WorldWideScience

Sample records for multilateral consultation mechanism, oecd

  1. Establishment of a multilateral consultation and surveillance mechanism for sea dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, Pierre.

    1977-01-01

    International regulations on dumping of radioactive waste which until only recently were limited to general principles, have developed significantly during the past years, while radioactive waste sea, dumping operations were being undertaken during the same period under the sponsorship of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The latter, in implementation of the London Convention and the IAEA Recommendations, has established a mechanism whose purpose is to place under international control radioactive waste sea dumping operations to ensure that all necessary steps are taken to avoid marine pollution. This paper analyses the technical and legal aspects of the mechanism. (NEA) [fr

  2. Decision of the Council establishing a multilateral consultation and surveillance mechanism for sea dumping of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Mechanism set up by the OECD Council on 22nd July, 1977 supplements the system established by the 1975 London Convention on prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and the IAEA provisional definition and recommendations. It lays down further compulsory rules on sea dumping of radioactive waste and provides for a prior notification and consultation procedure (choice of dumping site, containers, ships etc), international surveillance and an information system consisting of regular updating of standards guidelines and recommendations to be applied in the field. (NEA) [fr

  3. OECD/NEA multi-lateral cooperation in the area of structural integrity & aging management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breest, A. [Nuclear Energy Agency, Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Gott, K. [MATSAFE AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lydell, B. [SIGMA-PHASE Inc., Vail, AZ (United States); Riznic, J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Several OECD Member Countries have agreed to establish the OECD/NEA 'Component Operational Experience, Degradation & Ageing Programme' (CODAP) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to degradation and failure of metallic piping and non-piping metallic passive components in commercial nuclear power plants. The scope of the data collection includes service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall cracks, through-wall cracks with and without active leakage, and instances of significant degradation of metallic passive components, including piping pressure boundary integrity. The OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) acts as an umbrella committee of the Project. CODAP is the continuation of the 2002-2011 'OECD/NEA Pipe Failure Data Exchange Project' (OPDE) and the Stress Corrosion Cracking Working Group of the 2006-2010 'OECD/NEA SCC and Cable Ageing project' (SCAP). OPDE was formally launched in May 2002. Upon completion of the 3rd Term (May 2011), the OPDE project was officially closed to be succeeded by CODAP. SCAP was enabled by a voluntary contribution from Japan. It was formally launched in June 2006 and officially closed with an international workshop held in Tokyo in May 2010. Majority of the Member Organizations of the two projects were the same, often being represented by the same person. In May 2011, thirteen countries signed the CODAP 1st Term agreement (Canada, Chinese Taipei, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Korea (Republic of), Japan, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United States of America). The 1st Term (2011-2014) work plan includes the preparation of Topical Reports to foster technical cooperation and to deepen the understanding of national differences in ageing management. The Topical Reports constitute CODAP Event Database and Knowledge Base insights reports and as such act as portals for future in-depth studies of

  4. RUSSIA'S PARTICIPATION IN MULTILATERAL MECHANISMS IN EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Stapran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.

  5. Russia's Participation In Multilateral Mechanisms In East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Stapran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.

  6. OECD:s multilaterala BEPS-konvention – Ärdubbelbeskattning tillbaka på menyn?OECD:s multilateral BEPS-convention – Is double Taxation back on the menu?

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Lars-Ole

    2017-01-01

    Uppsatsen behandlar OECD:s multilaterala BEPS-konvention för vilken i skrivande stund OECD om några dagar ska hålla en signeringscermoni. Uppsatsen innefattar en redogörelse för bakomliggande traktatsrätt, en redogörelse för konventionen i sig samt hänvisningar till relevant nationell rätt där denna är aktuell för konveentionens tillämpning.

  7. Diverse Multilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wuthnow, Joel; Li, Xin; Qi, Lingling

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses Chinas multilateral diplomacy by identifying four distinct strategies: watching, engaging, circumventing, and shaping. The typology builds on two literatures: power transition theory, and the more recent “assertiveness” discourse in the West. Drawing from a range of cases...... in both the economic and security domains, the article argues that China’s multilateralism is diverse, and that it cannot be un-problematically characterized as either status-quo or revisionist in nature. However, the general trend appears to be towards engagement, but with an assertive tact as China...

  8. A Hybrid Mechanism of Multilateral Economic Cooperationas a New Form of Foreign Policy of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Gorbunova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze current trends in multilateral international cooperation determined by the global stagnation and the changing role of developing countries that reflects their growing political and economic potential compared to developed countries. China is one of the leading actors in the process of modernization of the multilateral cooperation. The authors examine the scale and potential influence of two China-led multilateral cooperation and development initiatives in Eurasia: the Silk Road Economic Belt and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB. These initiatives imply a new kind of initiator different from the traditional participant in international multilateral initiatives. China’s growing global role has reached a qualitatively new stage related to the fact that the country has moved into first place among world economies and has accumulated significant financial resources, although per capita income remains relatively low. Furthermore, China’s internationalization model has required it to be more actively involved in the global governance system as a responsible super power. The awareness to address important issues of economic growth, sustainable development and the provision of global public goods forces China to go beyond the standard profit-seeking trade and investment models of internationalization.The explication of its enormous economic potential at the regional (African, Asian and Latin American and global levels directly or indirectly contradicts the interests of the leading developed and developing countries concerning foreign markets, mineral resources access and political influence in Eurasia. The authors offer an objective assessment of the potential impact of the Silk Road Economic Belt and AIIB on the associated national economies. The Silk Road Economic Belt is an integral part of the “One Belt and One Road” project and involves the construction of transport and logistics infrastructure from East to

  9. Preference Erosion and Multilateral Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); B. Hoekman (Bernard); M. Manchin (Miriam)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBecause of concern that OECD tariff reductions will translate into worsening export performance for the least developed countries, trade preferences have proven a stumbling block to developing country support for multilateral liberalization. We examine the actual scope for preference

  10. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    I. Status of conventions in the field of nuclear energy as of December 2012: Non-proliferation and nuclear security (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty); Nuclear safety and emergency response (Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management); Liability and compensation for nuclear damage (Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Brussels Supplementary Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention on Nuclear Third Party Liability, Protocol to Amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage). II. Status of conventions in the field of environmental protection/assessment which affect nuclear energy use as of December 2012: Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention), Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention), Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kiev Protocol), Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR). III. OECD member country participation in the nuclear energy treaties/conventions and in the

  11. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    /conventions and in the environmental protection/assessment conventions referred to above as of November 2013 by member countries of the OECD or the NEA (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea (Republic of), Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, USA)

  12. Reforming the Multilateral Decision-making Mechanism of the WTO: What is the Role of Emerging Economies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Saurombe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the future of global economic governance in the light of the current state of multilateral trade negotiations. The aim is to analyse identified key historical issues at the heart of the decision-making system of the World Trade Organization (WTO. The current and ongoing Doha Round of trade negotiations and the multilateral system reflect inequalities that still prevail in the global trade architecture. Is there a need for a paradigm shift? The paper will provide recommendations on how reform of the multilateral decision-making structures should focus on promoting the interests of developing countries that have historically been marginalised. Developing countries, like those making up BRICS, stand ready to contribute to the construction of a new international architecture, to bring the voices of the south together on global issues and to deepen their ties in various areas.

  13. Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The first review meeting of the joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management resulted in the assembly of the most comprehensive information yet available on the status of these ones in the world. The review process has prompted improvements in others. The discussions in the two week meeting addressed all of the important issues confronting countries in managing spent fuel and radioactive waste safely. It revealed areas for improvement at both the national and international levels. he joint convention review process is designed principally for the review of the National reports of contracting parties. However, there are also global issues in the area of spent fuel and radioactive waste management and issues of special interest, to groups of countries to consider. The future development of the convention may therefore have to include suitable additional mechanisms to allow these aspects to be addressed. (N.C.)

  14. Mapping the Indicators. An Analysis of Sustainable Development Requirements of Selected Market Mechanisms and Multilateral Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arens, Christof; Mersmann, Florian; Beuermann, Christiane

    Investors are paying more and more attention to the co-benefits of climate finance. Financing activities aimed at emission mitigation must not only result in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the enhancement of mitigation, adaptive capacity and adaptation strategies, but should also...... produce additional outcomes on other environmental, social or economic aspects of sustainable development. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was created precisely to cover these two aspects: firstly, to achieve cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gases and secondly, to assist developing countries...... in achieving sustainable development based on their national development priorities and strategies. However, complying with the second objective turned out to be problematic. Registered projects appeared that had no proven sustainable development benefits, or even perceived negative impacts. Consequently...

  15. The OECD FIRE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angner, A.; Berg, H.P.; Roewekamp, M.; Werner, W.; Gauvain, J.

    2007-01-01

    Realistic modelling of fire scenarios is still difficult due to the scarcity of reliable data needed for deterministic and probabilistic fire safety analysis. Therefore, it has been recognized as highly important to establish a fire event database on an international level. In consequence, several member countries of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have decided in 2000 to establish the International Fire Data Exchange Project (OECD FIRE) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data related to fire events at nuclear power plants. This paper presents the OECD FIRE project objectives, work scope and current status of the OECD FIRE database after 3 years of operation as well as first preliminary statistical insights gained from the collected data. (orig.)

  16. Intergovernmental organisation activities and Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section summarises the activities of Intergovernmental organisations and the status of Multilateral agreements on December 1, 2011: 1 - Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community: Adopted legislative instruments, Reports, Meetings; International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, Non-binding instrument on the transboundary movement of scrap metal, 55. IAEA General Conference, Basic Safety Standards, Nuclear Law Institute; OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Basic Safety Standards, International Nuclear Law Essentials, International School of Nuclear Law, New members, Russian Federation request for membership; 2 - Multilateral agreements: Status of conventions in the nuclear energy domain on December 1, 2011; Status of conventions in the environmental protection/evaluation impacting the nuclear energy use on December 1, 2011; participation of OECD Member States to nuclear energy and environment protection/evaluation related treaties/conventions

  17. Consultations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Qu'arrive-t-il si j'engage des dépenses avant d'avoir signé mon contrat? Combien de ... Facture-type de consultant. Cette fiche ... Le représentant du CRDI dont le nom figure dans votre contrat est votre source d'information la plus fiable.

  18. The multilateral Agreement on Investment: Implications and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanho Kim

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Consultations that were kept under the discussions in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD are Multilateral Agreements on Investment (MAI and their aim was to be signed before April 1998. The significance of the agreement was to establish a transparent and predictable institutional environment for international investment. The agreement is about the nations participating to have the obligation to make sure that foreign investment and investors will to appreciate the national treatment (treated on the same basics with its citizens, and legally binding in the MAI system, the governmental protection for domestic enterprises will become difficult, and domestic enterprise which does not have international competitiveness will face the pressure of structural adjustment. But Korea should positively approach participation into MAI from the point of promoting the internationalization of Korean economies. Although the participation into MAI would also create new challenges of the Korean economy, but it also becomes an opportunity to promote the Korean economy for transferring to a more competitive economic structure.

  19. Multilateral disarmament verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persbo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-governmental organisations, such as VERTIC (Verification Research, Training and Information Centre), can play an important role in the promotion of multilateral verification. Parties involved in negotiating nuclear arms accords are for the most part keen that such agreements include suitable and robust provisions for monitoring and verification. Generally progress in multilateral arms control verification is often painstakingly slow, but from time to time 'windows of opportunity' - that is, moments where ideas, technical feasibility and political interests are aligned at both domestic and international levels - may occur and we have to be ready, so the preparatory work is very important. In the context of nuclear disarmament, verification (whether bilateral or multilateral) entails an array of challenges, hurdles and potential pitfalls relating to national security, health, safety and even non-proliferation, so preparatory work is complex and time-greedy. A UK-Norway Initiative was established in order to investigate the role that a non-nuclear-weapon state such as Norway could potentially play in the field of nuclear arms control verification. (A.C.)

  20. The Multilateral Tax Instrument: How to Avoid a Stalemate on Distributional Issues?

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.; Vording, H.

    2016-01-01

    Action 15 of the OECD/G-20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project is to "develop a multilateral instrument designed to provide an innovative approach to international tax matters" The authors turn to two areas of academic thought to clarify the choices faced by states when engaging in either bilateral or multilateral tax treaties. One is the field of international relations, and especially the "neoliberal" approach based on the economic self-interest of states. The other is political...

  1. The International multilateral relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, M.; Lacoste, A.C.; Gauvain, J.; Scherrer, J.; Baer, A.J.; Thiebaud, Ph.; Delattre, D.; Domaratzki, Z.; Pretre, S.; Serviere, G.; Currie, J.; Martin, A.; Bye, R.; Williams, L.; Lacoste, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Great multilateral organizations, at the end of the fifties to promote nuclear energy for peaceful uses, made structures in charge of promoting the exchanges in the field of safety. The Safety Authority takes part in numerous activities of these organisms with the double objective to know the practices of other ones and to make their own practices known. However, its limited means oblige to make choices among these ones that are proposed, on taking into account the specificities of each organism and on seeing not to be implied in promoting activities for nuclear energy. After the Chernobyl accident, the international community needed to conclude incentive conventions reminding of the liabilities of states in matter of nuclear safety. The first meeting of contracting parts at the Convention on nuclear safety in april 1999 has shown the high level of opening in which the countries considered their obligations. (N.C.)

  2. Multilateral and bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Finland has made both multilateral and bilateral agreements on the exchange of information related to radiation safety. The first arrangements for international agreements and exchange of information were made after the Chernobyl accident. In 1987, Finland joined the convention on early notification of a nuclear power accident coordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency. The convention is applied to accidents that cause of may cause emissions of radioactive substances that might affect the radiation safety of another country. Besides the convention on early notification, some other individual agreements have also been made. These include the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) system and power companies own information exchange systems. Finland has conducted bilateral agreements with the Nordic countries and the Soviet Union on the notification of accidents and exchange of nuclear power plant information. Today, Russia answers for the Soviet Union's contractual obligations. (orig.)

  3. New and Traditional Multilateral Development Banks: Current and Potential Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shelepov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Most experts on multilateral development banks (MDBs mention the possibility of large-scale co-financing in their forecasts concerning their future operations. However, interaction between MDBs and other actors, including co-financing, is rarely considered as a research problem for analytical and scientific papers. Yet this type of cooperation is one of the most important factors of effectiveness for the entire system of MDB financing. Thus, working in partnership with governmental institutions (development assistance agencies, export credit agencies, etc., MDBs help attract additional financial resources and expertise in the countries where they are active. Working on state, regional and global levels, multilateral banks cooperate not only with governmental institutions, but also with private sector and civil society representatives. Such cooperation benefits both parties. In addition to mobilizing additional financial resources, it improves project preparation and implementation, taking into account national peculiarities, while partner institutions get a chance to use their experience and expertise. Given the recent establishment of the New Development Bank (NDB and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB, they are unlikely to achieve their main goal of narrowing the infrastructure financing deficit in developing countries without active cooperation with other institutions. This article discusses the results and examines the prospects of the NDB and AIIB cooperating with traditional MDBs. It also focuses on the new banks’ engagement with other financial institutions, including commercial banks and national development banks. The author analyzes interbank memorandums and agreements as a formal basis for cooperation between various institutions, and examines in detail the examples of co-financing infrastructure projects by the new and traditional MDBs, as well as new multilateral cooperation mechanisms established by development banks. The

  4. The Multilateral Tax Instrument : How to Avoid a Stalemate on Distributional Issues?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.; Vording, H.

    2016-01-01

    Action 15 of the OECD/G-20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project is to "develop a multilateral instrument designed to provide an innovative approach to international tax matters" The authors turn to two areas of academic thought to clarify the choices faced by states when engaging in

  5. Redistribution and transmission mechanisms of income inequality - panel analysis of the affluent OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out the limitations of conventional approaches, articulated via political processes, in reducing income inequality. Using the panel data methods, on the sample of 21 affluent OECD countries in the period from 1980 to 2011, it is observed that the increase in labour productivity as well as preferences of voters to parties that advocate greater redistribution, contrary to common perception, not necessarily lead to reduction in income inequality. Increasing dominance of big capital in the field of technological progress changes the conventions about contribution of workers to labour productivity. The result is a weakening of workers’ bargaining power in relation to employers as well as increase in gap between labour productivity growth and real wage growth, which both lead to increase in income inequality. In comparison with the other political parties, it seems that the right-wing parties are more efficient in using voters’ support to implement their concept of the welfare state, which contributes to maintaining the high market-generated income inequality. Such situation could be explained that de jure power of the government depends on election results, whereas de facto power depends on the support of so-called globally-oriented super elites. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47010

  6. Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    the results with Kiyotaki and Wright (1993), Trejos and Wright (1995), and Lagos and Wright (2005) respectively. We find that the multilateral matching setting generates very simple and intuitive equilibrium allocations that are similar to those in the other papers, but which have important differences...

  7. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  8. Mechanisms of Change in COMPASS Consultation for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John H.; Toland, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    More than a decade has passed since the National Research Council described the common elements of effective educational programs for young children with autism. Since that time, few studies have attempted to understand the mechanisms of change and factors affecting the effectiveness of research supported interventions implemented in community…

  9. The role of multilateral institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Agi; Castro, Gonzalo; Newcombe, Kenneth

    2002-08-15

    In line with its mission of alleviating poverty through support for environmentally and socially sustainable economic development, The World Bank (along with some other multilateral development banks) is working to help developing countries capture a share of the emerging global market in greenhouse-gas-emissions reductions ('carbon trading'). Under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Joint Implementation instrument and the Clean Development Mechanism now provide an opening for substantial international resource transfers and potential for supporting sustainable development through the transfer of cleaner technologies or sustainable forestry and agro-forestry practices. For example, carbon sequestration represents a non-extractive non-consumptive sustainable use of living natural resources that can be incorporated within a multiple-use 'integrated ecosystem management' approach. The World Bank initiated the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) in April 2000, to help spur the development of a global carbon market and to 'learn by doing' how to use carbon-purchase transactions across a range of energy-sector technologies (and some forestry applications) to achieve environmentally credible and cost-effective emissions reductions that benefit developing countries and economies in transition. Building on the success of the PCF ($145 million raised from public and private-sector investors), The World Bank expects to launch two new funds in 2002: the Biocarbon Fund and the Community Development Carbon Fund. These funds will target synergies between carbon markets and objectives such as biodiversity conservation, combating desertification and small-scale community-driven development. Experience from the PCF shows that developing countries can have a comparative advantage in supplying this global market, as emissions reductions can be achieved in developing countries in the range of $3-$5 per ton of CO(2) equivalent, compared

  10. OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the OECD Halden Reactor Project for the year 1976. The main items reported on are: a) the process supervision and control which have focused on core monitoring and control, and operator-process communication; b) the fuel performance and safety behavior which have provided data and analytical descriptions of the thermal, mechanical and chemical behavior of fuel under various operating conditions; c) the reactor operations and d) the administration and finance

  11. Ten years of effective multilateralism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    The EU Strategy against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction - WMD - ('the Strategy') has just marked its tenth anniversary. This document, which was adopted by the European Council at the Thessalonica Summit on 12 December 2003, constitutes an historic yardstick in the old world for at least two reasons: on the one hand, it is the first of its kind; on the other, it is both the formulation of a vision, a framework, and common means aiming to make the European Union a global actor in the fight against proliferation, something that the Europeans could not hitherto have claimed to be, however much they may have wished to. It is important to recall the context of the Strategy's adoption. Two years earlier, attacks on an unprecedented scale had been carried out on American soil, confirming the perception of a terrorist threat of mass destruction; the existence of a proliferation network run by the Pakistani Abdul Qadeer Khan was confirmed in 2003 (following Iranian discoveries and Libyan revelations), while Washington accused Baghdad of not having abandoned its WMD programme; the Bush Administration launched military attacks in Afghanistan and Iraq and was victorious in both. Overall, WMD directly and indirectly became a threat to peace and security during the 1990's, as the statement by the President of the United Nations Security Council in January 1992 affirmed and in spite of significant progress on the multi-lateral arms control front during the first post-Cold War decade (op cit. the adoption in 1993 and entry into force in 1997 of the Chemical Weapons Convention, and the adoption in 1996 of a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty). In the face of what have been dubbed 'new threats', EU member States were yet to respond collectively. A European policy was emerging but the Iraq war launched in the spring of 2003 unearthed profound disagreements. The question that needed to be answered at the beginning of the century was the following one: do the

  12. Modeling multi-lateral wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, H. J.; Fong, W. S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A method for modeling multi-lateral wells by using a computational scheme embedded in a general-purpose, finite difference simulator was described. The calculation of wellbore pressure profile for each lateral included the frictional pressure drop along the wellbore and proper fluid mixing at lateral connection points. To obtain a good production profile the Beggs and Brill correlation, a homogenous flow model, and the model proposed by Ouyang et al, which includes an acceleration term and accounts for the lubrication effect due to radial influx, were implemented. Well performance prediction results were compared using the three models. The impact of different tubing sizes on the well performance and the prediction contribution from each lateral were also studied. Results of the study in the hypothetical example and under normal field operating conditions were reviewed. 7 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. THE NATIONAL MINORITY CONSULTATIVE MECHANISMS - THE COUNCILS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Čorni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to explore the practical application of the soft law, in concrete terms, the documents adopted by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, referring to the models of participation of national minorities in public life in the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The objective of the research was to assess the legal and political grounds for functioning national minority councils as participation and consultative mechanisms, scope of responsibilities and capacities in relation to their effectiveness and impact and to identify relevant good practices on such mechanisms. The political and decision-making structures in Bosnia and Herzegovina demonstrated lack of actual commitment to the realization of the rights of minorities referring to participation in decision-making processes. Bearing in mind formal position within parliaments, visibility, and a significant promotional capacity for presence in the public sphere, the councils on national minorities may represent a significant body and channel for the minority – majority dialogue. However, at the moment, the national minority councils’ capacity to ensure participation of national minorities in Bosnian political life and their influence in decision-making process remains insufficient. In general, the consultative mechanisms, within their mandated responsibilities, have had insignificant and minimal impact on the practical, political and legislative segment.

  14. United Nations and Multilateralism: Appraising USA's Unilateralism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    global peace and security, as well as the survival of the United Nations. This is because ... Key Words: United Nations, multilateralism, United States, unilateralism, national interest, UN Charter ..... Lebanon, Iraq, Turkey, Egypt, Jordan, etc.

  15. MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS AND GLOBAL INEQUALITY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    particular look at the three multilateral organizations viz IMF, World. Bank and ... The Nigerian experience with the implementation of SAP which the. IMF and ..... Devaluation of national currency and that is a reduction in the exchange value of.

  16. OECD Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor project is an agreement between OECD member countries. It was first signed in 1958 and since then regularly renewed every third year. The activities at the Project is centred around the Halden heavy water rector, the HBWR. The reseach programme comprizes studies of fuel performance under various operating conditions, and the application of computers for process control. The HBWR is equipped for exposing fuel rods to temperatures and pressures, and at heat ratings met in modern BWR's and PWR's. A range of in-core instruments are available, permitting detailed measurements of the reactions of the fuel, including mechanical deformations, thermal behaviour, fission gas release, and corrosion. In the area of computer application, the studies of the communication between operator and process, and the surveillance and control of the reactor core, are of particular interst for reactor operation. 1988 represents the 30th year since the Project was started, and this publication is produced to mark this event. It gives and account of the activities and achievements of the Project through the years 1958-1988

  17. The importance and effects of BEPS multilateral convention in international tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting is a result of the BEPS project carried out by the OECD and G20. The object and purpose of the BEPS Multilateral Convention is swift and consistent implementation of the agreed solutions aimed at preventing tax evasion or avoidance via modifications of the existing bilateral tax treaties, while providing for a high level of flexibility in the implementation. Signed on 7 June 2017, the Convention encompasses provisions on hybrid mismatches, treaty abuse, avoidance of permanent establishment status, improving dispute resolution and arbitration. The first four groups of norms have a bilateral impact on the relations between contracting jurisdictions regulated by their covered tax agreements; the effect of the optional provisions on arbitration is multilateral. The Convention contains two minimum standards each party is required to include in its covered tax agreements in an offered manner. The first one refers to the prevention of treaty shopping arrangements, while the second one concerns improvements in the dispute resolution. The flexibility is assured by granting each party the right to specify the tax treaties to which the Convention applies, to opt out of a wide range of provisions (apart from the minimum standards set out in the Convention as eligible for reservations, as well as to select an offered alternative. Serbia's position vis-à-vis the given choices has been elaborated. Serbia specified all its tax treaties as the 'covered tax agreements' but Germany, Switzerland and Sweden did not do the same with their respective treaties with Serbia. Serbia opted out of five articles of the Convention. While not contesting its importance, one may conclude that the Convention does not represent an announcement of a new multilateral tax order but rather a multilateral agreement of a number of states motivated by practical considerations.

  18. Multilateral Mediated Negotiation Protocols with Feedback (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydogan, R.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to bilateral negotiation in which the dispute is between only two parties. However, automated multilateral negotiation in which more than two negotiating parties need to reach a joint agreement, has received relatively less attention, even though such negotiations are

  19. United Nations and multilateralism: appraising USA's unilateralism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multilateralism as symbolized by the United Nations Organization, seems to have come under threat today, and nowhere is this more evident than in the United States-United Nations relations particularly in the area of military interventions around the world. The aim of this paper is to appraise the practice of the principle of ...

  20. Multilateral organizations and global inequality: A focus on IMF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines issues relating to multilateral organizations, taking a particular look at the three multilateral organizations viz IMF, World Bank and WTO. It establishes that institutional and structural variables in the multilateral organizations are skewed in favour of the developed countries and this tends to entrench their ...

  1. Markets in Education: An Analytical Review of Empirical Research on Market Mechanisms in Education. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waslander, Sietske; Pater, Cissy; van der Weide, Maartje

    2010-01-01

    In the last three decennia, many governments have introduced market mechanisms in education. They have done so by enhancing parental choice and encouraging school competition, through policies like abolishing catchment areas, creating voucher programmes and setting up charter schools. These market mechanisms have given rise to fierce debates in…

  2. Advancing Sustainable Development in Global Trade and Multilateral Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanWorld exports and imports are quickly recovering after the 2008-09 sharp decline in merchandise trade, as illustrated by global trade performances in the first and second quarters of 2010. In spite of this impressive recovery, domestic concerns in OECD countries about employment, competitiveness and China’s exchange rate policy have created a difficult political environment for further liberalisation under the Doha Round. Interestingly, developing countries, which were reluctant to engage in a new round of trade negotiations back in 2001, are now in the vanguard of those that wish for a swift conclusion of the talks, even if consensus on the ambitious ‘development package’ envisaged in Doha remains elusive. At the same time trade has been the subject of unprecedented attention and scrutiny in the climate change talks. In a world where multilateral cooperation is in crisis there is a dire need for the international community to generate new types of arrangements and innovative responses to the imperatives of development and the global transition to a low-carbon economy.

  3. International Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Observer, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The OECD consultation and surveillance mechanism is discussed in detail in this article. Four phases are identified and examined: (1) Notification, (2) Consultation, (3) Supervision, (4) Post-operation. This system is designed to provide the safest possible conditions for sea dumping of radioactive wastes. (MA)

  4. The Reasonableness Test of the Principal Purpose Test Rule in OECD BEPS Action 6 (Tax Treaty Abuse) versus the EU Principle of Legal Certainty and the EU Abuse of Law Case Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Weber (Dennis)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe OECD BEPS Action 6 report contains a principal pur- pose test rule (PPT rule) for the purpose of combating abuse of tax treaties. This PPT rule is also included in the OECD Multilateral Instrument. The PPT rule is (amongst others) applicable when ‘it is rea- sonable to conclude’

  5. OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is the nineteenth annual Report on the OECD Halden Reactor Project, describing activities at the Project during 1978, the last year of the 1976-1978 Halden Agreement. Work continued in two main fields: test fuel irradiation and fuel research, and computer-based process supervision and control. Project research on water reactor fuel focusses on various aspects of fuel behavior under normal, and off-normal transient conditions. In 1978, participating organisations continued to submit test fuel for irradiation in the Halden boiling heavy-water reactor, in instrumented test assemblies designed and manufactured by the Project. Work included analysis of the impact of fuel design and reactor operating conditions on fuel cladding behavior. Fuel performance modelling included characterization of thermal and mechanical behavior at high burn-up, of fuel failure modes, and improvement of data qualification procedures to reduce and quantify error bands on in-reactor measurements. Instrument development yielded new or improved designs for measuring rod temperature, internal pressure, axial neutron flux shape determination, and for detecting cladding defects. Work on computer-based methods of reactor supervision and control included continued development of a system for predictive core surveillance, and of special mathematical methods for core power distribution control

  6. Multilateral negotiations over climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Pinto, L.M.; Harrison, G.W. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Nucleo de Investigacao em Microeconomia Aplicada, Departmento de Economia

    2000-07-01

    Negotiations in the real world have many features that tend to be ignored in policy modelling. They are often multilateral, involving many negotiating parties with preferences over outcomes that can differ substantially. They are also often multi-dimensional, in the sense that several policies are negotiated over simultaneously. Trade negotiations are a prime example, as are negotiations over environmental policies to abate CO{sub 2}. The authors demonstrate how one can formally model this type of negotiation process. They use a policy-oriented computable general equilibrium model to generate preference functions which are then used in a formal multilateral bargaining game. The case study is on climate change policy, but the main contribution is to demonstrate how one can integrate formal economic models of the impacts of policies with formal bargaining models of the negotiations over those policies. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Dialogue between Mexico and the EU: an analysis from the new multilateralism approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecka Villanueva Ulfgard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of multilateralism today and its contemporary conceptual redefinition has different sources: the rise of emerging economies, increasing regional and sub-national politics and the intensity of regionalism. This study focuses on the growing role of civil society in this transformation of the coordinates that define the so-called New Multilateralism. The article problematizes, theoretically and empirically, the incorporation of civil society into multilateral settings or mechanisms by studying a particular case: after more than 10 years of the existence of the "Global Agreement" between Mexico and the European Union, it is important to analyze the incorporation of civil society into this relationship. Taking as their starting point the stakeholders’ strategies, the authors analyze the problem nexus concerning legitimacy and representativeness in the context of the dialogue between governments and civil societies in Mexico and the EU.

  8. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  9. Multilateral Research Opportunities in Ground Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. International collaboration provides an opportunity to leverage other nations' investments to meet common goals. The Humans In Space Community shares a common goal to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration within and beyond Low Earth Orbit. Meeting this goal requires efficient use of limited resources and International capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) is our primary platform to conduct microgravity research targeted at reducing human health and performance risks for exploration missions. Access to ISS resources, however, is becoming more and more constrained and will only be available through 2020 or 2024. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is actively pursuing methods to effectively utilize the ISS and appropriate ground analogs to understand and mitigate human health and performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. HRP developed a plan to use ground analogs of increasing fidelity to address questions related to exploration missions and is inviting International participation in these planned campaigns. Using established working groups and multilateral panels, the HRP is working with multiple Space Agencies to invite International participation in a series of 30- day missions that HRP will conduct in the US owned and operated Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) during 2016. In addition, the HRP is negotiating access to Antarctic stations (both US and non-US), the German :envihab and Russian NEK facilities. These facilities provide unique capabilities to address critical research questions requiring longer duration simulation or isolation. We are negotiating release of international research opportunities to ensure a multilateral approach to future analog research campaigns, hoping to begin multilateral campaigns in the

  10. The OECD Anti-Bribery Convention: Changing the Currents of Trade

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how criminalizing the act of bribing a foreign public official affects international trade flows using a watershed global anti-corruption initiative – the 1997 OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. This multilateral agreement criminalized foreign bribery (previously illegal only for U.S. firms) in countries that represent over 75% of world exports. I exploit temporal variation in the implementation of the Convention along with variation in the level of corruption of importing coun...

  11. Multilateral collaboration between technical communicators and translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a multilateral international project (Thompson and Carter 1973, Moreno-Lopez 2004) in technical communication and translator training programmes and discusses its use of technologies in what is seen as the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing collaboration...... to date. The project is a student collaboration involving two sets of cross-cultural virtual teams who either translate from Danish and Dutch into English and review (or edit) into American English or who are involved in international collaborative writing by Spaniards and Americans, usability testing...

  12. Fulfilling environment related international commitments through implementation of multilateral environmental agreements (meas) in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Gillani, Z.A

    2014-01-01

    Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAS) help addresses the environmental problem being faced by the international community as a whole. The ultimate goal of reaching MEAs is to realize sustainable development across the globe. According to World Bank (2006), Pakistan's economy loses Rs.365 billion annually to environmental hazards. A key mechanism available under international law for countries to work together on global environmental issues is through MEAs. Pakistan is signatory to several MEAs and has acceded to other non-legally binding instruments, such as Agenda-21, Rio Principles and Johannesburg Plan of Implementation aiming at sustainable development of natural resources. As a party to various Conventions and Protocols, Pakistan has participating in different Conferences of Parties (COPs), Meetings of Parties (MOPs), and international consultative and technical meetings regarding MEAs organized by the United Nations and other international forum. Pakistan has been actively participating in and keeping liaison with institutional elements of each of these MEAs, i.e. COPs, the secretariat, advisory bodies, subsidiary bodies, clearing-house mechanisms, for effective decision making regarding the overall implementation and development of programme of work and strategic plans, budget and the revision of annexes to the treaties. Priorities and objectives of MEAs vary significantly from one international instrument to another while the common aspects include the sustainable development and use of natural resources and the protection of the environment in such a way as to ensure its judicious use. Based on different stages of implementation of these MEAs, the spectrum in priorities of Pakistan has quite broad. Pakistan attaches greater emphasis to crosscutting themes for MEAs that are primarily of a functional nature, such as strengthening of the capacities to meet the country's obligations or responsibilities under these agreements; enhancing coordination

  13. Strengthening political co-operation through multilateral disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden discussed how the multilateral disarmament concept has contributed and still can contribute to strengthen political co-operation. This approach is the opposite to the usual question on how to achieve multilateral disarmament through political co-operation

  14. Multilateral Disarmament: Conspiracy for Common Sense. Occasional Paper 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, C. Maxwell

    This paper outlines the danger of continuing the conventional and nuclear arms races and offers alternatives to ensure both peace and security. There are five major sections to the paper. In the first section, "Mulitlateral Approach," global multilateral accomplishments, regional multilateral activities, and bilateral negotiations are discussed.…

  15. Inequality in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, Celine

    2017-08-01

    This article recalls the state of play of inequality levels and trends in OECD countries, with a special focus on Nordic countries. It sheds light on explaining the drivers of the rise in inequality and its economic consequences. It addresses in particular the issue of redistribution through taxes and transfers. It concludes with an overview of policy packages that should be considered to address the issue of rising inequalities.

  16. Eesti loodab peagi OECD liikmekutset / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    OECD on Eesti hindamisel jõudnud lõppjärku, liitumiskutset on oodata maikuus. OECD-le pakub huvi Eesti reformikogemus, e-valitsusega seonduv, oodatud on Eesti seisukohad OECD liitumiskõnelustel Venemaaga. OECD tegevusest

  17. Multilateral collaboration between technical communicators and translators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a multilateral international project (Thompson and Carter 1973, Moreno-Lopez 2004) in technical communication and translator training programmes and discusses its use of technologies in what is seen as the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing collaboration...... to date. The project is a student collaboration involving two sets of cross-cultural virtual teams who either translate from Danish and Dutch into English and review (or edit) into American English or who are involved in international collaborative writing by Spaniards and Americans, usability testing...... by Finnish students, and translation from English into Dutch, French and Italian (Humbley et al. 2005; Maylath et al. 2008; Mousten et al. 2008; Mousten; Vandepitte et al. 2010; Mousten et al. 2010, Mousten et al. 2012, Maylath et al. 2013, Maylath et al. 2013b). While students use email, iChat and Skype...

  18. OECD Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project is both the oldest and the only one still in operation of the three major joint undertakings established at the inception of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication has been printed in connection with its twenty-fifth anniversary as an international project. After presentation of the history and organization of the project, a thorough description of the past and present activities in the field of fuel performance and process control and surveillance is given. The projects's fuel testing programme is now focuessed on an investigation to define safety margins under normal operations as well as under various kinds of accident situations. Fuel research is also concerned with the characterisation of long term effects with regard to efficiency, operational safety and mapping of reliability and durability in the case of accidents with loss of coolant. In the field of process control and surveillance, research work is directly linked to the use of computers and colour graphics as tools in the control room. A fullscale simulator-based model and experimental control room has been constructed. The first experiments to be carried out in this laboratory will investigate the advantage of analysing alarms before they are presented to the operator. (RF)

  19. DAMPAK KERJASAMA MULTILATERAL TERHADAP PERDAGANGAN PRODUK PERTANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Budiman Hakim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Multilateral trade agreement under the auspice of the GATT/WTO is expected to change the nation’s competitiveness in the global economy. In the context of the agricultural agreement, there are three mayor changing policies to be committed by the WTO members: (a market access, (b export subsidies and (c domestic support. Likewise, ASEAN regional agreement (AFTA will reduce the relative price of international prices to the domestic prices and the exploitation of the comparative advantage.  The questions to be answered is whether such multilateral agreements affect agricultural trade in the region.  A recursive-dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE and the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP database were used to assess such impacts. Two important scenarios were then considered: APEC and AFTA scenarios.  The results indicate that as import tariff levels are completely removed, the demand for imported goods would certainly be increased.  This is because domestic consumers (private consumers and industries would face decreasing domestic prices.  However, the size of import changes depends on the initial tariff rates.  The higher the initial intra-regional tariffs, and the larger the tariff cuts, the higher the gains from the trade creation.  Under the AFTA trade liberalisation, rice output in the ASEAN member countries with the exception of Thailand is projected to shrink. The AFTA tariff reduction would cause an increase in exports in

  20. OECD/NEA thermochemical database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byeon, Kee Hoh; Song, Dae Yong; Shin, Hyun Kyoo; Park, Seong Won; Ro, Seung Gy

    1998-03-01

    This state of the art report is to introduce the contents of the Chemical Data-Service, OECD/NEA, and the results of survey by OECD/NEA for the thermodynamic and kinetic database currently in use. It is also to summarize the results of Thermochemical Database Projects of OECD/NEA. This report will be a guide book for the researchers easily to get the validate thermodynamic and kinetic data of all substances from the available OECD/NEA database. (author). 75 refs.

  1. Plurilateral Trade Deals: An Alternative for Multilateral Trade Agreements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While multilateral trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization (WTO continue to be in impasse, plurilateral trade negotiations – i.e. among a group of WTO members – have intensified in recent years, and also recorded a series of concrete results in liberalizing specific sectors of international trade. Hence, there is a widely shared view that plurilateral trade negotiations could be an alternative for the multilateral ones. This paper aims to answer the following questions: What are plurilateral trade agreements? Which are the reasons behind the surge in plurilateral negotiations in recent years? What are the main achievements in liberalizing trade at the plurilateral level? What are the advantages of plurilateral negotiations relative to multilateral ones, and why are they considered an attractive alternative for negotiations at the multilateral level?

  2. Country impacts of multilateral oil sanctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canes, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, economic sanctions have become an important tool in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Though usually aimed at a single country, they also can affect the economics of other nations. Knowledge of such impacts would inform U.S. policy-makers as to which other countries might be helped or harmed, and help predict which other nations likely would support or oppose the sanctions. This article presents results relating to the imposition of sanctions in the oil market. These results are obtained from exercising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model built by Charles River Associates under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The model is used to analyze GDP effects on a number of countries from multilateral oil sanctions against Iraq. The results suggest that it is possible to provide useful information regarding the impact of sanctions as a foreign policy tool. However, they also indicate that sanctions can be expensive, with substantial spillover effects. Though sanctions may be appropriate policy choice in given instances, these effects should be incorporated into foreign policy analyses. (author)

  3. Multilateral cooperation for power interconnection in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudinova Lyudmila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered is experience of electric power integration in different parts of the world with emphasis on bilateral/multilateral interstate structures intended for promotion and development of interstate power grids. Analysed are Northeast Asian intergovernmental structures providing bilateral energy and power cooperation between Russia and other countries of the region. Multilateral cooperation in the field is just emerging, but should play a key role in promotion and development of Northeast Asian power grid.

  4. Developing Countries and the Multilateral Trading System after Doha

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T. N.

    2002-01-01

    The Fourth Session of the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO), held in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001, launched a new round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) and a work programme (WP) for the WTO involving the negotiating agenda and steps for meeting the challenges facing the multilateral trading system. The paper evaluates the WP, in particular, whether it would redress the unfavourable balance between benefits and costs to developing countries DCs of the agree...

  5. Norway and the arctic: between multilateral governance and geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flikke, Geir

    2013-03-01

    The article analyzes Norwegian politics in the high north in light of multilateral institutions and new security challenges. The author maintains that Norway's politics is based on functional multilateral organizations and continuity and predictability in the UN framework. This can become more of a challenge if the competition for resource access hardens and the Arctic is defined as a strategically valuable area for one or more states.(Author)

  6. CIEMAT’s contribution to the phase II of the OECD-NEA RIA benchmark on thermo-mechanical fuel codes performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagrado, I.C.; Vallejo, I.; Herranz, L.E.

