Canada and the Challenges of Cyberspace Governance and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Deibert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available When Canada stood with the United States and Britain in refusing to sign on to a new, statecontrolled future for the Internet, at December’s World Conference on Information Technology, it certainly made the federal government appear to be a stalwart champion of Internet freedom. But in reality, Canada’s approach to cyberspace governance and security has, at best, sent mixed signals about our commitment to Internet freedom. At worst, it has actually contributed to increasing on-line censorship and surveillance by the very undemocratic and illiberal regimes that Canada voted against at the conference. Unfortunately this is a dangerous time for Canada to wallow in aimlessness: when it comes to cyberspace governance and security, the momentum is headed in the direction of greater state control. As demographic realities indicate, Internet usage will increasingly belong to the global South and East, where freedom is an unsettled and elusive concept. If Canada truly seeks to guard against the Internet falling captive to the controls sought by repressive regimes, such as those in China and Russia, it will have to offer the world a compelling, competing vision that demonstrates integrity and dedication to genuine Internet freedom. Among other things, that means moving beyond traditional top-down, state-centred models of security, which are a poor fit for a decentralized, global, publicly shared, but largely privately developed, communications network. Imposing conventional, state led policing frameworks on cyberspace — for instance, in the name of fighting cyber crime — only provides legitimacy to regimes abroad when they bring their own state powers to censor Internet communications. It also means thinking more carefully about how much we should tolerate our Canadian technology developers continuing to supply tools of repression to the foreign regimes who seek to dominate their own people. Canada has the potential to take on a leadership role in

  5. Information security knowledge sharing in organizations : Investigating the effect of behavioral information security governance and national culture

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Flores, Waldo; Antonsen, Egil; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation on what behavioral information security governance factors drives the establishment of information security knowledge sharing in organizations. Data was collected from organizations located in different geographic regions of the world, and the amount of data collected from two countries – namely, USA and Sweden – allowed us to investigate if the effect of behavioral information security governance factors on the establishment of security knowledg...

  6. Haiti’s Army, Stabilization and Security Sector Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Burt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Haiti’s long and difficult security sector reform (SSR process has entered a new phase. The reinstatement of the Haitian armed forces, nearly 20 years after former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide disbanded them, adds a new set of actors and more complexity to a process already struggling to deliver results amidst a seemingly endless series of political crises. The armed forces must be an impartial and apolitical institution if they are to contribute to stability in Haiti – an uncertain proposition given their past inability to stay out of the political arena. Building on a summary of the latest developments in the reinstatement process, this paper discusses its implications for Haiti’s prolonged international engagement. In particular, the paper focuses on the process to develop a new White Paper on Defence and National Security in Haiti. This process has the potential to contribute to two of the most significant shortcomings of SSR in Haiti, a limited focus on security sector governance and a lack of local ownership. The reinstatement process has been an interesting test case of the international donor community’s commitment to the concept of local ownership, long held to be a moral and practical pillar of international engagement. Though reinstatement has been driven by Haitian authorities, the process has struggled to make progress without donor support, raising questions about the appropriate role of international actors in strategic decision-making at the national level. Regardless of their initial reaction to reinstatement, Haiti’s international donors risk missing an opportunity to influence the development of an important pillar of Haiti’s post-MINUSTAH security sector by choosing to remain on the sidelines.

  7. A False Sense of Collective Security: How German Intervention in the Spanish Civil War Thwarted British Multilateral Efforts during the Phony Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    conversation at a dinner party with Prince v. Bismarck on November 2, he “emphasized that Franco had assured the British Government that his attitude to...I’ll eat my 455 “Success at Nyon,” Times (London), September 13, 1937. 456 Eden, Facing the

  8. 17 CFR 401.5 - Exemption for corporate credit unions transacting limited government securities business with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for corporate credit unions transacting limited government securities business with other credit unions. 401.5 Section 401.5... government securities business with other credit unions. (a)(1) Subject to the requirements of paragraph (b...

  9. 17 CFR 403.5 - Custody of securities held by financial institutions that are government securities brokers or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... institution does not initiate the purchase of the specified securities by the close of the next business day... physical delivery of certificates if the securities are issued in certificated form, or to direct a... business day. (6) A government securities broker or dealer that is a branch or agency of a foreign bank...

  10. The uniqueness of the energy security, justice, and governance problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldthau, Andreas; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that among all policy fields exhibiting externalities of a global scale, energy stands out on four dimensions: vertical complexity, horizontal complexity, higher entailed costs, and stronger path dependency. These structural attributes are at odds with contemporary key challenges of energy security, energy justice, and low carbon energy transition. With regard to the latter, energy governance challenges occur related to unclear levels of authority and weak resilience. This has implications for energy scholarship, specifically relating to the political economy of energy transitions, discussions about common pool resources, systems analysis, and other neighboring disciplines. - Highlights: ► Among all policy fields exhibiting global externalities, energy stands out. ► It is characterized by greater complexity, higher costs, and stronger path dependency. ► This is at odds with key challenges relating to security, justice, and transition. ► Problems are particularly related to unclear levels of authority and weak resilience. ► Energy scholarship needs to focus further on these issues.

  11. 75 FR 11627 - Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities... Department of the Treasury (Treasury) is granting temporary exemptions from certain Government Securities Act...).pdf. \\8\\ 75 FR 4626, January 28, 2010 Order Granting a Temporary Exemption from Certain Government...

  12. Government's role in power supply security. A working group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The working group was to analyse the Government's role in terms of improving the security of supply of the electricity market in exceptionally difficult capacity situations and to make propositions for the ways of arranging a tendering procedure concerning security of supply and capacity control, so as to meet the requirements of the EC Energy Internal Market Directives after 1 July 2004. The Working Group considers that there is no need at this stage to introduce a separate new system intended as a supplement to technical reserves in Finland. Such a system would not bring new capacity for the use of the power system, and in the case of existing capacity, production would only be transferred from one market to another. However, the situation may change from this, if there occur such factors on the market that aim to raise the market price of electricity or if it turned out that reserve power plants would be decommissioned on a large scale. The working group proposes that such a provision be added to the Electricity Market Act that would oblige the electricity supplier to notify the Energy Market Authority of a planned service outage of a power plant of at least 100 MVA producing electricity separately, which would fall within the time period 1 December - 28 February. The Energy Market Authority would be vested with the powers to postpone the outage due to a tight output situation, if there are not technical or safety- bound obstacles to this. It is important for the sufficiency of the power need of the Internal Market that the price signals of the market are reflected to both producers and consumers of electricity. The working group further proposes that the Ministry of Trade and Industry would look into development of the meter-reading requirements, so that they would, for their part, create the conditions for price flexibility in power consumption and for new sales products of electricity. In addition, tightening of the hourly metering requirement related to the

  13. Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    the results with Kiyotaki and Wright (1993), Trejos and Wright (1995), and Lagos and Wright (2005) respectively. We find that the multilateral matching setting generates very simple and intuitive equilibrium allocations that are similar to those in the other papers, but which have important differences...

  14. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  15. Auxiliary Armed Forces and Innovations in Security Governance in Mozambique’s Civil War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentzsch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Who rules during the civil war? This article argues that the concept of armed group governance must be expanded to include auxiliary armed forces linked to rebels or the government. Comparing the organization of rebel and government auxiliaries, the article demonstrates that security governance

  16. The role of multilateral institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Agi; Castro, Gonzalo; Newcombe, Kenneth

    2002-08-15

    In line with its mission of alleviating poverty through support for environmentally and socially sustainable economic development, The World Bank (along with some other multilateral development banks) is working to help developing countries capture a share of the emerging global market in greenhouse-gas-emissions reductions ('carbon trading'). Under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Joint Implementation instrument and the Clean Development Mechanism now provide an opening for substantial international resource transfers and potential for supporting sustainable development through the transfer of cleaner technologies or sustainable forestry and agro-forestry practices. For example, carbon sequestration represents a non-extractive non-consumptive sustainable use of living natural resources that can be incorporated within a multiple-use 'integrated ecosystem management' approach. The World Bank initiated the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) in April 2000, to help spur the development of a global carbon market and to 'learn by doing' how to use carbon-purchase transactions across a range of energy-sector technologies (and some forestry applications) to achieve environmentally credible and cost-effective emissions reductions that benefit developing countries and economies in transition. Building on the success of the PCF ($145 million raised from public and private-sector investors), The World Bank expects to launch two new funds in 2002: the Biocarbon Fund and the Community Development Carbon Fund. These funds will target synergies between carbon markets and objectives such as biodiversity conservation, combating desertification and small-scale community-driven development. Experience from the PCF shows that developing countries can have a comparative advantage in supplying this global market, as emissions reductions can be achieved in developing countries in the range of $3-$5 per ton of CO(2) equivalent, compared

  17. Renewal through Participation in Global Food Security Governance: Implementing the International Food Security and Nutrition Civil Society Mechanism to the Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.; Barling, D.

    2012-01-01

    The food commodity price rises from 2006 to 2008 engendered a period
    of political renewal and reform in the governance of global food security. The
    Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was designated as the main international forum dealing with food security and nutrition in 2009 as part

  18. 76 FR 43376 - Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    .../gsareg.htm . As noted in its request, on July 16, 2011, ICE Trust reorganized its corporate structure... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities... temporary exemptions from certain Government Securities Act of 1986 provisions and regulations regarding...

  19. 17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... securities as of the close of business upon the instruction of such broker or dealer, it shall send a... depository institution's control or direction that are not in its physical possession, where the securities... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custodial holdings of...

  20. What we talk about when we talk about cybersecurity: security in internet governance debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Wolff

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At meetings of internet governance organisations, participants generally agree that improving security is an important goal, but these conversations rarely yield consensus around how to achieve this outcome. One reason security plays this paradoxical role—as both a universal point of agreement and a continued source of contention—in these debates is that it has significantly different meanings to different stakeholders involved in these governance forums. In this paper, we discuss how different stakeholders define and frame internet security issues in the context of governance debates and analyse how these conflicting notions of security continue to shape emerging controversies.

  1. Water security at local government level. What do people think it means in eThekwini?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available aspects Negative aspects Helping municipalities to help themselves Working together we can secure our water future Diverse - from national government to local community and NGO People should get involved in securing their own water, for example... secure future Scientists from government, NGO's academia Good water quality will ensure healthy people, environments and livelihoods for now and in the future Surely mines can't use good quality water More for some (forever?) A water supply...

  2. Building a world class information security governance model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available practice documents. The resulting model covers all the relevant aspects on strategic, management and technical level when implemented altogether. This model includes the related aspects of Corporate Governance, Information Technology Governance...

  3. Federal Government Information Systems Security Management and Governance Are Pacing Factors for Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Security incidents resulting from human error or subversive actions have caused major financial losses, reduced business productivity or efficiency, and threatened national security. Some research suggests that information system security frameworks lack emphasis on human involvement as a significant cause for security problems in a rapidly…

  4. A Framework for the Governance of Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles K.

    2013-01-01

    Information security is a complex issue, which is very critical for success of modern businesses. It can be implemented with the help of well-tested global standards and best practices. However, it has been studied that the human aspects of information security compliance pose significant challenge to its practitioners. There has been significant…

  5. Governing Insecurity: Democratic Control of Military and Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P H Stoker

    democratic control of military and security institutions is strategic to democratisation for two main reasons: firstly because these institutions have a peculiar intimate relationship to political power and secondly because their security functions, including the management of insecurities that may be generated by democratisation ...

  6. Challenges to the multilateral trading system and possible responses

    OpenAIRE

    Panagariya, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops three major themes. First, the atmosphere of gloom around the multilateral trading system due to dim prospects of a successful conclusion of the Doha Round notwithstanding, global trade regime remains open and the institution in charge of it, the World Trade Organization, is in sound health. If anything, the Doha Round has been a victim of its own success: considerable de facto liberalization in agriculture has been achieved since the launch of the round. Second, to secure...

  7. Redefining the business process of Department of Food Security and Agriculture in Government of Surabaya City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyono, H.; Wessiani, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    Government of Indonesia has been launched the bureaucratic reform program since 2010. One of the action is conducted restructuring organization in all city governments. Department of Food Security and Agriculture in Government of Surabaya City is the result of merger from two Department, namely Bureau of Food Security and Department of Agriculture. This merger makes Department of Food Security and Agriculture to redefine their business process. The new business process is needed to be defined in order to align the new structure with the long term strategic planning of Surabaya City Government. This research aims to redefine the business process of Department of Food Security and Agriculture in Government of Surabaya City. The CIMOSA model is adopted for identifying the activities in the business process. The new business process is important for the department to allocate their resource, mainly the human resource and as the main input for the department to build their standard operating procedure.

  8. International Relations and the environment: practical examples of environmental multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Tiago Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental crisis” we experience today and the international community’s struggle to develop environmental standards to reach the epic “sustainable development” are widely known topics. What is needed, then, is an urgent and determined practice, which is only possible if international governance is structured, coherent and effective. The optimization of Environmental Multilateralism (the joining of what are considered the “driving forces” of Environmental International Relations: Law, Politics and international Diplomacy contributes greatly to this end. To understand its basic concepts and systems, as for example, its actors, negotiation and implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs and the carrying out of their Regimes, as well as their development in the United Nations, these are all crucial elements for its improvement and optimization. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 and “its” Conventions are important examples in the history of Environmental Multilateralism, still very up-to-date not only due to the 20th anniversary of the “Rio Conference” but also due to the continuity and importance that the “Rio Conventions” and their Conferences of Parties (COP still have. This papers aims to analyze this area of studies transversal to International Relations and to the Environment, namely by studying the relation between the theory of Environmental Multilateralism and its practice.

  9. The Multilateralism and China’s OBOR Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Zhongying

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses several extremely political questions which are perhaps somewhat neglected in the current discussions and research on the China-sponsored international initiative “One Belt One Road” (OBOR. They are: 1. Why does the political logic of the OBOR matter? 2. Why does the OBOR not just mean that China takes the lead in global development, but that China seeks its own road for further development in the world? 3. Why does the OBOR need to be multilateralized towards a global institution? Can the new international financial institution AIIB help the multilateralization of the OBOR? 4. Can the OBOR contribute to the next generation of global governance? Finally, the article suggests that China should call for the OBOR nations, or the Silk Road System of Nations, to have their 1st summit – the Silk Road Summit – to gather political support for the reform of global governance.

  10. The governance of policing and security : ironies, myths and paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, A.B. (Bob); Punch, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Policing today involves many different state and non-state actors. This book traces the process of unbounding policing, exploring the way that boundaries between public policing, regulators, inspectorates, intelligence services and private security are blurring.

  11. The rise of securities markets : what can government do?

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Using U.S. securities markets as a case history, the author explores the role securities markets play in economic development, how they emerge, and how regulation can make them more effective. Why the United States? Two centuries ago, it was a small undeveloped country with serious financial problems. It confronted those problems and, guided by Alexander Hamilton, creatively reformed its financial system, which then became a foundation of the U.S. economic infrastructure and a bulwark for lon...

  12. The Political Economy of Bilateralism and Multilateralism: Institutional Choice in Trade and Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Rixen, Thomas; Rohlfing, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    Trade relations are governed by the multilateral GATT, whereas the avoidance of international double taxation rests on a network of around 2000 bilateral treaties. Given the two regimes’ similar economic rationales this difference between bilateralism in international double tax avoidance and multilateralism in the trade regime poses an empirical puzzle. In this paper we develop an answer to this puzzle. Differentiating between different stages of international cooperation, we first describe ...

  13. INTERNAL MARKET GOVERNMENT SECURITIES IN PROMOTING THE EFFICIENCY OF DEBT POLICY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kuryshchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the effectiveness of debt policy of Ukraine, to its shortcomings and implications for the economy. The evaluation of the domestic government securities market and its impact on the efficiency of debt management.

  14. 17 CFR 405.2 - Reports to be made by registered government securities brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government securities broker or dealer shall file Part I of Form BD-Y2K (§ 249.618 of this title) prepared as..., shall file Part II of Form BD-Y2K (§ 249.618 of this title). Part II of Form BD-Y2K shall address each... registered government securities broker or dealer that was not required to file Part II of Form BD-Y2K under...

  15. Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman). In March 2011, Kuwait joined a GCC military intervention to...before the start of [2013]”—a statement that furthered Iraq’s argument that the U.N. Security Council should remove any remaining “Chapter 7” (of the...with alternative mechanisms, as discussed below. On December 15, 2010, the U.N. Security Council passed three resolutions—1956, 1957, and 1958—that

  16. Sustainable multilateral nuclear fuel cycle framework. (2) Models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T; Tanaka, S; Tazaki, M; Akiba, M; Takashima, R; Kuno, Y

    2011-01-01

    To construct suitable models for a reliable and sustainable international/regional framework in the fields of nuclear fuel cycle, it is essential to reflect recent political situations including such that 1) a certain number of emerging countries especially in south-east Asia want to introduce and develop nuclear power in the long-terms despite the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, and 2) exposition of nuclear proliferation threats provided by North Korea and Iran. It is also to be considered that Japan is an unique country having enrichment and reprocessing facilities on commercial base among non-nuclear weapon countries. Although many models presented for the internationalization have not been realized yet, studies at the University of Tokyo aim at multilateral nuclear approach (MNA) in Asian-Pacific countries balancing between nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear fuel supply/service and presenting specific examples such as prerequisites for participating countries, scope of cooperative activities, ownership of facilities and type of agreements/frameworks. We will present a model basic agreement and several bilateral and multi-lateral agreements for the combinations of industry or government led consortia including Japan and its neighboring countries and made a preliminary evaluation for the combination of processes/facilities based on the INFCIRC/640 report for MNA. (author)

  17. Security clouds: Towards an ethical governance of surveillance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Boer, M.G.W.; van Buuren, J.

    2012-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU), several instruments have been created at local, national and international level to monitor the movements of persons, goods and systems. The political justification of this vast expansion of surveillance instruments is based on the supposed need for security actors to

  18. Service oriented architecture governance tools within information security

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Tech. Service Oriented Architecture has many advantages. For example, organisations can align business with Information Technology, reuse the developed functionality, reduce development and maintain cost for applications. Organisations adopt Service Oriented Architecture with the aim of automating and integrating business processes. However, it has information security vulnerabilities that should be considered. For example, applications exchange information across the Internet, where it ...

  19. Post-conflict development in Liberia: Governance, security, capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the global system that led to the escalation of violence and human casualties. ... forces, their reintegration into the civilian life and the destruction of their ..... community leaders to set up intelligence security committees to monitor early warning ..... should move beyond the artificial separation between 'conflict as belonging to.

  20. Critical Vision of Security Governance in Three Latin American ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    María José Peréz

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... It will compare security policies in 3 capitals of Latin America from 2008 to 2013. • Special attention ... Council. ▫ Deputy ministers or vice ministers. Critical aspect. Lack of political weigtht to ... ▫Interventions should be based on.

  1. Governing food security. Law, politics and the right to food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, O.; Hadiprayitno, I.

    2010-01-01

    With only five years left until the 2015 deadline to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, food security still is a dream rather than reality: 'a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary

  2. Governance practices and critical success factors suitable for business information security

    OpenAIRE

    Bobbert, Yuri; Mulder, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Information Security (IS) is increasingly becoming an integrated business practice instead of just IT. Security breaches are a challenge to organizations. They run the risk of losing revenue, trust and reputation and in extreme cases they might even go under. IS literature emphasizes the necessity to govern Information Security at the level of the Board of Directors (BoD) and to execute (i.e. plan, build, run and monitor) it at management level. This paper describes explorative rese...

  3. 76 FR 12645 - Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security-Based Swap Clearing Agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... 3235-AK74 Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security- Based Swap Clearing Agencies... the Dodd-Frank Act, the Commission shall adopt such rules if it determines that they are necessary or appropriate to improve the governance of, or to mitigate systemic risk, promote competition or mitigate...

  4. 48 CFR 32.202-4 - Security for Government financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is upon, e.g., the work in process, the contractor's plant, or the contractor's inventory. Contracting officers may be flexible in the choice of assets. The contract must also give the Government a..., working capital loans, various lines of credit, and revolving credit arrangements. (c) Other assets as...

  5. Privatisation of Security: Private Military Contractors Serving Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Piątek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Privatisation of security did not appear in the process of revolution. Under conditions of deepening international relations, as well as integration and globalisation processes, security of the state, as well as other entities, is subject to a number of dependencies. The article casts some doubt on how much states are prepared to take such actions, while not losing the attribute of monopoly on violence. Moreover, the article presents doubts about the ranks of modern armed forces. Private Military Firms (PMFs are new actors the actions of which affect the security. The contemporary image of the PMF functioning is a phenomenon on a global scale. In the twenty-first century, small businesses can have a huge impact on the reality and international affairs. Leaving military firms without state control proves that they do not understand the dynamics, range, risks and challenges posed by cooperation with entities that are allowed to use force. Furthermore, despite devastating consequences that occurred during the state stabilisation operations, these firms continued to outsource services to contractors, while not creating any legal control over them.

  6. Modeling multi-lateral wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, H. J.; Fong, W. S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A method for modeling multi-lateral wells by using a computational scheme embedded in a general-purpose, finite difference simulator was described. The calculation of wellbore pressure profile for each lateral included the frictional pressure drop along the wellbore and proper fluid mixing at lateral connection points. To obtain a good production profile the Beggs and Brill correlation, a homogenous flow model, and the model proposed by Ouyang et al, which includes an acceleration term and accounts for the lubrication effect due to radial influx, were implemented. Well performance prediction results were compared using the three models. The impact of different tubing sizes on the well performance and the prediction contribution from each lateral were also studied. Results of the study in the hypothetical example and under normal field operating conditions were reviewed. 7 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Afghanistan: Post Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    2011, attack on the Intercontinental Hotel in Kabul; a September 10, 2011, truck bombing in Wardak Province (which injured 77 U.S. soldiers); and...The trafficking generates an estimated $70 million-$100 million per year for insurgents—perhaps about 25% of the insurgents’ budgets that is...2013. U.S. officials say the government is increasingly able to execute parts of its budget and deliver basic goods and services. Donor aid already

  8. Factors Affecting Project Governance Of Arusha Archdiocesan Food Security And Livelihood Project In Monduli District Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisame Deogratious

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research project dealt with the factors affecting governance of Food security and livelihood projects a case study of the Food security and livelihood project that was implemented by AAIDRO in Monduli district and included 60 respondents all together. The specific objectives of this study intended to access the Leadership styles that are being used in project governance. The findings of the study indicated that 91.7 of the respondents were in favor of their leaders project governance styles it was portrayed that participative leadership style was being used by the leaders for project governance. Based on a sample of 60 project members this study had confirmed that a project leaders leadership roles like mentor facilitator innovator and coordinator are important in influencing project governance effectiveness which includes team mission goal achievement and empowerment open and honest communication

  9. G8 Regional Security Governance through Sanctions and Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kirton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Why do the Group of Eight (G8 members approve its members’ use of material sanctions in some regional conflicts but military force in others?2 As an informal security institution composed of major democratic powers from North America, Europe and Asia, the G8 has often chosen sanctions, notably on Iran in 1980, Afghanistan in 1980, Sudan in 2004, North Korea in 2006, and Syria in 2011. It has increasingly chosen military force, notably in Iraq in 1990, Kosovo in 1999, the USSR over Afghanistan in 2001, Libya in 2011, and Mali in 2013. Yet the G8’s choice, initiation, commitment, compliance, implementation and effectiveness of both sanctions and force has varied. Force was chosen and used effectively only in the post cold war period, primarily where the target was close to southern Europe. A high relative-capability predominance of G8 members over the target country strongly produces the G8’s choice of force, but a high, direct, deadly threat from the target state to G8 countries does not. Geographic proximity and the connectivity coming from the former colonial relationship between G8 members and the target country only weakly cause the G8 to choose force. Support from the most relevant regional organization – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – and support from the United Nations in the form of an authorizing UN Security Council or General Assembly resolution have a strong, positive effect on the G8’s choice of force. Accompanying accountability mechanisms from the G8 itself have a variable impact, as leaders’ iteration of the issue at subsequent summits does not increase compliance with G8 commitments on force-related cases, but their foreign ministers’ follow up does to a substantial degree.

  10. How to Fund Homeland Security without Federal Dollars: State and Local Funding of Homeland Security Initiatives in Light of Decreased Support by the Federal Government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emler, Jay S

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis, therefore, examined alternatives states and local units of government might use to fund homeland security initiatives, ranging from conventional alternatives such as, asset forfeiture...

  11. 17 CFR 401.7 - Temporary exemption for certain government securities brokers and dealers terminating business on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary exemption for certain government securities brokers and dealers terminating business on or before October 31, 1987. 401... government securities brokers and dealers terminating business on or before October 31, 1987. During the...

  12. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Inclusion as a disabled child in the employee's annuity rate under the social security overall minimum. (2... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a...

  13. Relationship between Corporate Governance and Information Security Governance Effectiveness in United States Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Cyber attackers targeting large corporations achieved a high perimeter penetration success rate during 2013, resulting in many corporations incurring financial losses. Corporate information technology leaders have a fiduciary responsibility to implement information security domain processes that effectually address the challenges for preventing…

  14. INFORMATION SECURITY AS PART OF THE OVERALL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE – IT GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ungureanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A corporate governance system is not based solely on enforcement actions and incentives in order to obtain performance. In the context of a modern business environment, it must initiate and support research and development, contribute to social stability by harnessing human and cultural capital. Corporate governance plays a key role in improving the efficiency of the capital market through its impact on their operations and financial reporting integrity.IT governance has become a necessity due to the increased dependence, which is sometimes critical, against the company’s IT resources and due to the IT risks growth and diversification that management must settle, now operating in a heavily computerized environment.The changes in the informational environment and the expansion of new information technologies in organizations determine more complex and heterogeneous IT infrastructures. An essential issue is represented by the quality and performance of the existing system within an organization.

  15. MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS AND GLOBAL INEQUALITY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    particular look at the three multilateral organizations viz IMF, World. Bank and ... The Nigerian experience with the implementation of SAP which the. IMF and ..... Devaluation of national currency and that is a reduction in the exchange value of.

  16. Practising EU Security Governance in the Transatlantic Context: A Fragmentation of Power or Networked Hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Zyla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Security governance is commonly understood as an answer to the new and constantly changing security environment after the Cold War. In the context of the European Union (EU, the governance approach is believed to understand better the evolving institutional characters, networks, and processes of the EU’s actions in global politics. By employing a neo-Gramscian framework we challenge the 'orthodox view' in the EU governance literature that networks are flexible and hierarchy-immune responses to increasingly global policy challenges. We argue that networks in and of themselves reproduce existing power structures, and discuss the presence and replication of hegemony through these networks by examining the EU’s governance system post the Lisbon Treaty.

  17. 17 CFR 240.19c-1 - Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-1 Section 240.19c-1 Commodity... members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide as...

  18. 17 CFR 240.19c-5 - Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of options on national securities exchanges. 240.19c-5 Section 240.19c-5 Commodity and Securities... of Exchange Members § 240.19c-5 Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges. (a) The rules of each national securities exchange that provides a trading market in standardized...

  19. 17 CFR 240.19c-3 - Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-3 Section 240.19c-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Members § 240.19c-3 Governing off-board trading by members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide as follows: (a) No rule, stated policy or practice of...

  20. MAVEN Information Security Governance, Risk Management, and Compliance (GRC): Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Gomez-Rosa, Carlos A.; Mangum, Kevin; Wasiak, Fran

    2014-01-01

    As the first interplanetary mission managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) had three IT security goals for its ground system: COMPLIANCE, (IT) RISK REDUCTION, and COST REDUCTION. In a multiorganizational environment in which government, industry and academia work together in support of the ground system and mission operations, information security governance, risk management, and compliance (GRC) becomes a challenge as each component of the ground system has and follows its own set of IT security requirements. These requirements are not necessarily the same or even similar to each other's, making the auditing of the ground system security a challenging feat. A combination of standards-based information security management based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF), due diligence by the Mission's leadership, and effective collaboration among all elements of the ground system enabled MAVEN to successfully meet NASA's requirements for IT security, and therefore meet Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) mandate on the Agency. Throughout the implementation of GRC on MAVEN during the early stages of the mission development, the Project faced many challenges some of which have been identified in this paper. The purpose of this paper is to document these challenges, and provide a brief analysis of the lessons MAVEN learned. The historical information documented herein, derived from an internal pre-launch lessons learned analysis, can be used by current and future missions and organizations implementing and auditing GRC.

  1. A Method for Evaluating Information Security Governance (ISG) Components in Banking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ula, M.; Ula, M.; Fuadi, W.

    2017-02-01

    As modern banking increasingly relies on the internet and computer technologies to operate their businesses and market interactions, the threats and security breaches have highly increased in recent years. Insider and outsider attacks have caused global businesses lost trillions of Dollars a year. Therefore, that is a need for a proper framework to govern the information security in the banking system. The aim of this research is to propose and design an enhanced method to evaluate information security governance (ISG) implementation in banking environment. This research examines and compares the elements from the commonly used information security governance frameworks, standards and best practices. Their strength and weakness are considered in its approaches. The initial framework for governing the information security in banking system was constructed from document review. The framework was categorized into three levels which are Governance level, Managerial level, and technical level. The study further conducts an online survey for banking security professionals to get their professional judgment about the ISG most critical components and the importance for each ISG component that should be implemented in banking environment. Data from the survey was used to construct a mathematical model for ISG evaluation, component importance data used as weighting coefficient for the related component in the mathematical model. The research further develops a method for evaluating ISG implementation in banking based on the mathematical model. The proposed method was tested through real bank case study in an Indonesian local bank. The study evidently proves that the proposed method has sufficient coverage of ISG in banking environment and effectively evaluates the ISG implementation in banking environment.

  2. Global Food Security Governance: Civil Society Engagement in the Reformed Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007/8 world food prices spiked and global economic crisis set in, leaving hundreds of millions of people unable to access adequate food. The international reaction was swift. In a bid for leadership, the 123 member countries of the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security (CFS) adopted a

  3. Risk, security and technology: governing football supporters in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper critically examines the security and risk management technologies that are being used to conduct and pre-empt the behaviour of football supporters. It is shown how, in the Netherlands, pre-emptive risk management in the governing of football supporters involves a dispersed and fragmented

  4. The Integration of It Governance, Information Security Leadership and Strategic Alignment in Healthcare: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Tiffany H.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the relationship between Information Technology Governance (ITG), information security leadership, and strategic alignment within a healthcare organization. Strong organizational leadership and adherence to the process are vital to the formulation and management of performance and implementation of key directives.…

  5. The National Security Education Program and Its Service Requirement: An Exploratory Study of What Areas of Government and for What Duration National Security Education Program Recipients Have Worked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comp, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Security Education Program, established under the National Security Education Act of 1991, has had a post-funding service requirement in the Federal Government for undergraduate scholarship and graduate fellowship recipients since its inception. The service requirement, along with the concern that the National Security Education…

  6. Medical countermeasures for national security: a new government role in the pharmaceuticalization of society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Stefan; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Long, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    How do governments contribute to the pharmaceuticalization of society? Whilst the pivotal role of industry is extensively documented, this article shows that governments too are accelerating, intensifying and opening up new trajectories of pharmaceuticalization in society. Governments are becoming more deeply invested in pharmaceuticals because their national security strategies now aspire to defend populations against health-based threats like bioterrorism and pandemics. To counter those threats, governments are acquiring and stockpiling a panoply of 'medical countermeasures' such as antivirals, next-generation vaccines, antibiotics and anti-toxins. More than that, governments are actively incentivizing the development of many new medical countermeasures--principally by marshaling the state's unique powers to introduce exceptional measures in the name of protecting national security. At least five extraordinary policy interventions have been introduced by governments with the aim of stimulating the commercial development of novel medical countermeasures: (1) allocating earmarked public funds, (2) granting comprehensive legal protections to pharmaceutical companies against injury compensation claims, (3) introducing bespoke pathways for regulatory approval, (4) instantiating extraordinary emergency use procedures allowing for the use of unapproved medicines, and (5) designing innovative logistical distribution systems for mass drug administration outside of clinical settings. Those combined efforts, the article argues, are spawning a new, government-led and quite exceptional medical countermeasure regime operating beyond the conventional boundaries of pharmaceutical development and regulation. In the first comprehensive analysis of the pharmaceuticalization dynamics at play in national security policy, this article unearths the detailed array of policy interventions through which governments too are becoming more deeply imbricated in the pharmaceuticalization of

  7. Information governance and security protecting and managing your company's proprietary information

    CERN Document Server

    Iannarelli, John G

    2014-01-01

    Information Governance and Security shows managers in any size organization how to create and implement the policies, procedures and training necessary to keep their organization's most important asset-its proprietary information-safe from cyber and physical compromise. Many intrusions can be prevented if appropriate precautions are taken, and this book establishes the enterprise-level systems and disciplines necessary for managing all the information generated by an organization. In addition, the book encompasses the human element by considering proprietary information lost, damaged, or destroyed through negligence. By implementing the policies and procedures outlined in Information Governance and Security, organizations can proactively protect their reputation against the threats that most managers have never even thought of. Provides a step-by-step outline for developing an information governance policy that is appropriate for your organization Includes real-world examples and cases to help illustrate key ...

