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Sample records for multifractal brain dynamics

  1. Quantifying the dynamic of OSA brain using multifractal formalism: A novel measure for sleep fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiesdana, Somayeh

    2017-01-01

    It is thought that the critical brain dynamics in sleep is modulated during frequent periods of wakefulness. This paper utilizes the capacity of EEG based scaling analysis to quantify sleep fragmentation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The scale-free (fractal) behavior refers to a state where no characteristic scale dominates the dynamics of the underlying process which is evident as long range correlations in a time series. Here, Multiscaling (multifractal) spectrum is utilized to quantify the disturbed dynamic of an OSA brain with fragmented sleep. The whole night multichannel sleep EEG recordings of 18 subjects were employed to compute and quantify variable power-law long-range correlations and singularity spectra. Based on this characteristic, a new marker for sleep fragmentation named ``scaling based sleep fragmentation'' was introduced. This measure takes into account the sleep run length and stage transition quality within a fuzzy inference system to improve decisions made on sleep fragmentation. The proposed index was implemented, validated with sleepiness parameters and compared to some common indexes including sleep fragmentation index, arousal index, sleep diversity index, and sleep efficiency index. Correlations were almost significant suggesting that the sleep characterizing measure, based on singularity spectra range, could properly detect fragmentations and quantify their rate. This method can be an alternative for quantifying the sleep fragmentation in clinical practice after being approved experimentally. Control of sleep fragmentation and, subsequently, suppression of excessive daytime sleepiness will be a promising outlook of this kind of researches.

  2. Multifractal analysis of heartbeat dynamics during meditation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Renliang; Bian, Chunhua; Ma, Qianli D. Y.

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the multifractality of heartbeat dynamics during Chinese CHI meditation in healthy young adults. The results show that the range of multifractal singularity spectrum of heartbeat interval time series during meditation is significantly narrower than those in the pre-meditation state of the same subject, which indicates that during meditation the heartbeat becomes regular and the degree of multifractality decreases.

  3. Multifractal heart rate dynamics in human cardiovascular model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kiyoshi; Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Safonov, Leonid; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2003-05-01

    Human cardiovascular and/or cardio-respiratory systems are shown to exhibit both multifractal and synchronous dynamics, and we recently developed a nonlinear, physiologically plausible model for the synchronization between heartbeat and respiration (Kotani, et al. Phys. Rev. E 65: 051923, 2002). By using the same model, we now show the multifractality in the heart rate dynamics. We find that beat-to-beat monofractal noise (fractional Brownian motion) added to the brain stem cardiovascular areas results in significantly broader singularity spectra for heart rate through interactions between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. We conclude that the model proposed here would be useful in studying the complex cardiovascular and/or cardio- respiratory dynamics in humans.

  4. Multifractal properties of ball milling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budroni, M. A., E-mail: mabudroni@uniss.it; Pilosu, V.; Rustici, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, Sassari 07100 (Italy); Delogu, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica, e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, Cagliari 09123 (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a ball inside the reactor of a ball mill. We show that the distribution of collisions at the reactor walls exhibits multifractal properties in a wide region of the parameter space defining the geometrical characteristics of the reactor and the collision elasticity. This feature points to the presence of restricted self-organized zones of the reactor walls where the ball preferentially collides and the mechanical energy is mainly dissipated.

  5. Multifractal properties of ball milling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budroni, M. A., E-mail: mabudroni@uniss.it; Pilosu, V.; Rustici, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, Sassari 07100 (Italy); Delogu, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica, e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, Cagliari 09123 (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a ball inside the reactor of a ball mill. We show that the distribution of collisions at the reactor walls exhibits multifractal properties in a wide region of the parameter space defining the geometrical characteristics of the reactor and the collision elasticity. This feature points to the presence of restricted self-organized zones of the reactor walls where the ball preferentially collides and the mechanical energy is mainly dissipated.

  6. Dynamically multilayered visual system of the multifractal fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M S; Grebogi, Celso; Köberle, Roland

    2006-10-27

    We dynamically analyze our experimental results on the motion sensitive spiking H1 neuron of the fly's visual system. We find that the fly uses an alphabet composed of a few letters to encode the information contained in the stimulus. The alphabet dynamics is multifractal both with and without stimulus, though the multifractality increases with the stimulus entropy. This is in sharp contrast to models generating independent spike intervals, whose dynamics is monofractal.

  7. Multifractal Model of Asset Returns versus real stock market dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Oswiecimka, P; Drozdz, S; Górski, A Z; Rak, R

    2006-01-01

    There is more and more empirical evidence that multifractality constitutes another and perhaps the most significant financial stylized fact. A realistic model of the financial dynamics should therefore incorporate this effect. The most promising in this respect is the Multifractal Model of Asset Returns (MMAR) introduced by Mandelbrot in which multifractality is carried by time deformation. In our study we focus on the Lux extension to MMAR and empirical data from Warsaw Stock Exchange. We show that this model is able to reproduce relevant aspects of the real stock market dynamics.

  8. Complexity and multifractality of neuronal noise in mouse and human hippocampal epileptiform dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serletis, Demitre; Bardakjian, Berj L.; Valiante, Taufik A.; Carlen, Peter L.

    2012-10-01

    Fractal methods offer an invaluable means of investigating turbulent nonlinearity in non-stationary biomedical recordings from the brain. Here, we investigate properties of complexity (i.e. the correlation dimension, maximum Lyapunov exponent, 1/fγ noise and approximate entropy) and multifractality in background neuronal noise-like activity underlying epileptiform transitions recorded at the intracellular and local network scales from two in vitro models: the whole-intact mouse hippocampus and lesional human hippocampal slices. Our results show evidence for reduced dynamical complexity and multifractal signal features following transition to the ictal epileptiform state. These findings suggest that pathological breakdown in multifractal complexity coincides with loss of signal variability or heterogeneity, consistent with an unhealthy ictal state that is far from the equilibrium of turbulent yet healthy fractal dynamics in the brain. Thus, it appears that background noise-like activity successfully captures complex and multifractal signal features that may, at least in part, be used to classify and identify brain state transitions in the healthy and epileptic brain, offering potential promise for therapeutic neuromodulatory strategies for afflicted patients suffering from epilepsy and other related neurological disorders. This paper is based on chapter 5 of Serletis (2010 PhD Dissertation Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto).

  9. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of wind waves: multifractal phase/time effects

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    R. H. Mellen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the bispectral coherence method, phase/time analysis of analytic signals is another promising avenue for the investigation of phase effects in wind waves. Frequency spectra of phase fluctuations obtained from both sea and laboratory experiments follow an F-β power law over several decades, suggesting that a fractal description is appropriate. However, many similar natural phenomena have been shown to be multifractal. Universal multifractals are quantified by two additional parameters: the Lévy index 0 α 2 for the type of multifractal and the co-dimension 0 C1 1 for intermittence. The three parameters are a full statistical measure the nonlinear dynamics. Analysis of laboratory flume data is reported here and the results indicate that the phase fluctuations are 'hard multifractal' (α > 1. The actual estimate is close to the limiting value α = 2,  which is consistent with Kolmogorov's lognormal model for turbulent fluctuations. Implications for radar and sonar backscattering from the sea surface are briefly considered.

  11. Strong anticipation: Multifractal cascade dynamics modulate scaling in synchronization behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, Damian G., E-mail: foovian@gmail.co [Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 3 Blackfan Circle, Floor 5, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Dixon, James A. [Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Rd., Unit 1020, Storrs, CT 06269-1020 (United States); Haskins Laboratories, 300 George St., New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: We investigated anticipatory behaviors in response to chaotic metronomes. We assessed multifractal structure in tap intervals and onset intervals. Strength of multifractality in tap intervals appears to match that in onset intervals. - Abstract: Previous research on anticipatory behaviors has found that the fractal scaling of human behavior may attune to the fractal scaling of an unpredictable signal [Stephen DG, Stepp N, Dixon JA, Turvey MT. Strong anticipation: Sensitivity to long-range correlations in synchronization behavior. Physica A 2008;387:5271-8]. We propose to explain this attunement as a case of multifractal cascade dynamics [Schertzer D, Lovejoy S. Generalised scale invariance in turbulent phenomena. Physico-Chem Hydrodyn J 1985;6:623-5] in which perceptual-motor fluctuations are coordinated across multiple time scales. This account will serve to sharpen the contrast between strong and weak anticipation: whereas the former entails a sensitivity to the intermittent temporal structure of an unpredictable signal, the latter simply predicts sensitivity to an aggregate description of an unpredictable signal irrespective of actual sequence. We pursue this distinction through a reanalysis of Stephen et al.'s data by examining the relationship between the widths of singularity spectra for intertap interval time series and for each corresponding interonset interval time series. We find that the attunement of fractal scaling reported by Stephen et al. was not the trivial result of sensitivity to temporal structure in aggregate but reflected a subtle sensitivity to the coordination across multiple time scales of fluctuation in the unpredictable signal.

  12. Scaling in cognitive performance reflects multiplicative multifractal cascade dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Damian G; Anastas, Jason R; Dixon, James A

    2012-01-01

    Self-organized criticality purports to build multi-scaled structures out of local interactions. Evidence of scaling in various domains of biology may be more generally understood to reflect multiplicative interactions weaving together many disparate scales. The self-similarity of power-law scaling entails homogeneity: fluctuations distribute themselves similarly across many spatial and temporal scales. However, this apparent homogeneity can be misleading, especially as it spans more scales. Reducing biological processes to one power-law relationship neglects rich cascade dynamics. We review recent research into multifractality in executive-function cognitive tasks and propose that scaling reflects not criticality but instead interactions across multiple scales and among fluctuations of multiple sizes.

  13. Scaling in cognitive performance reflects multiplicative multifractal cascade dynamics

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    Damian G. Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-organized criticality purports to build multi-scaled structures, such as those supporting life, out of local interactions. Evidence of scaling in various domains of biology may be more generally understood to reflect multiplicative interactions weaving together many disparate scales. The self-similarity of power-law scaling entails homogeneity: fluctuations distribute themselves similarly across many spatial and temporal scales. However, this apparent homogeneity can be misleading, especially as it spans more scales. Reducing biological processes to one power-law relationship neglects rich cascade dynamics. We review recent research into multifractality in executive-function cognitive tasks and propose that scaling reflects not criticality but instead interactions across multiple scales and among fluctuations of multiple sizes.

  14. Decomposing Multifractal Crossovers

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    Nagy, Zoltan; Mukli, Peter; Herman, Peter; Eke, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Physiological processes—such as, the brain's resting-state electrical activity or hemodynamic fluctuations—exhibit scale-free temporal structuring. However, impacts common in biological systems such as, noise, multiple signal generators, or filtering by transport function, result in multimodal scaling that cannot be reliably assessed by standard analytical tools that assume unimodal scaling. Here, we present two methods to identify breakpoints or crossovers in multimodal multifractal scaling functions. These methods incorporate the robust iterative fitting approach of the focus-based multifractal formalism (FMF). The first approach (moment-wise scaling range adaptivity) allows for a breakpoint-based adaptive treatment that analyzes segregated scale-invariant ranges. The second method (scaling function decomposition method, SFD) is a crossover-based design aimed at decomposing signal constituents from multimodal scaling functions resulting from signal addition or co-sampling, such as, contamination by uncorrelated fractals. We demonstrated that these methods could handle multimodal, mono- or multifractal, and exact or empirical signals alike. Their precision was numerically characterized on ideal signals, and a robust performance was demonstrated on exemplary empirical signals capturing resting-state brain dynamics by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electroencephalography (EEG), and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-BOLD). The NIRS and fMRI-BOLD low-frequency fluctuations were dominated by a multifractal component over an underlying biologically relevant random noise, thus forming a bimodal signal. The crossover between the EEG signal components was found at the boundary between the δ and θ bands, suggesting an independent generator for the multifractal δ rhythm. The robust implementation of the SFD method should be regarded as essential in the seamless processing of large volumes of bimodal fMRI-BOLD imaging data for

  15. Decomposing Multifractal Crossovers

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    Zoltan Nagy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physiological processes—such as, the brain's resting-state electrical activity or hemodynamic fluctuations—exhibit scale-free temporal structuring. However, impacts common in biological systems such as, noise, multiple signal generators, or filtering by transport function, result in multimodal scaling that cannot be reliably assessed by standard analytical tools that assume unimodal scaling. Here, we present two methods to identify breakpoints or crossovers in multimodal multifractal scaling functions. These methods incorporate the robust iterative fitting approach of the focus-based multifractal formalism (FMF. The first approach (moment-wise scaling range adaptivity allows for a breakpoint-based adaptive treatment that analyzes segregated scale-invariant ranges. The second method (scaling function decomposition method, SFD is a crossover-based design aimed at decomposing signal constituents from multimodal scaling functions resulting from signal addition or co-sampling, such as, contamination by uncorrelated fractals. We demonstrated that these methods could handle multimodal, mono- or multifractal, and exact or empirical signals alike. Their precision was numerically characterized on ideal signals, and a robust performance was demonstrated on exemplary empirical signals capturing resting-state brain dynamics by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, electroencephalography (EEG, and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-BOLD. The NIRS and fMRI-BOLD low-frequency fluctuations were dominated by a multifractal component over an underlying biologically relevant random noise, thus forming a bimodal signal. The crossover between the EEG signal components was found at the boundary between the δ and θ bands, suggesting an independent generator for the multifractal δ rhythm. The robust implementation of the SFD method should be regarded as essential in the seamless processing of large volumes of bimodal f

  16. Multi-fractal texture features for brain tumor and edema segmentation

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    Reza, S.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we propose a fully automatic brain tumor and edema segmentation technique in brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. Different brain tissues are characterized using the novel texture features such as piece-wise triangular prism surface area (PTPSA), multi-fractional Brownian motion (mBm) and Gabor-like textons, along with regular intensity and intensity difference features. Classical Random Forest (RF) classifier is used to formulate the segmentation task as classification of these features in multi-modal MRIs. The segmentation performance is compared with other state-of-art works using a publicly available dataset known as Brain Tumor Segmentation (BRATS) 2012 [1]. Quantitative evaluation is done using the online evaluation tool from Kitware/MIDAS website [2]. The results show that our segmentation performance is more consistent and, on the average, outperforms other state-of-the art works in both training and challenge cases in the BRATS competition.

  17. Common multifractality in the heart rate variability and brain activity of healthy humans

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    Lin, D. C.; Sharif, A.

    2010-06-01

    The influence from the central nervous system on the human multifractal heart rate variability (HRV) is examined under the autonomic nervous system perturbation induced by the head-up-tilt body maneuver. We conducted the multifractal factorization analysis to factor out the common multifractal factor in the joint fluctuation of the beat-to-beat heart rate and electroencephalography data. Evidence of a central link in the multifractal HRV was found, where the transition towards increased (decreased) HRV multifractal complexity is associated with a stronger (weaker) multifractal correlation between the central and autonomic nervous systems.

  18. Complexity and Multifractal of Volatility Duration for Agent-Based Financial Dynamics and Real Markets

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    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    A random agent-based financial model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets. And an analysis method of detecting duration and intensity relationship in volatility series is introduced, called the volatility duration analysis. Then the auto-correlation analysis suggests that there exists evident volatility clustering feature in absolute volatility durations for the simulation data and the real data. Besides, the Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis is applied to study the complexity of the returns, the corresponding absolute returns and the volatility duration returns, which can reflect the fluctuation behaviors, the volatility behaviors and the volatility duration behaviors. At last, the multifractal phenomena of volatility durations of returns are comparatively studied for Shanghai Composite Index and the proposed model by multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis.

  19. Multifractal analysis of the long-range correlations in the cardiac dynamics of Drosophila melanogaster

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, N K; Vitanov, Nikolay K.; Yankulova, Elka D.

    2006-01-01

    Time series of heartbeat activity of humans can exhibit long-range correlations. In this paper we show that such kind of correlations can exist for the heartbeat activity of much simpler species like Drosophila melanogaster. By means of the method of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) we calculate fractal spectra $f(\\alpha)$ and $h(q)$ and investigate the correlation properties of heartbeat activity of Drosophila with genetic hearth defects for three consequent generations of species. We observe that opposite to the case of humans the time series of the heartbeat activity of healtly Drosophila do not have scaling properties. Time series from flies with genetic defects can be long-range correllated and can have multifractal properties. The fractal heartbeat dynamics of Drosophila is transferred from generation to generation.

  20. Dynamics of multifractal and correlation characteristics of the spatio-temporal distribution of regional seismicity before the strong earthquakes

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    D. Kiyashchenko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the distribution of regional seismicity and the results of numerical simulations of the seismic process show the increase of inhomogenity in spatio-temporal distribution of the seismicity prior to large earthquakes and formation of inhomogeneous clusters in a wide range of scales. Since that, the multifractal approach is appropriate to investigate the details of such dynamics. Here we analyze the dynamics of the seismicity distribution before a number of strong earthquakes occurred in two seismically active regions of the world: Japan and Southern California. In order to study the evolution of spatial inhomogeneity of the seismicity distribution, we consider variations of two multifractal characteristics: information entropy of multifractal measure generation process and the higher-order generalized fractal dimension of the continuum of the earthquake epicenters. Also we studied the dynamics of the level of spatio-temporal correlations in the seismicity distribution. It is found that two aforementioned multifractal characteristics tend to decrease and the level of spatio-temporal correlations tends to increase before the majority of considered strong earthquakes. Such a tendency can be considered as an earthquake precursory signature. Therefore, the results obtained show the possibility to use multifractal and correlation characteristics of the spatio-temporal distribution of regional seismicity for seismic hazard risk evaluation.

  1. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared thermograms to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis

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    Evgeniya eGerasimova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women and despite recent advances in the medical field, there are still some inherent limitations in the currently used screening techniques. The radiological interpretation of screening X-ray mammograms often leads to over-diagnosis and, as a consequence, to unnecessary traumatic and painful biopsies. Here we propose a computer-aided multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared (IR imaging as an efficient method for identifying women with risk of breast cancer. Using a wavelet-based multi-scale method to analyze the temporal fluctuations of breast skin temperature collected from a panel of patients with diagnosed breast cancer and some female volunteers with healthy breasts, we show that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations observed in healthy breasts is lost in mammary glands with malignant tumor. Besides potential clinical impact, these results open new perspectives in the investigation of physiological changes that may precede anatomical alterations in breast cancer development.

  2. Multi-scale interactions of geological processes during mineralization: cascade dynamics model and multifractal simulation

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    L. Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactions between mineralization and the geological framework has not been thoroughly studied. The dynamics behind these interactions are key in the understanding of fractal or multifractal formations caused by mineralization, among which singularities arise due to anomalous concentration of metals in narrow space. From a statistical point of view, we think that cascade dynamics play an important role in mineralization and studying them can reveal the nature of the various interactions throughout the process. We have constructed a multiplicative cascade model to simulate these dynamics. The probabilities of mineral deposit occurrences are used to represent direct results of mineralization. Multifractal simulation of probabilities of mineral potential based on our model is exemplified by a case study dealing with hydrothermal gold deposits in southern Nova Scotia, Canada. The extent of the impacts of certain geological processes on gold mineralization is related to the scale of the cascade process, especially to the maximum cascade division number nmax. Our research helps to understand how the singularity occurs during mineralization, which remains unanswered up to now, and the simulation may provide a more accurate distribution of mineral deposit occurrences that can be used to improve the results of the weights of evidence model in mapping mineral potential.