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the international efforts devoted to validate and/or update the current fuel safety criteria, the OECD-NEA has launched a second phase of the RIA benchmark on thermomechanical fuel codes performance. CIEMAT contributes simulating the ten scenarios proposed with FRAPTRAN and SCANAIR. Both codes lead to similar predictions during the heating-up; however, during the cooling-down significant deviations may appear. They are mainly caused by the estimations of gap closure and re-opening and the clad to water heat exchange approaches. The uncertainty analysis performed for the SCANAIR estimations leads to uncertainty ranges below 15% and 28% for maximum temperatures and deformations, respectively. The corresponding sensitivity analysis shows that, in addition to the injected energy, special attention should be paid to fuel thermal expansion and clad yield stress models. (Author)

  7. Sustainable multilateral nuclear fuel cycle framework. (2) Models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T; Tanaka, S; Tazaki, M; Akiba, M; Takashima, R; Kuno, Y

    2011-01-01

    To construct suitable models for a reliable and sustainable international/regional framework in the fields of nuclear fuel cycle, it is essential to reflect recent political situations including such that 1) a certain number of emerging countries especially in south-east Asia want to introduce and develop nuclear power in the long-terms despite the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, and 2) exposition of nuclear proliferation threats provided by North Korea and Iran. It is also to be considered that Japan is an unique country having enrichment and reprocessing facilities on commercial base among non-nuclear weapon countries. Although many models presented for the internationalization have not been realized yet, studies at the University of Tokyo aim at multilateral nuclear approach (MNA) in Asian-Pacific countries balancing between nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear fuel supply/service and presenting specific examples such as prerequisites for participating countries, scope of cooperative activities, ownership of facilities and type of agreements/frameworks. We will present a model basic agreement and several bilateral and multi-lateral agreements for the combinations of industry or government led consortia including Japan and its neighboring countries and made a preliminary evaluation for the combination of processes/facilities based on the INFCIRC/640 report for MNA. (author)

  8. OECD/NEA component operational experience, degradation and ageing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, K.; Nevander, O.; Riznic, J.; Lydell, B.

    2015-01-01

    Several OECD Member Countries have agreed to establish the OECD/NEA 'Component Operational Experience, Degradation and Ageing Programme' (CODAP) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to degradation and failure of metallic piping and non-piping metallic passive components in commercial nuclear power plants. The scope of the data collection includes service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall cracks, through-wall cracks with and without active leakage, and instances of significant degradation of metallic passive components, including piping pressure boundary integrity. CODAP is the continuation of the 2002-2011 'OECD/NEA Pipe Failure Data Exchange Project' (OPDE) and the Stress Corrosion Cracking Working Group of the 2006-2010 - OECD/NEA SCC and Cable Ageing project - (SCAP). OPDE was formally launched in May 2002. Upon completion of the 3. Term (May 2011), the OPDE project was officially closed to be succeeded by CODAP. In May 2011, 13 countries signed the CODAP first Term agreement. The first Term (2011-2014) work plan includes the development of a web-based relational event database on passive, metallic components in commercial nuclear power plants, a web-based knowledge base on material degradation, codes and standards relating to structural integrity and national practices for managing material degradation. The work plan also addresses the preparation of Topical Reports to foster technical cooperation and to deepen the understanding of national differences in ageing management. These Topical Reports are in the public domain and available for download on the NEA web site. Published in 2014, a first Topical Report addressed flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel and low alloy steel piping. A second Topical Report addresses operating experience with electro-hydraulic control (EHC) and instrument air (IA) system piping

  9. Estonia to join OECD / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    2010. aasta kevadel tehakse otsus Eesti liitumise kohta OECD-ga. Välisminister Urmas Paet ja OECD peasekretär Angel Gurria allkirjastasid Pariisis privileegide ja immuniteetide lepingu. OECD liikmed

  10. OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The activities of the OECD Halden Reactor Project for the year 1975 are summarized. The period under review is the last year of the three year joint programme which commenced on 1st January, 1973. The main items reported upon are: process supervision and control, test fuel irradiation and fuel research, reactor operations, and administration and finance. The process supervision and control work has been concentrated in two fields: methods development for core surveillance and control, and systems development for operator-process communication. As for fuel test, investigations of the densification phenomenon have continued through irradiations to a maximum of about 16000MWd/tUO 2 . Axial and radial deformations of fuel rods are studied, with the effect of power transients upon the dimensional stability of fuel rods, and fuel-cladding heat transfer and fuel temperature. Thermal models for steady state and transient heat transfer in fuel rods have been developed and the work on thermomechanical models of claddings shows considerable promise

  11. Forecasting method in multilateration accuracy based on laser tracker measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, Sergio; Santolaria, Jorge; Samper, David; José Aguilar, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Multilateration based on a laser tracker (LT) requires the measurement of a set of points from three or more positions. Although the LTs’ angular information is not used, multilateration produces a volume of measurement uncertainty. This paper presents two new coefficients from which to determine whether the measurement of a set of points, before performing the necessary measurements, will improve or worsen the accuracy of the multilateration results, avoiding unnecessary measurement, and reducing the time and economic cost required. The first specific coefficient measurement coefficient (MC LT ) is unique for each laser tracker. It determines the relationship between the radial and angular laser tracker measurement noise. Similarly, the second coefficient is related with specific conditions of measurement β . It is related with the spatial angle between the laser tracker positions α and its effect on error reduction. Both parameters MC LT and β are linked in error reduction limits. Beside these, a new methodology to determine the multilateration reduction limit according to the multilateration technique of an ideal laser tracker distribution and a random one are presented. It provides general rules and advice from synthetic tests that are validated through a real test carried out in a coordinate measurement machine. (paper)

  12. The Multilateral Financial Institutions of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Munich i Gasa

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of Multilateral Development Institutions (MDIs in promoting economic and social progress in Less Developed Countries (LDC. After examining the activities of the main MDIs (International Monetary Fund, WorldBank Group, Interamerican Development Bank, African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development we have come to some conclusions. First, MDIs loans play a catalytic effect in channeling flows of additional public or private resources to LDC. Second, MDIs emphasize both the role of the private sector and an efficient public sector to achieve its objectives (to promote economic growth, reduce poverty, etc.. Third, MDIs provide direct financing for private sector activities, restructuring and privatisation to encourage the development of market economies as well as funding for the infrastructure that supports these activities. Fourth, over the last few years the MDIs have increased their conditionalities on the borrowers, especially in environment and governance areas. Fifth, the resources provided by the MDIs are not enough to cope with the financial needs of LDC; furthermore, a low percentage of total loans are on concessional terms. Sixth, most of the MDIs resources go to the benefit of medium-income countries (South Korea, Mexico, Brazil, etc. and only a small amount of credits go to the poorest countries; what´s more, in the last few last years MDIs are increasing their financial support of countries in the East. Seventh, MDIs have integrated social sector and environment as a first-order priority in their reports, but the lending reality is far from incorporating such an aim: one thing istheory, the other is practice. Eighth, MDIs’ institutional structures and decision-making processes are similar, as in most of them the principle of one dollar one vote holds. As a result, the MDIs are dominated by the developed countries, which use such

  13. Development of multilateral comparative evaluation method for fuel cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Ikushima, Takeshi; Nomura, Yasushi; Nakajima, Kiyoshi.

    1998-03-01

    In the near future, Japanese nuclear fuel cycle system will be promoted by national nuclear energy policy, and it''s options i.e. once through, thermal cycle and fast breeder cycle must be selected by multilateral comparative evaluation method from various aspects of safety, society, economy, and e.t.c. Therefore such a problem can be recognized as a social problem of decision making and applied for AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) that can multilaterally and comparatively evaluate the problem. On comparative evaluation, much information are needed for decision making, therefore two kinds of databases having these information have been constructed. And then, the multilateral comparative evaluation method consisting of two kinds of databases and AHP for optimum selection of fuel cycle system option have been developed. (author)

  14. International bilateral and multilateral arrangements in energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This document, the second report in the series, outlines current DOE international commitments under bilateral and multilateral arrangements, as of January 1, 1978. Included are bilateral agreements for cooperation in the civil uses of atomic energy with countries and international organizations, bilateral and multilateral technical exchanges in all energy technology areas, and multilateral agreements under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In addition to outlining the terms, scope, and status of these agreements, this document describes DOE's participation in the work of the major international energy organizations. IEA, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Future reports will update the status of ongoing cooperative projects and provide information on new energy R and D activities

  15. Economic evaluation of multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Ryuta; Kuno, Yusuke; Omoto, Akira; Tanaka, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Recently previous works have shown that multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach has benefits not only of non-proliferation but also of cost effectiveness. This is because for most facilities in nuclear fuel cycle, there exist economies of scale, which has a significant impact on the costs of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, the evaluation of economic rationality is required as one of the evaluation factors for the multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. In this study, we consider some options with respect to multilateral approaches to nuclear fuel cycle in Asian-Pacific region countries that are proposed by the University of Tokyo. In particular, the following factors are embedded into each type: A) no involvement of assurance of services, B) provision of assurance of services including construction of new facility, without transfer of ownership, and C) provision of assurance of service including construction of new joint facilities with ownership transfer of facilities to multilateral nuclear fuel cycle approach. We show the overnight costs taking into account install and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities for each option. The economic parameter values such as uranium price, scale factor, and market output expansion influences the total cost for each option. Thus, we show how these parameter values and economic risks affect the total overnight costs for each option. Additionally, the international facilities could increase the risk of transportation for nuclear material compared to national facilities. We discuss the potential effects of this transportation risk on the costs for each option. (author)

  16. International Relations and the environment: practical examples of environmental multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Tiago Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “environmental crisis” we experience today and the international community’s struggle to develop environmental standards to reach the epic “sustainable development” are widely known topics. What is needed, then, is an urgent and determined practice, which is only possible if international governance is structured, coherent and effective. The optimization of Environmental Multilateralism (the joining of what are considered the “driving forces” of Environmental International Relations: Law, Politics and international Diplomacy contributes greatly to this end. To understand its basic concepts and systems, as for example, its actors, negotiation and implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs and the carrying out of their Regimes, as well as their development in the United Nations, these are all crucial elements for its improvement and optimization. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 and “its” Conventions are important examples in the history of Environmental Multilateralism, still very up-to-date not only due to the 20th anniversary of the “Rio Conference” but also due to the continuity and importance that the “Rio Conventions” and their Conferences of Parties (COP still have. This papers aims to analyze this area of studies transversal to International Relations and to the Environment, namely by studying the relation between the theory of Environmental Multilateralism and its practice.

  17. Mechanism of Developmental Change in the PLAY Project Home Consultation Program: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Gerald; Solomon, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This investigation is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized control trial of the PLAY Home Consultation Intervention Program which was conducted with 112 preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and their parents (Solomon et al. in "J Dev Behav Pediatr" 35:475-485, 2014). Subjects were randomly assigned to either a…

  18. The politics of nuclear consultation in NATO, 1965-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buteux, P.

    1983-01-01

    One of the least known but most effective Western institutions is the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) of NATO. Conceived in 1965 as a result of the debacle of the multilateral nuclear force, it has been a forum for consultation on the Alliance's strategic policy, especially regarding tactical atomic weapons and the control of nuclear arms. This is an account of about as much as can be discussed about NPG deliberations

  19. Reforming the Multilateral Decision-Making Mechanism of the WTO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing countries, like those making up BRICS, stand ready to contribute to the construction of a new international architecture, to bring the voices of the south together on global issues and to deepen their ties in various areas. Keywords: World Trade Organisation, International Trade Reform, Doha Round, Emerging ...

  20. The IAEA's responsibilities in connection with the dumping at sea of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong

    1983-01-01

    In the context of IAEA's responsibilities regarding the sea dumping of radioactive wastes, this paper reviews international laws of relevance to sea dumping of wastes, and examines IAEA's role under the London Dumping Convention. The paper also describes the OECD/NEA Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism on radioactive waste sea dumping operations. (NEA) [fr

  1. The Multilateralism and China’s OBOR Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Zhongying

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses several extremely political questions which are perhaps somewhat neglected in the current discussions and research on the China-sponsored international initiative “One Belt One Road” (OBOR. They are: 1. Why does the political logic of the OBOR matter? 2. Why does the OBOR not just mean that China takes the lead in global development, but that China seeks its own road for further development in the world? 3. Why does the OBOR need to be multilateralized towards a global institution? Can the new international financial institution AIIB help the multilateralization of the OBOR? 4. Can the OBOR contribute to the next generation of global governance? Finally, the article suggests that China should call for the OBOR nations, or the Silk Road System of Nations, to have their 1st summit – the Silk Road Summit – to gather political support for the reform of global governance.

  2. Regionalism vs. Multilateralism : An overview of the effects of Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Pöntinen, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The Purpose of this dissertation was to first find the motives behind and causes for regionalism and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of the phenomenon. Secondly, the intension was to determine the benefits of a possible bilateral FTA between Australia and China and whether a bilateral trade agreement would be more beneficial for the Australian economy than waiting for a multilateral WTO regulated framework. The research was conducted through an extensive literature review...

  3. Challenges to the multilateral trading system and possible responses

    OpenAIRE

    Panagariya, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops three major themes. First, the atmosphere of gloom around the multilateral trading system due to dim prospects of a successful conclusion of the Doha Round notwithstanding, global trade regime remains open and the institution in charge of it, the World Trade Organization, is in sound health. If anything, the Doha Round has been a victim of its own success: considerable de facto liberalization in agriculture has been achieved since the launch of the round. Second, to secure...

  4. OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A major part of the current research programme is devoted to irradiation experiments with a wide variety of heavily instrumented test fuel assemblies, in order to study the thermal and mechanical behavior of fuel rods through in-core measurements, in particular various forms of deformation of cladding and fuel as related to operational conditions and fuel rod design parameters. From these measurements mathematical models are being developed to explain quantitatively the deformation behavior, as well as the thermal properties of the fuel. During 1974, fifty-six instrumented fuel assemblies were irradiated in these experiments. Another major part of the Halden programme is aimed at the development and demonstration of advanced computer-based methods for plant and reactor core control, for safety and protection, and for overall supervision of nuclear power stations. Both the control methods themselves and the associated measurement and control apparatus are being elaborated, and during the year particular progress was made with the ''OPCOM'' process operator communication system

  5. PACTEL OECD project planning (PACO). PACTEL OECD project planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhia, V.; Purhonen, H. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    OECD launched the SETH project to investigate issues relevant for accident prevention and management and to ensure the existence of integral thermal hydraulic test facilities. The facilities included in the SETH project are PKL from Germany and PANDA from Switzerland. At the early stages of the SETH project an idea was raised to exploit the PACTEL facility in a similar OECD project. Without any external funding the analytical work in the required extent would not be possible within Lappeenranta University of Technology, the party responsible of operating PACTEL. This fact directed the PACO project proposal to be conducted for the SAFIR programme. The aim of the PACO project is to prepare a project proposal to OECD of a PACTEL related project. To attain this objective some preliminary analyses have to be performed to ensure the relevancy of the proposed topic. The low power situation, i.e. midloop state was chosen to be the topic in the PACO studies and project planning basis. The plan is to use PACTEL to examine vertical steam generator behaviour during the midloop operation and the following loss of residual heat removal system transient. Such a possibility is acknowledged with special alterations to PACTEL. The APROS code version 5.04.07 was selected as a tool for the preanalyses. The virtual simulation of the chosen experimental situation would give a preconception on the phenomena to be expected and the progression of the transient. Originally the PACO project was planned to continue only for a few months, ending up with the project proposal to OECD during the summer time 2004. During the pre-calculation process it became obvious that the time expected was not enough to establish good pre-calculation results. The reasons for this relates to time used to learn and adapt the use of the chosen code, improvements and corrections in modelling as well as the code ability to manage the special conditions defined for the project topic. Another aspect on completing a

  6. INNOVATION POLICY FEATURES IN THE OECD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Anisimov

    2015-11-01

    mechanisms, platforms etc.; accelerating patent processing while preserving quality. Value/originality. Received conclusions will help to understand the innovation policy features in the OECD countries what gives an opportunity to use their experience in Ukraine.

  7. Multi-lateral emission trading: lessons from inter-state NOx control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, A.

    2001-01-01

    Marketable emission permit mechanisms are increasingly proposed as efficient means of managing environmental pollution problems such as greenhouse gas emissions. Existing examples of emissions trading in the literature have so far been limited to domestic efforts put in place through the action of a national legislature, which has no parallel in international politics. This paper examines two efforts to establish multi-lateral emissions trading for nitrogen oxides among various states with the US. One, the Ozone Transport Commission's NO x Budget program is a success. The other, the Ozone Transport Assessment Group and the federal government's subsequent NO x SIP Call has not resulted in a multi-lateral emissions control program, let alone an efficient, market-based one. Due to the relative similarities of the states (compared to highly heterogeneous nations of the world) these are ''best case'' examples, and explaining the vast differences in outcomes will help explain the potential and the challenges in developing an international emission trading program to control greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  8. Environmental Compliance Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panagiotis; Fitzmaurice, Malgosia

    2017-01-01

    Compliance mechanisms can be found in treaties regulating such diverse issues as human rights, disarmament law, and environmental law. In this bibliography, the focus will be on compliance mechanisms of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Compliance with norms of international

  9. The Montreal Protocol's multilateral fund and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luken, Ralph; Grof, Tamas

    2006-01-01

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol is widely seen as a global environmental accord that has produced tangible results in terms of reductions in ozone-depleting substances. In addition, there have been other benefits, largely unrecognized and undocumented, that can best be characterized in a sustainable development framework based on a review of 50 out of 931 projects implemented over a 13 year period by one of the four implementing agencies of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. All investment projects have reduced ozone depleting potential and global warming potential. Some projects have reduced atmospheric emissions and contamination of groundwater. Other projects have increased the competitiveness of enterprises in domestic and international markets and have sustained and in a few cases created employment opportunities. Others, fewer in number, have potentially contributed to environmental problems, have initially created difficulties in maintaining productivity and quality standards and have decreased the number of employment opportunities because of the need to rationalize manufacturing processes. The potential contributions from Multilateral Fund investment projects to sustainable development could probably have been amplified with project design guidance for the technical staffs of all three implementing agencies executing investment projects. In thinking about other multilateral environmental agreements, one can see the need for similar guidance for Global Environment Facility funded projects supporting the focal areas of climate change, international waters, ozone depletion and persistent organic pollutants. Some of them have the potential to generate multiple beneficial impacts in addition to their stated environmental objective if designed and implemented within a sustainable development framework. (author)

  10. Accurate ocean bottom seismometer positioning method inspired by multilateration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzouz, Omar; Pinheiro, Luis M.; Matias, Luis M. A.; Afilhado, Alexandra; Herold, Daniel; Haines, Seth S.

    2018-01-01

    The positioning of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) is a key step in the processing flow of OBS data, especially in the case of self popup types of OBS instruments. The use of first arrivals from airgun shots, rather than relying on the acoustic transponders mounted in the OBS, is becoming a trend and generally leads to more accurate positioning due to the statistics from a large number of shots. In this paper, a linearization of the OBS positioning problem via the multilateration technique is discussed. The discussed linear solution solves jointly for the average water layer velocity and the OBS position using only shot locations and first arrival times as input data.

  11. Regional cooperation based on multilateral international agreements in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Multilateral international agreements have defined the framework of behavior and cooperation in various fields and aspects of peaceful use of nuclear energy. Thus, obligations have been defined in the following areas: nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, physical protection of nuclear material, liability for nuclear damage, nuclear safety, early notification about a nuclear accident and assistance in case of nuclear accident. Obligations regarding radioactive waste management should be defined soon. This paper gives a review of obligations from particular agreements with a special emphasis on those which are being realized through mutual cooperation of concerned countries and are important for safe use of nuclear energy. (author)

  12. Future direction for implementing the cooperation with OECD/NEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Hong, Yong Don

    1999-03-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) ia an intergovernmental organization consisting of industrialized countries with shared democratic principles and free market economics. The objectives of the agency are to identify key issues related to nuclear energy and to address these issues as well as to implement joint R and D projects, contributing to the development of nuclear energy as a safe, environmentally-acceptable and economical energy source through cooperation among its participating countries. Appropriate measures to effectively implement international nuclear cooperation and strategies to upgrade Korea's status in the international arena as well as ways to utilize the agency for our benefits through analysis of its policy and current status of the agency as a multilateral nuclear cooperative body are also presented in this report. Analysis of information about the agency's activities and acquisition of capabilities to collect relevant information, coupled with efforts to enhance Korea's status in the international nuclear arena by actively being involved in the international organizations such as OECD/NEA are required to positively deal with rapid changes in the international nuclear arena and establish effective national nuclear policies. This report can be utilized as valuable material not only in establishing national nuclear policy by giving an overview of the report prepared by the high level advisory group on the future of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, who recently wrapped up their activities, but also in promoting the understanding of the agency's activities and the agency's long-term perspective mapped out in 1995. Future plans and strategies for effective implementation of nuclear cooperation with the agency, including ways to participate in the agency's activities, with KAERI taking a leading role, and in the NEA joint R and D projects, ways to strengthen capabilities, to analyze

  13. A Multilateral Negotiation Model for Cloud Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dongjin; Sim, Kwang Mong

    Trading cloud services between consumers and providers is a complicated issue of cloud computing. Since a consumer can negotiate with multiple providers to acquire the same service and each provider can receive many requests from multiple consumers, to facilitate the trading of cloud services among multiple consumers and providers, a multilateral negotiation model for cloud market is necessary. The contribution of this work is the proposal of a business model supporting a multilateral price negotiation for trading cloud services. The design of proposed systems for cloud service market includes considering a many-to-many negotiation protocol, and price determining factor from service level feature. Two negotiation strategies are implemented: 1) MDA (Market Driven Agent); and 2) adaptive concession making responding to changes of bargaining position are proposed for cloud service market. Empirical results shows that MDA achieved better performance in some cases that the adaptive concession making strategy, it is noted that unlike the MDA, the adaptive concession making strategy does not assume that an agent has information of the number of competitors (e.g., a consumer agent adopting the adaptive concession making strategy need not know the number of consumer agents competing for the same service).

  14. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  15. 15 CFR 923.57 - Continuing consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 923.57 Continuing consultation. (a) As required by subsection 306(d)(3)(B) of the Act, a State must establish an effective mechanism for continuing consultation and coordination between the management agency... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing consultation. 923.57...

  16. Sponsoring Asia-Pacific Security: PACOM’s Role in Reconciling Bilateral and Multilateral Security Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    regional security order according to realist or liberal-institutionalist international relations theory.3 Realists emphasize the deep-seated...other states has motivated party officials to pursue multilateralism to impress international society with the country’s peaceful rise. 10 The...simultaneous pursuit ofbilateralism and multilateralism within Asia "amounts to outsourcing of great power management ofregional security order in two

  17. Nuclear fuel cycle. Which way forward for multilateral approaches? An international expert group examines options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellaud, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    in terms of policy, institutional and legal factors - for those parts of the nuclear fuel cycle of greatest sensitivity from the point of view of proliferation risk. In this context, multilateral may mean regional, multinational or international (that is, with the participation of international organisations). Whether for uranium enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing, or spent fuel disposal and storage, MNA options span the whole spectrum between existing market mechanisms and a co-ownership of fuel cycle facilities

  18. The Reasonableness Test of the Principal Purpose Test Rule in OECD BEPS Action 6 (Tax Treaty Abuse) versus the EU Principle of Legal Certainty and the EU Abuse of Law Case Law

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe OECD BEPS Action 6 report contains a principal pur- pose test rule (PPT rule) for the purpose of combating abuse of tax treaties. This PPT rule is also included in the OECD Multilateral Instrument. The PPT rule is (amongst others) applicable when ‘it is rea- sonable to conclude’ that a benefit (granted by a tax treaty) was one of the principal purposes of any arrangement/ transaction. This requirement contains two elements: the reasonableness test and the principal purpose tes...

  19. New multilateral approaches solving the nuclear energy dispute with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heireng, Hege Schultz; Moezzi, Maryam; Kippe, Halvor

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this report is on possible multilateral approaches for cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim is to contribute in finding diplomatic solutions to the Iranian nuclear dispute. The proposals challenge the traditional views of Iran's role in the nuclear negotiations in particular, and in the international community in general. The report investigates the possibility of accepting Iran's enrichment of uranium, under an enhanced safeguards regime, and through a multilateral cooperation on the production of nuclear fuel. In relation to this, the report also explores the benefits of including new actors in the proposed solutions.Two different models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle cooperation with Iran will be presented. The aim of these models is to ensure greater transparency in Iran's nuclear activities, in order to minimize the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, while simultaneously presenting a solution that will be acceptable to Iran. The first model is a tripartite consortium model that consists of a cooperation between Kazakhstan, Iran and South Africa, in which these countries additionally cooperate with an IAEA-supervised international nuclear fuel bank. The second model is a nuclear fuel cycle cooperation between Iran and six of the countries bordering the Persian Gulf. In both models, the countries in question will be responsible for different parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Iran will be responsible for the uranium enrichment activities, but will have to give up all other fuel cycle activities. Another prerequisite is that Iran accepts not to store enriched uranium on Iranian soil.The report shows that the international community should consider accepting enrichment of uranium on Iranian soil in the long-term. In addition, it is concluded that cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle, where Iran is a reliable nuclear supplier state of enriched uranium and other states are responsible for the remaining parts of

  20. New multilateral approaches solving the nuclear energy dispute with Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heireng, Hege Schultz; Moezzi, Maryam; Kippe, Halvor

    2011-07-01

    The focus of this report is on possible multilateral approaches for cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim is to contribute in finding diplomatic solutions to the Iranian nuclear dispute. The proposals challenge the traditional views of Iran's role in the nuclear negotiations in particular, and in the international community in general. The report investigates the possibility of accepting Iran's enrichment of uranium, under an enhanced safeguards regime, and through a multilateral cooperation on the production of nuclear fuel. In relation to this, the report also explores the benefits of including new actors in the proposed solutions.Two different models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle cooperation with Iran will be presented. The aim of these models is to ensure greater transparency in Iran's nuclear activities, in order to minimize the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, while simultaneously presenting a solution that will be acceptable to Iran. The first model is a tripartite consortium model that consists of a cooperation between Kazakhstan, Iran and South Africa, in which these countries additionally cooperate with an IAEA-supervised international nuclear fuel bank. The second model is a nuclear fuel cycle cooperation between Iran and six of the countries bordering the Persian Gulf. In both models, the countries in question will be responsible for different parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Iran will be responsible for the uranium enrichment activities, but will have to give up all other fuel cycle activities. Another prerequisite is that Iran accepts not to store enriched uranium on Iranian soil.The report shows that the international community should consider accepting enrichment of uranium on Iranian soil in the long-term. In addition, it is concluded that cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle, where Iran is a reliable nuclear supplier state of enriched uranium and other states are responsible for the

  1. The OECD and Global Governance in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This review essay discusses the history, evolution and development of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and traces the growing impact of its education work. The essay is in four main sections. The first discusses Carrol and Kellow's "The OECD: A Study of Organizational Adaptation" (Edward Elgar) and…

  2. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Anna; Amoroso, Jeremie; Herczynski, Jan; Kheyfets, Igor; Lockheed, Marlaine; Santiago, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This joint OECD-World Bank report for Kazakhstan forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are…

  3. Education at a Glance 2010: OECD Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Across OECD countries, governments are seeking policies to make education more effective while searching for additional resources to meet the increasing demand for education. The 2010 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries' performance. It provides a rich, comparable…

  4. Multilateral market-access reforms of the Doha Round

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    members such as the US. This paper provides a preliminary assessment of the likely impact of the tiered-formula reform approach on EU agricultural sectors. Numerical simulations of a multilateral market-access reform scenario show that such cuts would lead to across-the-board decreases in intra-EU trade...... external trade surpluses in many EU agricultural products. Further, the resulting adjustments in member states’ production and net trade positions are not equal: the new member states would generally lose part of their export shares in the EU market to external competitors, as highlighted in the cases......The July package of the Doha Round of trade negotiations stipulates that a tiered-formula approach should be used to significantly reduce market access barriers across countries, implying that the EU would have to make larger cuts to its high external tariffs, in comparison with many other WTO...

  5. Biotechnology in Argentina: New products, new multilateral challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano M. Donadio Linares

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 20 years ago, a public-private alliance has transformed Argentina into a remarkable global actor in developing biotechnological products for food and renewable energies. This strategic alliance resulted in the boosting of scientific knowledge, the extension of the production boundary, the expansion of international trade and the creation of the conditions for an integral development. Furthermore, given the characteristics of biotechnology as a new phenomenon, wto has become the field within where a number of disputes take place, disputes which not only controvert trade issues, but also the State’s limits to design and apply public policies on the matter at issue. As a consequence, the present article seeks to, on the one hand, describe how Argentina built its public policy on Biotechnology and, on the other hand, analyze the challenges that Argentina faces within the multilateral trade system

  6. Optimal power transaction matrix rescheduling under multilateral open access environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, M.P.; Raoofat, M.; Haghifam, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses a new concept for determining optimal transactions between different entities in a multilateral environment while benefits of both buyer and seller entities are taken into account with respect to the rules of the system. At the same time, constraints of the network are met, which leads to an optimal power flow problem. A modified power transaction matrix is proposed for modeling the environment. The optimization method in this paper is the continuation method, which is suited for complex situations of power system studies. This complexity will become more serious when dual interaction between financial and electrical subsystems of competitive power system are taken into account. The proposed approach is tested on a typical network with satisfactory results. (author)

  7. Energy Technology Initiatives 2013. Implementation through Multilateral Co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring energy security and addressing climate change cost-effectively are key global challenges. Tackling these issues will require efforts from stakeholders worldwide. To find solutions, the public and private sectors must work together, sharing burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes. Through its broad range of multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements), the IEA enables member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-governmental organisations to share research on breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants and to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes across the energy sector. This publication highlights the most significant recent achievements of the IEA Implementing Agreements. At the core of the IEA energy technology network, these initiatives are a fundamental building block for facilitating the entry of new and improved energy technologies into the marketplace.

  8. Consultant management estimating tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Consultant Management Bureaus primary responsibilities are to negotiate staffing hours/resources with : engineering design consultants, and to monitor the consultant's costs. Currently the C...

  9. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  10. A thirsty dragon. Rising Chinese crude oil demand and prospects for multilateral energy security cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causevic, Amar

    2012-07-01

    The Chinese appetite for energy could potentially result in two scenarios. Each of these will systematically be developed and examined in the course of this paper. The pessimistic scenario foresees energy-driven foreign policy placing China in a dangerous confrontation with the U.S., Japan, the EU and India. American, Indian and Chinese navies are already competing across the Indian Ocean, with participants upgrading their naval forces, building deep-sea ports, constructing military bases and forging alliances across the Indian Ocean. They have not yet entered into conflict, but as their naval presence increases, the possibility of an armed clash grows. This scenario represents a 'nightmare option' that could have grave consequences for the entire globe, as the U.S., China, India and two EU members are all states armed with nuclear weapons. Conversely, an opposite scenario can be envisaged. A liberal integrationist perspective offers huge potential for multilateral energy security cooperation. Despite all tensions, China, the West and India are oil importers, and, as consumers, they could work together in fostering common strategies. What is more, their economies are mutually intertwined, and any conflict would bring about fatal collateral damage to the economic well-being of all parties. In short, China and America and potentially India could synchronize approaches to energy issues and address worries about growing global competition for crude oil. Being that as it may, China's further integration into multilateral energy organizations - notably the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Energy Agency (IEA) - will not be an easy task. Introduction of the new standards and requirements could be a burden for Chinese economic development. Membership in the IEA would reduce freedom in energy policy-making as it requires intelligencesharing, market liberalization and surrendering a certain degree of national

  11. OECD sarjab II samba peatamist / Erik Müürsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Erik

    2009-01-01

    OECD peab II pensionisamba maksete peatamist taunitavaks. OECD dokumendist, milles vaadeldakse praegu kriisiolukorda sattunud riikide käitumist pensionisüsteemi kujundamisel. Sotsiaalminister Hanno Pevkuri arvamus OECD soovituste kohta

  12. Activities of OECD NEA CSNI PWG3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    Activities of OECD NEA are connected with IAEA-IWG LMNPP, IAEA Nuclear safety, CEC-JRC, CEC-DG XI, CEC-DG XII and utilities UNIPEDE and WANO. The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) acts through working groups on Fuel Cycle safety; Operating Experiences and Human Factors; Coolant System Behaviour; Integrity of Components and Structures; Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases and Risk Assessment. Korea, Mexico, Hungary and Czech Republic are now members of OECD NEA, and the non OECD Countries like Russia, Ukraine, Slovakia, Lithuania can participate in workshops but not in regular committee meetings

  13. New multilateral approaches solving the nuclear energy dispute with Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heireng, Hege Schultz; Moezzi, Maryam; Kippe, Halvor

    2010-12-15

    The focus of this report is on possible multilateral approaches for cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle. The aim is to contribute in finding diplomatic solutions to the Iranian nuclear dispute. The proposals challenge the traditional views of Iran#Right Single Quotation Mark#s role in the nuclear negotiations in particular, and in the international community in general. The report investigates the possibility of accepting Iran#Right Single Quotation Mark#s enrichment of uranium, under an enhanced safeguards regime, and through a multilateral cooperation on the production of nuclear fuel. In relation to this, the report also explores the benefits of including new actors in the proposed solutions. Two different models for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle cooperation with Iran will be presented. The aim of these models is to ensure greater transparency in Iran#Right Single Quotation Mark#s nuclear activities, in order to minimize the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons, while simultaneously presenting a solution that will be acceptable to Iran. The first model is a tripartite consortium model that consists of a cooperation between Kazakhstan, Iran and South Africa, in which these countries additionally cooperate with an IAEA-supervised international nuclear fuel bank. The second model is a nuclear fuel cycle cooperation between Iran and six of the countries bordering the Persian Gulf. In both models, the countries in question will be responsible for different parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Iran will be responsible for the uranium enrichment activities, but will have to give up all other fuel cycle activities. Another prerequisite is that Iran accepts not to store enriched uranium on Iranian soil. The report shows that the international community should consider accepting enrichment of uranium on Iranian soil in the long-term. In addition, it is concluded that cooperation with Iran on the nuclear fuel cycle, where Iran is a reliable nuclear supplier

  14. Overview of nuclear data measurement facilities in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioux, P.; Rowlands, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    In 1992 EDF commissioned a review of activity in the fields of nuclear data for fission power technology applications in OECD countries. The review was carried out in cooperation with the consultants EUROGRAM. This paper presents a summary. The situation is of concern to the French nuclear industry because of the few measurement facilities which are now funded for work in the field and the reductions in the numbers of scientists expert in measurement and evaluation of nuclear data. There are requirements which justify work to improve knowledge of many items of nuclear data. To ensure maintenance of expertise the French Nuclear Industry has arranged for several young scientists to work with leading experts in the different fields. However, the problem of continued availability of facilities remains. (authors)

  15. Eesti allkirjastas liitumislepingu OECD-ga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Peaminister Andrus Ansip ja OECD peasekretär Angel Gurria allkirjastasid 3. juunil 2010. a. Stenbocki majas Eesti liitumislepingu. Samal päeval kohtus president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Angel Gurriaga Kadriorus

  16. Longer-term impact of cardiology e-consults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Jason H; Rao, Sandhya K; Kalwani, Neil; Chittle, Melissa D; Richardson, Calvin A; Gallen, Kathleen M; Isselbacher, Eric M; Kimball, Alexandra B; Ferris, Timothy G

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac e-consults may be an effective way to deliver value-oriented outpatient cardiology care in an accountable care organization. Initial results of cardiac e-consults have demonstrated high satisfaction among both patients and referring providers, no known adverse events, and low rates of diagnostic testing. Nevertheless, differences between e-consults and traditional consults, effects of e-consults on traditional consult volume, and whether patients seek traditional consults after e-consults are unknown. We established a cardiac e-consult program on January 13, 2014. We then conducted detailed medical record reviews of all patients with e-consults to detect any adverse clinical events and detect subsequent traditional visits to cardiologists. We also performed 2 comparisons. First, we compared age, gender, and referral reason for e-consults vs traditional consults. Second, we compared changes in volume of referrals to cardiology vs other medical specialties that did not have e-consults. From January 13 to December 31, 2014, 1,642 traditional referrals and 165 e-consults were requested. The proportion of e-consults of all evaluations requested over that period was 9.1%. Gender balance was similar among traditional consults and e-consults (44.8% male for e-consults vs 45.0% for traditional consults, P = .981). E-consult patients were younger than traditional consult patients (55.3 vs 60.4 years, P cardiology visit during the follow-up period. E-consults are an effective and safe mechanism to enhance value in outpatient cardiology care, with low rates of bounceback to traditional consults. E-consults can account for nearly one-tenth of total outpatient consultation volume at 1 year within an accountable care organization and are associated with a reduction in traditional referrals to cardiologists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. OECD Reviews of School Resources : Austria 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The OECD Reviews of School Resources explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as public funding of individual schools; human resources, such as teachers, school leaders and education administrators; physical resources, such as location, buildin...

  19. Security in the Americas: A Move to Multilateralism in a Unilateral World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boudreau, George

    2000-01-01

    A "wave of democracy" has swept through Latin America and the Caribbean Basin. In order to keep pace with the changing environment, multilateralism has replaced the historic unilateral stance with regard to U.S...

  20. Energy Technology Initiatives - Implementation Through Multilateral Co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    New technologies will be critical in addressing current global energy challenges such as energy security. More must be done, however, to push forward the development and deployment of the technologies we need today and will need in the future. Government leaders have repeatedly underlined the crucial role of industry and businesses in advancing energy technologies and the importance of strong collaboration among all stakeholders to accelerate technology advances. To attain these goals, increased co-operation between industries, businesses and government energy technology research is indispensable. The public and private sectors must work together, share burdens and resources, while at the same time multiplying results and outcomes. The 42 multilateral technology initiatives (Implementing Agreements) supported by the IEA are a flexible and effective framework for IEA member and non-member countries, businesses, industries, international organisations and non-government organisations to research breakthrough technologies, to fill existing research gaps, to build pilot plants, to carry out deployment or demonstration programmes -- in short to encourage technology-related activities that support energy security, economic growth and environmental protection. This publication highlights the significant accomplishments of the IEA Implementing Agreements.

  1. A multilateral modelling of Youth Soccer Performance Index (YSPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki, Ahmad; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Juahir, Hafizan; Abdullah, Farhana; Ain Shahirah Abdullah, Nurul; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Musliha Mat-Rasid, Siti; Adnan, Aleesha; Azura Kosni, Norlaila; Muhamad, Wan Siti Amalina Wan; Afiqah Mohamad Nasir, Nur

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to identify the most dominant factors that influencing performance of soccer player and to predict group performance for soccer players. A total of 184 of youth soccer players from Malaysia sport school and six soccer academy encompasses as respondence of the study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were computed to identify the most dominant factors whereas reducing the initial 26 parameters with recommended >0.5 of factor loading. Meanwhile, prediction of the soccer performance was predicted by regression model. CFA revealed that sit and reach, vertical jump, VO2max, age, weight, height, sitting height, calf circumference (cc), medial upper arm circumference (muac), maturation, bicep, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, 5M, 10M, and 20M speed were the most dominant factors. Further index analysis forming Youth Soccer Performance Index (YSPI) resulting by categorizing three groups namely, high, moderate, and low. The regression model for this study was significant set as p < 0.001 and R2 is 0.8222 which explained that the model contributed a total of 82% prediction ability to predict the whole set of the variables. The significant parameters in contributing prediction of YSPI are discussed. As a conclusion, the precision of the prediction models by integrating a multilateral factor reflecting for predicting potential soccer player and hopefully can create a competitive soccer games.

  2. Multilateral controls of nuclear fuel-cycle in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jor-Shan

    2010-01-01

    To meet increasing energy demand and climate change issues, nuclear energy is expected to expand during the next decades in both developed and developing countries. This expansion, most visibly in Asian countries would no doubt be accompanied with complex and intractable challenges to global peace and security, notably in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. What to do with the growing stocks of spent fuel in existing nuclear programs? And how to reduce proliferation concerns when spent fuels are generated in less stable regions of the world? The answers to these questions may lie in the possibility of multilateral (or regional) control of nuclear materials and technologies in the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle. One of the areas of interest is technology, e.g., spent fuel treatment (reprocessing) for long term sustainability and environmental-friendly disposal of radioactive wastes, as an alternative to directly disposing spent fuel in geologic repository. The other is to seek for regional centers for centralized interim spent fuel storage which can eventually turn into disposal facilities. Such centers could help facilitate the possibilities of spent fuel take-back/take-away from countries located in less stable regions for fix-period storage. (author)

  3. Expansion of Tubular with Elastomers in Multilateral Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Velden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid expandable tubular technology during the last decade has focused on solving many challenges in well drilling and delivery including zonal isolation, deep drilling, conservation of hole sizes, etc. not only as pioneered solution but also providing cost effective and long lasting solutions. Concurrently, the technology was extended for construction of multilateral in typical wells. The process of horizontal tubular expansion is similar to the vertical expansion of expandable tubular in down-hole environment with the addition of uniformly distributed force due to its weight. The expansion is targeted to increase its diameter such that post expansion characteristics remain within allowable limits. In this study a typical expandable tubular of 57.15 mm outer diameter and 6.35 mm wall thickness was used with two different elastomer seals of 5 and 7 mm thickness placed at equal spacing of 200 mm. The developed stress contours during expansion process clearly showed the high stress areas in the vicinity of expansion region which lies around the mandrel. These high stresses may result in excessive wear of the mandrel. It was also found out that the drawing force increases as the mandrel angle, expansion ratio, and friction coefficient increases. A mandrel angle of 20o  requires minimum expansion force and can be considered as an optimum geometrical parameter to lower the power required for expansion.