  8. The Dynamics of Good Governance in Promoting Energy Security: The Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakib B. Amin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the modern era, energy and its sustainability have emerged as one of the most important economic issues worldwide. It is widely believed that no country has managed to embrace development without ensuring a sustainable energy supply that could be accessed by a large portion of the population. Thus, this concept of energy sufficiency is of greater importance for the underdeveloped countries those, historically, had not been able to match their local energy demand. Apart from the inefficiencies and resource constraints associated with the energy sector, lack of good governance within an economy is believed to be a critical issue in aggravating energy crisis in those countries. However, following strategic impotence, political unwillingness and inefficient governance of the energy sector, the underdeveloped countries have failed to mitigate the energy deficits which in turn have hampered the development prospects in those countries. This paper highlights the potential roles good governance can play to promote energy security considering the case of Bangladesh, a developing country that is leaving no stones unturned in becoming a middle-income country by 2021. Besides, the role of good governance in complementing fuel diversification as a tool for ensuring energy security has also been put forward. Thus, the government of Bangladesh should reinstate good governance within the economy creating a favourable environment for investment in the energy sector which would enhance competition and mitigate inefficiencies in energy generation, transmission, and distribution.

  9. 17 CFR 404.2 - Records to be made and kept current by registered government securities brokers and dealers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on a consolidated basis, by the highest level holding company that is a Material Associated Person..., as of quarter-end for the registered government securities broker or dealer and its highest level... registered government securities broker or dealer and its highest level holding company that is a Material...

  10. India's energy security: A sample of business, government, civil society, and university perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambawale, Malavika Jain; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the concept of energy security perceived and understood by a sample of government, business, civil society, and university stakeholders in India. Based on a literature review, the authors hypothesize what energy experts suggest energy security is for India. The article then tests these hypotheses through the use of a survey completed by 172 Indian respondents. The article begins by describing its methodology before summarizing the results of the literature review to distill seven working hypotheses related to energy security in India. These hypotheses relate to (1) security of energy supply, (2) equitable access to energy services, (3) research and development of new energy technologies, (4) energy efficiency and conservation, (5) self-sufficiency and trade in energy fuels, (6) nuclear power, and (7) the energy-water nexus. It then tests these hypotheses with our survey instrument before concluding with implications for energy policy in India and beyond. - Research highlights: → We measured the concept of energy security for India through a survey that tested the importance of 16 dimensions. → For our sample of respondents from India, as hypothesized, security of fossil fuel supply, R and D in new technologies, centralized energy systems, and the availability of clean water emerged as important dimensions. → Equitable access to energy and low energy intensity did not emerge as important dimensions of energy security for our sample even though we hypothesized them to be so.

  11. India's energy security: A sample of business, government, civil society, and university perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambawale, Malavika Jain, E-mail: sppmjb@nus.edu.s [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    This article explores the concept of energy security perceived and understood by a sample of government, business, civil society, and university stakeholders in India. Based on a literature review, the authors hypothesize what energy experts suggest energy security is for India. The article then tests these hypotheses through the use of a survey completed by 172 Indian respondents. The article begins by describing its methodology before summarizing the results of the literature review to distill seven working hypotheses related to energy security in India. These hypotheses relate to (1) security of energy supply, (2) equitable access to energy services, (3) research and development of new energy technologies, (4) energy efficiency and conservation, (5) self-sufficiency and trade in energy fuels, (6) nuclear power, and (7) the energy-water nexus. It then tests these hypotheses with our survey instrument before concluding with implications for energy policy in India and beyond. - Research highlights: {yields} We measured the concept of energy security for India through a survey that tested the importance of 16 dimensions. {yields} For our sample of respondents from India, as hypothesized, security of fossil fuel supply, R and D in new technologies, centralized energy systems, and the availability of clean water emerged as important dimensions. {yields} Equitable access to energy and low energy intensity did not emerge as important dimensions of energy security for our sample even though we hypothesized them to be so.

  12. Best Practices for Operating Government-Industry Partnerships in Cyber Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Clinton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the first National Strategy to Secure Cyber Space in 2003 the US federal government has realized that due to the interconnected nature of the Internet, securing the system would require an industry-government partnership. However, defining exactly what that new partnership would look like and how it would operate has been unclear. The ramifications of this ambiguous strategy have been noted elsewhere including the 2011 JSS article “A Relationship on the Brink” which described the dysfunctional state of public private partnerships with respect to cyber security. Subsequently, a joint industry-government study of partnership programs has generated a consensus list of “best practices” for operating such programs successfully. Moreover, subsequent use of these principles seems to confirm their ability to enhance the partnership and hopefully helps ameliorate, to some degree, the growing cyber threat. This article provides a brief history of the evolution of public-private partnerships in cyber security, the joint study to assess them and the 12 best practices generated by that analysis.

  13. 17 CFR 400.6 - Notice of withdrawal from business as a government securities broker or dealer by a financial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of withdrawal from business as a government securities broker or dealer by a financial institution. 400.6 Section 400.6... SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION § 400.6 Notice of withdrawal from business as a...

  14. Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

  15. MULTILATERALISM AND THE EMERGENCE OF ‘MINILATERALISM’ IN EU PEACE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Attinà

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the multilateral practice of peacekeeping and peace support operations has been growing as legitimate instrument to interrupt violence, strengthen security, and protect against gross human rights violations. Invented by the United Nations, peace operations have passed through a process of change that has given new features to multilateral security. Since the late 1980s, the number of UN-authorized peace operations has been growing. Also regional organisations have engaged themselves in an unprecedented number of peace support operations. Recently, the European Union has entered into the practice of peacekeeping, and put multilateralism at the centre of its presence in the world political system. This paper reviews political science knowledge on peace operations (especially, the legitimacy and efficacy issues, and examines the hypothesis of the appearance of minilateralism as the consequence of the engagement of regional organisations and actors, like the EU, in peace operations. The hypothesis is tested by comparing the data of the peace missions of three European organisations (EU, OSCE, and NATO with those of the United Nations. The paper conclusion is that the European states are developing a preference for selective engagement (i.e. minilateralism in peace operations, and the EU is capable of playing both as multilateral and minilateral security provider.

  16. The Counter Trafficking in Persons Architecture in Kenya: a security governance perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael; Owiso, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The many and nuanced strategies adopted by Human traffickers has rendered the management of the crime to require complexity in approach. This is because of the inner workings and the multiplicity of actors; individuals, governments, non-governmental organizations, criminal networks - traffickers......, transnational entities, as well as the international community – either perpetuating it or working towards managing is diverse. Because of this, a study into the crime calls for an all-encompassing approach. This chapter looks into the measures of human trafficking in Kenya from a security governance...

  17. Risk in the Clouds?: Security Issues Facing Government Use of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyld, David C.

    Cloud computing is poised to become one of the most important and fundamental shifts in how computing is consumed and used. Forecasts show that government will play a lead role in adopting cloud computing - for data storage, applications, and processing power, as IT executives seek to maximize their returns on limited procurement budgets in these challenging economic times. After an overview of the cloud computing concept, this article explores the security issues facing public sector use of cloud computing and looks to the risk and benefits of shifting to cloud-based models. It concludes with an analysis of the challenges that lie ahead for government use of cloud resources.

  18. Information security governance: a risk assessment approach to health information systems protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A H

    2013-01-01

    It is no small task to manage the protection of healthcare data and healthcare information systems. In an environment that is demanding adaptation to change for all information collection, storage and retrieval systems, including those for of e-health and information systems, it is imperative that good information security governance is in place. This includes understanding and meeting legislative and regulatory requirements. This chapter provides three models to educate and guide organisations in this complex area, and to simplify the process of information security governance and ensure appropriate and effective measures are put in place. The approach is risk based, adapted and contextualized for healthcare. In addition, specific considerations of the impact of cloud services, secondary use of data, big data and mobile health are discussed.

  19. Dialogue between Mexico and the EU: an analysis from the new multilateralism approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecka Villanueva Ulfgard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of multilateralism today and its contemporary conceptual redefinition has different sources: the rise of emerging economies, increasing regional and sub-national politics and the intensity of regionalism. This study focuses on the growing role of civil society in this transformation of the coordinates that define the so-called New Multilateralism. The article problematizes, theoretically and empirically, the incorporation of civil society into multilateral settings or mechanisms by studying a particular case: after more than 10 years of the existence of the "Global Agreement" between Mexico and the European Union, it is important to analyze the incorporation of civil society into this relationship. Taking as their starting point the stakeholders’ strategies, the authors analyze the problem nexus concerning legitimacy and representativeness in the context of the dialogue between governments and civil societies in Mexico and the EU.

  20. Interacting forms of expertise in security governance: the example of CCTV surveillance at Geneva International Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauser, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    The paper investigates the multiple public-private exchanges and cooperation involved in the installation and development of CCTV surveillance at Geneva International Airport. Emphasis is placed on the interacting forms of authority and expertise of five parties: the user(s), owner and supplier of the camera system, as well as the technical managers of the airport and the Swiss regulatory bodies in airport security. While placing the issues of airport surveillance in the particular context of a specific range of projects and transformations relating to the developments of CCTV at Geneva Airport, the paper not only provides important insights into the micro-politics of surveillance at Geneva Airport, but aims to re-institute these as part of a broader 'problematic': the mediating role of expertise and the growing functional fragmentation of authority in contemporary security governance. On this basis, the paper also exemplifies the growing mutual interdependences between security and business interests in the ever growing 'surveillant assemblage' in contemporary security governance.

  1. Multilateral Mediated Negotiation Protocols with Feedback (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydogan, R.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to bilateral negotiation in which the dispute is between only two parties. However, automated multilateral negotiation in which more than two negotiating parties need to reach a joint agreement, has received relatively less attention, even though such negotiations are

  2. Preference Erosion and Multilateral Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); B. Hoekman (Bernard); M. Manchin (Miriam)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBecause of concern that OECD tariff reductions will translate into worsening export performance for the least developed countries, trade preferences have proven a stumbling block to developing country support for multilateral liberalization. We examine the actual scope for preference

  3. United Nations and multilateralism: appraising USA's unilateralism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multilateralism as symbolized by the United Nations Organization, seems to have come under threat today, and nowhere is this more evident than in the United States-United Nations relations particularly in the area of military interventions around the world. The aim of this paper is to appraise the practice of the principle of ...

  4. Multilateral organizations and global inequality: A focus on IMF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines issues relating to multilateral organizations, taking a particular look at the three multilateral organizations viz IMF, World Bank and WTO. It establishes that institutional and structural variables in the multilateral organizations are skewed in favour of the developed countries and this tends to entrench their ...

  5. Lessons from collaborative governance and sociobiology theories for reinforcing sustained cooperation: a government food security case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, L A; Montoya, I; Sánchez González, O D

    2015-07-01

    This research aimed to understand how cooperation and collaboration work in interagency arrangements using a case study of the public management of food security and nutrition in Bogotá, Colombia. This study explored the available scientific literature on Collaborative Governance within the Public Management body of knowledge and the literature on Cooperation from the Sociobiology field. Then, proposals were developed for testing on the ground through an action-research effort that was documented as a case study. Finally, observations were used to test the proposals and some analytical generalizations were developed. To document the case study, several personal interviews, file reviews and normative reviews were conducted to generate a case study database. Collaboration and cooperation concepts within the framework of interagency public management can be understood as a shared desirable outcome that unites different agencies in committing efforts and resources to the accomplishment of a common goal for society, as seen in obtaining food and nutrition security for a specific territory. Collaboration emerges when the following conditions exist and decreases when they are absent: (1) a strong sponsorship that may come from a central government policy or from a distributed interagency consensus; (2) a clear definition of the participating agencies; (3) stability of the staff assigned to the coordination system; and (4) a fitness function for the staff, some mechanism to reward or punish the collaboration level of each individual in the interagency effort. As this research investigated only one case study, the findings must be taken with care and any generalization made from this study needs to be analytical in nature. Additionally, research must be done to accept these results universally. Food security and nutrition efforts are interagency in nature. For collaboration between agencies to emerge, a minimum set of characteristics that were established during the

  6. Economic sustainability, water security and multi-level governance of local water schemes in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hakala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of multi-level governance and power structures in local water security through a case study of the Nawalparasi district in Nepal. It focuses on economic sustainability as a measure to address water security, placing this thematic in the context of a complicated power structure consisting of local, district and national administration as well as external development cooperation actors. The study aims to find out whether efforts to improve the economic sustainability of water schemes have contributed to water security at the local level. In addition, it will consider the interactions between water security, power structures and local equality and justice. The research builds upon survey data from the Nepalese districts of Nawalparasi and Palpa, and a case study based on interviews and observation in Nawalparasi. The survey was performed in water schemes built within a Finnish development cooperation programme spanning from 1990 to 2004, allowing a consideration of the long-term sustainability of water management projects. This adds a crucial external influence into the intra-state power structures shaping water management in Nepal. The article thus provides an alternative perspective to cross-regional water security through a discussion combining transnational involvement with national and local points of view.

  7. The Multilateral Financial Institutions of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Munich i Gasa

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of Multilateral Development Institutions (MDIs in promoting economic and social progress in Less Developed Countries (LDC. After examining the activities of the main MDIs (International Monetary Fund, WorldBank Group, Interamerican Development Bank, African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development we have come to some conclusions. First, MDIs loans play a catalytic effect in channeling flows of additional public or private resources to LDC. Second, MDIs emphasize both the role of the private sector and an efficient public sector to achieve its objectives (to promote economic growth, reduce poverty, etc.. Third, MDIs provide direct financing for private sector activities, restructuring and privatisation to encourage the development of market economies as well as funding for the infrastructure that supports these activities. Fourth, over the last few years the MDIs have increased their conditionalities on the borrowers, especially in environment and governance areas. Fifth, the resources provided by the MDIs are not enough to cope with the financial needs of LDC; furthermore, a low percentage of total loans are on concessional terms. Sixth, most of the MDIs resources go to the benefit of medium-income countries (South Korea, Mexico, Brazil, etc. and only a small amount of credits go to the poorest countries; what´s more, in the last few last years MDIs are increasing their financial support of countries in the East. Seventh, MDIs have integrated social sector and environment as a first-order priority in their reports, but the lending reality is far from incorporating such an aim: one thing istheory, the other is practice. Eighth, MDIs’ institutional structures and decision-making processes are similar, as in most of them the principle of one dollar one vote holds. As a result, the MDIs are dominated by the developed countries, which use such

  8. 17 CFR 449.1 - Form G-FIN, notification by financial institutions of status as government securities broker or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Securities Exchange Act of 1934. This form is to be used by financial institutions that are government... Currency, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision and...

  9. Energy Technology Initiatives 2013. Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change cost-effectively are key global challenges. Tackling these issues will require efforts from stakeholders worldwide. To find solutions, the public and private sectors must work together, sharing burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes. Through its broad range of multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements), the IEA enables member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-governmental organisations to share research on breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants and to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes across the energy sector. This publication highlights the most significant recent achievements of the IEA Implementing Agreements. At the core of the IEA energy technology network, these initiatives are a fundamental building block for facilitating the entry of new and improved energy technologies into the marketplace.

  10. Intergovernmental organisation activities and Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section summarises the activities of Intergovernmental organisations and the status of Multilateral agreements on December 1, 2011: 1 - Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community: Adopted legislative instruments, Reports, Meetings; International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, Non-binding instrument on the transboundary movement of scrap metal, 55. IAEA General Conference, Basic Safety Standards, Nuclear Law Institute; OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Basic Safety Standards, International Nuclear Law Essentials, International School of Nuclear Law, New members, Russian Federation request for membership; 2 - Multilateral agreements: Status of conventions in the nuclear energy domain on December 1, 2011; Status of conventions in the environmental protection/evaluation impacting the nuclear energy use on December 1, 2011; participation of OECD Member States to nuclear energy and environment protection/evaluation related treaties/conventions

  11. Multilateral negotiations over climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Pinto, L.M.; Harrison, G.W. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Nucleo de Investigacao em Microeconomia Aplicada, Departmento de Economia

    2000-07-01

    Negotiations in the real world have many features that tend to be ignored in policy modelling. They are often multilateral, involving many negotiating parties with preferences over outcomes that can differ substantially. They are also often multi-dimensional, in the sense that several policies are negotiated over simultaneously. Trade negotiations are a prime example, as are negotiations over environmental policies to abate CO{sub 2}. The authors demonstrate how one can formally model this type of negotiation process. They use a policy-oriented computable general equilibrium model to generate preference functions which are then used in a formal multilateral bargaining game. The case study is on climate change policy, but the main contribution is to demonstrate how one can integrate formal economic models of the impacts of policies with formal bargaining models of the negotiations over those policies. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. 17 CFR 240.3a12-8 - Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption for designated foreign government securities for purposes of futures trading. 240.3a12-8 Section 240.3a12-8 Commodity and... trading. (a) When used in this Rule, the following terms shall have the meaning indicated: (1) The term...

  13. Transactional costs of the interaction between business and government as a threat to the economic security of the state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evmenov Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the costs of the interaction between the state and business as a threat to the development of the economy of the Russian Federation from the point of view of ensuring economic security. The authors identified significant obstacles both from the business and from the government side, which pose a threat to economic security. The study is of interest for the further development of a system of providing the economic security of the Russian Federation.

  14. Social Inclusion, Security and E-Democracy Issues in E-Government: The Role of E-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista; McPherson, Maggie; Whiteside, Amy

    This paper focuses on aspects of e-government with emphasis on how local authorities are coping with the transition into the Information Society. E-government is reviewed in the flight of such topics as a social inclusion, security and e-democracy. The challenge has been set in the United Kingdom for local authorities to deliver 100% of services…

  15. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  16. Multilateral Research Opportunities in Ground Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. International collaboration provides an opportunity to leverage other nations' investments to meet common goals. The Humans In Space Community shares a common goal to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration within and beyond Low Earth Orbit. Meeting this goal requires efficient use of limited resources and International capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) is our primary platform to conduct microgravity research targeted at reducing human health and performance risks for exploration missions. Access to ISS resources, however, is becoming more and more constrained and will only be available through 2020 or 2024. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is actively pursuing methods to effectively utilize the ISS and appropriate ground analogs to understand and mitigate human health and performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. HRP developed a plan to use ground analogs of increasing fidelity to address questions related to exploration missions and is inviting International participation in these planned campaigns. Using established working groups and multilateral panels, the HRP is working with multiple Space Agencies to invite International participation in a series of 30- day missions that HRP will conduct in the US owned and operated Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) during 2016. In addition, the HRP is negotiating access to Antarctic stations (both US and non-US), the German :envihab and Russian NEK facilities. These facilities provide unique capabilities to address critical research questions requiring longer duration simulation or isolation. We are negotiating release of international research opportunities to ensure a multilateral approach to future analog research campaigns, hoping to begin multilateral campaigns in the

  17. Resource reliability, accessibility and governance: pillars for managing water resources to achieve water security in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Atkinson, P.; Dash, J.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the world's most water-abundant countries, Nepal has plenty of water yet resources are both spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. With a population heavily engaged in subsistence farming, whereby livelihoods are entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, changes in freshwater resources can substantially impact upon survival. The two main sources of water in Nepal come from monsoon precipitation and glacial runoff. The former is essential for sustaining livelihoods where communities have little or no access to perennial water resources. Much of Nepal's population live in the southern Mid-Hills and Terai regions where dependency on the monsoon system is high and climate-environment interactions are intricate. Any fluctuations in precipitation can severely affect essential potable resources and food security. As the population continues to expand in Nepal, and pressures build on access to adequate and clean water resources, there is a need for institutions to cooperate and increase the effectiveness of water management policies. This research presents a framework detailing three fundamental pillars for managing water resources to achieve sustainable water security in Nepal. These are (i) resource reliability; (ii) adequate accessibility; and (iii) effective governance. Evidence is presented which indicates that water resources are adequate in Nepal to sustain the population. In addition, aspects of climate change are having less impact than previously perceived e.g. results from trend analysis of precipitation time-series indicate a decrease in monsoon extremes and interannual variation over the last half-century. However, accessibility to clean water resources and the potential for water storage is limiting the use of these resources. This issue is particularly prevalent given the heterogeneity in spatial and temporal distributions of water. Water governance is also ineffective due to government instability and a lack of continuity in policy

  18. WTO’s information technology agreement (ITA and its expansion (ITA II: multilateralizing regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Capucio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the complex context of the relationship between multilateralism and regionalism, the conclusion of plurilateral agreements within the WTO, open to participation of all interested members, offers a multilateral perspective of regionalism, in which the benefits of partial consensus are to be extended to the multilateral sphere. The ITA - Information Technology Agreement - is mentioned as an example of this possibility, and its recent expansion, through the negotiation of the ITA II, demonstrates the strengthening of this multilateralisation trend of regionalism, although with special features. Thus, this article is developed drawing the context and introduction of the theme of regionalism and multilateralism, and presents the theory of multilateralisation of regionalism and the ITA as one of those experiences, and its recent expansion as a resumption of the relevance of this theory. Considering the impasses for the conclusion of the Doha Round, the expansion of these partial consensus and the continuation of negotiations at the World Trade Organization by the conclusion of sectoral plurilateral agreements emerges as a possible way out, which demands a re-architecture of the interpretation of the role of the WTO in the global economic governance.

  19. Enhancing effectiveness of agriculture group in supporting government program to increase food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnowati, Daru; Subarjo, A. H.

    2018-05-01

    Food Security is closely related to agriculture, including fisheries. Food is a basic necessity and indispensable to humans. Nowadays, there are many agricultural lands and fisheries are turning to settlements and offices. To overcome these obstacles, the government took the policy of forming farmer groups. Farmer groups are channeling the government assistance, whether capital, seeds, training, or technology and knowledge assistance. This research is qualitative. The population in this study were members of the fish farming group in Purwomartani, Kalasan, Sleman. The population in this study were 4 Farmers Group in Purwomartani, Kalasan, Sleman. The sample in this research is 1 farmer group with the largest number of members that is 31 people. For the other three groups of fish farmers the number of members is 20 people. The results show that farmer groups are effective in supporting government programs. The role of farmer groups is needed to support the successful management of agricultural land, improvement of knowledge and skills of fish farmers, renewal of agricultural technology and equipment, and marketing of agricultural products.

  20. The Collapse of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: A Multilateral Approach to Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Chiang Mai Initiative.12 A slow move toward regional economic integration has continued since; however, there have been very few broad multilateral...treaty was signed at the Presidio, and was shortly followed by the U.S.-Japan Mutual Security Treaty. 11 Ibid, 24. 12 Ibid, 32-34. The Chiang Mai agreement

  1. New multilateral approaches solving the nuclear energy dispute with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heireng, Hege Schultz; Moezzi, Maryam; Kippe, Halvor

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this report is on possible multilateral approaches for cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim is to contribute in finding diplomatic solutions to the Iranian nuclear dispute. The proposals challenge the traditional views of Iran's role in the nuclear negotiations in particular, and in the international community in general. The report investigates the possibility of accepting Iran's enrichment of uranium, under an enhanced safeguards regime, and through a multilateral cooperation on the production of nuclear fuel. In relation to this, the report also explores the benefits of including new actors in the proposed solutions.Two different models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle cooperation with Iran will be presented. The aim of these models is to ensure greater transparency in Iran's nuclear activities, in order to minimize the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, while simultaneously presenting a solution that will be acceptable to Iran. The first model is a tripartite consortium model that consists of a cooperation between Kazakhstan, Iran and South Africa, in which these countries additionally cooperate with an IAEA-supervised international nuclear fuel bank. The second model is a nuclear fuel cycle cooperation between Iran and six of the countries bordering the Persian Gulf. In both models, the countries in question will be responsible for different parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Iran will be responsible for the uranium enrichment activities, but will have to give up all other fuel cycle activities. Another prerequisite is that Iran accepts not to store enriched uranium on Iranian soil.The report shows that the international community should consider accepting enrichment of uranium on Iranian soil in the long-term. In addition, it is concluded that cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle, where Iran is a reliable nuclear supplier state of enriched uranium and other states are responsible for the remaining parts of

  2. New multilateral approaches solving the nuclear energy dispute with Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heireng, Hege Schultz; Moezzi, Maryam; Kippe, Halvor

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this report is on possible multilateral approaches for cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim is to contribute in finding diplomatic solutions to the Iranian nuclear dispute. The proposals challenge the traditional views of Iran's role in the nuclear negotiations in particular, and in the international community in general. The report investigates the possibility of accepting Iran's enrichment of uranium, under an enhanced safeguards regime, and through a multilateral cooperation on the production of nuclear fuel. In relation to this, the report also explores the benefits of including new actors in the proposed solutions.Two different models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle cooperation with Iran will be presented. The aim of these models is to ensure greater transparency in Iran's nuclear activities, in order to minimize the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, while simultaneously presenting a solution that will be acceptable to Iran. The first model is a tripartite consortium model that consists of a cooperation between Kazakhstan, Iran and South Africa, in which these countries additionally cooperate with an IAEA-supervised international nuclear fuel bank. The second model is a nuclear fuel cycle cooperation between Iran and six of the countries bordering the Persian Gulf. In both models, the countries in question will be responsible for different parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Iran will be responsible for the uranium enrichment activities, but will have to give up all other fuel cycle activities. Another prerequisite is that Iran accepts not to store enriched uranium on Iranian soil.The report shows that the international community should consider accepting enrichment of uranium on Iranian soil in the long-term. In addition, it is concluded that cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle, where Iran is a reliable nuclear supplier state of enriched uranium and other states are responsible for the

  3. Pragmatism and Effective Fragmented Governance: Comparing Trajectories in Small Arms and Military and Security Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Avant

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of contemporary global governance is its complex nature. Understanding the implications of the array of “governors” and their efforts is paramount for scholars of global law and global politics. Most analyses have treated fragmented governance as a piece, arguing about its general effects. I concentrate instead on variation within fragmented situations, seeking to understand the conditions under which complexity yields more or less effective governance. I propose an analytical scheme for gauging effectiveness focused on how the array of governance efforts in an issue area relate to one another. I then compare these efforts in two issue arenas: small arms and private military and security services. Despite a similar complexity, similar array of actors trying to exert influence, and similar timing, complexity in small arms generated what most see as less effective results while in military and security services it has generated what seems to be a more promising path toward effective governance mechanisms. This difference is best explained with insights from pragmatism and network theory. When a broader range of relevant governors engage pragmatically to form linked networks governance is more likely. When governors engage ideologically and break off ties governance is less likely. Pragmatic engagement among the variety of relevant governors, including the US, is most likely to generate effective global governance. Una característica distintiva del gobierno mundial contemporáneo es su naturaleza compleja. Entender las implicaciones de la serie de "gobernadores" y sus esfuerzos es fundamental para los estudiosos del derecho internacional y la política mundial. La mayoría de los análisis han tratado el gobierno fragmentado como una pieza, discutiendo sobre sus efectos generales. El análisis se centra en cambio en la variación dentro de situaciones fragmentadas, buscando entender las condiciones en las que la complejidad produce

  4. Water security at local government level in South Africa: a qualitative interview-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meissner, DPhil

    2018-05-01

    individuals and their natural surroundings. We discovered that perceptions depend on many different factors. First, the changing state of the natural environment a person lives in—eg, one respondent from eThekwini said “When it rains in summer a lot of stuff gets washed down into the storm water drains and into the sea. The main concern here is pathogens.” Second, socioeconomic status is important—one community member in Ntshongweni noted that only some community members have the financial means to buy water tanks for rain harvesting to enhance their household water security. Third, experiences relating to various interactions with local governments and members of the community can also affect perceptions—eg, some respondents were unsatisfied with responses to problems by local authorities. A respondent from eThekwini said “Sometimes when we report water leakages it takes a long time for them to get fixed”, and a respondent from Sekhukhune said “Sometimes we have asked the authorities about the problem of water supply cuts, they told us about a stolen water pump and gave us inconsistent answers”. Therefore, a changing natural environment, like flooding and drought, is not the only variable that influences water security perceptions; such conceptualisations also depend to varying degrees on interpersonal relationships (eg, with local authorities and practices (eg, collecting rainwater, which are directly or indirectly related to water security enhancement. Interpretation: How people perceive water security has policy implications at the local government level in South Africa and further afield in other low-income and middle-income countries where data collection is unreliable. We established that people from diverse lifestyles hold various understandings and interpretations of water security relating mainly to the availability, access, and quality of water resources. Understanding how people perceive water security in specific localities could aid policy

  5. Multilateral collaboration between technical communicators and translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a multilateral international project (Thompson and Carter 1973, Moreno-Lopez 2004) in technical communication and translator training programmes and discusses its use of technologies in what is seen as the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing collaboration...... to date. The project is a student collaboration involving two sets of cross-cultural virtual teams who either translate from Danish and Dutch into English and review (or edit) into American English or who are involved in international collaborative writing by Spaniards and Americans, usability testing...

  6. 17 CFR 240.15Ca2-5 - Consent to service of process to be furnished by non-resident government securities brokers or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consent to service of process... Government Securities Dealers § 240.15Ca2-5 Consent to service of process to be furnished by non-resident... government securities dealer by the service of process upon the Commission and the forwarding of a copy...

  7. 78 FR 69864 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, U...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... international organization, lawfully engaged in collecting law enforcement intelligence, whether civil or..., tribal, or foreign governmental agencies or multilateral governmental organizations for the purpose of..., or foreign government agency or multilateral governmental organization for the purpose of consulting...

  8. 31 CFR 357.10 - Laws governing a Treasury book-entry security, TRADES, and security interests or entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laws governing a Treasury book-entry... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Treasury/Reserve Automated Debt Entry System (TRADES) § 357.10 Laws governing a Treasury book...

  9. 17 CFR 240.3a44-1 - Proprietary government securities transactions incidental to the futures-related business of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proprietary government securities transactions incidental to the futures-related business of a CFTC-regulated person. 240.3a44-1 Section 240.3a44-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  10. The good multilateralists: Brazil and South Africa in the new area of multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mantzikos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine two of the world’s emerging middle powers Brazil and South Africa, the rise and promulgation of their cooperative strategies to reform institutions such as the United Nations Security Council. The article tries to examine the instrumental nature of South African and Brazilian foreign policy within the framework of both countries’ commitment to multilateralism and if this has been rising as part of a new form of shallow multilateralism or a regenerated regionalism of the South. Moreover, with regards to recent crises in Honduras and Zimbabwe, we will try to offer a critical evaluation of both countries global standing and their effort to promote democratic values in regional and sub-regional levels.