  3. Dynamical Decomposition of Multifractal Time Series as Fractal Evolution and Long-Term Cycles: Applications to Foreign Currency Exchange Market

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    Turiel, A.; Perez-Vicente, C.

    The application of the multifractal formalism to the study of some time series with scale invariant evolution has given rise to a rich framework of models and processing tools for the analysis of these signals. The formalism has been successfully exploited in different ways and with different goals: to obtain the effective variables governing the evolution of the series, to predict its future evolution, to estimate in which regime the series are, etc. In this paper, we discuss on the capabilities of a new, powerful processing tool, namely the computation of dynamical sources. With the aid of the source field, we will separate the fast, chaotic dynamics defined by the multifractal structure from a new, so-far unknown slow dynamics which concerns long cycles in the series. We discuss the results on the perspective of detection of sharp dynamic changes and forecasting.

  4. Multifractal methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Salat, Hadrien; Arcaute, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Various methods have been developed independently to study the multifractality of measures in many different contexts. Although they all convey the same intuitive idea of giving a "dimension" to sets where a quantity scales similarly within a space, they are not necessarily equivalent on a more rigorous level. This review article aims at unifying the multifractal methodology by presenting the multifractal theoretical framework and principal practical methods, namely the moment method, the histogram method, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) and modulus maxima wavelet transform (MMWT), with a comparative and interpretative eye.

  5. Distinguishing cognitive state with multifractal complexity of hippocampal interspike interval sequences

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    Dustin eFetterhoff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractality, represented as self-similar repeating patterns, is ubiquitous in nature and the brain. Dynamic patterns of hippocampal spike trains are known to exhibit multifractal properties during working memory processing; however, it is unclear whether the multifractal properties inherent to hippocampal spike trains reflect active cognitive processing. To examine this possibility, hippocampal neuronal ensembles were recorded from rats before, during and after a spatial working memory task following administration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, a memory-impairing component of cannabis. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was performed on hippocampal interspike interval sequences to determine characteristics of monofractal long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs, quantified by the Hurst exponent, and the degree/magnitude of multifractal complexity, quantified by the width of the singularity spectrum. Our results demonstrate that multifractal firing patterns of hippocampal spike trains are a marker of functional memory processing, as they are more complex during the working memory task and significantly reduced following administration of memory impairing THC doses. Conversely, LRTCs are largest during resting state recordings, therefore reflecting different information compared to multifractality. In order to deepen conceptual understanding of multifractal complexity and LRTCs, these measures were compared to classical methods using hippocampal frequency content and firing variability measures. These results showed that LRTCs, multifractality, and theta rhythm represent independent processes, while delta rhythm correlated with multifractality. Taken together, these results provide a novel perspective on memory function by demonstrating that the multifractal nature of spike trains reflects hippocampal microcircuit activity that can be used to detect and quantify cognitive, physiological and pathological states.

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Heart Rate Dynamics during Meditation: An ECG Based Study with Multi-Fractality and Visibility Graph.

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    Bhaduri, Anirban; Ghosh, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac dynamics during meditation is explored quantitatively with two chaos-based non-linear techniques viz. multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis and visibility network analysis techniques. The data used are the instantaneous heart rate (in beats/minute) of subjects performing Kundalini Yoga and Chi meditation from PhysioNet. The results show consistent differences between the quantitative parameters obtained by both the analysis techniques. This indicates an interesting phenomenon of change in the complexity of the cardiac dynamics during meditation supported with quantitative parameters. The results also produce a preliminary evidence that these techniques can be used as a measure of physiological impact on subjects performing meditation.

  7. Statistical Properties and Multifractal Behaviors of Market Returns by Ising Dynamic Systems

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    Fang, Wen; Wang, Jun

    An interacting-agent model of speculative activity explaining price formation in financial markets is considered in the present paper, which based on the stochastic Ising model and the mean field theory. The model describes the interaction strength among the agents as well as an external field, and the corresponding random logarithmic price return process is investigated. According to the empirical research of the model, the time series formed by this Ising model exhibits the bursting typical of volatility clustering, the fat-tail phenomenon, the power-law distribution tails and the long-time memory. The statistical properties of the returns of Hushen 300 Index, Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) Composite Index and Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE) Component Index are also studied for comparison between the real time series and the simulated ones. Further, the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is applied to investigate the time series returns simulated by Ising model have the distribution multifractality as well as the correlation multifractality.

  8. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of human EEG: preliminary investigation and comparison with the wavelet transform modulus maxima technique.

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    Todd Zorick

    Full Text Available Recently, many lines of investigation in neuroscience and statistical physics have converged to raise the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG signals is nonlinear, with self-affine dynamics, while scalp-recorded EEG signals themselves are nonstationary. Therefore, traditional methods of EEG analysis may miss many properties inherent in such signals. Similarly, fractal analysis of EEG signals has shown scaling behaviors that may not be consistent with pure monofractal processes. In this study, we hypothesized that scalp-recorded human EEG signals may be better modeled as an underlying multifractal process. We utilized the Physionet online database, a publicly available database of human EEG signals as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis on human EEG signals derived from waking and different sleep stages, and show evidence that supports the use of multifractal methods. Next, we compare multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to a previously published multifractal technique, wavelet transform modulus maxima, using EEG signals from waking and sleep, and demonstrate that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis has lower indices of variability. Finally, we report a preliminary investigation into the use of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis as a pattern classification technique on human EEG signals from waking and different sleep stages, and demonstrate its potential utility for automatic classification of different states of consciousness. Therefore, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis may be a useful pattern classification technique to distinguish among different states of brain function.

  9. Multifractality of stock markets based on cumulative distribution function and multiscale multifractal analysis

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    Lin, Aijing; Shang, Pengjian

    2016-04-01

    Considering the diverse application of multifractal techniques in natural scientific disciplines, this work underscores the versatility of multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MMA) method to investigate artificial and real-world data sets. The modified MMA method based on cumulative distribution function is proposed with the objective of quantifying the scaling exponent and multifractality of nonstationary time series. It is demonstrated that our approach can provide a more stable and faithful description of multifractal properties in comprehensive range rather than fixing the window length and slide length. Our analyzes based on CDF-MMA method reveal significant differences in the multifractal characteristics in the temporal dynamics between US and Chinese stock markets, suggesting that these two stock markets might be regulated by very different mechanism. The CDF-MMA method is important for evidencing the stable and fine structure of multiscale and multifractal scaling behaviors and can be useful to deepen and broaden our understanding of scaling exponents and multifractal characteristics.

  10. Chaotic Dynamics of Linguistic-Like Processes at the Syntactical and Semantic Levels: in the Pursuit of a Multifractal Attractor

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    Nicolis, John S.; Katsikas, Anastassis A.

    Collective parameters such as the Zipf's law-like statistics, the Transinformation, the Block Entropy and the Markovian character are compared for natural, genetic, musical and artificially generated long texts from generating partitions (alphabets) on homogeneous as well as on multifractal chaotic maps. It appears that minimal requirements for a language at the syntactical level such as memory, selectivity of few keywords and broken symmetry in one dimension (polarity) are more or less met by dynamically iterating simple maps or flows e.g. very simple chaotic hardware. The same selectivity is observed at the semantic level where the aim refers to partitioning a set of enviromental impinging stimuli onto coexisting attractors-categories. Under the regime of pattern recognition and classification, few key features of a pattern or few categories claim the lion's share of the information stored in this pattern and practically, only these key features are persistently scanned by the cognitive processor. A multifractal attractor model can in principle explain this high selectivity, both at the syntactical and the semantic levels.

  11. Quantitative assessment of Heart Rate Dynamics during meditation: An ECG based study with Multi-fractality and visibility graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban eBhaduri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Abstract: The cardiac dynamics during meditation is explored quantitatively with two chaos-based non-linear techniques viz. multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis and visibility network analysis techniques. The data used are the instantaneous heart rate (in beats/minute of subjects performing Kundalini Yoga and Chi meditation from PhysioNet. The results show consistent differences between the quantitative parameters obtained by both the analysis techniques. This indicates an interesting phenomenon of change in the complexity of the cardiac dynamics during meditation supported with quantitative parameters.The results also produce a preliminary evidence that these techniques can be used as a measure of physiological impact on subjects performing meditation.

  12. Multifractal analysis of information processing in hippocampal neural ensembles during working memory under Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterhoff, Dustin; Opris, Ioan; Simpson, Sean L; Deadwyler, Sam A; Hampson, Robert E; Kraft, Robert A

    2015-04-15

    Multifractal analysis quantifies the time-scale-invariant properties in data by describing the structure of variability over time. By applying this analysis to hippocampal interspike interval sequences recorded during performance of a working memory task, a measure of long-range temporal correlations and multifractal dynamics can reveal single neuron correlates of information processing. Wavelet leaders-based multifractal analysis (WLMA) was applied to hippocampal interspike intervals recorded during a working memory task. WLMA can be used to identify neurons likely to exhibit information processing relevant to operation of brain-computer interfaces and nonlinear neuronal models. Neurons involved in memory processing ("Functional Cell Types" or FCTs) showed a greater degree of multifractal firing properties than neurons without task-relevant firing characteristics. In addition, previously unidentified FCTs were revealed because multifractal analysis suggested further functional classification. The cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) partial agonist, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), selectively reduced multifractal dynamics in FCT neurons compared to non-FCT neurons. WLMA is an objective tool for quantifying the memory-correlated complexity represented by FCTs that reveals additional information compared to classification of FCTs using traditional z-scores to identify neuronal correlates of behavioral events. z-Score-based FCT classification provides limited information about the dynamical range of neuronal activity characterized by WLMA. Increased complexity, as measured with multifractal analysis, may be a marker of functional involvement in memory processing. The level of multifractal attributes can be used to differentially emphasize neural signals to improve computational models and algorithms underlying brain-computer interfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multifractal Analysis of Polyalanines Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Figueirêdo, P H; Moret, M A; Coutinho, Sérgio; 10.1016/j.physa.2009.11.045

    2010-01-01

    Multifractal properties of the energy time series of short $\\alpha$-helix structures, specifically from a polyalanine family, are investigated through the MF-DFA technique ({\\it{multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis}}). Estimates for the generalized Hurst exponent $h(q)$ and its associated multifractal exponents $\\tau(q)$ are obtained for several series generated by numerical simulations of molecular dynamics in different systems from distinct initial conformations. All simulations were performed using the GROMOS force field, implemented in the program THOR. The main results have shown that all series exhibit multifractal behavior depending on the number of residues and temperature. Moreover, the multifractal spectra reveal important aspects on the time evolution of the system and suggest that the nucleation process of the secondary structures during the visits on the energy hyper-surface is an essential feature of the folding process.

  14. On Multifractal Rigidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meson, Alejandro M., E-mail: meson@iflysib.unlp.edu.ar; Vericat, Fernando, E-mail: vericat@iflysib.unlp.edu.ar [CONICET-UNLP, Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos (IFLYSIB) (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    We analyze when a multifractal spectrum can be used to recover the potential. This phenomenon is known as multifractal rigidity. We prove that for a certain class of potentials the multifractal spectrum of local entropies uniquely determines their equilibrium states. This leads to a classification which identifies two systems up to a change of variables.

  15. Multifractal analysis of stock exchange crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siokis, Fotios M.

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the complexity of rare events of the DJIA Index. We reveal that the returns of the time series exhibit strong multifractal properties meaning that temporal correlations play a substantial role. The effect of major stock market crashes can be best illustrated by the comparison of the multifractal spectra of the time series before and after the crash. Aftershock periods compared to foreshock periods exhibit richer and more complex dynamics. Compared to an average crash, calculated by taking into account the larger 5 crashes of the DJIA Index, the 1929 event exhibits significantly more increase in multifractality than the 1987 crisis.

  16. New Suns in the Cosmos III: multifractal signature analysis

    CERN Document Server

    de Freitas, D B; Junior, P R V de Moraes; Lopes, C E F; Leão, I C; Chagas, M L Das; Bravo, J P; Costa, A D; Martins, B L Canto; De Medeiros, J R

    2016-01-01

    In present paper, we investigate the multifractality signatures in hourly time series extracted from CoRoT spacecraft database. Our analysis is intended to highlight the possibility that astrophysical time series can be members of a particular class of complex and dynamic processes which require several photometric variability diagnostics to characterize their structural and topological properties. To achieve this goal, we search for contributions due to nonlinear temporal correlation and effects caused by heavier tails than the Gaussian distribution, using a detrending moving average algorithm for one-dimensional multifractal signals (MFDMA). We observe that the correlation structure is the main source of multifractality, while heavy-tailed distribution plays a minor role in generating the multifractal effects. Our work also reveals that rotation period of stars is inherently scaled by degree of multifractality. As a result, analyzing the multifractal degree of referred series, we uncover an evolution of mul...

  17. Are crude oil markets multifractal? Evidence from MF-DFA and MF-SSA perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shu-Peng

    2010-08-01

    In this article, we investigated the multifractality and its underlying formation mechanisms in international crude oil markets, namely, Brent and WTI, which are the most important oil pricing benchmarks globally. We attempt to find the answers to the following questions: (1) Are those different markets multifractal? (2) What are the dynamical causes for multifractality in those markets (if any)? To answer these questions, we applied both multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal singular spectrum analysis (MF-SSA) based on the partition function, two widely used multifractality detecting methods. We found that both markets exhibit multifractal properties by means of these methods. Furthermore, in order to identify the underlying formation mechanisms of multifractal features, we destroyed the underlying nonlinear temporal correlation by shuffling the original time series; thus, we identified that the causes of the multifractality are influenced mainly by a nonlinear temporal correlation mechanism instead of a non-Gaussian distribution. At last, by tracking the evolution of left- and right-half multifractal spectra, we found that the dynamics of the large price fluctuations is significantly different from that of the small ones. Our main contribution is that we not only provided empirical evidence of the existence of multifractality in the markets, but also the sources of multifractality and plausible explanations to current literature; furthermore, we investigated the different dynamical price behaviors influenced by large and small price fluctuations.

  18. Multifractal to monofractal evolution of the London's street network

    CERN Document Server

    Murcio, Roberto; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not su ce to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, that can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, that converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofracal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through di usion limited aggregation, evolve towards monofractality if their growth is constrained by a non-permeable boundary.

  19. Classical and advanced stochastic multifractals in geophysics: Lie cascades and multifractional phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    1995-09-01

    Multifractal techniques and notions are increasingly widely recognized as the most appropriate and straightforward framework within which to analyze and simulate not only the scale dependence of geophysical observables, but also their extreme variability over a wide range of scales. This is particularly the case for cloud fields and their radiative properties. Schertzer first recalled the original scalar framework of turbulent cascades, especially for the modeling and analysis of passive clouds, based on multifractal developments of the Corrsin-Obukhov spectral scaling of scalar variance. These developments are based on the scaling symmetries of the dynamical equations of both the velocity and liquid water density fields. He emphasized the power of straightforward simulation methods based on these physical arguments. Schertzer showed a video displaying a time evolution of multifractal cloud in the framework of universal multifractals. He insisted that with the aid of these tools, there is no real need to took for constructs such as bounded cascades. 6 refs.

  20. Multifractality and intermittency in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Macek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the complex dynamics of the solar wind's fluctuating plasma parameters, there is a detectable, hidden order described by a chaotic strange attractor which has a multifractal structure. The multifractal spectrum has been investigated using Voyager (magnetic field data in the outer heliosphere and using Helios (plasma data in the inner heliosphere. We have also analyzed the spectrum for the solar wind attractor. The spectrum is found to be consistent with that for the multifractal measure of the self-similar one-scale weighted Cantor set with two parameters describing uniform compression and natural invariant probability measure of the attractor of the system. In order to further quantify the multifractality, we also consider a generalized weighted Cantor set with two different scales describing nonuniform compression. We investigate the resulting multifractal spectrum depending on two scaling parameters and one probability measure parameter, especially for asymmetric scaling. We hope that this generalized model will also be a useful tool for analysis of intermittent turbulence in space plasmas.

  1. Interleaving distribution of multifractal strength of 16-channel EEG signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; NING Xinbao; WANG Jun; ZHANG Sheng; CHEN Jie; LI Lejia

    2003-01-01

    Multifractal characteristics of 16-channel human electroencephalogram (EEG) signals under eye-closed rest are analyzed for the first time. The result shows that the EEGs from the different sites on the scalp have different multifractal characteristics and the multifractal strength value Δα exhibits a kind of interleaving and left-right opposite distribution on scalp. This distribution rule is consistent with the localization of function and the lateralization theory in physiology. SoΔα can become an effective parameter to describe the brain potential character. And such a Δα stable distribution rule on sites of the scalp means a classic cerebral cortex active state.

  2. Multifractals theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Harte, David

    2001-01-01

    Although multifractals are rooted in probability, much of the related literature comes from the physics and mathematics arena. Multifractals: Theory and Applications pulls together ideas from both these areas using a language that makes them accessible and useful to statistical scientists. It provides a framework, in particular, for the evaluation of statistical properties of estimates of the Renyi fractal dimensions.The first section provides introductory material and different definitions of a multifractal measure. The author then examines some of the various constructions for describing multifractal measures. Building from the theory of large deviations, he focuses on constructions based on lattice coverings, covering by point-centered spheres, and cascades processes. The final section presents estimators of Renyi dimensions of integer order two and greater and discusses their properties. It also explores various applications of dimension estimation and provides a detailed case study of spatial point patte...

  3. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hun Ki Baek

    2008-05-01

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in $\\mathbb{R}^d$. This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we give some properties related to multifractal Hausdorff and packing densities. Finally, we extend the density theorem in [6] to any measurable set.

  4. Levy Stability Index from Multifractal Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, H B; Lian Shou Liu; Yuan, Hu; Meiling, Yu; Lianshou, Liu

    1999-01-01

    A method for extracting the Levy stability index $\\mu$ from the multi-fractal spectrum $f(\\alpha)$ in high energy multiparticle production is proposed. This index is an important parameter, characterizing the non-linear behaviour of dynamical fluctuations in high energy collisions. Using the random cascading that this method, basing on a linear fit, is consistent with and more accurate than the usual method of fitting the ratio of $q$th to 2nd order multi-fractal (Rényi) dimensions to the Peschanski formula.

  5. Multifractal Analysis of Human Heartbeat in Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang-Jing; Peng, Hu; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Pei-Ling

    2007-07-01

    We study the dynamical properties of heart rate variability (HRV) in sleep by analysing the scaling behaviour with the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis method. It is well known that heart rate is regulated by the interaction of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. By investigating the multifractal properties of light, deep, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and wake stages, we firstly find an increasing multifractal behaviour during REM sleep which may be caused by augmented sympathetic activities relative to non-REM sleep. In addition, the investigation of long-range correlations of HRV in sleep with second order detrended fluctuation analysis presents irregular phenomena. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying regulating mechanism of heart rate by autonomic nervous system during wake-sleep transitions.