  4. The Political Economy of Bilateralism and Multilateralism: Institutional Choice in Trade and Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Rixen, Thomas; Rohlfing, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    Trade relations are governed by the multilateral GATT, whereas the avoidance of international double taxation rests on a network of around 2000 bilateral treaties. Given the two regimes’ similar economic rationales this difference between bilateralism in international double tax avoidance and multilateralism in the trade regime poses an empirical puzzle. In this paper we develop an answer to this puzzle. Differentiating between different stages of international cooperation, we first describe ...

  5. A multilateral tax treaty: designing an instrument to modernise international tax law

    OpenAIRE

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author addresses the legal and political aspects of a multilateral tax treaty that fundamentally transforms the way states cooperate in the field of international taxation. Working from a normative and pragmatic view on international tax relations, he proposes a management-focused approach to multilateral cooperation in international taxation. The resulting managerial framework treaty is drawn up on the basis of insights from political science and legal philosophy and is ill...

  6. The Transition from Alliance Networks to Multilateral Alliances in the Global Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio G. Lazzarini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines conditions in which alliance networks (informal webs of bilateral entanglements between firms may or may not evolve into multilateral alliances (broad, formal multiple-firm arrangements. I offer a theory to explain the formation of multilateral alliances based on both the resource profile and the structure of existing interfirm networks, and provide an initial test of that theory in the context of the global airline industry. Using data from 75 global airlines and their alliances, I propose a methodology to retrieve samples of alliance networks and then use regression analysis to assess how the resource profile and the structure of these networks influence their formalization into multilateral alliances. I find that multilateral alliances are more likely to emerge when alliance networks exhibit high resource diversity and network structure characterized by moderate density and high centralization. Apparently, while highly sparse networks reduce actors’ awareness of their potential joint collaboration, highly dense or embedded networks substitute for the need for formal controls accompanying multilateral agreements. The effect of centralization suggests that the formation of multilateral alliances tends to be triggered by leading actors directly connected to other network members.

  7. OECD-FIRE PR02. OECD-FIRE database record structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, L.

    2005-12-01

    In the coding guidelines, the scope, format, and details of any record required to input a real fire event at a nuclear reactor unit to the international OECD-FIRE database are described in detail. The database was set up in the OECD-FIRE-PR02 code

  8. Tribal Consultation Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The consultation-related information the AIEO Consultation Team working with our Tribal Portal contractors has developed a Lotus Notes Database that is capable of...

  9. Climate change policies in the OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staahle, C.

    1993-01-01

    The author focuses on the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED), held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, and on carbon taxation. At the UNCED the Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed by 154 countries. This convention is intended to guide policy makers, and takes into account the great differences that exist between countries with regard to their ability to cater and pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions. It is pointed out that since 1985 the share of CO 2 emissions from non-OECD countries has exceeded that of OECD countries. An overview is given of stated OECD targets on CO 2 emission reductions. The global impact of reductions in OECD countries alone will be limited: if all targets are met, global emissions will be growing with 19% in the coming ten years, compared to 22% in a 'business-as-usual' scenario. It was noted that only very few OECD countries have developed action plans or implemented carbon taxes that could make their targets attainable. Details were given on carbon taxes now in place. It is concluded that no progress will be made if developing countries are not included in climate change policies. Also much work remains to be done in developed countries to meet emission reduction or stabilization targets. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Bioethics Consultations and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jennie

    2011-01-01

    Making difficult healthcare decisions is often helped by consultation with a bioethics committee. This article reviews the main bioethics principles, when it is appropriate and how to call a bioethics consult, ethical concerns, and members of the consult team. Bioethics resources are included.

  11. 3 CFR - Tribal Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Recommendations for improving the plans and making the tribal consultation process more effective, if any, should... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tribal Consultation Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of November 5, 2009 Tribal Consultation Memorandum for the Heads of Executive...

  12. Overview of the OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanza, C.

    2000-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project is an international network dedicated to enhancing the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. The project operates under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and aims at addressing and resolving issues relevant to safety as they emerge in the nuclear community. This paper gives a concise presentation of the project's goals and of its technical infrastructure. The paper also contains a brief overview of results from the ongoing programme and of the main issues contemplated for the next three-year programme period (2000-2002). (author)

  13. Advanced multilateration theory, software development, and data processing: The MICRODOT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobal, P. R.; Gallagher, J. F.; Vonroos, O. H.

    1976-01-01

    The process of geometric parameter estimation to accuracies of one centimeter, i.e., multilateration, is defined and applications are listed. A brief functional explanation of the theory is presented. Next, various multilateration systems are described in order of increasing system complexity. Expected systems accuracy is discussed from a general point of view and a summary of the errors is listed. An outline of the design of a software processing system for multilateration, called MICRODOT, is presented next. The links of this software, which can be used for multilateration data simulations or operational data reduction, are examined on an individual basis. Functional flow diagrams are presented to aid in understanding the software capability. MICRODOT capability is described with respect to vehicle configurations, interstation coordinate reduction, geophysical parameter estimation, and orbit determination. Numerical results obtained from MICRODOT via data simulations are displayed both for hypothetical and real world vehicle/station configurations such as used in the GEOS-3 Project. These simulations show the inherent power of the multilateration procedure.

  14. Education Systems and Multilateral Development Banks: International Practices and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Morozkina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of multilateral development banks (MDBs in financing education development at the national level. It evaluates the share of national expenditures spent on education, analyzes loan structures by stage of education, and highlights key measures and instruments. In the context of the global economic slowdown, expected to continue for the long term, the most important objective is to identify new drivers of economic growth as traditional sources are exhausted. One of the main sources of economic growth is human capital, especially with regard to the gradual transition from an industrial economy to a service and knowledge economy. Human capital accumulation is particularly important in developing countries. Most developing countries face insuperable obstacles in building human capital accumulation particularly with regard to education development. The potential contribution of MDBs to human capital accumulation has been underestimated and there is a lack of empirical research on this issue. An evaluation of current experience will help identify opportunities for MDBs to increase their role in education performance, which in turn could have a positive impact on economic growth in developing countries. This article addresses this issue by studying MDBs’ financing of education projects in emerging economies. The authors collected a database that includes information on the volume and structure of financing with a breakdown by education stage. It was based on more than 500 projects funded by key MDBs. Sources included loan and grant agreements, project interim reports and project completion reports. The authors calculated an average annual ratio of MDB education financing to public expenditure for each country in the final selection. Results showed that the ratio of average annual MDBs allocations to average government expenditures on education is relatively low — between 1.5% and 4.0% for most countries. The largest

  15. OECD migration, welfare and skill selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    into 27 OECD countries over the period of 12 years, 1989-2000. Using a fixed effects panel data model, we analyze the determinants of the migration flows during the latest decade. We study whether there are significant selectivity effects in international migration flows, i.e. whether the countries...

  16. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of conditional convergence helps to both better describe and explain the phenomenon. By applying error correction models, we examine conditional convergence of various types of social expenditure in 21 OECD countries between 1980 and 2005. Our empirical findings go beyond the existing literature in two respects...

  17. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  18. The Contemporary Consultant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Thomas; Poulfelt, Flemming; Greiner, Larry

    This book complements The handbook of Management Consulting: The Contemporary Consultant: Insights from Leading Experts, 1e but can also be studied separately. The book consists of 20 cases including Harvard and Stanford cases. The cases present the broad range of topics that are pertinent to cur...... current management issues facing consulting firms. These cases, together with the handbook, will prepare consultants and other business managers for a successful future in a highly competitive consulting environment.......This book complements The handbook of Management Consulting: The Contemporary Consultant: Insights from Leading Experts, 1e but can also be studied separately. The book consists of 20 cases including Harvard and Stanford cases. The cases present the broad range of topics that are pertinent...... to current management consulting. Each of the four parts of the text presents a cogent introduction by the editors, delineating topics that are critical for today's consultants to understand. The cases represent major practice areas of consulting and afford new insights into change processes and other...

  19. The Chiang Mai Initiative and Its Multilateralization: Toward an Asian Monetary Fund?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngwon Cho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a regional self-help system of liquidity support established in the aftermath of the Asian crisis of 1997, the Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI and its recent multilateralization have been touted in some quarters as important achievements in a region where institutionalized financial cooperation had been sorely lacking, taking East Asia one step closer to the resuscitation of the still-born Asian Monetary Fund. Against such a sanguine assessment, I argue that the significance of the CMI, even after its multilateralization, is largely limited to symbolism and its practical implications are inconsequential. Despite the progress associated with CMI multilateralization, the underlying political dynamics in the region render East Asia fundamentally incapable of producing a coherent regional solution to the recurring problem of global financial instability.

  20. Renewable energy and macroeconomic efficiency of OECD and non-OECD economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Taichen; Hu, Jin-Li

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes the effects of renewable energy on the technical efficiency of 45 economies during the 2001-2002 period through data envelopment analysis (DEA). In our DEA model, labor, capital stock, and energy consumption are the three inputs and real GDP is the single output. Increasing the use of renewable energy improves an economy's technical efficiency. Conversely, increasing the input of traditional energy decreases technical efficiency. Compared to non-OECD economies, OECD economies have higher technical efficiency and a higher share of geothermal, solar, tide, and wind fuels in renewable energy. However, non-OECD economies have a higher share of renewable energy in their total energy supply than OECD economies

  1. TRADE AND POLITICS IN THE PACIFIC AREA:TRENDS IN MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Bonciu

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the ongoing multilateral trade negotiations from the Asia – Pacific area in the larger context of the shift of the economic center of the world economy from the Atlantic to the Pacific area. The high economic dynamism of the region has been accompanied in the past two decades by the establishment of a large number of bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements that included in many cases regulations on investments and other topics. In the wake of the Doha Round of nego...

  2. The art of consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulwant S Bhangoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophisticated marketing and practice-enhancing strategies can help bring patients to a surgeon′s practice. However, the ability to retain these patients and also convert the consultations into surgical procedures depends on the art of consultation. This very important aspect of clinical practice is seldom taught in the medical school. In this paper, the author discusses many aspects of the art of consultation, which he has learned in his practice over the years.

  3. The art of consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangoo, Kulwant S

    2014-05-01

    Sophisticated marketing and practice-enhancing strategies can help bring patients to a surgeon's practice. However, the ability to retain these patients and also convert the consultations into surgical procedures depends on the art of consultation. This very important aspect of clinical practice is seldom taught in the medical school. In this paper, the author discusses many aspects of the art of consultation, which he has learned in his practice over the years.

  4. Ethics in Management Consulting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Vallini

    2007-01-01

    Ethics is a relevant value in business and management consulting. The presence of recognized ethics tends to reduce the need for informative or legal-contractual precautions in the formalization of relationships, for both of the parts involved in a negotiation. Management Consulting on ethics will develop more and more. Law will consider more and more ethics in business and management consulting. The ethics of corporations influences their workers and behaviour with the customers. It is an e...

  5. OECD - kvaliteedimärk kogu riigile / Keit Kasemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasemets, Keit

    2010-01-01

    Majanduskoostöö ja Arengu Organisatsiooni (OECD) liikme staatus loob Eesti majanduspoliitika ja teiste oluliste poliitikate arendamisel uusi võimalusi. OECD faktides, praegused liikmesriigid ja nende liitumisaeg

  6. OECD ukse avamine tooks siia raha / Harry Tuul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuul, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Poola pensionifondid ei taha Eestisse investeerida, sest Eesti ei kuulu Majandusliku Koostöö ja Arengu Organisatsiooni. Vt. samas: OECD liikmeskond; Romet Kreek. OECD ukse avamine tooks siia raha. Kommenteerib Andre Nõmm

  7. Inpatient Consultative Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbroeck, Lauren K; Shinohara, Michi M

    2015-11-01

    Dermatology consultation can improve diagnostic accuracy in the hospitalized patient with cutaneous disease. Dermatology consultation can streamline and improve treatment plans, and potentially lead to cost savings. Dermatology consultants can be a valuable resource for education for trainees, patients, and families. Inpatient consultative dermatology spans a breadth of conditions, including inflammatory dermatoses,infectious processes, adverse medication reactions, and neoplastic disorders, many of which can be diagnosed based on dermatologic examination alone, but when necessary, bedside skin biopsies can contribute important diagnostic information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Consultation Models Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawaz, S.; Khan, Zulfiquar A.; Mossa, Samir Y.

    2006-01-01

    A new definition is proposed for analyzing the consultation in the primary health care, integrating other models of consultation and provides a framework by which general practitioners can apply the principles of consultation using communication skills to reconcile the respective agenda and autonomy of both doctor and patient into a negotiated agreed plan, which includes both management of health problems and health promotion. Achieving success of consultations depends on time and mutual cooperation between patient and doctor showed by doctor-patient relationship. (author)

  9. Can fuel services supply be secured? Building trust in a multi-lateral approach to nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine, B. [Engineering Systems Division, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Room E40-261, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rodriguez-Vieitez, E. [Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, One Brattle Sq., Room 503, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Global climate change and concerns about energy supply security fuelling the nuclear desires of an increasing number of states, there is growing interest within the nonproliferation community to promote the establishment of an international system for the provision of nuclear fuel cycle services that would be 'equitable and accessible to all users of nuclear energy' (Rauf, 2008) while reducing proliferation risks. Although the idea was already voiced on the cradle of civilian use of nuclear energy (Baruch, 1946), the IAEA director's 2003 call for a group of international experts to examine the issue (ElBaradei, 2003) triggered renewed interest that resulted in up to twelve different proposals for multilateral nuclear fuel cycle arrangements (Rauf, 2008; Simpson, 2008). Nonproliferation experts have examined the conditions under which equitable and accessible access to enrichment, reprocessing and spent fuel disposal services can be granted to all users (Rauf, 2008; Braun 2006; Pellaud and al 2005). They suggested putting together multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA) that could consist in the establishment of mechanisms to assure fuel cycle services, or the shared ownership by recipient and host countries of fuel services facilities through either the creation of new multilateral centers or the conversion of existing national facilities into multinational enterprises. While countries that possess nuclear fuel facilities would benefit from the increased global security and strengthened non-proliferation situation that would result from the establishment of these MNAs, they would also be baited into participating by possible attraction of foreign investments as well as the opportunity to export high value services (Rushkin, 2006). Yet, what incentives would there be for a recipient non-nuclear state to participate in an arrangement that would intrinsically strip it of its sovereign right to ensure its fuel supply security? In addition to the economic

  10. Estonia ready to contribute to OECD / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Eestis visiidil viibinud OECD peasekretär Angel Gurria kohtus president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja peaminister Andrus Ansipiga. Kohtumistel räägiti Eesti liitumisest OECD-ga. Andrus Ansip ja Angel Gurria kirjutasid alla Eesti ühinemislepingule OECD-ga

  11. Quarterly coal statistics of OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-27

    These quarterly statistics contain data from the fourth quarter 1990 to the fourth quarter 1991. The first set of tables (A1 to A30) show trends in production, trade, stock change and apparent consumption data for OECD countries. Tables B1 to B12 show detailed statistics for some major coal trade flows to and from OECD countries and average value in US dollars. A third set of tables, C1 to C12, show average import values and indices. The trade data have been extracted or derived from national and EEC customs statistics. An introductory section summarizes trends in coal supply and consumption, deliveries to thermal power stations; electricity production and final consumption of coal and tabulates EEC and Japanese steam coal and coking coal imports to major countries.

  12. Resource recovery and recycling in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, J.W.

    It was the importance of the economic issues relevant to resource recovery and re-use that prompted OECD to become involved in this general area, and the author proposes in this talk to describe the principal features of the three main approaches to waste management from an economic perspective. These approaches are reduction of waste generation (i.e. birth control) resource recovery and materials recycling or re-use (reincarnation). Most of OECD's work in this area to date has been on the third of these approaches with particular emphasis on the economics of recycling, so somewhat more attention will be devoted to it. Then some conclusions will be drawn concerning possible policy actions to encourage a rational approach to management of this resource.

  13. Making consultations run smoothly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Astrid Pernille; Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the skilful use of time in general practice consultations. It argues that consultation work involves social and material interactions, which are only partially conceptualized in existing medical practice literatures. As an alternative, this article employs ideas from the......-inspired analysis opens up a wider discussion of time as a complex resource and problem in general practice....

  14. The Dream Consultant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Kirkegaard, Line

    2013-01-01

    Consultants are known to work extreme hours. We show empirically how consultants fantasize about off-work activities, which are impossible to realize with their work schedule. These fantasies are, however, not obstructing their work, but important to justify the extreme hours and sustain desire f...

  15. Broadband and Unbundling Regulations in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Broadband penetration and available speeds vary widely across OECD countries. Policymakers around the world, and especially in countries like the U.S. that lag in the rankings, are searching for policies to narrow those gaps. Relatively little empirical work tests possible reasons for these differences. In this paper I test the impacts of regulations and demographics on broadband development in a panel dataset across countries. In addition to adding to the meager empirical literature on broad...

  16. Globalization and Social Justice in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Kauder; Niklas Potrafke

    2015-01-01

    Social justice is a topic of importance to social scientists and also political decision makers. We examine the relationship between globalization and social justice as measured by a new indicator for 31 OECD countries. The results show that countries that experienced rapid globalization enjoy social justice. When the KOF index of globalization increases by one standard deviation, the social justice indicator increases by about 0.4 points (on a scale from 1 to 10). The policy implication is t...

  17. Energy demand in seven OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patry, M.

    1990-01-01

    The intensity of utilization of energy has been declining in all OECD countries since the first oil price shock of 1973. In 1988, the OECD countries were consuming 1.7 billion tonnes of crude oil, that is two hundred million tonnes less than fifteen years ago. From 1974 to 1988, OECD oil consumption decreased at an average annual rate of 1.3% while the GDP of these countries rose by an average of 2.6% per annum. The authors present here a model of sectoral energy demand and interfuel substitution for the G-7 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. The ultimate goal is to determine the relative importance of the contributing factors to the observed reversal in energy consumption per unit of production in these countries. The results they present should be viewed as preliminary. They point in the paper to a number of extensions that should improve the theoretical quality of the modeling effort and the statistical robustness of the results. They are presently expanding the data set to pinpoint more adequately the effects of structural change and conservation

  18. MULTILATERALISM AND THE EMERGENCE OF ‘MINILATERALISM’ IN EU PEACE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Attinà

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the multilateral practice of peacekeeping and peace support operations has been growing as legitimate instrument to interrupt violence, strengthen security, and protect against gross human rights violations. Invented by the United Nations, peace operations have passed through a process of change that has given new features to multilateral security. Since the late 1980s, the number of UN-authorized peace operations has been growing. Also regional organisations have engaged themselves in an unprecedented number of peace support operations. Recently, the European Union has entered into the practice of peacekeeping, and put multilateralism at the centre of its presence in the world political system. This paper reviews political science knowledge on peace operations (especially, the legitimacy and efficacy issues, and examines the hypothesis of the appearance of minilateralism as the consequence of the engagement of regional organisations and actors, like the EU, in peace operations. The hypothesis is tested by comparing the data of the peace missions of three European organisations (EU, OSCE, and NATO with those of the United Nations. The paper conclusion is that the European states are developing a preference for selective engagement (i.e. minilateralism in peace operations, and the EU is capable of playing both as multilateral and minilateral security provider.

  19. Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

  20. Coalbed methane recovery from multilateral horizontal wells in Southern Qinshui Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenggui Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006, more than 80 multilateral horizontal wells have been drilled in Panzhuang block, Southern Qinshui Basin. In this paper, 6 typical wells in a region are selected as an example. The thickness of coal, gas content, reservoir pressure, permeability, burial depth, and reservoir pressure conditions are analyzed. The practice shows that production by multilateral horizontal well declines from 43,111 m3/day per well in the 2nd year to 25,126 m3/day per well in the 4th year. The numerical simulation result shows that the lateral interference forms in Well QNP05 after two years of gas production, and the gas content is reduced to less than 8 m3/t within the controlled region after six years. The area of gas content was less than 8 m3/t after eight years of gas production is about 3.2 km2, which is about 76% of the controlled area of the six multilateral horizontal wells. The results indicate that multilateral horizontal wells contribute to high production rates at potentially profitable levels and can also serve as an effective tool for a high-rank CBM field drainage.

  1. WTO’s information technology agreement (ITA and its expansion (ITA II: multilateralizing regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Capucio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind the complex context of the relationship between multilateralism and regionalism, the conclusion of plurilateral agreements within the WTO, open to participation of all interested members, offers a multilateral perspective of regionalism, in which the benefits of partial consensus are to be extended to the multilateral sphere. The ITA - Information Technology Agreement - is mentioned as an example of this possibility, and its recent expansion, through the negotiation of the ITA II, demonstrates the strengthening of this multilateralisation trend of regionalism, although with special features. Thus, this article is developed drawing the context and introduction of the theme of regionalism and multilateralism, and presents the theory of multilateralisation of regionalism and the ITA as one of those experiences, and its recent expansion as a resumption of the relevance of this theory. Considering the impasses for the conclusion of the Doha Round, the expansion of these partial consensus and the continuation of negotiations at the World Trade Organization by the conclusion of sectoral plurilateral agreements emerges as a possible way out, which demands a re-architecture of the interpretation of the role of the WTO in the global economic governance.

  2. A Model of Solid Waste Management Based Multilateral Co-Operation in Semi-Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabhandhu, Chanchai; Woraphong, Seree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to construct a model of solid waste management based on multilateral cooperation in semi-urban community. Its specific objectives were to 1) study the solid waste situation and involvement of community in the solid waste management in Wangtaku Sub-district, Muang District, Nakhon Pathom Province; 2) construct a…

  3. Legitimacy and the Making of International Tax Law : The Challenges of Multilateralism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analyse the multilateral action and instruments that have been and are being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) to enhance transparency and exchange of information and the Base Erosion Profit Shifting (“BEPS”) Project in light of

  4. A multilateral tax treaty : designing an instrument to modernise international tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author addresses the legal and political aspects of a multilateral tax treaty that fundamentally transforms the way states cooperate in the field of international taxation. Working from a normative and pragmatic view on international tax relations, he proposes a management-focused

  5. International nuclear proliferation: multilateral diplomacy and regional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, A.

    1979-01-01

    Confidential interviews with about 200 officials at 18 nuclear research sites around the world form the background for this discussion of the proliferation issues as they affect the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Critics of the NPT cite its narrow focus on horizontal proliferation and its failures in the areas of vertical proliferation, nuclear technology transfers, heavy-water-reactor systems, and safeguards. The international negotiations necessary to resolve these issues and the difficulty of reaching a global consensus indicate a need to restructure the U.S. decision process before diplomacy can progress. The book discusses the history and nature of proliferation and its relationship to multinational diplomacy; the problems of permanent and workable safeguards; and regional political ramifications in the creeping dependencies of South Asia, apartheid in South Africa, militarization in Japan, and the nuclearization of Brazil and Argentina. The analysis concludes that central issues were not settled by the NPT and that U.S. failures to speak without consulting allies may mean that a bilateral rather than multinational approach should be tried. 105 references, 5 figures, 12 tables. (DCK)

  6. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  7. Knowledge Sharing in IT Consultant and SME Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Bradshaw

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many small and medium enterprises (SMEs depend on consultants to overcome knowledge barriers, especially for IT projects. This paper aims to determine how IT consultants affect the IT knowledge of SMEs when IT consultants and SMEs interact. Data were collected using face-to-face interviews with both IT consultants and SME managers. The study is the first to identify what and how SMEs learn from consultants during an IT implementation project. Consultants help SMEs gain different types of knowledge, employing a broad range of knowledge sharing mechanisms. As consultants are an important part of the knowledge creation processes of SMEs, SMEs should strive to form long-term relationships with consultants and use these interactions to develop IT knowledge within the SME.

  8. Housing market volatility in the OECD area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    2014-01-01

    Vector-autoregressive models are used to decompose housing returns in 18 OECD countries into cash flow (rent) news and discount rate (return) news over the period 1970-2011. For the jajority of countries news about future returns is the main driver, and both real interest rates and risk-premia play...... an important role in accounting for housing market volatility. Bivariate cross-country correlations and principal components analyses indicate that part of the return movements have a common factor among the majority of countries. We explain the results in terms of global changes in credit constraints...

  9. Budgeting and Accounting in OECD Education Systems: A Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 128

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharzadeh, Tala

    2016-01-01

    Recent demographic, economic and political trends have drawn attention to the issue of effectiveness and efficiency in the use of resources in the education sector. In the context of the renewed interest for the optimisation of resource use, this paper attempts to review the literature on budgeting and accounting in OECD education systems. The…

  10. Education and Obesity in Four OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Franco; Devaux, Marion; Church, Jody; Cecchini, Michele; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years. Existing evidence provides strong suggestions that such epidemic has affected certain social groups more than others. In particular, education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of obesity, especially among women. A range of analyses of…

  11. Consulting Basics for the Teacher-Turned-Technology Consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Sue; Green, Kathy

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the role of educational technology consultants who may be classroom teachers with no formal training in consulting. Consulting models are described, including content-oriented and process-oriented approaches; Schein's process facilitator model is examined; and Kurpius' consulting model is explained and expanded. (LRW)

  12. Multilateral Development Banks and Their Role in Supporting European SMEs during the Current Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel Anton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the ongoing financial crisis on the availability of finance to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs represents an important topic nowadays. The access to finance for SMEs is a major barrier for their growth, especially during severe conditions such as the global financial crisis. Financing the SMEs represents a priority for the most of the multilateral development banks. The aim of the paper is to analyze the activity of European multilateral development banks - European Investment Bank Group and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - in the support of SMEs. We found that SMEs financing increased during the period 2008-2011 and the international financial institutions took several measures in order to improve the SMEs access to finance.

  13. The good multilateralists: Brazil and South Africa in the new area of multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mantzikos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine two of the world’s emerging middle powers Brazil and South Africa, the rise and promulgation of their cooperative strategies to reform institutions such as the United Nations Security Council. The article tries to examine the instrumental nature of South African and Brazilian foreign policy within the framework of both countries’ commitment to multilateralism and if this has been rising as part of a new form of shallow multilateralism or a regenerated regionalism of the South. Moreover, with regards to recent crises in Honduras and Zimbabwe, we will try to offer a critical evaluation of both countries global standing and their effort to promote democratic values in regional and sub-regional levels.

  14. Impact of multilateral congestion management on the reliability of power transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.B.; Da Silva, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the electricity industry has caused an increase in the number of transactions in the energy market. These transactions are defined by market forces without considering operational constraints of the transmission system. Consequently, there are transactions that cause congestion in the transmission network. This paper has as objective to assess the impact of multilateral congestion management on the reliability of power transactions. This assessment is based on reliability indices such as expected power curtailments, curtailment probability, expected cost of congestion management and probability distributions of the total power curtailment. Tests results with IEEE RTS-1996 demonstrate that the multilateral management results in smaller curtailments and congestion costs than traditional bilateral management. (author)

  15. What is the appropriate counterfactual when estimating effects of multilateral trade policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kym; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Nelgen, Signe

    2016-01-01

    the counterfactual price distortions in 2030 are shown to be much larger in the case where agricultural protection grows endogenously than in the case assuming no policy changes over the projection period. This suggests the traditional way of estimating effects of a multilateral agricultural trade agreement may...... of the DDA’s possible effects thus requires first modelling the world economy to 2030 and, in that process, projecting what trade-related policies might be by then without a DDA. Typically, modelers assume the counterfactual policy regime to be a ‘business-as-usual’ projection assuming the status quo. Yet we...... by projecting the world economy to 2030 using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model with those two alternative policy regimes and then simulating a move to global free trade (the maximum benefit from a multilateral trade reform) in each of those two cases. The welfare effects of removing...

  16. Improvements to enforcement of multilateral environmental agreements to control international shipments of chemicals and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Somboon, Vira; Wun'gaeo, Surichai; Middleton, Carl; Tingsabadh, Charit; Limjirakan, Sangchan

    2016-06-01

    Illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals has caused severe damage on human health and the environment, and brought big challenges to countries to meet their commitments to related multilateral environmental agreements. Synergy-building, like organising law enforcement operations, is critical to address illegal trade in waste and chemicals, and further improve the effectiveness of environmental enforcement. This article discusses how and why law enforcement operations can help countries to implement chemical and waste-related multilateral environmental agreements in a more efficient and effective way. The research explores key barriers and factors for organising law enforcement operations, and recommends methods to improve law enforcement operations to address illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Multilateral Organization vs. Bilateral Negotiations: A Case of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namhoon Kwon

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, the issue of intellectual property rights (IPR protection gained a prominent place on the international trade agenda, which led to the establishment of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPs as a part of the WTO regime. Two questions are asked regarding this development: whether a multilateral organization such as the WTO performs better than bilateral negotiations in resolving IPR disputes, and what happened around the 1990s to create an environment favorable to the establishment of a multilateral organization. To deal with these issues, this paper takes the IPE (international political economy approach. Using a very simple game theory model, I derive the cases in which a multilateral organization has better performances. Then, it is used to show that political pressures due to the growth of the US trade deficit in the late 1980s could have been the reason that a multilateral organization became the institutional equilibrium.

  18. Shared consultant physician posts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    Our aim was to assess the acceptability and cost-efficiency of shared consultancy posts. Two consultant physicians worked alternate fortnights for a period of twelve months. Questionnaires were distributed to general practitioners, nurses, consultants and junior doctors affected by the arrangement. Patients or their next of kin were contacted by telephone. 1\\/17 of consultants described the experience as negative. 14\\/19 junior doctors reported a positive experience. 11 felt that training had been improved while 2 felt that it had been adversely affected. 17\\/17 GPs were satisfied with the arrangement. 1\\/86 nurses surveyed reported a negative experience. 1\\/48 patients were unhappy with the arrangement. An extra 2.2 (p<0.001) patients were seen per clinic. Length of stay was shortened by 2.49 days (p<0.001). A saving of 69,212 was made due to decreased locum requirements. We present data suggesting structured shared consultancy posts can be broadly acceptable and cost efficient in Ireland.

  19. True Multilateral Indexes for International Comparisons of Purchasing Power and Real Income

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Neary

    1997-01-01

    I consider the problem of choosing index numbers of purchasing power and real income for international comparisons. I show that the desirable properties of methods based on the Fisher "Ideal" index do not extend to multilateral comparisons, except when tastes are homothetic. By contrast, the Geary method, which underlies the Penn World Tables, provides an approximation to a set of "true" exchange rate indexes which have many desirable properties. In particular, if demands exhibit generalized ...

  20. Multilateral nuclear approaches (MNAs), factors and issues lessons from IAEA study to regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    2005-01-01

    In response to the increasing emphasis being placed on the importance of international cooperation as part of global efforts to cope with growing non proliferation, and security concerns in the nuclear field, the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mohammed Elbaradei, appointed an international group of experts to consider possible multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. The mandate of the Expert Group was three fold: · To identify and provide an analysis of issues and options relevant to multilateral approaches to the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; · To provide an overview of the policy, legal, security, economic, institutional and technological incentives and disincentives for cooperation in multilateral arrangements for the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; and · To provide a brief review of the historical and current experiences and analyses relating to multilateral fuel cycle arrangements relevant to the work of the Expert Group. The overall purpose was to assess MNAs in the framework of a double objective: strengthening the international nuclear non proliferation regime and making the peaceful uses of nuclear energy more economical and attractive. The Group identifies options for MNAs - options in terms of policy, institutional and legal factors - for those parts of the nuclear fuel cycle of greatest sensitivity from the point of view of proliferation risk. It also reflects the Groups deliberations on the corresponding benefits and disadvantages (pros and cons) of the various options and approaches. Although the Expert Group was able to agree to forward the resulting report to the Director General, it is important to note that the report does not reflect agreement by all of the experts on any of the options, nor a consensus assessment of their respective value. It is intended only to present options for MNAs, and to reflect on the range of considerations which could impact on the

  1. Multilateral agricultural trade liberalization: The contrasting fortunes of developing countries in the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Bureau; Antoine Bouet, Yvan Decreux, Sébastien Jean

    2005-01-01

    An applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the impact of multilateral trade liberalization in agriculture, with particular emphasis on developing countries. We use original data, and the model includes some specific features such as a dual labor market. Applied tariffs, including those under preferential regimes and regional agreements, are taken into account at the detailed product level, together with the corresponding bound tariffs on which countries negotiate. The various type...

  2. Suspension of the Doha Round of Multilateral Negotiations and the Need for Its Resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Dilip K.

    2008-01-01

    The Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTNs) has proved to be egregiously problem-prone. Due to deep dissension among WTO members it had to be suspended, and efforts to revive it have so far not succeeded. Although the mercantilist mindset of the participants has been frequently blamed for the consistently tardy progress of negotiations, there is more to the situation than just a mindset. This article methodically analyzes the various steps taken since the launch of the Doha Round...

  3. Are Preferential Trade Agreements with Non-trade Objectives a Stumbling Block for Multilateral Liberalization?

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Limão

    2007-01-01

    In many preferential trade agreements (PTAs), countries exchange not only reductions in trade barriers but also cooperation in non-trade issues such as labour and environmental standards, intellectual property, etc. We provide a model of PTAs motivated by cooperation in non-trade issues and analyse its implications for global free trade and welfare. We find that such PTAs increase the cost of multilateral tariff reductions and thus cause a stumbling block to global free trade. This occurs bec...

  4. Energy balances of OECD countries 1970/1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The present volume provides standardized energy balance sheets expressed in a common unit of tons of oil equivalent for all OECD Countries. It covers the years 1970 to 1982 year by year and includes many revisions and additions to data previously published. The balances in the present volume are based on data published in OECD Energy Statistics 1971-1981 and OECD Energy Statistics 1981-1982. Tables for each OECD Country include production, import, export, consumption by the different industries, transportation, agriculture, residential sector of the different energies: solid fuels, petroleum, gas, nuclear power and hydroelectricity [fr

  5. A multi-lateral trading model for coupled gas-heat-power energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yue; Wei, Wei; Liu, Feng; Mei, Shengwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Optimal energy flows in the gas, heat, and power systems are modeled in detail. •A multi-lateral trading model for the coupled energy markets is proposed. •A two-phase algorithm for computing the market equilibrium. •Case studies demonstrate that market competition pilots reasonable energy prices. -- Abstract: The proliferation of cogeneration technology and the need for more resilient energy utilization inspire the emerging trend of integration of multi-resource energy systems, in which natural gas, heat, and electricity are produced, delivered, converted, and distributed more efficiently and flexibly. The increasing interactions and interdependencies across heterogenous physical networks impose remarkable challenges on the operation and market organization. This paper envisions the market trading scheme in the network-coupled natural gas system, district heating system, and power system. Based on the physical energy flow models of each system and their interdependency, a multi-lateral trading gas-heat-power (MLT-GHP) model is suggested, and a mixed-integer linear programming based two-phase algorithm is developed to find the market equilibrium. Case studies on two testing systems demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and method, showing that the multi-lateral trading essentially results in market competition that orientates reasonable energy prices. Some prospects for future researches are also summarized.

  6. Multilateral approach to the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in Asia-Pacific?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Eunjung

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the nearly unprecedented scale of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident which caused countries around the world to review their nuclear power systems and to rethink their nuclear power expansion plans, nuclear power capacity continues to grow, spearheaded by the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific has become a major emerging market for nuclear energy industry, which indicates that the management of spent nuclear fuel is likely to be a nuisance for the countries in this region in the coming decades. By reviewing the history of discussions on multilateral approaches to the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and examining relevant empirical cases, this article aims to explore the feasibility of a multilateral approach to the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in this region and provide some policy suggestions to enhance nuclear governance in the Asia-Pacific. - Highlights: • The Asia-Pacific has become a huge emerging market for nuclear power industry. • Asian-Pacific countries operating reactors lack solution for spent nuclear fuel. • Multilateral approach is attractive, but hard to be realized. • The main obstacle is variations in policies for SNF management among the Asia-Pacific countries. • The country that should take its initiative in this field is the United States.

  7. State and multilateralism, a theoretical approach. Transformations in a globalized international society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma González del Miño

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The State, classical international actor, has had to readaption to the new dynamics in the International Society and has given prominence to other actors. In this logic, it´s relevant to analyze the role in the international system after the Cold War to evaluare whether it is still an actor capable of responding to the functional needs of the society. For this, reaffirms its commitment to multilateralism as a response to the main issue on the international agenda. Namely, is reactivated as an ideal tool to manage structural changes, despite the different interpretations of United States, the European Union or the BRICS. The object of this analysis contribute to the academic debate and focuses on studying the transformations of the State in the globalized international society where multilateralism has become a concept discussed and a common practice in the international discourse, despite its complexity and the different visions and interpretations by different actors. Multilateralism granted the State a path of cooperation and understanding as a guiding principle and foreign policy legitimizing discourse.

  8. European Security through EU-Russian Relations: Towards a New Multilateral Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fernandes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, the EU and Russia have managed to create an original framework for institutionalised cooperation despite asymmetric characteristics. Yet, the way these two main security actors interact has an impact on the (non-resolution of security issues in Europe, ranging from ‘‘frozen conflicts’’ to the discussion of the security architecture. Since the second mandate of President Putin, the relation has been characterised by two paradoxical features. On the one hand, the methodology and the domains of cooperation have reached a high degree of achievement. On the other hand, the political quality of the relationship has deteriorated and it is not able to achieve the desired ‘‘strategic partnership’’ that should be based on a common set of values and principles. This article aims to define multilateralism as a paradigm applicable to EU-Russian relations. It examines their relationship in the security and defence realm and the Union’s reactions to a new security approach by Russia since the 2008 Medvedev proposal. The article questions how the EU-Russian political dialogue impacts on multilateralism in the security field. The conclusion considers EU-Russian relations as a peculiar multilateral playground addressing common security challenges, which still needs to be developed further in order to be instrumental in the search for collective and legitimate solutions.

  9. Understanding the consultation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the consultation processes between industry, government and First Nations communities regarding resource development. The expectations of the Crown are to facilitate capacity building within First Nations, to promote traditional use studies and to participate with industry proponents on certain consultation issues. The role of industry is to encourage partnerships between established contractors and First Nations contracting firms to allow First Nations firms to grow and experience success under the guidance of a mentor company. It is important to realize that solid First Nations relations are the key to shorter time lines and lower costs in developing projects. However, consultation and involvement must be 'real' with benefits and participation that fall within the First Nations Communities' definition of success

  10. Calculating Production Rate of each Branch of a Multilateral Well Using Multi-Segment Well Model: Field Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Al-Jawad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multilateral wells require a sophisticated type of well model to be applied in reservoir simulators to represent them. The model must be able to determine the flow rate of each fluid and the pressure throughout the well. The production rate calculations are very important because they give an indication about some main issues associated with multi-lateral wells such as one branch may produce water or gas before others, no production rate from one branch, and selecting the best location of a new branch for development process easily. This paper states the way to calculate production rate of each branch of a multilateral well-using multi-segment well model. The pressure behaviour of each branch is simulated dependent on knowing its production rate. This model has divided a multi-lateral well into an arbitrary number of segments depending on the required degree of accuracy and run time of the simulator. The model implemented on a field example (multi-lateral well HF-65ML in Halfaya Oil Field/Mishrif formation. The production rate and pressure behaviour of each branch are simulated during the producing interval of the multilateral well. The conclusion is that production rate of the main branch is slightly larger than a lateral branch.

  11. OECD - HRP Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  12. Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2012 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent. Complete data are available for 2009 and 2010 and supply estimates are available for the most recent year (i.e.2011). Historical tables summarise production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. The book also includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to energy units. More detailed data in original units are published in the 2012 edition of Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, the sister volume of this publication.

  13. OECD - HRP Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures

  14. Fessenheim simulator for OECD Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudot, G.; Bonnissent, B.

    1998-01-01

    A full scope NPP simulator is presently under manufacture by THOMSON TRAINING and SIMULATION (TTandS) in Cergy (France) for the OECD HALDEN REACTOR PROJECT. The reference plant of this simulator is the Fessenheim CP0 PWR power plant operated by the French utility EDF, for which TTandS has delivered a full scope training simulator in mid 1997. The simulator for HALDEN Reactor Project is based on a software duplication of the Fessenheim simulator delivered to EDF, ported on the most recent computers and O.S. available. This paper outlines the main features of this new simulator generation which reaps benefit of the advanced technologies of the SIPA design simulator introduced inside a full scope simulator. This kind of simulator is in fact the synthesis between training and design simulators and offers therefore added technical capabilities well suited to HALDEN needs. (author)

  15. IMMIGRATION GROWTH TENDENCIES IN OECD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran SARIHASAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigration became one of the relevant economic topics in recent years. Over the centuries millions of people have migrated, despite the physical, cultural etc. obstacles, to other lands in search of better lives for themselves and their children. In the context of development, globalization and labor market mobility, it is necessary to further analyze the determinants and consequences of migration not only on the host country, but also on the sending country. The increased interest and availability of data keeps this subject in the attention of economists all over the world. In this case an increase in immigration became very significant ıssue for policymakers. The aims of this study are to describe immigration growth tendencies and to answer how much is the average growth rate of foreıgn born population. Thus, in order to measure the native and foreign-born unemployed migrants, twenty-seven OECD countries were used in this research paper.