  11. Strengthening political co-operation through multilateral disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden discussed how the multilateral disarmament concept has contributed and still can contribute to strengthen political co-operation. This approach is the opposite to the usual question on how to achieve multilateral disarmament through political co-operation

  12. Reforming the Multilateral Decision-making Mechanism of the WTO: What is the Role of Emerging Economies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Saurombe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the future of global economic governance in the light of the current state of multilateral trade negotiations. The aim is to analyse identified key historical issues at the heart of the decision-making system of the World Trade Organization (WTO. The current and ongoing Doha Round of trade negotiations and the multilateral system reflect inequalities that still prevail in the global trade architecture. Is there a need for a paradigm shift? The paper will provide recommendations on how reform of the multilateral decision-making structures should focus on promoting the interests of developing countries that have historically been marginalised. Developing countries, like those making up BRICS, stand ready to contribute to the construction of a new international architecture, to bring the voices of the south together on global issues and to deepen their ties in various areas.

  13. Multilateral nuclear approaches (MNAs), factors and issues lessons from IAEA study to regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    2005-01-01

    In response to the increasing emphasis being placed on the importance of international cooperation as part of global efforts to cope with growing non proliferation, and security concerns in the nuclear field, the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mohammed Elbaradei, appointed an international group of experts to consider possible multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. The mandate of the Expert Group was three fold: · To identify and provide an analysis of issues and options relevant to multilateral approaches to the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; · To provide an overview of the policy, legal, security, economic, institutional and technological incentives and disincentives for cooperation in multilateral arrangements for the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; and · To provide a brief review of the historical and current experiences and analyses relating to multilateral fuel cycle arrangements relevant to the work of the Expert Group. The overall purpose was to assess MNAs in the framework of a double objective: strengthening the international nuclear non proliferation regime and making the peaceful uses of nuclear energy more economical and attractive. The Group identifies options for MNAs - options in terms of policy, institutional and legal factors - for those parts of the nuclear fuel cycle of greatest sensitivity from the point of view of proliferation risk. It also reflects the Groups deliberations on the corresponding benefits and disadvantages (pros and cons) of the various options and approaches. Although the Expert Group was able to agree to forward the resulting report to the Director General, it is important to note that the report does not reflect agreement by all of the experts on any of the options, nor a consensus assessment of their respective value. It is intended only to present options for MNAs, and to reflect on the range of considerations which could impact on the

  14. Call for a new national security strategy: governing the future instead of deterring it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei I. Podberezkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to present a new vision for the strategic development of the Russian Federation. The authors note that the search for strategy should be made on the meta-level analysis in order to take into account either the military and political context of national security or the future interests of Russia. This allows one to reduce uncertainty in the strategic planning process. The author notes that the current military-political strategy of Russia is based on a fairly old idea of deterrence. This strategy is reactive in nature and involves responding to external challenges and threats in the international political environment. Meanwhile, the global political landscape is undergoing a significant transformation, in which a key aspect of national security will be a wide range of connectivity options to further political development of the state and society. Another disadvantage of deterrence strategy is that the threats are not differentiated from national interests and political goals. The author offers his version of the conceptualization of the terminology and the essential differences of different types of threats and assess the consequences of misunderstanding such differences. As for the strategy of deterrence, the authors suggest an alternative strategy of “control”, which aims at the formation of a systemic perspective directions of development of the society. A key element of this strategy is the forging and maintenance of the national human capital, which provides connectivity, adaptability and innovationability of various branches of the governance and dealing with external challenges. “Control” means an intensification strategy of the state policy in the field of science, culture, the promotion of spiritual development and production of advanced innovation.

  15. Call for a new national security strategy: governing the future instead of deterring it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei I. Podberezkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to present a new vision for the strategic development of the Russian Federation. The authors note that the search for strategy should be made on the meta-level analysis in order to take into account either the military and political context of national security or the future interests of Russia. This allows one to reduce uncertainty in the strategic planning process. The author notes that the current military-political strategy of Russia is based on a fairly old idea of deterrence. This strategy is reactive in nature and involves responding to external challenges and threats in the international political environment. Meanwhile, the global political landscape is undergoing a significant transformation, in which a key aspect of national security will be a wide range of connectivity options to further political development of the state and society. Another disadvantage of deterrence strategy is that the threats are not differentiated from national interests and political goals. The author offers his version of the conceptualization of the terminology and the essential differences of different types of threats and assess the consequences of misunderstanding such differences. As for the strategy of deterrence, the authors suggest an alternative strategy of “control”, which aims at the formation of a systemic perspective directions of development of the society. A key element of this strategy is the forging and maintenance of the national human capital, which provides connectivity, adaptability and innovationability of various branches  of the governance and dealing with external challenges. “Control” means an intensification strategy of the state policy in the field of science, culture, the promotion of spiritual development and production of advanced innovation.

  16. Multilateral collaboration between technical communicators and translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a multilateral international project (Thompson and Carter 1973, Moreno-Lopez 2004) in technical communication and translator training programmes and discusses its use of technologies in what is seen as the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing collaboration...... to date. The project is a student collaboration involving two sets of cross-cultural virtual teams who either translate from Danish and Dutch into English and review (or edit) into American English or who are involved in international collaborative writing by Spaniards and Americans, usability testing...... by Finnish students, and translation from English into Dutch, French and Italian (Humbley et al. 2005; Maylath et al. 2008; Mousten et al. 2008; Mousten; Vandepitte et al. 2010; Mousten et al. 2010, Mousten et al. 2012, Maylath et al. 2013, Maylath et al. 2013b). While students use email, iChat and Skype...

  17. Beyond job security and money: driving factors of motivation for government doctors in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bhaskar; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2014-02-21

    Despite many efforts from government to address the shortage of medical officers (MOs) in rural areas, rural health centres continue to suffer from severe shortage of MOs. Lack of motivation to join and continue service in rural areas is a major reason for such shortage. In the present study, we aimed to assess and rank the driving factors of motivation important for in-service MOs in their current job. The study participants included ninety two in-service government MOs from three states in India. The study participants were required to rank 14 factors of motivation important for them in their current job. The factors for the study were selected using Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation and the data were collected using an instrument that has an established reliability and validity. Test of Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) was carried out to assess the agreement in ranks assigned by participants to various motivation factors. Next, we studied the distributions of ranks of different motivating factors using standard descriptive statistics and box plots, which gave us interesting insights into the strength of agreement of the MOs in assigning ranks to various factors. And finally to assess whether MOs are more intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated, we used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The (W) test indicated statistically significant (P factors than to extrinsic factors. The study results indicate that job security was the most important factor related to motivation, closely followed by interesting work and respect and recognition. Among the top five preferred factors, three were intrinsic factors indicating a great importance given by MOs to factors beyond money and job security. To address the issue of motivation, the health departments need to pay close attention to devising management strategies that address not only extrinsic but also intrinsic factors of motivation. The study results may be useful to understand the complicated issue of

  18. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  19. BASIS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIQUIDITY OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES MARKET IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria COCIUG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The unilateral structure of the domestic financial market, monopolized by banking institutions,requires a major reconfiguration by returning to representative positions of the capital market. Thisrestructuring can be initiated by increasing investors' interest in the government securities market, givingit some quality elements, but also by creating a trading system that would increase the liquidity of allsecurities on the capital market. Increasing the quality of the GS market would allow the government on theone hand, to diversify its funding sources and manage its most important market risks more effectively, andon the other hand the financial sector would create opportunities for it to correlate and synchronize thedevelopment of the GS market with other segments of the capital market. In order to identify prerequisitesfor the development of the GS market in the RM, using the methods of research analysis, synthesis anddeduction, we initially sought to identify the characteristics that define a market of government securitiesas a qualitative one. A comparative analysis of the historical evolution of government securities markets,which can be considered representative for the Republic of Moldova, can provide the necessary experiencefor the improvement of the liquidity level of the domestic government securities market. The results of thisresearch have identified several possible actions, the implementation of which could lead to an increase inthe quality of the domestic GS market.

  20. Multilateral controls of nuclear fuel-cycle in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jor-Shan

    2010-01-01

    To meet increasing energy demand and climate change issues, nuclear energy is expected to expand during the next decades in both developed and developing countries. This expansion, most visibly in Asian countries would no doubt be accompanied with complex and intractable challenges to global peace and security, notably in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. What to do with the growing stocks of spent fuel in existing nuclear programs? And how to reduce proliferation concerns when spent fuels are generated in less stable regions of the world? The answers to these questions may lie in the possibility of multilateral (or regional) control of nuclear materials and technologies in the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle. One of the areas of interest is technology, e.g., spent fuel treatment (reprocessing) for long term sustainability and environmental-friendly disposal of radioactive wastes, as an alternative to directly disposing spent fuel in geologic repository. The other is to seek for regional centers for centralized interim spent fuel storage which can eventually turn into disposal facilities. Such centers could help facilitate the possibilities of spent fuel take-back/take-away from countries located in less stable regions for fix-period storage. (author)

  1. Water security at local government level in South Africa: a qualitative interview-based analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available understanding of water security exists. The aim of this study was to research, using qualitative social scientific methods, how people in two South African localities understand water security....

  2. DAMPAK KERJASAMA MULTILATERAL TERHADAP PERDAGANGAN PRODUK PERTANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Budiman Hakim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Multilateral trade agreement under the auspice of the GATT/WTO is expected to change the nation’s competitiveness in the global economy. In the context of the agricultural agreement, there are three mayor changing policies to be committed by the WTO members: (a market access, (b export subsidies and (c domestic support. Likewise, ASEAN regional agreement (AFTA will reduce the relative price of international prices to the domestic prices and the exploitation of the comparative advantage.  The questions to be answered is whether such multilateral agreements affect agricultural trade in the region.  A recursive-dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE and the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP database were used to assess such impacts. Two important scenarios were then considered: APEC and AFTA scenarios.  The results indicate that as import tariff levels are completely removed, the demand for imported goods would certainly be increased.  This is because domestic consumers (private consumers and industries would face decreasing domestic prices.  However, the size of import changes depends on the initial tariff rates.  The higher the initial intra-regional tariffs, and the larger the tariff cuts, the higher the gains from the trade creation.  Under the AFTA trade liberalisation, rice output in the ASEAN member countries with the exception of Thailand is projected to shrink. The AFTA tariff reduction would cause an increase in exports in

  3. Multilateral approach to the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in Asia-Pacific?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Eunjung

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the nearly unprecedented scale of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident which caused countries around the world to review their nuclear power systems and to rethink their nuclear power expansion plans, nuclear power capacity continues to grow, spearheaded by the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific has become a major emerging market for nuclear energy industry, which indicates that the management of spent nuclear fuel is likely to be a nuisance for the countries in this region in the coming decades. By reviewing the history of discussions on multilateral approaches to the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and examining relevant empirical cases, this article aims to explore the feasibility of a multilateral approach to the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in this region and provide some policy suggestions to enhance nuclear governance in the Asia-Pacific. - Highlights: • The Asia-Pacific has become a huge emerging market for nuclear power industry. • Asian-Pacific countries operating reactors lack solution for spent nuclear fuel. • Multilateral approach is attractive, but hard to be realized. • The main obstacle is variations in policies for SNF management among the Asia-Pacific countries. • The country that should take its initiative in this field is the United States.

  4. 17 CFR 240.3a43-1 - Customer-related government securities activities incidental to the futures-related business of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customer-related government securities activities incidental to the futures-related business of a futures commission merchant registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission. 240.3a43-1 Section 240.3a43-1 Commodity and Securities...

  5. New multilateral approaches solving the nuclear energy dispute with Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heireng, Hege Schultz; Moezzi, Maryam; Kippe, Halvor

    2010-12-15

    The focus of this report is on possible multilateral approaches for cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim is to contribute in finding diplomatic solutions to the Iranian nuclear dispute. The proposals challenge the traditional views of Iran#Right Single Quotation Mark#s role in the nuclear negotiations in particular, and in the international community in general. The report investigates the possibility of accepting Iran#Right Single Quotation Mark#s enrichment of uranium, under an enhanced safeguards regime, and through a multilateral cooperation on the production of nuclear fuel. In relation to this, the report also explores the benefits of including new actors in the proposed solutions. Two different models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle cooperation with Iran will be presented. The aim of these models is to ensure greater transparency in Iran#Right Single Quotation Mark#s nuclear activities, in order to minimize the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, while simultaneously presenting a solution that will be acceptable to Iran. The first model is a tripartite consortium model that consists of a cooperation between Kazakhstan, Iran and South Africa, in which these countries additionally cooperate with an IAEA-supervised international nuclear fuel bank. The second model is a nuclear fuel cycle cooperation between Iran and six of the countries bordering the Persian Gulf. In both models, the countries in question will be responsible for different parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Iran will be responsible for the uranium enrichment activities, but will have to give up all other fuel cycle activities. Another prerequisite is that Iran accepts not to store enriched uranium on Iranian soil. The report shows that the international community should consider accepting enrichment of uranium on Iranian soil in the long-term. In addition, it is concluded that cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle, where Iran is a reliable nuclear supplier

  6. Plurilateral Trade Deals: An Alternative for Multilateral Trade Agreements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization (WTO continue to be in impasse, plurilateral trade negotiations – i.e. among a group of WTO members – have intensified in recent years, and also recorded a series of concrete results in liberalizing specific sectors of international trade. Hence, there is a widely shared view that plurilateral trade negotiations could be an alternative for the multilateral ones. This paper aims to answer the following questions: What are plurilateral trade agreements? Which are the reasons behind the surge in plurilateral negotiations in recent years? What are the main achievements in liberalizing trade at the plurilateral level? What are the advantages of plurilateral negotiations relative to multilateral ones, and why are they considered an attractive alternative for negotiations at the multilateral level?

  7. Country impacts of multilateral oil sanctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canes, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, economic sanctions have become an important tool in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Though usually aimed at a single country, they also can affect the economics of other nations. Knowledge of such impacts would inform U.S. policy-makers as to which other countries might be helped or harmed, and help predict which other nations likely would support or oppose the sanctions. This article presents results relating to the imposition of sanctions in the oil market. These results are obtained from exercising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model built by Charles River Associates under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The model is used to analyze GDP effects on a number of countries from multilateral oil sanctions against Iraq. The results suggest that it is possible to provide useful information regarding the impact of sanctions as a foreign policy tool. However, they also indicate that sanctions can be expensive, with substantial spillover effects. Though sanctions may be appropriate policy choice in given instances, these effects should be incorporated into foreign policy analyses. (author)

  8. Multilateral cooperation for power interconnection in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudinova Lyudmila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered is experience of electric power integration in different parts of the world with emphasis on bilateral/multilateral interstate structures intended for promotion and development of interstate power grids. Analysed are Northeast Asian intergovernmental structures providing bilateral energy and power cooperation between Russia and other countries of the region. Multilateral cooperation in the field is just emerging, but should play a key role in promotion and development of Northeast Asian power grid.

  9. Developing Countries and the Multilateral Trading System after Doha

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T. N.

    2002-01-01

    The Fourth Session of the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO), held in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001, launched a new round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) and a work programme (WP) for the WTO involving the negotiating agenda and steps for meeting the challenges facing the multilateral trading system. The paper evaluates the WP, in particular, whether it would redress the unfavourable balance between benefits and costs to developing countries DCs of the agree...

  10. MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS AND THE TRADE MEASURES CONTAINED IN THESE AGREEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental problems which the society is facing, ozone depletion, biodiversity loss, the spread of persistent organic pollutants, are a result of human activity with a worldwide impact, requiring immediate resolution. In this context, negotiation, signing and implementation of several multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs are one of the best solutions, affordable and reliable. The aim of this study is to analyze the commercial measures, which to some extent, ensure stability, security, and expansion of MEAs. The paper discusses, also, the efficiency, necessity and the influences of trade measures in MEAs and the WTO role in signing these agreements.

  11. Security Cooperation Activities: Strengthening a Partner Military and its Governing Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    governments suffered from economic instability , corruption, poor rule of law, and low administration of justice. Government and economic stability ...types of programs applied. Conditions defining allied state characteristics are military structure, government polity rating, and economic stability ...regional instability . Dr. Michael Mihalka and Mr. Mark Wilcox covered the trends in liberal democracy in the South Caucasus in light of economic

  12. Reframing governance, security and conflict in the light of HIV/AIDS: a synthesis of findings from the AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Alex

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws upon the findings of the AIDS, Security and Conflict Initiative (ASCI) to reach conclusions about the relationship between HIV/AIDS, security, conflict and governance, in the areas of HIV/AIDS and state fragility, the reciprocal interactions between armed conflicts (including post-conflict transitions) and HIV/AIDS, and the impact of HIV/AIDS on uniformed services and their operational effectiveness. Gender issues cut across all elements of the research agenda. ASCI commissioned 29 research projects across regions, disciplines and communities of practice. Over the last decade, approaches to HIV/AIDS as a security threat have altered dramatically, from the early anticipation that the epidemic posed a threat to the basic functioning of states and security institutions, to a more sanguine assessment that the impacts will be less severe than feared. ASCI finds that governance outcomes have been shaped as much by the perception of HIV/AIDS as a security threat, as the actual impacts of the epidemic. ASCI research found that the current indices of fragility at country level did not demonstrate any significant association with HIV, calling into question the models used for asserting such linkages. However at local government level, appreciable impacts can be seen. Evidence from ASCI and elsewhere indicates that conventional indicators of conflict, including the definition of when it ends, fail to capture the social traumas associated with violent disruption and their implications for HIV. Policy frameworks adopted for political and security reasons translate poorly into social and public health policies. Fears of much-elevated HIV rates among soldiers with disastrous impacts on armies as institutions, have been overstated. In mature epidemics, rates of infection among the military resemble those of the peer groups within the general population. Military HIV/AIDS control policies follow a different and parallel paradigm to national (civilian) policies, in

  13. MARITIME SECURITY GOVERNANCE IN THE FIGHT AGAINST PIRACY OFF THE COAST OF SOMALIA: A FOCUS ON THE EU RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru VOICU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although currently on a declining trend, large scale piracy off the coast of Somalia cannot be safely dismissed as a thing of the past: since the mid-2000s, piracy in the Western Indian Ocean has put in peril the international and regional security. Maritime threats are interdependent, asymmetric, persistent, shifting and generated by manifold and mutually-reinforcing root causes, hence their high probability of recurrence or relocation in the absence of a generally improved and self-sustaining security environment. Confronted with these complex challenges, numerous state and non-state actors have taken steps to prevent, mitigate or suppress piracy off the Somali coast. Within the security governance framework, the present paper outlines the major actors activating in the counter-piracy field in the region and their specific responses, focusing on the comprehensive measures undertaken by the EU in this realm.

  14. Multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. Expert group report to the Director General of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    An international expert group has been appointed to consider options for possible multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. The terms of reference for the Expert Group were to: 1)Identify and provide an analysis of issues and options relevant to multilateral approaches to the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; 2)Provide an overview of the policy, legal, security, economic and technological incentives and disincentives for cooperation in multilateral arrangements for the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; and 3)Provide a brief review of the historical and current experience in this area, and of the various analyses relating to multilateral fuel cycle arrangements relevant to the work of the Expert Group. The Group examined the nuclear fuel cycle and multinational approaches at meetings convened over a seven month period. Their report, presented in the paper, was released on 22 February 2005, and circulated for discussion among the IAEA Member States, as well as others, as an IAEA Information Circular (INFCIRC/640)

  15. Energy supply security and geopolitics: A European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlje, Aad; Linde, Coby van der

    2006-01-01

    The security of energy supply to the EU is examined in the context of two storylines. Markets and Institutions exemplifies an economically and politically integrated, multilateral world with effective institutions and markets. Regions and Empires involves a world broken up in rival political and economic blocks, competing for resources and markets via political, economic and military power. It is shown that these storylines have a significant impact on the development of the energy market, on the way in which energy supply may be secured and on the effect and applicability of the several types of instruments available. The current EU is geared towards enlargement and a deepening of economic integration, based on the tenets of the post-1945 multilateral world system. The present world tends towards Regions and Empires and suggests that the EU may have to reorient its energy security policy. Energy policy must become an integral part of EU external trade and foreign relations and security policy. The EU should develop its own strategy, actively investing in dialogues with producer countries in the Persian Gulf and Africa and with Russia. Sustainable prosperity and governance in these regions will support EU energy security

  16. Water security in Southern Africa: Discourses securitising water and the implications for water governance and politics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the South African water discourse, the water security concept is a complex notion that not only covers the quantitative aspects of water demand and supply but is also linked to national security and political stability, as well as human well...

  17. Privacy, Security, and Patient Engagement: The Changing Health Data Governance Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John H

    2016-01-01

    The rapid emergence of new technologies support collection and use of a wide variety of data from clinical, genomic, social and behavioral, environmental, and financial sources, and have a great impact on the governance of personal health information. The papers in this special issue on governance touch on the topic from a variety of focuses, including leadership perspectives, local and federal case studies, and the future importance of patient engagement. This special issue focuses on three major themes-that data governance is growing in importance and presenting new challenges that must be addressed, that health care organizations must prioritize governance design, implementation, and functions as a priority, and that governance seems to be naturally converging on an archetype as described by this set of papers. In order to deal with issues such as data de- and re-identification, data governance must be studied as its own field.

  18. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of

  19. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... officials say they are not sure the effort is "winning." These assessments emphasize a growing sense of insecurity in areas around Kabul previously considered secure, and increased numbers of civilian and military deaths...

  20. Seed governance. From seed aid to seed system security in fragile areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietberg, P.I.; Gevers, H.; Hospes, O.

    2014-01-01

    Intergovernmental agencies and development organizations, including Cordaid, consider interventions directed at seed security of utmost importance to support smallholders recovering from conflict situations and disasters, and to contribute to revitalisation of local agricultural production and food

  1. 17 CFR 401.9 - Exemption for certain foreign government securities brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... legally necessary, its customers (with respect to customer information) to permit the foreign broker or..., delivering, and safeguarding funds and securities in connection with the transactions on behalf of the U.S...

  2. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... Both the official U.S. as well as outside assessments increasingly point to Pakistan's failure to prevent Taliban and other militant infiltration into Afghanistan as a cause of the security deterioration...

  3. Governing humanitarian emergencies, protracted crises, and (in)security through resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anholt, Rosanne

    2017-01-01

    ‘Resilience’ occupies a prominent place in contemporary discussions around the governance of humanitarian emergencies, protracted crises and insecurity more broadly. The aim of this study was to further our understanding of resilience as a governance rationality and a policy discourse, in particular

  4. Forecasting method in multilateration accuracy based on laser tracker measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, Sergio; Santolaria, Jorge; Samper, David; José Aguilar, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Multilateration based on a laser tracker (LT) requires the measurement of a set of points from three or more positions. Although the LTs’ angular information is not used, multilateration produces a volume of measurement uncertainty. This paper presents two new coefficients from which to determine whether the measurement of a set of points, before performing the necessary measurements, will improve or worsen the accuracy of the multilateration results, avoiding unnecessary measurement, and reducing the time and economic cost required. The first specific coefficient measurement coefficient (MC LT ) is unique for each laser tracker. It determines the relationship between the radial and angular laser tracker measurement noise. Similarly, the second coefficient is related with specific conditions of measurement β . It is related with the spatial angle between the laser tracker positions α and its effect on error reduction. Both parameters MC LT and β are linked in error reduction limits. Beside these, a new methodology to determine the multilateration reduction limit according to the multilateration technique of an ideal laser tracker distribution and a random one are presented. It provides general rules and advice from synthetic tests that are validated through a real test carried out in a coordinate measurement machine. (paper)

  5. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Afghanistan's political transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005, but in 2006 insurgent threats to Afghanistan's government escalated to the point that some experts...

  6. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    ....-led war that brought the current government to power. Before the U.S. military campaign against the Taliban began on October 7, 2001, Afghanistan had been mired in conflict since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979...

  7. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Afghanistan's planned political transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005, but insurgent threats to Afghanistan s government persist and are even growing in some southern provinces...

  8. Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of the U.S. effort to stabilize Afghanistan are mixed. The political transition was completed with the convening of a parliament in December 2005, but since 2006 insurgent threats to Afghanistan's government have escalated...

  9. A SECURITY EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR U.K. E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Harrison; Antonis Tzounis; Leandros Maglaras; Francois Siewe; Richard Smith; Helge Janicke

    2016-01-01

    This is an Open Access article This study examines the traditional approach to software development within the United Kingdom Government and the accreditation process. Initially we look at the Waterfall methodology that has been used for several years. We discuss the pros and cons of Waterfall before moving onto the Agile Scrum methodology. Agile has been adopted by the majority of Government digital departments including the Gover...

  10. Development of multilateral comparative evaluation method for fuel cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Ikushima, Takeshi; Nomura, Yasushi; Nakajima, Kiyoshi.

    1998-03-01

    In the near future, Japanese nuclear fuel cycle system will be promoted by national nuclear energy policy, and it''s options i.e. once through, thermal cycle and fast breeder cycle must be selected by multilateral comparative evaluation method from various aspects of safety, society, economy, and e.t.c. Therefore such a problem can be recognized as a social problem of decision making and applied for AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) that can multilaterally and comparatively evaluate the problem. On comparative evaluation, much information are needed for decision making, therefore two kinds of databases having these information have been constructed. And then, the multilateral comparative evaluation method consisting of two kinds of databases and AHP for optimum selection of fuel cycle system option have been developed. (author)

  11. International bilateral and multilateral arrangements in energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This document, the second report in the series, outlines current DOE international commitments under bilateral and multilateral arrangements, as of January 1, 1978. Included are bilateral agreements for cooperation in the civil uses of atomic energy with countries and international organizations, bilateral and multilateral technical exchanges in all energy technology areas, and multilateral agreements under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In addition to outlining the terms, scope, and status of these agreements, this document describes DOE's participation in the work of the major international energy organizations. IEA, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Future reports will update the status of ongoing cooperative projects and provide information on new energy R and D activities

  12. The Impact of Pro-Government Militias on State and Human Security: A Comparative Analysis of the Afghan Local Police and the Janjaweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    employed them; second, that we should expect to see an inverse relationship between pro-government militia employment and human security. This study also...security to the principal who employed them; second, that we should expect to see an inverse relationship between pro-government militia employment and...Uzbek forces, the United States and its allied partners momentarily destroyed most of the al Qaeda operatives in Afghanistan while simultaneously

  13. 17 CFR 402.2 - Capital requirements for registered government securities brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)(B) of this title; (7) Loans to commercial banks for one business day of immediately available funds...; (3) Demand deposits in the case where the counterparty is a commercial bank; (4) Loans for one... made in the case where the counterparty is a commercial bank; (5) Custodial holdings of securities in...

  14. 77 FR 33634 - U.S. Treasury Securities-State and Local Government Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... available for purchase by issuers of tax-exempt securities. Current financial market conditions have... Commissioner for Public Debt Accounting, Bureau of the Public Debt, at (304) 480-5101 or [email protected] the SLGS rate table. Interest is accrued and added to the principal daily. Interest is computed on the...

  15. 7 CFR 1955.15 - Foreclosure by the Government of loans secured by real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... problem case report is prepared. This action should eliminate delays in selling the property after... of hazardous substances on the property. (2) Acceleration of account. Subject to paragraphs (d)(2)(i... chattel). (2) If the borrower is in the process of selling security or nonsecurity, payments may be...

  16. Food governance transformation : aligning food security with sustainable farming practices in developing communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional approaches used to improve farming practices and access to food in developing communities are underpinned by policy, technology, and the science of modernization. The focus has been on securing a sufficient quantity of food derived from extensive monocultures. This quantity focus is

  17. 76 FR 59592 - Government Securities Act Regulations; Replacement of References to Credit Ratings and Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... creditworthiness of a security or money market instrument; and (2) any references to or requirements in such... or gross short position in money market instruments qualifying as Treasury market risk instruments...), that mature in 45 days or more, settled on a cash or delivery basis. Money market instruments...

  18. Education Systems and Multilateral Development Banks: International Practices and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Morozkina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of multilateral development banks (MDBs in financing education development at the national level. It evaluates the share of national expenditures spent on education, analyzes loan structures by stage of education, and highlights key measures and instruments. In the context of the global economic slowdown, expected to continue for the long term, the most important objective is to identify new drivers of economic growth as traditional sources are exhausted. One of the main sources of economic growth is human capital, especially with regard to the gradual transition from an industrial economy to a service and knowledge economy. Human capital accumulation is particularly important in developing countries. Most developing countries face insuperable obstacles in building human capital accumulation particularly with regard to education development. The potential contribution of MDBs to human capital accumulation has been underestimated and there is a lack of empirical research on this issue. An evaluation of current experience will help identify opportunities for MDBs to increase their role in education performance, which in turn could have a positive impact on economic growth in developing countries. This article addresses this issue by studying MDBs’ financing of education projects in emerging economies. The authors collected a database that includes information on the volume and structure of financing with a breakdown by education stage. It was based on more than 500 projects funded by key MDBs. Sources included loan and grant agreements, project interim reports and project completion reports. The authors calculated an average annual ratio of MDB education financing to public expenditure for each country in the final selection. Results showed that the ratio of average annual MDBs allocations to average government expenditures on education is relatively low — between 1.5% and 4.0% for most countries. The largest

  19. Taking aim at medical identity theft. Document security key element to comply with government regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Colette

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive paper documents, such as patient records, customer data, and legal information, must be securely stored and destroyed when no longer needed. This is not only a good business practice that reduces costs and protects reputations, but also a legal and regulatory imperative. According to some experts, medical identity theft is the fastest-growing form of identity theft in North America. The Federal Trade Commission's Red Flags Rule, due to take effect June 1, 2010, requires banks; credit card companies; and, in some situations, retailers, hospitals, insurance companies, health clinics, and other organizations to store confidential personal information that can expose consumers to significant identity theft risks. This also includes healthcare providers and other organizations that are considered creditors according to their billing/payment procedures. This article highlights the steps healthcare providers must take to ensure data security.

  20. Good governance and virtue in South Africa's cyber security policy implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burmeister, O

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Good governance from an ethical perspective in cyberdefence policy has been seen in terms of duty and consequentialism. Yet the negotiated view of virtue ethics can also address how nation states mitigate the risks of a cyber attack...

  1. The Role of Corporate and Government Surveillance in Shifting Journalistic Information Security Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies have fundamentally altered how journalists communicate with their sources, enabling them to exchange information through social media as well as video, audio, and text chat. Simultaneously, journalists are increasingly concerned with corporate and government surveillance as a threat to their ability to speak with sources in…

  2. Governing in the space of the "Seam" : Airport security after the liquid bomb plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    This paper provides a detailed study of the liquid bomb plot from 2006, focusing on the ways in which the plot was constituted as “an event unlike others” (Adey, Anderson, and Lobo Guerrero 2011, 340). Engaging with a critical body of scholarship that examines how events are assembled and governed

  3. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    Security Council Resolution 1193 (August 28, 1998) and 1214 (December 8, 1998) urged the Taliban to end discrimination against women . Women’s rights ...powers to compensate. Gives men and women equal rights under the law, allows for political parties as long as they are not “un-Islamic;” allows for...implement the NAPWA and all of its past commitments and laws to strengthen the rights of women and provide services to them. The major institutional

  4. Securing the Containerized Supply Chain: Analysis of Government Incentives for Private Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Bakshi; Noah Gans

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate the threat that terrorists smuggle weapons of mass destruction into the United States through maritime containers, the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP) inspects containers upon entry to domestic ports. Inspection-driven congestion is costly, and CBP provides incentives to firms to improve security upstream in the supply chain, thereby reducing the inspection burden at U.S. ports. We perform an economic analysis of this incentive program, called Customs-Trade Part...