  6. Multifractal Analysis of Human Heartbeat in Sleep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Liang-Jing; PENG Hu; CAI Shi-Min; ZHOU Pei-Ling

    2007-01-01

    We study the dynamical properties of heart rate variability (HRV) in sleep by analysing the scaling behaviour with the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis method. It is well known that heart rate is regulated by the interaction of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. By investigating the multifractal properties of light, deep, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and wake stages, we firstly find an increasing multifractal behaviour during REM sleep which may be caused by augmented sympathetic activities relative to non-REM sleep. In addition, the investigation of long-range correlations of HRV in sleep with second order detrended fluctuation analysis presents irregular phenomena. These findings may be helpful to understand the underlying regulating mechanism of heart rate by autonomic nervous system during wake-sleep transitions.

  7. Refined Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oświȩcimka, Paweł; Forczek, Marcin; Jadach, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    We propose a modified algorithm - Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis (MFCCA) - that is able to consistently identify and quantify multifractal cross-correlations between two time series. Our motivation for introducing this algorithm is that the already existing methods like MF-DXA have serious limitations for most of the signals describing complex natural processes. The principal component of the related improvement is proper incorporation of the sign of fluctuations. We present a broad analysis of the model fractal stochastic processes as well as of the real-world signals and show that MFCCA is a robust tool and allows a reliable quantification of the cross-correlative structure of analyzed processes. We, in particular, analyze a relation between the generalized Hurst exponent and the MFCCA parameter $\\lambda_q$. This relation provides information about the character of potential multifractality in cross-correlations of the processes under study and thus enables selective insight into their dynamics. Us...

  8. Multifractal approach for seafloor characterization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Haris, K.; Latha, G.; Maslov, N.; Menezes, A.A.A.

    to characterize the seafloor. Two distinct multifractal formalisms are applied to determine the characteristics. The first formalism employs data analyses using generalized dimension D(q) and multifractal singularity spectrum f(alpha) linked shape parameters...

  9. Comparative multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared thermograms and X-ray mammograms enlightens changes in the environment of malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Gerasimova-Chechkina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that the microenvironment surrounding a tumor plays a special role in cancer development and cancer therapeutic resistance. Tumors arise from the dysregulation and alteration of both the malignant cells and their environment. By providing tumor-repressing signals, the microenvironment can impose and sustain normal tissue architecture. Once tissue homeostasis is lost, the altered microenvironment can itself become a promoter of the tumorigenic transformation process. A major challenge in early breast cancer diagnosis is thus to show that these physiological and architectural alterations can be detected with currently used screening techniques. In a recent study, we used a 1D wavelet-based multi-scale method to analyze the temporal fluctuations of breast skin temperature collected with an IR thermography camera in patients with breast cancer. This study reveals that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations about the cardiogenic and vasomotor perfusion oscillations observed in healthy breasts is lost in malignant tumor foci in cancerous breasts. Here we use a 2D wavelet-based multifractal method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same panel of patients. As compared to the long-range correlations and anti-correlations in roughness fluctuations, respectively observed in dense and fatty breast areas, some significant change in the nature of breast density fluctuations with some clear loss of correlations is detected in the neighborhood of malignant tumors. This attests to some architectural disorganization that may deeply affect heat transfer and related thermomechanics in breast tissues, corroborating the change to homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations recorded in cancerous breasts with the IR camera. These results open new perspectives in computer-aided methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis.

  10. Multifractal cross-correlation analysis in electricity spot market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qingju; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the multiscale cross-correlations between electricity price and trading volume in Czech market based on a newly developed algorithm, called Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis (MFCCA). The new algorithm is a natural multifractal generalization of the Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and is sensitive to cross-correlation structure and free from limitations of other algorithms. By considering the original sign of the cross-covariance, it allows us to properly quantify and detect the subtle characteristics of two simultaneous recorded time series. First, the multifractality and the long range anti-persistent auto-correlations of price return and trading volume variation are confirmed using Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA). Furthermore, we show that there exist long-range anti-persistent cross-correlations between price return and trading volume variation by MFCCA. And we also identify that the cross-correlations disappear on the level of relative small fluctuations. In order to obtain deeper insight into the dynamics of the electricity market, we analyze the relation between generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent λq. We find that the difference between the generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent is significantly different for smaller fluctuation, which indicates that the multifractal character of cross-correlations resembles more each other for electricity price and trading volume on the level of large fluctuations and weakens for the smaller ones.

  11. A new measure to characterize multifractality of sleep electroencephalogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qianli; NING Xinbao; WANG Jun; BIAN Chunhua

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for nonlinear dynamic analysis, such as correlation dimension,Lyapunov exponent, approximate entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis, using a single parameter, cannot fully describe the extremely sophisticated behavior of electroencephalogram (EEG). The multifractal formalism reveals more "hidden" information of EEG by using singularity spectrum to characterize its nonlinear dynamics. In this paper, the zero-crossing time intervals of sleep EEG were studied using multifractal analysis. A new multifractal measure △asα was proposed to describe the asymmetry of singularity spectrum, and compared with the singularity strength range △α that was normally used as a degree indicator of multifractality. One-way analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests showed that the new measure we proposed gave better discrimination of sleep stages, especially in the discrimination between sleep and awake, and between sleep stages 3and 4.

  12. An Airborne Radar Clutter Tracking Algorithm Based on Multifractal and Fuzzy C-Mean Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Sheng-Lin Yu; Gong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    For an airborne lookdown radar, clutter power often changes dynamically about 80 dB with wide distributions as the platform moves. Therefore, clutter tracking techniques are required to guide the selection of const false alarm rate (CFAR) schemes. In this work, clutter tracking is done in image domain and an algorithm combining multifractal and fuzzy C-mean (FCM) cluster is proposed. The clutter with large dynamic distributions in power density is converted to steady distributions of multifractal exponents by the multifractal transformation with the optimum moment. Then, later, the main lobe and side lobe are tracked from the multifractal exponents by FCM clustering method.

  13. Multifractal properties of Chinese stock market in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guoxiong; Ning, Xuanxi

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we apply three methods of multifractal analysis, partition function method, singular spectrum method and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis method, to analyze the closing index fluctuations of Shanghai stock market during the past seven years. We have found that Shanghai stock market has weak multifractal features and there are long-range power-law correlations between index series. The shapes of singular spectrums do not change with time scales and their strengths weaken when the scales shorten. But when the orders of partition function increase, the strengths of multifractal increase, the singular spectrums become rougher and the general Hurst exponents decrease. These results provide solid and important values for further study on the dynamic mechanism of stock market price fluctuation.

  14. Classifying acoustic signals into phoneme categories: average and dyslexic readers make use of complex dynamical patterns and multifractal scaling properties of the speech signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Hasselman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several competing aetiologies of developmental dyslexia suggest that the problems with acquiring literacy skills are causally entailed by low-level auditory and/or speech perception processes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diverging claims about the specific deficient peceptual processes under conditions of strong inference. Theoretically relevant acoustic features were extracted from a set of artificial speech stimuli that lie on a /bAk/-/dAk/ continuum. The features were tested on their ability to enable a simple classifier (Quadratic Discriminant Analysis to reproduce the observed classification performance of average and dyslexic readers in a speech perception experiment. The ‘classical’ features examined were based on component process accounts of developmental dyslexia such as the supposed deficit in Envelope Rise Time detection and the deficit in the detection of rapid changes in the distribution of energy in the frequency spectrum (formant transitions. Studies examining these temporal processing deficit hypotheses do not employ measures that quantify the temporal dynamics of stimuli. It is shown that measures based on quantification of the dynamics of complex, interaction-dominant systems (Recurrence Quantification Analysis and the multifractal spectrum enable QDA to classify the stimuli almost identically as observed in dyslexic and average reading participants. It seems unlikely that participants used any of the features that are traditionally associated with accounts of (impaired speech perception. The nature of the variables quantifying the temporal dynamics of the speech stimuli imply that the classification of speech stimuli cannot be regarded as a linear aggregate of component processes that each parse the acoustic signal independent of one another, as is assumed by the ‘classical’ aetiologies of developmental dyslexia. It is suggested that the results imply that the differences in speech perception

  15. Classifying acoustic signals into phoneme categories: average and dyslexic readers make use of complex dynamical patterns and multifractal scaling properties of the speech signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselman, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Several competing aetiologies of developmental dyslexia suggest that the problems with acquiring literacy skills are causally entailed by low-level auditory and/or speech perception processes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diverging claims about the specific deficient peceptual processes under conditions of strong inference. Theoretically relevant acoustic features were extracted from a set of artificial speech stimuli that lie on a /bAk/-/dAk/ continuum. The features were tested on their ability to enable a simple classifier (Quadratic Discriminant Analysis) to reproduce the observed classification performance of average and dyslexic readers in a speech perception experiment. The 'classical' features examined were based on component process accounts of developmental dyslexia such as the supposed deficit in Envelope Rise Time detection and the deficit in the detection of rapid changes in the distribution of energy in the frequency spectrum (formant transitions). Studies examining these temporal processing deficit hypotheses do not employ measures that quantify the temporal dynamics of stimuli. It is shown that measures based on quantification of the dynamics of complex, interaction-dominant systems (Recurrence Quantification Analysis and the multifractal spectrum) enable QDA to classify the stimuli almost identically as observed in dyslexic and average reading participants. It seems unlikely that participants used any of the features that are traditionally associated with accounts of (impaired) speech perception. The nature of the variables quantifying the temporal dynamics of the speech stimuli imply that the classification of speech stimuli cannot be regarded as a linear aggregate of component processes that each parse the acoustic signal independent of one another, as is assumed by the 'classical' aetiologies of developmental dyslexia. It is suggested that the results imply that the differences in speech perception performance between average and

  16. Detrended cross-correlation analysis consistently extended to multifractality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oświecimka, Paweł; Drożdż, Stanisław; Forczek, Marcin; Jadach, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław

    2014-02-01

    We propose an algorithm, multifractal cross-correlation analysis (MFCCA), which constitutes a consistent extension of the detrended cross-correlation analysis and is able to properly identify and quantify subtle characteristics of multifractal cross-correlations between two time series. Our motivation for introducing this algorithm is that the already existing methods, like multifractal extension, have at best serious limitations for most of the signals describing complex natural processes and often indicate multifractal cross-correlations when there are none. The principal component of the present extension is proper incorporation of the sign of fluctuations to their generalized moments. Furthermore, we present a broad analysis of the model fractal stochastic processes as well as of the real-world signals and show that MFCCA is a robust and selective tool at the same time and therefore allows for a reliable quantification of the cross-correlative structure of analyzed processes. In particular, it allows one to identify the boundaries of the multifractal scaling and to analyze a relation between the generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal scaling parameter λ(q). This relation provides information about the character of potential multifractality in cross-correlations and thus enables a deeper insight into dynamics of the analyzed processes than allowed by any other related method available so far. By using examples of time series from the stock market, we show that financial fluctuations typically cross-correlate multifractally only for relatively large fluctuations, whereas small fluctuations remain mutually independent even at maximum of such cross-correlations. Finally, we indicate possible utility of MFCCA to study effects of the time-lagged cross-correlations.

  17. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of optogenetic modulation of neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Gu, L.; Ghosh, N.; Mohanty, S. K.

    2013-02-01

    Here, we introduce a computational procedure to examine whether optogenetically activated neuronal firing recordings could be characterized as multifractal series. Optogenetics is emerging as a valuable experimental tool and a promising approach for studying a variety of neurological disorders in animal models. The spiking patterns from cortical region of the brain of optogenetically-stimulated transgenic mice were analyzed using a sophisticated fluctuation analysis method known as multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA). We observed that the optogenetically-stimulated neural firings are consistent with a multifractal process. Further, we used MFDFA to monitor the effect of chemically induced pain (formalin injection) and optogenetic treatment used to relieve the pain. In this case, dramatic changes in parameters characterizing a multifractal series were observed. Both the generalized Hurst exponent and width of singularity spectrum effectively differentiates the neural activities during control and pain induction phases. The quantitative nature of the analysis equips us with better measures to quantify pain. Further, it provided a measure for effectiveness of the optogenetic stimulation in inhibiting pain. MFDFA-analysis of spiking data from other deep regions of the brain also turned out to be multifractal in nature, with subtle differences in the parameters during pain-induction by formalin injection and inhibition by optogenetic stimulation. Characterization of neuronal firing patterns using MFDFA will lead to better understanding of neuronal response to optogenetic activation and overall circuitry involved in the process.

  18. Multifractal properties of ECG patterns of patients suffering from congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Srimonti

    2010-12-01

    The multifractal properties of two-channel ECG patterns of patients suffering from severe congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes III-IV) are studied and are compared with those for normal healthy people using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis methodology. Ivanov et al (1999 Nature 399 461) have studied the multifractality of human heart rate dynamics using the wavelet transformation modulus maxima (WTMM) methodology. But it has been observed by several scientists that multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) works better than the WTMM method in the detection of monofractal and multifractal characteristics of the data. Galaska et al (2008 Ann. Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 13 155) have observed that MFDFA is more sensitive compared to the WTMM method in the differentiation between multifractal properties of the heart rate in healthy subjects and patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. In the present work the variation of two parameters of the multifractal spectrum—its width W (related to the degree of multifractality) and the value of the Hölder exponent α0—for the healthy and congestive heart failure patients is studied. α0 is a measure of the degree of correlation. The degree of multifractality varies appreciably (85-90% C.L.) for the normal and the CHF sets for channel I. For channel II no significant change in the values is observed. The degree of correlation is found to be comparatively high for the normal healthy people compared to those suffering from CHF.

  19. Computational approach to multifractal music

    CERN Document Server

    Oświęcimka, Paweł; Celińska, Iwona; Drożdż, Stanisław; Rak, Rafał

    2011-01-01

    In this work we perform a fractal analysis of 160 pieces of music belonging to six different genres. We show that the majority of the pieces reveal characteristics that allow us to classify them as physical processes called the 1/f (pink) noise. However, this is not true for classical music represented here by Frederic Chopin's works and for some jazz pieces that are much more correlated than the pink noise. We also perform a multifractal (MFDFA) analysis of these music pieces. We show that all the pieces reveal multifractal properties. The richest multifractal structures are observed for pop and rock music. Also the viariably of multifractal features is best visible for popular music genres. This can suggest that, from the multifractal perspective, classical and jazz music is much more uniform than pieces of the most popular genres of music.

  20. Multifractal characterization of gold market: A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Provash; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2014-11-01

    The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis technique is employed to analyze the time series of gold consumer price index (CPI) and the market trend of three world’s highest gold consuming countries, namely China, India and Turkey for the period: 1993-July 2013. Various multifractal variables, such as the generalized Hurst exponent, the multifractal exponent and the singularity spectrum, are calculated and the results are fitted to the generalized binomial multifractal (GBM) series that consists of only two parameters. Special emphasis is given to identify the possible source(s) of multifractality in these series. Our analysis shows that the CPI series and all three market series are of multifractal nature. The origin of multifractality for the CPI time series and Indian market series is found due to a long-range time correlation, whereas it is mostly due to the fat-tailed probability distributions of the values for the Chinese and Turkey markets. The GBM model series more or less describes all the time series analyzed here.

  1. Brain Prostheses as a Dynamic System (Immortalizing the Human Brain?)

    CERN Document Server

    Astakhov, Vadim

    2007-01-01

    Interest in development of brain prostheses, which might be proposed to recover mental functions lost due to neuron-degenerative disease or trauma, requires new methods in molecular engineering and nanotechnology to build artificial brain tissues. We develop a Dynamic Core model to analyze complexity of damaged biological neural network as well as transition and recovery of the system functionality due to changes in the system environment. We provide a method to model complexity of physical systems which might be proposed as an artificial tissue or prosthesis. Delocalization of Dynamic Core model is developed to analyze migration of mental functions in dynamic bio-systems which undergo architecture transition induced by trauma. Term Dynamic Core is used to define a set of causally related functions and Delocalization is used to describe the process of migration. Information geometry and topological formalisms are proposed to analyze information processes. A holographic model is proposed to construct dynamic e...

  2. Magnetoencephalography in the study of brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzella, Vittorio; Marzetti, Laura; Della Penna, Stefania; de Pasquale, Francesco; Zappasodi, Filippo; Romani, Gian Luca

    2014-01-01

    To progress toward understanding of the mechanisms underlying the functional organization of the human brain, either a bottom-up or a top-down approach may be adopted. The former starts from the study of the detailed functioning of a small number of neuronal assemblies, while the latter tries to decode brain functioning by considering the brain as a whole. This review discusses the top-down approach and the use of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to describe global brain properties. The main idea behind this approach is that the concurrence of several areas is required for the brain to instantiate a specific behavior/functioning. A central issue is therefore the study of brain functional connectivity and the concept of brain networks as ensembles of distant brain areas that preferentially exchange information. Importantly, the human brain is a dynamic device, and MEG is ideally suited to investigate phenomena on behaviorally relevant timescales, also offering the possibility of capturing behaviorally-related brain connectivity dynamics.

  3. Fractal and Multifractal Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Kantelhardt, Jan W

    2008-01-01

    Data series generated by complex systems exhibit fluctuations on many time scales and/or broad distributions of the values. In both equilibrium and non-equilibrium situations, the natural fluctuations are often found to follow a scaling relation over several orders of magnitude, allowing for a characterisation of the data and the generating complex system by fractal (or multifractal) scaling exponents. In addition, fractal and multifractal approaches can be used for modelling time series and deriving predictions regarding extreme events. This review article describes and exemplifies several methods originating from Statistical Physics and Applied Mathematics, which have been used for fractal and multifractal time series analysis.

  4. Multifractal Value at Risk model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojin; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper new Value at Risk (VaR) model is proposed and investigated. We consider the multifractal property of financial time series and develop a multifractal Value at Risk (MFVaR). MFVaR introduced in this paper is analytically tractable and not based on simulation. Empirical study showed that MFVaR can provide the more stable and accurate forecasting performance in volatile financial markets where large loss can be incurred. This implies that our multifractal VaR works well for the risk measurement of extreme credit events.

  5. Dynamic perfusion CT in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Timothy Pok Chi; Bauman, Glenn; Yartsev, Slav; Fainardi, Enrico; Macdonald, David; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic perfusion CT (PCT) is an imaging technique for assessing the vascular supply and hemodynamics of brain tumors by measuring blood flow, blood volume, and permeability-surface area product. These PCT parameters provide information complementary to histopathologic assessments and have been used for grading brain tumors, distinguishing high-grade gliomas from other brain lesions, differentiating true progression from post-treatment effects, and predicting prognosis after treatments. In this review, the basic principles of PCT are described, and applications of PCT of brain tumors are discussed. The advantages and current challenges, along with possible solutions, of PCT are presented.

  6. Entropy Function for Multifractal Thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuhuaZENG

    1999-01-01

    The theory on multifractal thermodynamics has been studied by the method of series expansion.The method is able to overcome the shortages of Kohmoto's steepest desent method and the results have general meanings.