  16. Overview of OECD/NEA BEPU Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amri, Abdallah; Gulliford, Jim; )

    2013-01-01

    The OECD/NEA paved the way for the development and assessment of BEPU for about 40 years, through concrete tasks: International Standard Problems (ISPs), Benchmarking activities, Development of Validation Matrices, Joint Safety Research Projects, and Specialist meetings. Several NEA related Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainties (BEPU) programmes have been successfully completed: Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS), Best-Estimate Methods - Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation (BEMUSE), Safety Margin Assessment and Application (SM2A), Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM) Benchmark. New Programmes are underway to address pending issues (e.g., input uncertainties, uncertainties in coupled codes). The present Workshop may highlight new issues to be addressed (e.g., uncertainty analysis for CFD codes). Document available in the slides-form only

  17. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of

  18. Vabariigi president kohtus OECD peasekretäriga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 12. veebruaril 2008 Tallinnas Majandusliku Koostöö ja Arengu Organisatsiooni (OECD) peasekretäri Angel Gurria'ga, tänades teda panuse eest organisatsiooni laienemispoliitika edendamisel. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 20. veebr. 2008, lk. 3, pealk.: President Ilves kohtus OECD peasekretäriga (Allk. Kristel Peterson)

  19. OECD, "Key Competencies" and the New Challenges of Educational Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keita

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I develop a critique of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)-based lifelong learning policy discourse with a particular focus on "key competencies" (KCs) and its equity implications for school curricular policies. First, I review the discussion of KCs in the writings by the OECD-affiliated…

  20. Nye OECD-retningslinjer for transfer pricing dokumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2015-01-01

    er vedtaget, erstatte det nuværende kapitel V om transfer pricing dokumentation i ‘OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations’. De gældende danske regler for transfer pricing dokumentation baserer sig på de eksisterende OECD-retningslinjer, og det må...

  1. Accompanied consultations in occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J; Hobson, H; Sharp, R

    2016-04-01

    Accompanied consultations are often reported as difficult by occupational physicians but have not been studied in the occupational health setting. To collect information about accompanied consultations and the impact of the companion on the consultation. We collected data on all accompanied consultations by two occupational physicians working in a private sector occupational health service over the course of 16 months. Accompanied consultations were matched to non-accompanied consultations for comparison. We collected data on 108 accompanied consultations. Accompanied consultations were more likely to be connected with ill health retirement (P Occupational health practitioners may benefit from better understanding of accompanied consultations and guidance on their management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Tensions between Internal and External Multilateralism in the Case Law of the Court of Justice of the European Union Concerning International Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola

    2016-01-01

    The European Union’s (EU) commitment to multilateralism is enshrined in Article 21(1) of the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), which proclaims that the EU “shall promote multilateral solutions to common problems”. It is also reflected in numerous documents and treaties produced within the frame......The European Union’s (EU) commitment to multilateralism is enshrined in Article 21(1) of the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), which proclaims that the EU “shall promote multilateral solutions to common problems”. It is also reflected in numerous documents and treaties produced within...... to multilateralism externally appears problematic. This chapter examines the articulation between this internal and external multilateralism of the EU in the case-law of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU). It asks the question whether the main tool of legal interpretation deployed by the Court – teleological...

  3. Small Business & Consultancy: Exploration of an Experiment with Student Consultants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Hollaender

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I’ll discuss the first outcomes of an explorative research concerning the consultancy projects of a consultancy-based learning programme (Minor Consultancy 2006 - 2007, half-year bachelor programme University of Applied Sciences, Hogeschool Utrecht, The Netherlands). In order to

  4. 75 FR 54064 - Consultation Agreements: Proposed Changes to Consultation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... State consultants performing worksite visits. Following the successful completion of an on-site... all types of complaints in a similar fashion. As a result, OSHA does not need to distinguish between...) * * * (2) The Consultant shall terminate an onsite consultative visit already in progress where one of the...

  5. Mechanical simulations of sandia II tests OECD ISP 48 benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavamian, Sh.; Courtois, A.; Valfort, J.-L.; Heinfling, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper illustrates the work carried out by EDF within the framework of ISP48 post-test analysis of NUPEC/NRCN 1:4-scale model of a prestressed pressure containment vessel of a nuclear power plant. EDF as a participant of the International Standard Problem n degree 8 has performed several simulations to determine the ultimate response of the scale model. To determine the most influent parameter in such an analysis several studies were carried out. The mesh was built using a parametric tool to measure the influence of discretization on results. Different material laws of concrete were also used. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the ultimate behaviour of SANDIA II model obtained by Code-Asterwith comparison to tests records, and also to share the lessons learned from the parametric computations and precautions that must be taken. (authors)

  6. Preparation + consultation = better regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the recent experience of the Health and Safety Commission and its executive arm, the Health and Safety Executive (H.S.E.), in consulting over implementation of the bulk of the revised Basic Safety Standards Directive 96/29/EURATOM (the B.B.S.directive) and provides a personal assessment of the successful and challenges of this approach. (N.C.)

  7. Tutoring Mentoring Peer Consulting

    OpenAIRE

    Szczyrba, Birgit; Wildt, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Consulting, Coaching und Supervision, Tutoring, Mentoring und kollegiale Beratung: Beratungsangebote verschiedenster Art werden wie selbstverständlich in den Berufen nachgefragt, die mit Beziehung und Interaktion, mit komplexen sozialen Organisationen und Systemen, mit hoher Verantwortlichkeit, aber unsicheren Handlungsbedingungen zu tun haben. Mittlerweile beginnt diese Nachfrage auch in den Hochschulen zu steigen. Eine solche Steigerung wird ausgelöst durch den Wandel in den Lehr-Lernkultur...

  8. "Systematizing" ethics consultation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Eves, Margot M; Allen, Nathan G; Smith, Martin L; Peña, Adam M; Cheney, John R; Majumder, Mary A

    2015-03-01

    While valuable work has been done addressing clinical ethics within established healthcare systems, we anticipate that the projected growth in acquisitions of community hospitals and facilities by large tertiary hospitals will impact the field of clinical ethics and the day-to-day responsibilities of clinical ethicists in ways that have yet to be explored. Toward the goal of providing clinical ethicists guidance on a range of issues that they may encounter in the systematization process, we discuss key considerations and potential challenges in implementing system-wide ethics consultation services. Specifically, we identify four models for organizing, developing, and enhancing ethics consultation activities within a system created through acquisitions: (1) train-the-trainer, (2) local capacity-building, (3) circuit-riding, and (4) consolidated accountability. We note each model's benefits and challenges. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to consider the broader landscape of issues affected by consolidation. We anticipate that clinical ethicists, volunteer consultants, and hospital administrators will benefit from our recommendations.

  9. Oil demand asymmetry in the OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shealy, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Oil demand asymmetry exists, is significant, and can be captured with a simple demand equation using a Pmax term. The unstable parameters of the original symmetric equations suggest misspecification. Addition of a Pmax term to represent asymmetry yields stable parameters from 1982 through 1989 and so suggests proper specification. Asymmetry is significant because the short-run (and long-run) price elasticity is less than half as large when oil price falls as when price rises beyond the past peak. The lower elasticity applies both to price decreases and also to price increases for which price remains below the past peak. As long as the real oil price remains well below the 1981 peak, asymmetry implies that OECD oil demand should be less sensitive to oil price variations than in 1981. More specifically, the results shown suggest that today's oil demand elasticity should be less than half as large as the elasticity for a price increase in 1981. Forecasts from the asymmetric equations are significantly higher than the DOE base-case forecast. DOE's lower forecast is due to greater price asymmetry through 1995 and to higher long-run price elasticity beyond 1995. One reason for the higher long-run price elasticity might be greater assumed improvements in energy-efficiency than implied by the historical data

  10. MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS AND THE TRADE MEASURES CONTAINED IN THESE AGREEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental problems which the society is facing, ozone depletion, biodiversity loss, the spread of persistent organic pollutants, are a result of human activity with a worldwide impact, requiring immediate resolution. In this context, negotiation, signing and implementation of several multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs are one of the best solutions, affordable and reliable. The aim of this study is to analyze the commercial measures, which to some extent, ensure stability, security, and expansion of MEAs. The paper discusses, also, the efficiency, necessity and the influences of trade measures in MEAs and the WTO role in signing these agreements.

  11. Analysis of Location Ambiguity, GDOP and Station Layout of Threestation in Multilateration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practice, the two-dimensional TDOA source location in the case of three stations would encounter the ambiguity problem of dual solutions. The relationship between distributions of location curve intersections, GDOP and receiving station layout is numerically analyzed, namely the distributions of location curve intersections and GDOP are determined by the receiving station layout, and the areas of two curve intersections are consistent with these of larger GDOP. These analysis results could serve as reference for avoiding or dealing with the ambiguity problem when multilateration is in application.

  12. Non proliferation and disarmament: chronology of the multilateral force (1960-1965) - Historical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    The Multilateral Force (MLF) is a US project of the mid 1950's for the development of NATO integrated strategic force. The author proposes a brief history of this project which emerged at the end of 1960, and was finally given up at the end of 1965 for various reasons. The author indicates the different events and facts related to this project or occurring at these moments. He distinguishes three main periods: a period of propositions (1960-1962), a political phase (1963-1964), and the abandonment phase of the project. In a last part, the author discusses the relationships between MLF, proliferation and disarmament

  13. Transfer of technology to developing countries: unilateral and multilateral policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockman, B.M.; Maskus, K.E.; Saggi, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes national and international policy options to encourage the international transfer of technology, distinguishing between four major channels of such transfer: trade in products, trade in knowledge and technology, foreign direct investment, and intranational and international movement of people. A typology of countries and appropriate policy rules of thumb are developed as a guide to both national policymakers and multilateral rule making in the WTO. We argue that the optimal policy mix varies across countries and that there is a need for differentiation in the design and application of rules in trade agreements as well as for a more explicit focus on evaluation of the impacts of policies. (author)

  14. Coordination of International Risk-Reduction Investigations by the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bogomolov, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of the unique capabilities of the International Space Station (ISS) for risk reduction on future deep space missions involves preliminary work in analog environments to identify and evaluate the most promising techniques, interventions and treatments. This entails a consolidated multinational approach to biomedical research both on ISS and in ground analogs. The Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) was chartered by the five ISS partners to recommend the best combination of partner investigations on ISS for risk reduction in the relatively short time available for ISS utilization. MHRPE will also make recommendations to funding agencies for appropriate preparatory analog work. In 2011, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Science, acting for MHRPE, developed a joint US-Russian biomedical program for the 2015 one-year ISS mission (1YM) of American and Russian crewmembers. This was to evaluate the possibilities for multilateral research on ISS. An overlapping list of 16 HRP, 9 IBMP, 3 Japanese, 3 European and 1 Canadian investigations were selected to address risk-reduction goals in 7 categories: Functional Performance, Behavioral Health, Visual Impairment, Metabolism, Physical Capacity, Microbial and Human Factors. MHRPE intends to build on this bilateral foundation to recommend more fully-integrated multilateral investigations on future ISS missions commencing after the 1YM. MHRPE has also endorsed an on-going program of coordinated research on 6-month, one-year and 6-week missions ISS expeditions that is now under consideration by ISS managers. Preparatory work for these missions will require coordinated and collaborative campaigns especially in the psychological and psychosocial areas using analog isolation facilities in Houston, Köln and Moscow, and possibly elsewhere. The multilateral Human Analogs research working group (HANA) is the focal point of those

  15. Transcending Rationalism and Constructivism: Chinese Leaders’ Operational Codes, Socialization Processes, and Multilateralism after the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2015-01-01

    ’ argument to explain China’s pro-multilateralist diplomacy after the Cold War. Using operational code analysis to examine belief changes across three generations of Chinese leadership and on different occasions, we argue that China’s pro-multilateralist behavior is a product of ‘superficial socialization......This paper challenges both rationalist and constructivist approaches in explaining China’s foreign policy behavior toward multilateral institutions after the Cold War. Borrowing insights from socialization theory and operational code analysis, this paper suggests a ‘superficial socialization...

  16. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities on PTS evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Safety Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency provides the secretariat for the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), which deals with technological aspects, and for the Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) dealing with regulatory aspects. Under these committees, activities are carried out through five Principal Working Groups (PWGs). The relevant group for PTS is PWG-3 on the integrity of structures and components. There is also PWG-2 on coolant system behavior, but the thermal hydraulic aspects of PTS have not been considered by PWG-2. PWG-3 carries out it work in a similar manner to the IAEA IWG LMNPP, by preparing reports and organizing round robins, Specialists Meetings and Workshops. The general context of RPV PTS has been considered in several workshops: on the 'Complementary roles of Fracture Mechanics and Non-Destructive Examination in the Safety Assessment of Components' in Wuerenlingen in 1988; on the 'Safety Assessment of RPVs' in Espoo in 1990; and on 'Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large Scale Testing' (joint with IAEA) at Oak Ridge in 1992. Activities specific to PTS have been an international survey on regulatory practices on PTS carried out in 1991, and a series of fracture round robins addressing PTS conditions organized by GRS in Germany and ORNL in the USA. 3 refs, 5 tabs

  17. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency activities on PTS evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A [NEA Nuclear Safety Div., Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1997-09-01

    The Safety Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency provides the secretariat for the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), which deals with technological aspects, and for the Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) dealing with regulatory aspects. Under these committees, activities are carried out through five Principal Working Groups (PWGs). The relevant group for PTS is PWG-3 on the integrity of structures and components. There is also PWG-2 on coolant system behavior, but the thermal hydraulic aspects of PTS have not been considered by PWG-2. PWG-3 carries out it work in a similar manner to the IAEA IWG LMNPP, by preparing reports and organizing round robins, Specialists Meetings and Workshops. The general context of RPV PTS has been considered in several workshops: on the `Complementary roles of Fracture Mechanics and Non-Destructive Examination in the Safety Assessment of Components` in Wuerenlingen in 1988; on the `Safety Assessment of RPVs` in Espoo in 1990; and on `Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large Scale Testing` (joint with IAEA) at Oak Ridge in 1992. Activities specific to PTS have been an international survey on regulatory practices on PTS carried out in 1991, and a series of fracture round robins addressing PTS conditions organized by GRS in Germany and ORNL in the USA. 3 refs, 5 tabs.

  18. Consulting in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Loredana Tache

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of electronic services provide advice and many agents of existingreferral systems to recommend and provide products, information and customized views of thecommunity through a personalized interaction in real time. Distributed systems of autonomous agentsare becoming increasingly important in electronic comet because the basic decisions of agents adviceon trust and reputation are taken in a similar way human society. If these decisions will be as a realconsumer protection, when new aspects of online consumer legislation will become usefulinformation in advice and consulting of electronic commerce.

  19. Multilateral simulation on various models for internationalization of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T.; Akiba, M.; Tazaki, M.; Kuno, Y.; Choi, J-S.; Tanaka, S.; Omoto, A.

    2011-01-01

    To construct suitable models for a reliable and sustainable international/regional framework in the fields of nuclear fuel cycle, it is essential to reflect recent political situations including such that 1) a certain number of emerging countries especially in south-east Asia want to introduce and develop nuclear power in the long-terms despite the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, and 2) exposition of nuclear proliferation threats provided by North Korea and Iran. It is also to be considered that Japan is an unique country having enrichment and reprocessing facilities on commercial base among non-nuclear weapon countries. Although many models presented for the internationalization have not been realized yet, studies at the University of Tokyo aim at multilateral nuclear approach (MNA) in Asian-Pacific countries balancing between nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear fuel supply/service and presenting specific examples such as prerequisites for participating countries, scope of cooperative activities, ownership of facilities and type of agreements/frameworks. We will present a model basic agreement and several bilateral and multi-lateral agreements for the combinations of industry or government led consortia including Japan and its neighboring countries and made a preliminary evaluation for the combination of processes/facilities based on the INFCIRC/640 report for MNA. (author)

  20. Organization and Management of the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The Integrated Medical Group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial fourteen long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  1. Study of feasible and sustainable multilateral approach on nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Y.; Tazaki, M.; Akiba, M.; Takashima, R.; Izumi, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the Fukushima accident it is undeniable that nuclear power remains one of the most important methods to handle global growth of economic/energy consumption and issues with greenhouse gases. If the demand for nuclear power increases, the demand for not only the generation of power but also for refining uranium (U), conversion, enrichment, re-conversion, and fuel manufacturing should increase. In addition, concerns for the proliferation of 'Sensitive Nuclear Technologies' (SNT) should also increase. We propose a demand-side approach, where nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) activities would be implemented among multiple states. With this approach, NFC services, in particular those using SNTs, are multilaterally executed and controlled, thereby preventing unnecessary proliferation of SNTs, and enabling safe and appropriate control of nuclear technologies and nuclear materials. This proposal would implement nuclear safety and security at an international level and solve transport issues for nuclear fuels. This proposal is based on 3 types of cooperation for each element of NFC: type A: cooperation for 3S only, services received; Type B: cooperation for 3S, MNA (Multilateral Nuclear Activities) without transfer of ownership to MNA; and Type C cooperation for 3S, MNA holding ownership rights. States involved in the 3 types of activity should be referred to as partner states, host states, and site states respectively. The feasibility of the proposal is discussed for the Asian region

  2. OECD : Euroopa peaks laenuraha odava hoidma / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2002-01-01

    USA majanduse kiire toibumine võib varsti tuua laenuintresside tõusu, Euroopa Keskpank peaks vähemalt aasta lõpuni ootama ja laskma kasvul juurduda. Diagramm: OECD tõstis majanduskasvu prognoosi. Maksukoormus

  3. Taxation, business environment and FDI location in OECD countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Dana; Nicoletti, G.; Vartia, L.; Yoo, K.-Y.

    Č. 502 (2006), s. 1-33 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : taxation * business environment * foreign direct investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/eco/working_papers

  4. Kajian Perbandingan Tax Treaty Model: OECD, UN, dan US

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmawati, Dyna

    2003-01-01

    The needs of tax treaty arise as International trade growth rapidly due to advancement of information technology. Taxa imposed on income derived from International trade are double. Tax treaty or tax convention is bilateral agreement for the avoidance of double taxation. This agreement arranges taxation rights. There are 3 (three) tax treaty model, which is used as reference to make bilateral agreement for the avoidance of double taxation. The first one is OECD Model made by The OECD...

  5. The (New) OECD Jobs Study: Introduction and Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Stiglbauer

    2006-01-01

    In 1994, the OECD presented the Jobs Study analyzing the causes of high unemployment in Europe. The study identified inappropriate labor market regulations and legislation as a key determinant of high unemployment. The OECD recommended deregulation and liberalization of labor market institutions as a remedy. Meanwhile, new empirical research has explored the influence of labor market institutions on unemployment and has only partly confirmed the recommendations of the Jobs Study. In a reevalu...

  6. Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

  7. Labor market deregulation and globalization: empirical evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke , Niklas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper empirically investigates the influence of globalization on various aspects of labor market deregulation. I employ the data set by Bassanini and Duval (2006) on labor market institutions in OECD countries and the KOF index of globalization. The data set covers 20 OECD countries in the 1982?2003 period. The results suggest that globalization did neither influence the unemployment replacement rate, the unemployment benefit length, public expenditures on ALMP, the t...

  8. Japan and the OECD - a lesson for Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Iustina Luţan

    2007-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is a unique forum where the governments of 30 market democracies work together to address the economic, social and governance challenges of globalisation as well as to exploit its opportunities. One of the most important advantages of the OECD over other intergovernmental organizations or academia is the fact that the work, expertise, and know-how is transferred from a wide range of participants, like member countries, senior o...

  9. The weight of «tradition» in multilateral commercial negotiations. The argentinian case during the Doha Round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Zelicovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the impact of ‘tradition’ as a variable inside the analyses of foreign policy. For that end, it considers a particular case, the participation of Argentina in multilateral commercial negotiations. The central argument signals that, for Argentina, the negotiating tradition has had an important role as a guidance in foreign policy actions regarding multilateral commercial negotiations, especially in the moments of crisis. In addition, that, within this tradition, the main variable in the configuration of Argentinian options has been the development strategy.

  10. A Study on the cooperation policy in multilateral nuclear control regimes and the advancing of national export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, J. S.

    2004-08-01

    This study carried out the analysis of trends of the multilateral nuclear control in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the past trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international nuclear export control regime and the physical protection of nuclear materials. Second, this study establishes the multilateral cooperation strategies for the effective cooperation in the process of strengthening the nuclear control regimes. Third, this study reviews the major agenda of nuclear control regimes and establishes national positions on each agenda. Fourth, this study also analyzes outstanding issues in nuclear control regimes and derives some factors to reflect national nuclear control system

  11. OECD/SERENA Project Report. Summary and Conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    The OECD/SERENA Project Integration Report summarises the outcome of a broad range of activities conducted in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications Project (OECD/SERENA) to address remaining issues on fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) mechanisms and their effect on ex-vessel steam explosion energetics. The scope the OECD/SERENA project was to resolve uncertainties in the remaining issues and to bring the code capabilities to an adequate level for use in reactor safety applications. This scope was accomplished with the completion of three major tasks: (1) an experimental programme consisting of two sets of steam explosion experiments in two different facilities; (2) an analytical programme consisting of pre-test calculations in support of test specifications and post-test calculations in support of data analysis and code assessment, and also a code benchmark exercise; and (3) a reactor calculation exercise repeating the one performed in the framework of the CSNI/WGAMA SERENA activity performed from 2001 to 2006 (also referred to as SERENA Phase I, published as CSNI/R(2007)/11). The objectives of the experimental programme were to provide data: (1) to clarify the explosion behaviour of prototypic corium melts and for validation of steam explosion models for prototypic materials; and (2) for steam explosion behaviour in two different geometries to verify the geometrical extrapolation capabilities of the codes. These objectives were to be accomplished by conducting complementary sets of six experiments each at two different facilities: KROTOS at the Commissariat l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) in Cadarache, France, representing one-dimensional FCI configuration involving nominally 5 kilograms of prototypic corium melt, and TROI at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejeon, Korea, representing multi-dimensional FCI configuration

  12. Communication dated 22 September 2008 received from the Permanent Mission of Germany to the Agency regarding the German proposal on a Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 22 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Germany, forwarding a paper outlining the German proposal on 'the Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project (MESP)'. As requested in the communication, the paper, entitled 'the Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project (MESP) - a Fresh Look at Ensuring Nuclear Fuel Supply' is circulated herewith for the information of Member States

  13. Public Debt, Economic Growth and the Real Interest Rate : A Panel VAR Approach to EU and OECD Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer; Ogawa, Kazuo; Tokutsu, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the causal relationship between the public debt to GDP ratio and economic growth for 31 EU and OECD countries from 1995 to 2013. A number of studies have tackled this problem, but very few make the transmission mechanism explicit in their analysis. We estimate a panel VAR model that

  14. Coal Consumption and Economic Growth: Panel Cointegration and Causality Evidence from OECD and Non-OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeyoung Jin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between coal consumption and economic growth for 30 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries and 32 non-OECD countries for 1990–2013 using a multivariate dependent panel analysis. For the analysis, we conducted the common factor defactorization process, unit root test, cointegration test, long-run cointegrating vector, and Granger causality test. Our results suggest the following: First, there is no long-run relationship between coal consumption and economic growth in OECD countries; however, in non-OECD countries, the relationship does exist. Second, excessive coal usage may hinder economic growth in the long run. Lastly, the growth hypothesis (coal consumption affects economic growth positively is supported in the short run for non-OECD countries. As coal consumption has a positive effect on economic growth in the short run and a negative effect in the long run, energy conservation policies may have adverse effects only in the short run. Thus, non-OECD countries should gradually switch their energy mix to become less coal-dependent as they consider climate change. Moreover, a transfer of technology and financial resources from developed to developing countries must be encouraged at a global level.

  15. Joint responsibility between the EU and Member States for non-performance of obligations under multilateral environmental agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.; Morgera, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis and manifestations of joint responsibility between the European Union (EU) and its Member States for non-performance of obligations contained in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Joint responsibility has often been advanced as an attractive solution where

  16. Joint Responsibility between the EU and Member States for Non-Performance of Obligations under Multilateral Environmental Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis and manifestations of joint responsibility between the European Union (EU) and its Member States for non-performance of obligations contained in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Joint responsibility has often been advanced as an attractive solution where

  17. Multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. Expert group report to the Director General of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    An international expert group has been appointed to consider options for possible multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. The terms of reference for the Expert Group were to: 1)Identify and provide an analysis of issues and options relevant to multilateral approaches to the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; 2)Provide an overview of the policy, legal, security, economic and technological incentives and disincentives for cooperation in multilateral arrangements for the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; and 3)Provide a brief review of the historical and current experience in this area, and of the various analyses relating to multilateral fuel cycle arrangements relevant to the work of the Expert Group. The Group examined the nuclear fuel cycle and multinational approaches at meetings convened over a seven month period. Their report, presented in the paper, was released on 22 February 2005, and circulated for discussion among the IAEA Member States, as well as others, as an IAEA Information Circular (INFCIRC/640)

  18. The Collapse of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: A Multilateral Approach to Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Chiang Mai Initiative.12 A slow move toward regional economic integration has continued since; however, there have been very few broad multilateral...treaty was signed at the Presidio, and was shortly followed by the U.S.-Japan Mutual Security Treaty. 11 Ibid, 24. 12 Ibid, 32-34. The Chiang Mai agreement

  19. Proposing a sequential comparative analysis for assessing multilateral health agency transformation and sustainable capacity: exploring the advantages of institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2014-05-20

    This article proposes an approach to comparing and assessing the adaptive capacity of multilateral health agencies in meeting country and individual healthcare needs. Most studies comparing multilateral health agencies have failed to clearly propose a method for conducting agency comparisons. This study conducted a qualitative case study methodological approach, such that secondary and primary case study literature was used to conduct case study comparisons of multilateral health agencies. Through the proposed Sequential Comparative Analysis (SCA), the author found a more effective way to justify the selection of cases, compare and assess organizational transformative capacity, and to learn from agency success in policy sustainability processes. To more affectively understand and explain why some multilateral health agencies are more capable of adapting to country and individual healthcare needs, SCA provides a methodological approach that may help to better understand why these agencies are so different and what we can learn from successful reform processes. As funding challenges continue to hamper these agencies' adaptive capacity, learning from each other will become increasingly important.

  20. 78 FR 48342 - Consultation Agreements: Proposed Changes to Consultation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... clarify the high priority enforcement cases when OSHA may initiate a non-programmed inspection at those.... OSHA-2010-0010] RIN 1218-AC32 Consultation Agreements: Proposed Changes to Consultation Procedures AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Withdrawal of proposed rule...

  1. Investigation into the accuracy of a proposed laser diode based multilateration machine tool calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, S; Longstaff, A P; Myers, A

    2005-01-01

    Geometric and thermal calibration of CNC machine tools is required in modern machine shops with volumetric accuracy assessment becoming the standard machine tool qualification in many industries. Laser interferometry is a popular method of measuring the errors but this, and other alternatives, tend to be expensive, time consuming or both. This paper investigates the feasibility of using a laser diode based system that capitalises on the low cost nature of the diode to provide multiple laser sources for fast error measurement using multilateration. Laser diode module technology enables improved wavelength stability and spectral linewidth which are important factors for laser interferometry. With more than three laser sources, the set-up process can be greatly simplified while providing flexibility in the location of the laser sources improving the accuracy of the system

  2. Practitioners’ Views Promoting Infrastructure Investment: The G20 and the Multilateral Development Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Wurf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The G20 is committed to promoting infrastructure investment and has called on multilateral development banks (MDBs to increase their infrastructure lending to help boost global growth. Alongside long-standing MDBs such as the World Bank and Asian Development Bank (ADB, new MDBs such as the Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank (AIIB and the New Development Bank have been established, and G20 members would like both old and new multilateral banks to scale up their infrastructure investment by developing a pipeline of bankable projects. Even with all the MDBs investing more, they will not be able to satisfy the global need for infrastructure. What they can do, however, is start to fill the infrastructure gap by catalyzing private investment and cooperating on standards and regional infrastructure. Concerns have been raised about the geo-political implications of the new MDBs which underscore the need for MDB cooperation. There are challenges to and opportunities for this cooperation. The G20 needs to be clear about the role it can play in encouraging MDB cooperation and infrastructure investment, and must also be aware of the limitations on its role given that each MDB has its own mandate. Specifically, the G20 can downplay the perceived trade-off between efficiency and standards in the MDBs, encourage cooperation on new standards for sustainable or green infrastructure, invest in the Global Connectivity Alliance as a coordinating body for the MDBs and help align the G20 work on infrastructure with the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda

  3. The transition to hospital consultant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerman, Michiel; Teunissen, Pim W.; Jorgensen, Rasmus Lundhus

    2013-01-01

    Danish and Dutch new consultants' perceptions regarding the transition to consultant were compared to gain insight into this period, particularly the influence of contextual factors concerning the organisation of specialty training and health care therein. Preparation for medical and generic comp...... competencies, perceived intensity and burnout were compared. Additionally, effects of differences in working conditions and cultural dimensions were explored....

  4. Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Examining data of a sample of UK companies over the period 2003–2006 we find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant. An increase in the number of compensation

  5. Advanced training of tax consultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adigamova Farida F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to review and analyze the data on the necessity to provide an educational environment for training and advanced training of tax consultants in Russia. The article considers the types of tax consulting, the historical background of training financiers in Russia, as well as identifies conditions determining the significance of tax consulting. The research establishes the connection between the negative attitude to tax payment and tax evasion. The advanced training of tax consultants should be a continuous process as they need to take into account both external and internal taxpayers risks associated with the development of law and law-enforcement practice. Obviously, the training of tax consultants should take into account the experience of developed foreign countries, such as Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and other European countries as well. In Russia, it is necessary to open educational institutions, which will not only be involved in the certification of tax consultants, but also provide training courses. These courses should contribute to constant increase of tax consultants knowledge, consider the tax treatment of economic activities, as well changes in the legislation, economics, finance, accounting, manufacturing processes, which will improve the quality of services provided by tax consultants.

  6. Pensions at a glance 2015 OECD and G20 indicators

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 10-year anniversary edition of Pensions at a Glance highlights the pension reforms undertaken by OECD and G20 countries over the last two years. Two special chapters provide deeper analysis of first-tier pension schemes and of the impact of short or interrupted careers, due to late entry into employment, childcare or unemployment, on pension entitlements. Another chapter analyses the sensitivity of long-term pension replacement rates on various parameters. A range of indicators for comparing pension policies and their outcomes between OECD and G20 countries is also provided.

  7. Nuclear fuel behavior activities at the OECD/NEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The work programme regarding nuclear fuel behavior issues at OECD/NEA is carried out in two sections. The Nuclear Science and Data Bank Division deals with basic phenomena in fuel behavior under normal operating conditions, while the Safety Division concentrates upon regulation and safety issues in fuel behavior. A new task force addressing these latter issues has been set up and will produce a report providing recommendations in this field. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency jointly with the International Atomic Energy Agency established an International Fuel Performance Experiments Database which is operated by the NEA Data Bank. (author). 1 tab.

  8. Budget reform in Ukraine and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the fiscal reforms in Ukraine and the OECD countries. It has been proved that the main areas which should undergo changes are the tax reform, regulatory reform and restructuring policies to encourage entrepreneurship, reform of social protection and social security, reform of social sphere constituents, administrative reform, reform of the army and law enforcement, administrative and territorial reform. According to the analysis results, there has been drawn the conclusion about the need to introduce in Ukraine the successful experience of the OECD countries in implementing budget reforms.

  9. Comparison of approximate electrical energy generating costs in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Bertel, E.

    1996-01-01

    Costs of power generating in nuclear power plants have been predicted taking into account all factors connected with investment, maintenance, exploitation and decommissioning, basing on last OECD report. The costs have been compared with alternative solutions. In majority of OECD countries the direct costs of electricity generation are very close for nuclear fossil-fuel and gas power plants. All indirect costs such as environmental impact, public health hazard, waste management, accident risk and also public acceptance for nuclear power have been discussed. 13 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Overview of the OECD-Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitanza, Carlo

    2001-01-01

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project is an international network dedicated to enhanced safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. The Project operates under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and aims at addressing and resolving issues relevant to safety as they emerge in the nuclear community. This paper gives a concise presentation of the Project goals and of its technical infrastructure. The paper contains also a brief overview of results from the programme carried out in the time period 1997-1999 and of the main issues contemplated for the 3-year programme period 2000-2002

  11. Nuclear fuel behavior activities at the OECD/NEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The work programme regarding nuclear fuel behavior issues at OECD/NEA is carried out in two sections. The Nuclear Science and Data Bank Division deals with basic phenomena in fuel behavior under normal operating conditions, while the Safety Division concentrates upon regulation and safety issues in fuel behavior. A new task force addressing these latter issues has been set up and will produce a report providing recommendations in this field. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency jointly with the International Atomic Energy Agency established an International Fuel Performance Experiments Database which is operated by the NEA Data Bank. (author). 1 tab

  12. Guidelines for sea dumping packages of radioactive waste. Revised version.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-04-01

    The purpose of these Guidelines is to establish general requirements and provide practical information for the design and manufacture of packages for sea dumping of radioactive waste, in accordance with the terms of the OECD Council Decision establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. These Guidelines are in compliance with the IAEA Revised Definition and Recommendations of 1978, for applying the London Dumping Convention to radioactive waste, and are intended for application under the responsibility of the appropriate national authorities of countries participating in the NEA Mechanism

  13. Starting a nursing consultation practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeister, L

    1999-03-01

    Because the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role has been changed or eliminated in many hospital organizations, many CNSs in career transition are considering establishing collaborative or independent nursing consultation practices. Opportunities for consultants exist in diverse practice settings and specialties. Before starting a consultation practice, the CNS should carefully examine goals, identify resources, and begin contacting potential referral sources. He or she must also decide what form of business organization to establish and write a business plan to solidify ideas and prepare for the unexpected. Most CNS consultants rely on personal savings to cover initial business and personal expenses, and many continue working as a CNS until the consultation practice is established. Fees can be set based on community standards, what the market will bear, desired projected income, or a third-party payor's fee schedule. The consultation practice can be marketed by word of mouth, inexpensive advertising techniques such as distributing flyers and business cards, direct mall, and media advertising. In today's healthcare marketplace, opportunities abound for the CNS risk-taker interested in starting a nursing consultation practice.

  14. OECD and NEA countries' national frameworks for nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzeyli, Kaan

    2016-01-01

    To assist its member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the scientific, technological and legal bases required for a safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, the NEA serves as a forum for sharing and analysing information and experience among its member countries in order to pool and maintain their technical expertise and human infrastructure and to support nuclear activities by providing them with nuclear policy analyses. Comprehensive and effective legal regimes are necessary to help achieve confidence in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. These regimes, whose goals are to protect the public and the natural environment from the risks inherent in such activities, include regulation at a national level, co-operation at bilateral and multilateral levels and international harmonisation of national policies and legislation through adherence to international conventions. Regimes need to be strong enough to set and enforce limits, and flexible enough to keep pace with technological advances and changing public concerns. The NEA collects, analyses and disseminates information on nuclear law in general and on topical nuclear legal issues in particular. Nuclear law is the body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionising radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. In 1995, the NEA began publishing country profiles entitled Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries - Regulatory and Institutional Frameworks for Nuclear Activities or the 'Grand Orange', a name which was adopted and became widely used because of the colour of the initial cover. Since 2006, these country profiles can be downloaded free online both in English and French from the NEA web site. The NEA endeavours to complement country profiles by publishing online an English, non

  15. Nuclear consultant: a new profession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardung von Hardung, H

    1976-02-01

    The nuclear field is an area fraught with particular difficulties for industries, banks, and public authorities etc. in acquiring the precise knowledge needed for decision making. This gap can be filled by the activities of nuclear consultants; in view of the size of the market which, in Europe, probably involves a capital investment by far exceeding DM 100 billion, chances are promising. These consultant activities include technological problems as well as economics, organization, strategy, and training in nuclear technology. Of course, the consultant staff must have broad and specialized knowledge.

  16. Nuclear consultant - a new profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardung von Hardung, H.

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear field is an area fraugh with particular difficulties for industries, banks, public authorities etc. in acquiring the precise knowledge needed for decision making. This gap can be filled by the activities of nuclear consultants; in view of the size of the market which, in Europe, probably involves a capital investment by far exceeding DM 100 billion, chances are promising. These consultant activities include technological problems as well as economics, organization, strategy, and training in nuclear technology. Of course, the consultant staff must have broad and specialized knowledge. (orig.) [de

  17. Taxation and the household saving rate: evidence from OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes anew the relationship between taxation and the household saving rate. On the basis of standard savings and tax revenue data from a sample of OECD countries, it provides compelling empirical evidence of a powerful impact of taxes on household savings. In particular, income taxes are shown to affect negatively the household saving rate much more than consumption taxes.

  18. Does corporate income taxation affect securitization? : Evidence from OECD banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Di; Hu, Shiwei; Ligthart, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate income taxation, by affecting the after-tax cost of funding, has implications for a bank’s incentive to securitize. Using a sample of OECD banks over the period 1999–2006, we find that corporate income taxation led to more securitization at banks that are constrained in funding markets,

  19. 2001-2002 carbon dioxide emissions in OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This document provides carbon dioxide emissions data, from energy uses and production, from 2001 to 2002 in the OECD. It concerns the climate corrected CO 2 emissions in France, the non corrected CO 2 emissions (M tons), the emissions intensity / the Gross Domestic Product and the emissions intensity / the population (tons per inhabitant). (A.L.B.)

  20. OECD märkab Eesti edusamme / Signe Leesmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leesmann, Signe

    2002-01-01

    Vaatamata probleemidele on Eesti ettevõtluskliima paranenud, mille taga näeb OECD Eestisse tulnud välisinvesteeringute ning ekspordi kasvu. Diagrammid: Ettevõtete arv. Ettevõtete struktuur töötajate arvu järgi

  1. Does Corporate Income Taxation Affect Securitization? Evidence from OECD Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, D.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Corporate income taxation, by affecting the after-tax cost of funding, has implications for a bank's incentive to securitize. Using a sample of OECD banks over the period 1999-2006, we fi nd that corporate income taxation led to more securitization at banks that are constrained in funding

  2. EU and OECD benchmarking and peer review compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    2009-01-01

    Benchmarking and peer review are essential elements of the so-called EU open method of coordination (OMC) which has been contested in the literature for lack of effectiveness. In this paper we compare benchmarking and peer review procedures as used by the EU with those used by the OECD. Different

  3. Financial Inequity in Basic Education in Selected OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Mizunoya, Suguru; You, You; Tsang, Mun

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of financial disparities in primary and secondary education in OECD countries that have a relatively large population and a school finance system with decentralized features. These countries include the United States, Britain, Australia, Spain, Canada, and Japan. There are two major research questions: What are the trends in…

  4. Taxation and Skills. OECD Tax Policy Studies. No. 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This Tax Policy Study on Taxation and Skills examines how tax policy can encourage skills development in OECD countries. This study also assesses the returns to tertiary and adult education and examines how these returns are shared between governments and students. The study builds indicators that examine incentives for individuals and governments…

  5. In situ research and investigations in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report explains why deep geological disposal is the most favoured option for the disposal of high level waste and spent fuel, as well as some alpha bearing wastes. It also gives an overview of the main aim and elements of in-situ research and investigation activities in OECD countries, as well as of initiatives taken at an international level

  6. Corporations and the Uses of Law: International Investment Arbitration as a “Multilateral Legal Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Muchlinski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the claim, made by certain legal scholars, that international investment law, though based mainly on Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs is in fact a multilateral order that introduces principles of an emergent “global administrative law” into the regulation of state conduct in relation to foreign investors and their investments. Such scholars argue that this order develops through the decisions of investor-State arbitral tribunals which are creating a harmonised understanding of the meaning of BIT provisions and an institutional system of adjudication that furthers the development of global administrative principles. Through a critical examination of this approach the paper argues that this field is not a multilateral order but an unstructured process of privatised legal entrepreneurship which seeks to further a professional interest in developing an extensive, investor friendly, regime of BITs. Furthermore, that process fails as a means of providing effective or legitimate legal review of administrative action.  The argument is made both on a theoretical level and by a review of a specific issue in international investment law, namely, the development of  wider types of claims and the rise of so-called “treaty shopping” by means of corporate group structuring.  In particular the multi-jurisdictional location of various affiliates in a multinational enterprise creates a network of potential claimants in investor state disputes, giving rise to the risk of multiple claims, while the possibility of setting up affiliates in various jurisdictions creates opportunities for “treaty shopping”. “Treaty shopping” involves the enterprise locating an affiliate in a jurisdiction that has signed an investment protection treaty with the host country, allowing various affiliates and/or the parent in a group enterprise to benefit from treaty protection even though they possess the nationality of a state that has no

  7. Consultation document Energy Market Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Maa, J.; Van Gemert, M.; Karel, A.; La Bastide, G.; Giesbertz, P.; Buijs, F.; Vermeulen, M.; Beusmans, P.