  5. Economic evaluation of multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Kuno, Yusuke; Omoto, Akira; Tanaka, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Recently previous works have shown that multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach has benefits not only of non-proliferation but also of cost effectiveness. This is because for most facilities in nuclear fuel cycle, there exist economies of scale, which has a significant impact on the costs of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, the evaluation of economic rationality is required as one of the evaluation factors for the multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. In this study, we consider some options with respect to multilateral approaches to nuclear fuel cycle in Asian-Pacific region countries that are proposed by the University of Tokyo. In particular, the following factors are embedded into each type: A) no involvement of assurance of services, B) provision of assurance of services including construction of new facility, without transfer of ownership, and C) provision of assurance of service including construction of new joint facilities with ownership transfer of facilities to multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. We show the overnight costs taking into account install and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities for each option. The economic parameter values such as uranium price, scale factor, and market output expansion influences the total cost for each option. Thus, we show how these parameter values and economic risks affect the total overnight costs for each option. Additionally, the international facilities could increase the risk of transportation for nuclear material compared to national facilities. We discuss the potential effects of this transportation risk on the costs for each option. (author)

  6. Bouncers, Policing and the (Invisibility of Ethnicity in Nightlife Security Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Friis Søgaard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reproduction of ethnified urban spaces and inequalities in an ostensibly cosmopolitan city. It does so by means of a case study of bouncers’ policing practices in the nightlife of the Danish city, Aarhus. In recent years, a substantial body of research has explored the regulatory practices of bouncers operating in the urban night-time economy. This article contributes to the study of nightlife policing by paying special attention to the ethnic governance of bouncers. More specifically, the article investigates how ethnicity is produced in bouncers’ administration of nightlife accessibility; how inclusion and exclusion are negotiated in encounters between bouncers and ethnic minority youth; and how bouncers struggle to avoid allegations of discrimination and to uphold notions of colorblind good governance, while ethnified notions of troublesome individuals continue to inform bouncers’ production of nightlife safety.

  7. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-08

    did occasionally meet foreign officials. The Taliban lost international and domestic support as it imposed strict adherence to Islamic customs in...shows since 2011. Because of the power of Islamist conservatives, alcohol is increasingly difficult to obtain in restaurants and stores, although it...districts) and influenced or operated in another 30%, and tribes and local groups with varying degrees of loyalty to the central government

  8. Study of feasible and sustainable multilateral approach on nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Y.; Tazaki, M.; Akiba, M.; Takashima, R.; Izumi, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the Fukushima accident it is undeniable that nuclear power remains one of the most important methods to handle global growth of economic/energy consumption and issues with greenhouse gases. If the demand for nuclear power increases, the demand for not only the generation of power but also for refining uranium (U), conversion, enrichment, re-conversion, and fuel manufacturing should increase. In addition, concerns for the proliferation of 'Sensitive Nuclear Technologies' (SNT) should also increase. We propose a demand-side approach, where nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) activities would be implemented among multiple states. With this approach, NFC services, in particular those using SNTs, are multilaterally executed and controlled, thereby preventing unnecessary proliferation of SNTs, and enabling safe and appropriate control of nuclear technologies and nuclear materials. This proposal would implement nuclear safety and security at an international level and solve transport issues for nuclear fuels. This proposal is based on 3 types of cooperation for each element of NFC: type A: cooperation for 3S only, services received; Type B: cooperation for 3S, MNA (Multilateral Nuclear Activities) without transfer of ownership to MNA; and Type C cooperation for 3S, MNA holding ownership rights. States involved in the 3 types of activity should be referred to as partner states, host states, and site states respectively. The feasibility of the proposal is discussed for the Asian region

  9. RUSSIA'S PARTICIPATION IN MULTILATERAL MECHANISMS IN EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Stapran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.

  10. Russia's Participation In Multilateral Mechanisms In East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Stapran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.

  11. A Hybrid Mechanism of Multilateral Economic Cooperationas a New Form of Foreign Policy of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Gorbunova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze current trends in multilateral international cooperation determined by the global stagnation and the changing role of developing countries that reflects their growing political and economic potential compared to developed countries. China is one of the leading actors in the process of modernization of the multilateral cooperation. The authors examine the scale and potential influence of two China-led multilateral cooperation and development initiatives in Eurasia: the Silk Road Economic Belt and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB. These initiatives imply a new kind of initiator different from the traditional participant in international multilateral initiatives. China’s growing global role has reached a qualitatively new stage related to the fact that the country has moved into first place among world economies and has accumulated significant financial resources, although per capita income remains relatively low. Furthermore, China’s internationalization model has required it to be more actively involved in the global governance system as a responsible super power. The awareness to address important issues of economic growth, sustainable development and the provision of global public goods forces China to go beyond the standard profit-seeking trade and investment models of internationalization.The explication of its enormous economic potential at the regional (African, Asian and Latin American and global levels directly or indirectly contradicts the interests of the leading developed and developing countries concerning foreign markets, mineral resources access and political influence in Eurasia. The authors offer an objective assessment of the potential impact of the Silk Road Economic Belt and AIIB on the associated national economies. The Silk Road Economic Belt is an integral part of the “One Belt and One Road” project and involves the construction of transport and logistics infrastructure from East to

  12. The regulatory system governing liability, financial security, and the funding of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.

    1991-01-01

    Principally speaking, the nuclear liability law and the law on financial security constitute a modern system determining indemnification for nuclear damage with due regard to the risks concerned. This holds especially since the introduction of the unlimited financial liability of the owner. The question as to the security through available financial means is of foremost importance: at present the German insurance market can cover up to 500 million DM, another 500 million DM could be provided by a civil-law nuclear liability insurance company; thus the proposal to raise private provision finds to 1 billion DM. Indemnification through the state could consist in a loan for the liable party. As yet there is no obligation under atomic energy law to make provisions for the decommissioning of nuclear installations. Even if negotiations with the industry lead to satisfactory results, a legislative bridge, i.e. regularization through law, is not wholly dispensable and can be realized in various ways: as a precondition for the issue of a licence or as a specific obligation of the operator under atomic energy law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Multi-lateral emission trading: lessons from inter-state NOx control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, A.

    2001-01-01

    Marketable emission permit mechanisms are increasingly proposed as efficient means of managing environmental pollution problems such as greenhouse gas emissions. Existing examples of emissions trading in the literature have so far been limited to domestic efforts put in place through the action of a national legislature, which has no parallel in international politics. This paper examines two efforts to establish multi-lateral emissions trading for nitrogen oxides among various states with the US. One, the Ozone Transport Commission's NO x Budget program is a success. The other, the Ozone Transport Assessment Group and the federal government's subsequent NO x SIP Call has not resulted in a multi-lateral emissions control program, let alone an efficient, market-based one. Due to the relative similarities of the states (compared to highly heterogeneous nations of the world) these are ''best case'' examples, and explaining the vast differences in outcomes will help explain the potential and the challenges in developing an international emission trading program to control greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  14. Multilateral simulation on various models for internationalization of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T.; Akiba, M.; Tazaki, M.; Kuno, Y.; Choi, J-S.; Tanaka, S.; Omoto, A.

    2011-01-01

    To construct suitable models for a reliable and sustainable international/regional framework in the fields of nuclear fuel cycle, it is essential to reflect recent political situations including such that 1) a certain number of emerging countries especially in south-east Asia want to introduce and develop nuclear power in the long-terms despite the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, and 2) exposition of nuclear proliferation threats provided by North Korea and Iran. It is also to be considered that Japan is an unique country having enrichment and reprocessing facilities on commercial base among non-nuclear weapon countries. Although many models presented for the internationalization have not been realized yet, studies at the University of Tokyo aim at multilateral nuclear approach (MNA) in Asian-Pacific countries balancing between nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear fuel supply/service and presenting specific examples such as prerequisites for participating countries, scope of cooperative activities, ownership of facilities and type of agreements/frameworks. We will present a model basic agreement and several bilateral and multi-lateral agreements for the combinations of industry or government led consortia including Japan and its neighboring countries and made a preliminary evaluation for the combination of processes/facilities based on the INFCIRC/640 report for MNA. (author)

  15. Non-state security governances and the implications for local-level citizenship in Danish semi-public city spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Søgaard

    directed at promoting peace and restoring the feel good factor - in public city space in Denmark. What precisely "security" is, what it should mean, and what should be done to guarantee it, has always been contested on an empirically level. The reason for this is that security often deals with social order......, being both the ontological condition of order, in the sense of absence of "real" and culturally constructed dangers, risks, and anxieties, and the political means to ensure this order. Based on a 5 month ethnographic field work among private security guards policing new kinds of public city spaces...... the globalisation and privatisation/commercialisation of security provision and how this development can be explained. Drawing on my own empirical data I hereafter argue that commercial security governance and local understandings of threats to (feelings of) security are not so much shaped by imaginaries...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE GOVERNANCE OF EXTERNAL SUPERVISORY INSTITUTIONS TOWARDS SOCIAL SECURITY AGENCY (BADAN PENYELENGGARA JAMINAN SOSIAL/BPJS FOR HEALTHCARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyani D.A.M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the formation of the Social Security Agency (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial/BPJS for Healthcare has found the public spotlight rising with its management; including the regulatory body BPJS for Healthcare activities. BPJS for Healthcare external supervisors such as DJSN, OJK, BPK are entities established according to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia 24 Year 2011. However, there are views on neutrality, independence, and supervisor capability. By using Soft System Methodology, this research invites us to understand the problem situation and what efforts should be taken in managing the complexity. This paper will analyze the co-operation with collaborative governance perspective as a cooperative approach in overseeing BPJS for Healthcare. The focus of this paper is in the stage of identifying a series of factors that are crucial within the collaborative process itself, which includes shared understanding as stated by Ansel & Gash (2008 and Emerson & Nabatchi (2015.

  17. Regionalism vs. Multilateralism : An overview of the effects of Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Pöntinen, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The Purpose of this dissertation was to first find the motives behind and causes for regionalism and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of the phenomenon. Secondly, the intension was to determine the benefits of a possible bilateral FTA between Australia and China and whether a bilateral trade agreement would be more beneficial for the Australian economy than waiting for a multilateral WTO regulated framework. The research was conducted through an extensive literature review...

  18. Emerging Roles of Women in the National Food Security Campaign of the Federal Government of Nigeria: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ademilua, O.S; Adeeko, A; Gbotoso, O.A; Akomolafe, A.M; Ishola, O.O

    2017-01-01

    The issue of food security in Nigeria is of national concern as it affects young and old, male and female. The review assessed the emerging roles of women and their contributions to food security in Nigeria. Specifically, it explained the concept of food security, identified the specific roles of women in food security and identified factors affecting women participation in national food security. Food security is a situation that exist when all people at all times, have physical, social and ...

  19. The Governmentality of Meta-governance : Identifying Theoretical and Empirical Challenges of Network Governance in the Political Field of Security and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Meta-governance recently emerged in the field of governance as a new approach which claims that its use enables modern states to overcome problems associated with network governance. This thesis shares the view that networks are an important feature of contemporary politics which must be taken seriously, but it also maintains that networks pose substantial analytical and political challenges. It proceeds to investigate the potential possibilities and problems associated with meta-governance o...

  20. 17 CFR 240.19c-4 - Governing certain listing or authorization determinations by national securities exchanges and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authorization determinations by national securities exchanges and associations. 240.19c-4 Section 240.19c-4... determinations by national securities exchanges and associations. (a) The rules of each exchange shall provide as... national securities exchange, registered as such with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to...

  1. Leadership, Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts About » Leadership, Governance Leadership national security and energy challenges. Leadership, Governance Ethics, Accountability Los Alamos National . Director's Office terry wallace in leadership, governance Director Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Terry C. Wallace, Jr

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle. Which way forward for multilateral approaches? An international expert group examines options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellaud, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    For several years now, the debate on the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been dominated by individuals and countries that violate rules of good behaviour - as sellers or acquirers of clandestine nuclear technology. As a result, the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) has been declared to be 'inadequate' by some, 'full of loopholes' by others. Two basic approaches have been put forward to tighten up the NPT; both seek to ensure that the nuclear non-proliferation regime maintains its authority and credibility in the face of these very real challenges. One calls for non-nuclear weapon States to accept a partial denial of technology through a reinterpretation of the NPT's provisions governing the rights of access to nuclear technologies. The unwillingness of most non-nuclear-weapon States to accept additional restrictions under the NPT makes this approach difficult. The other approach would apply multinational alternatives to the national operation of uranium-enrichment and plutonium-separation technologies, and to the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this perspective, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei proposed in 2003 to revisit the concept of multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA) that was intensively discussed several decades ago. Several such approaches were adopted at that time in Europe, which became the true homeland of MNAs. Nonetheless, MNAs have failed so far to materialise outside Europe due to different political and economic perceptions. In June 2004, the Director General appointed an international group of experts to consider possible multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. The overall purpose was to assess MNAs in the framework of a double objective: strengthening the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and making the peaceful uses of nuclear energy more economical and attractive. In the report submitted to the Director General in February 2005, the Group identified a number of options - options

  3. Whither a Common Security for Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    by China. Even in 1994, the then-Malaysian Defense Minister Najib was careful to play down the security role of ASEAN as he still saw it as being... Razak Baginda. "Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Security: Towards Multilateralism Amid Uncertainty?" Military Technology (April 1994): 10- 16

  4. The Montreal Protocol's multilateral fund and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luken, Ralph; Grof, Tamas

    2006-01-01

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol is widely seen as a global environmental accord that has produced tangible results in terms of reductions in ozone-depleting substances. In addition, there have been other benefits, largely unrecognized and undocumented, that can best be characterized in a sustainable development framework based on a review of 50 out of 931 projects implemented over a 13 year period by one of the four implementing agencies of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. All investment projects have reduced ozone depleting potential and global warming potential. Some projects have reduced atmospheric emissions and contamination of groundwater. Other projects have increased the competitiveness of enterprises in domestic and international markets and have sustained and in a few cases created employment opportunities. Others, fewer in number, have potentially contributed to environmental problems, have initially created difficulties in maintaining productivity and quality standards and have decreased the number of employment opportunities because of the need to rationalize manufacturing processes. The potential contributions from Multilateral Fund investment projects to sustainable development could probably have been amplified with project design guidance for the technical staffs of all three implementing agencies executing investment projects. In thinking about other multilateral environmental agreements, one can see the need for similar guidance for Global Environment Facility funded projects supporting the focal areas of climate change, international waters, ozone depletion and persistent organic pollutants. Some of them have the potential to generate multiple beneficial impacts in addition to their stated environmental objective if designed and implemented within a sustainable development framework. (author)

  5. Accurate ocean bottom seismometer positioning method inspired by multilateration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzouz, Omar; Pinheiro, Luis M.; Matias, Luis M. A.; Afilhado, Alexandra; Herold, Daniel; Haines, Seth S.

    2018-01-01

    The positioning of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) is a key step in the processing flow of OBS data, especially in the case of self popup types of OBS instruments. The use of first arrivals from airgun shots, rather than relying on the acoustic transponders mounted in the OBS, is becoming a trend and generally leads to more accurate positioning due to the statistics from a large number of shots. In this paper, a linearization of the OBS positioning problem via the multilateration technique is discussed. The discussed linear solution solves jointly for the average water layer velocity and the OBS position using only shot locations and first arrival times as input data.

  6. Regional cooperation based on multilateral international agreements in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Multilateral international agreements have defined the framework of behavior and cooperation in various fields and aspects of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Thus, obligations have been defined in the following areas: nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, physical protection of nuclear material, liability for nuclear damage, nuclear safety, early notification about a nuclear accident and assistance in case of nuclear accident. Obligations regarding radioactive waste management should be defined soon. This paper gives a review of obligations from particular agreements with a special emphasis on those which are being realized through mutual cooperation of concerned countries and are important for safe use of nuclear energy. (author)

  7. Water security at local government level: what do people think it means in eThekwini? Ntshongweni Community feedback

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available defined by international organisations or scientists, like UN Water. • Water security is NOT about quantity, quality, availability, reliable supply, water borne diseases… • Water security is about individuals, and their environment—lived experience...

  8. Investigating Food and Agribusiness Corporations as Global Water Security, Management and Governance Agents: The case of Nestlé, Bunge and Cargill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Sojamo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the agency of the world’s largest food and agribusiness corporations in global water security via case studies of Nestlé, Bunge and Cargill by analysing their position in the political economy of the world agro-food system and the ways they intentionally and non-intentionally manage and govern water in their value chains and wider networks of influence. The concentrated power of a few corporations in global agro-food value chains and their ability to influence the agro-food market dynamics and networks throughout the world pose asymmetric conditions for reaching not only global food security but also water security. The article will analyse the different forms of power exercised by the corporations in focus in relation to global water security and the emerging transnational water governance regime, and the extent to which their value chain position and stakeholder interaction reflect or drive their actions. Due to their vast infrastructural and technological capacity and major role in the global agro-food political economy, food and agribusiness corporations cannot avoid increasingly engaging, for endogenous and exogenous reasons, in multi-stakeholder initiatives and partnerships to devise methods of managing the agro-food value chains and markets to promote global water security. However, their asymmetric position in relation to their stakeholders demands continuous scrutiny.

  9. A Multilateral Negotiation Model for Cloud Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dongjin; Sim, Kwang Mong

    Trading cloud services between consumers and providers is a complicated issue of cloud computing. Since a consumer can negotiate with multiple providers to acquire the same service and each provider can receive many requests from multiple consumers, to facilitate the trading of cloud services among multiple consumers and providers, a multilateral negotiation model for cloud market is necessary. The contribution of this work is the proposal of a business model supporting a multilateral price negotiation for trading cloud services. The design of proposed systems for cloud service market includes considering a many-to-many negotiation protocol, and price determining factor from service level feature. Two negotiation strategies are implemented: 1) MDA (Market Driven Agent); and 2) adaptive concession making responding to changes of bargaining position are proposed for cloud service market. Empirical results shows that MDA achieved better performance in some cases that the adaptive concession making strategy, it is noted that unlike the MDA, the adaptive concession making strategy does not assume that an agent has information of the number of competitors (e.g., a consumer agent adopting the adaptive concession making strategy need not know the number of consumer agents competing for the same service).

  10. A Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime of a Multilateral Nuclear Approaches Framework in the Asian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two primary challenges for establishing nuclear third party liability (TPL regimes within multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Asian region. The first challenge is to ensure secure and prompt compensation, especially for transboundary damages, which is also a challenge for a nation-based facility. One possible solution is that in order to share common nuclear TPL principles, all states in the region participate in the same international nuclear TPL convention, such as the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC, with a view to its entry into force in the future. One problem with this approach is that many states in the Asian region need to raise their amount of financial security in order to be able to participate in the CSC. The second challenge lies with the multiple MNA member states and encompasses the question of how decisions are to be made and responsabilities of an installation state are to be shared in case of a nuclear incident. Principally, a host state of the MNA facility takes on this responsibility. However, in certain situations and in agreement with all MNA member states, such responsibilities can be indirectly shared among all MNA member states. This can be done through internal arrangements within the MNA framework, such as reimbursement to a host state based on pre-agreed shares in accordance with investment and/or making deposits on such reimbursements in case of an incident.

  11. Functional Changes in China’s Participation in the Multilateral Development Banks: from Borrower to Creditor Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leksyutina Y.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multilateral development banks (MDBs play an important role in world economic processes and global economic governance. Since the establishment of the first multilateral development bank – the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD – MDBs have emerged in three waves, each time as a response to the major changes in the world arena. The creation of the New Development Bank (NDB and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB represents the third and latest wave of MDBs. These new development banks have arisen as a consequence of an historic shift in global economic power from developed countries to emerging economies and more specifically the increase in China’s economic might. This article traces the evolution of China’s participation in MDBs, characterizes various forms of China’s engagement with MDBs in specific periods of history, and explains Beijing’s motivation in establishing new MDBs. During almost 40 years of interaction with the multilateral development banks, China has made a great leap forward from large-borrower to creditor status, from ordinary member to the initiator and creator of new MDBs under its auspices. This article identifies the scale, composition and dynamic of MDBs’ assistance to China. It points out that despite its eye-catching economic achievements, China remains one of the largest borrowers from MDBs. Yet, in the process of China’s participation in MDBs there have been two turning points: in 2004–2005 when China became a creditor, and during the 2008 global financial crisis when China set a course to promote the reform of global governance system and the creation of new China-dominated financial bodies. The creation of new financial institutions is evaluated in the article as indicating Beijing’s foreign policy ambitions to assume a leadership role in the global economic architecture, while the fact that China is acting both as a creditor and a borrower in MDBs reflects the

  12. Secure positioning in wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    So far, the problem of positioning in wireless networks has been studied mainly in a non-adversarial settings. In this work, we analyze the resistance of positioning techniques to position and distance spoofing attacks. We propose a mechanism for secure positioning of wireless devices, that we call...... Verifiable Multilateration. We then show how this mechanism can be used to secure positioning in sensor networks. We analyze our system through simulations....

  13. International Food Security: Insufficient Efforts by Host Governments and Donors Threaten Progress to Halve Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    AIDS human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome IEHA Initiative to End Hunger in Africa (A U.S. Presidential Initiative...term agricultural development have not been successful. The United States’ Presidential Initiative to End Hunger in Africa ( IEHA ...Africa, but these efforts are not integrated into IEHA . Given this fragmented approach to food security, the U.S. government is likely missing

  14. New and Traditional Multilateral Development Banks: Current and Potential Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shelepov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Most experts on multilateral development banks (MDBs mention the possibility of large-scale co-financing in their forecasts concerning their future operations. However, interaction between MDBs and other actors, including co-financing, is rarely considered as a research problem for analytical and scientific papers. Yet this type of cooperation is one of the most important factors of effectiveness for the entire system of MDB financing. Thus, working in partnership with governmental institutions (development assistance agencies, export credit agencies, etc., MDBs help attract additional financial resources and expertise in the countries where they are active. Working on state, regional and global levels, multilateral banks cooperate not only with governmental institutions, but also with private sector and civil society representatives. Such cooperation benefits both parties. In addition to mobilizing additional financial resources, it improves project preparation and implementation, taking into account national peculiarities, while partner institutions get a chance to use their experience and expertise. Given the recent establishment of the New Development Bank (NDB and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB, they are unlikely to achieve their main goal of narrowing the infrastructure financing deficit in developing countries without active cooperation with other institutions. This article discusses the results and examines the prospects of the NDB and AIIB cooperating with traditional MDBs. It also focuses on the new banks’ engagement with other financial institutions, including commercial banks and national development banks. The author analyzes interbank memorandums and agreements as a formal basis for cooperation between various institutions, and examines in detail the examples of co-financing infrastructure projects by the new and traditional MDBs, as well as new multilateral cooperation mechanisms established by development banks. The

  15. Securing the nuclear fuel cycle: What next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchkin, S.V.; Loginov, V.Y.

    2006-01-01

    The greatest challenge to the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is posed by nuclear energy's dual nature for both peaceful and military purposes. Uranium enrichment and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing (here after called s ensitive nuclear technologies ) are critical from the non-proliferation viewpoint because they may be used to produce weapons-grade nuclear materials: highly enriched uranium and separated plutonium. Alongside measures to limit the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies, multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) started to be discussed. Spiralling prices for hydrocarbons and prospects of their imminent extinction are encouraging more and more countries to look at nuclear energy as an alternative means to ensure their sustainable development. To this end, it's becoming increasingly important to link the objective need for an expanded use of nuclear energy with strengthening nuclear non-proliferation by, in particular, preventing the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies and securing access for interested countries to NFC products and services. With this in mind, at the IAEA General Conference in 2003, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei called for establishing an international experts group on multilateral nuclear approaches. The proposal was supported, and in February 2005 the international experts, headed by Bruno Pellaud, issued a report (published by the IAEA as INFCIRC-640; see www.iaea.org) with recommendations on different multilateral approaches. The recommendations can be generalized as follows: reinforcement of existing market mechanisms; involvement of governments and the IAEA in the assurance of supply, including the establishment of low-enriched uranium (LEU) stocks as reserves; conversion of existing national uranium enrichment and SNF reprocessing enterprises into multilateral ones under international management and control, and setting up new multilateral enterprises on regional and

  16. Multilateral market-access reforms of the Doha Round

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    members such as the US. This paper provides a preliminary assessment of the likely impact of the tiered-formula reform approach on EU agricultural sectors. Numerical simulations of a multilateral market-access reform scenario show that such cuts would lead to across-the-board decreases in intra-EU trade...... external trade surpluses in many EU agricultural products. Further, the resulting adjustments in member states’ production and net trade positions are not equal: the new member states would generally lose part of their export shares in the EU market to external competitors, as highlighted in the cases......The July package of the Doha Round of trade negotiations stipulates that a tiered-formula approach should be used to significantly reduce market access barriers across countries, implying that the EU would have to make larger cuts to its high external tariffs, in comparison with many other WTO...

  17. Biotechnology in Argentina: New products, new multilateral challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano M. Donadio Linares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 20 years ago, a public-private alliance has transformed Argentina into a remarkable global actor in developing biotechnological products for food and renewable energies. This strategic alliance resulted in the boosting of scientific knowledge, the extension of the production boundary, the expansion of international trade and the creation of the conditions for an integral development. Furthermore, given the characteristics of biotechnology as a new phenomenon, wto has become the field within where a number of disputes take place, disputes which not only controvert trade issues, but also the State’s limits to design and apply public policies on the matter at issue. As a consequence, the present article seeks to, on the one hand, describe how Argentina built its public policy on Biotechnology and, on the other hand, analyze the challenges that Argentina faces within the multilateral trade system

  18. Optimal power transaction matrix rescheduling under multilateral open access environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, M.P.; Raoofat, M.; Haghifam, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses a new concept for determining optimal transactions between different entities in a multilateral environment while benefits of both buyer and seller entities are taken into account with respect to the rules of the system. At the same time, constraints of the network are met, which leads to an optimal power flow problem. A modified power transaction matrix is proposed for modeling the environment. The optimization method in this paper is the continuation method, which is suited for complex situations of power system studies. This complexity will become more serious when dual interaction between financial and electrical subsystems of competitive power system are taken into account. The proposed approach is tested on a typical network with satisfactory results. (author)

  19. Interim Stabilisation in Fragile Security Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nat J. Colletta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades a conventional approach to security promotion has been widely applied by multilateral and bilateral agencies during war-to-peace transitions. Advocates of this approach typically recommend a combination of disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR and security sector reform (SSR to consolidate peace-making and peace-building processes (Colletta et al 2009, Muggah 2006. Notwithstanding the broad acceptance of such activities – and the theory that underlies them – there is little evidence that such interventions have contributed to any enduring solution to conflict and fragility (Muggah 2009. Indeed, analysts have come to recognise that the political, economic and social pre-conditions for DDR and SSR – including a relatively functional government, a reasonably stable labour market and a minimum level of social trust – are seldom in place. Even when these ambitious pre-requisites have been achieved, it is not clear that they are sufficient for DDR and SSR to take hold. Nevertheless, these orthodoxies persist in security promotion policy and practice.

  20. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States [fr

  1. Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Project and Supply Agreement among the Government of the Republic of Poland, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Project and Supply Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Poland on 8 January 2007, the United States on 12 January 2007 and by the Director General of the IAEA on 16 January 2007. Pursuant to the Article XII of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 January 2007, upon signature by the representatives of Poland, the United States and the Director General of the IAEA

  2. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States

  3. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of Jamaica and the Government of the United States of America for Assistance in Securing Low Enriched Uranium for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the text of the Agreement on 6 March 2013. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Jamaica on 25 November 2013, the United States on 2 May 2013 and the Director General of the IAEA on 16 December 2013. Pursuant to the Article XI of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 16 December 2013, upon signature by the Director General of the IAEA and by the authorized representatives of Jamaica and the United States [es

  4. Dependence Structures and Systemic Risk of Government Securities Markets in Central and Eastern Europe: A CoVaR-Copula Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this study, we proposed a new empirical method by combining generalized autoregressive score functions and a copula model with high-frequency data to model the conditional time-varying joint distribution of the government bond yields between Poland/Czech Republic/Hungary, and Germany. Capturing the conditional time-varying joint distribution of these bond yields allowed us to precisely measure the dependence of the government securities markets. In particular, we found a high dependence of these government securities markets in the long term, but a low dependence in the short term. In addition, we report that the Czech Republic showed the highest dependence with Germany, while Hungary showed the lowest. Moreover, we found that the systemic risk dynamics were consistent with the idea that the global financial crisis not only had spillover effects on countries with weak economic fundamentals (e.g., Hungary, which had the highest systemic risk, but also had contagion effects for both CEEC-3 countries and Germany. Finally, we confirm that three major market events, namely the EU accession, the global financial crisis, and the European debt crisis, caused structural changes to the dynamic correlation.

  5. Radicals and reactionaries : the polarisation of community and government in the name of public safety and security

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary threat of terrorism has changed the ways in which government and the public view the world. Unlike the existential threat from nation states in previous centuries, today, government and the public spend much of their effort looking for the inward threat. Brought about by high profile events such as 9/11, 7/7, and 3/11, and exacerbated by globalisation, hyper-connected social spheres, and the media, the threats from within are reinforced daily. In the UK, government has taken ...

  6. Knowledge Base for an Intelligent System in order to Identify Security Requirements for Government Agencies Software Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adán Beltrán G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been evidenced that one of the most common causes in the failure of software security is the lack of identification and specification of requirements for information security, it is an activity with an insufficient importance in the software development or software acquisition We propose the knowledge base of CIBERREQ. CIBERREQ is an intelligent knowledge-based system used for the identification and specification of security requirements in the software development cycle or in the software acquisition. CIBERREQ receives functional software requirements written in natural language and produces non-functional security requirements through a semi-automatic process of risk management. The knowledge base built is formed by an ontology developed collaboratively by experts in information security. In this process has been identified six types of assets: electronic data, physical data, hardware, software, person and service; as well as six types of risk: competitive disadvantage, loss of credibility, economic risks, strategic risks, operational risks and legal sanctions. In addition there are defined 95 vulnerabilities, 24 threats, 230 controls, and 515 associations between concepts. Additionally, automatic expansion was used with Wikipedia for the asset types Software and Hardware, obtaining 7125 and 5894 software and hardware subtypes respectively, achieving thereby an improvement of 10% in the identification of the information assets candidates, one of the most important phases of the proposed system.

  7. Governance and Risk Management of Network and Information Security: The Role of Public Private Partnerships in Managing the Existing and Emerging Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navare, Jyoti; Gemikonakli, Orhan

    Globalisation and new technology has opened the gates to more security risks. As the strategic importance of communication networks and information increased, threats to the security and safety of communication infrastructures, as well as information stored in and/or transmitted increased significantly. The development of the self replicating programmes has become a nightmare for Internet users. Leading companies, strategic organisations were not immune to attacks; they were also "hacked" and overtaken by intruders. Incidents of recent years have also shown that national/regional crisis may also trigger cyber attacks at large scale. Experts forecast that cyber wars are likely to take the stage as tension mounts between developed societies. New risks such as cyber-attacks, network terrorism and disintegration of traditional infrastructures has somewhat blurred the boundaries of operation and control. This paper seeks to consider the risk management and governance and looking more specifically at implications for emerging economies.