  7. Non linear approach to study the dynamics of neurodegenerative diseases by Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis-A quantitative assessment on gait disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Srimonti; Ghosh, Dipak; Samanta, Shukla

    2016-04-01

    This paper studies the human gait pattern of normal people and patients suffering from Parkinson's disease using the MFDXA (Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis) methodology. The auto correlation and cross correlation of the time series of the total force under the left foot and right foot were studied. The study reveals that the degree of multifractality (W) and degree of correlation (γ) are generally more for normal patients than the diseased set. It is also observed that the values of W and γ are nearly same for left foot and right. It is also observed that the study of autocorrelation alone is not sufficient, cross correlations should also be studied to get a better concept of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Information flow dynamics in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Afraimovich, Valentin S.; Bick, Christian; Varona, Pablo

    2012-03-01

    Timing and dynamics of information in the brain is a hot field in modern neuroscience. The analysis of the temporal evolution of brain information is crucially important for the understanding of higher cognitive mechanisms in normal and pathological states. From the perspective of information dynamics, in this review we discuss working memory capacity, language dynamics, goal-dependent behavior programming and other functions of brain activity. In contrast with the classical description of information theory, which is mostly algebraic, brain flow information dynamics deals with problems such as the stability/instability of information flows, their quality, the timing of sequential processing, the top-down cognitive control of perceptual information, and information creation. In this framework, different types of information flow instabilities correspond to different cognitive disorders. On the other hand, the robustness of cognitive activity is related to the control of the information flow stability. We discuss these problems using both experimental and theoretical approaches, and we argue that brain activity is better understood considering information flows in the phase space of the corresponding dynamical model. In particular, we show how theory helps to understand intriguing experimental results in this matter, and how recent knowledge inspires new theoretical formalisms that can be tested with modern experimental techniques.

  9. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cn#259;pun#351;an Rn#259;zvan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that empirical data coming from financial markets, like stock market indices, commodities, interest rates, traded volumes and foreign exchange rates have a multifractal structure. Multifractals were introduced in the field of economics to surpass the shortcomings of classical models like the fractional Brownian motion or GARCH processes. In this paper we investigate the multifractal behavior of Central and Eastern European foreign exchange rates, namely the Czech koruna, Croatian kuna, Hungarian forint, Polish zlot, Romanian leu and Russian rouble with respect to euro from January 13, 2000 to February 29, 2012. The dynamics of exchange rates is of interest for investors and traders, monetary and fiscal authorities, economic agents or policy makers. The exchange rate movements affect the international balance of payments, trade flows, and allocation of the resources in national and international economy. The empirical results from the multifractal detrending fluctuation analysis algorithm show that the six exchange rate series analysed display significant multifractality. Moreover, generating shuffled and surrogate time series, we analyze the sources of multifractality, long-range correlations and heavy-tailed distributions, and we find that this multifractal behavior can be mainly attributed to the latter. Finally, we propose a foreign exchange market inefficiency ranking by considering the multifractality degree as a measure of inefficiency. The regulators, through policy instruments, aim to improve the informational inefficiency of the markets, to reduce the associated risks and to ensure economic stabilization. Evaluation of the degree of information efficiency of foreign exchange markets, for Central and Eastern Europe countries, is important to assess to what extent these countries are prepared for the transition towards fully monetary integration. The weak form efficiency implies that the past exchange rates cannot help to

  10. Multifractality and heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we participate to the discussion set forth by the editor of Chaos for the controversy, "Is the normal heart rate chaotic?" Our objective was to debate the question, "Is there some more appropriate term to characterize the heart rate variability (HRV) fluctuations?" We focused on the ≈24 h RR series prepared for this topic and tried to verify with two different techniques, generalized structure functions and wavelet transform modulus maxima, if they might be described as being multifractal. For normal and congestive heart failure subjects, the hq exponents showed to be decreasing for increasing q with both methods, as it should be for multifractal signals. We then built 40 surrogate series to further verify such hypothesis. For most of the series (≈75%-80% of cases) multifractality stood the test of the surrogate data employed. On the other hand, series coming from patients in atrial fibrillation showed a small, if any, degree of multifractality. The population analyzed is too small for definite conclusions, but the study supports the use of multifractal series to model HRV. Also it suggests that the regulatory action of autonomous nervous system might play a role in the observed multifractality.

  11. Dynamic brain mapping methodology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Mucci, A; Eralp, E

    1991-01-01

    Brain mapping has opened important perspectives for the neurophysiological evaluation of patients, for the discrimination of drug effects on the brain and for the study of the relationship between the brain and behavior. Our Dynamic Brain Mapping System is the result of many years of EEG quantification. It was designed as a software-oriented system to favor the largest clinical application and simultaneously stimulate new research objectives. Data collection and analysis procedures are critically important in brain mapping for a good understanding of the results. For clinical use, the maps should answer relevant EEG questions and be interpretable with the consolidated knowledge. Therefore, we have developed a new type of brain mapping technology which is called "Field blending interpolation" mapping offered together with the conventional technology with user-selectable interpolation algorithms. In addition to diagnosis, the use of computer-analyzed EEG and brain mapping can be instrumental in drug monitoring, drug selection and drug discriminations. Prospective studies are, however, required to validate the use of brain mapping in each of these new areas. Spatial analysis is the original goal of brain mapping. The development of a new data collection procedure and analysis will be instrumental in the determination of an adequate time and space resolution.

  12. Multifractal characterization of energy stocks in China: A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impacts of oil price changes on energy stocks in Chinese stock market from the multifractal perspective. The well-known multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is applied to detect the multifractality. We find that both returns and volatilities of energy industry index display apparent multifractal behavior. Oil market activity is an important source of multifractality in energy stocks index in addition to long-range correlations and fat-tail distributions.

  13. In vivo Dynamic Studies of Brain Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xuechun; JIANG Yufeng; ZHANG Riqing

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can noninvasively monitor intracellular concentrations and kinetic properties of numerous inorganic and organic compounds. A 31P NMR surface coil was used in vivo to dynamically measure phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels in mouse brain during ischemia-reperfusion to study the damage of cerebral tissues caused by ischemia and effects of herbs on cerebral energy metabolism during ischemia-reperfusion. The study provides dynamic brain energy metabolism data during different periods. The data show that some herbs more rapidly increase the PCr level during the recovery phase than in the control group.

  14. IMAGING THE BRAIN AS SCHIZOPHRENIA DEVELOPS: DYNAMIC & GENETIC BRAIN MAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul; Rapoport, Judith L; Cannon, Tyrone D; Toga, Arthur W

    2002-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 0.2-2% of the population worldwide. Often striking without warning in the late teens or early twenties, its symptoms include auditory and visual hallucinations, psychotic outbreaks, bizarre or disordered thinking, depression and social withdrawal. To combat the disease, new antipsychotic drugs are emerging; these atypical neuroleptics target dopamine and serotonin pathways in the brain, offering increased therapeutic efficacy with fewer side effects. Despite their moderate success in controlling some patients' symptoms, little is known about the causes of schizophrenia, and what triggers the disease. Its peculiar age of onset raises key questions: What physical changes occur in the brain as a patient develops schizophrenia? Do these deficits spread in the brain, and can they be opposed? How do they relate to psychotic symptoms? As risk for the disease is genetically transmitted, do a patient's relatives exhibit similar brain changes? Recent advances in brain imaging and genetics provide exciting insight on these questions. Neuroimaging can now chart the emergence and progression of deficits in the brain, providing an exceptionally sharp scalpel to dissect the effects of genetic risk, environmental triggers, and susceptibility genes. Visualizing the dynamics of the disease, these techniques also offer new strategies to evaluate drugs that combat the unrelenting symptoms of schizophrenia.

  15. Upper Estimates on the Higher-dimensional Multifractal Spectrum of Local Entropy%局部熵高维重分形谱的上界估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严珍珍; 陈二才

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the problem of higher-dimensional multifractal spectrum of lo-cal entropy for arbitrary invariant measures. By utilizing characteristics of a dynam-ical system, namely, higher-dimensional entropy capacities and higher-dimensional correlation entropies, we obtain three upper estimates on the higher-dimensional mul-tifractal spectrum of local entropies. We also study the domain of higher-dimensional multifractal spetrum of entropies.

  16. Robust transient dynamics and brain functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades several concepts of Dynamical Systems Theory (DST have guided psychologists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists to rethink about sensory motor behavior and embodied cognition. A critical step in the progress of DST application to the brain (supported by modern methods of brain imaging and multi-electrode recording techniques has been the transfer of its initial success in motor behavior to mental function, i.e., perception, emotion, and cognition. Open questions from research in genetics, ecology, brain sciences, etc. have changed DST itself and lead to the discovery of a new dynamical phenomenon, i.e., reproducible and robust transients that are at the same time sensitive to informational signals. The goal of this review is to describe a new mathematical framework -heteroclinic sequential dynamics- to understand self-organized activity in the brain that can explain certain aspects of robust itinerant behavior. Specifically, we discuss a hierarchy of coarse-grain models of mental dynamics in the form of kinetic equations of modes. These modes compete for resources at three levels: (i within the same modality, (ii among different modalities from the same family (like perception, and (iii among modalities from different families (like emotion and cognition. The analysis of the conditions for robustness, i.e., the structural stability of transient (sequential dynamics, give us the possibility to explain phenomena like the finite capacity of our sequential working memory -a vital cognitive function-, and to find specific dynamical signatures -different kinds of instabilities- of several brain functions and mental diseases.

  17. Multifractal analysis and simulation of multifractal random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Francois G.; Huang, Yongxiang

    2016-04-01

    Multifractal time series, characterized by a scale invariance and large fluctuations at all scales, are found in many fields of natural and applied sciences. They are found i.e. in many geophysical fields, such as atmospheric and oceanic turbulence, hydrology, earth sciences. Here we consider a quite general type of multifractal time series, called multifractal random walk, as non stationary stochastic processes with intermittent stationary increments. We first quickly recall how such time series can be analyzed and characterized, using structure functions and arbitrary order Hilbert spectral analysis. We then discuss the simulation approach. The main object is to provide a stochastic process generating time series having the same multiscale properties We review recent works on this topic, and provide stochastic simulations in order to verify the theoretical predictions. In the lognormal framework we provide a h - μ plane expressing the scale invariant properties of these simulations. The theoretical plane is compared to simulation results.

  18. Creative Cognition and Brain Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E.; Benedek, Mathias; Silvia, Paul J.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Creative thinking is central to the arts, sciences, and everyday life. How does the brain produce creative thought? A series of recently published papers has begun to provide insight into this question, reporting a strikingly similar pattern of brain activity and connectivity across a range of creative tasks and domains, from divergent thinking to poetry composition to musical improvisation. This research suggests that creative thought involves dynamic interactions of large-scale brain systems, with the most compelling finding being that the default and executive control networks, which can show an antagonistic relationship, actually cooperate during creative cognition and artistic performance. These findings have implications for understanding how brain networks interact to support complex cognitive processes, particularly those involving goal-directed, self-generated thought. PMID:26553223

  19. Spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics of electromagnetic radiation in response to deep coal rock bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaobin, H.; Enyuan, W.; Xiaofei, L.

    2014-04-01

    Dynamic collapses of deeply mined coal rocks are severe threats to miners, in order to predict the collapses more accurately using electromagnetic radiation (EMR), we investigate the spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics and formation mechanism of EMR induced by underground coal mining. Coal rock in the burst-prone zone often exchanges materials and energy with its environment and gradually transits from its original stable equilibrium structure to a non-equilibrium dissipative structure with implicit spatiotemporal complexity or multifractal structures, resulting in temporal variation in multifractal EMR. The inherent law of EMR time series during damage evolution was analyzed by using time-varying multifractal theory. Results show that the time-varying multifractal characteristics of EMR are determined by damage evolutions process, the dissipated energy caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, fractal sliding and shearing can be regarded as the fingerprint of various EMR micro-mechanics. Dynamic spatiotemporal multifractal spectrum of EMR considers both spatial (multiple fractures) and temporal (dynamic evolution) characteristics of coal rocks, and records the dynamic evolution processes of rock bursts. Thus, it can be used to evaluate the coal deformation and fracture process. The study is of significance for us to in-depth understand EMR mechanism and to increase the accuracy of applying the EMR method to forecast dynamic disasters.

  20. Spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics of electromagnetic radiation in response to deep coal rock bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.; Wang, E.; Liu, X.

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic collapses of deeply mined coal rocks are severe threats to miners; in order to predict collapses more accurately using electromagnetic radiation (EMR), we investigate the spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics and formation mechanism of EMR induced by underground coal mining. Coal rock in the burst-prone zone often exchanges materials (gas, water and coal) and energy with its environment and gradually transitions from its original stable equilibrium structure to a nonequilibrium dissipative structure with implicit spatiotemporal complexity or multifractal structures, resulting in temporal variation in multifractal EMR. The inherent law of EMR time series during damage evolution was analyzed by using time-varying multifractal theory. Results show that the time-varying multifractal characteristics of EMR are determined by damage evolution processes. Moreover, the dissipated energy caused by the damage evolutions, such as crack propagation, fractal sliding and shearing, can be regarded as the fingerprint of various EMR micro-mechanics. The dynamic spatiotemporal multifractal spectrum of EMR considers both spatial (multiple fractures) and temporal (dynamic evolution) characteristics of coal rocks and records the dynamic evolution processes of rock bursts. Thus, it can be used to evaluate the coal deformation and fracture process. The study is of significance for us to understand the EMR mechanism in detail and to increase the accuracy of the EMR method in forecasting dynamic disasters.

  1. Spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics of electromagnetic radiation in response to deep coal rock bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shaobin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic collapses of deeply mined coal rocks are severe threats to miners, in order to predict the collapses more accurately using electromagnetic radiation (EMR, we investigate the spatiotemporal multifractal characteristics and formation mechanism of EMR induced by underground coal mining. Coal rock in the burst-prone zone often exchanges materials and energy with its environment and gradually transits from its original stable equilibrium structure to a non-equilibrium dissipative structure with implicit spatiotemporal complexity or multifractal structures, resulting in temporal variation in multifractal EMR. The inherent law of EMR time series during damage evolution was analyzed by using time-varying multifractal theory. Results show that the time-varying multifractal characteristics of EMR are determined by damage evolutions process, the dissipated energy caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, fractal sliding and shearing can be regarded as the fingerprint of various EMR micro-mechanics. Dynamic spatiotemporal multifractal spectrum of EMR considers both spatial (multiple fractures and temporal (dynamic evolution characteristics of coal rocks, and records the dynamic evolution processes of rock bursts. Thus, it can be used to evaluate the coal deformation and fracture process. The study is of significance for us to in-depth understand EMR mechanism and to increase the accuracy of applying the EMR method to forecast dynamic disasters.

  2. Multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of earthquake magnitude series of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xingxing; Lin, Min

    2017-08-01

    The multifractal characteristics of magnitude time series of earthquakes that occurred in Southern California from 1990 to 2010 are studied in this work. A method for the scale division of the magnitude of these earthquakes based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and multifractal analysis is proposed. This method gains a new insight into measuring multifractal properties of the magnitude time series at multiple scales, and it reveals further information about the dynamic seismic behavior. By using EMD, a time series can be decomposed into mode time series that represent different time-frequency components. We find that time-frequency components show long-range correlation with different Hurst exponents by using R / S analysis. Based on the different fractal structures of components, we consider three different scale series: Micro-, Mid- and Macro-scale subsequences, which are superposed and reconstructed by the components. The multifractal properties of the three scale subsequences are analyzed by using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The results show that the three different scale subsequences have various shapes of multifractal spectra and corresponding distinct properties. The Micro-scale subsequence singularity spectrum shows left-skewed, indicating a relative dominance of the lower Hurst exponent; the Mid-scale subsequence has a right-skewed singularity spectrum; the Macro-scale subsequence exhibits the most significant persistence and shows the strongest multifractality.

  3. Atomic force microscopy study, kinetic roughening and multifractal analysis of electrodeposited silver films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehnejad, M.; Gholipour Shahraki, M.; Nabiyouni, G.

    2016-12-01

    We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study surface morphology and kinetic roughening of Ag films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique is used to verify the films crystalline structure. The influence of film thickness on the kinetic roughening was investigated using AFM data and roughness calculation. It is revealed that the surface roughness increases with increasing the film thickness. The data also consist with a complex behavior which is called as anomalous scaling. Scaling laws analysis for Ag films presents two distinct dynamics including large local and scale roughness and indicates a power law dependency on the thickness of film. AFM images have been characterized by the multifractal analysis. This analysis shows that the self-similar and multifractal characteristics as well as anomalous scaling exist in the Ag film morphologies. Description of the quantitative growth and surface morphology was done by the multifractal spectra, f (α) - α . It is found that the multifractal spectrum shape is left hook-like (that is difference of height interval of the multifractal spectrum, Δf = f (αmin) - f (αmax) > 0). The results indicate that the surfaces having greater roughness give rise the wider multifractal spectrum width (Δα) and the greater Δf, thus, the nonuniformity of the height probabilities becomes larger. It indicates that the multifractality of the films becomes more pronounced at the higher thickness.

  4. 基于多分形理论的动态VaR预测模型研究%Forecasting Model for Dynamic Value-at-Risk Based on Multifractal Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宇

    2012-01-01

    经济物理学(econophysics)的大量研究表明,金融市场的波动具有复杂的多分形(multifractal)特征,因此准确地测度和预测市场波动,对金融风险管理工作的意义重大。在已有多分形波动率(multifractal volatility)测度及其模型应用基础上,以上证综指10年的高频数据为对象,提出了基于多分形波动率的样本外动态风险价值(out-of-sample dynamic VaR)预测法。通过两种规范的后验分析(backtesting)结果表明,与8种主流的线性和非线性GARCH族模型相比,在高风险水平上,基于多分形波动率测度的VaR模型明显具有更高的样本外动态风险预测精度。%Much literature in Econophysics reveals that the volatility in financial markets presents multi- fractal features. Thus, measuring and forecasting the market volatility accurately is very important for fi- nancial risk management. Based on the earlier research of multifractal volatility and its model, an out-of-sample dynamic VaR forecasting method is proposed in this paper. The empirical results on two backtesting techniques show that, on high-risk levels, VaR fnodel based on multifractal volatility produces much better out-of-sample VaR forecasts than eight popular linear and nonlinear GARCH models.

  5. Weyl and Riemann-Liouville multifractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S C [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Teo, L P [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2007-06-08

    This paper considers two new multifractional stochastic processes, namely the Weyl multifractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the Riemann-Liouville multifractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Basic properties of these processes such as locally self-similar property and Hausdorff dimension are studied. The relationship between the multifractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes and the corresponding multifractional Brownian motions is established.

  6. Understanding the multifractality in portfolio excess returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Yudong

    2017-01-01

    The multifractality in stock returns have been investigated extensively. However, whether the autocorrelations in portfolio returns are multifractal have not been considered in the literature. In this paper, we detect multifractal behavior of returns of portfolios constructed based on two popular trading rules, size and book-to-market (BM) ratio. Using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis, we find that the portfolio returns are significantly multifractal and the multifractality is mainly attributed to long-range dependence. We also investigate the multifractal cross-correlation between portfolio return and market average return using the detrended cross-correlation analysis. Our results show that the cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent, while those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent.