    2006-06-01

    This the second consultation document of the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) on the title subject (the first was in 2002). The purpose of the consultation is to involve all the relevant and interested parties in the development of the energy market in the Netherlands and to consult those parties on studies that have been carried out by the NMa so far: (1) defining (possible) relevant markets in the electricity sector, and (2) the vision and opinion of the NMa with respect to mergers and take-overs. Also, the consultation document is a contribution to the response of the letter from the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs of May 2005 in which the NMa was requested to give an overview of the preconditions with regard to competition and it's legal aspects [nl

  8. Improving access to urologists through an electronic consultation service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Luke; Liddy, Clare; Afkham, Amir; Keely, Erin; Mahoney, John

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Access to specialist services is limited by wait times and geographic availability. Champlain Building Access to Specialist Advice (BASE) has been implemented in our service region to facilitate access to specialists by primary care providers (PCPs). Through a secure web-based system, PCPs are able to send eConsults instead of requesting a formal in-office consultation. Methods Urology eConsults completed through the Champlain BASE service from March 2013 to January 2015 were analyzed. Each consult was characterized in regard to the type of question asked by the referring physician and the clinical content of the referral. Using the mandatory close-out surveys, we analyzed rates of referral avoidance, physician satisfaction, and overall impact on patient care. Results Of 190 eConsultations, 70% were completed in less than 10 minutes. The most common clinical questions related to the interpretation of imaging reports (16%) and tests to choose for investigating a condition (15%). The most common diagnoses were hematuria (13%) and renal mass (8%). In 35% of cases, referral to a urologist had originally been contemplated and was avoided. In 8% of cases, a PCP did not believe a consultation was initially needed, but a referral was ultimately initiated after the eConsultation. Conclusions Our study shows that although certain clinical presentations still require a formal in-person urological consultation, eConsultations can potentially reduce unnecessary clinic visits while identifying patients who may benefit from early urological consultation. Through both these mechanisms, we may improve timely access to urologists. PMID:28798830

  9. Learning to consult with computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, S T; Marty, J J

    2001-07-01

    To develop and evaluate a strategy to teach skills and issues associated with computers in the consultation. An overview lecture plus a workshop before and a workshop after practice placements, during the 10-week general practice (GP) term in the 5th year of the University of Melbourne medical course. Pre- and post-intervention study using a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods within a strategic evaluation framework. Self-reported attitudes and skills with clinical applications before, during and after the intervention. Most students had significant general computer experience but little in the medical area. They found the workshops relevant, interesting and easy to follow. The role-play approach facilitated students' learning of relevant communication and consulting skills and an appreciation of issues associated with using the information technology tools in simulated clinical situations to augment and complement their consulting skills. The workshops and exposure to GP systems were associated with an increase in the use of clinical software, more realistic expectations of existing clinical and medical record software and an understanding of the barriers to the use of computers in the consultation. The educational intervention assisted students to develop and express an understanding of the importance of consulting and communication skills in teaching and learning about medical informatics tools, hardware and software design, workplace issues and the impact of clinical computer systems on the consultation and patient care.

  10. Multilateral approaches to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Expert Group Report submitted to the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the report of the independent Expert Group on Multilateral Approaches to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, commissioned by the Director General, is reproduced in this document for the information of Member States

  11. Bilateral and multilateral agreements and other arrangements in Europe and North America on the protection and use of transboundary waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The present document presents in a chronological order existing bilateral and multilateral legally binding agreements and other arrangements in Europe and North America on the protection and use of transboundary waters, which had been concluded by may 1992. These include agreements, treaties, conventions, protocols, orders and exchanges of notes. For each agreement the following information is given: title of the agreement, field of application, river basin, area of application, contracting parties, date of agreement and place of signature, joint body, and reference

  12. Unilateral vs. Multilateral Engagement: A Scenario-Based Approach to Guiding America’s Future Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    neglecting global issues , by 2025 most nations of the world had become fully integrated into regional associations such as the European Union...that could prevent international conflicts while confronting global issues , policymakers embraced multilateralism with two initiatives. The first...effective framework for addressing many critical global issues . Noting the insufficient empowerment of the UN, the US aimed to replace it with a new

  13. Multilateral trade liberalization and public goods provision in a North-South trade model with nonhomothetic preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Stibora, J.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2012-01-01

    Under nonhomothetic preferences developing countries are less likely to gain from multilateral trade liberalization than developed countries. This paper shows that this relative disadvantage for developing countries changes when the effects on public good provision are taken into account. The impact it has depends on the strength of their comparative advantage in export markets. We show that a strong (weak) comparative advantage in export markets mitigates (reinforces) the relative disadvanta...

  14. Migration in OECD countries: Labour Market Impact and Integration Issues. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 562

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Sebastien; Causa, Orsetta; Jimenez, Miguel; Wanner, Isabelle

    2007-01-01

    Immigration pressures are increasing in most OECD countries. This paper investigates the consequences of immigration for natives' labour market outcomes, as well as issues linked to immigrants' integration in the host country labour market. Changes in the share of immigrants in the labour force may have a distributive impact on natives' wages, and…

  15. Labour Market Performance, Income Inequality and Poverty in OECD Countries. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 500

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burniaux, Jean-Marc; Padrini, Flavio; Brandt, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    There have been concerns that employment-enhancing reforms along the lines of the 1994 OECD Jobs Strategy could inadvertently lead to increased income inequality and poverty. This paper focuses on the impact of institutions and redistributive policies on inequality and poverty with the view of assessing whether a trade-off between better labour…

  16. Multilateral haptics-based immersive teleoperation for improvised explosive device disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Lacheray, Hervé; Daly, John

    2013-05-01

    Of great interest to police and military organizations is the development of effective improvised explosive device (IED) disposal (IEDD) technology to aid in activities such as mine field clearing, and bomb disposal. At the same time minimizing risk to personnel. This paper presents new results in the research and development of a next generation mobile immersive teleoperated explosive ordnance disposal system. This system incorporates elements of 3D vision, multilateral teleoperation for high transparency haptic feedback, immersive augmented reality operator control interfaces, and a realistic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) 3D simulation environment incorporating vehicle and manipulator dynamics for both operator training and algorithm development. In the past year, new algorithms have been developed to facilitate incorporating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robotic hardware into the teleoperation system. In particular, a real-time numerical inverse position kinematics algorithm that can be applied to a wide range of manipulators has been implemented, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attitude stabilization system for manipulators has been developed and experimentally validated, and a voice­operated manipulator control system has been developed and integrated into the operator control station. The integration of these components into a vehicle simulation environment with half-car vehicle dynamics has also been successfully carried out. A physical half-car plant is currently being constructed for HIL integration with the simulation environment.

  17. A Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime of a Multilateral Nuclear Approaches Framework in the Asian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two primary challenges for establishing nuclear third party liability (TPL regimes within multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Asian region. The first challenge is to ensure secure and prompt compensation, especially for transboundary damages, which is also a challenge for a nation-based facility. One possible solution is that in order to share common nuclear TPL principles, all states in the region participate in the same international nuclear TPL convention, such as the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC, with a view to its entry into force in the future. One problem with this approach is that many states in the Asian region need to raise their amount of financial security in order to be able to participate in the CSC. The second challenge lies with the multiple MNA member states and encompasses the question of how decisions are to be made and responsabilities of an installation state are to be shared in case of a nuclear incident. Principally, a host state of the MNA facility takes on this responsibility. However, in certain situations and in agreement with all MNA member states, such responsibilities can be indirectly shared among all MNA member states. This can be done through internal arrangements within the MNA framework, such as reimbursement to a host state based on pre-agreed shares in accordance with investment and/or making deposits on such reimbursements in case of an incident.

  18. Building a Simulated Environment for the Study of Multilateral Approaches to Nuclear Materials Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moul, R.; Persbo, A.; Keir, D.

    2015-01-01

    Verification research can be resource-intensive, particularly when it relies on practical or field exercises. These exercises can also involve substantial logistical preparations and are difficult to run in an iterative manner to produce data sets that can be later utilized in verification research. This paper presents the conceptual framework, methodology and preliminary findings from part of a multi-year research project, led by VERTIC. The multi-component simulated environment that we have generated, using existing computer models for nuclear reactors and other components of fuel cycles, can be used to investigate options for future multilateral nuclear verification, at a variety of locations and time points in a nuclear complex. We have constructed detailed fuel cycle simulations for two fictional, and very different, states. In addition to these mass-flow models, a 3-dimensional, avatarbased simulation of a nuclear facility is under development. We have also developed accompanying scenarios-that provide legal and procedural assumptions that will control the process of our fictional verification solutions. These tools have all been produced using open source information and software. While these tools are valuable for research purposes, they can also play an important role in support of training and education in the field of nuclear materials verification, in a variety of settings and circumstances. (author)

  19. The impact of further tariff reduction on the EU sugar sector in the forthcoming multilateral round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HUAN-NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper indicates the need for reform in the EU sugar sector due to the erosion of "border protection" in the view of further reduction in import tariffs for sugar. Three tariff reduction methods are assessed to project the "border protection" for EU sugar: Swiss formula proposed by the Cairns Group, "Harbinson" Proposal by the World Trade Organization and Uruguay Round formula proposed by the EU. In the assumed forthcoming multilateral round for agriculture, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by 67%, if the Cairns Group tariff reduction method is used. However, if the "Harbinson" method is used, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by at least 35%. On the contrary, the EU may avoid lowering the support price for sugar with three conditions occurring simultaneously: 1 the Uruguay Round formula is used as the reduction method in the assumed new WTO round and the EU can use the minimum reduction rate of 15% for sugar

  20. Comments on OECD discussion draft on revisions to Chapter I of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Irene; van Herwaarden, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    These comments provide recommendations for improved transfer pricing guidance and were submitted in response to an invitation by the OECD to interested parties to submit written comments on a discussion draft regarding the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines

  1. OECD Trilog Plenary Symposium : public policy issues in global freight logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This is the fifth plenary symposium on public policy issues in global freight logistics conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). OECD's Trilateral Logistics Project, Trilog Project, is aimed at clarifying the pub...

  2. CFD validation in OECD/NEA t-junction benchmark.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obabko, A. V.; Fischer, P. F.; Tautges, T. J.; Karabasov, S.; Goloviznin, V. M.; Zaytsev, M. A.; Chudanov, V. V.; Pervichko, V. A.; Aksenova, A. E. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Cambridge Univ.); (Moscow Institute of Nuclar Energy Safety)

    2011-08-23

    When streams of rapidly moving flow merge in a T-junction, the potential arises for large oscillations at the scale of the diameter, D, with a period scaling as O(D/U), where U is the characteristic flow velocity. If the streams are of different temperatures, the oscillations result in experimental fluctuations (thermal striping) at the pipe wall in the outlet branch that can accelerate thermal-mechanical fatigue and ultimately cause pipe failure. The importance of this phenomenon has prompted the nuclear energy modeling and simulation community to establish a benchmark to test the ability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to predict thermal striping. The benchmark is based on thermal and velocity data measured in an experiment designed specifically for this purpose. Thermal striping is intrinsically unsteady and hence not accessible to steady state simulation approaches such as steady state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models.1 Consequently, one must consider either unsteady RANS or large eddy simulation (LES). This report compares the results for three LES codes: Nek5000, developed at Argonne National Laboratory (USA), and Cabaret and Conv3D, developed at the Moscow Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety at (IBRAE) in Russia. Nek5000 is based on the spectral element method (SEM), which is a high-order weighted residual technique that combines the geometric flexibility of the finite element method (FEM) with the tensor-product efficiencies of spectral methods. Cabaret is a 'compact accurately boundary-adjusting high-resolution technique' for fluid dynamics simulation. The method is second-order accurate on nonuniform grids in space and time, and has a small dispersion error and computational stencil defined within one space-time cell. The scheme is equipped with a conservative nonlinear correction procedure based on the maximum principle. CONV3D is based on the immersed boundary method and is validated on a wide set of the experimental

  3. The OECD and the Expansion of PISA: New Global Modes of Governance in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the expansion of the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and associated growth in the influence of the OECD's education work. PISA has become one of the OECD's most successful "products" and has both strengthened the role of the Directorate for Education within the organization and enhanced…

  4. Convergence and determinants of health expenditures in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son Hong; Connelly, Luke Brian

    2017-08-17

    This study examines the trend and determinants of health expenditures in OECD countries over the 1975-2004 period. Based on recent developments in the economic growth literature we propose and test the hypothesis that health care expenditures in countries of similar economic development level may converge. We hypothesise that the main drivers for growth in health care costs include: aging population, technological progress and health insurance. The results reveal no evidence that health expenditures among OECD countries converge. Nevertheless, there is evidence of convergence among three sub-groups of countries. We found that the main driver of health expenditure is technological progress. Our results also suggest that health care is a (national) necessity, not a luxury good as some other studies in this field have found.

  5. PERAN OECD DALAM MEMINIMALKAN UPAYA TAX AGRESIVENESS PADA PERUSAHAAN MULTINATIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanindia Hajjar Damayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: OECD's Role in Minimizing Tax Aggressiveness Efforts at Multinationality Companies. This paper aims to prove the relation between multinationality transaction of tax heaven countries and the tax investigation toward the tax aggressiveness. This research is done by quantitative approach upon the companies registered in BEI for 2010-2014 periods. The findings denote the tax heaven countries have no effort to conduct the tax aggressiveness on which the multinationality negatively has no effect since the occurrence in the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines as the guideline for both the taxing authority and the multinational companies in accomplishing the transfer pricing matter. In contrary, the investigation does not influence the tax aggressiveness.

  6. Patient assessment: effective consultation and history taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Gerri

    This article explores patient consultation with specific reference to the Calgary-Cambridge consultation guide. It provides an overview of history taking and explores the patient's perspective during the consultation. The article also discusses the skills required to provide information effectively. In addition, the article addresses 'safety netting' and emphasises the interdependence of communication and consultation skills.

  7. Academic Development for Careers in Management Consulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Susan M.; Zanzi, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Explores the extent to which academic offerings are serving the consulting industry and identifies ways that academia can help. The numbers of management consulting courses, field experiences in consulting and consulting concentrations by graduate business schools were tracked over a three-year period to assess the current state of offerings. A…

  8. First mover advantages in mobile telecommunications: Evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Muck, Johannes; Heimeshoff, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We explore the existence of first mover advantages in mobile telecommunications markets. Building on a data set comprising monthly penetration rates, market concentration, number of active operators, and market shares of 90 followers from 33 OECD countries, we estimate a dynamic growth model. Our analysis delivers five key results. Regarding a follower's longrun market share, we observe that (1) the penetration rate at the time of market entry exerts an inverted u-shaped effect, suggesting th...

  9. A status of the art report for OECD RASPLAV program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Ki Man; Kim, Sang Baik; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Hee Dong; Suh, Kun Yeol

    1996-06-01

    The objective of current study is to summarize the work of OECD RASPLAV technical reports, which include investigation of natural convection in the corium, chemical interaction between corium and reactor vessel, solidification of corium crust during severe accident such as TMI-2 accident in the United States and Chernobyl accident in the USSR. The experimental data and technique will be used when designing a large scale experimental facility for the second phase of the project. 7 tabs., 11 figs., 14 refs. (Author)

  10. Globalization, female employment, and regional differences in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Accounting for within-country spatial differences is a much neglected issue in many cross-country comparisons. This paper highlights this importance in this empirical analysis of the impact of a country’s degree of social and economic globalization on female employment in 33 OECD countries, using a pseudo micro panel on 110’000 persons from the World Values Survey, 1981 to 2008. A traditional cross-country analysis suggests that only the social dimension of globalization, the worldwide inform...

  11. Tax Havens and the OECD Campaign Against them

    OpenAIRE

    Narci, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    There are two essential primary purposes for this thesis. The first has been to highlight the phenomena Tax Havens with its economical impact on other countries outlined in chapter two. Firstly the concept of tax havens is presented based on the OECD definition. Secondly the secrecy legislation, regulation and the corporate structures which tax havens offer to foreign investors and firms are given with their significance for other states. Thirdly, the ways tax havens are used b...

  12. Aggregate Multi-Factor Productivity: Measurement Issues in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Egert, Balazs

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses for 34 OECD countries the extent to which the calculation of aggregate multi-factor productivity (MFP) is sensitive to alternative parameterisations. The starting point is the definition of MFP used in previous work in the OECD’s Economics Department (e.g. Johansson et al. 2013). They include alternative MFP measures, with human capital included or excluded, with different measures of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) exchange rates, using time-varying capital depreciation rat...

  13. Trade-related Electronic Commerce Issues in the OECD

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-In Yoon

    1998-01-01

    The trade committee of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has begun the study of the trade related to electronic commerce since 1997. The scale of the study on one hand has avoided the fact of copy and duplication of WTO and its organizational principles, on the other hand it has played a supplementary and supportive function. At present, digital-related product, such as computers, software and travel is the key point to the trade which resorts to electronic commerce...

  14. Institutions and service employment: a panel study for OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Julián

    2004-01-01

    We live in a service economy, but the extent of development of service employment differs across developed countries. This paper assesses the role of structural factors and institutions in explaining the common patterns and main di?erences in the recent expansion of service employment in OECD countries. It finds that GDP per capita, the size of the government sector and the extent of urbanization are positively associated with the service employment share. However, the evidence suggests that ...

  15. BNFL Sellafield further public consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The main issues raised during the further public consultation on the draft Sellafield authorisations for the discharge of radioactive wastes from the British Nuclear Fuel (BNFL) Sellafield site are outlined. An analysis of the categories and numbers of the 42,500 responses is made. The public consultation was based on five documents; a letter to consultees from the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF); the report by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution and the Inspectorate of MAFF on their earlier consultation exercise; a paper by BNFL on the economic and commercial justification of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP); a statement of the Government's policy on reprocessing and THORP and a document prepared by BNFL on the environmental implication of THORP. (UK)

  16. Income inequality and obesity prevalence among OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dejun; Esqueda, Omar A; Li, Lifeng; Pagán, José A

    2012-07-01

    Using recent pooled data from the World Health Organization Global Infobase and the World Factbook compiled by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States, this study assesses the relation between income inequality and obesity prevalence among 31 OECD countries through a series of bivariate and multivariate linear regressions. The United States and Mexico well lead OECD countries in both obesity prevalence and income inequality. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the inclusion or exclusion of these two extreme cases can fundamentally change the findings. When the two countries are included, the results reveal a positive correlation between income inequality and obesity prevalence. This correlation is more salient among females than among males. Income inequality alone is associated with 16% and 35% of the variations in male and female obesity rates, respectively, across OECD countries in 2010. Higher levels of income inequality in the 2005-2010 period were associated with a more rapid increase in obesity prevalence from 2002 to 2010. These associations, however, virtually disappear when the US and Mexico have been excluded from the analysis. Findings from this study underscore the importance of assessing the impact of extreme cases on the relation between income inequality and health outcomes. The potential pathways from income inequality to the alarmingly high rates of obesity in the cases of the US and Mexico warrant further research.

  17. OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines - Implementation by Norwegian Tax Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sollund, Stig

    1998-07-01

    Presentation. The growth of multinational enterprises and integration of world markets across national borders has increased the importance of this issue: How should corporate tax systems at the national level be applied to the profits of companies engaging in the vast number of cross border transactions? The challenges and implications of the issue are tremendous both to the national governments and to the enterprises. The OECD countries have responded to these challenges by declaring that each enterprise within a multinational group of companies shall be treated as a separate entity. In order to apply the separate entity approach to intra group transactions, individual group members must be taxed on the basis that they act at arm's length with each other. The arm's length principle is more easily understood in theory than applied in practice. In some countries, therefore, the authorities have explored other methods than the traditional ones, as described in the 1979 Transfer Pricing Report of the OECD. A confirmed consensus between the governments was reached in the form of the revised 1995 guidelines. The Norwegian Ministry of Finance has given its full support to the efforts of defending the separate entity approach and the arm's length principle in the OECD committees.

  18. Drivers for renewable energy: A comparison among OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Jianbang; Smith, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    The difference in the shares of renewable energy in total primary energy supply among OECD countries is immense. We attempt to identify some key factors that may have driven this difference for renewable energy in general and bioenergy in particular. We found that besides country-specific factors, gross national product (GDP) and renewable energy and bioenergy market deployment policies have significant and positive impacts on the per capita supply of both renewable energy and bioenergy in OECD countries. R and D expenditures, energy prices, CO 2 emissions, and other energy policies are statistically insignificant in terms of their impact on renewable energy and bioenergy supply. However, this does not necessarily mean that they are not potential drivers for renewable energy and bioenergy, but rather suggests that their magnitudes have not been big enough to significantly influence energy supply based on the historical data from 1994 to 2003. These findings lead to useful policy implications for countries attempting to promote renewable energy and bioenergy development. -- Highlights: ► We identify the drivers of renewable energy development in OECD countries. ► Common drivers include GDP per capita and market deployment policies. ► Country-specific drivers reveal different pathways for bioenergy development.

  19. OECD Policy Recommendations on Security for Biological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisch, J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical innovations derived from research on pathogenic micro-organisms promise astounding health and economic benefits. Some such biological resources employed in the RandD for diagnostic kits, vaccines and therapeutics, however, possess capacity for dual-use; they may be misused to develop biological weapons. Research facilities entrusted with possession of such dual-use materials have a responsibility to comply with biosecurity measures that are designed to prevent loss or theft and thereby reduce the probability of a bioterrorist attack. The OECD has provided a forum for its Member countries to engage in a dialogue of international co-operation with a view to produce policies that achieve a research environment fortified by biosecurity measures and capable of producing health innovations. In 2007, the OECD developed a risk assessment framework and risk management principles for Biological Resource Centres. Ongoing policy work at the OECD will look to design biosecurity guidelines appropriate to a broader range of facilities in possession of dual-use materials, such as university and industrial laboratories.(author)

  20. Discussion of OECD LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.; Avramova, M.; Royer, E.; Gillford, J.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for best estimate calculations in nuclear reactor design and safety evaluations has increased in recent years. Uncertainty quantification has been highlighted as part of the best estimate calculations. The modelling aspects of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are to be further developed and validated on scientific grounds in support of their performance and application to multi-physics reactor simulations. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) / Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) has endorsed the creation of an Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (EGUAM). Within the framework of activities of EGUAM/NSC the OECD/NEA initiated the Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling for Design, Operation, and Safety Analysis of Light Water Reactor (OECD LWR UAM benchmark). The general objective of the benchmark is to propagate the predictive uncertainties of code results through complex coupled multi-physics and multi-scale simulations. The benchmark is divided into three phases with Phase I highlighting the uncertainty propagation in stand-alone neutronics calculations, while Phase II and III are focused on uncertainty analysis of reactor core and system respectively. This paper discusses the progress made in Phase I calculations, the Specifications for Phase II and the incoming challenges in defining Phase 3 exercises. The challenges of applying uncertainty quantification to complex code systems, in particular the time-dependent coupled physics models are the large computational burden and the utilization of non-linear models (expected due to the physics coupling). (authors)

  1. Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1992-05-01

    The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985-1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This 'multilateral' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125 mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125 mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250 C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government, and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

  2. Countering war or embracing peace? Dialogues between regionalism and multilateralism in Latin America (1945-1954

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreli Rocha, Alexandre L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Still an open debate, definitions about the beginning of the Cold War were even more ambiguous to actors at the time concerned with development and exit strategies for the Second World War. That was precisely the scenario to several Latin American leaders who, far from the Iron Curtain, were debating the rise of the UN system and of parliamentary diplomacy. Focusing on a multilateral strategy of action for the post-war international order, our work tries to put together the Pan-Latin, Pan-American and UN policies of Latin Americans since the Chapultepec Conference of February 1945 until the 1954 Conferences of Caracas, which fashioned the Organization of American States’ Cold War status, and of Madrid, which failed to consolidate the Latin Union.Todavía un debate en abierto en la historiografía, la definición sobre los marcos del principio de la Guerra Fría fue aún más ambigua para los actores involucrados en el conflicto bélico precedente y preocupados con el desarrollo y las salidas estratégicas posibles de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Esta fue la realidad para varios líderes latinoamericanos que, lejos de la Cortina de Hierro, quedaban mucho más preocupados con el surgimiento del sistema de las Naciones Unidas y la diplomacia parlamentaria. Centrándose sobre las estrategias multilaterales para la orden internacional de la posguerra, nuestro trabajo pretende analizar las políticas Pan-Latinas, Pan Americanas y para las Naciones Unidas de la América Latina desde la Conferencia de Chapultepec, en febrero de 1945, hasta las Conferencias de 1954 de Caracas, que consolidó la Organización de los Estados Americanos en un contexto de Guerra Fría, y de Madrid, que no logró consolidar la Unión Latina.

  3. Heads in the clouds, feet in the sand: Multilateral policy coordination in global environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    This is a study of how issues that can only be solved through cooperation (such as commons issues) reach the international agenda and how states then form policy on those issues. Extensive primary data are used in analyzing (1) accession of stratospheric ozone depletion and global climate change to the international agenda and (2) the policy formation of ten states on these issues. This study shows that commons issues reach the international agenda through the actions of intergovernmental organizations in defining the problem, and the political activities of a leader state (such as the US on ozone) or a state acting as a policy entrepreneur. In the extensive literature on international cooperation most studies emphasize the importance of system level variables. Adapting the two-level games approach to multilateral issues, this study argues that, as commons issues do not directly threaten the security of most states, state policy on such issues primarily reflects domestic political necessities. In effect, foreign and domestic policy on such issues become unified. Through analysis of secondary and primary data, including more than 30 interviews with representatives of both developed states (the US, Canada, the UK, and Japan) and developing states (Brazil, India, Algeria, Mexico, and Thailand), and the Soviet Union, this study shows how domestic factors influenced foreign policy decisions and actions. The study shows that states seem to be less interested in absolute or relative gains in international negotiations that in maximizing domestic political rewards from its choice of foreign policy. Finally, through study of the accession of the global climate change issue it is appears that knowledge may be politically derived. States required a open-quotes consensusclose quotes among the technical experts before initiating the international negotiations. Politics seems to have played a large part in forming the technical consensus and in communicating it to states

  4. Energy saving consulting in Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-01

    For anyone who wants to realise the dream of his own house, the terms of thermal insulation and saving heating plant should be central in planning this. One needs advice from experts for this. A survey of the many consultants offices available in Hamburg is provided. The list was compiled with the assistance of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce and the Hamburg Trades Council and of professional associations. The information on the special fields of activity of the named consultants is based on their statements.

  5. The impact of minimum wages on population health: evidence from 24 OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Otto

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between minimum wages and several measures of population health by analyzing data from 24 OECD countries for a time period of 31 years. Specifically, I test for health effects as a result of within-country variations in the generosity of minimum wages, which are measured by the Kaitz index. The paper finds that higher levels of minimum wages are associated with significant reductions of overall mortality rates as well as in the number of deaths due to outcomes that have been shown to be more prevalent among individuals with low socioeconomic status (e.g., diabetes, disease of the circulatory system, stroke). A 10% point increase of the Kaitz index is associated with significant declines in death rates and an increase in life expectancy of 0.44 years. Furthermore, I provide evidence for potential channels through which minimum wages impact population health by showing that more generous minimum wages impact outcomes such as poverty, the share of the population with unmet medical needs, the number of doctor consultations, tobacco consumption, calorie intake, and the likelihood of people being overweight.

  6. Procedures for initiation, cost-sharing and management of OECD projects in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The OECD (CSNI) projects aim to produce results relevant for the safe operation of nuclear power plants through international collaborative projects. In general, the projects consist of advanced experimental programmes that are conducted at specialized facilities. At present, the following OECD (CSNI) projects are in operation: - The Halden Project, covering fuel/materials and I and C/Human Factors issues; - The Cabri Project, addressing reactivity transients on high burnup fuels; - The MASCA Project, which deals with in-vessel corium phenomena; - The OLHF Project, dealing with lower head failure mechanisms; - The SETH Project addressing thermal-hydraulics issues, started in 2001; - The MCCI Project on ex-vessel coolability and melt-concrete interaction. There are significant differences among these projects in terms of their motivation, size and scope. The Halden Project and the Cabri Water Loop Project are large undertakings where the host organisations assume full and direct responsibility for the project establishment and administration - as well as for the negotiation with relevant parties on the terms of participation. In the other cases, instead, the NEA secretariat has a more direct responsibility, conferred by the CSNI, in establishing the project technical and financial basis, as well as for its implementation and administration. The objective of this procedure is to provide a common basis for the establishment and management of the OECD projects in the area of nuclear safety. It is a follow-up of a recommendation expressed by the CSNI Bureau during its meeting in October 2001, where the procedures for the establishment and management of the OECD (CSNI) projects in nuclear safety were addressed. While this procedure attempts at defining general guidelines for project initiation, financing and management, one should bear in mind that each project has its own motivation, background and framework. Thus, some degree of flexibility in project structure

  7. The OECD expert meeting on ecotoxicology and environmental fate — Towards the development of improved OECD guidelines for the testing of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühnel, Dana; Nickel, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    On behalf of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) an expert meeting on ecotoxicology and environmental fate of nanomaterials (NMs) took place in January 2013 in Berlin. At this meeting experts from science, industry and regulatory bodies discussed the applicability of OECD test guidelines (TGs) for chemicals to nanomaterials. The objective was to discuss the current state of the relevant science and provide recommendations to the OECD WPMN on (1) the need for updating current OECD TGs and the need for developing new ones specific to nanomaterials; and (2) guidance needed for the appropriate and valid testing of environmental fate and ecotoxicity endpoints for NMs. Experts at the workshop agreed that the majority of the OECD TG for chemicals were generally applicable for the testing of NM, with the exception of TG 105 (water solubility) and 106 (adsorption-desorption). Additionally, the workshop also highlighted considerations when conducting OECD chemical TG on nanomaterials (e.g., sample preparation, dispersion, analysis, dosimetry and characterisation). These considerations will lead to the future development of proposals for new TG and guidance documents (GDs) to ensure that OECD TG give meaningful, repeatable, and accurate results when used for nanomaterials. This report provides a short overview of topics discussed during the meeting and the main outcomes. A more detailed report of the workshop will become available through the OECD, however, due to the urgency of having OECD TG relevant for nanomaterials, this brief report is being shared with the scientific community through this communication. - Highlights: • OECD test guidelines (TGs) were developed for the testing of conventional chemicals. • Need for discussion on applicability of current TGs to nanomaterials • An expert meeting addressing this issue was held. • The focus was on TGs covering ecotoxicology and environmental fate. • Recommendations for updating current OECD

  8. Database for the OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Emese; Hozer, Zoltan; Gyori, Csaba; Hegyi, Gyoergy

    2010-01-01

    On 10 April 2003 severe damage of fuel assemblies took place during an incident at Unit 2 of Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary. The assemblies were being cleaned in a special tank below the water level of the spent fuel storage pool in order to remove crud buildup. That afternoon, the chemical cleaning of assemblies was completed and the fuel rods were being cooled by circulation of storage pool water. The first sign of fuel failure was the detection of some fission gases released from the cleaning tank during that evening. The cleaning tank cover locks were released after midnight and this operation was followed by a sudden increase in activity concentrations. The visual inspection revealed that all 30 fuel assemblies were severely damaged. The first evaluation of the event showed that the severe fuel damage happened due to inadequate coolant circulation within the cleaning tank. The damaged fuel assemblies will be removed from the cleaning tank in 2005 and will be stored in special canisters in the spent fuel storage pool of the Paks NPP. Following several discussions between expert from different countries and international organisations the OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project was proposed. The project is envisaged in two phases. - Phase 1 is to cover organization of visual inspection of material, preparation of database, performance of analyses and preparatory work for fuel examination. - Phase 2 is to cover the fuel transport and the hot cell examination. The first meeting of the project was held in Budapest on 30-31 January 2006. Phase 1 of the Paks Fuel Project will focus on the numerical simulation of the most important aspects of the incident. This activity will help in the reconstruction of the accidental scenario. The first step of Phase 1 was the collection of a database necessary for the code calculations. The main objective of database collection was to provide input data for calculations. For this reason the collection was focused on such data that are

  9. Why Are There So Few Ethics Consults in Children's Hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian; Brockman, Manuel; Garrett, Jeremy; Knackstedt, Angie; Lantos, John

    2017-10-03

    In most children's hospitals, there are very few ethics consultations, even though there are many ethically complex cases. We hypothesize that the reason for this may be that hospitals develop different mechanisms to address ethical issues and that many of these mechanisms are closer in spirit to the goals of the pioneers of clinical ethics than is the mechanism of a formal ethics consultation. To show how this is true, we first review the history of collaboration between philosophers and physicians about clinical dilemmas. Then, as a case-study, we describe the different venues that have developed at one children's hospital to address ethical issues. At our hospital, there are nine different venues in which ethical issues are regularly and explicitly addressed. They are (1) ethics committee meetings, (2) Nursing Ethics Forum, (3) ethics Brown Bag workshops, (4) PICU ethics rounds, (5) Grand Rounds, (6) NICU Comprehensive Care Rounds, (7) Palliative Care Team (PaCT) case conferences, (8) multidisciplinary consults in Fetal Health Center, and (9) ethics consultations. In our hospital, ethics consults account for only a tiny percentage of ethics discussions. We suspect that most hospitals have multiple and varied venues for ethics discussions. We hope this case study will stimulate research in other hospitals analyzing the various ways in which ethicists and ethics committees can build an ethical environment in hospitals. Such research might suggest that ethicists need to develop a different set of "core competencies" than the ones that are needed to do ethics consultations. Instead, they should focus on their skills in creating multiple "moral spaces" in which regular and ongoing discussion of ethical issues would take place. A successful ethicist would empower everyone in the hospital to speak up about the values that they believe are central to respectful, collaborative practice and patient care. Such a role is closer to what the first hospital philosophers set

  10. Narrative and Structure in Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the process of consultation to professional networks, teams, groups and individuals concerned with the mental health of children and young people in the care system, and those adopted. Frequently there are significant elements of early trauma suffered by the young people and disruption in the professional organisation. The…

  11. Consultancy on Strategic Information Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejova, Zdravka, Ed.; Horton, Forest W., Ed.

    At the workshop, better management through strategic planning of information and consultancy was discussed as one way in which developing and Eastern European countries could tackle the complex information problems they are facing during the transition to a market economy. The sixteen papers in this volume are grouped into three basic categories:…

  12. Consultative Instructor Supervision and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations vary greatly in how they monitor training instructors. The methods used in monitoring vary greatly. This article presents a systematic process for improving instructor skills that result in better teaching and better learning, which results in better-prepared employees for the workforce. The consultative supervision and evaluation…

  13. The Organizational Communication Consulting Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Stewart L.

    Surveys of businesses and business managers indicate that developing communication skills within organizations is a priority. Communication consulting exists over a wide spectrum of activities that include guest speaking, conducting workshops, and conducting management training programs. These three processes can include a "canned program" that…

  14. Improving Indonesian Construction Consulting Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Z. Tamin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian construction consulting services are facing a complex problem in fulfilling the nation’s expectations regarding high quality infrastructure development and the construction industry’s competitiveness. A study of this problem and a formulation of solutions to improve the situation are presented in this paper. A survey was carried out in Jakarta, West Java, East Java, and North Sumatra provinces to collect data related to this problem. A focus group discussion and a workshop with all stakeholders were conducted to formulate improvement actions that need to be taken. It was revealed that the problems faced include, among others, the limited number of professional engineers compared to the number of national consultancy companies, the uneven distribution of engineers in Indonesian regions, an imperfect procurement system, and low-quality work output in general. Recommended actions include improvement of the government’s role in consulting services nurturing and facilitation, development of partnerships, and amelioration of the professional engineer and consultant certification system.

  15. Gamification in a Consulting Company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, Frank; Bazylevska, L.; Aiello, M.

    2014-01-01

    Gamification refers to the use of game-design elements in a non-gaming context. The consulting company Capgemini has set up a rudimentary Gamification platform to help motivating the people to do extra work for the company in their spare time. In order to re- ward people for this effort, they can

  16. Human Capital Versus Income Variations: Are They Linked in OECD Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bartak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The theory of endogenous growth suggests a number of relations between income inequality and human capital. However, empirical evidence in this field is scarce. Therefore, in this paper we aim to demonstrate the existence of interdependencies between income inequality and human capital across OECD countries.Methodology: We present findings of the endogenous growth theory on the mechanisms linking inequality with human capital. Subsequently, we attempt to verify these links empirically using the regression function estimated by means of the generalized method of moments (GMM. The empirical analysis is based on panel data from 1995–2010.Findings: The results of the study reveal the existence of a negative relationship between income inequality and health indicators (infant mortality and maternal mortality. However, we did not reach an authoritative conclusion about the relationship between income inequality and quantitative indicators of educational achievement.Research limitations: Research is limited to the sample of OECD countries. Interdependencies between income inequality and human capital could be captured more clearly using a broader sample.Originality: This paper presents one of few studies testing the relation between human capital and income inequality. The use of high-quality empirical data on inequality (SWIID data and the generalized method of moments made it possible to contribute new arguments to the discussion of empirical analyses of these economic categories.

  17. Re-spending rebound: A macro-level assessment for OECD countries and emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, Miklós; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that energy conservation can lead to rebound effects that partly offset the original energy savings. One particular rebound mechanism is re-spending of money savings associated with energy savings on energy intensive goods or services. We calculate the average magnitude of this “re-spending rebound” for different fuels and countries, and for both energy and carbon (CO 2 ) emissions. We find that emerging economies, neglected in past studies, typically have larger rebounds than OECD countries. Since such economies play an increasingly important role in the global economy the re-spending rebound is a growing concern. The re-spending effect is generally larger for gasoline than for natural gas and electricity. Paradoxically, stronger financial incentives to conserve energy tend to increase the rebound. This suggests that with climate regulation and peak oil the re-spending rebound may become more important. We discuss the policy implications of our findings. - highlights: • Energy and carbon rebound due to re-spending of money savings is analyzed. • The average magnitude of this rebound is calculated for several countries. • Emerging economies typically have substantially larger rebounds than OECD countries. • The effect is generally stronger for gasoline than for natural gas and electricity. • Policy conclusions are drawn

  18. How did the economic recession (2008-2010) influence traffic fatalities in OECD-countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegman, Fred; Allsop, Richard; Antoniou, Constantinos; Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Elvik, Rune; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lloyd, Daryl; Wijnen, Wim

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents analyses of how the economic recession that started in 2008 has influenced the number of traffic fatalities in OECD countries. Previous studies of the relationship between economic recessions and changes in the number of traffic fatalities are reviewed. Based on these studies, a causal diagram of the relationship between changes of the business cycle and changes in the number of traffic fatalities is proposed. This causal model is tested empirically by means of multivariate analyses and analyses of accident statistics for Great Britain and Sweden. Economic recession, as indicated both by slower growth of, or decline of gross national product, and by increased unemployment is associated with an accelerated decline in the number of traffic fatalities, i.e. a larger decline than the long-term trend that is normal in OECD countries. The principal mechanisms bringing this about are a disproportionate reduction of driving among high-risk drivers, in particular young drivers and a reduction of fatality rate per kilometre of travel, probably attributable to changes in road user behaviour that are only partly observable. The total number of vehicle kilometres of travel did not change very much as a result of the recession. The paper is based on an ITF-report that presents the analyses in greater detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Birthplace Diversity, Income Inequality and Education Gradients in Generalised Trust: The Relevance of Cognitive Skills in 29 Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 164

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovi, Francesca; Pokropek, Artur

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines between-country differences in the mechanisms through which education could promote generalised trust using data from 29 countries participating in the OECD's Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). Results indicate that education is strongly associated with generalised trust and that a large part of this association is mediated by…

  20. Determinants of Multilateral Official Development Assistance: Evidence from a Panel Study of Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hlavac, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are some of the poorest and least developed in the world, with deplorable health and education levels. One way intended to promote better living standards in this region has been through development aid. This study examines the determinants of multilateral aid inflows to sub-Saharan Africa to determine whether it is directed to the least developed countries. I use panel data about 22 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from the 1995-2004 period to estimate a regres...