  8. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  9. Environment and security in the South China Sea region : the role of experts, non-governmental actors and governments in regime building processes

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Background: The Spratly islands in the South China Sea are today the focal point of a territorial dispute that represents a serious threat to the regional security in Southeast Asia. Six governments - China, Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei - have laid claims to all or some of the more than 230 islets, reefs and shoals in the Spratly area. The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a key player in the South China Sea conflict. However, the South China Sea is not jus...

  10. 我国证券公司治理绩效的因子分析%Factor Analysis of the Governance Performance of Securities Companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈毅

    2014-01-01

    证券公司是资本市场最重要的行为主体之一,我国证券公司虽已建立了董事会、监事会、独立董事等现代公司治理框架,但在实际运作中其职能行使上存在许多不规范的地方。2008年金融危机告诫我们,不仅需要提高证券公司的风险防范机制,更需要建立完善的公司治理结构,促使证券公司风险防范机制作用顺利发挥。通过因子分析法将证券公司内部治理变量综合成为四个因子,即规模激励因子、结构因子、监管因子和独立性因子,进而分析内部治理因子对证券公司经营绩效的影响。%The Securities firms is one of the most important actor in the capital market. Though securities firms in China have established a modern Corporate governance framework with the board of directors,the board of supervisors,independent directors,but there are many irregularities in the exercise of their functions.The financial crisis in 2008 warned us that securi-ties firms should not only improve the risk prevention mechanisms,but also need to establish sound corporate governance structure to ensure the risk prevention mechanism plays its supposed role.With a factor analysis of internal corporate governance,variables are categorized into four factors,namely the motivation and scale factor,the structure factor,the regulatory factor and the independent factors,and the effect of the internal governance factors on the performance of securities companies are analyzed.

  11. The multilateral Agreement on Investment: Implications and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanho Kim

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Consultations that were kept under the discussions in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD are Multilateral Agreements on Investment (MAI and their aim was to be signed before April 1998. The significance of the agreement was to establish a transparent and predictable institutional environment for international investment. The agreement is about the nations participating to have the obligation to make sure that foreign investment and investors will to appreciate the national treatment (treated on the same basics with its citizens, and legally binding in the MAI system, the governmental protection for domestic enterprises will become difficult, and domestic enterprise which does not have international competitiveness will face the pressure of structural adjustment. But Korea should positively approach participation into MAI from the point of promoting the internationalization of Korean economies. Although the participation into MAI would also create new challenges of the Korean economy, but it also becomes an opportunity to promote the Korean economy for transferring to a more competitive economic structure.

  12. A multilateral modelling of Youth Soccer Performance Index (YSPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki, Ahmad; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Juahir, Hafizan; Abdullah, Farhana; Ain Shahirah Abdullah, Nurul; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Musliha Mat-Rasid, Siti; Adnan, Aleesha; Azura Kosni, Norlaila; Muhamad, Wan Siti Amalina Wan; Afiqah Mohamad Nasir, Nur

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to identify the most dominant factors that influencing performance of soccer player and to predict group performance for soccer players. A total of 184 of youth soccer players from Malaysia sport school and six soccer academy encompasses as respondence of the study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were computed to identify the most dominant factors whereas reducing the initial 26 parameters with recommended >0.5 of factor loading. Meanwhile, prediction of the soccer performance was predicted by regression model. CFA revealed that sit and reach, vertical jump, VO2max, age, weight, height, sitting height, calf circumference (cc), medial upper arm circumference (muac), maturation, bicep, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, 5M, 10M, and 20M speed were the most dominant factors. Further index analysis forming Youth Soccer Performance Index (YSPI) resulting by categorizing three groups namely, high, moderate, and low. The regression model for this study was significant set as p < 0.001 and R2 is 0.8222 which explained that the model contributed a total of 82% prediction ability to predict the whole set of the variables. The significant parameters in contributing prediction of YSPI are discussed. As a conclusion, the precision of the prediction models by integrating a multilateral factor reflecting for predicting potential soccer player and hopefully can create a competitive soccer games.

  13. Expansion of Tubular with Elastomers in Multilateral Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Velden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid expandable tubular technology during the last decade has focused on solving many challenges in well drilling and delivery including zonal isolation, deep drilling, conservation of hole sizes, etc. not only as pioneered solution but also providing cost effective and long lasting solutions. Concurrently, the technology was extended for construction of multilateral in typical wells. The process of horizontal tubular expansion is similar to the vertical expansion of expandable tubular in down-hole environment with the addition of uniformly distributed force due to its weight. The expansion is targeted to increase its diameter such that post expansion characteristics remain within allowable limits. In this study a typical expandable tubular of 57.15 mm outer diameter and 6.35 mm wall thickness was used with two different elastomer seals of 5 and 7 mm thickness placed at equal spacing of 200 mm. The developed stress contours during expansion process clearly showed the high stress areas in the vicinity of expansion region which lies around the mandrel. These high stresses may result in excessive wear of the mandrel. It was also found out that the drawing force increases as the mandrel angle, expansion ratio, and friction coefficient increases. A mandrel angle of 20o  requires minimum expansion force and can be considered as an optimum geometrical parameter to lower the power required for expansion.

  14. Advancing Sustainable Development in Global Trade and Multilateral Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanWorld exports and imports are quickly recovering after the 2008-09 sharp decline in merchandise trade, as illustrated by global trade performances in the first and second quarters of 2010. In spite of this impressive recovery, domestic concerns in OECD countries about employment, competitiveness and China’s exchange rate policy have created a difficult political environment for further liberalisation under the Doha Round. Interestingly, developing countries, which were reluctant to engage in a new round of trade negotiations back in 2001, are now in the vanguard of those that wish for a swift conclusion of the talks, even if consensus on the ambitious ‘development package’ envisaged in Doha remains elusive. At the same time trade has been the subject of unprecedented attention and scrutiny in the climate change talks. In a world where multilateral cooperation is in crisis there is a dire need for the international community to generate new types of arrangements and innovative responses to the imperatives of development and the global transition to a low-carbon economy.

  15. The Multilateral Tax Instrument: How to Avoid a Stalemate on Distributional Issues?

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.; Vording, H.

    2016-01-01

    Action 15 of the OECD/G-20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project is to "develop a multilateral instrument designed to provide an innovative approach to international tax matters" The authors turn to two areas of academic thought to clarify the choices faced by states when engaging in either bilateral or multilateral tax treaties. One is the field of international relations, and especially the "neoliberal" approach based on the economic self-interest of states. The other is political...

  16. A multilateral tax treaty: designing an instrument to modernise international tax law

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author addresses the legal and political aspects of a multilateral tax treaty that fundamentally transforms the way states cooperate in the field of international taxation. Working from a normative and pragmatic view on international tax relations, he proposes a management-focused approach to multilateral cooperation in international taxation. The resulting managerial framework treaty is drawn up on the basis of insights from political science and legal philosophy and is ill...

  17. The Transition from Alliance Networks to Multilateral Alliances in the Global Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio G. Lazzarini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines conditions in which alliance networks (informal webs of bilateral entanglements between firms may or may not evolve into multilateral alliances (broad, formal multiple-firm arrangements. I offer a theory to explain the formation of multilateral alliances based on both the resource profile and the structure of existing interfirm networks, and provide an initial test of that theory in the context of the global airline industry. Using data from 75 global airlines and their alliances, I propose a methodology to retrieve samples of alliance networks and then use regression analysis to assess how the resource profile and the structure of these networks influence their formalization into multilateral alliances. I find that multilateral alliances are more likely to emerge when alliance networks exhibit high resource diversity and network structure characterized by moderate density and high centralization. Apparently, while highly sparse networks reduce actors’ awareness of their potential joint collaboration, highly dense or embedded networks substitute for the need for formal controls accompanying multilateral agreements. The effect of centralization suggests that the formation of multilateral alliances tends to be triggered by leading actors directly connected to other network members.

  18. Technical and governance considerations for advanced metering infrastructure/smart meters: Technology, security, uncertainty, costs, benefits, and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental role of policymakers when considering Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), or ‘smart meters for energy and water infrastructure is to investigate a broad range of complex interrelated issues. These include alternative technical and non-technical options and deployment needs, the cost and benefits of the infrastructure (risks and mitigation measures), and the impact of a number of stakeholders: consumers, distributors, retailers, competitive market operators, competing technology companies, etc. The scale and number of potential variables in the AMI space is an almost unprecedented challenge to policymakers, with the anticipation of new ancillary products and services, associated market contestability, related regulatory and policy amendments, and the adequacy of consumer protection, education, and safety considerations requiring utmost due-diligence. Embarking on AMI investment entails significant technical, implementation, and strategic risk for governments and administering bodies, and an active effort is required to ensure AMI governance and planning maximises the potential benefits, and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks to stakeholders. This work seeks to clarify AMI fundamentals and discusses the technical and related governance considerations from a dispassionate perspective, yet acknowledges many stakeholders tend to dichotomise debate, and obfuscate both advantages and benefits, and the converse. - Highlights: • AMI presents an almost unprecedented technical and governance policy challenge. • AMI enables vertical integration of electricity, gas, water, IT, and telco entities • AMI investments involve major technical, implementation, and strategic decisions. • Adequacy of consumer education, safety, privacy, and protection is paramount. • Policy must maximise AMI benefits and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks

  19. Closing the Cyber Gap: Integrating Cross-Government Cyber Capabilities to Support the DHS Cyber Security Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    identifies and eliminates the actors who seek to target our cyber 152 “2013 Data Breach Investigations Report,” Verizon Enterprise Solutions, accessed...future. 360 “2013 Data Breach Investigations Report,” Verizon Enterprise Solutions, accessed September 29, 2013, http://www.verizonenterprise.com/DBIR...critical system owners and worldwide cyber security teams.382 381 Data Breach on the Rise: Protecting Personal Information from Harm: Hearing

  20. Xingu Project - Integrating Land Use Planning and Water Governance in Amazonia: Towards Improved Freshwater Security in the Agricultural Frontier of Mato Grosso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Neill, C.; Elsenbeer, H.; Johnson, M. S.; Coe, M. T.; Garavello, M.; Molina, S. G.; Empinotti, V.; Reichardt, F.; Deegan, L.; Harris, L.

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this project is to identify how impacts from land conversion, cropland expansion and intensification of both crop and animal production interact to affect regional evapotranspiration, rainfall generation, river flooding, and water quality and stream habitats, allowing us to identify thresholds of change that will endanger agricultural production, livelihoods of non-agricultural settlers and the region's new urban population and infrastructure. We will survey the effects of this on (1) soybean farmers, (2) cattle ranchers, (3) small-scale farm families, (4) rural non-agriculturists, including fishers, and (5) urban residents and map their roles as stakeholders. We will also conduct current water use surveys among the different stakeholder groups, accompanied by questions on desired aspects for future freshwater security to identify targets for desirable outcomes of water governance strategies. These targets, together with the information on land use drivers, water quantity and quality and predicted scenarios for global changes will be incorporated into a fully integrated and interactive geospatially oriented socio-ecological model that can serve as framework for future water governance that enhances Freshwater Security in such systems. This is an international cooperation initiative lead by Brazil and with the participation of Canada, Germany and United States of America.

  1. Conservation and aid: designing more effective investments in natural resource governance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Fred

    2009-10-01

    Biodiversity conservation outcomes are closely related to the rules and institutions governing resource use. Creating local incentives for conservation through more secure resource tenure is central to conservation outcomes on private and communal lands, where the preponderance of biodiversity occurs. Conservation efforts in sub-Saharan Africa are therefore centrally concerned with governance dynamics and institutional reform processes, such as the decentralization of property rights, and how best to achieve such reforms. Traditional mechanisms for financing conservation efforts in Africa rely heavily on funds channeled through multilateral and bilateral aid agencies. The history of development aid highlights a range of constraints these aid agencies face in terms of working toward more effective resource governance arrangements and promoting reforms. Government aid agencies possess incentives for promoting large-scale and short-term projects that maximize expenditure volumes and tend to define issues in technical rather than political terms. The history of development aid suggests that these and other characteristics of aid agencies impedes their ability to influence governance reform processes and that aid funding may discourage the adoption of reforms. Greater emphasis in African conservation financing needs to be placed on flexible, small-scale investments aligned to local interests and constituencies that prioritize innovation, learning, and experimentation. Additionally, more research is required that explores the linkages between conservation funding, donor decision-making processes, and governance reforms.

  2. Transnational Corporations in Education: Filling the Governance Gap through New Social Norms and Market Multilateralism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanji, Zahra

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the rising presence of transnational corporations (TNCs) in education and their mobilisation of global corporate social discourses to legitimise their private authority in education. The rising presence of TNCs is explored in the paper in two parts. First, through a taxonomy of global corporate social engagement (GCSE)…

  3. Heads in the clouds, feet in the sand: Multilateral policy coordination in global environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    This is a study of how issues that can only be solved through cooperation (such as commons issues) reach the international agenda and how states then form policy on those issues. Extensive primary data are used in analyzing (1) accession of stratospheric ozone depletion and global climate change to the international agenda and (2) the policy formation of ten states on these issues. This study shows that commons issues reach the international agenda through the actions of intergovernmental organizations in defining the problem, and the political activities of a leader state (such as the US on ozone) or a state acting as a policy entrepreneur. In the extensive literature on international cooperation most studies emphasize the importance of system level variables. Adapting the two-level games approach to multilateral issues, this study argues that, as commons issues do not directly threaten the security of most states, state policy on such issues primarily reflects domestic political necessities. In effect, foreign and domestic policy on such issues become unified. Through analysis of secondary and primary data, including more than 30 interviews with representatives of both developed states (the US, Canada, the UK, and Japan) and developing states (Brazil, India, Algeria, Mexico, and Thailand), and the Soviet Union, this study shows how domestic factors influenced foreign policy decisions and actions. The study shows that states seem to be less interested in absolute or relative gains in international negotiations that in maximizing domestic political rewards from its choice of foreign policy. Finally, through study of the accession of the global climate change issue it is appears that knowledge may be politically derived. States required a open-quotes consensusclose quotes among the technical experts before initiating the international negotiations. Politics seems to have played a large part in forming the technical consensus and in communicating it to states

  4. From performance to performativity: The legitimization of US security contracting and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahmann, Elke

    2017-12-01

    Discussions about the legitimacy of private security companies (PSCs) in multilateral military interventions abound. This article looks at how the United States has sought to legitimize the outsourcing of security services to PSCs through performance-based contracting and performance assessments. Both mechanisms aim to demonstrate the effective provision of publicly desirable outcomes. However, the immaterial and socially constructed nature of security presents major problems for performance assessments in terms of observable and measurable outcomes. Performance has therefore given way to performativity - that is, the repetitive enactment of particular forms of behaviour and capabilities that are simply equated with security as an outcome. The implications of this development for the ways in which security has been conceptualized, implemented and experienced within US interventions have been profound. Ironically, the concern with performance has not encouraged PSCs to pay increased attention to their impacts on security environments and civilian populations, but has fostered a preoccupation with activities and measurable capabilities that can be easily assessed by government auditors.

  5. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  6. Efforts to promote regional security dialogue and cooperation in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.

    1994-01-01

    Indifference to the new realities of the post-cold war era does nothing to preserve the traditional priorities laid down in the Final Document of the first special session on disarmament. On the contrary, such attitudes directly contribute to the trend towards marginalization which began when publics no longer feared the threat of a nuclear holocaust. It is believed that the expertise of forty years of multilateral arms control and disarmament efforts is directly relevant to the broader efforts of the international community to restore, maintain and promote international peace and security. Who can deny that confidence-building is central to preventive diplomacy? Or that the arms control component-from disarming to demobilization-is not equally central to peace operations whether they be traditional peace-keeping or post-conflict peace-building? Indeed the success or failure of the disarmament aspect of a peace operation is often critical to its overall success-Somalia surely being one recent sad example. The multilateral disarmament community must apply itself more directly and systematically to these broader problems - just as the United Nations Secretariat has increasingly begun to do - or risk indifference from Governments forced to make tough choices against a range of competing priorities. It is undeniably true that the post-cold war has significantly increased the potential for the international community to negotiate historic new multilateral disarmament treaties. And this window of opportunity must be utilized to the fullest. At the same time, due account must be taken of the hard fact that, for an increasing number of countries, expensive obligations in relation to advanced unconventional weapons which neither they nor their neighbours seek to possess may count for less than practical assistance in finding solutions to more parochial, but no less urgent, problems

  7. Changes of Global Infectious Disease Governance in 2000s: Rise of Global Health Security and Transformation of Infectious Disease Control System in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-12-01

    This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH) was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC) was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in disease control. The

  8. Changes of Global Infectious Disease Governance in 2000s: Rise of Global Health Security and Transformation of Infectious Disease Control System in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyung CHOI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in

  9. Advanced multilateration theory, software development, and data processing: The MICRODOT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobal, P. R.; Gallagher, J. F.; Vonroos, O. H.

    1976-01-01

    The process of geometric parameter estimation to accuracies of one centimeter, i.e., multilateration, is defined and applications are listed. A brief functional explanation of the theory is presented. Next, various multilateration systems are described in order of increasing system complexity. Expected systems accuracy is discussed from a general point of view and a summary of the errors is listed. An outline of the design of a software processing system for multilateration, called MICRODOT, is presented next. The links of this software, which can be used for multilateration data simulations or operational data reduction, are examined on an individual basis. Functional flow diagrams are presented to aid in understanding the software capability. MICRODOT capability is described with respect to vehicle configurations, interstation coordinate reduction, geophysical parameter estimation, and orbit determination. Numerical results obtained from MICRODOT via data simulations are displayed both for hypothetical and real world vehicle/station configurations such as used in the GEOS-3 Project. These simulations show the inherent power of the multilateration procedure.

  10. Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1992-05-01

    The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985-1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This 'multilateral' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125 mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125 mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250 C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government, and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

  11. Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  12. The Chiang Mai Initiative and Its Multilateralization: Toward an Asian Monetary Fund?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngwon Cho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a regional self-help system of liquidity support established in the aftermath of the Asian crisis of 1997, the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI and its recent multilateralization have been touted in some quarters as important achievements in a region where institutionalized financial cooperation had been sorely lacking, taking East Asia one step closer to the resuscitation of the still-born Asian Monetary Fund. Against such a sanguine assessment, I argue that the significance of the CMI, even after its multilateralization, is largely limited to symbolism and its practical implications are inconsequential. Despite the progress associated with CMI multilateralization, the underlying political dynamics in the region render East Asia fundamentally incapable of producing a coherent regional solution to the recurring problem of global financial instability.

  13. EU's external energy governance: A multidimensional analysis of the southern gas corridor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasov, Faig Galib

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to apply a multidimensional lens to the European Union's (EU's) vision to the yet to be establish Southern Gas Corridor. I will argue that, the EU's natural gas vision towards the Caspian basin is based not only on bringing additional gas volumes to the EU markets in order to ensure physical security of supply. It is rather multidimensional external governance geared, firstly, towards absorbing all the actors along the whole value chain in to the EU's common energy regulatory framework and shifting energy provision from a bilateral political domain onto a multilateral market domain. Secondly, it is a process of diffusion of norms and values into the governance system of the energy partners. - Highlights: • EU's Southern Gas Corridor strategy is structurally embedded in its external governance. • The counterpart of the EU's energy imports is its attempt to export its acquis. • EU's energy security necessitates diffusion of norms and values to producers

  14. TRADE AND POLITICS IN THE PACIFIC AREA:TRENDS IN MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Bonciu

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the ongoing multilateral trade negotiations from the Asia – Pacific area in the larger context of the shift of the economic center of the world economy from the Atlantic to the Pacific area. The high economic dynamism of the region has been accompanied in the past two decades by the establishment of a large number of bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements that included in many cases regulations on investments and other topics. In the wake of the Doha Round of nego...

  15. The Multilateralization of Regional Security in Southeast and Northeast Asia: The Role of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    obligation of the Soviet Union of Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia , the Philippines, to provide it at the expense of its own development. Singapore, and Brunei to... Malaysia , which still applicable to the United States and Japan than to the officially insist on an end to permanent Soviet Union. Proposals cover the...can large South Korean companies, including Hyundai, commit the nation and keep its word. After almost Samsung , and Lucky Goldstar, are enlarging their

  16. COCOM (Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Exports), Technology Transfer and Its Impact on National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    ORGANZA - 0% If applicable) 8( ADDRESS (C t Stare a-d ZIP CooI 10 SOUPCE O FKNDNG NMBERS PROGRAM PROAECT TASK . ORK )NIT ELEMENT NO NO NO .<ESSiON NO...investigations which ended up in a total restructuring of their export process. Both Norway and Japan started a heavy lobbying process as well, in an effort...respective controls. Norway permanently suspended all sales to the Soviet Union and initiated a total restructuring of their export process. Japan

  17. International security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war also ended the focus on the bilateral approach to arms control and disarmament. Key concepts of security needed to be revisited, along with their implications for the disarmament and arms control agenda. Though there is currently a unipolar global security environment, there remain important tasks on the multilateral arms control agenda. The major task is that of reducing and eliminating weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. The author contends that maintaining reliance on the nuclear-weapons option makes little sense in a time when the major Powers are strengthening their partnerships in economics, trade, peacemaking and building. (author)

  18. The Multilateral Tax Instrument : How to Avoid a Stalemate on Distributional Issues?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.; Vording, H.

    2016-01-01

    Action 15 of the OECD/G-20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project is to "develop a multilateral instrument designed to provide an innovative approach to international tax matters" The authors turn to two areas of academic thought to clarify the choices faced by states when engaging in

  19. Coalbed methane recovery from multilateral horizontal wells in Southern Qinshui Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenggui Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006, more than 80 multilateral horizontal wells have been drilled in Panzhuang block, Southern Qinshui Basin. In this paper, 6 typical wells in a region are selected as an example. The thickness of coal, gas content, reservoir pressure, permeability, burial depth, and reservoir pressure conditions are analyzed. The practice shows that production by multilateral horizontal well declines from 43,111 m3/day per well in the 2nd year to 25,126 m3/day per well in the 4th year. The numerical simulation result shows that the lateral interference forms in Well QNP05 after two years of gas production, and the gas content is reduced to less than 8 m3/t within the controlled region after six years. The area of gas content was less than 8 m3/t after eight years of gas production is about 3.2 km2, which is about 76% of the controlled area of the six multilateral horizontal wells. The results indicate that multilateral horizontal wells contribute to high production rates at potentially profitable levels and can also serve as an effective tool for a high-rank CBM field drainage.

  20. A Model of Solid Waste Management Based Multilateral Co-Operation in Semi-Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabhandhu, Chanchai; Woraphong, Seree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to construct a model of solid waste management based on multilateral cooperation in semi-urban community. Its specific objectives were to 1) study the solid waste situation and involvement of community in the solid waste management in Wangtaku Sub-district, Muang District, Nakhon Pathom Province; 2) construct a…

  1. Legitimacy and the Making of International Tax Law : The Challenges of Multilateralism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analyse the multilateral action and instruments that have been and are being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) to enhance transparency and exchange of information and the Base Erosion Profit Shifting (“BEPS”) Project in light of

  2. A multilateral tax treaty : designing an instrument to modernise international tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author addresses the legal and political aspects of a multilateral tax treaty that fundamentally transforms the way states cooperate in the field of international taxation. Working from a normative and pragmatic view on international tax relations, he proposes a management-focused

  3. Analysis of the nexus between population, water resources and Global Food Security highlights significance of governance and research investments and policy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusa, Isa A M; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Gibberd, Mark R

    2018-05-10

    Analyses of sensitivity of Global Food Security (GFS) score to a key set of supply or demand factors often suggest population and water supply as being the most critical and on which policies tend to focus. To explore other policy options, we characterised the nexus between GFS and a set of supply or demand factors including defining including population, agricultural and industrial water-use, agricultural publications (as a surrogate for investment in agricultural research and development [R&D]), and corruption perception index (CPI), to reveal opportunities for attaining enduring GFS. We found that despite being the primary driver of demand for food, population showed no significant correlation with GFS scores. Similarly agricultural water-use was poorly correlated with GFS scores, except in countries where evaporation exceeds precipitation and irrigation is significant. However, GFS had a strong positive association with industrial water-use as a surrogate for overall industrialisation. Recent expansions in cultivated land area failed to yield concomitant improvements in GFS score since such expansions have been mostly into marginal lands with low productivity and also barely compensated for lands retired from cropping in several developed economies. However, GFS was positively associated with agricultural R&D investments, as it was with the CPI scores. The apparent and relative strengths of these drivers on GFS outcome amongst countries were in the order: industrial water-use ≈ publication rate ≈ corruption perception > agricultural water-use > population. We concluded by suggesting that to enshrine enduring food security, policies should prioritise (1) increased R&D investments that address farmer needs, and (2) governance mechanisms that promote accountability in both research and production value chains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy supply security and geopolitics : A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A; van der Linde, C

    The security of energy supply to the EU is examined in the context of two storylines. Markets and Institutions exemplifies an economically and politically integrated, multilateral world with effective institutions and markets, Regions and Empires involves a world broken up in rival political and

  5. The importance and effects of BEPS multilateral convention in international tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting is a result of the BEPS project carried out by the OECD and G20. The object and purpose of the BEPS Multilateral Convention is swift and consistent implementation of the agreed solutions aimed at preventing tax evasion or avoidance via modifications of the existing bilateral tax treaties, while providing for a high level of flexibility in the implementation. Signed on 7 June 2017, the Convention encompasses provisions on hybrid mismatches, treaty abuse, avoidance of permanent establishment status, improving dispute resolution and arbitration. The first four groups of norms have a bilateral impact on the relations between contracting jurisdictions regulated by their covered tax agreements; the effect of the optional provisions on arbitration is multilateral. The Convention contains two minimum standards each party is required to include in its covered tax agreements in an offered manner. The first one refers to the prevention of treaty shopping arrangements, while the second one concerns improvements in the dispute resolution. The flexibility is assured by granting each party the right to specify the tax treaties to which the Convention applies, to opt out of a wide range of provisions (apart from the minimum standards set out in the Convention as eligible for reservations, as well as to select an offered alternative. Serbia's position vis-à-vis the given choices has been elaborated. Serbia specified all its tax treaties as the 'covered tax agreements' but Germany, Switzerland and Sweden did not do the same with their respective treaties with Serbia. Serbia opted out of five articles of the Convention. While not contesting its importance, one may conclude that the Convention does not represent an announcement of a new multilateral tax order but rather a multilateral agreement of a number of states motivated by practical considerations.

  6. Information Security Maturity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Information Security Maturity Model

    2011-01-01

    To ensure security, it is important to build-in security in both the planning and the design phases andadapt a security architecture which makes sure that regular and security related tasks, are deployedcorrectly. Security requirements must be linked to the business goals. We identified four domains thataffect security at an organization namely, organization governance, organizational culture, thearchitecture of the systems, and service management. In order to identify and explore the strengt...

  7. What We Have Learned: "New Foundations for Global Governance"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan S. Alexandroff; David Shorr

    2010-01-01

    @@ In a Conference convened at Princeton University in January 2010, international relations experts were asked to consider, among other things, great power leadership and explore what would enable these powers to solve some of the great challenges facing global governance. The Conference noted a growing disjunction between our "inherited" multilateral institutions, the evolving architecture of global governance and the daunting scope and complexity of today's global governance agenda. Two key leadership questions dominated discussions at the Conference. The first: what would be the role of the remaining superpower-the United States-in the years ahead? Could the United States accept a greater multilateral environment with possibly a diminished hegemonic role? Secondly, could China successfully achieve great power status without the rivalry competition and even conflict that normally accompanies a rising power? And, in what ways could China exercise leadership in global governance?

  8. The European debate on governance networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to take stock of the European debate on governance networks in order to assess whether or not it has succeeded to develop a new a viable paradigm based on clear concepts, sound theories and methods and an expansive research agenda. The political and institutional conditions...... for the emergence of the Europe governance debate are analyzed and the notions of ‘governance’ and ‘governance networks’ are critically examined and defined. A brief assessment of the empirical significance of governance networks at different levels of governing is followed by a presentation and comparison...... development, the European debate on governance networks provides a new and important paradigm for understanding the emerging forms of multilateral action and pluricentric governance....

  9. Six decades of educational multilateralism in a globalising world: The history of the UNESCO Institute in Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfert, Maren

    2013-07-01

    Created in 1945 as a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was given, among other mandates, the task of reconstructing education systems devastated during the Second World War. UNESCO, in turn, and after some debate about an engagement in Germany, founded the UNESCO Institute for Education (UIE) in Hamburg in 1952. This paper traces the development of an institute which was founded to contribute to social renewal in war-torn Germany and Europe, functioned as a mediator between Western and Eastern countries during the Cold War and later shifted its geographical focus to developing countries. The institute was instrumental in conceptualising lifelong learning as a global educational paradigm, as well as in shaping the shift from education to learning and the concept of literacy as a "continuum". The author is particularly interested in the nature of the institute's niche which secured its survival in the uncertain domain of educational multilateralism in the past six decades.

  10. Internet Governance and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    by the International Orga­ nization of Standards for the Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) model as the basis of Internet networking. A brief...or “ride on top” of the Internet. A corporate LAN , such as “.company–name” for internal company use, is an example of the first. When a group wishes

  11. Data Security

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Training specialists in the field of data security and security administrators for the information systems represents a significant priority demanded by both governmental environments and the central and local administrations, as well as by the private sector - companies, banks. They are responsible for implementing information services and systems, but they are also their beneficiaries, with applicability in fields such as: e government, e-administration, e-banking, e-commerce, e-payment, wh...

  12. Impact of Multilateral Approaches for Assurances of Nuclear Fuel Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Yang, M. H.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study consists of 3 parts : analysis of the characteristics of the recent proposals for a nuclear fuel supply and the progress of them, responses from various sectors in the world, and measures for them. In response to recent proposals, majority of countries possessing sensitive nuclear fuel facilities are supportive in general. In contrast, many countries not possessing such facilities are reluctant about the proposals. To satisfy both parties, an ideal proposal could suggest measures to assure a non-proliferation as well as measures to acquire confidence from the so-called user nations. To get strong support from all countries concerned, the proposal should contain some critical elements such as clear attractiveness for a participation, equal opportunities for the participating countries, voluntarily in decision on a participation, and a gradual approach to remove any future obstacles encountered. The criteria to judge a legitimate need of a country for the introduction of nuclear fuel facilities should be prepared by a consensus. Compliance of a nonproliferation obligation, scale of an economy, and an energy security can be proposed as such criteria.

  13. Impact of Multilateral Approaches for Assurances of Nuclear Fuel Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Yang, M. H.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.

    2007-12-01

    This study consists of 3 parts : analysis of the characteristics of the recent proposals for a nuclear fuel supply and the progress of them, responses from various sectors in the world, and measures for them. In response to recent proposals, majority of countries possessing sensitive nuclear fuel facilities are supportive in general. In contrast, many countries not possessing such facilities are reluctant about the proposals. To satisfy both parties, an ideal proposal could suggest measures to assure a non-proliferation as well as measures to acquire confidence from the so-called user nations. To get strong support from all countries concerned, the proposal should contain some critical elements such as clear attractiveness for a participation, equal opportunities for the participating countries, voluntarily in decision on a participation, and a gradual approach to remove any future obstacles encountered. The criteria to judge a legitimate need of a country for the introduction of nuclear fuel facilities should be prepared by a consensus. Compliance of a nonproliferation obligation, scale of an economy, and an energy security can be proposed as such criteria

  14. Multilateral Development Banks and Their Role in Supporting European SMEs during the Current Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel Anton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the ongoing financial crisis on the availability of finance to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs represents an important topic nowadays. The access to finance for SMEs is a major barrier for their growth, especially during severe conditions such as the global financial crisis. Financing the SMEs represents a priority for the most of the multilateral development banks. The aim of the paper is to analyze the activity of European multilateral development banks - European Investment Bank Group and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - in the support of SMEs. We found that SMEs financing increased during the period 2008-2011 and the international financial institutions took several measures in order to improve the SMEs access to finance.