  7. Electromagnetic imaging of dynamic brain activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, J.; Leahy, R. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Singh, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1991-12-31

    Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.

  8. Surface characterization of proteins using multi-fractal property of heat-denatured aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, Tapobrata; Mishra, Hrishikesh; Sarkar, Subrata; Misra, Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Multi-fractal property of heat-denatured protein aggregates (HDPA) is characteristic of its individual form. The visual similarity between digitally generated microscopic images of HDPA with that of surface-image of its individual X-ray structures in protein databank (PDB) displayed using Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) viewer is the basis of the study. We deigned experiments to view the fractal nature of proteins at different aggregate scales. Intensity based multi-fractal dimensions (ILMFD)...

  9. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURES DETECTED BY VOYAGER 1 AT THE HELIOSPHERIC BOUNDARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macek, W. M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, Wóycickiego 1/3, 01-938 Warsaw (Poland); Wawrzaszek, A. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18 A, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); Burlaga, L. F., E-mail: macek@cbk.waw.pl, E-mail: anna.wawrzaszek@cbk.waw.pl, E-mail: lburlagahsp@verizon.net [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    To better understand the dynamics of turbulent systems, we have proposed a phenomenological model based on a generalized Cantor set with two rescaling and one weight parameters. In this Letter, using recent Voyager 1 magnetic field data, we extend our two-scale multifractal analysis further in the heliosheath beyond the heliospheric termination shock, and even now near the heliopause, when entering the interstellar medium for the first time in human history. We have identified the scaling inertial region for magnetized heliospheric plasma between the termination shock and the heliopause. We also show that the degree of multifractality decreases with the heliocentric distance and is still modulated by the phases of the solar cycle in the entire heliosphere including the heliosheath. Moreover, we observe the change of scaling toward a nonintermittent (nonmultifractal) behavior in the nearby interstellar medium, just beyond the heliopause. We argue that this loss of multifractal behavior could be a signature of the expected crossing of the heliopause by Voyager 2 in the near future. The results obtained demonstrate that our phenomenological multifractal model exhibits some properties of intermittent turbulence in the solar system plasmas, and we hope that it could shed light on universal characteristics of turbulence.

  10. Multifractal analyses of music sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi-Yuan; Wu, Tzuyin

    2006-09-01

    Multifractal analysis is applied to study the fractal property of music. In this paper, a method is proposed to transform both the melody and rhythm of a music piece into individual sets of distributed points along a one-dimensional line. The structure of the musical composition is thus manifested and characterized by the local clustering pattern of these sequences of points. Specifically, the local Hölder exponent and the multifractal spectrum are calculated for the transformed music sequences according to the multifractal formalism. The observed fluctuations of the Hölder exponent along the music sequences confirm the non-uniformity feature in the structures of melodic and rhythmic motions of music. Our present result suggests that the shape and opening width of the multifractal spectrum plot can be used to distinguish different styles of music. In addition, a characteristic curve is constructed by mapping the point sequences converted from the melody and rhythm of a musical work into a two-dimensional graph. Each different pieces of music has its own unique characteristic curve. This characteristic curve, which also exhibits a fractal trait, unveils the intrinsic structure of music.

  11. Multifractal detrended cross-correlations between crude oil market and Chinese ten sector stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Yiqi

    2016-11-01

    Based on the daily price data of spot prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and ten CSI300 sector indices in China, we apply multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlations between crude oil and Chinese sector stock markets. We find that the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and energy sector stock market is the highest, followed by the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and financial sector market, which reflects a close connection between energy and financial market. Then we do vector autoregression (VAR) analysis to capture the interdependencies among the multiple time series. By comparing the strength of multifractality for original data and residual errors of VAR model, we get a conclusion that vector auto-regression (VAR) model could not be used to describe the dynamics of the cross-correlations between WTI crude oil and the ten sector stock markets.

  12. Revisiting the multifractality in stock returns and its modeling implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shanshan; Wang, Yudong

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the multifractality of Chinese and the U.S. stock markets using a multifractal detrending moving average algorithm. The results show that stock returns in both markets are multifractal at a similar extent. We detect the source of multifractality and find that long-range correlations are one of the major sources of multifractality in the US market but not in the Chinese market. Fat-tailed distribution plays a crucial role in multifractality of both markets. As an innovation, we quantify the effect of extreme events on multifractality and find the strong evidence of their contribution to multifractality. Furthermore, we investigate the usefulness of popular ARFIMA-GARCH models with skew-t distribution in capturing multifractality. Our results indicate that these models can capture only a fraction of multifractality. More complex models do not necessarily perform better than simple GARCH models in describing multifractality in stock returns.

  13. The Brain Dynamics of Linguistic Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot eMurphy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations at distinct frequencies are increasingly being related to a number of basic and higher cognitive faculties. Oscillations enable the construction of coherently organised neuronal assemblies through establishing transitory temporal correlations. By exploring the elementary operations of the language faculty – labeling, concatenation, cyclic transfer – alongside neural dynamics, a new model of linguistic computation is proposed. It is argued that the universality of language, and the true biological source of Universal Grammar, is not to be found purely in the genome as has long been suggested, but more specifically within the extraordinarily preserved nature of mammalian brain rhythms employed in the computation of linguistic structures. Computational-representational theories are used as a guide in investigating the neurobiological foundations of the human ‘cognome’ – the set of computations performed by the nervous system – and new directions are suggested for how the dynamics of brain (the ‘dynome’ operates and execute linguistic operations. The extent to which brain rhythms are the suitable neuronal processes which can capture the computational properties of the human language faculty is considered against a backdrop of existing cartographic research into the localisation of linguistic interpretation. Particular focus is placed on labeling, the operation elsewhere argued to be species-specific. A Basic Label model of the human cognome-dynome is proposed, leading to clear, causally-addressable empirical predictions, to be investigated by a suggested research program, Dynamic Cognomics. In addition, a distinction between minimal and maximal degrees of explanation is introduced to differentiate between the depth of analysis provided by cartographic, rhythmic, neurochemical and other approaches to computation.

  14. The brain dynamics of linguistic computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    Neural oscillations at distinct frequencies are increasingly being related to a number of basic and higher cognitive faculties. Oscillations enable the construction of coherently organized neuronal assemblies through establishing transitory temporal correlations. By exploring the elementary operations of the language faculty-labeling, concatenation, cyclic transfer-alongside neural dynamics, a new model of linguistic computation is proposed. It is argued that the universality of language, and the true biological source of Universal Grammar, is not to be found purely in the genome as has long been suggested, but more specifically within the extraordinarily preserved nature of mammalian brain rhythms employed in the computation of linguistic structures. Computational-representational theories are used as a guide in investigating the neurobiological foundations of the human "cognome"-the set of computations performed by the nervous system-and new directions are suggested for how the dynamics of the brain (the "dynome") operate and execute linguistic operations. The extent to which brain rhythms are the suitable neuronal processes which can capture the computational properties of the human language faculty is considered against a backdrop of existing cartographic research into the localization of linguistic interpretation. Particular focus is placed on labeling, the operation elsewhere argued to be species-specific. A Basic Label model of the human cognome-dynome is proposed, leading to clear, causally-addressable empirical predictions, to be investigated by a suggested research program, Dynamic Cognomics. In addition, a distinction between minimal and maximal degrees of explanation is introduced to differentiate between the depth of analysis provided by cartographic, rhythmic, neurochemical, and other approaches to computation.

  15. Mapping how local perturbations influence systems-level brain dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gollo, Leonardo L.; James A. Roberts; Cocchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The human brain exhibits a relatively stable spatiotemporal organization that supports brain function and can be manipulated via local brain stimulation. Such perturbations to local cortical dynamics are globally integrated by distinct neural systems. However, it remains unclear how and why local changes in neural activity affect large-scale system dynamics. Here, we briefly review empirical and computational studies addressing how localized perturbations affect brain activity. We then system...

  16. Multifractal Model of Soil Water Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleshko, Klaudia

    2017-04-01

    Breaking of solid surface symmetry during the interaction between the rainfall of high erosivity index and internally unstable volcanic soil/vegetation systems, results in roughness increasing as well as fertile horizon loosing. In these areas, the sustainability of management practices depends on the ability to select and implement the precise indicators of soil erodibility and vegetation capacity to protect the system against the extreme damaging precipitation events. Notwithstanding, the complex, non-linear and scaling nature of the phenomena involved in the interaction among the soil, vegetation and precipitation is still not taken into account by the numerous commonly used empirical, mathematical and computer simulation models: for instance, by the universal soil loss equation (USLE). The soil erodibility factor (K-factor) is still measuring by a set of empirical, dimensionless parameters and indexes, without taking into account the scaling (frequently multifractal) origin of a broad range of heterogeneous, anisotropic and dynamical phenomena involved in hydric erosion. Their mapping is not representative of this complex system spatial variability. In our research, we propose to use the toolbox of fractals and multifractals techniques in vista of its ability to measure the scale invariance and type/degree of soil, vegetation and precipitation symmetry breaking. The hydraulic units are chosen as the precise measure of soil/vegetation stability. These units are measured and modeled for soils with contrasting architecture, based on their porosity/permeability (Poroperm) as well as retention capacity relations. The simple Catalog of the most common Poroperm relations is proposed and the main power law relations among the elements of studied system are established and compared for some representative agricultural and natural Biogeosystems of Mexico. All resulted are related with the Mandelbrot' Baby Theorem in order to construct the universal Phase Diagram which

  17. Symbols and dynamics in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariani, P

    2001-01-01

    The work of physicist and theoretical biologist Howard Pattee has focused on the roles that symbols and dynamics play in biological systems. Symbols, as discrete functional switching-states, are seen at the heart of all biological systems in the form of genetic codes, and at the core of all neural systems in the form of informational mechanisms that switch behavior. They also appear in one form or another in all epistemic systems, from informational processes embedded in primitive organisms to individual human beings to public scientific models. Over its course, Pattee's work has explored (1) the physical basis of informational functions (dynamical vs. rule-based descriptions, switching mechanisms, memory, symbols), (2) the functional organization of the observer (measurement, computation), (3) the means by which information can be embedded in biological organisms for purposes of self-construction and representation (as codes, modeling relations, memory, symbols), and (4) the processes by which new structures and functions can emerge over time. We discuss how these concepts can be applied to a high-level understanding of the brain. Biological organisms constantly reproduce themselves as well as their relations with their environs. The brain similarly can be seen as a self-producing, self-regenerating neural signaling system and as an adaptive informational system that interacts with its surrounds in order to steer behavior.

  18. Lorentz violations in multifractal spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Using the recent observation of gravitational waves (GW) produced by a black-hole merger, we place a lower bound on the energy above which a multifractal spacetime would manifest an anomalous geometry and, in particular, violations of Lorentz invariance. In the so-called multifractional theory with $q$-derivatives, we show that the deformation of dispersion relations is much stronger than in generic quantum-gravity approaches (including loop quantum gravity) and, contrary to the latter, present observations on GWs can place very strong bounds on the characteristic scales at which spacetime deviates from standard Minkowski. The energy at which multifractal effects should become apparent is $E_*>10^{14}\\,\\text{GeV}$ (thus improving previous bounds by 12 orders of magnitude) when the exponents in the measure are fixed to their central value $1/2$. We also estimate, for the first time, the effect of logarithmic oscillations in the measure (corresponding to a discrete spacetime structure) and find that they do not...

  19. Lorentz violations in multifractal spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Gianluca [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-05-15

    Using the recent observation of gravitational waves (GW) produced by a black-hole merger, we place a lower bound on the energy above which a multifractal spacetime would display an anomalous geometry and, in particular, violations of Lorentz invariance. In the so-called multifractional theory with q-derivatives, we show that the deformation of dispersion relations is much stronger than in generic quantum-gravity approaches (including loop quantum gravity) and, contrary to the latter, present observations on GWs can place very strong bounds on the characteristic scales at which spacetime deviates from standard Minkowski. The energy at which multifractal effects should become apparent is E{sub *} > 10{sup 14} GeV (thus improving previous bounds by 12 orders of magnitude) when the exponents in the measure are fixed to their central value 1 / 2. We also estimate, for the first time, the effect of logarithmic oscillations in the measure (corresponding to a discrete spacetime structure) and find that they do not change much the bounds obtained in their absence, unless the amplitude of the oscillations is fine tuned. This feature, unavailable in known quantum-gravity scenarios, may help the theory to avoid being ruled out by gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations, for which E{sub *} > 10{sup 17} GeV or greater. (orig.)

  20. Lorentz violations in multifractal spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-05-01

    Using the recent observation of gravitational waves (GW) produced by a black-hole merger, we place a lower bound on the energy above which a multifractal spacetime would display an anomalous geometry and, in particular, violations of Lorentz invariance. In the so-called multifractional theory with q-derivatives, we show that the deformation of dispersion relations is much stronger than in generic quantum-gravity approaches (including loop quantum gravity) and, contrary to the latter, present observations on GWs can place very strong bounds on the characteristic scales at which spacetime deviates from standard Minkowski. The energy at which multifractal effects should become apparent is E_{*}>10^{14} {GeV} (thus improving previous bounds by 12 orders of magnitude) when the exponents in the measure are fixed to their central value 1 / 2. We also estimate, for the first time, the effect of logarithmic oscillations in the measure (corresponding to a discrete spacetime structure) and find that they do not change much the bounds obtained in their absence, unless the amplitude of the oscillations is fine tuned. This feature, unavailable in known quantum-gravity scenarios, may help the theory to avoid being ruled out by gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations, for which E_{*}> 10^{17} {GeV} or greater.

  1. Dam management and multifractal downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaou, A.; Hubert, P.; Schertzer, D.; Hendrickx, F.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.

    2003-04-01

    In order to get a more efficient production management of reservoirs, it would be helpful to apply long-term meteorological forecasts to hydrological models. Unfortunately, the explicit scales of present meteorological models are quite larger than those of hydrological models. Therefore it is indispensable to proceed to a downscaling of the output of the former in order to obtain an input for the latter. In this paper, we discuss a multifractal downscaling procedure. This type of procedure was motivated because it deals with scaling variability of the fields. The site of the study is the region of the Doubs, but we make an extension on the whole France for the multifractale analysis to take into account well the spatial variabilities. We first present the results of a detailed multifractal analysis of various data bases. Concerning the development of our downscaling model, we show how to develop a scaling space-time cascade, which takes into account the distinct space and time scaling. We will present it first in the framework of the pedagogical b-model and a-model, then in the framework of universal multifractal models. The obtained results can be the object of an relief and microclimate conditioning before being compared with the real values.

  2. Multifractal analysis of complex networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dan-Ling; Yu Zu-Guo; Anh V

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks have recently attracted much attention in diverse areas of science and technology.Many networks such as the WWW and biological networks are known to display spatial heterogeneity which can be characterized by their fractal dimensions.Multifractal analysis is a useful way to systematically describe the spatial heterogeneity of both theoretical and experimental fractal patterns.In this paper,we introduce a new box-covering algorithm for muttifractal analysis of complex networks.This algorithm is used to calculate the generalized fractal dimensions Dq of some theoretical networks,namely scale-free networks,small world networks,and random networks,and one kind of real network,namely protein-protein interaction networks of different species.Our numerical results indicate the existence of multifractality in scale-free networks and protein-protein interaction networks,while the multifractal behavior is not clear-cut for small world networks and random networks.The possible variation of Dq due to changes in the parameters of the theoretical network models is also discussed.

  3. Distributed-order diffusion equations and multifractality: Models and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandev, Trifce; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; Korabel, Nickolay; Kantz, Holger; Sokolov, Igor M.; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    We study distributed-order time fractional diffusion equations characterized by multifractal memory kernels, in contrast to the simple power-law kernel of common time fractional diffusion equations. Based on the physical approach to anomalous diffusion provided by the seminal Scher-Montroll-Weiss continuous time random walk, we analyze both natural and modified-form distributed-order time fractional diffusion equations and compare the two approaches. The mean squared displacement is obtained and its limiting behavior analyzed. We derive the connection between the Wiener process, described by the conventional Langevin equation and the dynamics encoded by the distributed-order time fractional diffusion equation in terms of a generalized subordination of time. A detailed analysis of the multifractal properties of distributed-order diffusion equations is provided.

  4. Diffusion and scattering in multifractal clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovejoy, S. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Schertzer, D. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Waston, B. [St. Lawrence Univ., Canton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes investigations of radiative properties of multifractal clouds using two different approaches. In the first, diffusion is considered by examining the scaling properties of one dimensional random walks on media with multifractal diffusivities. The second approach considers the scattering statistics associated with radiative transport.

  5. Multifractal Analysis for the Teichmueller Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meson, Alejandro M., E-mail: meson@iflysib.unlp.edu.ar; Vericat, Fernando, E-mail: vericat@iflysib.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos (IFLYSIB) CCT-CONICET, La Plata-UNLP and Grupo de Aplicaciones Matematicas y Estadisticas de la Facultad de Ingenieria (GAMEFI) UNLP (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    We present a multifractal description for Teichmueller flows. A key ingredient to do this is the Rauzy-Veech-Zorich reduction theory, which allows to treat the problem in the setting of suspension flows over subshifts. To perform the multifractal analysis we implement a thermodynamic formalism for suspension flows over countable alphabet subshifts a bit different from that developed by Barreira and Iommi.

  6. Multifractal Analysis of Inhomogeneous Bernoulli Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batakis, Athanasios; Testud, Benoît

    2011-03-01

    We are interested to the multifractal analysis of inhomogeneous Bernoulli products which are also known as coin tossing measures. We give conditions ensuring the validity of the multifractal formalism for such measures. On another hand, we show that these measures can have a dense set of phase transitions.

  7. MIXED SELF-CONFORMAL MULTIFRACTAL MEASURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meifeng Dai

    2009-01-01

    Mixed multifractal analysis studies the simultaneous scaling behavior of finitely many measures. A self-conformal measure is a measure invariant under a set of conformal mappings. In this paper, we provide a description of the mixed multifractal theory of finitely many self-conformal measures.

  8. Intermittency and multifractional Brownian character of geomagnetic time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Consolini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere exhibits a complex behavior in response to the solar wind conditions. This behavior, which is described in terms of mutifractional Brownian motions, could be the consequence of the occurrence of dynamical phase transitions. On the other hand, it has been shown that the dynamics of the geomagnetic signals is also characterized by intermittency at the smallest temporal scales. Here, we focus on the existence of a possible relationship in the geomagnetic time series between the multifractional Brownian motion character and the occurrence of intermittency. In detail, we investigate the multifractional nature of two long time series of the horizontal intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as measured at L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory during two years (2001 and 2008, which correspond to different conditions of solar activity. We propose a possible double origin of the intermittent character of the small-scale magnetic field fluctuations, which is related to both the multifractional nature of the geomagnetic field and the intermittent character of the disturbance level. Our results suggest a more complex nature of the geomagnetic response to solar wind changes than previously thought.