  1. Functional Changes in China’s Participation in the Multilateral Development Banks: from Borrower to Creditor Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leksyutina Y.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multilateral development banks (MDBs play an important role in world economic processes and global economic governance. Since the establishment of the first multilateral development bank – the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD – MDBs have emerged in three waves, each time as a response to the major changes in the world arena. The creation of the New Development Bank (NDB and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB represents the third and latest wave of MDBs. These new development banks have arisen as a consequence of an historic shift in global economic power from developed countries to emerging economies and more specifically the increase in China’s economic might. This article traces the evolution of China’s participation in MDBs, characterizes various forms of China’s engagement with MDBs in specific periods of history, and explains Beijing’s motivation in establishing new MDBs. During almost 40 years of interaction with the multilateral development banks, China has made a great leap forward from large-borrower to creditor status, from ordinary member to the initiator and creator of new MDBs under its auspices. This article identifies the scale, composition and dynamic of MDBs’ assistance to China. It points out that despite its eye-catching economic achievements, China remains one of the largest borrowers from MDBs. Yet, in the process of China’s participation in MDBs there have been two turning points: in 2004–2005 when China became a creditor, and during the 2008 global financial crisis when China set a course to promote the reform of global governance system and the creation of new China-dominated financial bodies. The creation of new financial institutions is evaluated in the article as indicating Beijing’s foreign policy ambitions to assume a leadership role in the global economic architecture, while the fact that China is acting both as a creditor and a borrower in MDBs reflects the

  2. Consultation Barriers between Teachers and External Consultants: A Grounded Theory of Change Resistance in School Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in Sweden, was to investigate the cultural barriers between school personnel (teachers and principals) and nonschool personnel (a resource team), who were external to the school system, regarding consultation about challenging or difficult-to-teach students. Focus groups with teachers, principals, and the resource…

  3. Simulated consultations: a sociolinguistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Sarah; Roberts, Celia; Hawthorne, Kamila; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2016-01-15

    Assessment of consulting skills using simulated patients is widespread in medical education. Most research into such assessment is sited in a statistical paradigm that focuses on psychometric properties or replicability of such tests. Equally important, but less researched, is the question of how far consultations with simulated patients reflect real clinical encounters--for which sociolinguistics, defined as the study of language in its socio-cultural context, provides a helpful analytic lens. In this debate article, we draw on a detailed empirical study of assessed role-plays, involving sociolinguistic analysis of talk in OSCE interactions. We consider critically the evidence for the simulated consultation (a) as a proxy for the real; (b) as performance; (c) as a context for assessing talk; and (d) as potentially disadvantaging candidates trained overseas. Talk is always a performance in context, especially in professional situations (such as the consultation) and institutional ones (the assessment of professional skills and competence). Candidates who can handle the social and linguistic complexities of the artificial context of assessed role-plays score highly--yet what is being assessed is not real professional communication, but the ability to voice a credible appearance of such communication. Fidelity may not be the primary objective of simulation for medical training, where it enables the practising of skills. However the linguistic problems and differences that arise from interacting in artificial settings are of considerable importance in assessment, where we must be sure that the exam construct adequately embodies the skills expected for real-life practice. The reproducibility of assessed simulations should not be confused with their validity. Sociolinguistic analysis of simulations in various professional contexts has identified evidence for the gap between real interactions and assessed role-plays. The contextual conditions of the simulated

  4. OECD/NEA activities on the safety of new reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reig, Javier

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency, a member of the OECD family, has as mission, in line with the overall aim of the OECD, to assist Agency's member countries in maintaining and further developing through international cooperation, the scientific, technological and legal bases for a safe, environmentally friendly and economic use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Our members include very advanced nuclear countries and represent a big part of the world's nuclear capacity. In addition, we have a well established and formal relationship with the Russian Federation and the IAEA. Two years ago, the NEA celebrated its 50th anniversary of providing assistance to its member countries in supporting the safe use of nuclear power. Nuclear power will remain a key part of the energy mix for many decades to come and, as such, the NEA looks forward to continuing its value-adding work in the field of nuclear power. Korea joined the NEA in 24 May, 1993. While the NEA is satisfied that we have in place an effective process of work, we are always looking for ways to improve. This is the reason why we have since 1999 a series of strategic plans in order to better focus on the objectives that member countries assign to the Agency for meeting the economical, environmental and societal challenges of the coming years. The important changes that have occurred in the energy and nuclear landscapes, as well as in the OECD framework, are the basis for these revisions insofar as they influence the NEA's role and activities. We are now completing the process for the new Strategic Plan which will apply from 2011 to 2017. Nuclear safety and regulation is and will continue to be the first priority of the Agency. The NEA will assist member countries to continue sharing information, best practices and lessons learned to enhance nuclear safety worldwide

  5. Labour Taxation in Poland Compared to the Other OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryńska Elżbieta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Celem opracowania jest identyfikacja wysokości i zróżnicowania opodatkowania pracy, wyrażanego poprzez tzw. klin podatkowy, w Polsce na tle krajów OECD. Identyfikacji tej dokonano na podstawie analizy danych statystycznych zgromadzonych w bazie OECD obejmujących lata 2000-2012. W opracowaniu dokonano interpretacji pojęć kluczowych, takich jak opodatkowanie pracy, klin podatkowy i pozapłacowe koszty pracy. W dalszej części syntetycznie omówiono ustalenia teoretyczne i wyniki badań empirycznych dotyczących skutków opodatkowania pracy dla funkcjonowania rynku pracy, a zwłaszcza jego wpływ na zatrudnienie i bezrobocie. Badania własne objęły analizę porównawczą wielkości klina podatkowego w różnych typach gospodarstw domowych w Polsce i pozostałych krajach OECD w latach 2000-2012. Najważniejszą konstatacją wynikającą z analiz jest, iż w Polsce opodatkowanie pracy w zbyt małym stopniu uwzględnia sytuację materialną osób nisko zarabiających oraz mających nautrzymaniu dzieci. Wyniki przeprowadzonych badań stały się podstawą sformułowania wniosków syntetycznych i rekomendacji dla Polski. Zasugerowano w nich przede wszystkim, by rozważono selektywne obniżenie pozapłacowych kosztów pracy osób nisko zarabiających oraz obciążonych obowiązkami rodzinnymi.

  6. Consultancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorm, J.K.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    The success of managing Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) depends on an effective and efficient process of becoming aware of the potential for improvement, problem definition, diagnosis, designing possible improvements, decision making and implementing potential improvements. This process

  7. The Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD through its history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarri, L.

    2008-01-01

    This year, 2008, marks the 50th Anniversary of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). During these years the Agency has adapted to the evolution of the world energy situation. At the beginning the Agency launches international collaboration projects to establish the technological bases required for nuclear energy, then helps member countries in the construction of nuclear power plants and later analyzes the safety criteria as a consequence of the Three Miles Island and Chernobyl accidents. Based on this experience, the NEA faces the X XI Century prepared to contribute, even more, to a better international collaboration for a safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of the nuclear energy. (Author)

  8. 20. Annual report. OECD Halden reactor project. 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is the Twentieth Annual Report on the OECD Halden Reactor Project, describing activities during 1979, the first year of the 1979-1981 Halden Agreement. Research work at the project is focussed on three areas: 1) In-core behaviour of reactor fuel, particularly reliability and safety aspects, which is studied through irradiation of test fuel elements. 2) Prediction, surveillance and control of fuel and core performance, for which models of fuel and core behaviour are developed. 3) Applications of process computers to power plant control, for which prototype software systems and hardware arrangements are developed

  9. Compensation for nuclear damage in the OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The study aims to describe briefly the main features of the system for compensation of nuclear damage in OECD Member Countries, emphasising the practical arrangements for compensating such damage, with illustrations drawn from various national legal provisions applicable to such cases. The study indicates and compares legislative provisions which are specifically nuclear, without going into the substantive and procedural rules of the general law, reference to which frequently occurs in enactments relating to nuclear third party liability. The references to national nuclear legislation illustrate the manner in which effect has been given to international Conventions. (Auth.) [fr

  10. Energy statistics of OECD countries 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work contains a compilation of energy supply and consumption data in original units for coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewable combustible and waste. Historical tables summarize data on production, trade and final consumption of hard coal, brown coal, oil, natural gas and electricity. Each issue includes definitions of products and flows and explanatory notes on the individual country data. The data contained in this publication are presented in comprehensive energy balances expressed in million tonnes of oil equivalent in Energy Balances of OECD Countries, 1993-1994, the sister volume of this publication. (authors). figs., tabs

  11. General Overview On Poverty: The Sample of OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan YÜKSEL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, as a significant threat to humans all over the world, has been enhancing because of the fact that there has been a strong inequality of the income rates. In this economic system, the poor becomes poorer and the rich becomes richer and the difference between these two groups has become absolute. On the other hand, the international organizations are not effective enough to solve the problem of poverty. In this context, the main aim of the study is to have a look at the general overview of poverty by means of OECD countries and to come to a certain as well as concrete resolutions on its prevention.

  12. OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    It is important for nuclear power plant designers, operators and regulators to effectively use lessons learned from events occurring at nuclear power plants since, in general, it is impossible to reproduce the event using experimental facilities. In particular, evaluation of the event using accident analysis codes is expected to contribute to improving understanding of phenomena during the events and to facilitate the validation of computer codes through simulation analyses. The information presented in this publication will be of use in future revisions of safety guides on accident analysis. During a fuel crud removal operation on the Paks-2 unit of the Paks nuclear power plant, Hungary on 10 April 2003, several fuel assemblies were severely damaged. The assemblies were being cleaned in a special tank under deep water in a service pit connected to the spent fuel storage pool. The first sign of fuel failures was the detection of some fission gases released from the cleaning tank. Later, visual inspection revealed that most of the 30 fuel assemblies suffered heavy oxidation and fragmentation. The first evaluation of the event showed that the severe fuel damage had been caused by inadequate cooling. The Paks-2 event was discussed in various committees of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) and of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Recommendations were made to undertake actions to improve the understanding of the incident sequence and of the consequence this had on the fuel. It was considered that the Paks-2 event may constitute a useful case for a comparative exercise on safety codes, in particular for models devised to predict fuel damage and potential releases under abnormal cooling conditions and the analyses of the Paks-2 event may provide information which is relevant for in-reactor and spent fuel storage safety evaluations. The OECD-IAEA Paks Fuel Project was established in 2005 as a joint project between the IAEA and the OECD/NEA. The IAEA

  13. Energy Market Liberalisation and Renewable Energy Policies in OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the effect of energy liberalizations on policies that support renewable energy in a long panel of OECD countries. We estimate this effect accounting for the endogeneity of liberalisation related to joint decisions within a country's energy strategy. Using regulation in other industries as instruments, we find that energy liberalisation increases the public support to renewable energy. The effect of liberalisation is the second largest after the effect of per-capita income and is fully driven by reductions in entry barriers, while the effect of privatisation is negative. Finally, our results are robust to dynamic specifications and various policy indicators. (authors)

  14. Address to the OECD Council. 30 September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the statement made by the Director General of the IAEA at the OECD Council, on 30 September 1998. The conference gave an overview on the role and work of the IAEA in relation to the following main topics: the role of nuclear power in the twenty-first century, the management of nuclear power in this century, the challenge of verification, safeguards and the security of nuclear material, and the particular importance and contribution of nuclear technology transfer

  15. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Activities Related to Fast Reactor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dujardin, Thierry; Gulliford, Jim

    2013-01-01

    • Despite impact of Fukushima, there remains a high level of interest in continued development of advanced nuclear systems and fuel cycles: – better use of natural resources; – minimisation of waste and reduction of constraints on deep geological repositories. • Ambitious R&D programmes on-going at national level in many countries, also through international projects: – expected to lead to development of advanced reactors and fuel cycle facilities. • OECD/NEA will continue to support member countries in field of fast reactor development and related advanced fuel cycles: – forum for exchange of information; – collaborative activities

  16. Inequality of energy intensities across OECD countries: a note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Vicent; Duro, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of Theil's second measure to analyze international energy intensity differences. This index allows differences to be broken down within and between groups of countries in a consistent manner. An analysis of OECD countries for the period 1971-1999 shows some basic points: first, the fall in energy intensities differences is attributable both to within-group and between-group inequality components; second, between-group inequalities are currently the main contributor to the whole inequality value; finally, a detailed exploration on within-group inequalities reveals the significant explanatory role played by EU-countries

  17. Uruguay; 2011 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This 2011 Article IV Consultation highlights that the growth momentum in Uruguay has continued into 2011 but a slowdown is under way, led by weaker exports and slower public investment. Uruguay’s economic and financial vulnerabilities are modest, and the government has reduced debt vulnerabilities significantly and built important financial buffers. Executive Directors have commended authorities’ skillful macroeconomic management that has underpinned Uruguay’s excellent economic performance, ...

  18. Austria; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents details of Austria’s 2013 Article IV Consultation. Austria has been growing economically but is facing challenges in the financial sector. Full implementation of medium-term fiscal adjustment plans require specifying several measures and plans that need gradual strengthening to take expected further bank restructuring cost into account. It suggests that strong early bank intervention and resolution tools, a better designed deposit insurance system, and a bank-financed reso...

  19. Public Consultation toward Ethiopia's Family Law Reform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandefrot Belay

    A comprehensive and open public consultation was conducted during the revision ... in Ethiopia which are expected to guide any legal reform process so that the ... law, the way in which public consultation forums were organized, and the ...

  20. Consultation for Parents of Young Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Joan S.

    1989-01-01

    The article describes private evaluation and consultation services provided to parents of young gifted children, and discusses the benefits of private consultation and the potential role of school personnel in meeting the needs of this population. (Author/JDD)

  1. Lay Consultations in Heart Failure Symptom Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Katherine M; Sims, Jessica L; Ercole, Patrick M; Shetty, Shivan S; Wallendorf, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lay consultations can facilitate or impede healthcare. However, little is known about how lay consultations for symptom evaluation affect treatment decision-making. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of lay consultations in symptom evaluation prior to hospitalization among patients with heart failure. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, along with logistic regression were used to characterize lay consultations in this sample. A large proportion of patients engaged in lay consultations for symptom evaluation and decision-making before hospitalization. Lay consultants provided attributions and advice and helped make the decision to seek medical care. Men consulted more often with their spouse than women, while women more often consulted with adult children. Findings have implications for optimizing heart failure self-management interventions, improving outcomes, and reducing hospital readmissions.

  2. The impact of the multilateral approach to the nuclear fuel cycle in Malaysia's nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, B.; Ferdinand, P.

    2014-01-01

    Since the Pakistan-India nuclear weapon race, the North Korean nuclear test and the September 11 attack revealed Abdul Qadeer Khan's clandestine nuclear black market and the fear that Iran's nuclear program may be used for nuclear weapon development, scrutiny of activities related to nuclear technologies, especially technology transfer has become more stringent. The nuclear supplier group has initiated a multilateral nuclear fuel cycle regime with the purpose of guaranteeing nuclear fuel supply and at the same time preventing the spread of nuclear proliferation. Malaysia wants to develop a programme for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and it needs to accommodate itself to this policy. When considering developing a nuclear fuel cycle policy, the key elements that Malaysia needs to consider are the extent of the fuel cycle technologies that it intends to acquire and the costs (financial and political) of acquiring them. Therefore, this paper will examine how the multilateral approach to the nuclear fuel cycle may influence Malaysia's nuclear fuel cycle policy, without jeopardising the country's rights and sovereignty as stipulated under the NPT. (authors)

  3. A survey of the existing international legal rules on the dumping of radioactive waste into the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, J.C.

    All nuclear activities generate radioactive wastes and, in the context of the problems raised by such wastes, the author analyses the international rules regulating their safe disposal into the sea and the motives underlying their elaboration. The review therefore covers the London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Waste and Other Matter, together with the IAEA provisional definition and recommendations in this respect, and the recently adopted OECD Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. It is emphasized that while the London Convention deals with a wide range of products, the OECD Mechanism deals solely with radioactive waste. Finally, consideration is given to whether the Paris Convention and the Euratom Treaty may be of relevance in this field. (NEA) [fr

  4. The OECD and sustainable development: A call for leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, D. [OECD, Paris, (France)

    2003-01-01

    Progress in sustainable development made by the world's developed economies since the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 is reviewed, including the range of regulatory instruments to reduce pollution and natural resource use, and the increased application of science and technology. Despite substantial progress, there are many gaps still remaining, and dealing with them is more difficult the longer the action is delayed. Some of the more serious threats remaining are the changing climate under pressure from the continued release of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the disappointing progress in reducing extreme poverty worldwide, as many of the poorest countries are left at the margin of the globalization process, unable to share in the economic benefits of open markets, technology transfer and private investments. An examination of the remaining problems reveals that the policies and practices followed by the OECD countries such as improved policy coherence and integration, increased accountability of political decisions, application of appropriate criteria to monitor progress in policy integration, citizens' involvement in developing long-term capacities in government, elimination of economically inefficient and environmentally damaging subsidies, could also be effective in the developing countries, provided that they are applied with the right level of ambition and consistency. Some OECD actions currently underway and focusing on options to deal with these problems are also described.

  5. Factors affecting the future of nuclear power in OECD Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a brief review of nuclear power in OECD Europe and addresses the prospects for its future over, say, the next quarter century. Most of the data and findings are drawn from studies published by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The NEA is a small agency with a rather modest budget whose 27 members are industrialized countries from North America, Asia and Europe. The Agency works to pool the expertise of our member countries to produce technical, economic and legal work of considerable depth and quality addressing issues of common interest to those countries. Our work covers such fields as nuclear science, nuclear power economics, nuclear safety, radiation protection, waste management and nuclear liability. The studies carried out in the framework of the Agency require fewer resources than would be needed by our member countries if they were to pursue them individually, which is especially important at a time of cut-backs in national programmes in such critical areas as nuclear safety research. (author)

  6. Have Public Finances in the OECD Area Been Sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraz Ricardo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to test, from an empirical standpoint, the existence of sustainable public finances in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD area as a whole, over the most recent period of the world economy, 1973-2016. The research methods include not only standard stationarity tests, but also tests, which allow for a structural break. The relevant results of this research are a stationary public budget balance expressed as a percentage of GDP and a debt to GDP ratio that is stationary in first differences. According to the literature, this means that a “necessary and sufficient” condition is fulfilled for proving the existence of a strong sustainability. We hope this research can make a valuable contribution to the debate regarding public finances in the world economy. To obtain other relevant conclusions, additional tests will need to be performed in the future in order to assess which members are contributing to the fiscal sustainability of the OECD aggregate.

  7. A systematic review of medical practice variation in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corallo, Ashley N; Croxford, Ruth; Goodman, David C; Bryan, Elisabeth L; Srivastava, Divya; Stukel, Therese A

    2014-01-01

    Major variations in medical practice have been documented internationally. Variations raise questions about the quality, equity, and efficiency of resource allocation and use, and have important implications for health care and health policy. To perform a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on medical practice variations in OECD countries. We searched MEDLINE to find publications on medical practice variations in OECD countries published between 2000 and 2011. We present an overview of the characteristics of published studies as well as the magnitude of variations for select high impact conditions. A total of 836 studies were included. Consistent with the gray literature, there were large variations across regions, hospitals and physician practices for almost every condition and procedure studied. Many studies focused on high-impact conditions, but very few looked at the causes or outcomes of medical practice variations. While there were an overwhelming number of publications on medical practice variations the coverage was broad and not often based on a theoretical construct. Future studies should focus on conditions and procedures that are clinically important, policy relevant, resource intensive, and have high levels of public awareness. Further study of the causes and consequences of variations is important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fathers’ Leave and Fathers’ Involvement: Evidence from Four OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Maria C.; Adema, Willem; Baxter, Jennifer; Han, Wen-Jui; Lausten, Mette; Lee, RaeHyuck; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several OECD countries have taken steps to promote policies encouraging fathers to spend more time caring for young children, thereby promoting a more gender equal division of care work. Evidence, mainly for the United States and United Kingdom, has shown fathers taking some time off work around childbirth are more likely to be involved in childcare related activities than fathers who do not take time off. This paper conducts a first cross-national analysis on the association between fathers’ leave taking and fathers’ involvement when children are young. It uses birth cohort data of children born around 2000 from four OECD countries: Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Results show that the majority of fathers take time off around childbirth independent of the leave policies in place. In all countries, except Denmark, important socio-economic differences between fathers who take leave and those who do not are observed. In addition, fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when children are young. This study adds to the evidence that suggests that parental leave for fathers is positively associated with subsequent paternal involvement. PMID:28479865

  9. 34 CFR 75.191 - Consultation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation costs. 75.191 Section 75.191 Education... Development of Curricula Or Instructional Materials § 75.191 Consultation costs. An applicant may budget reasonable consultation fees or planning costs in connection with the development of curricula or...

  10. Core Competencies for Training Effective School Consultants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhouse, Katie Lynn Sutton

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a set of core competencies of effective school-based consultants for preservice school psychology consultation training. With recent changes in service delivery models, psychologists are challenged to engage in more indirect, preventative practices (Reschly, 2008). Consultation emerges as…

  11. Edgar Schein's Process versus Content Consultation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, Gary F.

    1993-01-01

    Describes Schein's three models of consultation based on assumptions inherent in different helping styles: purchase of expertise and doctor-patient models, which focus on content of organization problems; and process consultation model, which focuses on how organizational problems are solved. Notes that Schein has suggested that consultants begin…

  12. The OECD expert meeting on ecotoxicology and environmental fate--towards the development of improved OECD guidelines for the testing of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, Dana; Nickel, Carmen

    2014-02-15

    On behalf of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) an expert meeting on ecotoxicology and environmental fate of nanomaterials (NMs) took place in January 2013 in Berlin. At this meeting experts from science, industry and regulatory bodies discussed the applicability of OECD test guidelines (TGs) for chemicals to nanomaterials. The objective was to discuss the current state of the relevant science and provide recommendations to the OECD WPMN on (1) the need for updating current OECD TGs and the need for developing new ones specific to nanomaterials; and (2) guidance needed for the appropriate and valid testing of environmental fate and ecotoxicity endpoints for NMs. Experts at the workshop agreed that the majority of the OECD TG for chemicals were generally applicable for the testing of NM, with the exception of TG 105 (water solubility) and 106 (adsorption-desorption). Additionally, the workshop also highlighted considerations when conducting OECD chemical TG on nanomaterials (e.g., sample preparation, dispersion, analysis, dosimetry and characterisation). These considerations will lead to the future development of proposals for new TG and guidance documents (GDs) to ensure that OECD TG give meaningful, repeatable, and accurate results when used for nanomaterials. This report provides a short overview of topics discussed during the meeting and the main outcomes. A more detailed report of the workshop will become available through the OECD, however, due to the urgency of having OECD TG relevant for nanomaterials, this brief report is being shared with the scientific community through this communication. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Answer by Sauvons Le Climat to the consultation launched by the Minister of ecology, sustainable development and energy on the evolution of mechanisms of support to installations under purchasing obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre; Nifenecker, H.; Schwarz, J.P.; Bacher, P.; Perves, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    After having evoked the problems created by the German energy transition in terms of energy prices, the 'Sauvons Le Climat' association makes some propositions regarding the development of renewable energies and the financial support to this development: to introduce a subsidy to the installed power, producers of intermittent renewable energy selling on the market and receiving a premium proportional to sales price. Other orientations are proposed. In a second part, Sauvons Le Climat discusses the content of the introduction of the consultation document issued by the ministry, and then proposes answers to some questions related to the content of other parts of the document which states that the present operation of support modalities disturbs the electricity market, and that an evolution towards a greater integration of renewable energies into the electric system is needed. Possible options of evolution of support to renewable energies are notably discussed, as well as challenges of transition. Documents of interest are indicated

  14. Strangers at the Benchside: Research Ethics Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mildred K.; Tobin, Sara L.; Greely, Henry T.; McCormick, Jennifer; Boyce, Angie; Magnus, David

    2008-01-01

    Institutional ethics consultation services for biomedical scientists have begun to proliferate, especially for clinical researchers. We discuss several models of ethics consultation and describe a team-based approach used at Stanford University in the context of these models. As research ethics consultation services expand, there are many unresolved questions that need to be addressed, including what the scope, composition, and purpose of such services should be, whether core competencies for consultants can and should be defined, and how conflicts of interest should be mitigated. We make preliminary recommendations for the structure and process of research ethics consultation, based on our initial experiences in a pilot program. PMID:18570086

  15. Multilateral wells drilling technology implementation in the Castilla Field - Colombia, to improve Guadalupe reservoirs drainage: Castilla 32, 33, and 34 ML wells cases study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florez, Alberto; Mercado, Orlando; Rodriguez, Sandra; Rojas, Ricardo; Naranjo, Carlos A. [ECOPETROL, Bogota (Colombia); Velez, Jorge [Halliburton Latin-America, Santa Fe de Bogota (Colombia)

    2008-07-01

    National Colombian Petroleum Company - ECOPETROL, is in the process of evaluating different technologies to increase production and improve recovery factors in their mature oil and gas fields. As part of that process, a multidisciplinary team evaluated the feasibility of multilateral well technology implementation in some of their mature fields that are currently in the late-development phase. Castilla field, located in the eastern planes of Colombia, was selected as the first option for multilateral technology implementation based in reservoir features, type of oil, and field antecedents. This paper presents the process used to conceptualize the optimum multilateral well design for Castilla field, integrating all of the geological and engineering disciplines. Geology: geological model visualization, target zones definition, pay zones lateral continuity, petrophysical properties, and fluids distribution were evaluated to select the areas to drill with advanced architecture well design. Reservoir: basic reservoir performance simulation was performed to evaluate productivity with horizontal and multilateral wells, and the difference in final reserves recovery compared with current conventional directional wells. Water production and coning problems were identified as key factors to define the multilateral well implementation in this field. Drilling: trajectory design, multilateral junction depth definition and TAML level selection, casing point's definition, drilling time and AFE estimation were the technical aspects evaluated during the planning phase to determine if the technology would be feasible. A comparison with conventional pad design was conducted to validate economic value. Multilateral TAML level 4 system selection flow process is presented applying oil industry best practices. Completion: The optimum lateral completion and production assembly design were main concerns during the planning process. Slotted liners, screens, and open-hole completion

  16. Structural analysis consultation using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, R. J.; Marcal, P. V.; Berke, L.

    1978-01-01

    The primary goal of consultation is definition of the best strategy to deal with a structural engineering analysis objective. The knowledge base to meet the need is designed to identify the type of numerical analysis, the needed modeling detail, and specific analysis data required. Decisions are constructed on the basis of the data in the knowledge base - material behavior, relations between geometry and structural behavior, measures of the importance of time and temperature changes - and user supplied specifics characteristics of the spectrum of analysis types, the relation between accuracy and model detail on the structure, its mechanical loadings, and its temperature states. Existing software demonstrated the feasibility of the approach, encompassing the 36 analysis classes spanning nonlinear, temperature affected, incremental analyses which track the behavior of structural systems.

  17. Consultant breast radiographers: Where are we now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Zebby

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to: • Evaluate the current role of the consultant breast radiographer. • Compare current practice with the four key components for consultant practice. • Gauge the support of radiologist colleagues. • Determine the other professional commitments involved with the role. This study could be the precursor for a macro study of all consultant radiographer practice in other specialities. Methodology: Methodology used was a comparative ethnographic study. Questionnaires to the 24 consultant breast radiographers currently in post, and consultant breast radiologists, who work with them, were conducted. Data collection was a qualitative thematic approach. Conclusion: Consultant breast radiographers provide high quality care to patients through excellent clinical practice, leadership and good communication. However, this study shows hospital Trusts emphasis for non medical consultants is for clinical practice first. Some radiologists are still a barrier to progression for consultant breast radiographers, and radiologists have a big influence in recruitment decisions. Consultant breast radiographer posts are well established, their numbers are increasing through recognition of the role and of their abilities and performance. Consultant breast radiographers state that becoming a consultant is the major achievement of their career, proving the Society of Radiographers' vision of the four-tier career structure has been well received by the radiography profession

  18. Job share a consultant post.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornicroft, G.; Strathdee, G.

    1992-01-01

    Job sharing offers advantages to both employer and employee but it is still uncommon in medicine. Based on the experiences of two psychiatrists sharing a consultant post this article describes some of the problems in obtaining a job share. The most difficult part can be getting an interview, and once a post has been obtained the terms and conditions of service may have to be modified to suit job sharing. Getting on well with your job sharing partner and good communication will not only help o...

  19. [Teenagers' drawings in transcultural consultations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amalini; Titia Rizzi, Alice

    The place of teenagers' drawings has been studied as part of a transcultural consultation, based on the creativity of the children of migrants. When speaking is difficult, drawings enable teenagers to show another dimension of their internal world. Aravin, a young Tamil boy, who lacked the necessary words, was able to express all the complexity of his thoughts through his drawings, finally being able to formulate in the group the difficult situations which he was drawing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Wipro Consulting Services: Building an Effective Global Configuration in Business and IT Consulting Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Lampel; Ajay Bhalla; Kaivalya Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    The Wipro Consulting Services (WCS) case charts the evolution of the consulting initiative within Wipro Technologies; the strategic choices the management made during this evolution and the challenges facing the firm once it consolidated the various consulting initiatives to set up Wipro Consulting Services in 2008. The case deals with several questions facing the leadership team, such as the competencies to develop to move up the value chain in delivering consulting services and the extent t...

  1. Management Consulting for Technological Modernization and Industry of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Davidovich Gitelman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the authors’ study based on the hypothesis that aaddressing the multidimensional highly complex tasks of technological modernization and new industry against the background of a wave of breakthrough innovations is only possible within the framework of proactive management. Its methodological, instrumental and competence basis results from «smart» partnership of regional science, education, and business. In this case, the management сconsulting of a new type, being fundamentally different from the traditional one, plays the role of the partnership coordinator. These differences are expressed in specific intellectual logistics and organizational architecture of consulting projects, close connection to universities, innovation centres and various research structures of the region as well as the high specialization, which is reached by the involvement of the virtual teams of cross-disciplinary experts in the developments, the flexible products designed on the basis of the modular principle. In this regard, the study presents a number of new scientific results proving the hypothesis. The paper substantiates the approach to the organization and methodology of consulting activities for complex, rapidly developing systems which requires expanding the range of competencies and scope of the interaction of various actors — carriers of interdisciplinary knowledge. In accordance with this approach, the authors introduce the concept of integratory consulting for advanced development that offers a package of intellectual services for addressing challenges of the future. We have developed the methodology of the integrated system of research, consultations, training and transforming action that makes it possible to generate pre-emptive actions amid crisis, risk and threats. The article has proposed and tested an organizational mechanism of cooperation between parties (science, education, business involved in smart

  2. Are multilateral malaria research and control programs the most successful? Lessons from the past 100 years in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alilio, Martin S; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Breman, Joel G

    2004-08-01

    Multilateral malaria research and control programs in Africa have regained prominence recently as bilateral assistance has diminished. The transnational nature of the threat and the need for inspired leadership, good coordination, and new discoveries to decrease the impact of the disease has led to the founding of the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria, the Roll Back Malaria Project, Global Fund for HIV, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund), the Medicines for Malaria Venture, and the Malaria Vaccine Initiative, among other groups. Historically, the most striking feature of malaria control and elimination activities was the connectedness and balance between malaria research and control especially, from 1892 to 1949. A combination of scientific originality, perseverance in research, integrated approaches, and social concern were the keys for success. The elimination of Anopheles gambiae from Upper Egypt in 1942 using integrated vector control methods is a prime example of malaria control during the first half of the 20th century where those factors were brought together. After 1949, there were three decades of great optimism. Four notable landmarks characterized this period: the Kampala Conference in 1950; the Global Malaria Eradication Program beginning in 1955; the primary health care strategies adopted by most African States after attaining their political independence in the 1960s, and accelerating in the 1980s; and creation of the Special Program in Training and Research in Tropical Diseases at the World Health Organization in 1975. The initial highly encouraging operational results, largely obtained in temperate or subtropical areas where transmission was unstable, engendered undue expectations for the success of identical antimalarial measures elsewhere. Many were convinced that the eradication was in sight, such that support for malaria research virtually ceased. Young, bright scientists were discouraged from seeking a career in a discipline that appeared

  3. The Challenges for the Multilateral Trading System Raised by the Ongoing Structural Transformations in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, international trade has been growing faster than global production, steadily increasing interdependence among nations. Sustained trade growth has been accompanied by profound changes in the patterns of trade flows, reflecting new production structures emerging under the impact of rapid progress in the development of transport, communications and information technologies, major shifts in the patterns of demand, rapid expansion of global production networks, and increasing integration of developing countries into the world economy. While global trade relations experienced a dramatic transformation during the last decade, the multilateral trading system and the WTO – the venue for international trade cooperation – failed to keep pace with the rapidly changing trade environment. Consequently, the world trade rule-book that is currently guiding international trade relations as a result of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994 and the creation of the WTO (in 1995 is stuck in the requirements of 20st century trade. Improving and adjusting multilateral trade rules and disciplines ranked among the main objectives of the Doha Round launched in 2001. However, trade negotiations have been stalled since 2008. And with this impasse, the legislative function of the WTO responsible for the elaboration of new rules has been also blocked, hindering thus the process of adjustment. This paper addresses the main challenges confrunting the multilateral trading system both in the long and short-term in its endeavour to adjust to the new realities of 21st century trade. More specifically, it takes a look at the key problems arising for international cooperation in trade from: (1 the continually shifting weight of economic power and influence within the world economy; (2 the dynamic spread of global production networks operated by TNCs; and (3 the explosion of regionalism and preferential trade agreements. Finally, the paper highlights the vital

  4. Radiation shielding activities at the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Enrico; Vaz, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has devoted considerable effort over the years to radiation shielding issues. The issues are addressed through international working groups. These activities are carried out in close co-ordination and co-operation with the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC). The areas of work include: basic nuclear data activities in support of radiation shielding, computer codes, shipping cask shielding applications, reactor pressure vessel dosimetry, shielding experiments database. The method of work includes organising international code comparison exercises and benchmark studies. Training courses on radiation shielding computer codes are organised regularly including hands-on experience in modelling skills. The scope of the activity covers mainly reactor shields and spent fuel transportation packages, but also fusion neutronics and in particular shielding of accelerators and irradiation facilities. (author)

  5. Role of Attractiveness Factors of the OECD Countries in Immigrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Duvnjak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An influx of immigrants to developed countries, is an ongoing process that lasts for centuries. Numerous researches have been written encouraged by this topic. Today’s free labor market enables immigrants to become a very influential aspect of every economy. With general stagnation and aging of word population, especially European, a question about level of immigration impact on active labor market appears. This paper is testing the stated, what are the factors that attract immigrants in OECD countries. Considering the main factors that encourage immigrants to migrate in specific country, this paper is testing how total GDP per country, as an indicator of level of economic growth, and social spending, as an indicator of support to those who need it, influence on their decision. The determined variable is asylum seeker as it is much precise in stating the thesis. The cross-section model which is used with 2015 data shows significant results.

  6. Electricity, nuclear power and fuel cycle in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A questionnaire on Electricity Generation, Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data is distributed annually to OECD Member Countries. In the questionnaire of January 1988, countries were asked to provide data for 1986 and 1987 and most likely projections up to the year 2005. The replies to the questionnaire (or estimates for unavailable data) are presented in this Booklet. Data for 1987 are provisional for several countries. The data on electricity generation and electric capacity are presented to the year 2005, and the data on fuel cycle services to the year 2000. The Addendum contains an analysis of the present and past projections for installed nuclear capacity to 2000. It shows the total capacity of those plants connected to the grid, under construction and firmly planned to be in operation in 2000 as 282 GWe. The new projection of 300 GWe is above this estimate, indicating that some countries are considering further expansion of their nuclear capacities within this time-frame [fr

  7. Nuclear power in the OECD countries results and current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    The first use of nuclear power for the generation of electricity on a commercial scale occurred in the United Kingdom in 1956. Today, 13 OECD countries have 318 nuclear units in operation and 66 more in construction or on order. This outstanding achievement is the result of the successful organization, start up, and operation of an industry to design, build, equip, fuel, and maintain these facilites. Nuclear power, however, is currently troubled by a number of issues that may impair its ability to reach its full potential. The industry has acknowledged problems that can be and are being managed. But the industry also has a number of political difficulties that could be beyond its ability to resolve with its own resources. These are issues common to the introduction of new technologies into a complex world. Nevertheless, nuclear power continues to be the means by which we can provide the electric power needed to raise the living standard of everyone on the globe

  8. The Environmental Kuznets Curve. An empirical analysis for OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, E.

    2008-09-15

    This paper tests the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for four local (SOx, NOx, CO, VOC) and two global (CO2, GHG) air pollutants. Using a new panel data set of thirty OECD countries, the paper finds that the postulated inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution does not hold for all gases. A meaningful Environmental Kuznets Curve exists only for CO, VOC and NOx, where for CO2 the curve is monotonically increasing. For GHG there is indication of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution, but still most countries are on the increasing path of the curve and hence the future development of the curve is uncertain. For SOx it was found that emissions follow an U-shaped curve. Based on the empirical results, the paper concludes that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not hold for all gases, it is rather an empirical artefact than a regularity.

  9. The Environmental Kuznets Curve. An empirical analysis for OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, E.

    2008-09-01

    This paper tests the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for four local (SOx, NOx, CO, VOC) and two global (CO2, GHG) air pollutants. Using a new panel data set of thirty OECD countries, the paper finds that the postulated inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution does not hold for all gases. A meaningful Environmental Kuznets Curve exists only for CO, VOC and NOx, where for CO2 the curve is monotonically increasing. For GHG there is indication of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution, but still most countries are on the increasing path of the curve and hence the future development of the curve is uncertain. For SOx it was found that emissions follow an U-shaped curve. Based on the empirical results, the paper concludes that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not hold for all gases, it is rather an empirical artefact than a regularity.

  10. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Stephanie E.; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D.; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will—or should—include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health adaptation; and (3) critically appraise three key governance dimensions of national-level health adaptation—cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning—and identify practical examples suited to different contexts. We systematically reviewed publicly available public health adaptation to climate change documents and webpages by national governments in ten OECD countries using systematic web searches, assessment of self-reporting, and content analysis. Our findings suggest national governments are primarily addressing infectious disease and heat-related risks posed by climate change, typically emphasizing capacity building or information-based groundwork initiatives. We find national governments are taking a variety of approaches to public health adaptation to climate change that do not follow expected convergence and divergence by governance structure. We discuss practical options for incorporating cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning into a variety of contexts and identify leaders national governments can look to to inform their public health adaptation planning. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement and subsequent increased momentum for adaptation, research tracking adaptation is needed to define what health adaptation looks like in practice, reveal insights that can be taken up across states and sectors, and ensure policy orientated learning. PMID:27618074

  11. Electricity supply industry. Structure, ownership and regulation in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This study surveys developments and implications in the electricity supply industries in OECD countries. Chapter 1 introduces the issues. (Competition or electricity supply for everybody?) Electricity markets are dynamic and the participants are restructuring and repositioning themselves in order to benefit from new opportunities or policy initiatives. These changes are described in chapter 2. Privatisation is being pursued by some governments, not only for reasons of economic efficiency. Arguments for and against privatisation and different ways of introducing it are discussed in chapter 3. Fair trade and competition legislation, as it applies to all corporate entities, creates the institutional framework within which the utility has to operate. Various approaches to regulation and recent developments are described in chapter 4; the implications of regulatory changes are analysed in chapter 5. Having surveyed recent developments and their direct consequences, this study then goes on to look at their broader implications for the achievement of a range of energy policy objectives. Chapter 6 looks at fuel choice and investment decisions. Chapter 7 considers the issue of security of electricity supply, which has many special characteristics for both suppliers and regulators. OECD countries use different approaches for ensuring security of supply. Chapter 8 looks at environmental protection. Chapter 9 looks at energy efficiency. Chapter 10 discusses pricing. The introduction of competition has significant effects: it tends to reduce costs, remove cross subsidies, and bring prices more closely in line with the structure of costs. But there is no clear evidence at this stage as to whether, in the long run, competition produces lower overall prices. Finally chapter 11 analyses risk. The electricity business, like every other business, is faced with a variety of risks that cover every financial and technical facet of electricity production, transport, and supply. (N.C.)

  12. Public Health Adaptation to Climate Change in OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Stephanie E; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Ford, James D; Parker, Stephen; Fleury, Manon D

    2016-09-07

    Climate change is a major challenge facing public health. National governments play a key role in public health adaptation to climate change, but there are competing views on what responsibilities and obligations this will-or should-include in different nations. This study aims to: (1) examine how national-level public health adaptation is occurring in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries; (2) examine the roles national governments are taking in public health adaptation; and (3) critically appraise three key governance dimensions of national-level health adaptation-cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning-and identify practical examples suited to different contexts. We systematically reviewed publicly available public health adaptation to climate change documents and webpages by national governments in ten OECD countries using systematic web searches, assessment of self-reporting, and content analysis. Our findings suggest national governments are primarily addressing infectious disease and heat-related risks posed by climate change, typically emphasizing capacity building or information-based groundwork initiatives. We find national governments are taking a variety of approaches to public health adaptation to climate change that do not follow expected convergence and divergence by governance structure. We discuss practical options for incorporating cross-sectoral collaboration, vertical coordination and national health adaptation planning into a variety of contexts and identify leaders national governments can look to to inform their public health adaptation planning. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement and subsequent increased momentum for adaptation, research tracking adaptation is needed to define what health adaptation looks like in practice, reveal insights that can be taken up across states and sectors, and ensure policy orientated learning.

  13. Why Hire a Consultant if You Already Know What's Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the client-consultant relationship from both sides. Argues that a consulting breakdown can be a chance for both the client and the consultant to grow through negotiation. Lists some basic guidelines for successful consulting relationships. (PEN)

  14. The Multilateral Disarmament Process. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (16th, Warwick, Bermuda, June 21-26, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    This is a report of a conference held in Bermuda in 1981 to discuss a multilateral approach to disarmament. The conference was an informal, off-the-record exchange of ideas and opinions among 24 diplomats and scholars from 18 countries and two international agencies. Participants considered current disarmament concepts, assessed UN disarmament…

  15. Communication received from the Resident Representative of Germany to the IAEA with regard to the German proposal on the multilateralization of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agency has received a communication dated 26 April 2007 from the Resident Representative of Germany, attaching the German proposal on the Multilateralization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. As requested in that communication, the proposal is herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  16. Legal Forms of Negotiated Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) Outcomes – Perspectives onTrade Integration and an Incrementalist Approach to Quasi-Multilateralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thystrup, Amalie Giødesen

    2016-01-01

    This summer saw some of the key emerging economies change their position on services negotiations at the WTO and may prove instrumental in bringing services back to the WTO, via TiSA. While TiSA parties have discussed critical mass based multilateralization for a while, another approach may prove...