  15. Impact of multilateral congestion management on the reliability of power transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.B.; Da Silva, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the electricity industry has caused an increase in the number of transactions in the energy market. These transactions are defined by market forces without considering operational constraints of the transmission system. Consequently, there are transactions that cause congestion in the transmission network. This paper has as objective to assess the impact of multilateral congestion management on the reliability of power transactions. This assessment is based on reliability indices such as expected power curtailments, curtailment probability, expected cost of congestion management and probability distributions of the total power curtailment. Tests results with IEEE RTS-1996 demonstrate that the multilateral management results in smaller curtailments and congestion costs than traditional bilateral management. (author)

  16. What is the appropriate counterfactual when estimating effects of multilateral trade policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kym; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Nelgen, Signe

    2016-01-01

    the counterfactual price distortions in 2030 are shown to be much larger in the case where agricultural protection grows endogenously than in the case assuming no policy changes over the projection period. This suggests the traditional way of estimating effects of a multilateral agricultural trade agreement may...... of the DDA’s possible effects thus requires first modelling the world economy to 2030 and, in that process, projecting what trade-related policies might be by then without a DDA. Typically, modelers assume the counterfactual policy regime to be a ‘business-as-usual’ projection assuming the status quo. Yet we...... by projecting the world economy to 2030 using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model with those two alternative policy regimes and then simulating a move to global free trade (the maximum benefit from a multilateral trade reform) in each of those two cases. The welfare effects of removing...

  17. Improvements to enforcement of multilateral environmental agreements to control international shipments of chemicals and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Somboon, Vira; Wun'gaeo, Surichai; Middleton, Carl; Tingsabadh, Charit; Limjirakan, Sangchan

    2016-06-01

    Illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals has caused severe damage on human health and the environment, and brought big challenges to countries to meet their commitments to related multilateral environmental agreements. Synergy-building, like organising law enforcement operations, is critical to address illegal trade in waste and chemicals, and further improve the effectiveness of environmental enforcement. This article discusses how and why law enforcement operations can help countries to implement chemical and waste-related multilateral environmental agreements in a more efficient and effective way. The research explores key barriers and factors for organising law enforcement operations, and recommends methods to improve law enforcement operations to address illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Brazil in Regional and Global Governance: Foreign Policy, Leadership and UNASUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Chin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of Brazil as a source of international governance innovation during the Lula da Silva and early Rousseff presidencies (2003–12. The analysis details some of Brazil’s main contributions to regional and global governance, and how these contributions are rooted in ideational and normative innovation and its imaginative, nonconformist, status quo–altering foreign policy of the period. Although Brazil was not, and is not, a “new actor” per se in global governance, it did take unprecedented and dramatic strides between 2003 and 2012 to redefine the multilateral agenda and reshape institutional arrangements for international cooperation and conflict management in South America. At the global level, Brazil launched new platforms for international cooperation, including with the other BRICS countries of Russia, India, China and South Africa. The regional trends are examined in the case of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR, and the innovations that Brazil spearheaded and supported in international security and health cooperation. However, Brazil’s contributions gain greater salience as part of the broader processes of global change where international power is becoming increasingly diffused and decentralized.

  19. Multilateral Organization vs. Bilateral Negotiations: A Case of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namhoon Kwon

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, the issue of intellectual property rights (IPR protection gained a prominent place on the international trade agenda, which led to the establishment of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPs as a part of the WTO regime. Two questions are asked regarding this development: whether a multilateral organization such as the WTO performs better than bilateral negotiations in resolving IPR disputes, and what happened around the 1990s to create an environment favorable to the establishment of a multilateral organization. To deal with these issues, this paper takes the IPE (international political economy approach. Using a very simple game theory model, I derive the cases in which a multilateral organization has better performances. Then, it is used to show that political pressures due to the growth of the US trade deficit in the late 1980s could have been the reason that a multilateral organization became the institutional equilibrium.

  20. Regional dialogue and multilateral arms control efforts today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, T. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The significance of arms control and non-proliferation tasks is stressed emphasising what has been done, and-more important-what must still be done. Although tangible developments at the regional level may seem at times to be slow in coming, it is important to remember that the United States-Soviet transition from voluntary declarations to detailed arms control agreements with intrusive verification regimes spanned the entire length of cold war. Given the instabilities afflicting these regions, establishing a regional dialogue is itself a confidence-building measure. The experience of the United States and the former Soviet Union amply demonstrates that mere existence of regular dialogue can reduce tension by providing a platform for communication among military and Government participants even when political crisis prevents diplomatic contacts at senior levels. The international community should be encouraged by the progress that has been made to date to address regional instabilities. Such steps are an integral part of the international effort, carried out both at the United Nations and elsewhere, to adopt acceptable levels of conventional military forces and to eliminate weapons of mass destruction. Given the instabilities afflicting these regions, establishing a regional dialogue is itself a confidence-building measure. World changes, while potentially dangerous and certainly challenging, offer the hope of replacing antagonism with cooperation, creating a progressively more democratic global environment, preventing proliferation, and dampening regional conflicts. Continuing to make effective use of the entire mix of arms control and confidence-building tools will help to realize these hopes

  1. True Multilateral Indexes for International Comparisons of Purchasing Power and Real Income

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Neary

    1997-01-01

    I consider the problem of choosing index numbers of purchasing power and real income for international comparisons. I show that the desirable properties of methods based on the Fisher "Ideal" index do not extend to multilateral comparisons, except when tastes are homothetic. By contrast, the Geary method, which underlies the Penn World Tables, provides an approximation to a set of "true" exchange rate indexes which have many desirable properties. In particular, if demands exhibit generalized ...

  2. Multilateral agricultural trade liberalization: The contrasting fortunes of developing countries in the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Bureau; Antoine Bouet, Yvan Decreux, Sébastien Jean

    2005-01-01

    An applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the impact of multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture, with particular emphasis on developing countries. We use original data, and the model includes some specific features such as a dual labor market. Applied tariffs, including those under preferential regimes and regional agreements, are taken into account at the detailed product level, together with the corresponding bound tariffs on which countries negotiate. The various type...

  3. Suspension of the Doha Round of Multilateral Negotiations and the Need for Its Resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Dilip K.

    2008-01-01

    The Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTNs) has proved to be egregiously problem-prone. Due to deep dissension among WTO members it had to be suspended, and efforts to revive it have so far not succeeded. Although the mercantilist mindset of the participants has been frequently blamed for the consistently tardy progress of negotiations, there is more to the situation than just a mindset. This article methodically analyzes the various steps taken since the launch of the Doha Round...

  4. Are Preferential Trade Agreements with Non-trade Objectives a Stumbling Block for Multilateral Liberalization?

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Limão

    2007-01-01

    In many preferential trade agreements (PTAs), countries exchange not only reductions in trade barriers but also cooperation in non-trade issues such as labour and environmental standards, intellectual property, etc. We provide a model of PTAs motivated by cooperation in non-trade issues and analyse its implications for global free trade and welfare. We find that such PTAs increase the cost of multilateral tariff reductions and thus cause a stumbling block to global free trade. This occurs bec...

  5. Global health: governance and policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Patrick W

    2011-06-01

    Global health policy is now being influenced by an ever-increasing number of nonstate and non-intergovernmental actors to include influential foundations, multinational corporations, multi-sectoral partnerships, and civil society organizations. This article reviews how globalization is a key driver for the ongoing evolution of global health governance. It describes the massive increases in bilateral and multilateral investments in global health and it highlights the current global and US architecture for performing global health programs. The article closes describing some of the challenges and prospects that characterize global health governance today. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A multi-lateral trading model for coupled gas-heat-power energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yue; Wei, Wei; Liu, Feng; Mei, Shengwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Optimal energy flows in the gas, heat, and power systems are modeled in detail. •A multi-lateral trading model for the coupled energy markets is proposed. •A two-phase algorithm for computing the market equilibrium. •Case studies demonstrate that market competition pilots reasonable energy prices. -- Abstract: The proliferation of cogeneration technology and the need for more resilient energy utilization inspire the emerging trend of integration of multi-resource energy systems, in which natural gas, heat, and electricity are produced, delivered, converted, and distributed more efficiently and flexibly. The increasing interactions and interdependencies across heterogenous physical networks impose remarkable challenges on the operation and market organization. This paper envisions the market trading scheme in the network-coupled natural gas system, district heating system, and power system. Based on the physical energy flow models of each system and their interdependency, a multi-lateral trading gas-heat-power (MLT-GHP) model is suggested, and a mixed-integer linear programming based two-phase algorithm is developed to find the market equilibrium. Case studies on two testing systems demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and method, showing that the multi-lateral trading essentially results in market competition that orientates reasonable energy prices. Some prospects for future researches are also summarized.

  7. State and multilateralism, a theoretical approach. Transformations in a globalized international society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma González del Miño

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The State, classical international actor, has had to readaption to the new dynamics in the International Society and has given prominence to other actors. In this logic, it´s relevant to analyze the role in the international system after the Cold War to evaluare whether it is still an actor capable of responding to the functional needs of the society. For this, reaffirms its commitment to multilateralism as a response to the main issue on the international agenda. Namely, is reactivated as an ideal tool to manage structural changes, despite the different interpretations of United States, the European Union or the BRICS. The object of this analysis contribute to the academic debate and focuses on studying the transformations of the State in the globalized international society where multilateralism has become a concept discussed and a common practice in the international discourse, despite its complexity and the different visions and interpretations by different actors. Multilateralism granted the State a path of cooperation and understanding as a guiding principle and foreign policy legitimizing discourse.

  8. Calculating Production Rate of each Branch of a Multilateral Well Using Multi-Segment Well Model: Field Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Al-Jawad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multilateral wells require a sophisticated type of well model to be applied in reservoir simulators to represent them. The model must be able to determine the flow rate of each fluid and the pressure throughout the well. The production rate calculations are very important because they give an indication about some main issues associated with multi-lateral wells such as one branch may produce water or gas before others, no production rate from one branch, and selecting the best location of a new branch for development process easily. This paper states the way to calculate production rate of each branch of a multilateral well-using multi-segment well model. The pressure behaviour of each branch is simulated dependent on knowing its production rate. This model has divided a multi-lateral well into an arbitrary number of segments depending on the required degree of accuracy and run time of the simulator. The model implemented on a field example (multi-lateral well HF-65ML in Halfaya Oil Field/Mishrif formation. The production rate and pressure behaviour of each branch are simulated during the producing interval of the multilateral well. The conclusion is that production rate of the main branch is slightly larger than a lateral branch.

  9. Food and Nutrition (UnGovernance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sarmento

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses, from a political economy perspective, the complexity of food and nutrition security governance, including different views underlying the expected role that such governance should play in agriculture food security and nutrition.

  10. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    .... However, ethnic disputes remain confined largely to political debate and competition, enabling President Karzai to focus on improving governance, reversing security deterioration, and his re-election...

  11. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-12-15

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

  12. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  13. Self-Sufficiency versus Security: How Trade Protectionism Challenges the Sustainability of the Food Supply in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii Erokhin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security is increasingly influenced by multilateral trade systems and foreign trade policies implemented by national governments. Many of them are now concerned about the sustainability of food supply and the vulnerability of domestic food markets to price volatility, and seek to support domestic producers and protect themselves from increasing food imports. Such restrictions improve food self-sufficiency, but decrease food security. It is important to understand any changes that may have occurred in the food consumption pattern due to trade protectionism and to observe any nutritional implications of these changes. This paper employs the rational food security (RFS assessment approach, which differentiates sources of food supply on the domestic market, assesses the influence of agricultural and trade frameworks on food consumption patterns, and complies consumption with the appropriate food intake threshold. In the case of Russia, the study demonstrates that the conventional consumption approach to self-sufficiency (FSCA underestimates the food insecurity level by not accounting for nutrition factors. In addition, the gap between the FSCA and the RFS increases in times of protectionist trade policy and decreases when the agricultural and trade policy framework turns to liberalization. The paper concludes that trade protectionism challenges the sustainability of food supply by decreasing food availability and quality of food products, causes dietary changes, and threatens the food security of the country.

  14. 21st Century Security Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Stelian ARION

    2010-01-01

    We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers ...

  15. Social Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suze Orman on Why Creating an Account is Important Suze Orman explains how a my Social Security account can help you plan for your retirement ... for same-sex couples? Open Government at Social Security Explore the benefits you may be due Plain ... About Us Accessibility FOIA Open Government Glossary ...

  16. The Tensions between Internal and External Multilateralism in the Case Law of the Court of Justice of the European Union Concerning International Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola

    2016-01-01

    The European Union’s (EU) commitment to multilateralism is enshrined in Article 21(1) of the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), which proclaims that the EU “shall promote multilateral solutions to common problems”. It is also reflected in numerous documents and treaties produced within the frame......The European Union’s (EU) commitment to multilateralism is enshrined in Article 21(1) of the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), which proclaims that the EU “shall promote multilateral solutions to common problems”. It is also reflected in numerous documents and treaties produced within...... to multilateralism externally appears problematic. This chapter examines the articulation between this internal and external multilateralism of the EU in the case-law of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU). It asks the question whether the main tool of legal interpretation deployed by the Court – teleological...

  17. Conclusion: the role of the EU in the legal dimension of global governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vooren, B.; Blockmans, S.; Wouters, J.; Van Vooren, B.; Blockmans, S.; Wouters, J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter revisits the main themes of the preceding discussions on the EU's role in global governance. These include rule law based collective governance, security governance, trade governance, environmental governance, financial governance, and social governance. Across different areas of

  18. GLOBAL GOVERNANCE AND POVERTY REDUCTION THIS MILLENNIUM: NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Issue of global poverty became very worrisome that the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000 placed it at the heart of global agenda to halve 1990 extreme poverty and hunger rates by the end of 2015. This means that the percentage of improvised people defined by the World Bank as those living on less than $1.25 a day must fall to 25 percent by the end of this year, while the proportion of people without adequate food security must be reduced to 12.5 percent. To achieve the aim, global leaders agreed to set a time-bound and measurable goals and targets. The United Nations believes that achieving the target which involves improvements in standards of living, universal primary education, empowerment of women, reduction in mortality rates, unemployment, among others, requires a global partnership with national governments, multinational agencies through global governance architecture. The ideal of global governance is a process of co-operative leadership that brings together national governments, multilateral public agencies and civil society to achieve commonly accepted goals. It provides strategic direction and then marshals collective energies to address global challenges. It is inclusive, dynamic and operates across national and sectoral boundaries and interests. It is this perspective of global governance that drives the Millennium Development Goals agenda toward global poverty reduction. This perspective is making positive contributions with some regions in the world heading toward the achievement of the target. Even those countries in sub-saharan Africa where most of the global poor live and who are lagging behind, are making frantic efforts to do so, with the assistance of global bodies like the world bank,  IMF, UNIDO, among others. The beauty of global governance is that it appears to be more democratic than authoritarian, more openly political than bureaucratic, and more integrated than specialized. This is the level that drives the

  19. The importance for Bulgaria of multilateral approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necheva, Ch.; McCombie, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    Bulgaria has a comparatively small nuclear program, but this provides a significant contribution of about 45% to the total electricity production in the country. There are 4 WWER units in operation at Kozloduy NPP and the national energy policy foresees construction of a further plant, Belene NPP. Further development of the nuclear option is dependent on the assurance of both fresh nuclear fuel supply and long-term management of spent fuel and high level waste. Because of the technical and economic challenges involved, international co-operation (bilateral and multilateral) in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle is a strategic issue of prime importance. This approach is very politically and socially sensitive at home and abroad and requires international consensus on the legal framework. For Bulgaria, as a producer of nuclear energy which relies on imported fresh nuclear fuel, an option of major interest is to seek a final solution for dealing with spent fuel in co-operation with the supplier of fresh fuel, i.e. Russia at present. But Bulgaria does not address only this option. In parallel, Kozloduy NPP is an organizational member of the international association ARIUS, established in 2002 in Baden, Switzerland. Thus the country also directly supports the mission of Arius, namely the promotion of concepts for safe, secure, economic and politically and socially acceptable regional and international storage and disposal of spent fuel and HLW. Bulgaria also participates directly in the SAPIERR project that was initiated by Arius under the 6 Framework Programme of the European Commission in order to study the concept of regional repositories to be shared by European partners. The range of Bulgarian waste management activities - including practical issues at the power plants, national studies on waste treatment, and involvement in the bilateral and multinational approaches described above - ensures that the country continues to maintain the necessary technical

  20. Harmonization between a Framework of Multilateral Approaches to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities and Bilateral Nuclear Cooperation Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of primary challenges for ensuring effective and efficient functions of the multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities is harmonization between a MNA framework and existing nuclear cooperation agreements (NCA. A method to achieve such harmonization is to construct a MNA framework with robust non-proliferation characteristics, in order to obtain supplier states’, especially the US’s prior consents for non-supplier states’ certain activities including spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium storages and retransfers of plutonium originated in NCAs. Such robust characteristics can be accomplished by MNA member states’ compliances with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Safeguards, regional safeguards agreements, international conventions, guidelines and recommendations on nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear security, safety, and export control. Those provisions are to be incorporated into an MNA founding agreement, as requirements to be MNA members in relation to NCAs. Furthermore, if an MNA facility is, (1 owned and operated jointly by all MNA member states, (2 able to conclude bilateral NCAs with non-MNA/supplier states as a single legal entity representing its all member states like an international organization, and (3 able to obtain necessary prior consents, stable, smooth, and timely supplies of nuclear fuel and services can be assured among MNA member states. In this paper, the authors will set out a general MNA framework and then apply it to a specific example of Europe Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM and then consider its applicability to the Asian region, where an establishment of an MNA framework is expected to be explored.

  1. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  2. Benefit from the Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Profijt van de overheid. Income levels are determined to a considerable extent by the government, which exerts an influence through social security and taxation. The traditional purchasing power tables are a reflection of this. However, the influence of the government goes

  3. Using IT Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  4. 21st Century Security Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian ARION

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers thah have government backgroud, or IT security backgroud, or are promoted from organization’s inside leaders. There are six different areas of knowledge that successful security programs of the future must incorporate, either in the knowledge base of their leaders or in the collective knowledge of the leading staff. They are government elements, security organization, emerging issue awareness, IT security, business elements and executive leadership.

  5. INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY (CYBER SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Siddique Ansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Business Organizations and Government unequivocally relies on upon data to deal with their business operations. The most unfavorable impact on association is disappointment of friendship, goodness, trustworthiness, legitimacy and probability of data and administrations. There is an approach to ensure data and to deal with the IT framework's Security inside association. Each time the new innovation is made, it presents some new difficulties for the insurance of information and data. To secure the information and data in association is imperative on the grounds that association nowadays inside and remotely joined with systems of IT frameworks. IT structures are inclined to dissatisfaction and security infringement because of slips and vulnerabilities. These slips and vulnerabilities can be brought on by different variables, for example, quickly creating headway, human slip, poor key particulars, poor movement schedules or censuring the threat. Likewise, framework changes, new deserts and new strikes are a huge piece of the time displayed, which helpers augmented vulnerabilities, disappointments and security infringement all through the IT structure life cycle. The business went to the confirmation that it is essentially difficult to ensure a slip free, risk free and secure IT structure in perspective of the disfigurement of the disavowing security parts, human pass or oversight, and part or supplies frustration. Totally secure IT frameworks don't exist; just those in which the holders may have changing degrees of certainty that security needs of a framework are fulfilled do. The key viewpoints identified with security of data outlining are examined in this paper. From the start, the paper recommends pertinent legitimate structure and their duties including open association obligation, and afterward it returns to present and future time, system limits, structure security in business division. At long last, two key inadequacy markers

  6. Analysis of Location Ambiguity, GDOP and Station Layout of Threestation in Multilateration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practice, the two-dimensional TDOA source location in the case of three stations would encounter the ambiguity problem of dual solutions. The relationship between distributions of location curve intersections, GDOP and receiving station layout is numerically analyzed, namely the distributions of location curve intersections and GDOP are determined by the receiving station layout, and the areas of two curve intersections are consistent with these of larger GDOP. These analysis results could serve as reference for avoiding or dealing with the ambiguity problem when multilateration is in application.

  7. Non proliferation and disarmament: chronology of the multilateral force (1960-1965) - Historical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    The Multilateral Force (MLF) is a US project of the mid 1950's for the development of NATO integrated strategic force. The author proposes a brief history of this project which emerged at the end of 1960, and was finally given up at the end of 1965 for various reasons. The author indicates the different events and facts related to this project or occurring at these moments. He distinguishes three main periods: a period of propositions (1960-1962), a political phase (1963-1964), and the abandonment phase of the project. In a last part, the author discusses the relationships between MLF, proliferation and disarmament

  8. Transfer of technology to developing countries: unilateral and multilateral policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockman, B.M.; Maskus, K.E.; Saggi, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes national and international policy options to encourage the international transfer of technology, distinguishing between four major channels of such transfer: trade in products, trade in knowledge and technology, foreign direct investment, and intranational and international movement of people. A typology of countries and appropriate policy rules of thumb are developed as a guide to both national policymakers and multilateral rule making in the WTO. We argue that the optimal policy mix varies across countries and that there is a need for differentiation in the design and application of rules in trade agreements as well as for a more explicit focus on evaluation of the impacts of policies. (author)

  9. Coordination of International Risk-Reduction Investigations by the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bogomolov, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of the unique capabilities of the International Space Station (ISS) for risk reduction on future deep space missions involves preliminary work in analog environments to identify and evaluate the most promising techniques, interventions and treatments. This entails a consolidated multinational approach to biomedical research both on ISS and in ground analogs. The Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) was chartered by the five ISS partners to recommend the best combination of partner investigations on ISS for risk reduction in the relatively short time available for ISS utilization. MHRPE will also make recommendations to funding agencies for appropriate preparatory analog work. In 2011, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Science, acting for MHRPE, developed a joint US-Russian biomedical program for the 2015 one-year ISS mission (1YM) of American and Russian crewmembers. This was to evaluate the possibilities for multilateral research on ISS. An overlapping list of 16 HRP, 9 IBMP, 3 Japanese, 3 European and 1 Canadian investigations were selected to address risk-reduction goals in 7 categories: Functional Performance, Behavioral Health, Visual Impairment, Metabolism, Physical Capacity, Microbial and Human Factors. MHRPE intends to build on this bilateral foundation to recommend more fully-integrated multilateral investigations on future ISS missions commencing after the 1YM. MHRPE has also endorsed an on-going program of coordinated research on 6-month, one-year and 6-week missions ISS expeditions that is now under consideration by ISS managers. Preparatory work for these missions will require coordinated and collaborative campaigns especially in the psychological and psychosocial areas using analog isolation facilities in Houston, Köln and Moscow, and possibly elsewhere. The multilateral Human Analogs research working group (HANA) is the focal point of those

  10. Transcending Rationalism and Constructivism: Chinese Leaders’ Operational Codes, Socialization Processes, and Multilateralism after the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2015-01-01

    ’ argument to explain China’s pro-multilateralist diplomacy after the Cold War. Using operational code analysis to examine belief changes across three generations of Chinese leadership and on different occasions, we argue that China’s pro-multilateralist behavior is a product of ‘superficial socialization......This paper challenges both rationalist and constructivist approaches in explaining China’s foreign policy behavior toward multilateral institutions after the Cold War. Borrowing insights from socialization theory and operational code analysis, this paper suggests a ‘superficial socialization...

  11. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The first review meeting of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management resulted in the assembly of the most comprehensive information yet available on the status of these ones in the world. The review process has prompted improvements in others. The discussions in the two week meeting addressed all of the important issues confronting countries in managing spent fuel and radioactive waste safely. It revealed areas for improvement at both the national and international levels. he joint convention review process is designed principally for the review of the National reports of contracting parties. However, there are also global issues in the area of spent fuel and radioactive waste management and issues of special interest, to groups of countries to consider. The future development of the convention may therefore have to include suitable additional mechanisms to allow these aspects to be addressed. (N.C.)

  12. County and Parish Boundaries - COUNTY_GOVERNMENT_BOUNDARIES_IDHS_IN: Governmental Boundaries Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Polygon feature class)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_GOVERNMENT_BOUNDARIES_IDHS_IN is a polygon feature class that contains governmental boundaries maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  13. Medical Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Figg, Ph.D.; Hwee Joo Kam, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Modern medicine is facing a complex environment, not from medical technology but rather government regulations and information vulnerability. HIPPA is the government’s attempt to protect patient’s information yet this only addresses traditional record handling. The main threat is from the evolving security issues. Many medical offices and facilities have multiple areas of information security concerns. Physical security is often weak, office personnel are not always aware of security needs an...

  14. Organization and Management of the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The Integrated Medical Group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial fourteen long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  15. The weight of «tradition» in multilateral commercial negotiations. The argentinian case during the Doha Round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Zelicovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the impact of ‘tradition’ as a variable inside the analyses of foreign policy. For that end, it considers a particular case, the participation of Argentina in multilateral commercial negotiations. The central argument signals that, for Argentina, the negotiating tradition has had an important role as a guidance in foreign policy actions regarding multilateral commercial negotiations, especially in the moments of crisis. In addition, that, within this tradition, the main variable in the configuration of Argentinian options has been the development strategy.

  16. A Study on the cooperation policy in multilateral nuclear control regimes and the advancing of national export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, J. S.

    2004-08-01

    This study carried out the analysis of trends of the multilateral nuclear control in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the past trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international nuclear export control regime and the physical protection of nuclear materials. Second, this study establishes the multilateral cooperation strategies for the effective cooperation in the process of strengthening the nuclear control regimes. Third, this study reviews the major agenda of nuclear control regimes and establishes national positions on each agenda. Fourth, this study also analyzes outstanding issues in nuclear control regimes and derives some factors to reflect national nuclear control system

  17. Prepublication Review of Government Employee Speech: A Case Study of the Department of Defense and United States Air Force Security/Policy Review Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Michael L.

    Since 1957 the Department of Defense has subjected all forms of speech of U.S. military personnel meant for publication to prepublication review based on security and policy criteria. The historical development of the Defense Department's prepublication review program and its specific implementation by the U.S. Air Force lead to questions of First…

  18. Nuclear governance in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Dawood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an outlook of the regional relations concerning nuclear technology in Latin America. For that purpose, we initially discuss the historic relationship of the Latin American countries with the set of rules, norms, principles and organizations involved in nuclear governance. The article provides an analysis of the connection between the multilateral institutional framework and the bilateral arrangements aimed at curbing the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the region. The current state of nuclear cooperation among the countries of the region is also mapped. In addition, the article assesses the peaceful use of nuclear technology in the region and the potential expansion of the use of nuclear energy by the Latin American countries. Considerations on the trends for nuclear cooperation among the countries of Latin America are also offered.

  19. Communication dated 22 September 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of Germany to the Agency regarding the German proposal on a Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 22 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Germany, forwarding a paper outlining the German proposal on 'the Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project (MESP)'. As requested in the communication, the paper, entitled 'the Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project (MESP) - a Fresh Look at Ensuring Nuclear Fuel Supply' is circulated herewith for the information of Member States

  20. The nature of international health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ya-Wen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Su, Yi-Yuan; Huang, Ching-Yi; Chang, Ya-Chen; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    Health issues occasionally intersect security issues. Health security has been viewed as an essential part of human security. Policymakers and health professionals, however, do not share a common definition of health security. This article aims to characterize the notions of health security in order to clarify what constitutes the nexus of health and security. The concept of health security has evolved over time so that it encompasses many entities. Analyzing the health reports of four multilateral organizations (the United Nations, World Health Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the European Union) produced eight categories of most significant relevance to contemporary health security, allowing comparison of the definitions. The four categories are: emerging diseases; global infectious disease; deliberate release of chemical and biological materials; violence, conflict, and humanitarian emergencies. Two other categories of common concern are natural disasters and environmental change, as well as chemical and radioactive accidents. The final two categories, food insecurity and poverty, are discussed less frequently. Nevertheless, food security is emerging as an increasingly important issue in public health. Health security is the first line of defence against health emergencies. As globalization brings more complexities, dealing with the increased scale and extent of health security will require greater international effort and political support.

  1. A Primer on E-Government: Sectors, Stages, Opportunities, and Challenges of Online Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seifert, Jeffrey W

    2003-01-01

    ...), public access to government information, service delivery, and information security. E-government solutions are prominently represented in efforts to improve the management and efficiency of government information technology resources...

  2. The governance of complementary global regimes and the pursuit of human security : the interaction between the United Nations and the International Criminal Court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrone, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This study offers an overview of the challenges occurring in the emerging regime of international criminal justice as a tool of sustainable peace. It illustrates the impact of such regime in international law and international relations focusing on the obstacles and concerns of its governance in the

  3. Joint responsibility between the EU and Member States for non-performance of obligations under multilateral environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.; Morgera, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis and manifestations of joint responsibility between the European Union (EU) and its Member States for non-performance of obligations contained in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Joint responsibility has often been advanced as an attractive solution where

  4. Joint Responsibility between the EU and Member States for Non-Performance of Obligations under Multilateral Environmental Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis and manifestations of joint responsibility between the European Union (EU) and its Member States for non-performance of obligations contained in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Joint responsibility has often been advanced as an attractive solution where

  5. Proposing a sequential comparative analysis for assessing multilateral health agency transformation and sustainable capacity: exploring the advantages of institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2014-05-20

    This article proposes an approach to comparing and assessing the adaptive capacity of multilateral health agencies in meeting country and individual healthcare needs. Most studies comparing multilateral health agencies have failed to clearly propose a method for conducting agency comparisons. This study conducted a qualitative case study methodological approach, such that secondary and primary case study literature was used to conduct case study comparisons of multilateral health agencies. Through the proposed Sequential Comparative Analysis (SCA), the author found a more effective way to justify the selection of cases, compare and assess organizational transformative capacity, and to learn from agency success in policy sustainability processes. To more affectively understand and explain why some multilateral health agencies are more capable of adapting to country and individual healthcare needs, SCA provides a methodological approach that may help to better understand why these agencies are so different and what we can learn from successful reform processes. As funding challenges continue to hamper these agencies' adaptive capacity, learning from each other will become increasingly important.