  9. Multifractal Properties of the Ukraine Stock Market

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchuk, A; Solovov, V

    2006-01-01

    Recently the statistical characterizations of financial markets based on physics concepts and methods attract considerable attentions. We used two possible procedures of analyzing multifractal properties of a time series. The first one uses the continuous wavelet transform and extracts scaling exponents from the wavelet transform amplitudes over all scales. The second method is the multifractal version of the detrended fluctuation analysis method (MF-DFA). The multifractality of a time series we analysed by means of the difference of values singularity stregth as a suitable way to characterise multifractality. Singularity spectrum calculated from daily returns using a sliding 1000 day time window in discrete steps of 1-10 days. We discovered that changes in the multifractal spectrum display distinctive pattern around significant "drawdowns". Finally, we discuss applications to the construction of crushes precursors at the financial markets.

  10. Scaling and multifractal fields in the solid earth and topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lovejoy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Starting about thirty years ago, new ideas in nonlinear dynamics, particularly fractals and scaling, provoked an explosive growth of research both in modeling and in experimentally characterizing geosystems over wide ranges of scale. In this review we focus on scaling advances in solid earth geophysics including the topography. To reduce the review to manageable proportions, we restrict our attention to scaling fields, i.e. to the discussion of intensive quantities such as ore concentrations, rock densities, susceptibilities, and magnetic and gravitational fields.

    We discuss the growing body of evidence showing that geofields are scaling (have power law dependencies on spatial scale, resolution, over wide ranges of both horizontal and vertical scale. Focusing on the cases where both horizontal and vertical statistics have both been estimated from proximate data, we argue that the exponents are systematically different, reflecting lithospheric stratification which – while very strong at small scales – becomes less and less pronounced at larger and larger scales, but in a scaling manner. We then discuss the necessity for treating the fields as multifractals rather than monofractals, the latter being too restrictive a framework. We discuss the consequences of multifractality for geostatistics, we then discuss cascade processes in which the same dynamical mechanism repeats scale after scale over a range. Using the binomial model first proposed by de Wijs (1951 as an example, we discuss the issues of microcanonical versus canonical conservation, algebraic ("Pareto" versus long tailed (e.g. lognormal distributions, multifractal universality, conservative and nonconservative multifractal processes, codimension versus dimension formalisms. We compare and contrast different scaling models (fractional Brownian motion, fractional Levy motion, continuous (in scale cascades, showing that they are all based on fractional integrations of noises

  11. On multifractality of high-latitude geomagnetic fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Vörös

    model are observed when the influence of the solar wind fluctuations is examined. On this basis it is expected that an extended multifractal analysis of the singularity structure of near-Earth plasma system fluctuations would lead to improved geomagnetic diagnosis of the magnetospheric dynamics.

    Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions; storms and substorms

  12. Multifractals and Entropy Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Slomczynski, W; Zyczkowski, K; Slomczynski, Wojciech; Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Zyczkowski, Karol

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the properties of invariant measures corresponding to iterated function systems (IFSs) with place-dependent probabilities and compute their shown that with certain dynamical systems one can associate the corresponding IFSs in such a way that their generalized entropies are equal. We use this method to compute entropy of some classical and quantum dynamical systems. Numerical techniques are based on integration over fractal measures.

  13. Symmetry relations for multifractal spectra at random critical points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile; Berche, Bertrand; Chatelain, Christophe

    2009-12-01

    Random critical points are generically characterized by multifractal properties. In the field of Anderson localization, Mirlin et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 046803) have proposed that the singularity spectrum f(α) of eigenfunctions satisfies the exact symmetry f(2d-α) = f(α)+d-α. In the present paper, we analyze the physical origin of this symmetry in relation to the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation relations of large deviation functions that are well known in the field of non-equilibrium dynamics: the multifractal spectrum of the disordered model corresponds to the large deviation function of the rescaling exponent γ = (α-d) along a renormalization trajectory in the effective time t = lnL. We conclude that the symmetry discovered for the specific example of Anderson transitions should actually be satisfied at many other random critical points after an appropriate translation. For many-body random phase transitions, where the critical properties are usually analyzed in terms of the multifractal spectrum H(a) and of the moment exponents X(N) of the two-point correlation function (Ludwig 1990 Nucl. Phys. B 330 639), the symmetry becomes H(2X(1)-a) = H(a)+a-X(1), or equivalently Δ(N) = Δ(1-N) for the anomalous parts \\Delta (N) \\equiv X(N)-NX(1) . We present numerical tests favoring this symmetry for the 2D random Q-state Potts model with varying Q.

  14. Computational approach to multifractal music

    OpenAIRE

    Oświęcimka, Paweł; Kwapień, Jarosław; Celińska, Iwona; Drożdż, Stanisław; Rak, Rafał

    2011-01-01

    In this work we perform a fractal analysis of 160 pieces of music belonging to six different genres. We show that the majority of the pieces reveal characteristics that allow us to classify them as physical processes called the 1/f (pink) noise. However, this is not true for classical music represented here by Frederic Chopin's works and for some jazz pieces that are much more correlated than the pink noise. We also perform a multifractal (MFDFA) analysis of these music pieces. We show that a...

  15. Detrending moving average algorithm for multifractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-07-01

    The detrending moving average (DMA) algorithm is a widely used technique to quantify the long-term correlations of nonstationary time series and the long-range correlations of fractal surfaces, which contains a parameter θ determining the position of the detrending window. We develop multifractal detrending moving average (MFDMA) algorithms for the analysis of one-dimensional multifractal measures and higher-dimensional multifractals, which is a generalization of the DMA method. The performance of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional MFDMA methods is investigated using synthetic multifractal measures with analytical solutions for backward (θ=0) , centered (θ=0.5) , and forward (θ=1) detrending windows. We find that the estimated multifractal scaling exponent τ(q) and the singularity spectrum f(α) are in good agreement with the theoretical values. In addition, the backward MFDMA method has the best performance, which provides the most accurate estimates of the scaling exponents with lowest error bars, while the centered MFDMA method has the worse performance. It is found that the backward MFDMA algorithm also outperforms the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The one-dimensional backward MFDMA method is applied to analyzing the time series of Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index and its multifractal nature is confirmed.

  16. Multifractal Analysis of Typhoons: the case study of Bolaven (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisun; Paz, Igor; Ichiba, Abdellah; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel; Lee, Dong-In; Kuo, Hung-Chi

    2017-04-01

    Multifractals have become rather standard tools to analyze and simulate meteorological and hydrological data, especially radar data that have the rare advantage of providing space-time (3D+1) fields. However, in spite of their inherent capacity to deal with extreme multiscale phenomena like typhoons, as well as an increased availability of higher quality data, there had been not so many multifractal studies of typhoons since pioneering studies (Chygyrynsakaia et al 1994, Lazarev et al 1994), which relied on time series data obtained from 1D aircraft or balloon trajectories. This lack of new developments might have impeded significant progress in predicting typhoon evolution prediction. We therefore decided to jointly understand the dynamics and rainfall by multifractal space-time analysis with the help of the joint measurements of the Typhoon Bolaven by three Doppler S-band radars. This experimental set-up not only provided accurate estimates of the rainfall intensity, but also of the 3 components of the wind velocity. Typhoon Bolaven is one of the typhoons that caused the largest damages with severe rainfall all over Korea including Jeju Island with more than 250 mm in 2 days in 2012. It was regarded as the most powerful storm to strike the Korean Peninsula in nearly a decade, with wind gusts measured up to 186 km h-1. The three radars were respectively located in Gosan, and Seongsan, in Jeju Island, and Jindo, in southwest of Korea peninsula, i.e. all around the region where the typhoon intensity was the largest. The largest distance between the radars was approximately 100km, and the rainfall and wind velocity were estimated on a grid of 360×360×60 every ten minutes. The multifractal analysis of this large amount of data (space time Trace Method and Double Trace Method) was performed to better understand through scales the fast transformation of potential energy into kinetic energy and the premier role of convection. In particular, this analysis confirms power

  17. A robust method for estimating the multifractal wavelet spectrum in geophysical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolis, Orietta; Porro, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    The description of natural phenomena by an analysis of the statistical scaling laws is always a popular topic. Many studies aim to identify the fractal feature by estimating the self-similar parameter H, considered constant at different scales of observation. However, most real world data exhibit a multifractal structure, that is, the self-similarity parameter varies erratically with time. The multifractal spectrum provide an efficient tool for characterizing the scaling and singularity structures in signals and images, proving useful in numerous applications such as fluid dynamics, internet network traffic, finance, image analysis, texture synthesis, meteorology, and geophysics. In recent years, the multifractal formalism has been implemented with wavelets. The advantages of using the wavelet-based multifractal spectrum are: the availability of fast algorithms for wavelet transform, the locality of wavelet representations in both time and scale, and intrinsic dyadic self-similarity of basis functions. In this work we propose a robust Wavelet-based Multifractal Spectrum Estimator for the analysis of geophysical signals and satellite images. Finally, a simulation study and examples are considered to test the performances of the estimator.

  18. On the multifractal effects generated by monofractal signals

    CERN Document Server

    Grech, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    We study quantitatively the level of false multifractal signal one may encounter while analyzing multifractal phenomena in time series within multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The investigated effect appears as a result of finite length of used data series and is additionally amplified by the long-term memory the data eventually may contain. We provide the detailed quantitative description of such apparent multifractal background signal as a threshold in spread of generalized Hurst exponent values $\\Delta h$ or a threshold in the width of multifractal spectrum $\\Delta \\alpha$ below which multifractal properties of the system are only apparent, i.e. do not exist, despite $\\Delta\\alpha\

  19. The Virtual Mouse Brain: A Computational Neuroinformatics Platform to Study Whole Mouse Brain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melozzi, Francesca; Woodman, Marmaduke M; Jirsa, Viktor K; Bernard, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Connectome-based modeling of large-scale brain network dynamics enables causal in silico interrogation of the brain's structure-function relationship, necessitating the close integration of diverse neuroinformatics fields. Here we extend the open-source simulation software The Virtual Brain (TVB) to whole mouse brain network modeling based on individual diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)-based or tracer-based detailed mouse connectomes. We provide practical examples on how to use The Virtual Mouse Brain (TVMB) to simulate brain activity, such as seizure propagation and the switching behavior of the resting state dynamics in health and disease. TVMB enables theoretically driven experimental planning and ways to test predictions in the numerous strains of mice available to study brain function in normal and pathological conditions.

  20. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURE AND PRODUCT OF MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lau Ka-sing

    2003-01-01

    There is a well established multifractal theory for self-similar measures generated by non-overlapping contractive similutudes.Our report here concerns those with overlaps.In particular we restrict our attention to the important classes of self-similar measures that have matrix representations.The dimension spectra and the Lq-spectra are analyzed through the product of matrices.There are abnormal behaviors on the multifrac-tal structure and they will be discussed in detail.

  1. Multifractal Models, Intertrade Durations and Return Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Segnon, Mawuli Kouami

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers the application of multifractal processes in modeling financial time series. It aims to demonstrate the capacity and the robustness of the multifractal processes to better model return volatility and ultra high frequency financial data than both the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH)-type and autoregressive conditional duration (ACD) models currently used in research and practice. The thesis is comprised of four main parts that ...

  2. Multifractal analysis of charged particle distributions using horizontal visibility graph and sandbox algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Manna, S. K.; Haldar, P. K.; Singh, G.

    2017-03-01

    Horizontal visibility graphs (HVGs) and the sandbox (SB) algorithm usually applied for multifractal characterization of complex network systems that are converted from time series measurements, are used to characterize the fluctuations in pseudorapidity densities of singly charged particles produced in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides obtaining the degree distribution associated with event-wise pseudorapidity distributions, the common set of observables, typical of any multifractality measurement, are studied in 16O-Ag/Br and 32S-Ag/Br interactions, each at an incident laboratory energy of 200 GeV/nucleon. For a better understanding, we systematically compare the experiment with a Monte Carlo model simulation based on the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD). Our results suggest that the HVG-SB technique is an efficient tool that can characterize multifractality in multiparticle emission data, and in some cases, it is even superior to other methods more commonly used in this regard.

  3. Dynamic analysis of the human brain with complex cerebral sulci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jung-Ge; Huang, Bo-Wun; Ou, Yi-Wen; Yen, Ke-Tien; Wu, Yi-Te

    2016-07-03

    The brain is one of the most vulnerable organs inside the human body. Head accidents often appear in daily life and are easy to cause different level of brain damage inside the skull. Once the brain suffered intense locomotive impact, external injuries, falls, or other accidents, it will result in different degrees of concussion. This study employs finite element analysis to compare the dynamic characteristics between the geometric models of an assumed simple brain tissue and a brain tissue with complex cerebral sulci. It is aimed to understand the free vibration of the internal brain tissue and then to protect the brain from injury caused by external influences. Reverse engineering method is used for a Classic 5-Part Brain (C18) model produced by 3B Scientific Corporation. 3D optical scanner is employed to scan the human brain structure model with complex cerebral sulci and imported into 3D graphics software to construct a solid brain model to simulate the real complex brain tissue. Obtaining the normal mode analysis by inputting the material properties of the true human brain into finite element analysis software, and then to compare the simplified and the complex of brain models.

  4. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-03-31

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions.

  5. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions. PMID:28361962

  6. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions.

  7. The Virtual Brain: a simulator of primate brain network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eSanz Leon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present TheVirtualBrain (TVB, a neuroinformatics platform for full brainnetwork simulations using biologically realistic connectivity. This simulationenvironment enables the model-based inference of neurophysiological mechanismsacross different brain scales that underlie the generation of macroscopicneuroimaging signals including functional MRI (fMRI, EEG and MEG. Researchersfrom different backgrounds can benefit from an integrative software platformincluding a supporting framework for data management (generation,organization, storage, integration and sharing and a simulation core writtenin Python. TVB allows the reproduction and evaluation of personalizedconfigurations of the brain by using individual subject data. Thispersonalization facilitates an exploration of the consequences of pathologicalchanges in the system, permitting to investigate potential ways to counteractsuch unfavorable processes. The architecture of TVB supports interaction withMATLAB packages, for example, the well known Brain Connectivity Toolbox. TVBcan be used in a client-server configuration, such that it can be remotelyaccessed through the Internet thanks to its web-basedHTML5, JS and WebGL graphical user interface. TVB is alsoaccessible as a standalone cross-platform Python library and application, andusers can interact with the scientific core through the scripting interfaceIDLE, enabling easy modeling, development and debugging of the scientifickernel. This second interface makes TVB extensible by combining it with otherlibraries and modules developed by the Python scientific community. In this article, we describe the theoretical background and foundations that led to thedevelopment of TVB, the architecture and features of its major softwarecomponents as well as potential neuroscience applications.

  8. The Virtual Brain: a simulator of primate brain network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Leon, Paula; Knock, Stuart A; Woodman, M Marmaduke; Domide, Lia; Mersmann, Jochen; McIntosh, Anthony R; Jirsa, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    We present The Virtual Brain (TVB), a neuroinformatics platform for full brain network simulations using biologically realistic connectivity. This simulation environment enables the model-based inference of neurophysiological mechanisms across different brain scales that underlie the generation of macroscopic neuroimaging signals including functional MRI (fMRI), EEG and MEG. Researchers from different backgrounds can benefit from an integrative software platform including a supporting framework for data management (generation, organization, storage, integration and sharing) and a simulation core written in Python. TVB allows the reproduction and evaluation of personalized configurations of the brain by using individual subject data. This personalization facilitates an exploration of the consequences of pathological changes in the system, permitting to investigate potential ways to counteract such unfavorable processes. The architecture of TVB supports interaction with MATLAB packages, for example, the well known Brain Connectivity Toolbox. TVB can be used in a client-server configuration, such that it can be remotely accessed through the Internet thanks to its web-based HTML5, JS, and WebGL graphical user interface. TVB is also accessible as a standalone cross-platform Python library and application, and users can interact with the scientific core through the scripting interface IDLE, enabling easy modeling, development and debugging of the scientific kernel. This second interface makes TVB extensible by combining it with other libraries and modules developed by the Python scientific community. In this article, we describe the theoretical background and foundations that led to the development of TVB, the architecture and features of its major software components as well as potential neuroscience applications.

  9. A Mixed Generalized Multifractal Formalism For Vector Valued Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Mabrouk, Anouar Ben

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a mixed generalized multifractal formalism which extends the mixed multifractal formalism introduced by L. Olsen based on generalizations of the Hausdorff and packing measures. The validity of such a formalism is proved in some special cases.

  10. New Suns in the Cosmos. IV. The Multifractal Nature of Stellar Magnetic Activity in Kepler Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, D. B.; Nepomuceno, M. M. F.; Gomes de Souza, M.; Leão, I. C.; Das Chagas, M. L.; Costa, A. D.; Canto Martins, B. L.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we investigate the multifractal nature of a long-cadence time series observed by the Kepler mission for a sample of 34 M dwarf stars and the Sun in its active phase. Using the Multifractal Detrending Moving Average algorithm, which enables the detection of multifractality in nonstationary time series, we define a set of multifractal indices based on the multifractal spectrum profile as a measure of the level of stellar magnetic activity. This set of indices is given by the (A, {{Δ }}α , C, H)-quartet, where A, {{Δ }}α , and C are related to geometric features from the multifractal spectrum and the global Hurst exponent H describes the global structure and memorability of time series dynamics. As a test, we measure these indices and compare them with a magnetic index defined as S ph and verify the degree of correlation among them. First, we apply the Poincaré plot method and find a strong correlation between the index and one of the descriptors that emerges from this method. As a result, we find that this index is strongly correlated with long-term features of the signal. From the multifractal perspective, the index is also strongly linked to the geometric properties of the multifractal spectrum except for the H index. Furthermore, our results emphasize that the rotation period of stars is scaled by the H index, which is consistent with Skumanich’s relationship. Finally, our approach suggests that the H index may be related to the evolution of stellar angular momentum and a star’s magnetic properties.

  11. Multifractal analysis of heart rate variability and laser Doppler flowmetry fluctuations:comparison of results from different numerical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne; Buard, Benjamin; Chapeau-Blondeau, Francois; Rousseau, David [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Systemes Automatises (LISA), Universite d' Angers, 62 avenue Notre Dame du Lac, 49000 Angers (France); Mahe, Guillaume; Abraham, Pierre, E-mail: anne.humeau@univ-angers.f [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, UMR CNRS 6214-INSERM 771, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France)

    2010-10-21

    To contribute to the understanding of the complex dynamics in the cardiovascular system (CVS), the central CVS has previously been analyzed through multifractal analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) signals that were shown to bring useful contributions. Similar approaches for the peripheral CVS through the analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals are comparatively very recent. In this direction, we propose here a study of the peripheral CVS through a multifractal analysis of LDF fluctuations, together with a comparison of the results with those obtained on HRV fluctuations simultaneously recorded. To perform these investigations concerning the biophysics of the CVS, first we have to address the problem of selecting a suitable methodology for multifractal analysis, allowing us to extract meaningful interpretations on biophysical signals. For this purpose, we test four existing methodologies of multifractal analysis. We also present a comparison of their applicability and interpretability when implemented on both simulated multifractal signals of reference and on experimental signals from the CVS. One essential outcome of the study is that the multifractal properties observed from both the LDF fluctuations (peripheral CVS) and the HRV fluctuations (central CVS) appear very close and similar over the studied range of scales relevant to physiology.