  17. Communication received from the Federal Minister for European and International Affairs of Austria with regard to the Austrian proposal on the multilateralization of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agency has received a communication dated 10 May 2007 from the Federal Minister for European and International Affairs of the Republic of Austria, attaching a paper on the Multilateralization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. As requested in that communication, the paper is herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  18. Emergence of multilateral proto-institutions in global health and new approaches to governance: analysis using path dependency and institutional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Atun, Rifat

    2013-05-10

    The role of multilateral donor agencies in global health is a new area of research, with limited research on how these agencies differ in terms of their governance arrangements, especially in relation to transparency, inclusiveness, accountability, and responsiveness to civil society. We argue that historical analysis of the origins of these agencies and their coalition formation processes can help to explain these differences. We propose an analytical approach that links the theoretical literature discussing institutional origins to path dependency and institutional theory relating to proto institutions in order to illustrate the differences in coalition formation processes that shape governance within four multilateral agencies involved in global health. We find that two new multilateral donor agencies that were created by a diverse coalition of state and non-state actors, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and GAVI, what we call proto-institutions, were more adaptive in strengthening their governance processes. This contrasts with two well-established multilateral donor agencies, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, what we call Bretton Woods (BW) institutions, which were created by nation states alone; and hence, have different origins and consequently different path dependent processes.

  19. The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent BEPS—Some Thoughts on Complexity and Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleist David

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (MLI, which was signed in June 2017, raises a multitude of questions relating not only to the text of the treaty provisions but also to the way the MLI will interact with tax treaties, for instance, and what it will mean for the future development of tax treaty law and international cooperation in tax matters. This article focuses on two aspects of the MLI. First, it deals with the substance of the MLI by providing an overview of its background and content, including the many options available to the contracting states under the MLI. Second, some thoughts are presented on the effects of the MLI in terms of complexity and uncertainty.

  20. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  1. Adults, Computers and Problem Solving: "What's the Problem?" OECD Skills Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ji Eun; Elliott, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The "OECD Skills Studies" series aims to provide a strategic approach to skills policies. It presents OECD internationally comparable indicators and policy analysis covering issues such as: quality of education and curricula; transitions from school to work; vocational education and training (VET); employment and unemployment; innovative…

  2. OECD Work on Technology and Education: Innovative Learning Environments as an Integrating Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istance, David; Kools, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This article presents in summary a selection of the work conducted by OECD in the field of technology and education, which has been an on-going focus of OECD work since the 1980s. Recently, much of this has been under the heading of "New Millennium Learners", but it has also included the widening of student achievement surveys towards…

  3. Improving Education Achievement and Attainment in Luxembourg. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 508

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard

    2006-01-01

    Improving education achievement in Luxembourg is a priority for strengthening productivity growth and enhancing residents' employment prospects in the private sector, where employers mainly hire cross-border workers. Student achievement in Luxembourg is below the OECD average according to the 2003 OECD PISA study, with the performance gap between…

  4. School-to-Work Transitions in the OECD: Do Education Systems Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmel, Tom

    2017-01-01

    High unemployment among the young is a concern in many OECD countries. A key issue for policy makers is whether the education system has a role to play in assisting the transition from education to work or whether economic issues dominate. This paper uses OECD country-level data to see whether the structure of countries' education systems,…

  5. Golden Relics & Historical Standards: How the OECD is Expanding Global Education Governance through PISA for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addey, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Setting this paper against the backdrop of scholarly research on recent changes in the OECD's approach and workings in education, I analyse how the OECD has reinforced its infrastructural and epistemological global governance through the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) for Development (PISA-D). Drawing on qualitative data,…

  6. OECD Health Care Quality Indicator Project. The expert panel on primary care prevention and health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, Martin; Klazinga, Niek; Leatherman, Sheila; Hardy, Charlie; Bergmann, Eckhard; Pisco, Luis; Mattke, Soeren; Mainz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This article describes a project undertaken as part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Healthcare Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project, which aimed to develop a set of quality indicators representing the domains of primary care, prevention and health

  7. Digital Broadband Content: Digital Content Strategies and policies. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 119

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development of digital content raises new issues as rapid technological developments challenge existing business models and government policies. This OECD study identifies and discusses six groups of business and public policy issues and illustrates these with existing and potential OECD Digital Content Strategies and Policies: (1) Innovation…

  8. Taxation and business environment as drivers of foreign direct investment in OECD countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Dana; Nicoletti, G.; Vartia, L.; Yoo, K.-Y.

    2006/2, č. 43 (2006), s. 7-38 ISSN 0255-0822 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : taxation * foreign direct investment * OECD Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/62/30/40505831.pdf

  9. Comparison of Early Childhood Education (Preschool Education) in Turkey and OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgan, Habib

    2010-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to evaluate how the difference the early childhood education in Turkey and OECD countries. The outstanding point evaluated by the teachers about the difference between the education in Turkey and that in OECD countries and the conditions needing to be improved was the compare of age groups benefiting from the services…

  10. Fiscal Rules and the Composition of Government Expenditures in OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Momi; Strawczynski, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s many OECD countries have adopted fiscal rules. After the adoption of these rules, the ratio of social transfers to government consumption substantially declined, and it recovered following the global economic crisis. Using a sample of 22 OECD countries, we found a negative effect of fiscal rules on the ratio of social transfers to…

  11. Babies and bosses: reconciling work and family life : a synthesis of findings for OECD countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... of population ageing, and well-designed policies may also help raise fertility rates from the exceptionally low levels that exist in some countries. In recent years, the OECD Babies and Bosses reviews of policies to promote work and family reconciliation covered Australia, Denmark and the Netherlands (OECD, 2002a); Austria, Ireland and ...

  12. OECD - Majandusliku Koostöö ja Arengu Organisatsioon / Kairi Saar, Jane Makke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Kairi, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Ülevaade OECD ajaloost, tegevusest, liikmesuse kriteeriumitest (riikide sarnane mõtteviis) ning majandusprognoose, uuringuid ja statistikat sisaldavatest väljaannetest. Eesti liitumisest organisatsiooniga 2010. a., Eesti ja Balti riikide kohta avaldatud väljaanded. Rahvusraamatukogu kui OECD hoiuraamatukogu Eestis

  13. OECD Ülkelerinde Eğlence Vergisi Uygulamaları(Amusement Tax Applications in the OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernur AÇIKGÖZ ERSOY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 17th century, “the right of the poor” was a transitory tax on the income of entertainment in favor of public assistance in France. “The right of the poor” was abolished later by the regime of Vichy, which created a permanent tax on games and entertainment to the direct benefit of the communes. Later, other European countries followed the example of France by introducing a so-called amusement tax. The paper is organized as follows: The first part presents the historical development and theoretical base of amusement tax and amusement tax applications in the OECD countries. The second part shows the amusement tax application in Turkey, and the last part resumes arguments in favor of the maintenance or an abolishment of the tax on entertainment.

  14. Disruptive Innovation: Implementation of Electronic Consultations in a Veterans Affairs Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, Gouri; Vimalananda, Varsha; Simon, Steven R; DeVito, Katerina; Clark, Justice; Orlander, Jay D

    2016-02-12

    reflected a request for specialist input to a generalist's question in diagnosis or management in the ambulatory setting, we identified creative uses of e-consults, including requests for face-to-face appointments and documentation of pre-operative chart reviews; moreover, 7.00% (360/5141) of the e-consults originated from our sub-acute and chronic care inpatient units. In interviews, requesting providers reported high utility and usability. Specialists recognized the value of e-consults but expressed concerns about additional workload. The e-consult mechanism is frequently utilized for its initial intended purpose. It has also been adopted for unexpected clinical and administrative uses, developing into a "disruptive innovation" and highlighting existing gaps in mechanisms for provider communication. Further investigation is needed to characterize optimal utilization of e-consults within specialty and the medical center, and what features of the e-consult program, other than volume, represent valid measures of access and quality care.

  15. Summary of nuclear power and fuel cycle data in OECD Member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    A questionnaire on Electricity Generation, Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data is distributed annually to OECD Member countries. Member countries were asked to provide, where available, various statistics for the previous calendar year (1982) and modified projections up to the year 2000. Tables 1 to 8 are based on the responses received and update the March 1982 issue. Tables 3 to 8 show the revised electricity, nuclear power and fuel cycle supply and demand projections in OECD Member countries to the year 2000. Figure 1 illustrates the contribution of the different fuel sources to the OECD's electricity generation from 1974 to 1982. Figure 2 shows the nuclear share of electricity generation in the OECD countries for 1982 and 1985. Figure 3 gives the fuel cycle supply and demand from the Tables 5, 6 and 8 in the OECD area

  16. Practical Application of Art. 9 OECD Model Convention: the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All transfer prices determined between the associated enterprises must comply with the arm’s length principle. The arm’s length principle for associated enterprises is mentioned in Art. 9(1 of the OECD Model Convention, which was also adopted by the OECD Member states into their national law. However, not all OECD Member states adopted the next part of Art. 9, namely Art. 9(2, with the same way, some of them, like the Czech Republic, entered a reservation on Art. 9 (2 OECD Model Convention. In this paper the practical application of Art. 9 is analyzed from the point of view of the Czech Ministry of Finance, where the corresponding adjustment and time-limit issue are highlighted. On the basis of the results of analysis, where the history, context and purpose of Art. 9 OECD Model Convention have to be taken into account, are made some recommendations.

  17. Consultative exercise on dose assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, B A; Parker, T; Simmonds, J R; Sumner, D

    2001-06-01

    A summary is given of a meeting held at Sussex University, UK, in October 2000, which allowed the exchange of ideas on methods of assessment of dose to the public arising from potential authorised radioactive discharges from nuclear sites in the UK. Representatives of groups with an interest in dose assessments were invited, and hence the meeting was called the Consultative Exercise on Dose Assessments (CEDA). Although initiated and funded by the Food Standards Agency, its organisation, and the writing of the report, were overseen by an independent Chairman and Steering Group. The report contains recommendations for improvement in co-ordination between different agencies involved in assessments, on method development and on the presentation of data on assessments. These have been prepared by the Steering Group, and will be taken forward by the Food Standards Agency and other agencies in the UK. The recommendations are included in this memorandum.

  18. Doctor-patient communication: a comparison between telemedicine consultation and face-to-face consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Sawada, Yoshie; Takizawa, Takako; Sato, Hiroko; Sato, Mahito; Sakamoto, Hironosuke; Utsugi, Toshihiro; Sato, Kunio; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Shinichi; Sakamaki, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare doctor-patient communications in clinical consultations via telemedicine technology to doctor-patient communications in face-to-face clinical consultations. Five doctors who had been practicing internal medicine for 8 to 18 years, and twenty patients were enrolled in this study; neither doctors nor patients had previous experience of telemedicine. The patients received both a telemedicine consultation and a face-to-face consultation. Three measures--video observation, medical record volume, and participants' satisfaction--were used for the assessment. It was found that the time spent on the telemedicine consultation was substantially longer than the time spent on the face-to-face consultation. No statistically significant differences were found in the number of either closed or open-ended questions asked by doctors between both types of consultation. Empathy-utterances, praise-utterances, and facilitation-utterances were, however, seen less in the telemedicine consultations than in the face-to-face consultations. The volume of the medical records was statistically smaller in the telemedicine consultations than in the face-to-face consultations. Patients were satisfied with the telemedicine consultation, but doctors were dissatisfied with it and felt hampered by the communication barriers. This study suggests that new training programs are needed for doctors to develop improved communication skills and the ability to express empathy in telemedicine consultations.

  19. The rose of Sharon: what is the ideal timing for palliative care consultation versus ethics consultation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Via, Jennifer; Schiedermayer, David

    2012-01-01

    Ethics committees and palliative care consultants can function in a complementary fashion, seamlessly and effectively. Ethics committees can "air" and help resolves issues, and palliative care consultants can use a low-key, longitudinal approach.

  20. Management Consultancy As Practice: A Study Of The Duality Of The Management Consultants' Role

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Jeanette

    2017-01-01

    The central question addressed in this research is: “How do practicing management consultants cope with the duality of their role?” Management consultants are often responsible for internal business leadership roles as well as developing business, people and knowledge alongside client delivery (Richter et al., 2008). The research sought to understand the nature of the potentially conflicting demands of their client-facing and consultancy-facing roles on management consultants, how conflicts a...

  1. European Consulting Survey 2012 : The Future of European Management Consulting Firms' Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kreutzer, Markus; Menz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This study report provides European management consulting firms' assessment of trends and currently prevailing business models in the industry. It depicts the different threats and opportunities that consulting firms with different business models, consulting foci, sizes, leverage ratios, international orientations, and geographical footprints face; it also reveals these firms' adaptation strategies. Based on an analysis of a survey of 311 consulting firms from 26 European countries, the repo...

  2. Competitiveness of nuclear energy - Key findings from an OECD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, Evelyne

    2006-01-01

    Economic competitiveness always has been a cornerstone in decision making for electricity generation options but the liberalization of energy markets has enhanced its importance. For private investors in de-regulated markets the economic attractiveness of a project is often 'the' driving factor. For plant owners and operators reducing costs is a key objective. The relative competitiveness of nuclear energy as compared with alternatives has been investigated in a recent OECD study which noted some evolution in the ranking of different options as compared with results published seven years ago. In particular the volatility of fossil fuel prices, notably natural gas for electricity generation, along with technical progress enhancing the reliability and availability factor of nuclear power plants have had a significant influence on comparative economic performance of base-load options. Furthermore, as governments implement progressively policies to address global climate change threat, the moves to internalize the costs of carbon emissions is increasing the competitiveness of low-carbon options such as renewable energy sources and nuclear power versus coal and to a lesser extent gas. (authors)

  3. Nuclear education and training in OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    Mankind now enjoys many benefits from nuclear-related technologies. There is, however, growing concern in many OECD countries that nuclear education and training is decreasing, perhaps to problematic levels. This report conveys the results of a pioneering survey on nuclear education and training in almost 200 organizations in 16 countries. In most countries there are now fewer comprehensive, high-quality nuclear technology programs at universities than before. Facilities and faculties for nuclear education are aging, and the number of nuclear programs is declining. The principal reason for the deterioration of nuclear education is the downward spiral of budgetary cut and low enrolment of student whose perception is affected by the educational circumstances, negative public perception, the downsizing of the industry, and reductions in government-funded nuclear programmes, where little strategic planning is occurring. Unless something is done to arrest it, this downward spiral of declining student interest and academic opportunities will continue. Failure to take appropriate steps now will seriously jeopardize the provision of adequate expertise tomorrow. We must act now on the following recommendations: strategic role of governments; the challenges of revitalizing nuclear education by university; vigorous research and maintaining high-quality training; and benefits of collaboration and sharing best practices. (author)

  4. Evaluating Decoupling Process in OECD Countries: Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Şengün Ucal, Meltem; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is at the top of the present and future problems facing humanity. Climate change is now largely attributed to human activities and economic activities are the source of human activities that cause climate change by creating pressure on the environment. Providing the sustainability of resources for the future seems possible by reducing the pressure of these economic activities on the environment. Given the increasing population pressure and growth-focused economies, it is possible to say that achieving decoupling is not so easy on a global basis. It is known that there are some problems in developing countries especially in terms of accessing reliable data in transition and implementation process of decoupling. Developed countries' decoupling practices and proper calculation methods can also be a guide for developing countries. In this study, we tried to calculate the comparative decoupling index for OECD countries and Turkey in terms of data suitability, and we showed the differences between them. We tried to indicate the level of decoupling (weak, stable, strong) for each country. We think that the comparison of Turkey can be an example in terms of developing countries. Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by Bogazici University Research Fund Grant Number 12220.

  5. OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    Econometric response surfaces for nine different world oil models are estimated for aggregate oil demand with in the developed countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The estimates are based upon scenario results reported for the 1989-2010 period in a recent model comparison study. The response surface approach provides a parsimonious summary of model responses. It enables one to estimate long-run price elasticities directly rather than to infer such responses from 20-year cross-scenario results. It also shows more directly the significant effect of initial demand conditions (in 1988) on future oil demand growth. Due to the dynamic nature of the oil demand response, past prices exert a strongly positive effect on future oil demands in some models, but little or even negative effect in other models. On the basis of this finding, we urge demand modellers to be much more explicit about what their systems reveal about the extent of disequilibrium embedded in their model's starting oil demand conditions. (author)

  6. Developments in the use of economic instruments in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opschoor, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the period 1987-1993, developments in the environmental policies of OECD countries with respect to the use of economic instruments are compared and the differences analyzed. The focus is on applications in the field of air pollution policies. The comparison is made on the basis of two surveys. To complete the descriptive part, a brief survey is also presented of currently discussed and recently introduced economic instruments. A description of economic instruments as such and a review of rationales for employing economic and financial incentives precede this analysis. The analysis shows that the use of economic instruments has indeed increased since 1987, but the development has not been spectacular. Possible explanations for this are presented. Also, some types of instrument have advanced more than others and the changes differ from one set of countries to another. Product charges (including air pollution-related ones) have become more widely used, especially in Scandinavian countries. Moreover, growing attention is being paid to the use of economic instruments at the international level. The incentive impacts of economic (and other) instruments appear to have received relatively little empirical attention, even though these are an important policy-relevant feature in instrument choice. 23 refs., 5 tabs

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of OECD Benchmark Tests in BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gamble, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmidt, Rodney C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williamson, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on sensitivity analysis of a fuels performance benchmark problem. The benchmark problem was defined by the Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling working group of the Nuclear Science Committee, part of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD ). The benchmark problem involv ed steady - state behavior of a fuel pin in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The problem was created in the BISON Fuels Performance code. Dakota was used to generate and analyze 300 samples of 17 input parameters defining core boundary conditions, manuf acturing tolerances , and fuel properties. There were 24 responses of interest, including fuel centerline temperatures at a variety of locations and burnup levels, fission gas released, axial elongation of the fuel pin, etc. Pearson and Spearman correlatio n coefficients and Sobol' variance - based indices were used to perform the sensitivity analysis. This report summarizes the process and presents results from this study.

  8. Interactions between Financial and Environmental Networks in OECD Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Ruzzenenti

    Full Text Available We analysed a multiplex of financial and environmental networks between OECD countries from 2002 to 2010. Foreign direct investments and portfolio investment showing the flows in equity securities, short-term, long-term and total debt, these securities represent the financial layers; emissions of NOx, PM10, SO2, CO2 equivalent and the water footprint associated with international trade represent the environmental layers. We present a new measure of cross-layer correlations between flows in different layers based on reciprocity. For the assessment of results, we implement a null model for this measure based on the exponential random graph theory. We find that short-term financial flows are more correlated with environmental flows than long-term investments. Moreover, the correlations between reverse financial and environmental flows (i.e. the flows of different layers going in opposite directions are generally stronger than correlations between synergic flows (flows going in the same direction. This suggests a trade-off between financial and environmental layers, where, more financialised countries display higher correlations between outgoing financial flows and incoming environmental flows than from lower financialised countries. Five countries are identified as hubs in this finance-environment multiplex: The United States, France, Germany, Belgium-Luxembourg and United Kingdom.

  9. The Effect of the Strictness of Consultation Requirements on Fraud Consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gold, A.H.; Knechel, W.R.; Wallage, P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how the strictness of a requirement to consult on potential client fraud affects auditors' propensity to consult with firm experts. We consider two specific forms of guidance about fraud consultations: (1) strict, i.e., mandatory and binding; and (2) lenient, i.e., advisory and

  10. Making embeddedness work: social practice institutions in foreign consulting markets

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Glückler

    2005-01-01

    This paper develops conceptual and empirical evidence for the importance of social practice institutions in the internationalisation process of management-consulting firms. Personal trust and reputation rather than price are examined as key mechanisms of foreign market entry and penetration. Empirical case studies in London, Frankfurt, and Madrid produce three findings. First, enduring client relations and client referrals facilitated most foreign firm entries and the majority of local client...

  11. Energy consultancy in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeve, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Liberalisation of the energy markets, shifting emphasis from energy carriers to energy products, improving insights in the areas of saving energy and energy efficiency, changes in the company itself. These are the developments which will continue to influence the profession of energy consultant, according to the author. A brief impression is given of what the energy consultant can do in the year 2000

  12. The International Consultant: Substance and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fest, Thorrel B.

    To function effectively in crosscultural settings, international consultants, development specialists, and trainers should be prepared to examine objectively a number of personal qualities. Problems arise in crosscultural relationships when either the client or the consultant fails to identify objectives, fails to accommodate different views of…

  13. Multiple Compensation Consultants and CEO Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Minhat, Marizah

    The study examines the practice of employing multiple compensation consultants. Data for a sample of UK companies over the period 2003-2006 are analyzed using a variety of econometric methods. We find that CEOs receive higher equity-based pay when firms employ more than one compensation consultant.

  14. 76 FR 55678 - Tribal Consultation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... types of agency actions that will require tribal consultation in the future. ACF's response was that due... disparities of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) and ensuring that access to critical health and... within ACF, many of which already consult with AI/ANs. 3. Background Since the formation of the Union...

  15. The Lawyer-Therapist Consultation Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korelitz, Ann; Schulder, Diane

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a pilot study in which joint consultations with a family therapist and a matrimonial attorney were offered to 10 couples and one woman contemplating divorce. Videotaped sessions. Suggests joint consultations can be useful in helping couples understand the psychological and legal implications of conflicts expressed during separation.…

  16. Ubiquitous consultation tool for decentral knowledge workers

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari Shirehjini, A.A.; Rühl, C.; Noll, S.

    2003-01-01

    The special issue of this initial study is to examine the current work situation of consulting companies, and to elaborate a concept for supporting decentralized working consultants. The concept addresses significant challenges of decentralized work processes by deploying the Peer-to-Peer methodology to decentralized expert and Knowledge Management, cooperation, and enterprise resource planning.

  17. Lessons Learned from a Consultation Process Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Soto, César

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary I discuss three international school consultation experiences, highlighting aspects that serve as lessons for professional development and the implementation of effective and helpful strategies that meet the needs of children and youth in school systems. Relationships developed and maintained between the consulting teams and the…

  18. Expectation Levels in Dictionary Consultation and Compilation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dictionary consultation and compilation is a two-way engagement between two parties, namely a dictionary user and a lexicographer. How well users cope with looking up words in a Bantu language dictionary and to what extent their expectations are met, depends on their consultation skills, their knowledge of the structure ...

  19. Why do people consult the doctor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S M; Roland, M O

    1996-02-01

    Symptoms are an everyday part of most peoples' lives and many people with illness do not consult their doctor. The decision to consult is not based simply on the presence or absence of medical problems. Rather it is based on a complex mix of social and psychological factors. This literature review seeks to explore some of the pathways to care and those factors associated with low and high rates of consultation. The paper examines the impact of socioeconomic and demographic factors on consultation rates and, using a revised version of the Health Belief Model, it highlights the psychological factors which influence decisions to seek medical care. Barriers which can inhibit consultation are discussed, as the decision to seek care will only result in a consultation if there is adequate access to care. Whilst poor health status and social disadvantage increase both "objective" medical need and in turn, consultation rates, a range of other social and psychological factors have been shown to influence consulting behaviour.

  20. Capturing the competence of management consulting work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Klaasjan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to assess whether the effort of consulting firms and branch organizations to establish a shared and standardized methodology as a means to professionalize consulting and as a standard for training is possible and sensible. - Design/methodology/approach: A

  1. ARL/OMS Consultant Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euster, Joanne R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Academic Library Consultant Training Program begun in 1979, sponsored by Office of Management Studies (OMS) and designed to provide 80 consultants to aid academic libraries in improving performance. Viewpoints are included from OMS Director and participants concerning program objectives, trainee selection, workshops, internships, and the…

  2. Consultants' Corner: System Performance. A Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabenstott, John, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Five library consultants address issues that affect online system performance: options in system design that relate to diverse library requirements; criteria that most affect performance; benchmark tests and sizing criteria; minimalizing the risks of miscalculation; and the roles and responsibilities of vendors, libraries, and consultants.…

  3. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills

  4. Managing outpatient consultations: from referral to discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachael; Jacob, Hannah; Morrissey, Benita; Macaulay, Chloe; Gomez, Kumudini; Fertleman, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    Although a great deal of paediatric consultations are not urgent, doctors in training spend so much time providing service for acute conditions that they spend little time focusing on outpatient work before they become a consultant. Engaging clinicians in the managerial aspects of providing clinical care is a key to improving outcomes, and this article addresses these aspects of the outpatient consultation from referral to discharge. We aim to provide doctors in training with a tool to use during their training and their first few years as a consultant, to think about how outpatient work is organised and how it can be improved to maximise patient experience. The non-urgent consultation varies across the world; this article is aimed to be relevant to an international audience. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Maehle, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  6. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Lesley J., E-mail: l.forsyth@rgu.ac.u [School of Health Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom); Maehle, Valerie [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  7. OECD BEPS: Reconciling global trade, taxation principles and the digital economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Makiyama, Hosuk; Verschelde, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Following media reports on the low tax rates paid by some of the world's largest multinationals, international tax reform has moved to the top of policy-makers' agendas across the world. At the request of the G20, the OECD has designed an action plan to address what it calls base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) - namely that the corporate tax base is eroding due to the internet. However OECD itself admits there is no evidence of base erosion in reality. Nonetheless, some OECD and EU Member...

  8. An Internal Audit Perspective on Differences between European Corporate Governance Codes and OECD Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to realize an analysis from an internal audit perspective of European Corporate Governance Codes, in regards with Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development – OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. The research methodology used a classification of countries by legal regime, trying to obtain a global view over the differences between the European corporate governance codes and the OECD Principles provisions, from internal audit’s perspective. The findings suggest that the specificities of internal audit function when studying the differences between European Corporate Governance Codes and OECD Principles lead to different treatment.

  9. Private Returns to Tertiary Education - How Does New Zealand Compare to the OECD?

    OpenAIRE

    James Zuccollo; Sholeh Maani; Bill Kaye-Blake; Lulu Zeng

    2013-01-01

    How do private returns to tertiary education in New Zealand compare internationally? According to the latest OECD measures, the private rate of return for New Zealand is 8.9%, compared to an OECD average of 12.4%, placing New Zealand toward the bottom of the OECD ranking. The aim of this study is to better understand the reasons for that gap and determine whether the low returns could be considered as problems amenable to policy interventions. We identify a number of measurement issues with t...

  10. Energy statistics and balances of non-OECD countries 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Contains a compilation of energy production and consumption statistics for 85 non-OECD countries and regions, including developing countries, Central and Eastern European countries and the former Soviet Union. Data are expressed in original units and in common units for coal, oil, gas, electricity and heat. Historical tables for both individual countries and regions summarize data on coal, gas and electricity production and consumption since 1971. Similar data for OECD are available in the IEA publications Energy Statistics and Energy Balances of OECD Countries

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Survey Tool Assessing Inpatient Consult Service Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavsky, Eli M; Chang, Yuchiao

    2017-12-01

    Subspecialty consultation in inpatient medicine is increasing, and enhancing performance of consultation services may have a broad-reaching impact. Multisource feedback is an important tool in assessing competence and improving performance. A mechanism for primary team resident feedback on performance of consult services has not been described. We developed and evaluated an instrument designed to assess internal medicine (IM) subspecialty inpatient consult service performance. We hypothesized that the instrument would be feasible to administer and provide important information to fellowship directors. The instrument was administered in 2015 and 2016 at a single academic center. All IM residents were invited to evaluate 10 IM subspecialty consult services on 4 items and an overall satisfaction rating. The instrument allowed for free-text feedback to fellows. Program directors completed another survey assessing the impact of the consult service evaluation. A total of 113 residents responded (47 in 2015 and 66 in 2016, for a combined response rate of 35%). Each of the 4 items measured (communication, professionalism, teaching, and pushback) correlated significantly with the overall satisfaction rating in univariate and multivariate analyses. There were no differences in ratings across postgraduate year or year of administration. There was considerable variation in ratings among the services evaluated. The 7 program directors who provided feedback found the survey useful and made programmatic changes following evaluation implementation. A primary team resident evaluation of inpatient medicine subspecialty consult services is feasible, provides valuable information, and is associated with changes in consult service structure and curricula.

  12. Coevolution in management fashion: an agent-based model of consultant-driven innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, David; David, Robert J; Akhlaghpour, Saeed

    2014-07-01

    The rise of management consultancy has been accompanied by increasingly marked faddish cycles in management techniques, but the mechanisms that underlie this relationship are not well understood. The authors develop a simple agent-based framework that models innovation adoption and abandonment on both the supply and demand sides. In opposition to conceptions of consultants as rhetorical wizards who engineer waves of management fashion, firms and consultants are treated as boundedly rational actors who chase the secrets of success by mimicking their highest-performing peers. Computational experiments demonstrate that consultant-driven versions of this dynamic in which the outcomes of firms are strongly conditioned by their choice of consultant are robustly faddish. The invasion of boom markets by low-quality consultants undercuts popular innovations while simultaneously restarting the fashion cycle by prompting the flight of high-quality consultants into less densely occupied niches. Computational experiments also indicate conditions involving consultant mobility, aspiration levels, mimic probabilities, and client-provider matching that attenuate faddishness.

  13. From Solution Shop to Boutique Consulting? Capturing Recent Developments on the German Consulting Marke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Jasper DÖTSCH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Digitalization, globalization, new technologies and shorter product life cycles are only a few keywords underlining the fact that companies are under increasing pressure for faster adaptation, innovation and hence applying a higher knowledge intensity. We assume that these conditions require an increasingly important role of consulting companies, because they seem to be the intermediaries needed to bridge the faster growing gaps between existing business models, organizational structures and accelerating market change. Market pressure is growing on the market for consultant companies as well. New technologies and digitalization should influence both the structure of the consultancy market and the business models of consultancies. Christensen suggested a trend from Dzsolution shop” to Dzboutique consulting.” To track current developments, we concentrate on the German consulting market as one of the most important consultant markets worldwide and explore changes of the last two years based on various studies. Processes of change seem to be both substantially driven by digitalization and to reflect change on the non-consultancy markets. A high willingness to switch among providers documents a high pressure on performance. The impact of digitalisation seem• to be observable in structural and qualitative change. With regard to the German consulting market and the latest available data we cannot validate a tendency from a dominance of “solution shop” consultancies to “boutique” consultancy services.

  14. Trade-related Electronic Commerce Issues in the OECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-In Yoon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The trade committee of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD has begun the study of the trade related to electronic commerce since 1997. The scale of the study on one hand has avoided the fact of copy and duplication of WTO and its organizational principles, on the other hand it has played a supplementary and supportive function. At present, digital-related product, such as computers, software and travel is the key point to the trade which resorts to electronic commerce. It is predicted that this trend will go on. The study on electronic commerce could be summed up into three main components: First, according to the phase of the trade, it could be divided into advertisement, purchase, delivery and payment. Second, issues on electronic commerce in the international trade; such as the issue that leads to the unfairness and non-neutrality of the searching engine in international service trade. Besides, domain name, trademarks and the issue of middleman which exist at the moment in the electronic commerce are activated and will also be discussed. Third, issues of the trade policy related to the electronic commerce. For instance, the kernel principles which support the multi-trade regulation, including transparency, indiscrimination, anti-dumping, flexible trade, government arrangement, tariff and competition policy and so on. Under this background, we should explore way in formulating hypotheses with preconceived issues, validating the electronic commerce trade on the spot, actualizing the study on the application of electronic commerce coming with the GATS regulation, seeking the countermeasure in the future trade policy, such as benefit policy to the electronic commerce department and electronic commerce strategy approach of certain enterprises, etc.

  15. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, Peter [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Allerton Building, Frederick Road, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.hogg@salford.ac.uk; Hogg, Dianne [Henwood Associates (South East) Ltd, Company Number: 513796, Registered Office: 2 Lakeview Stables, Lower St Clere, Kemsing, Kent, TN15 6NL (United Kingdom); Henwood, Suzanne [East Lancashire Primary Care Trust, Linden Business Centre, Linden Road, Colne. BB8 9BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills.

  16. Consulting by Business College Academics: Lessons for Business Communication Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Anish

    2009-01-01

    Business communication (BC) is a crucial aspect of management consulting. BC scholars have widely studied the relationship between BC and management consulting, including consulting by BC academics. A limited review of the studies of management consulting, including consulting done by business college academics, hereafter referred to simply as…

  17. Communication dated 9 July 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of Germany regarding the German proposal on a Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Director General received a letter dated 9 July 2009 from the Resident Representative of Germany to the IAEA, transmitting the text of two draft model agreements, which are necessary to implement a Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary Project (MESP). One model agreement, to be concluded between the Agency and interested States, provides for the establishment of a Group of Interested States and, by them, of a market-oriented Enrichment Company. The other model agreement, to be concluded between the Agency and a host state, provides for the establishment of a Multilateral Enrichment Sanctuary (MES) on a territory to be administered by the Agency, in which the Enrichment Company would be located. The letter, and as requested therein, the above mentioned draft model agreements attached thereto are herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  18. OECD: andke töötukassale raha juurde/ Laura Raus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raus, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Majanduskoostöö ja Arengu Organisatsiooni (OECD) riigiülevaate üksuse asejuht Robert Ford tutvustas organisatsiooni raportit Eesti majanduse kohta. Rahandusminister Jürgen Ligi ei pea kõiki soovitusi Eestile sobivaks

  19. EPA's Role with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) brings together the governments of countries committed to democracy and the market economy from around the world to support sustainable economic growth.

  20. 75 FR 1235 - Revisions to the Requirements for: Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ..., Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway... Requirements for: Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Wastes Between OECD Member Countries, Export Shipments of Spent Lead- Acid Batteries, Submitting Exception Reports for Export Shipments of Hazardous Wastes...

  1. An OECD perspective of the role of risk assessment in policy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydon, Jim [Environmental Health and Safety Division, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris (France)

    1992-07-01

    OECD is an intergovernmental organization bringing together 24 industrialised countries from North America, Western Europe, and the Pacific. Its basic aims include the following: - to achieve high sustainable development, economic growth and employment; - to achieve high economic and social welfare and a high standard of living throughout the OECD area and in non-Member countries: The specialised Agencies and Directorates of OECD cover the full breadth of economic and social activities of concern to the Conference. Under their programmes, there are a variety of activities which involve various elements of qualitative and quantitative risk assessment. Risk assessment methodology, policies options regarding the use of risk assessment, the role of risk assessment in policy and decision-making are all routine in OECD work. This work ranges from, for example, work on the economics of investment policies, through work on food safety, to the analysis of nuclear safety technology.

  2. Nuclear power programmes and medium term projections in the OECD area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miida, J.; Haeussermann, W.; Mankin, S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes nuclear power growth forecasts up to 1985 on an individual country basis for the OECD area, based on present nuclear programmes. For the period between 1985 and the year 2000, no individual countries' estimates are given. The projections for this period are subdivided into three main areas: OECD Europe, North America and OECD Pacific Region. These projections are derived from the presently prevailing estimates concerning total energy growth, the increasing share of electricity requirements in total energy requirements and the growth of the nuclear share in electrical installed capacity. The basic assumptions are discussed and the combination of various possibilities results in upper and lower growth limits, which should include the most likely development. An attempt is also made to describe probable scenarios of nuclear reactor strategies, taking into account developments under way in the OECD area. Finally, the factors liable to influence nuclear power growth in a positive or negative way are briefly analysed

  3. Human machine interaction research experience and perspectives as seen from the OECD Halden Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oewre, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review is given on important safety issues in the field of human machine interaction as expressed by important nuclear organisations such as USNRC, IAEA and the OECD NEA. Further on, a presentation is offered of research activities at the OECD Halden Reactor Project in the field of human machine interaction aiming to clarify some of the issues outlined by the above mentioned organisations. The OECD Halden Reactor Project is a joint undertaking of national nuclear organisations in 19 countries sponsoring a jointly financed research programme under the auspices of the OECD - Nuclear Energy Agency. One of the research areas is the man-machine systems research addressing the operator tasks in a control room environment. The overall objective is to provide a basis for improving today's control rooms through introduction of computer-based solutions for effective and safe execution of surveillance and control functions in normal as well as off-normal plant situations. (author)

  4. Local lymph node assay: how testing laboratories apply OECD TG 429 for REACH purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovida, Costanza

    2011-01-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the official method for assessing the allergic contact dermatitis potential of chemicals for the purposes of REACH regulation. The LLNA went through a validation process that allowed the delineation of a robust protocol for performing new tests. The OECD accepted this method in 2002 and published OECD TG 429. The European Chemical Agency (ECHA) recently published data that were submitted in the registration dossiers of chemicals. This database was analysed to determine how testing laboratories apply OECD TG 429. This analysis comes after a detailed analysis of four full study reports that were also prepared for REACH purposes. Although the majority of the tests are fully compliant with OECD TG 429, some showed major deviations, and a number of others used more animals than necessary. This suggests that in vivo tests need to be planned more carefully and consciously to obtain meaningful results with the minimum animal number necessary.

  5. An OECD perspective of the role of risk assessment in policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydon, Jim

    1992-01-01

    OECD is an intergovernmental organization bringing together 24 industrialised countries from North America, Western Europe, and the Pacific. Its basic aims include the following: - to achieve high sustainable development, economic growth and employment; - to achieve high economic and social welfare and a high standard of living throughout the OECD area and in non-Member countries: The specialised Agencies and Directorates of OECD cover the full breadth of economic and social activities of concern to the Conference. Under their programmes, there are a variety of activities which involve various elements of qualitative and quantitative risk assessment. Risk assessment methodology, policies options regarding the use of risk assessment, the role of risk assessment in policy and decision-making are all routine in OECD work. This work ranges from, for example, work on the economics of investment policies, through work on food safety, to the analysis of nuclear safety technology

  6. Postpartum consultation: Occurrence, requirements and expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlgren Ingrid

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a matter of routine, midwives in Sweden have spoken with women about their experiences of labour in a so-called 'postpartum consultation'. However, the possibility of offering women this kind of consultation today is reduced due to shortage of both time and resources. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence, women's requirements of, and experiences of a postpartum consultation, and to identify expectations from women who wanted but did not have a consultation with the midwife assisting during labour. Methods All Swedish speaking women who gave birth to a live born child at a University Hospital in western Sweden were consecutively included for a phone interview over a three-week period. An additional phone interview was conducted with the women who did not have a postpartum consultation, but who wanted to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Data from the interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Of the 150 interviewed women, 56% (n = 84 had a postpartum consultation of which 61.9% (n = 52 had this with the midwife assisting during labour. Twenty of the 28 women who did not have a consultation with anyone still desired to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Of these, 19 were interviewed. The content the women wanted to talk about was summarized in four categories: to understand the course of events during labour; to put into words, feelings about undignified management; to describe own behaviour and feelings, and to describe own fear. Conclusion The survey shows that the frequency of postpartum consultation is decreasing, that the majority of women who give birth today still require it, but only about half of them receive it. It is crucial to develop a plan for these consultations that meets both the women's needs and the organization within current maternity care.

  7. The International Politics of Legal Reforms: Hard Bilateralism, Soft Multilateralism and the World Bank’s “Doing Business” Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shin Tang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Law and Development literature still debates on the role of international institutions in promoting legal reforms as a means of inducing economic growth. This article takes one step further by arguing that incremental circumstances compelled such institutions to change from bilaterally-binding pressures to soft-based multilateral strategies, by analyzing the gradual rise of the World Bank’s “Doing Business” initiative.

  8. The International Politics of Legal Reforms: Hard Bilateralism, Soft Multilateralism and the World Bank’s “Doing Business” Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Law and Development literature still debates on the role of international institutions in promoting legal reforms as a means of inducing economic growth. This article takes one step further by arguing that incremental circumstances compelled such institutions to change from bilaterally-binding pressures to soft-based multilateral strategies, by analyzing the gradual rise of the World Bank’s “Doing Business” initiative.

  9. An Internal Audit Perspective on Differences between European Corporate Governance Codes and OECD Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to realize an analysis from an internal audit perspective of European Corporate Governance Codes, in regards with Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development – OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. The research methodology used a classification of countries by legal regime, trying to obtain a global view over the differences between the European corporate governance codes and the OECD Principles provisions, from internal audit’s perspective. T...

  10. Selection or network effects? Migration flows into 27 OECD countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    Recent migration patterns show growing migration pressure and changing composition of immigrants in many Western countries. During the latest decade, an increasing proportion of the OECD immigrants have been from poor countries, where the educational level of the population is low. The migration ...... evidence that selection effects have had a major influence on the observed migration patterns until now. This may partly be explained by restrictive migration policies in many OECD countries which may have dampened the potential selection effects....

  11. Selection or Network Effects? Migration Flows into 27 OECD Countries, 1990-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P.J.; Pytlikova, Mariola; Smith, Nina

    Recent migration patterns show growing migration pressure and changing composition of immigrants in many Western countries. During the latest decade, an increasing proportion of the OECD immigrants have been from poor countries, where the educational level of the population is low. The migration ...... evidence that selection effects have had a major influence on the observed migration patterns until now. This may partly be explained by restrictive migration policies in many OECD countries which may have dampened the potential selection effects....