  6. Investigation into the accuracy of a proposed laser diode based multilateration machine tool calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, S; Longstaff, A P; Myers, A

    2005-01-01

    Geometric and thermal calibration of CNC machine tools is required in modern machine shops with volumetric accuracy assessment becoming the standard machine tool qualification in many industries. Laser interferometry is a popular method of measuring the errors but this, and other alternatives, tend to be expensive, time consuming or both. This paper investigates the feasibility of using a laser diode based system that capitalises on the low cost nature of the diode to provide multiple laser sources for fast error measurement using multilateration. Laser diode module technology enables improved wavelength stability and spectral linewidth which are important factors for laser interferometry. With more than three laser sources, the set-up process can be greatly simplified while providing flexibility in the location of the laser sources improving the accuracy of the system

  7. Practitioners’ Views Promoting Infrastructure Investment: The G20 and the Multilateral Development Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Wurf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The G20 is committed to promoting infrastructure investment and has called on multilateral development banks (MDBs to increase their infrastructure lending to help boost global growth. Alongside long-standing MDBs such as the World Bank and Asian Development Bank (ADB, new MDBs such as the Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank (AIIB and the New Development Bank have been established, and G20 members would like both old and new multilateral banks to scale up their infrastructure investment by developing a pipeline of bankable projects. Even with all the MDBs investing more, they will not be able to satisfy the global need for infrastructure. What they can do, however, is start to fill the infrastructure gap by catalyzing private investment and cooperating on standards and regional infrastructure. Concerns have been raised about the geo-political implications of the new MDBs which underscore the need for MDB cooperation. There are challenges to and opportunities for this cooperation. The G20 needs to be clear about the role it can play in encouraging MDB cooperation and infrastructure investment, and must also be aware of the limitations on its role given that each MDB has its own mandate. Specifically, the G20 can downplay the perceived trade-off between efficiency and standards in the MDBs, encourage cooperation on new standards for sustainable or green infrastructure, invest in the Global Connectivity Alliance as a coordinating body for the MDBs and help align the G20 work on infrastructure with the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda

  8. Understanding the Roles of Non-State Actors in Global Governance: Evidence from the Global Partnership for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine

    2016-01-01

    The study detailed in this paper examines the growing role of non-state actors in the transnational policy-making landscape through a case study of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE)--a partnership of donor and developing country governments, multilateral organizations, civil society, private companies and foundations, dedicated to…

  9. The government of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2015-01-01

    . Subsequent research on biopolitics and governmentality has tended to separate the concepts, differentiating into distinct research traditions each with different intellectual pathways. We propose to bring these conceptual innovations together to understand contemporary problems of the government of life...... of death power, the interplay of sovereignty, discipline and security, governmentalization through medical normalization, and ‘securitization’ of life as circulations and open series. The article also introduces this special feature on the government of life in which significant scholars explores issues...

  10. Community Security and Justice under United Nations Governance: Lessons from Chiefs’ Courts in South Sudan’s Protection of Civilians Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ibreck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the public authority of chiefs’ courts within the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS Protection of Civilians Sites (PoCs. After December 2013, UNMISS peacekeepers opened the gates of their bases to around 200,000 civilians fleeing war. This unintentionally created a legal and political anomaly. Over time, conflicts and crimes rose within the sites, and UNMISS improvised a form of administration. But while the internationals sought technical solutions, people displaced within the sites turned to familiar ‘customary’ methods to manage problems of insecurity, establishing chiefs’ courts. The PoC sites became an arena of plural authorities, with chiefs working alongside camp administrators, peacekeepers and humanitarian actors. We explore how and why the chiefs responded to insecurity within the sites and whether they engaged with, or diverged from United Nations actors and international norms. We demonstrate that justice remains central to the provision of security in contexts of war and displacement. International peace interventions are rightly wary of ‘customary’ justice processes that prioritise communities and families at the expense of individual rights, but this unique case shows that they are sources of trust and consistency that are resilient, adaptable and can contribute to human security.

  11. Nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that despite an Executive Order limiting the authority to make original classification decisions to government officials, DOE has delegated this authority to a number of contractor employees. Although the number of original classification decisions made by these contractors is small, this neither negates nor diminishes the significance of the improper delegation of authority. If misclassification were to occur, particularly at the Top Secret level, U.S. national security interests could potentially be seriously affected and threatened. DOE's argument that the delegation of such authority is a long-standing policy and done on a selective basis does not legitimize the practice and does not relieve DOE of its responsibility to meet the requirements of the Executive Order. DOE needs to independently assess all original classification determinations made by contractors; otherwise, it cannot be sure that U.S. national security interests have been or are being adequately protected

  12. The emergence of Ebola as a global health security threat: From ′lessons learned′ to coordinated multilateral containment efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kalra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available First reported in remote villages of Africa in the 1970s, the Ebolavirus was originally believed to be transmitted to people from wild animals. Ebolavirus (EBOV causes a severe, frequently fatal hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. Each outbreak of the Ebolavirus over the last three decades has perpetuated fear and economic turmoil among the local and regional populations in Africa. Until now it has been considered a tragic malady confined largely to the isolated regions of the African continent, but it is no longer so. The frequency of outbreaks has increased since the 1970s. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa has been the most severe in history and was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Given the widespread use of modern transportation and global travel, the EBOV is now a risk to the entire Global Village, with intercontinental transmission only an airplane flight away. Clinically, symptoms typically appear after an incubation period of approximately 11 days. A flu-like syndrome can progress to full hemorrhagic fever with multiorgan failure, and frequently, death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of viral antigens or Ribonucleic acid (RNA in the blood or other body fluids. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. The treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Core interventions, including contact tracing, preventive initiatives, active surveillance, effective isolation and quarantine procedures, and timely response to patients, are essential for a successful outbreak control. These measures, combined with public health education, point-of-care diagnostics, promising new vaccine and pharmaceutical efforts, and coordinated efforts of the international community, give new hope to the Global effort to eliminate Ebola as a public health threat. Here we present a review of EBOV infection in an effort to further educate medical and political communities on what the Ebolavirus disease entails, and what efforts are recommended to treat, isolate, and eventually eliminate it.

  13. The Emergence of Ebola as a Global Health Security Threat: From ‘Lessons Learned’ to Coordinated Multilateral Containment Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sarathi; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Galwankar, Sagar C.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.; Arquilla, Bonnie; Hoey, Brian A.; Sharpe, Richard P.; Sabol, Donna; Jahre, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    First reported in remote villages of Africa in the 1970s, the Ebolavirus was originally believed to be transmitted to people from wild animals. Ebolavirus (EBOV) causes a severe, frequently fatal hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. Each outbreak of the Ebolavirus over the last three decades has perpetuated fear and economic turmoil among the local and regional populations in Africa. Until now it has been considered a tragic malady confined largely to the isolated regions of the African continent, but it is no longer so. The frequency of outbreaks has increased since the 1970s. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in Western Africa has been the most severe in history and was declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. Given the widespread use of modern transportation and global travel, the EBOV is now a risk to the entire Global Village, with intercontinental transmission only an airplane flight away. Clinically, symptoms typically appear after an incubation period of approximately 11 days. A flu-like syndrome can progress to full hemorrhagic fever with multiorgan failure, and frequently, death. Diagnosis is confirmed by detection of viral antigens or Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the blood or other body fluids. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. The treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Core interventions, including contact tracing, preventive initiatives, active surveillance, effective isolation and quarantine procedures, and timely response to patients, are essential for a successful outbreak control. These measures, combined with public health education, point-of-care diagnostics, promising new vaccine and pharmaceutical efforts, and coordinated efforts of the international community, give new hope to the Global effort to eliminate Ebola as a public health threat. Here we present a review of EBOV infection in an effort to further educate medical and political communities on what the Ebolavirus disease entails, and what efforts are recommended to treat, isolate, and eventually eliminate it. PMID:25538455

  14. Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for assistance in securing nuclear fuel for a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement among the Portuguese Republic, the Government of the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for Assistance in Securing Nuclear Fuel for a Research Reactor is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Agency's Board of Governors approved the above mentioned Agreement on 14 June 2006. The Agreement was signed by the authorized representatives of Portugal on 27 June 2006 and the United States on 13 December 2006, and by the Director General of the IAEA on 14 December 2006. Pursuant to the Article XII.1 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 19 April 2007, the date on which the Agency received written notification from Portugal that its internal requirements for entry into force had been met

  15. Corporations and the Uses of Law: International Investment Arbitration as a “Multilateral Legal Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Muchlinski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the claim, made by certain legal scholars, that international investment law, though based mainly on Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs is in fact a multilateral order that introduces principles of an emergent “global administrative law” into the regulation of state conduct in relation to foreign investors and their investments. Such scholars argue that this order develops through the decisions of investor-State arbitral tribunals which are creating a harmonised understanding of the meaning of BIT provisions and an institutional system of adjudication that furthers the development of global administrative principles. Through a critical examination of this approach the paper argues that this field is not a multilateral order but an unstructured process of privatised legal entrepreneurship which seeks to further a professional interest in developing an extensive, investor friendly, regime of BITs. Furthermore, that process fails as a means of providing effective or legitimate legal review of administrative action.  The argument is made both on a theoretical level and by a review of a specific issue in international investment law, namely, the development of  wider types of claims and the rise of so-called “treaty shopping” by means of corporate group structuring.  In particular the multi-jurisdictional location of various affiliates in a multinational enterprise creates a network of potential claimants in investor state disputes, giving rise to the risk of multiple claims, while the possibility of setting up affiliates in various jurisdictions creates opportunities for “treaty shopping”. “Treaty shopping” involves the enterprise locating an affiliate in a jurisdiction that has signed an investment protection treaty with the host country, allowing various affiliates and/or the parent in a group enterprise to benefit from treaty protection even though they possess the nationality of a state that has no

  16. What governs governance, and how does it evolve? The sociology of governance-in-action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nick J; Ward, Katie J

    2008-09-01

    Governance addresses a wide range of issues including social, economic and political continuity, security and integrity, individual and collective safety and the liberty and rights to self-actualization of citizens. Questions to be answered include how governance can be achieved and sustained within a social context imbued with cultural values and in which power is distributed unevenly and dynamically, and how governance impacts on individuals and institutions. Drawing on Gramscian notions of hegemony and consent, and recent political science literatures on regulation and meta-regulation, this paper develops a sociological model of governance that emphasizes a dynamic and responsive governance in action. Empirical data from a study of pharmaceutical governance is used to show how multiple institutions and actors are involved in sustaining effective governance. The model addresses issues of how governance is sustained in the face of change, why governance of practices varies from setting to setting, and how governance is achieved without legislation.

  17. Is a Breakthrough on Climate Change Governance on the Horizon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    The recently released Fifth Assessment report of the IPCC has highlighted again with unprecedented scope and insight the urgency of addressing climate change. The international community has pledged to devise the next international agreement on climate change by 2015, while the EU and in particular...... the Scandinavian countries have forged ahead advancing a variety of policies to respond to climate change. Similarly, regions, municipalities, and private actors across the world are also contributing to climate governance. This paper asks whether the world is reaching a tipping point where a breakthrough...... on climate change governance is near?. The answer is approached by contrasting the governance model within which the IPCC operates and the conditions of policy and governance interaction toward the more scientific foundations laid out by IPCC, with the range of multilateral climate governance...

  18. Multilateral approaches to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Expert Group Report submitted to the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the report of the independent Expert Group on Multilateral Approaches to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, commissioned by the Director General, is reproduced in this document for the information of Member States

  19. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  20. Bilateral and multilateral agreements and other arrangements in Europe and North America on the protection and use of transboundary waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The present document presents in a chronological order existing bilateral and multilateral legally binding agreements and other arrangements in Europe and North America on the protection and use of transboundary waters, which had been concluded by may 1992. These include agreements, treaties, conventions, protocols, orders and exchanges of notes. For each agreement the following information is given: title of the agreement, field of application, river basin, area of application, contracting parties, date of agreement and place of signature, joint body, and reference

  1. Unilateral vs. Multilateral Engagement: A Scenario-Based Approach to Guiding America’s Future Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    neglecting global issues , by 2025 most nations of the world had become fully integrated into regional associations such as the European Union...that could prevent international conflicts while confronting global issues , policymakers embraced multilateralism with two initiatives. The first...effective framework for addressing many critical global issues . Noting the insufficient empowerment of the UN, the US aimed to replace it with a new

  2. Multilateral trade liberalization and public goods provision in a North-South trade model with nonhomothetic preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Stibora, J.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2012-01-01

    Under nonhomothetic preferences developing countries are less likely to gain from multilateral trade liberalization than developed countries. This paper shows that this relative disadvantage for developing countries changes when the effects on public good provision are taken into account. The impact it has depends on the strength of their comparative advantage in export markets. We show that a strong (weak) comparative advantage in export markets mitigates (reinforces) the relative disadvanta...

  3. Multilateral haptics-based immersive teleoperation for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Daly, John

    2013-05-01

    Of great interest to police and military organizations is the development of effective improvised explosive device (IED) disposal (IEDD) technology to aid in activities such as mine field clearing, and bomb disposal. At the same time minimizing risk to personnel. This paper presents new results in the research and development of a next generation mobile immersive teleoperated explosive ordnance disposal system. This system incorporates elements of 3D vision, multilateral teleoperation for high transparency haptic feedback, immersive augmented reality operator control interfaces, and a realistic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) 3D simulation environment incorporating vehicle and manipulator dynamics for both operator training and algorithm development. In the past year, new algorithms have been developed to facilitate incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robotic hardware into the teleoperation system. In particular, a real-time numerical inverse position kinematics algorithm that can be applied to a wide range of manipulators has been implemented, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attitude stabilization system for manipulators has been developed and experimentally validated, and a voice­operated manipulator control system has been developed and integrated into the operator control station. The integration of these components into a vehicle simulation environment with half-car vehicle dynamics has also been successfully carried out. A physical half-car plant is currently being constructed for HIL integration with the simulation environment.

  4. Building a Simulated Environment for the Study of Multilateral Approaches to Nuclear Materials Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moul, R.; Persbo, A.; Keir, D.

    2015-01-01

    Verification research can be resource-intensive, particularly when it relies on practical or field exercises. These exercises can also involve substantial logistical preparations and are difficult to run in an iterative manner to produce data sets that can be later utilized in verification research. This paper presents the conceptual framework, methodology and preliminary findings from part of a multi-year research project, led by VERTIC. The multi-component simulated environment that we have generated, using existing computer models for nuclear reactors and other components of fuel cycles, can be used to investigate options for future multilateral nuclear verification, at a variety of locations and time points in a nuclear complex. We have constructed detailed fuel cycle simulations for two fictional, and very different, states. In addition to these mass-flow models, a 3-dimensional, avatarbased simulation of a nuclear facility is under development. We have also developed accompanying scenarios-that provide legal and procedural assumptions that will control the process of our fictional verification solutions. These tools have all been produced using open source information and software. While these tools are valuable for research purposes, they can also play an important role in support of training and education in the field of nuclear materials verification, in a variety of settings and circumstances. (author)

  5. The impact of further tariff reduction on the EU sugar sector in the forthcoming multilateral round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HUAN-NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper indicates the need for reform in the EU sugar sector due to the erosion of "border protection" in the view of further reduction in import tariffs for sugar. Three tariff reduction methods are assessed to project the "border protection" for EU sugar: Swiss formula proposed by the Cairns Group, "Harbinson" Proposal by the World Trade Organization and Uruguay Round formula proposed by the EU. In the assumed forthcoming multilateral round for agriculture, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by 67%, if the Cairns Group tariff reduction method is used. However, if the "Harbinson" method is used, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by at least 35%. On the contrary, the EU may avoid lowering the support price for sugar with three conditions occurring simultaneously: 1 the Uruguay Round formula is used as the reduction method in the assumed new WTO round and the EU can use the minimum reduction rate of 15% for sugar

  6. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  7. Digital government and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  8. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  9. The WTO Agreement on government procurement as a tool for Ukraine’s integration into the global value chains

    OpenAIRE

    GUZHVA IGOR

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the features of modern internationalization of production and economic relations among economic entities around the world based on the global value chains formation. The essence and the basic provisions of the multilateral WTO Agreement on Government Procurement as the integration tool of Ukraine’s industries into the global value chains are revealed. The Ukraine’s government procurement reforming progress towards the relevant WTO rules and regulations full implementati...

  10. Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  11. How to govern the cloud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Diamond, S.; Wainwright, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies economic governance theory to the cloud computing industry. We analyze which governance institution may be best suited to solve the problems stemming from asymmetric information about the true level of data protection, security, and accountability offered by cloud service

  12. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  13. The Extended Concept of Security and the Czech Security Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Stejskal; Antonín Rašek; Miloš Balabán

    2008-01-01

    According to the extended concept of security, the nation state is no longer the sole privileged reference object of security. The traditional model of national security is developing from military terms to a broader concept which embraces the international, economic, social, environmental, and human rights dimensions of security. The meaning and relevance of the concept is being extended “upwards”, to international organisations, and “downwards”, to regional and local authorities, non-govern...

  14. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  15. Security Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    What is a security dilemma? What are the consequences of security dilemmas in international politics?......What is a security dilemma? What are the consequences of security dilemmas in international politics?...

  16. Countering war or embracing peace? Dialogues between regionalism and multilateralism in Latin America (1945-1954

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreli Rocha, Alexandre L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Still an open debate, definitions about the beginning of the Cold War were even more ambiguous to actors at the time concerned with development and exit strategies for the Second World War. That was precisely the scenario to several Latin American leaders who, far from the Iron Curtain, were debating the rise of the UN system and of parliamentary diplomacy. Focusing on a multilateral strategy of action for the post-war international order, our work tries to put together the Pan-Latin, Pan-American and UN policies of Latin Americans since the Chapultepec Conference of February 1945 until the 1954 Conferences of Caracas, which fashioned the Organization of American States’ Cold War status, and of Madrid, which failed to consolidate the Latin Union.Todavía un debate en abierto en la historiografía, la definición sobre los marcos del principio de la Guerra Fría fue aún más ambigua para los actores involucrados en el conflicto bélico precedente y preocupados con el desarrollo y las salidas estratégicas posibles de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Esta fue la realidad para varios líderes latinoamericanos que, lejos de la Cortina de Hierro, quedaban mucho más preocupados con el surgimiento del sistema de las Naciones Unidas y la diplomacia parlamentaria. Centrándose sobre las estrategias multilaterales para la orden internacional de la posguerra, nuestro trabajo pretende analizar las políticas Pan-Latinas, Pan Americanas y para las Naciones Unidas de la América Latina desde la Conferencia de Chapultepec, en febrero de 1945, hasta las Conferencias de 1954 de Caracas, que consolidó la Organización de los Estados Americanos en un contexto de Guerra Fría, y de Madrid, que no logró consolidar la Unión Latina.

  17. Fulfilling environment related international commitments through implementation of multilateral environmental agreements (meas) in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Gillani, Z.A

    2014-01-01

    Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAS) help addresses the environmental problem being faced by the international community as a whole. The ultimate goal of reaching MEAs is to realize sustainable development across the globe. According to World Bank (2006), Pakistan's economy loses Rs.365 billion annually to environmental hazards. A key mechanism available under international law for countries to work together on global environmental issues is through MEAs. Pakistan is signatory to several MEAs and has acceded to other non-legally binding instruments, such as Agenda-21, Rio Principles and Johannesburg Plan of Implementation aiming at sustainable development of natural resources. As a party to various Conventions and Protocols, Pakistan has participating in different Conferences of Parties (COPs), Meetings of Parties (MOPs), and international consultative and technical meetings regarding MEAs organized by the United Nations and other international forum. Pakistan has been actively participating in and keeping liaison with institutional elements of each of these MEAs, i.e. COPs, the secretariat, advisory bodies, subsidiary bodies, clearing-house mechanisms, for effective decision making regarding the overall implementation and development of programme of work and strategic plans, budget and the revision of annexes to the treaties. Priorities and objectives of MEAs vary significantly from one international instrument to another while the common aspects include the sustainable development and use of natural resources and the protection of the environment in such a way as to ensure its judicious use. Based on different stages of implementation of these MEAs, the spectrum in priorities of Pakistan has quite broad. Pakistan attaches greater emphasis to crosscutting themes for MEAs that are primarily of a functional nature, such as strengthening of the capacities to meet the country's obligations or responsibilities under these agreements; enhancing coordination

  18. OECD/NEA multi-lateral cooperation in the area of structural integrity & aging management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breest, A. [Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Gott, K. [MATSAFE AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lydell, B. [SIGMA-PHASE Inc., Vail, AZ (United States); Riznic, J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Several OECD Member Countries have agreed to establish the OECD/NEA 'Component Operational Experience, Degradation & Ageing Programme' (CODAP) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to degradation and failure of metallic piping and non-piping metallic passive components in commercial nuclear power plants. The scope of the data collection includes service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall cracks, through-wall cracks with and without active leakage, and instances of significant degradation of metallic passive components, including piping pressure boundary integrity. The OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) acts as an umbrella committee of the Project. CODAP is the continuation of the 2002-2011 'OECD/NEA Pipe Failure Data Exchange Project' (OPDE) and the Stress Corrosion Cracking Working Group of the 2006-2010 'OECD/NEA SCC and Cable Ageing project' (SCAP). OPDE was formally launched in May 2002. Upon completion of the 3rd Term (May 2011), the OPDE project was officially closed to be succeeded by CODAP. SCAP was enabled by a voluntary contribution from Japan. It was formally launched in June 2006 and officially closed with an international workshop held in Tokyo in May 2010. Majority of the Member Organizations of the two projects were the same, often being represented by the same person. In May 2011, thirteen countries signed the CODAP 1st Term agreement (Canada, Chinese Taipei, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Korea (Republic of), Japan, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United States of America). The 1st Term (2011-2014) work plan includes the preparation of Topical Reports to foster technical cooperation and to deepen the understanding of national differences in ageing management. The Topical Reports constitute CODAP Event Database and Knowledge Base insights reports and as such act as portals for future in-depth studies of

  19. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  20. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... of governance. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for future work in adapting ST to the e-government context....

  1. Statistical security for Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts.

  2. ORDER SECURITY – NATIONAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION. NATIONAL SECURITY DEFENSE AS SPECIAL ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán BALLA

    2009-01-01

    National security administration is the special executivedisposal activity of the national security agencies, the section of the state administration that helps the governmental work by reconnoitering and preventing with secret-servicing methods of the risks that shall harm or endanger the national security’s interests. The main operational principles of national security governing are the followings among others: - controlling the operation of national security organization belongs to the ex...

  3. Special Reports; Homeland Security and Information Management; The Development of Electronic Government in the United States: The Federal Policy Experience; Digital Rights Management: Why Libraries Should Be Major Players; The Current State and Future Promise of Portal Applications; Recruitment and Retention: A Professional Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Harold C.; Halchin, L. Elaine; Hogue, Henry B.; Agnew, Grace; Martin, Mairead; Schottlaender, Brian E. C.; Jackson, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Theses five reports address five special issues: the effects of the September 11 attacks on information management, including homeland security, Web site information removal, scientific and technical information, and privacy concerns; federal policy for electronic government information; digital rights management and libraries; library Web portal…

  4. Private Security Contractors in Darfur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the role of Private Security Contractors in Darfur reflects and reinforces neo-liberal governmentality in contemporary security governance. It is an argument (in line with other articles in this special issue) which is more interested in discussing how the privatization....... It underlines that governance is increasingly taking place through a set of (quasi-) markets, it is marked by entrepreneurial values, and a hands off approach to governance. We then discuss the way this overall change is reflected in and reinforced by the role of private security contractors in Darfur. Drawing...... at these processes is necessary to understand the role of private security contractors in Darfur. But more than this, practices in Darfur entrench neo-liberal governmentality in security more generally. The managerial and `de-politicizing' approach to security in Darfur displaces alternative views not only...

  5. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  6. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  7. Biodiversity governance: a Tower of Babel of scales and cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Soberón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recently created Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES, originally focused on multilateral and global issues, is shifting its focus to address local issues and to include in its assessments local stakeholders and indigenous and traditional systems of knowledge. Acknowledging that full biodiversity governance is unavoidably rooted in participation of local actors and their problems and knowledge, we suggest that to deal successfully with the complexity and diversity of local issues, including indigenous knowledge systems, IPBES must recognize a key role of local institutions.

  8. Computer Security: Security operations at CERN (4/4)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Stefan Lueders, PhD, graduated from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich and joined CERN in 2002. Being initially developer of a common safety system used in all four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider, he gathered expertise in cyber-security issues of control systems. Consequently in 2004, he took over responsibilities in securing CERN's accelerator and infrastructure control systems against cyber-threats. Subsequently, he joined the CERN Computer Security Incident Response Team and is today heading this team as CERN's Computer Security Officer with the mandate to coordinate all aspects of CERN's computer security --- office computing security, computer centre security, GRID computing security and control system security --- whilst taking into account CERN's operational needs. Dr. Lueders has presented on these topics at many different occasions to international bodies, governments, and companies, and published several articles. With the prevalence of modern information technologies and...

  9. 7 CFR 4274.326 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 4274.326 Section 4274.326 Agriculture... (IRP) § 4274.326 Security. (a) Intermediaries. Security for all loans to intermediaries must be such... and the Government. (1) Security for such loans may include, but is not limited to: (i) Any realty...

  10. Overview of security culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulanya, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear Security culture concept has been aggressively promoted over the past several years as a tool to improve the physical protection of the nuclear and radioactive materials due to growing threats of catastrophic terrorism and other new security challenges. It is obvious that, the scope of nuclear security and the associated cultures need to be extended beyond the traditional task of protecting weapons-usable materials. The role of IAEA is to strengthen the nuclear security framework globally and in leading the coordination of international activities in this field. Therefore all governments should work closely with the IAEA to take stronger measures to ensure the physical protection, the safety and security of the nuclear and radioactive materials. In the effort to reflect this new realities and concerns, the IAEA in 2008 came up with the document, the Nuclear Security Culture, Nuclear Security Series No. 7, Implementing Guide to the member states which urged every member state to take appropriate measures to promote security culture with respect to nuclear and radioactive materials. The document depicted this cultural approach as the way to protect individual, society and the environment. Among other things, the document defined nuclear security culture as characteristics and attitudes in organizations and of individuals which establishes that, nuclear security issues receives attention warranted by their significance. (au)

  11. Airline Security and a Strategy for Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welch, Timothy J

    2006-01-01

    .... Obligated to secure the Homeland the United States Government scrambled to develop measures that would uphold societal values while providing an in-depth defense capable of ensuring a more secure society...

  12. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  13. Hybrid Security Arrangements in Africa: Exploring the Implications ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building. In the aftermath of war and conflict, state security forces and institutions are often severely weakened or decimated. When this happens, multiple state and non-state security actors and governance structures emerge to fill security vacuums.

  14. Determinants of Multilateral Official Development Assistance: Evidence from a Panel Study of Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hlavac, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are some of the poorest and least developed in the world, with deplorable health and education levels. One way intended to promote better living standards in this region has been through development aid. This study examines the determinants of multilateral aid inflows to sub-Saharan Africa to determine whether it is directed to the least developed countries. I use panel data about 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from the 1995-2004 period to estimate a regres...

  15. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains violent and unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, as well as growing sectarian violence...

  16. Research Award: Governance, Security, and Justice

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    and marginalized groups have difficulty claiming their right to live in a safe and prosperous environment. ... Applicants should clearly outline their qualifications for this position, and explain how this opportunity will advance their career goals.

  17. Security Forces of the Kurdistan Regional Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-26

    crisp uniforms. Those in the lower...ur o M em be r. G en er al S ta ff R eg io na l C om m an ds Fu nc tio na l C om m an ds P re si de nc y C ou nc il O pe ra tio ns (G 3) A dm in is...nc y C ou nc il O pe ra tio ns (G 3) A dm in is tra tio n/ Lo gi st ic s (G 1/ G 4) P es hm er ga M in is te r* Fi na nc e In sp ec to r G en er al

  18. Governance: The Mission Ingredient in Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    change the norms, behaviors, and beliefs within the Colombian political elites resulting in support for counter violence and anti-terrorism efforts... legislation . In all of the scholarly writing found on the matter, they relied—and many of them heavily—on reforming SC/SA through more legislative ...ADRP 5-0. “An operational environmental frame consists of two parts—the current state of the operational environment and the desired end state of the

  19. Security Governance on Ecuador's Northern Border | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Two new initiatives to support STEM careers for women. Women in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). View moreTwo new initiatives to support STEM careers for women ...

  20. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... At the same time, mounting U.S. casualties and financial costs stimulated debate within the United States over whether the initial goals of the intervention -- a stable, democratic Iraq that is a partner in the global war...

  1. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom overthrew Saddam Hussein's regime, but during 2004-2007 much of Iraq was wracked by violence caused by Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, resulting Sunni-Shiite...

  2. Security Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  3. Security, insecurity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, Robin

    2007-03-01

    An examination of the nexus of security, insecurity and health shows that security is a prerequisite for health. The many and varied ways that armed violence--including threats of armed violence--can affect people's health can be documented by formal studies; however, valuable data also exist in other reports, such as media reports. The health community needs to recognize that people's insecurity is a massive global health issue. The foreign policies of donor governments should incorporate recognition that documentation, analysis and publication of data describing the impact of insecurity on people's health can lead to the creation of policies to enhance people's security.

  4. Shipment security update - 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, John; Anne, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    At the 2002 RERTR, NAC reported on the interim measures taken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to enhance the security afforded to shipments of spent nuclear fuel. Since that time, there have been a number of additional actions focused on shipment security including training programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Electric Power Research Council, investigation by the Government Accounting Office, and individual measures taken by shippers and transportation agents. The paper will present a status update regarding this dynamic set of events and provide an objective assessment of the cost, schedule and technical implications of the changing security landscape. (author)

  5. Planning security for supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies von Buellesheim.

    1994-01-01

    The situation of the hardcoal mining industry is still difficult, however better than last year. Due to better economic trends in the steel industry, though on a lower level, sales in 1994 have stabilised. Stocks are being significantly reduced. As to the production, we have nearly reached a level which has been politically agreed upon in the long run. Due to the determined action of the coalmining companies, a joint action of management and labour, the strong pressure has been mitigated. On the energy policy sector essential targets have been achieved: First of all the ECSC decision on state aid which will be in force up to the year 2002 and which will contribute to accomplish the results of the 1991 Coal Round. Furthermore, the 1994 Act on ensuring combustion of hardcoal in electricity production up to the year 2005. The hardcoal mining industry is grateful to all political decision makers for the achievements. The industry demands, however, that all questions still left open, including the procurement of financial means after 1996, should be settled soon on the basis of the new act and in accordance with the 1991 Coal Round and the energy concept of the Federal Government. German hardcoal is an indispensable factor within a balanced energy mix which guarantees the security of our energy supply, the security of the price structure and the respect of the environment. (orig.) [de

  6. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen WAGENER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there are sufficiently differentiated success stories to test the hypothesis: it was good governance that is responsible for success and bad governance for failure. The empirical results support the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”: where freedom, security and trust prevail, the economy flourishes, where they are lacking, the costs of long-term investment are too high. The initial conditions of transition countries seem to be quite similar, nevertheless, even there one can discern good and bad governance. The extent of socialist lawfulness, planning security, cronyism and corruption differed widely between East Berlin and Tashkent. And a good deal of such variations can be found in the pre-socialist history of these countries. However, the main conclusion is that the co-evolution hypothesis states that both, welfare and good governance, go together.

  7. Energy security in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torosyan, Emil

    2009-09-01

    Yemen, situated in the Arab world, has considerable energy resources. However, its history of repeated revolts, civil wars and terrorism and also the presence of the Wahabi movement and al Qaeda in the country constitute security issues for the energy industry and its infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact level on the security of the energy sector in Yemen and the effect that the threats to that sector could have on global energy security. Analyses of the political environment, the security threats and the measures taken to respond to these threats have been carried out. Results showed that Yemen's resources are depleting and that the government is having trouble containing the escalation of conflicts; this situation could lead to Yemen's political collapse which could have an important impact on global energy security.

  8. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  9. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  10. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded…

  11. Legitimacy and the Cost of Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggren, Niclas; Bjørnskov, Christian; Lipka, David

    2015-01-01

    While previous research documents a negative relationship between government size and economic growth, suggesting an economic cost of big government, a given government size generally affects growth differently in different countries. As a possible explanation of this differential effect, we......, in which two different measures of the size of government are interacted with government legitimacy, reveals that perceived legitimacy exacerbates a negative growth effect of government size in the long run. This could be interpreted as governments taking advantage of being regarded as legitimate in order...... to secure short-term support at a long-term cost to the economy....