  12. Multifractal analysis of heart rate variability and laser Doppler flowmetry fluctuations:comparison of results from different numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Anne; Buard, Benjamin; Mahé, Guillaume; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Abraham, Pierre

    2010-10-01

    To contribute to the understanding of the complex dynamics in the cardiovascular system (CVS), the central CVS has previously been analyzed through multifractal analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) signals that were shown to bring useful contributions. Similar approaches for the peripheral CVS through the analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals are comparatively very recent. In this direction, we propose here a study of the peripheral CVS through a multifractal analysis of LDF fluctuations, together with a comparison of the results with those obtained on HRV fluctuations simultaneously recorded. To perform these investigations concerning the biophysics of the CVS, first we have to address the problem of selecting a suitable methodology for multifractal analysis, allowing us to extract meaningful interpretations on biophysical signals. For this purpose, we test four existing methodologies of multifractal analysis. We also present a comparison of their applicability and interpretability when implemented on both simulated multifractal signals of reference and on experimental signals from the CVS. One essential outcome of the study is that the multifractal properties observed from both the LDF fluctuations (peripheral CVS) and the HRV fluctuations (central CVS) appear very close and similar over the studied range of scales relevant to physiology.

  13. Multifractal modelling of runoffs of karstic springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márkus, L.

    2003-04-01

    A new multifractal stochastic process, Terdik and Iglói call the Limit of the Integrated Superposition of Diffusion processes with Linear differential Generator (LISDLG) , has been defined for modelling network traffic multifractality. The process is stationary, and exhibits long range dependency or long memory. Its characteristic property is that its bispectrum is real. It serves as the basis of distinction e.g. from the superposition of Levy-processes driven Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Its further appealing property is that its finite dimensional distribution stems from multivariate Gamma, therefore it is inherently positive and skewed (and hence non-Gaussian). All together, this makes it a very promising candidate for modelling e.g. runoff data of springs or river flows. Quite recently Labat et al. (2002, J. of Hydrology, Vol 256, pp.176-195) pointed out multifractal properties of the runoff time series of French karstic springs. We show that runoff data of karstic springs in north-east Hungary possesses multifractal and cumulant-multifractal property as well as long range dependency and fit the above described LISDLG process, to model the phenomenon. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Nat. Sci. Research Fund OTKA, grant No.: T 032725.

  14. Multifractality and Network Analysis of Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yang, Chunbin; Han, Jihui; Su, Zhu; Zou, Yijiang

    2017-01-01

    Many models and real complex systems possess critical thresholds at which the systems shift dramatically from one sate to another. The discovery of early-warnings in the vicinity of critical points are of great importance to estimate how far the systems are away from the critical states. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and visibility graph method have been employed to investigate the multifractal and geometrical properties of the magnetization time series of the two-dimensional Ising model. Multifractality of the time series near the critical point has been uncovered from the generalized Hurst exponents and singularity spectrum. Both long-term correlation and broad probability density function are identified to be the sources of multifractality. Heterogeneous nature of the networks constructed from magnetization time series have validated the fractal properties. Evolution of the topological quantities of the visibility graph, along with the variation of multifractality, serve as new early-warnings of phase transition. Those methods and results may provide new insights about the analysis of phase transition problems and can be used as early-warnings for a variety of complex systems. PMID:28107414

  15. Brain Neurons as Quantum Computers:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershadskii, A.; Dremencov, E.; Bershadskii, J.; Yadid, G.

    The question: whether quantum coherent states can sustain decoherence, heating and dissipation over time scales comparable to the dynamical timescales of brain neurons, has been actively discussed in the last years. A positive answer on this question is crucial, in particular, for consideration of brain neurons as quantum computers. This discussion was mainly based on theoretical arguments. In the present paper nonlinear statistical properties of the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) of genetically depressive limbic brain are studied in vivo on the Flinders Sensitive Line of rats (FSL). VTA plays a key role in the generation of pleasure and in the development of psychological drug addiction. We found that the FSL VTA (dopaminergic) neuron signals exhibit multifractal properties for interspike frequencies on the scales where healthy VTA dopaminergic neurons exhibit bursting activity. For high moments the observed multifractal (generalized dimensions) spectrum coincides with the generalized dimensions spectrum calculated for a spectral measure of a quantum system (so-called kicked Harper model, actively used as a model of quantum chaos). This observation can be considered as a first experimental (in vivo) indication in the favor of the quantum (at least partially) nature of brain neurons activity.

  16. Changes in multifractal properties for stable angina pectoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Andrea; Martinis, Mladen; Krstačić, Goran; Vargović, Emil

    2005-12-01

    The multifractal approach has been applied to temporal fluctuations of heartbeat (RR) intervals, measured in various regimes of physical activity (ergometric data), taken from healthy subjects and those having stable angina pectoris (SAP). The problem we address here is whether SAP changes multifractality observed in healthy subjects. The G-moment method is used to analyse the multifractal spectrum. It is observed that both sets of data characterize multifractality, but a different trend in multifractal behaviour is found for SAP disease, under pronounced physical activity.

  17. Multifractal Framework Based on Blanket Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskaš, Milorad P.; Reljin, Irini S.; Reljin, Branimir D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes two local multifractal measures motivated by blanket method for calculation of fractal dimension. They cover both fractal approaches familiar in image processing. The first two measures (proposed Methods 1 and 3) support model of image with embedded dimension three, while the other supports model of image embedded in space of dimension three (proposed Method 2). While the classical blanket method provides only one value for an image (fractal dimension) multifractal spectrum obtained by any of the proposed measures gives a whole range of dimensional values. This means that proposed multifractal blanket model generalizes classical (monofractal) blanket method and other versions of this monofractal approach implemented locally. Proposed measures are validated on Brodatz image database through texture classification. All proposed methods give similar classification results, while average computation time of Method 3 is substantially longer. PMID:24578664

  18. Deformed symmetries in noncommutative and multifractional spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    We clarify the relation between noncommutative spacetimes and multifractional geometries where the spacetime dimension changes with the probed scale. In the absence of curvature and comparing the symmetries of both position and momentum space, we show that $\\kappa$-Minkowski spacetime and the commutative multifractional theory with $q$-derivatives are physically inequivalent but they admit several contact points that allow one to describe certain aspects of $\\kappa$-Minkowski noncommutative geometry as a multifractional theory and vice versa. Contrary to previous literature, this result holds without assuming any specific measure for $\\kappa$-Minkowski. More generally, no well-defined $\\star$-product can be constructed from the $q$-theory, although the latter does admit a natural noncommutative extension with a given deformed Poincar\\'e algebra. A similar no-go theorem may be valid for all multiscale theories with factorizable measures. Turning gravity on, we write the algebras of gravitational first-class co...

  19. Multifractals of investor behavior in stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabjin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze the nonlinear properties of investor activity using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) method. Using the aggregated trading volumes of buying, selling, and normalized net investor trading (NIT) to quantify the characteristics of trader behavior in the KOSPI market, we find that the cumulative distribution functions of all NIT time series, except for individual traders, follow a power-law distribution with an exponent in the range of 2.92 ≤ γ ≤ 3.87. To observe the nonlinear features of investor activity, we also calculate the multifractal spectra for the buyer, seller, and NIT data sets and find that a multifractal structure exists in all of the data, regardless of the investor type studied.

  20. Multifractal characteristics of titanium nitride thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ţălu Ştefan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a multi-scale microstructural characterization of three-dimensional (3-D micro-textured surface of titanium nitride (TiN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering in correlation with substrate temperature variation. Topographical characterization of the surfaces, obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis, was realized by an innovative multifractal method which may be applied for AFM data. The surface micromorphology demonstrates that the multifractal geometry of TiN thin films can be characterized at nanometer scale by the generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α. Furthermore, to improve the 3-D surface characterization according with ISO 25178-2:2012, the most relevant 3-D surface roughness parameters were calculated. To quantify the 3-D nanostructure surface of TiN thin films a multifractal approach was developed and validated, which can be used for the characterization of topographical changes due to the substrate temperature variation.

  1. Quantum processes, space-time representation and brain dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Sisir; Roy, Sisir; Kafatos, Menas

    2003-01-01

    The recent controversy of applicability of quantum formalism to brain dynamics has been critically analysed. The prerequisites for any type of quantum formalism or quantum field theory is to investigate whether the anatomical structure of brain permits any kind of smooth geometric notion like Hilbert structure or four dimensional Minkowskian structure for quantum field theory. The present understanding of brain function clearly denies any kind of space-time representation in Minkowskian sense. However, three dimensional space and one time can be assigned to the neuromanifold and the concept of probabilistic geometry is shown to be appropriate framework to understand the brain dynamics. The possibility of quantum structure is also discussed in this framework.

  2. Scale-free networks emerging from multifractal time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budroni, Marcello A.; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2017-05-01

    Methods connecting dynamical systems and graph theory have attracted increasing interest in the past few years, with applications ranging from a detailed comparison of different kinds of dynamics to the characterization of empirical data. Here we investigate the effects of the (multi)fractal properties of a signal, common in time series arising from chaotic dynamics or strange attractors, on the topology of a suitably projected network. Relying on the box-counting formalism, we map boxes into the nodes of a network and establish analytic expressions connecting the natural measure of a box with its degree in the graph representation. We single out the conditions yielding to the emergence of a scale-free topology and validate our findings with extensive numerical simulations. We finally present a numerical analysis on the properties of weighted and directed network projections.

  3. Scale-free networks emerging from multifractal time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budroni, Marcello A; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2017-05-01

    Methods connecting dynamical systems and graph theory have attracted increasing interest in the past few years, with applications ranging from a detailed comparison of different kinds of dynamics to the characterization of empirical data. Here we investigate the effects of the (multi)fractal properties of a signal, common in time series arising from chaotic dynamics or strange attractors, on the topology of a suitably projected network. Relying on the box-counting formalism, we map boxes into the nodes of a network and establish analytic expressions connecting the natural measure of a box with its degree in the graph representation. We single out the conditions yielding to the emergence of a scale-free topology and validate our findings with extensive numerical simulations. We finally present a numerical analysis on the properties of weighted and directed network projections.

  4. Multifractal properties of resistor diode percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenull, Olaf; Janssen, Hans-Karl

    2002-03-01

    Focusing on multifractal properties we investigate electric transport on random resistor diode networks at the phase transition between the nonpercolating and the directed percolating phase. Building on first principles such as symmetries and relevance we derive a field theoretic Hamiltonian. Based on this Hamiltonian we determine the multifractal moments of the current distribution that are governed by a family of critical exponents [psi(l)]. We calculate the family [psi(l)] to two-loop order in a diagrammatic perturbation calculation augmented by renormalization group methods.

  5. Dynamic causal modelling of brain-behaviour relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoux, L; Daunizeau, J

    2015-08-15

    In this work, we expose a mathematical treatment of brain-behaviour relationships, which we coin behavioural Dynamic Causal Modelling or bDCM. This approach aims at decomposing the brain's transformation of stimuli into behavioural outcomes, in terms of the relative contribution of brain regions and their connections. In brief, bDCM places the brain at the interplay between stimulus and behaviour: behavioural outcomes arise from coordinated activity in (hidden) neural networks, whose dynamics are driven by experimental inputs. Estimating neural parameters that control network connectivity and plasticity effectively performs a neurobiologically-constrained approximation to the brain's input-outcome transform. In other words, neuroimaging data essentially serves to enforce the realism of bDCM's decomposition of input-output relationships. In addition, post-hoc artificial lesions analyses allow us to predict induced behavioural deficits and quantify the importance of network features for funnelling input-output relationships. This is important, because this enables one to bridge the gap with neuropsychological studies of brain-damaged patients. We demonstrate the face validity of the approach using Monte-Carlo simulations, and its predictive validity using empirical fMRI/behavioural data from an inhibitory control task. Lastly, we discuss promising applications of this work, including the assessment of functional degeneracy (in the healthy brain) and the prediction of functional recovery after lesions (in neurological patients).

  6. Information dynamics of brain-heart physiological networks during sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, L.; Nollo, G.; Jurysta, F.; Marinazzo, D.

    2014-10-01

    This study proposes an integrated approach, framed in the emerging fields of network physiology and information dynamics, for the quantitative analysis of brain-heart interaction networks during sleep. With this approach, the time series of cardiac vagal autonomic activity and brain wave activities measured respectively as the normalized high frequency component of heart rate variability and the EEG power in the δ, θ, α, σ, and β bands, are considered as realizations of the stochastic processes describing the dynamics of the heart system and of different brain sub-systems. Entropy-based measures are exploited to quantify the predictive information carried by each (sub)system, and to dissect this information into a part actively stored in the system and a part transferred to it from the other connected systems. The application of this approach to polysomnographic recordings of ten healthy subjects led us to identify a structured network of sleep brain-brain and brain-heart interactions, with the node described by the β EEG power acting as a hub which conveys the largest amount of information flowing between the heart and brain nodes. This network was found to be sustained mostly by the transitions across different sleep stages, as the information transfer was weaker during specific stages than during the whole night, and vanished progressively when moving from light sleep to deep sleep and to REM sleep.

  7. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis on a time series of solar activity and PDO climate index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Fumio; Kai, Kenji; Morimoto, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    There is increasing interest in finding the relation between solar activity and climate change. In general, fractal properties may be observed in the time series of the dynamics of complex systems, such as solar activity and climate. This study investigates the relations among solar activity, geomagnetic activity, and climatic regime shift by performing a multifractal analysis. To investigate the change in multifractality, we apply a wavelet transform to time series. The change in fractality of the sunspot number (SSN) correlates closely with that of the solar polar field strength. For the SSN and solar polar field strength, a weak multifractality or monofractality is present at the maximum SSN, minimum SSN, and maximum solar polar field strength. A strong multifractality is present two years before the maximum SSN. The climatic regime shift occurs when the SSN increases and the disturbance of the geomagnetic activity is large. At the climatic regime shift, the changes in the fractality of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index and changes in that of the solar activity indices corresponded with each other. From the fractals point of view, we clarify the relations among solar activity, geomagnetic activity, and climatic regime shift. The formation of the magnetic field of the sunspots is correlated with the solar polar field strength. The solar activity seems to influence the climatic regime shift. These findings will contribute to investigating the relation between solar activity and climate change.

  8. Multifractal Solar EUV Intensity Fluctuations and their Implications for Coronal Heating Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Rivera, Y. J.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J.; Jennings, P. J.; Rappazzo, A. F.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the scaling properties of the long-range temporal evolution and intermittency of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamics Observatory intensity observations in four solar environments: an active region core, a weak emission region, and two core loops. We use two approaches: the probability distribution function (PDF) of time series increments and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Noise taints the results, so we focus on the 171 Å waveband, which has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The lags between pairs of wavebands distinguish between coronal versus transition region (TR) emission. In all physical regions studied, scaling in the range of 15-45 minutes is multifractal, and the time series are anti-persistent on average. The degree of anti-correlation in the TR time series is greater than that for coronal emission. The multifractality stems from long-term correlations in the data rather than the wide distribution of intensities. Observations in the 335 Å waveband can be described in terms of a multifractal with added noise. The multiscaling of the extreme-ultraviolet data agrees qualitatively with the radiance from a phenomenological model of impulsive bursts plus noise, and also from ohmic dissipation in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model for coronal loop heating. The parameter space must be further explored to seek quantitative agreement. Thus, the observational “signatures” obtained by the combined tests of the PDF of increments and the MF-DFA offer strong constraints that can systematically discriminate among models for coronal heating.

  9. Multiscale multifractal analysis of heart rate variability recordings with a large number of occurrences of arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierałtowski, J.; Żebrowski, J. J.; Baranowski, R.

    2012-02-01

    Human heart rate variability, in the form of time series of intervals between heart beats, shows complex, fractal properties. Recently, it was demonstrated many times that the fractal properties vary from point to point along the series, leading to multifractality. In this paper, we concentrate not only on the fact that the human heart rate has multifractal properties but also that these properties depend on the time scale in which the multifractality is measured. This time scale is related to the frequency band of the signal. We find that human heart rate variability appears to be far more complex than hitherto reported in the studies using a fixed time scale. We introduce a method called multiscale multifractal analysis (MMA), which allows us to extend the description of heart rate variability to include the dependence on the magnitude of the variability and time scale (or frequency band). MMA is relatively immune to additive noise and nonstationarity, including the nonstationarity due to inclusions into the time series of events of a different dynamics (e.g., arrhythmic events in sinus rhythm). The MMA method may provide new ways of measuring the nonlinearity of a signal, and it may help to develop new methods of medical diagnostics.

  10. The l1/2 law and multifractal topography: theory and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lovejoy

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Over wide ranges of scale, orographic processes have no obvious scale; this has provided the justification for both deterministic and monofractal scaling models of the earth's topography. These models predict that differences in altitude (Δh vary with horizontal separation (l as Δh ≈ lH. The scaling exponent has been estimated theoretically and empirically to have the value H=1/2. Scale invariant nonlinear processes are now known to generally give rise to multifractals and we have recently empirically shown that topography is indeed a special kind of theoretically predicted "universal" multifractal. In this paper we provide a multifractal generalization of the l1/2 law, and propose two distinct multifractal models, each leading via dimensional arguments to the exponent 1/2. The first, for ocean bathymetry assumes that the orographic dynamics are dominated by heat fluxes from the earth's mantle, whereas the second - for continental topography - is based on tectonic movement and gravity. We test these ideas empirically on digital elevation models of Deadman's Butte, Wyoming.

  11. Defining urban and rural regions by multifractal spectrums of urbanization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern of urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns associated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on the generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanization. The census data of America and China are adopted to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is not so much a positive analysis as a normative study, but it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  12. Spatial Characterization of Landscapes through Multifractal Analysis of DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evolution is driven by abiotic, biotic, and anthropic factors. The interactions among these factors and their influence at different scales create a complex dynamic. Landscapes have been shown to exhibit numerous scaling laws, from Horton’s laws to more sophisticated scaling of heights in topography and river network topology. This scaling and multiscaling analysis has the potential to characterise the landscape in terms of the statistical signature of the measure selected. The study zone is a matrix obtained from a digital elevation model (DEM (map 10 × 10 m, and height 1 m that corresponds to homogeneous region with respect to soil characteristics and climatology known as “Monte El Pardo” although the water level of a reservoir and the topography play a main role on its organization and evolution. We have investigated whether the multifractal analysis of a DEM shows common features that can be used to reveal the underlying patterns and information associated with the landscape of the DEM mapping and studied the influence of the water level of the reservoir on the applied analysis. The results show that the use of the multifractal approach with mean absolute gradient data is a useful tool for analysing the topography represented by the DEM.