  12. Adjusting health expenditure for military spending and interest payment: Israel and the OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Amir; Israeli, Avi

    2013-02-20

    Compared to OECD countries, Israel has a remarkably low percentage of GDP and of government expenditure spent on health, which are not reflected in worse national outcomes. Israel is also characterized by a relatively high share of GDP spent on security expenses and payment of public debt. To determine to what extent differences between Israel and the OECD countries in security expenses and payment of the public debt might account for the gaps in the percentage of GDP and of government expenditures spent on health. We compare the percentages of GDP and of government expenditures spent on health in the OECD countries with the respective percentages when using primary civilian GDP and government expenditures (i.e., when security expenses and interest payment are deducted). We compared Israel with the OECD average and examined the ranking of the OECD countries under the two measures over time. While as a percentage of GDP, the national expenditure on health in Israel was well below the average of the OECD countries, as a percentage of primary civilian GDP it was above the average until 2003 and below the average thereafter. When the OECD countries were ranked according to decreasing percent of GDP and of government expenditure spent on health, adjusting for security and debt payment expenditures changed the Israeli rank from 23rd to 17th and from 27th to 25th, respectively. Adjusting for security expenditures and interest payment, Israel's low spending on health as a percentage of GDP and as a percentage of government's spending increases and is closer to the OECD average. Further analysis should explore the effect of additional population and macroeconomic differences on the remaining gaps.

  13. Adjusting health expenditure for military spending and interest payment: Israel and the OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmueli Amir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to OECD countries, Israel has a remarkably low percentage of GDP and of government expenditure spent on health, which are not reflected in worse national outcomes. Israel is also characterized by a relatively high share of GDP spent on security expenses and payment of public debt. Objectives To determine to what extent differences between Israel and the OECD countries in security expenses and payment of the public debt might account for the gaps in the percentage of GDP and of government expenditures spent on health. Methods We compare the percentages of GDP and of government expenditures spent on health in the OECD countries with the respective percentages when using primary civilian GDP and government expenditures (i.e., when security expenses and interest payment are deducted. We compared Israel with the OECD average and examined the ranking of the OECD countries under the two measures over time. Results While as a percentage of GDP, the national expenditure on health in Israel was well below the average of the OECD countries, as a percentage of primary civilian GDP it was above the average until 2003 and below the average thereafter. When the OECD countries were ranked according to decreasing percent of GDP and of government expenditure spent on health, adjusting for security and debt payment expenditures changed the Israeli rank from 23rd to 17th and from 27th to 25th, respectively. Conclusions Adjusting for security expenditures and interest payment, Israel's low spending on health as a percentage of GDP and as a percentage of government's spending increases and is closer to the OECD average. Further analysis should explore the effect of additional population and macroeconomic differences on the remaining gaps.

  14. An OECD comparison of wind power and photovoltaics - approach to a consistent survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.J.; Ziemons, S.

    1996-01-01

    Adequate solutions are expected from renewable energy sources that may stop ozone depletion and contribute to resource conservation. Almost any OECD country is making efforts to promote photovoltaics and wind power. To give a survey of the measures taken and results obtained promotion programs are compared and the success achieved in the individual OECD countries is outlined. National energy institutions were interviewed and their 1993/94 programs were evaluated. Some of the data and statements are incomplete. (orig.) [de

  15. Introduction of regulatory and licensing procedures of some OECD countries in the field of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedekfi, O.; Zagyvai, P.; Czifrus, S.; Ormai, P.; Danko, G.

    2001-01-01

    In the OECD countries more than 50 nuclear power plants will have to be closed in the beginning of the next century since their licenses expire. For this reason it is very important to establish reasonable regulations in the field of decommissioning. In this poster firstly we define the basic principles related to decommissioning. Then we account on our survey of the situation of the regulatory and licensing procedures in some OECD countries. Finally we compare the results. (authors)

  16. Taxation of International Performing Artistes: the problems with Article 17 OECD and how to correct them

    OpenAIRE

    Molenaar, Dick

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about the taxation of international performing artistes. Their performance income is often generated in many countries other than their country of residence, and this performance income is subject to special tax treatment. Most countries have followed the OECD recommendation to tax the performance income of non-resident artistes. Article 17 of the OECD Model Tax Convention sets aside the normal allocation rules of Article 7 (Business Profits) and Article 15 (Income ...

  17. OECD/NEA Study on the Economics of Long Term Operation of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhov, Alexey; Cameron, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) established the Ad Hoc expert group on the Economics of Long-term Operation (LTO) of Nuclear Power Plants. The primary aim of this group is to collect and analyse technical and economic data on the upgrade and lifetime extension experience in OECD countries, and to assess the likely applications for future extensions. This paper describes the key elements of the methodology of economic assessment of LTO and initial findings for selected NEA member countries. (author)

  18. The Chemistry of iodine in reactor safety: summary and conclusions: OECD Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    About seventy experts from fourteen OECD member countries attended this Fourth OECD Workshop on the chemistry of iodine in reactor safety, as well as experts from Latvia and the Commission of the European Communities. Thirty four papers were presented, in five sessions: national and international programmes (integral and intermediate-scale experiments), experimental homogeneous phase chemistry, surface processes, thermodynamic and kinetic studies, safety applications. A final session is devoted to a general discussion on remaining research studies relevant to reactor safety

  19. Ground Receiving Station Reference Pair Selection Technique for a Minimum Configuration 3D Emitter Position Estimation Multilateration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik Shehu Yaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilateration estimates aircraft position using the Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA with a lateration algorithm. The Position Estimation (PE accuracy of the lateration algorithm depends on several factors which are the TDOA estimation error, the lateration algorithm approach, the number of deployed GRSs and the selection of the GRS reference used for the PE process. Using the minimum number of GRSs for 3D emitter PE, a technique based on the condition number calculation is proposed to select the suitable GRS reference pair for improving the accuracy of the PE using the lateration algorithm. Validation of the proposed technique was performed with the GRSs in the square and triangular GRS configuration. For the selected emitter positions, the result shows that the proposed technique can be used to select the suitable GRS reference pair for the PE process. A unity condition number is achieved for GRS pair most suitable for the PE process. Monte Carlo simulation result, in comparison with the fixed GRS reference pair lateration algorithm, shows a reduction in PE error of at least 70% for both GRS in the square and triangular configuration.

  20. Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (Ptool for determining an individual's ability to pay for medication. Combined with tiered models for patient participation in the cost of medication, it could help to increase access to high-priced products in developing countries.

  1. Six decades of educational multilateralism in a globalising world: The history of the UNESCO Institute in Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfert, Maren

    2013-07-01

    Created in 1945 as a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was given, among other mandates, the task of reconstructing education systems devastated during the Second World War. UNESCO, in turn, and after some debate about an engagement in Germany, founded the UNESCO Institute for Education (UIE) in Hamburg in 1952. This paper traces the development of an institute which was founded to contribute to social renewal in war-torn Germany and Europe, functioned as a mediator between Western and Eastern countries during the Cold War and later shifted its geographical focus to developing countries. The institute was instrumental in conceptualising lifelong learning as a global educational paradigm, as well as in shaping the shift from education to learning and the concept of literacy as a "continuum". The author is particularly interested in the nature of the institute's niche which secured its survival in the uncertain domain of educational multilateralism in the past six decades.

  2. Energy related Strategic Environmental Assessment applied by Multilateral Development Agencies — An analysis based on good practice criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tshibangu, Ghislain Mwamba, E-mail: minduim@sc.usp.br [University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Av. Trabalhador Sancarlense, 400, Sao Carlos, SP 13566-590 (Brazil); Montaño, Marcelo, E-mail: ghistshibangu@hotmail.com [Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Av. Trabalhador Sancarlense, 400, Sao Carlos, SP 13566-590 (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Multilateral Development Agencies (MDAs) have been emerging as responsible for the widespread of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) application in low and middle income countries. However, the effectiveness of SEA, as practiced by MDAs, has received limited attention in literature so far. This paper aims to analyse the use of SEA by MDAs in the context of loan agreements established between these countries. Based on documentation gathered in public databases, six energy related cases were reviewed in relation to the moment that SEA started, the strategic dimensions of proposed actions, compliance with key aspects of SEA, and also to the quality of SEA reports. Results indicate a number of aspects that should be improved in order to increase SEA effectiveness: SEA is starting after relevant decisions, is applied to actions without clear definition of strategic dimensions and lacks a systematic assessment of alternatives. Regarding the quality of SEA reports, the outcomes reveal a poor quality in baseline description, development and assessment of alternatives and public participation. - Highlights: • MDAs are fostering the use of SEA in developing countries. • SEA is applied late by MDAs and needs to enhance its strategic dimensions. • ToRs and SEA reports needs to better comply with key aspects of SEA • We've found no evidences that SEA applied by MDAs is contributing to better decisions.

  3. Three-point method for measuring the geometric error components of linear and rotary axes based on sequential multilateration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhenjiu; Hu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The linear and rotary axes are fundamental parts of multi-axis machine tools. The geometric error components of the axes must be measured for motion error compensation to improve the accuracy of the machine tools. In this paper, a simple method named the three point method is proposed to measure the geometric error of the linear and rotary axes of the machine tools using a laser tracker. A sequential multilateration method, where uncertainty is verified through simulation, is applied to measure the 3D coordinates. Three noncollinear points fixed on the stage of each axis are selected. The coordinates of these points are simultaneously measured using a laser tracker to obtain their volumetric errors by comparing these coordinates with ideal values. Numerous equations can be established using the geometric error models of each axis. The geometric error components can be obtained by solving these equations. The validity of the proposed method is verified through a series of experiments. The results indicate that the proposed method can measure the geometric error of the axes to compensate for the errors in multi-axis machine tools.

  4. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  5. Spanish collaboration in the OECD Halden Reactor Project research on Gadolinia Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, M.; Munoz-Reja, C.; Tverberg, T.; Jenssen, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    Safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants benefit from research and development advances and related technical solutions. One research platform is the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP). HRP is a joint undertaking of national organisations in 18 countries sponsoring a jointly financed programme under the auspices of the OECD - Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). As a member state, Spain is participating HRP research programs with ENUSA as a partner in the fuel research programs. Improving the NPP operations, fuel cycles were designed to increase fuel burnup. Higher fuel burnup reduces the number of spent fuel assemblies and thus the costs of new fuel as well as the costs of back-end management. Higher burnup is reached either by prolonging the reactor cycles or by increasing the number of reactor cycles for the fuel in the core. Both ways entail additional requirements concerning fuel enrichment and burnable absorbers as additives and adjustments on the cladding material properties, such as mechanical treatment and chemical composition of the alloys. For these demands and needs ENUSA promotes the research on high burnup effects, gadolinium doped fuels and cladding material behaviour under irradiation. Various experiments, called IFA, are developed and performed also by providing materials. ENUSA collaborates with HRP on various experiments investigating the fuel densification and swelling, fission gas release, pressure limits on UO 2 and (U,Gd)O 2 fuels (IFA-504, -515, -636, -681); the cladding creep, lift-off, corrosion and hydrides on different tubing materials (IFA-567, -610, -638); instrumentation of the experiments, especially on pre-irradiated materials (IFA-533). These experiments are combined with model calculations to improve predictions for higher burnups and to maintain safety margins (IFA-515, -636, -681). Besides these unique in-pile experiments PIEs are performed as well on fuel and structural materials to complete the scope of these studies (IFA

  6. A Summary of the MARS Analysis Results about OECD/SETH PANDA Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sung Won; Chung, Bub Dong

    2007-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a multicompartment space like the containment building under accidents are very complicated and unpredictable as a result of many interacting processes, such as sprays, hydrogen recombiners, etc. Many thermal-hydraulic phenomena, governing the containment response under postulated accidents, have been identified by the SESAR/CAF (OECD) as 'research needs' for current and advanced LWRs. Due to the recent extension of the numerical computation capability and the technology, the safety analysis field is requested to expand their analysis domain beyond the current primary system. In particular, hydrogen mixing and transport has been found to be of special importance for safety and regulation. Up to dates, OECD/CSNI has been leading many experimental projects, for example, OECD-PKL, ISP47, OECD-PANDA, focusing the gas mixing, stratification and vapor condensation phenomena. As the one of the activities, the OECD-SETH group has launched the PANDA Project in order to provide an experimental data base for a multi-dimensional code assessment in 2002. PANDA is a large scale thermal-hydraulic facility to provide a resolved experimental data base about the gas mixing and stratification phenomena. OECD-SETH group expects the PANDA Project will meet the increasing needs for adequate experimental data for a 3D distribution of relevant variables like the temperature, velocity and steam-air concentrations that are measured with a sufficient resolution and accuracy

  7. Collaborative Web-Enabled GeoAnalytics Applied to OECD Regional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jern, Mikael

    Recent advances in web-enabled graphics technologies have the potential to make a dramatic impact on developing collaborative geovisual analytics (GeoAnalytics). In this paper, tools are introduced that help establish progress initiatives at international and sub-national levels aimed at measuring and collaborating, through statistical indicators, economic, social and environmental developments and to engage both statisticians and the public in such activities. Given this global dimension of such a task, the “dream” of building a repository of progress indicators, where experts and public users can use GeoAnalytics collaborative tools to compare situations for two or more countries, regions or local communities, could be accomplished. While the benefits of GeoAnalytics tools are many, it remains a challenge to adapt these dynamic visual tools to the Internet. For example, dynamic web-enabled animation that enables statisticians to explore temporal, spatial and multivariate demographics data from multiple perspectives, discover interesting relationships, share their incremental discoveries with colleagues and finally communicate selected relevant knowledge to the public. These discoveries often emerge through the diverse backgrounds and experiences of expert domains and are precious in a creative analytics reasoning process. In this context, we introduce a demonstrator “OECD eXplorer”, a customized tool for interactively analyzing, and collaborating gained insights and discoveries based on a novel story mechanism that capture, re-use and share task-related explorative events.

  8. Overview of fuel testing capabilities at the OECD Halden reactor project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesenack, W [Institutt for Atomenergi, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reaktor Projekt

    1994-12-31

    Fuel performance and reliability investigations at the OECD Haiden Reactor Project are described. They are supported by a variety of irradiation rigs, suitable irradiation techniques and a range of instrumentation. Testing capabilities and applications are mainly aimed at exploring mechanisms of fuel behaviour and high burnup. Examples of fuel performance taken from data provided by the Halden Project for the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme FUMEX are presented. A number of heavily instrumented rigs to suit different test objects have been developed: base irradiation rig, gas meter rig, diameter measurement rig, ramp rig, gas flow rig, instrumented fuel assembly. In core-measurements and variety of sensors as : fuel thermocouples, bellows pressure transducers, fuel stack elongation detectors, cladding diameter gauge and cladding elongation detectors have been used. Techniques which make it possible to obtain reliable data for all relevant burnups from beginning-of-life to ultra high exposure reaching 100 Mwd/kg UO{sub 2} are described. 7 figs., 3 refs.

  9. On becoming a consultant: A study exploring the journey to consultant practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henwood, S.; Booth, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper reports a qualitative study exploring the establishment of non-medical consultant roles in Radiography. Given the difficulties reported in recruiting and retaining staff in these posts, we hope this paper offers a historical documentation of those consultants who were some of the first in post, sharing their stories of how they obtained and transitioned into their roles. Methods: This paper is part of a two year case study exploring the leadership domain of consultant practice. The focus of this paper is a reflection, by the consultants, of their journey to becoming a consultant; a documentation of some of the practical issues in establishing the roles; and the transition to higher levels of practice. Eight consultant radiographers participated in the initial interviews (two consultants withdrew from the study subsequent to this). In-depth iterative interviewing was used to explore and record individual stories and experiences. Findings: The consultants shared their perceptions of being in post, including their own motivation to progress to a new role, how prepared they felt initially, the lack of role models, the lack of clarity surrounding the role and a perception of ‘being on display’. Conclusions: The paper offers insight into the journey of these consultants and some of the common characteristics they share. These characteristics give some indication of what motivated them to step into higher level roles, in particular the need to drive change and improvement. The paper also offers suggestions for how the transition into the role could be more effectively supported. - Highlights: • Identifies characteristics thought to contribute to effective consultant practice. • A desire to change practice is a major motivator in applying for a consultant post. • The consultant role was a natural evolution for some, not a desired career pathway. • There is recognition that the initial consultants were pioneers for the profession.

  10. The guideline "consultation psychiatry" of the Netherlands Psychiatric Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentjens, A.F.G.; Boenink, A.D.; Sno, H.N.; Strack van Schijndel, R.J.M.; Croonenborg, van J.J.; Everdingen, van J.J.E.; Feltz - Cornelis, van der C.M.; Laan, van der S.; Marwijk, van H.W.J.; Os, T.W.D.P. Van

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the Netherlands Psychiatric Association authorized a guideline "consultation psychiatry." Aim: To set a standard for psychiatric consultations in nonpsychiatric settings. The main objective of the guideline is to answer three questions: Is psychiatric consultation effective and,

  11. IT Consultants in Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    strategic IT initiatives and how companies can draw effectively on their services. The paper investigates the use of consultants in relation to one type of major strategic IT initiative: acquisition IT integration. Acquisition IT integration, which is the integration of the acquirer’s and target......’s IT following a corporate acquisition, presents a difficult but crucial IT challenge for the many acquiring organizations. Through a comparative case study of four acquirers, theoretically grounded in the resource-based view of the firm, it is analyzed how acquirers draw on external consultants to realize...... acquisition IT integration. Two complementary and two supplementary roles consultants assume in these projects are identified. Additionally, three characteristics of the acquisition IT integration strategy are identified that influence how the acquirers assign different roles to IT consultants. The resulting...

  12. Bladder Pain Syndrome International Consultation on Incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, P.; Lin, A.; Nordling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims of Study: The Bladder Pain Syndrome Committee of the International Consultation on Incontinence was assigned the task by the consultation of reviewing the syndrome, formerly known as interstitial cystitis, in a comprehensive fashion. This included the topics of definition, nomenclature......, taxonomy, epidemiology, etiology, pathology, diagnosis, symptom scales, outcome assessment, principles of management, specific therapies, and future directions in research. Study Design, Materials, Methods: The emphasis was on new information developed since the last consultation 4 years previously. Where...... possible, existing evidence was assessed and a level of recommendation was developed according to the Oxford system of classification. Results: The consultation decided to refer to the condition as "bladder pain syndrome" (BPS) because the designation is more descriptive of the clinical condition...

  13. Synthesis of the OECD/NEA-PSI CFD benchmark exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, Michele, E-mail: Michele.andreani@psi.ch; Badillo, Arnoldo; Kapulla, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • A benchmark exercise on stratification erosion in containment was conducted using a test in the PANDA facility. • Blind calculations were provided by nineteen participants. • Results were compared with experimental data. • A ranking was made. • A large spread of results was observed, with very few simulations providing accurate results for the most important variables, though not for velocities. - Abstract: The third International Benchmark Exercise (IBE-3) conducted under the auspices of OECD/NEA is based on the comparison of blind CFD simulations with experimental data addressing the erosion of a stratified layer by an off-axis buoyant jet in a large vessel. The numerical benchmark exercise is based on a dedicated experiment in the PANDA facility conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland, using only one vessel. The use of non-prototypical fluids (i.e. helium as simulant for hydrogen, and air as simulant for steam), and the consequent absence of the complex physical effects produced by steam condensation enhanced the suitability of the data for CFD validation purposes. The test started with a helium–air layer at the top of the vessel and air in the lower part. The helium-rich layer was gradually eroded by a low-momentum air/helium jet emerging at a lower elevation. Blind calculation results were submitted by nineteen participants, and the calculation results have been compared with the PANDA data. This report, adopting the format of the reports for the two previous exercises, includes a ranking of the contributions, where the largest weight is given to the time progression of the erosion of the helium-rich layer. In accordance with the limited scope of the benchmark exercise, this report is more a collection of comparisons between calculated results and data than a synthesis. Therefore, the few conclusions are based on the mere observation of the agreement of the various submissions with the test result, and do not

  14. Review of fast reactor activities at OECD (NEA), March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royen, J

    1979-07-01

    In February 1978, OECD(NEA) published an expert group report on 'Nuclear Fuel Cycle Requirements and Supply Considerations, Through the Long Term'. In publishing this report, the Agency sought to fulfil three objectives. First, as a source of data on uranium and fuel cycle services, the report identified future imbalances between supply and demand, and possible areas for international cooperation in the resolution of such problems. Secondly, in examining several alternative nuclear power scenarios through the long term (defined as the year 2025), it showed the comparative needs of advanced reactors for uranium and for supporting services, thereby establishing the basis for further development of uranium resources and specific reactor systems. Finally, as a comprehensive data source, it should provide assistance to those having responsibilities in planning, forecasting, and programme management in areas relating to the fuel cycle. An analysis of alternative reactor strategies in the longer term makes it clear that continued reliance on thermal converters in this period will result in rapid depletion of known uranium resources. Even with dramatic increases in known resources, nuclear power would be able to play only a temporary role in satisfying world energy needs. The use of advanced near-breeders (including those which utilise thorium) can do much to reduce the total rate of depletion of uranium resources, but their requirements will still result in eventual depletion of known resources. On the other hand, breeder reactors would provide a virtually inexhaustible source of energy supply within foreseeable extensions of known uranium resources. In fact, the introduction of breeders in the longer term could, by the year 2025, reduce annual requirements for uranium at or below levels for the year 2000. By the year 2025, the cumulative uranium requirements of the breeder can have reached a plateau, while the cumulative requirements of other reactor strategies would

  15. An Emerging Knowledge-Based Economy in China? Indicators from OECD Databases. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2004/4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Chiara; Martin, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this Working Paper is to show a set of indicators on the knowledge-based economy for China, mainly compiled from databases within EAS, although data from databases maintained by other parts of the OECD are included as well. These indicators are put in context by comparison with data for the United States, Japan and the EU (or…

  16. Conceptual model of integrated apiarian consultancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bodescu, Dan; Stefan, Gavril; Paveliuc Olariu, Codrin; Magdici, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The socio-economic field researches have indicated the necessity of realizing an integrated consultancy service for beekeepers that will supply technical-economic solutions with a practical character for ensuring the lucrativeness and viability of the apiaries. Consequently, an integrated apiarian consultancy model has been built holding the following features: it realizes the diagnosis of the meliferous resources and supplies solutions for its optimal administration; it realizes the technica...

  17. Qualification of contractor/consultant instructors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    Following a brief discussion of the role of consultant instructors in Public Service Electric and Gas Company's training organization, the qualification process is presented. Consultant instructors are provided with information regarding supervision of the trainees and the instructional process and procedures required. Each individual must have his or her instructional capability, supervisory skills and technical competence verified and documented prior to conducting training independently. Concluding comments describe the overall satisfactory experience with this program

  18. Optimal Pricing Strategy in Marketing Research Consulting.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chun-Hao; Lee, Chi-Wen Jevons

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal pricing scheme for a monopolistic marketing research consultant who sells high-cost proprietary marketing information to her oligopolistic clients in the manufacturing industry. In designing an optimal pricing strategy, the consultant needs to fully consider the behavior of her clients, the behavior of the existing and potential competitors to her clients, and the behavior of her clients' customers. The authors show how the environment uncertainty, the capabilit...

  19. Political consultation and large-scale research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.; Folkers, H.

    1977-01-01

    Large-scale research and policy consulting have an intermediary position between sociological sub-systems. While large-scale research coordinates science, policy, and production, policy consulting coordinates science, policy and political spheres. In this very position, large-scale research and policy consulting lack of institutional guarantees and rational back-ground guarantee which are characteristic for their sociological environment. This large-scale research can neither deal with the production of innovative goods under consideration of rentability, nor can it hope for full recognition by the basis-oriented scientific community. Policy consulting knows neither the competence assignment of the political system to make decisions nor can it judge succesfully by the critical standards of the established social science, at least as far as the present situation is concerned. This intermediary position of large-scale research and policy consulting has, in three points, a consequence supporting the thesis which states that this is a new form of institutionalization of science: These are: 1) external control, 2) the organization form, 3) the theoretical conception of large-scale research and policy consulting. (orig.) [de

  20. 40 CFR 725.17 - Consultation with EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS General Provisions and..., ATTN: Biotechnology Notice Consultation. Persons wishing to consult with EPA by telephone should call...

  1. Exploring the research domain of consultant practice: Perceptions and opinions of consultant radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.; Paterson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This paper reports on one part of a larger study. The aim was to explore what the core domain of research means to consultant radiographers in clinical practice and to identify the key factors that facilitate or hinder research activity by this staff group. Design and method: Grounded theory research methodology was employed. This first part of the study involved electronic questionnaires being sent to all those known in consultant radiographer posts in the United Kingdom. Results: Results indicate there are variations across clinical specialties as to the amount and level of research undertaken by consultant radiographers, and not all agreed that research should be a core domain of consultant practice. Main facilitators to research were noted as: time; skills and knowledge of the researcher; a well defined research question. Main barriers to research were noted as: lack of allocated time; lack of skills/experience; clinical workload. Conclusion: Research is one of the four core domains of consultant allied health professional and nursing roles but, as yet, it is not fully embedded into those of all consultant radiographers. Many consultant radiographers appear to spend more of their time on the ‘clinical expert’ element of their role at the expense of the research domain. This study concludes that there is an urgent need for consultant radiographers to understand that research is one of the four core domains and to recognise the need to embed research into their clinical practice. - Highlights: • Consultant radiographers undertake research but have concerns about their research skills. • Research aims to improve practice and patients' experiences. • Relatively few consultant radiographers publish their work routinely. • Consultant radiographers allocate little protected time for research due to clinical demands. • Almost half of the consultant radiographers feel research should not be a core part of their roles.

  2. Reflections on the role of consultant radiographers in the UK: What is a consultant radiographer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.; Henwood, S.; Miller, P.

    2016-01-01

    Context: This paper is the second paper from a two year in depth case study, exploring the role of consultant radiographers in the UK. Methods: A longitudinal case study approach was used to determine the role of consultant radiographers. Interviews were used to explore experiences of being a consultant, which were analysed using thematic analysis. Eight consultant radiographers participated (Note, two of the consultants withdrew after the first interview due to workload). Therefore two consultants were interviewed only once. The remaining six consultants were interviewed twice over a 12 month period. Findings: The data presented in this paper explores the nature of the role, differences between roles, the four domains of practice, and how the role fits into local organisational structures. The study shows wide variation in the types of roles undertaken, reflecting that the creation of these roles were in response to local clinical need and often related to an individual practitioner's skills. The broad scope of the role was shown across all the consultants, with evidence of roles developing into new areas of service delivery. Conclusions: The paper offers insight into the role(s) of consultant radiographers in the UK. The range and scope of their practice is extensive, with much variation. It is evident that the clinical aspect of the role dominates, with research being the least supported domain of practice. There remains a lack of clarity around the role, with concerns about remuneration and other limitations that may restrict the role developing further. - Highlights: • This paper shows the variation in roles between consultant radiographers. • The commonality with medical roles is highlighted. • Problem solving is identified as a core skill in consultant radiography. • Consultants offered evidence of the roles developing service provision. • While all four domains of practice are covered, research is the least well supported.

  3. Quality Management in Project Management Consulting. A Case Study in an International Consulting Company

    OpenAIRE

    Ceptureanu, Eduard-Gabriel; Ceptureanu, Sebastian-Ion; Luchian, Cristian-Eugen; Luchian, Iuliana

    2017-01-01

    The present paper addresses quality management from the specific perspective of project management consulting service providers, in the framework of large infrastructure projects. Because of their supposed superiority in knowledge and experience, project management consultants have an ultimate responsibility for the proper implementing of the project. Therefore, quality management in consulting organizations should focus on critical success factors. As there is no consensus yet regarding the ...

  4. Child consultation patterns in general practice comparing "high" and "low" consulting families.

    OpenAIRE

    Campion, P D; Gabriel, J

    1984-01-01

    All children's consultations with their general practitioner over a 12 month period in a small urban practice were analysed. Overall consultation rates ranged from 2.2 per child a year for 8 to 11 year olds, to 6.8 for those under 2. Families were grouped according to their average rate of new consultation for children, standardised for age. Families with higher consulting rates scored higher on an index of economic disadvantage, with mothers who scored higher on a test of "tendency to consul...

  5. Impact, regulation and health policy implications of physician migration in OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Steven

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of rising demand for medical services due to ageing populations, physician migration flows are increasingly affecting the supply of physicians in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD countries. This paper offers an integrated perspective on the impact of physician migration on home and host countries and discusses international regulation and policy approaches governing physician migration. Methods Information about migration flows, international regulation and policies governing physician migration were derived from two questionnaires sent to OECD countries, a secondary analysis of EUROSTAT Labour Force Surveys, a literature review and official policy documents of OECD countries. Results OECD countries increasingly perceive immigration of foreign physicians as a way of sustaining their physician workforce. As a result, countries have entered into international agreements regulating physician migration, although their success has been limited due to the imposition of licensing requirements and the protection of vested interests by domestic physicians. OECD countries have therefore adopted specific policies designed to stimulate the immigration of foreign physicians, whilst minimising its negative impact on the home country. Measures promoting immigration have included international recruitment campaigns, less strict immigration requirements and arrangements that foster shared learning between health care systems. Policies restricting the societal costs of physician emigration from developing countries such as good practice guidelines and taxes on host countries have not yet produced their expected effect or in some cases have not been established at all. Conclusions Although OECD countries generally favour long-term policies of national self-sufficiency to sustain their physician workforce, such policies usually co-exist with short-term or medium-term policies to attract foreign physicians

  6. The importance for Bulgaria of multilateral approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necheva, Ch.; McCombie, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    Bulgaria has a comparatively small nuclear program, but this provides a significant contribution of about 45% to the total electricity production in the country. There are 4 WWER units in operation at Kozloduy NPP and the national energy policy foresees construction of a further plant, Belene NPP. Further development of the nuclear option is dependent on the assurance of both fresh nuclear fuel supply and long-term management of spent fuel and high level waste. Because of the technical and economic challenges involved, international co-operation (bilateral and multilateral) in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle is a strategic issue of prime importance. This approach is very politically and socially sensitive at home and abroad and requires international consensus on the legal framework. For Bulgaria, as a producer of nuclear energy which relies on imported fresh nuclear fuel, an option of major interest is to seek a final solution for dealing with spent fuel in co-operation with the supplier of fresh fuel, i.e. Russia at present. But Bulgaria does not address only this option. In parallel, Kozloduy NPP is an organizational member of the international association ARIUS, established in 2002 in Baden, Switzerland. Thus the country also directly supports the mission of Arius, namely the promotion of concepts for safe, secure, economic and politically and socially acceptable regional and international storage and disposal of spent fuel and HLW. Bulgaria also participates directly in the SAPIERR project that was initiated by Arius under the 6 Framework Programme of the European Commission in order to study the concept of regional repositories to be shared by European partners. The range of Bulgarian waste management activities - including practical issues at the power plants, national studies on waste treatment, and involvement in the bilateral and multinational approaches described above - ensures that the country continues to maintain the necessary technical

  7. Harmonization between a Framework of Multilateral Approaches to Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities and Bilateral Nuclear Cooperation Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Tazaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of primary challenges for ensuring effective and efficient functions of the multilateral nuclear approaches (MNA to nuclear fuel cycle facilities is harmonization between a MNA framework and existing nuclear cooperation agreements (NCA. A method to achieve such harmonization is to construct a MNA framework with robust non-proliferation characteristics, in order to obtain supplier states’, especially the US’s prior consents for non-supplier states’ certain activities including spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium storages and retransfers of plutonium originated in NCAs. Such robust characteristics can be accomplished by MNA member states’ compliances with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Safeguards, regional safeguards agreements, international conventions, guidelines and recommendations on nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear security, safety, and export control. Those provisions are to be incorporated into an MNA founding agreement, as requirements to be MNA members in relation to NCAs. Furthermore, if an MNA facility is, (1 owned and operated jointly by all MNA member states, (2 able to conclude bilateral NCAs with non-MNA/supplier states as a single legal entity representing its all member states like an international organization, and (3 able to obtain necessary prior consents, stable, smooth, and timely supplies of nuclear fuel and services can be assured among MNA member states. In this paper, the authors will set out a general MNA framework and then apply it to a specific example of Europe Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM and then consider its applicability to the Asian region, where an establishment of an MNA framework is expected to be explored.

  8. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Specker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data

  9. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Specker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives: 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method: Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results: Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions: These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in

  10. Fuel safety criteria and review by OECD / CSNI task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Doesburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: with the advent of advanced fuel and core designs, and the implementation of more accurate (best estimate or statistical) design and analysis methods, there is a general feeling that safety margins have been or are being reduced. Historically, fuel safety margins were defined by adding conservatism to the safety limits, which in turn were also fixed in a conservative manner, here, the expression 'conservatism' expresses the fact that bounding or limiting numbers were chosen for model parameters, plant and fuel design data, and fuel operating history values. Unfortunately, as these conservatisms were not quantified (or quantifiable), the amount of safety available or the reduction thereof is difficult to substantiate. For the regulator, it is important to know the margin available with the utilities' request for approval of new fuel or methods; likewise, for the utility and vendor it is important to know what margins exist and what they are based on, to identify in which direction they can make further progress and optimize fuel and fuel cycle cost. Naturally, each party involved will have to decide on how much margin should be in place, to establish operational criteria and ensure that these can actually be met during operation. To assess the margins issue, safety criteria themselves need to be reviewed first. Most - if not all - of the currently existing safety criteria were established during the 60's and early 70's, and verified against experiments with fuel available at that time - mostly at zero exposure. Of course, verification was performed as designs progressed in later years, primarily with the aim to be able to prove that safety criteria were adequate as long as the said conservatisms would be retained, and not with the aim to reestablish limits. The mandate to the OECD/CSNI/PWG2 Task Force on Fuel Safety Criteria (TFFSC) is to assess the adequacy of existing fuel safety criteria, in view of the 'new design' elements (new

  11. In Pursuit of a Multi-lateral Dialogue - the Swiss National Centre for Climate Services (NCCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiko Hama, Angela; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Liniger, Mark; Schwierz, Cornelia; Stöckli, Reto; Fischer, Andreas; Gubler, Stefanie; Kotlarski, Sven; Rossa, Andrea; Zubler, Elias; Appenzeller, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Kick-starting, fostering and maintaining a dialogue between primarily public and academic actors involved in the co-design, co-delivery and use of climate services is at the core of Switzerland's National Centre for Climate Services (NCCS), which was founded in late 2015 in recognition of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). This coordination and innovation mechanism is a concerted national effort comprised of seven Federal Agencies and Institutes and further partners from academia committed to implementing the Framework at national to subnational level and creating synergies the world over. The NCCS is to be regarded as vital alongside the Swiss National Adaptation Strategy, and it also contributes to putting words into action with respect to the UN's Sustainable Development Goals, the UNFCCC and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. The services of the Centre provide information to support policy-makers from national to local level as well as the private sector and society at large in minimising their risks, maximising opportunities and optimising costs in the context of climate change and variability. They are indispensable for setting effective mitigation and adaptation measures and for instigating societal transformation. Hence, the goals of the NCCS are to bundle the existing climate services of the Swiss Federation, co-create new tailored solutions with users, act as a network agent and knowledge broker - to boost climate literacy and enable climate-sensitive decision-making leading to increased resilience. The services reflect the specificities and requirements of the Alpine region and its particular challenges and vulnerabilities. Pursuing a participatory approach, the NCCS has brought together essential key players, acted as a sounding board for governmental stakeholders and their needs, and accordingly defined and populated six priority themes in line with the priority areas of the GFCS. These themes are: natural hazards, health

  12. Public consultation: regulatory requirement or business principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary is included of knowledge and experiences related to planning and implementing a public consultation program over a number of years in Shell Canada's Athabasca Oil Sands development. This project consists of three major sub- projects with a total estimated capital investment of $4 billion. The three sub- projects are: the Muskeg River Mine, the Scotford Upgrader, and the Corridor Pipeline. The facilities will produce 150,000 bbl/day of synthetic crude for over 25 years and are targeted to begin production in late 2002. From the title of the paper, although public consultation is required under environmental legislation, many companies are adopting a more pro-active approach to public consultation and participation as a business principle. This commitment to engage in and dialogue with stakeholders must be open, transparent and long term, not just during the regulatory process. Successful consultation begins with the prerequisites: senior management commitment, buy-in from the project or operating team that the process adds value, and the ability to listen and make changes. A consultation program is not a short term activity, but is rather an ongoing process linked to a business or operating principle. It requires long term resources and follow through on agreements and commitments made to stakeholders and communities

  13. Identifying challenges in project consultants engagement practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariffuddin, Nadia Alina Amir; Abidin, Nazirah Zainul

    2017-10-01

    Construction projects, green or conventional, involve multi-faceted disciplines engaged with the goal of delivering products i.e. building, infrastructure etc. at the best quality within stipulated budgets. For green projects, additional attention is added for environmental quality. Due to the various responsibilities and liabilities involved as well as the complexity of the construction process itself, formal engagement of multi-disciplinary professionals i.e. project consultants is required in any construction project. Poor selection of project consultants will lead to a multitude of complications resulting in delay, cost escalation, conflicts and poor quality. This paper explores the challenges that occur during the engagement of project consultants in a green project. As the engagement decision involves developers and architects, these two groups of respondents with green project backgrounds were approached qualitatively using interview technique. The challenges identified are limited experience and knowledge, consultants' fee vs. quality, green complexity, conflicts of interest, clients' extended expectation and less demand in green projects. The construction shifts to green project demands engagement of project consultants with added skills. It is expected that through the identification of challenges, better management and administration can be created which would give impact to the overall process of engagement in green projects.

  14. Public consultation: regulatory requirement or business principle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R. [Shell Canada Oil Sands, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A summary is included of knowledge and experiences related to planning and implementing a public consultation program over a number of years in Shell Canada's Athabasca Oil Sands development. This project consists of three major sub- projects with a total estimated capital investment of $4 billion. The three sub- projects are: the Muskeg River Mine, the Scotford Upgrader, and the Corridor Pipeline. The facilities will produce 150,000 bbl/day of synthetic crude for over 25 years and are targeted to begin production in late 2002. From the title of the paper, although public consultation is required under environmental legislation, many companies are adopting a more pro-active approach to public consultation and participation as a business principle. This commitment to engage in and dialogue with stakeholders must be open, transparent and long term, not just during the regulatory process. Successful consultation begins with the prerequisites: senior management commitment, buy-in from the project or operating team that the process adds value, and the ability to listen and make changes. A consultation program is not a short term activity, but is rather an ongoing process linked to a business or operating principle. It requires long term resources and follow through on agreements and commitments made to stakeholders and communities.

  15. Working with boundaries in systems psychodynamic consulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Struwig

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to produce a set of theoretical assumptions about organisational boundaries and boundary management in organisations and, from these, to develop a set of hypotheses as a thinking framework for practising consulting psychologists when they work with boundaries from a systems psychodynamic stance. Motivation for the study: The researcher used the belief that organisational boundaries reflect the essence of organisations. Consulting to boundary managers could facilitate a deep understanding of organisational dynamics. Research design, approach and method: The researcher followed a case study design. He used systems psychodynamic discourse analysis. It led to six working hypotheses. Main findings: The primary task of boundary management is to hold the polarities of integration and differentiation and not allow the system to become fragmented or overly integrated. Boundary management is a primary task and an ongoing activity of entire organisations. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should work actively at effective boundary management and at balancing integration and differentiation. Leaders should become aware of how effective boundary management leads to good holding environments that, in turn, lead to containing difficult emotions in organisations. Contribution/value-add: The researcher provided a boundary-consulting framework in order to assist consultants to balance the conceptual with the practical when they consult.

  16. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  17. Global Consultation Processes: Lessons Learned from Refugee Teacher Consultation Research in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Gosnell, Nicole M.; Ng, Wai Sheng; Clement, Jennifer; Ong, Edward

    2018-01-01

    The process of global consultation has received little attention despite its potential for promoting international mutual understanding with marginalized communities. This article details theory, entry, implementation, and evaluation processes for global consultation research, including lessons learned from our refugee teacher intervention. The…

  18. Conducting Participatory Culture-Specific Consultation: A Global Perspective on Multicultural Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Varjas, Kristen; Bernstein, Rachel; Iavasena, Asoka

    2000-01-01

    Describes a participatory approach to consultation that builds upon contemporary models of research and practice and is designed to address the culture-specific needs of individuals and systems. The Participatory Culture-Specific Consultation (PCSC) model embodies a participatory interpersonal process and relies on ethnographic and action research…

  19. The investigation of the national views for the strategic plan 2005-2009 of OECD/NEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yang, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    OECD/NEA has been developing the Strategic Plan of 2005-2009 which will be used as the guidelines of NEA activities for this period. Korean government is of the view that national interests in the cooperation with OECD/NEA become important and are needed to be reflected to this Strategic Plan. We has prepared and suggested Korean proposal for the Strategic Plan of OECD/NEA

  20. [Vaginism - a surgical or consultative problem? (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderlein, J M

    1982-04-01

    For the last one hundred years or so doctors have been confronted with the phenomenon of vaginism as a functional sexual disturbance. 70 years ago the psychogenetic nature of this disturbance was recognized, and yet gynaecologists and surgeons are still suggesting and practising surgical and mechanical interventions at the vaginal orifice. This is indeed regrettable - and not only because such attempts remain unsuccessful: in this manner doctors are fixed on the idea of an organic cause of the disturbance instead of motivating the patients to undergo consultative treatment. Vaginism may even entail psychosocial advantages for the women in some cases.