  12. Game based cyber security training: are serious games suitable for cyber security training?

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrix, Maurice; Al-Sherbaz, Ali; Victoria, Bloom

    2016-01-01

    Security research and training is attracting a lot of investment and interest from governments and the private sector. Most efforts have focused on physical security, while cyber security or digital security has been given less importance. With recent high-profile attacks it has become clear that training in cyber security is needed. Serious Games have the capability to be effective tools for public engagement and behavioural change and role play games, are already used by security profession...

  13. The impact of the multilateral approach to the nuclear fuel cycle in Malaysia's nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, B.; Ferdinand, P.

    2014-01-01

    Since the Pakistan-India nuclear weapon race, the North Korean nuclear test and the September 11 attack revealed Abdul Qadeer Khan's clandestine nuclear black market and the fear that Iran's nuclear program may be used for nuclear weapon development, scrutiny of activities related to nuclear technologies, especially technology transfer has become more stringent. The nuclear supplier group has initiated a multilateral nuclear fuel cycle regime with the purpose of guaranteeing nuclear fuel supply and at the same time preventing the spread of nuclear proliferation. Malaysia wants to develop a programme for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and it needs to accommodate itself to this policy. When considering developing a nuclear fuel cycle policy, the key elements that Malaysia needs to consider are the extent of the fuel cycle technologies that it intends to acquire and the costs (financial and political) of acquiring them. Therefore, this paper will examine how the multilateral approach to the nuclear fuel cycle may influence Malaysia's nuclear fuel cycle policy, without jeopardising the country's rights and sovereignty as stipulated under the NPT. (authors)

  14. German Foreign and Security Policy: Determinants of German Military Engagement in Africa Since 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    and in Bosnia- Herzegovina 2004 (EUFOR Althea as successor of SFOR). The affirmation of Germany’s unlimited “political and moral solidarity”165...and reliable multilateral partner. Relativizing the initially harsh domestic criticism aimed at the federal government due to Germany’s isolation...the UNSC and the support of the Arab League, the political, legal, and moral preconditions for a German military engagement in Libya were even more

  15. Interoperability, Enterprise Architectures, and IT Governance in Government

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl , Hans ,; Kubicek , Herbert; Cimander , Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Part 4: Architecture, Security and Interoperability; International audience; Government represents a unique, and also uniquely complex, environment for interoperation of information systems as well as for integration of workflows and processes across governmental levels and branches. While private-sector organizations by and large have the capacity to implement “enterprise architectures” in a relatively straightforward fashion, for notable reasons governments do not enjoy such luxury. For thi...

  16. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Warren, Drake Edward; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Passell, Howard D.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Backus, George A.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  17. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  18. Governance or Governing – the Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Maria Crăciun

    2010-07-01

    , of giving a sense of responsibility to the public and private sectors, of imposing, observing and materializing a real commitment for preventing and fighting corruption, the risk of which may be a threat to national security. Human governance creates a favorable environment for human development and elimination of poverty. If the preoccupations of the governance institutions are centered on the interests, needs, and fundamental rights of the population, progress may be achieved in the fight against poverty. If a country tries to apply economic policies in order to promote a beneficial increase to the poor ones, along with programs meant to help reach the targeted goals, the effects may be attenuated or annulled, when the governance institutions are ineffective or passive. The conclusion is that the governance is the missing link between the efforts of struggle against poverty and reaching the objective of poverty reduction.

  19. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  20. Waste governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available of governance in Africa. The next section focuses on regulation, and the status of the regulatory frameworks in different African countries. Shortcomings in the regulatory framework are highlighted through examples in various countries. Specific policy...

  1. Claims Handling Co-operation between Nuclear Insurance Pools in a Case of Transboundary Damage - Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements in Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaruba, P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper is a short progress report on matters concerning the core reason for insurance of nuclear third party liability - registration, handling, organizing and settling of claims in case of a major nuclear incident, underlining claims handling co-operation between national nuclear insurance pools when damage to health or property becomes international. The contents of this paper is in close relation to information provided on this subject during the 6th International Conference in 2006. Commercial insurance companies have gained extensive experience with handling large scale claims (e.g. after floods and other natural disasters) and are capable in gathering and organizing a high number of professional loss surveyors and adjusters in a very short period of time. In case of nuclear insurance pools co-operation between members (commercial insurance companies) is an added value and can be used practically all over the country bringing into action the network of branches and offices of all the pool members. This advantage is also used in case of cross border claims when it is necessary to gather information and claims advises from a large number of subjects and from many countries, sometimes very far apart. The international network of nuclear insurance pools is an ideal tool for this task and can be mobilized practically at once. Operators of nuclear installations, especially nuclear power plants, do not have the possibility to put aside hundreds of workers to handle claims and are also usually not sufficiently equipped with the necessary know-how. The same goes for governments and government agencies which in many countries guarantee the payments of claims to victims. National nuclear insurance pools are on the other hand well equipped for this task which usually has to be in place for many years after a nuclear incident. Multilateral and bilateral agreements between national nuclear insurance pools and other institutions should be prepared and signed before any

  2. Financial security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.; Burgess, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    1. Introduction J. Peter Burgess Part 1: New Security Concepts 2. Civilizational Security Brett Bowden 3. Risk Oliver Kessler 4. Small Arms Keith Krause 5. Critical Human Security Taylor Owen 6. Critical Geopolitics Simon Dalby Part 2: New Security Subjects 7. Biopolitics Michael Dillon 8. Gendered

  3. Cyber security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Cyber Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to cyber security metrics and measure  and related technologies that meet security needs. Specific applications to web services, the banking and the finance sector, and industrial process control systems are discussed.

  4. Multilateral wells drilling technology implementation in the Castilla Field - Colombia, to improve Guadalupe reservoirs drainage: Castilla 32, 33, and 34 ML wells cases study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florez, Alberto; Mercado, Orlando; Rodriguez, Sandra; Rojas, Ricardo; Naranjo, Carlos A. [ECOPETROL, Bogota (Colombia); Velez, Jorge [Halliburton Latin-America, Santa Fe de Bogota (Colombia)

    2008-07-01

    National Colombian Petroleum Company - ECOPETROL, is in the process of evaluating different technologies to increase production and improve recovery factors in their mature oil and gas fields. As part of that process, a multidisciplinary team evaluated the feasibility of multilateral well technology implementation in some of their mature fields that are currently in the late-development phase. Castilla field, located in the eastern planes of Colombia, was selected as the first option for multilateral technology implementation based in reservoir features, type of oil, and field antecedents. This paper presents the process used to conceptualize the optimum multilateral well design for Castilla field, integrating all of the geological and engineering disciplines. Geology: geological model visualization, target zones definition, pay zones lateral continuity, petrophysical properties, and fluids distribution were evaluated to select the areas to drill with advanced architecture well design. Reservoir: basic reservoir performance simulation was performed to evaluate productivity with horizontal and multilateral wells, and the difference in final reserves recovery compared with current conventional directional wells. Water production and coning problems were identified as key factors to define the multilateral well implementation in this field. Drilling: trajectory design, multilateral junction depth definition and TAML level selection, casing point's definition, drilling time and AFE estimation were the technical aspects evaluated during the planning phase to determine if the technology would be feasible. A comparison with conventional pad design was conducted to validate economic value. Multilateral TAML level 4 system selection flow process is presented applying oil industry best practices. Completion: The optimum lateral completion and production assembly design were main concerns during the planning process. Slotted liners, screens, and open-hole completion

  5. Security systems engineering overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.)

  6. Security systems engineering overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Basil J.

    1997-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at 70 billion dollars in direct costs and up to 300 billion dollars in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses 100 billion dollars. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled 3 billion dollars in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies; industrial espionage detection and prevention; security barrier technology.

  7. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  8. 17 CFR 403.2 - Hypothecation of customer securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hypothecation of customer... UNDER SECTION 15C OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 PROTECTION OF CUSTOMER SECURITIES AND BALANCES § 403.2 Hypothecation of customer securities. Every registered government securities broker or dealer...

  9. Security negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović, Miroslav M.; Ivaniš, Željko

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary security challenges, risks and threats represent a resultant of the achieved level of interaction between various entities within the paradigm of global security relations. Asymmetry and nonlinearity are main features of contemporary challenges in the field of global security. Negotiation in the area of security, namely the security negotiation, thus goes beyond just the domain of negotiation in conflicts and takes into consideration particularly asymmetric forms of possible sour...

  10. Energy supply security in Europe: principles and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    After having recalled a dozen of reasons for some worries about energy supply security in Europe during the past months (oil price increase, intentional interruption of gas and oil deliveries by Russia respectively to Ukraine and Belarus, creation of a new CO 2 trading scheme, tensions on the European electricity markets, and so on), the author distinguishes and discusses those which are actually a threat to energy supply and those which are not. Then, he proposes a classification of these threats in relationship with the reasons for delivery interruption, production capacity limitation, or price increase. These reasons can be political situations and decisions, technical problems, commercial reasons. Then, the author examines what European policy makers can do to manage these risks and ensure energy supply security. This needs economic as well as political responses, coherence between domestic energy policies and energy supply security, and an efficient foreign policy based on a multilateral approach

  11. Are multilateral malaria research and control programs the most successful? Lessons from the past 100 years in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alilio, Martin S; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Breman, Joel G

    2004-08-01

    Multilateral malaria research and control programs in Africa have regained prominence recently as bilateral assistance has diminished. The transnational nature of the threat and the need for inspired leadership, good coordination, and new discoveries to decrease the impact of the disease has led to the founding of the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria, the Roll Back Malaria Project, Global Fund for HIV, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund), the Medicines for Malaria Venture, and the Malaria Vaccine Initiative, among other groups. Historically, the most striking feature of malaria control and elimination activities was the connectedness and balance between malaria research and control especially, from 1892 to 1949. A combination of scientific originality, perseverance in research, integrated approaches, and social concern were the keys for success. The elimination of Anopheles gambiae from Upper Egypt in 1942 using integrated vector control methods is a prime example of malaria control during the first half of the 20th century where those factors were brought together. After 1949, there were three decades of great optimism. Four notable landmarks characterized this period: the Kampala Conference in 1950; the Global Malaria Eradication Program beginning in 1955; the primary health care strategies adopted by most African States after attaining their political independence in the 1960s, and accelerating in the 1980s; and creation of the Special Program in Training and Research in Tropical Diseases at the World Health Organization in 1975. The initial highly encouraging operational results, largely obtained in temperate or subtropical areas where transmission was unstable, engendered undue expectations for the success of identical antimalarial measures elsewhere. Many were convinced that the eradication was in sight, such that support for malaria research virtually ceased. Young, bright scientists were discouraged from seeking a career in a discipline that appeared

  12. The Challenges for the Multilateral Trading System Raised by the Ongoing Structural Transformations in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, international trade has been growing faster than global production, steadily increasing interdependence among nations. Sustained trade growth has been accompanied by profound changes in the patterns of trade flows, reflecting new production structures emerging under the impact of rapid progress in the development of transport, communications and information technologies, major shifts in the patterns of demand, rapid expansion of global production networks, and increasing integration of developing countries into the world economy. While global trade relations experienced a dramatic transformation during the last decade, the multilateral trading system and the WTO – the venue for international trade cooperation – failed to keep pace with the rapidly changing trade environment. Consequently, the world trade rule-book that is currently guiding international trade relations as a result of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994 and the creation of the WTO (in 1995 is stuck in the requirements of 20st century trade. Improving and adjusting multilateral trade rules and disciplines ranked among the main objectives of the Doha Round launched in 2001. However, trade negotiations have been stalled since 2008. And with this impasse, the legislative function of the WTO responsible for the elaboration of new rules has been also blocked, hindering thus the process of adjustment. This paper addresses the main challenges confrunting the multilateral trading system both in the long and short-term in its endeavour to adjust to the new realities of 21st century trade. More specifically, it takes a look at the key problems arising for international cooperation in trade from: (1 the continually shifting weight of economic power and influence within the world economy; (2 the dynamic spread of global production networks operated by TNCs; and (3 the explosion of regionalism and preferential trade agreements. Finally, the paper highlights the vital

  13. Challenges to multilateral disarmament in the post-cold-war and post-Gulf-war period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In May 1991, the United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs organized a conference in Kyoto which provided nearly a hundred participants with a unique opportunity to examine the challenges facing the world today, and to explore a possible common course of action that could be taken by the international community. Among other issues, the Conference focused its attention on global security and disarmament in reference to regional approaches; proliferation of weapons systems; and problems arising from the implementation of disarmament measures. Deliberations at the Kyoto Conference reveal a remarkable convergence of views among the participants that security is mutually interdependent as well as multi-dimensional, and that it cannot be achieved through the excessive accumulation of armaments

  14. Global Governance Mechanisms to Address Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padiyara, Ponnu; Inoue, Hajime; Sprenger, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Since their discovery, antibiotics, and more broadly, antimicrobials, have been a cornerstone of modern medicine. But the overuse and misuse of these drugs have led to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, which occurs when bacteria adapt in ways that render antibiotics ineffective. A world without effective antibiotics can have drastic impacts on population health, global development, and the global economy. As a global common good, antibiotic effectiveness is vulnerable to the tragedy of the commons, where a shared limited resource is overused by a community when each individual exploits the finite resource for their own benefit. A borderless threat like antimicrobial resistance requires global governance mechanisms to mitigate its emergence and spread, and it is the responsibility of all countries and relevant multilateral organizations. These mechanisms can be in the form of legally binding global governance mechanisms such as treaties and regulatory standards or nonbinding mechanisms such as political declarations, resolutions, or guidelines. In this article, we argue that while both are effective methods, the strong, swift, and coordinated action needed to address rising rates of antimicrobial resistance will be better served through legally binding governance mechanisms.

  15. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  17. The Multilateral Disarmament Process. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (16th, Warwick, Bermuda, June 21-26, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    This is a report of a conference held in Bermuda in 1981 to discuss a multilateral approach to disarmament. The conference was an informal, off-the-record exchange of ideas and opinions among 24 diplomats and scholars from 18 countries and two international agencies. Participants considered current disarmament concepts, assessed UN disarmament…

  18. Communication received from the Resident Representative of Germany to the IAEA with regard to the German proposal on the multilateralization of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agency has received a communication dated 26 April 2007 from the Resident Representative of Germany, attaching the German proposal on the Multilateralization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. As requested in that communication, the proposal is herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  19. Legal Forms of Negotiated Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) Outcomes – Perspectives onTrade Integration and an Incrementalist Approach to Quasi-Multilateralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thystrup, Amalie Giødesen

    2016-01-01

    This summer saw some of the key emerging economies change their position on services negotiations at the WTO and may prove instrumental in bringing services back to the WTO, via TiSA. While TiSA parties have discussed critical mass based multilateralization for a while, another approach may prove...

  20. Communication received from the Federal Minister for European and International Affairs of Austria with regard to the Austrian proposal on the multilateralization of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agency has received a communication dated 10 May 2007 from the Federal Minister for European and International Affairs of the Republic of Austria, attaching a paper on the Multilateralization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. As requested in that communication, the paper is herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  1. Security Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    systematic study of security expertise and opens up a productive dialogue between science and technology studies and security studies to investigate the character and consequences of this expertise. In security theory, the study of expertise is crucial to understanding whose knowledge informs security making......This volume brings together scholars from different fields to explore the power, consequences and everyday practices of security expertise. Expertise mediates between different forms of knowledge: scientific and technological, legal, economic and political knowledge. This book offers the first...... and to reflect on the impact and responsibility of security analysis. In science and technology studies, the study of security politics adds a challenging new case to the agenda of research on expertise and policy. The contributors investigate cases such as academic security studies, security think tanks...

  2. Tax Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...

  3. The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS—Some Thoughts on Complexity and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleist David

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (MLI, which was signed in June 2017, raises a multitude of questions relating not only to the text of the treaty provisions but also to the way the MLI will interact with tax treaties, for instance, and what it will mean for the future development of tax treaty law and international cooperation in tax matters. This article focuses on two aspects of the MLI. First, it deals with the substance of the MLI by providing an overview of its background and content, including the many options available to the contracting states under the MLI. Second, some thoughts are presented on the effects of the MLI in terms of complexity and uncertainty.

  4. Confidence- and security-building in North-East Asia. Working group I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the discussions in Working Group I there were two general preoccupations which prevailed throughout the consideration of questions relating to North-East Asian confidence and security building: how much could North-East Asia learn from the European experience in Confidence Building measures, and could any of the underlying factors- economic, political and social which has moved Europe towards military and security accommodation be seen to work also in the Asia-Pacific region. The problem of North Korea is underlined in view of non acceptance of the IAEA safeguards regime although it had entered into multilateral set of obligations with other signatories by assenting the Non-proliferation Treaty

  5. World governance for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerebel, C.; Keppler, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    As energy is a strategic stake for industrial societies through supply security, economical competitiveness and environmental performance, it is well-founded and useful to consider the way that energy production and consumption are organized. This document introduces the notion of energy governance and its different interpretations, then analyses its stakes and challenges (petroleum, natural gas, investment needs), and discusses some of the debates already in progress, such as the UNO's negotiations on greenhouse gas emission reduction or the impact of the WTO talks on energy exchanges

  6. American National Government: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaiser, Frederick M

    2003-01-01

    ...; judicial independence; institutional supports; checks and balances and shared responsibilities in terms of lawmaking, national security policy, executive and judicial appointments, and criminal investigations; and the Federal Government's dispersed and decentralized organization. This report, which examines these characteristics, will be updated as developments require.

  7. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...

  8. Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance ... benefits the poor, more effective social and environmental policies, and respect for human ... Who should claim responsibility for local crime prevention and security?

  9. International peace and security. Rome, 5 July 2003. Di Vittorio Foundation Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Until the end of the Cold War, a bipolar world maintained international security through a combined system of alliances, spheres of influence, global and regional multilateral institutions - including the United Nations - and ultimately a balance of power through nuclear deterrence. With the disintegration of the Soviet empire, however, a uni-polar world has emerged that has dramatically changed the landscape of international security, with the disappearance of the Cold War rivalries and many of the associated old alliances and spheres of influence. But while in the immediate aftermath of the Cold War many preached the advent of a new world order - and expressed hope of a new paradigm of security that would be rooted in the UN system of collective security - these hopes have not materialized and that new order has not emerged. But with all the changes in the international landscape since the end of the Cold War, nuclear weapons have ironically continued to hold a position of prominence as the currency of ultimate power. With the new threats and new strategic thinking, it is not surprising that the objectives embodied in the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), developed in the early seventies to control the further spread of nuclear weapons and to move towards nuclear disarmament, are under growing stress. Nearly 30 000 nuclear weapons continue to exist in the five nuclear weapon States (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States). And of the three countries that remain outside the NPT, two - India and Pakistan - have in recent years demonstrated their nuclear weapons capability, while the third - Israel - is generally presumed to have them. Most recently North Korea, a party to the NPT, has decided to renounce the Treaty, and is suspected of working to acquire nuclear weapons. And in the aftermath of the events of September 2001, as I have already noted, the proliferation threat gained a new dimension: the prospect of

  10. Security Components of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contribution in assessing the implications of this phenomenon on the regional and global security. The results of our research are materialized in the last part of the paper. They emphasize the personal assessments on how the phenomenon of globalization has direct effect on global security. When talking about government, we think of norms, rules and decisionmaking procedures in the management of international life. The value that we add to the new scientific interpretation of the definition of globalization is represented, primarily, by the valuable bibliographic used resources and the original approach on the concept that refers to the links between globalization and security. This article may be, at any time, a starting point in an interesting research direction in the field of global security.

  11. Applicable Law on Demobilized and Dematerialized Securities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Saghir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Wael Saghir examines the priority in the business and financial worlds for companies to pursue reduced transaction costs, creating a trend towards demobilization or dematerialization of securities. His paper explains the nature of securities and the governing laws needed to resolve problems of conflict of law rules related to securities.

  12. Enhancing Food Security through Information and Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... national food security, and prior approval of the government's National Food Security and Nutrition Policy 2006-2015. In alignment with these governmental commitments, this project will enable researchers to provide policymakers with practical and sustainable solutions that directly respond to national food security goals ...

  13. 76 FR 4079 - Information Technology (IT) Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Security, consistent with Federal policies for the security of unclassified information and information... Certification Program, and provide a Web site link within a contract clause to a library where contractors can... Security should be addressed through government-wide policies, standards, and requirements. NASA response...

  14. Experience of executing security measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hiromasa

    1995-01-01

    Japan possesses many nuclear power stations and atomic energy research and development facilities, and obtained much experience of security measures such as the inspection by the government and IAEA, the technical development and so on in respective facilities. In this report, the activities of security measures in Japan are introduced, centering around the experience of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Japan ratified the nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) in 1976, and concluded the agreement with IAEA in 1977. It is called security measures to technically confirm that nuclear substances are not used for nuclear weapons, and to find early and prevent the production of nuclear weapons. The security measures consist of the quantity management by the balance of nuclear substances are the inspection by the government and IAEA. The present state of security measures in centrifugal uranium enrichment plants, the fabrication factories of low enriched uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, and plutonium fuel factories is reported. The amount of inspection works of the government was 1861 man-day/year in 1993. As the subjects related to security measures of hereafter, the quantity management by respective facilities, the technology of verifying the measurement by inspectors, the points of beginning and finishing security measures, the security measures of hereafter and the international cooperation are described. (K.I.)

  15. Global Governance: Old and New Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Clyde Hufbauer

    2008-01-01

    This paper opens with a short recollection of the Kiel Week Conference of 2002, recorded in a volume edited by Horst Siebert, titled Global Governance: An Architecture for the World Economy. Assess-ments and forecasts made at that time are scored against subsequent developments. Security relations between the great powers are asserted to define the space for global economic governance. Over the next thirty years, the security context is not likely to provide the same inspiration for global ec...

  16. Bank Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ard; Alexander Berg

    2010-01-01

    Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...

  17. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  18. Corporate Governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Andy Knight; David Malone; Faith Mitchell. Finance and Audit Committee. Members: Denis Desautels (Chairman); Ahmed Galal;. Frieda Granot; Elizabeth Parr-Johnston; Andrés Rozental;. Gordon Shirley. Governance Committee. Members: The Honourable Barbara McDougall (Chairman);. Claude-Yves Charron; Denis ...

  19. U.S. foreign policy traditions: multilateralism vs. unilateralism since 1776

    OpenAIRE

    Restad, Hilde Eliassen

    2010-01-01

    As the world’s most powerful state the foreign policy choices of the United States have affected global security for a century and will continue to do so for quite some time. The study of U.S. foreign policy traditions is therefore an important aspect of the study of international relations. The conventional assumption of several scholars of U.S. foreign policy is that the United States abandoned its policy of isolation and aloofness and adopted one of responsibility for international securit...

  20. Watermarking security

    CERN Document Server

    Bas, Patrick; Cayre, François; Doërr, Gwenaël; Mathon, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This book explains how to measure the security of a watermarking scheme, how to design secure schemes but also how to attack popular watermarking schemes. This book gathers the most recent achievements in the field of watermarking security by considering both parts of this cat and mouse game. This book is useful to industrial practitioners who would like to increase the security of their watermarking applications and for academics to quickly master this fascinating domain.

  1. Security Locks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions…

  2. Global Positioning System : significant challenges in sustaining and upgrading widely used capabilities : report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), which provides positioning, navigation, and timing data to users worldwide, has become essential to U.S. national security and a key tool in an expanding array of public service and commercial applications at home...

  3. Brazilian Hybrid Security in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Villa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Existing research on security governance in South America functions on dichotomous lines. Analysis of Brazil’s security practices is a case in point. On the one hand, scholars point out the balance of power and hegemonic institutions as the main discourse in the security practices between Brazil and its South American neighbors. On the other hand, some other emphasize the importance of democracy, cooperation on defense and security, and peaceful conflict resolution between states in the region as indicators for the emergence of a security community between Brazil and its neighbors in the South American region. The way in which multiple orders coexist is not given adequate attention in empirical research. This article seeks to overcome this dichotomy. By foregrounding Brazil’s regional security practices, particularly during the Lula and Rousseff administration, I show the hybrid and sometimes ambivalent security governance system in Brazil, where mechanisms of balance of power and security community overlap in important ways.

  4. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  5. IT Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Šimková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    IT governance (control of information technology) is a frequently discussed topic today which represents current needs to take control of IT, judge impacts of all resolutions and lead up investments running to the information technology. It is very important for both small and large organizations to have IT which encourages business strategy and helps to meet objectives of a company. The theoretical part of this paper is focused on characterization of the main areas, benefits, rules and vario...

  6. Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.); Center for Information Systems Studies Security and Research (CISR)

    2011-01-01

    Multi-Level Secure Local Area Network is a cost effective, multi-level, easy to use office environment leveraging existing high assurance technology. The Department of Defense and U.S. Government have an identified need to securely share information classified at differing security levels. Because there exist no commercial solutions to this problem, NPS is developing a MLS LAN. The MLS LAN extends high assurance capabilities of an evaluated multi-level secure system to commercial personal com...

  7. Mapping Criminal Governance in African Cities | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mapping Criminal Governance in African Cities. This grant will allow the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), through its Organized Crime and Money Laundering Programme (OCML), to explore the causal links between weak state authority and the emergence of criminal governance ... Profile of crime markets in Dakar.

  8. Government Certification and Accreditation: Make a Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges faced by government officials today is securing information systems to make them more resilient to attack from increasingly complex challenges from cyber-criminals, state-sponsored groups, and other threats. Over the years, the federal government has developed and implemented Certification and Accreditation…

  9. [Food security in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  10. The Underbelly of Global Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya

    2015-01-01

    -militias, facilitated by a British security company and the Sierra Leone government. In doing so, the article contributes to the ongoing scholarly debate on the privatization of security by offering a “local” ethnographically informed perspective on the micro-dynamics of “global” security. It is argued that the supply......In the aftermath of the Sierra Leone civil war, demobilized militia soldiers have become an attractive resource to private security companies. Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork, this article traces the outsourcing of security at American military bases in Iraq to Sierra Leonean ex...... of global security depends on a form of local immobility: on a population that is “stuck”, yet constantly on the move to seize opportunities for survival and recognition. Structured by a chronological account of the recruitment, deployment, and deportation of Sierra Leonean ex-militias, the article...

  11. Multilateral development banks and socially responsible investments--the case of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Pranay

    2012-12-01

    Globally, tobacco kills more people than HIV-related conditions or AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined. In 1991, The World Bank, the world's largest lender, pledged that it would no longer support tobacco-related projects. It was expected that other financial investors would follow, but most did not respond to this call. As a result, several financial institutions continue to invest in tobacco and fuel an epidemic to an unprecedented scale. Using tobacco as a case in point, this review highlights the continuing investments among financial institutions which do not conform to 'socially responsible investments' and calls for monitoring and reporting such unethical practices. The paper also underscores the need to harmonise the numerous criteria, principles and voluntary codes that govern socially responsible investing and ensure that financial institutions comply with them.

  12. CYBER SECURITY FOR AIRPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan; Manimaran Govindarasu; Doug W. Jacobson; Brent M. Phares

    2013-01-01

    In today’s information age, government organizations and business enterprises are heavily relying on interconnected computer systems to manage a variety of public services including energy, transportation, water, etc. While this increased connectivity has many operational advantages benefitting the public, they have also become vulnerable to cyber attacks such as Corporate Security Breaches, Spear Phishing, and Social Media Fraud. The aviation sector is one the critical infrastructure systems...

  13. FOOD SECURITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing world population, the limitation of the natural availability for food production, the climate issues and the food consumption need for modification imposed a continuous updating of the food security concept. Although Romania has sufficient natural resources, which may ensure, by means of proper exploitation, the population’s food needs, the lack of a unitary approach at the government level, materialized in the dependence on imports and in fluctuations in the agro-food production, leads to a re-evaluation of national food needs. National food security may be affected by a series of risks and threats, which appeared due to an imbalance connected with the availability, the utility and the stability of the agro-food sector, interdependent elements that must be functional. The present article proposes an analysis of food security in Romania, with a short presentation of the concept in an international context.

  14. The Challenges Facing the Multilateral Trading System in Addressing Global Public Policy Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite a record-breaking 14.5 per cent increase in world merchandise exports, the effects of the financial crisis and global recession are still hampering faster economic recovery. Relatively high oil prices combined with persistent unemployment and measures designed to reduce budget deficits have undermined short-term growth prospects. While South–South trade continues to explode, trade imbalances – i.e. the gap between exports and imports – widened in 2010 compared to 2009 (though smaller than pre-crisis levels. Meanwhile, trade negotiations under the Doha Round have reached an impasse, generating uncertainties about the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO as a negotiating forum. Under these circumstances, should the system rethink its decision-making process founded upon the predominance of member states, the principle of consensus and the notion of single undertaking, as some critics have suggested? And, if so, how could such a reform agenda be initiated at the WTO? Moreover, beyond the negotiating function of the WTO, the paralysis of the system also raises urgent questions about the ability of the system to respond to pressing challenges of our times, such as trade and climate change, or food security and price volatility.

  15. The Reluctance of Civil Law Countries in Adopting “the Without Breach of Peace” Standard of UCC Article 9: Evidence from National and International Legal Instruments Governing Secured Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gikay, Asress Adimi; Stanescu, Catalin Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    been shaped by courts on a case-by-case basis. In reforming their secured transactions laws and to enhance access to credit, continental legal systems have shown great reception to Article 9 by adopting the unitary concept and functional approach to security interests, introducing private enforcement....... This article concludes that the alternatives of the “without breach of peace” standard prevailing in continental legal systems undermine the privilege of the secured creditor, pose enforcement problems (such as uncertainty of creditors’ rights and possible abuses against consumer debtors), and restrain out...... international legal instruments), this article demonstrates that continental European legal systems are generally apprehensive with the “without breach of peace” standard. Thus, they are reluctant to transplant it to their legislation and try to either modify it or replace it with different legal requirements...

  16. The Extended Concept of Security and the Czech Security Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Stejskal

    2008-12-01

    accompany the drawing up of a new security strategy for the country. A step in the right direction would be if, after public debate, the Government submitted a new version of the country’s security strategy for consideration and approval to the Parliament as the supreme representative body. The new strategy would thus be assigned greater importance than that of 2003 which was adopted only by the Government and, as a result, was often denied the status of a binding document. A broader public debate over the new security strategy would help ensure that the extended concept of security is more fully implemented in practice.

  17. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill

  18. 28 CFR 700.24 - Security of systems of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security of systems of records. 700.24... Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 700.24 Security of systems of records. (a) The Office Administrator or Security Officer shall be responsible for issuing regulations governing the security of systems...

  19. Federal Funding for Health Security in FY2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddie, Crystal; Watson, Matthew; Sell, Tara Kirk

    2016-01-01

    This latest article in the Federal Funding for Health Security series assesses FY2017 US government funding in 5 domains critical to strengthening health security: biosecurity, radiological and nuclear security, chemical security, pandemic influenza and emerging infectious disease, and multiple-hazard and general preparedness.

  20. Communication dated 9 July 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of Germany regarding the German proposal on a Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Director General received a letter dated 9 July 2009 from the Resident Representative of Germany to the IAEA, transmitting the text of two draft model agreements, which are necessary to implement a Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project (MESP). One model agreement, to be concluded between the Agency and interested States, provides for the establishment of a Group of Interested States and, by them, of a market-oriented Enrichment Company. The other model agreement, to be concluded between the Agency and a host state, provides for the establishment of a Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary (MES) on a territory to be administered by the Agency, in which the Enrichment Company would be located. The letter, and as requested therein, the above mentioned draft model agreements attached thereto are herewith circulated for the information of all Member States