  13. Defining Urban and Rural Regions by Multifractal Spectrums of Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-03-01

    The spatial pattern of the urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns correlated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on a generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanism. The census data of America and China are used to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is a normative study rather than a positive study, and it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  14. Dynamic reorganization of intrinsic functional networks in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Joanes; Preti, Maria Giulia; Bolton, Thomas A W; Buerge, Michaela; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Rudin, Markus

    2017-03-14

    Functional connectivity (FC) derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) allows for the integrative study of neuronal processes at a macroscopic level. The majority of studies to date have assumed stationary interactions between brain regions, without considering the dynamic aspects of network organization. Only recently has the latter received increased attention, predominantly in human studies. Applying dynamic FC (dFC) analysis to mice is attractive given the relative simplicity of the mouse brain and the possibility to explore mechanisms underlying network dynamics using pharmacological, environmental or genetic interventions. Therefore, we have evaluated the feasibility and research potential of mouse dFC using the interventions of social stress or anesthesia duration as two case-study examples. By combining a sliding-window correlation approach with dictionary learning, several dynamic functional states (dFS) with a complex organization were identified, exhibiting highly dynamic inter- and intra-modular interactions. Each dFS displayed a high degree of reproducibility upon changes in analytical parameters and across datasets. They fluctuated at different degrees as a function of anesthetic depth, and were sensitive indicators of pathology as shown for the chronic psychosocial stress mouse model of depression. Dynamic functional states are proposed to make a major contribution to information integration and processing in the healthy and diseased brain.

  15. Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schertzer, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Schertzer@enpc.fr; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia, E-mail: Ioulia.Tchiguirinskaia@enpc.fr [University Paris-Est, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, Hydrology Meteorology and Complexity HM& Co, Marne-la-Vallée (France)

    2015-12-15

    In the mid 1980s, the development of multifractal concepts and techniques was an important breakthrough for complex system analysis and simulation, in particular, in turbulence and hydrology. Multifractals indeed aimed to track and simulate the scaling singularities of the underlying equations instead of relying on numerical, scale truncated simulations or on simplified conceptual models. However, this development has been rather limited to deal with scalar fields, whereas most of the fields of interest are vector-valued or even manifold-valued. We show in this paper that the combination of stable Lévy processes with Clifford algebra is a good candidate to bridge up the present gap between theory and applications. We show that it indeed defines a convenient framework to generate multifractal vector fields, possibly multifractal manifold-valued fields, based on a few fundamental and complementary properties of Lévy processes and Clifford algebra. In particular, the vector structure of these algebra is much more tractable than the manifold structure of symmetry groups while the Lévy stability grants a given statistical universality.

  16. Deformed symmetries in noncommutative and multifractional spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Ronco, Michele

    2017-02-01

    We clarify the relation between noncommutative spacetimes and multifractional geometries, two quantum-gravity-related approaches where the fundamental description of spacetime is not given by a classical smooth geometry. Despite their different conceptual premises and mathematical formalisms, both research programs allow for the spacetime dimension to vary with the probed scale. This feature and other similarities led to ask whether there is a duality between these two independent proposals. In the absence of curvature and comparing the symmetries of both position and momentum space, we show that κ -Minkowski spacetime and the commutative multifractional theory with q -derivatives are physically inequivalent but they admit several contact points that allow one to describe certain aspects of κ -Minkowski noncommutative geometry as a multifractional theory and vice versa. Contrary to previous literature, this result holds without assuming any specific measure for κ -Minkowski. More generally, no well-defined ⋆-product can be constructed from the q -theory, although the latter does admit a natural noncommutative extension with a given deformed Poincaré algebra. A similar no-go theorem may be valid for all multiscale theories with factorizable measures. Turning gravity on, we write the algebras of gravitational first-class constraints in the multifractional theories with q - and weighted derivatives and discuss their differences with respect to the deformed algebras of κ -Minkowski spacetime and of loop quantum gravity.

  17. Multifractal vector fields and stochastic Clifford algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, Daniel; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia

    2015-12-01

    In the mid 1980s, the development of multifractal concepts and techniques was an important breakthrough for complex system analysis and simulation, in particular, in turbulence and hydrology. Multifractals indeed aimed to track and simulate the scaling singularities of the underlying equations instead of relying on numerical, scale truncated simulations or on simplified conceptual models. However, this development has been rather limited to deal with scalar fields, whereas most of the fields of interest are vector-valued or even manifold-valued. We show in this paper that the combination of stable Lévy processes with Clifford algebra is a good candidate to bridge up the present gap between theory and applications. We show that it indeed defines a convenient framework to generate multifractal vector fields, possibly multifractal manifold-valued fields, based on a few fundamental and complementary properties of Lévy processes and Clifford algebra. In particular, the vector structure of these algebra is much more tractable than the manifold structure of symmetry groups while the Lévy stability grants a given statistical universality.

  18. Complex brain networks: From topological communities to clustered dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lucia Zemanová; Gorka Zamora-López; Changsong Zhou; Jürgen Kurths

    2008-06-01

    Recent research has revealed a rich and complicated network topology in the cortical connectivity of mammalian brains. A challenging task is to understand the implications of such network structures on the functional organisation of the brain activities. We investigate synchronisation dynamics on the corticocortical network of the cat by modelling each node of the network (cortical area) with a subnetwork of interacting excitable neurons. We find that this network of networks displays clustered synchronisation behaviour and the dynamical clusters closely coincide with the topological community structures observed in the anatomical network. The correlation between the firing rate of the areas and the areal intensity is additionally examined. Our results provide insights into the relationship between the global organisation and the functional specialisation of the brain cortex.

  19. Analysis of Dynamic Brain Imaging Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, P

    1998-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques for probing brain function, including functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, intrinsic and extrinsic contrast optical imaging, and magnetoencephalography, generate large data sets with complex content. In this paper we develop appropriate techniques of analysis and visualization of such imaging data, in order to separate the signal from the noise, as well as to characterize the signal. The techniques developed fall into the general category of multivariate time series analysis, and in particular we extensively use the multitaper framework of spectral analysis. We develop specific protocols for the analysis of fMRI, optical imaging and MEG data, and illustrate the techniques by applications to real data sets generated by these imaging modalities. In general, the analysis protocols involve two distinct stages: `noise' characterization and suppression, and `signal' characterization and visualization. An important general conclusion of our study is the utility of a frequency-based repres...

  20. Enhanced repertoire of brain dynamical states during the psychedelic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Carhart-Harris, Robin; Leech, Robert; Nutt, David; Chialvo, Dante R

    2014-11-01

    The study of rapid changes in brain dynamics and functional connectivity (FC) is of increasing interest in neuroimaging. Brain states departing from normal waking consciousness are expected to be accompanied by alterations in the aforementioned dynamics. In particular, the psychedelic experience produced by psilocybin (a substance found in "magic mushrooms") is characterized by unconstrained cognition and profound alterations in the perception of time, space and selfhood. Considering the spontaneous and subjective manifestation of these effects, we hypothesize that neural correlates of the psychedelic experience can be found in the dynamics and variability of spontaneous brain activity fluctuations and connectivity, measurable with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy subjects were scanned before, during and after intravenous infusion of psilocybin and an inert placebo. Blood-Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) temporal variability was assessed computing the variance and total spectral power, resulting in increased signal variability bilaterally in the hippocampi and anterior cingulate cortex. Changes in BOLD signal spectral behavior (including spectral scaling exponents) affected exclusively higher brain systems such as the default mode, executive control, and dorsal attention networks. A novel framework enabled us to track different connectivity states explored by the brain during rest. This approach revealed a wider repertoire of connectivity states post-psilocybin than during control conditions. Together, the present results provide a comprehensive account of the effects of psilocybin on dynamical behavior in the human brain at a macroscopic level and may have implications for our understanding of the unconstrained, hyper-associative quality of consciousness in the psychedelic state. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Heideggerian dynamics and the monadological role of the 'between': A crossing with quantum brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Gordon

    2015-12-01

    Heideggerian theory is retrieved as a dynamics, the "Godly event" of das Ereignis ("enowning"), which is unexpectedly compatible with a version of quantum brain dynamics. In both the "between" (das Zwischen) has the fundamental role of the dis-closure that is Existenz. Heidegger's harsh critique of technology and science does not apply to revolutionary quantum brain dynamics. The crossing between Heidegger and quantum brain dynamics, as well as one fundamental ontological difference, illuminates both. To our surprise this difference turns out, contra Heidegger, to be monadological. The monadological conception is applied to long-standing problematics of measurement in quantum physics and consciousness in philosophy. Heideggerian Existenz is affirmed as fundamentally non-computational but is reformulated as a dynamical process of monadological dis-closure that radically deconstructs transcendent world. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Dynamic Data Visualization with Weave and Brain Choropleths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Patterson

    Full Text Available This article introduces the neuroimaging community to the dynamic visualization workbench, Weave (https://www.oicweave.org/, and a set of enhancements to allow the visualization of brain maps. The enhancements comprise a set of brain choropleths and the ability to display these as stacked slices, accessible with a slider. For the first time, this allows the neuroimaging community to take advantage of the advanced tools already available for exploring geographic data. Our brain choropleths are modeled after widely used geographic maps but this mashup of brain choropleths with extant visualization software fills an important neuroinformatic niche. To date, most neuroinformatic tools have provided online databases and atlases of the brain, but not good ways to display the related data (e.g., behavioral, genetic, medical, etc. The extension of the choropleth to brain maps allows us to leverage general-purpose visualization tools for concurrent exploration of brain images and related data. Related data can be represented as a variety of tables, charts and graphs that are dynamically linked to each other and to the brain choropleths. We demonstrate that the simplified region-based analyses that underlay choropleths can provide insights into neuroimaging data comparable to those achieved by using more conventional methods. In addition, the interactive interface facilitates additional insights by allowing the user to filter, compare, and drill down into the visual representations of the data. This enhanced data visualization capability is useful during the initial phases of data analysis and the resulting visualizations provide a compelling way to publish data as an online supplement to journal articles.

  3. Brain-to-Brain Synchrony Tracks Real-World Dynamic Group Interactions in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikker, Suzanne; Wan, Lu; Davidesco, Ido; Kaggen, Lisa; Oostrik, Matthias; McClintock, James; Rowland, Jess; Michalareas, Georgios; Van Bavel, Jay J; Ding, Mingzhou; Poeppel, David

    2017-05-08

    The human brain has evolved for group living [1]. Yet we know so little about how it supports dynamic group interactions that the study of real-world social exchanges has been dubbed the "dark matter of social neuroscience" [2]. Recently, various studies have begun to approach this question by comparing brain responses of multiple individuals during a variety of (semi-naturalistic) tasks [3-15]. These experiments reveal how stimulus properties [13], individual differences [14], and contextual factors [15] may underpin similarities and differences in neural activity across people. However, most studies to date suffer from various limitations: they often lack direct face-to-face interaction between participants, are typically limited to dyads, do not investigate social dynamics across time, and, crucially, they rarely study social behavior under naturalistic circumstances. Here we extend such experimentation drastically, beyond dyads and beyond laboratory walls, to identify neural markers of group engagement during dynamic real-world group interactions. We used portable electroencephalogram (EEG) to simultaneously record brain activity from a class of 12 high school students over the course of a semester (11 classes) during regular classroom activities (Figures 1A-1C; Supplemental Experimental Procedures, section S1). A novel analysis technique to assess group-based neural coherence demonstrates that the extent to which brain activity is synchronized across students predicts both student class engagement and social dynamics. This suggests that brain-to-brain synchrony is a possible neural marker for dynamic social interactions, likely driven by shared attention mechanisms. This study validates a promising new method to investigate the neuroscience of group interactions in ecologically natural settings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Multifractal characteristics of NDVI maps in space and time in the Community of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoca, Juan J. Martin; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite information has contributed to improve our understanding of the spatial variability of hydro-climatic and ecological processes. Vegetation activity is tightly coupled with climate, hydro-ecological fluxes, and terrain dynamics in river basins at a wide range of space-time scales (Scheuring and Riedi, 1994). Indices of vegetation activity are constructed using satellite information of reflectance of the relevant spectral bands which enhance the contribution of vegetation being Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) widely used. How can we study such a complex system? Multifractals and fractals are related techniques mainly used in physics to characterize the scaling behaviour of a system; they differ in that fractals look at the geometry of presence/absence patterns, while multifractals look at the arrangement of quantities such as population or biomass densities (Saravia et al., 2012). Scaling laws are an emergent general feature of ecological systems; they reflect constraints in their organization that can provide tracks about the underlying mechanisms (Solé and Bascompte, 2006). In this work, we have applied these techniques to study the spatial pattern through one year of NDVI maps. A rectangular area that includes the Community of Madrid and part of the surroundings, consisting of 300 x 280 pixels with a resolution of 500 x 500 m2 has been selected and monthly NDVI maps analyzed using the multifractal spectrum and the map of singularities (Cheng and Agterberg, 1996). The results show a cyclical pattern in the multifractal behaviour and singularity points related to river basin networks (Martín-Sotoca, 2014). References Cheng, Q. and Agterberg, F.P. (1996). Multifractal modeling and spatial statistics. Math. Geol. Vol 28, 1-16. Martín-Sotoca, J.J. (2014) Estructura Espacial de la Sequía en Pastos y sus Aplicaciones en el Seguro Agrario. Master Thesis, UPM (In Spanish). Saravia LA, Giorgi A, Momo F.: Multifractal growth in periphyton

  5. Multistability and metastability: understanding dynamic coordination in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, J A Scott

    2012-04-05

    Multistable coordination dynamics exists at many levels, from multifunctional neural circuits in vertebrates and invertebrates to large-scale neural circuitry in humans. Moreover, multistability spans (at least) the domains of action and perception, and has been found to place constraints upon, even dictating the nature of, intentional change and the skill-learning process. This paper reviews some of the key evidence for multistability in the aforementioned areas, and illustrates how it has been measured, modelled and theoretically understood. It then suggests how multistability--when combined with essential aspects of coordination dynamics such as instability, transitions and (especially) metastability--provides a platform for understanding coupling and the creative dynamics of complex goal-directed systems, including the brain and the brain-behaviour relation.

  6. Evidence of multifractality from emerging European stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraiani, Petre

    2012-01-01

    We test for the presence of multifractality in the daily returns of the three most important stock market indices from Central and Eastern Europe, Czech PX, Hungarian BUX and Polish WIG using the Empirical Mode Decomposition based Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We found that the global Hurst coefficient varies with the q coefficient and that there is multifractality evidenced through the multifractal spectrum. The exercise is replicated for the sample around the high volatility period corresponding to the last global financial crisis. Although no direct link has been found between the crisis and the multifractal spectrum, the crisis was found to influence the overall shape as quantified through the norm of the multifractal spectrum.

  7. Evidence of multifractality from emerging European stock markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Caraiani

    Full Text Available We test for the presence of multifractality in the daily returns of the three most important stock market indices from Central and Eastern Europe, Czech PX, Hungarian BUX and Polish WIG using the Empirical Mode Decomposition based Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We found that the global Hurst coefficient varies with the q coefficient and that there is multifractality evidenced through the multifractal spectrum. The exercise is replicated for the sample around the high volatility period corresponding to the last global financial crisis. Although no direct link has been found between the crisis and the multifractal spectrum, the crisis was found to influence the overall shape as quantified through the norm of the multifractal spectrum.

  8. Multifractal analysis of managed and independent float exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stošić, Darko; Stošić, Dusan; Stošić, Tatijana; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-06-01

    We investigate multifractal properties of daily price changes in currency rates using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We analyze managed and independent floating currency rates in eight countries, and determine the changes in multifractal spectrum when transitioning between the two regimes. We find that after the transition from managed to independent float regime the changes in multifractal spectrum (position of maximum and width) indicate an increase in market efficiency. The observed changes are more pronounced for developed countries that have a well established trading market. After shuffling the series, we find that the multifractality is due to both probability density function and long term correlations for managed float regime, while for independent float regime multifractality is in most cases caused by broad probability density function.

  9. Multifractality, efficiency analysis of Chinese stock market and its cross-correlation with WTI crude oil price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoyang; Wei, Yu; Ma, Feng

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the multifractality and efficiency degrees of ten important Chinese sectoral indices are evaluated using the methods of MF-DFA and generalized Hurst exponents. The study also scrutinizes the dynamics of the efficiency of Chinese sectoral stock market by the rolling window approach. The overall empirical findings revealed that all the sectoral indices of Chinese stock market exist different degrees of multifractality. The results of different efficiency measures have agreed on that the 300 Materials index is the least efficient index. However, they have a slight diffidence on the most efficient one. The 300 Information Technology, 300 Telecommunication Services and 300 Health Care indices are comparatively efficient. We also investigate the cross-correlations between the ten sectoral indices and WTI crude oil price based on Multifractal Detrended Cross-correlation Analysis. At last, some relevant discussions and implications of the empirical results are presented.

  10. Nano-Modeling and Computation in Bio and Brain Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Di Sia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of brain dynamics currently utilizes the new features of nanobiotechnology and bioengineering. New geometric and analytical approaches appear very promising in all scientific areas, particularly in the study of brain processes. Efforts to engage in deep comprehension lead to a change in the inner brain parameters, in order to mimic the external transformation by the proper use of sensors and effectors. This paper highlights some crossing research areas of natural computing, nanotechnology, and brain modeling and considers two interesting theoretical approaches related to brain dynamics: (a the memory in neural network, not as a passive element for storing information, but integrated in the neural parameters as synaptic conductances; and (b a new transport model based on analytical expressions of the most important transport parameters, which works from sub-pico-level to macro-level, able both to understand existing data and to give new predictions. Complex biological systems are highly dependent on the context, which suggests a “more nature-oriented” computational philosophy.

  11. ALTERED BRAIN MICROSTATE DYNAMICS IN ADOLESCENTS WITH NARCOLEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Morales Drissi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder caused by a loss of hypocretin-1 producing neurons in the hypothalamus. Previous neuroimaging studies have investigated brain function in narcolepsy during rest using positron emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. In addition to hypothalamic and thalamic dysfunction they showed aberrant prefrontal perfusion and glucose metabolism in narcolepsy. Given these findings in brain structure and metabolism in narcolepsy, we anticipated that changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI resting state network dynamics might also be apparent in patients with narcolepsy. The objective of this study was to investigate and describe brain microstate activity in adolescents with narcolepsy and correlate these to resting state networks using simultaneous fMRI and EEG. Sixteen adolescents (ages 13-20 with a confirmed diagnosis of narcolepsy were recruited and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Simultaneous EEG and fMRI data were collected during 10 minutes of wakeful rest. EEG data were analyzed for microstates, which are discrete epochs of stable global brain states obtained from topographical EEG analysis. Functional MRI data were analyzed for resting state networks. Data showed that narcolepsy patients were less likely than controls to spend time in a microstate which we found to be related to the default mode network and may suggest a disruption of this network that is disease specific. We concluded that adolescents with narcolepsy have altered resting state brain dynamics.

  12. A dynamic 4D probabilistic atlas of the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklisova-Murgasova, Maria; Aljabar, Paul; Srinivasan, Latha; Counsell, Serena J; Doria, Valentina; Serag, Ahmed; Gousias, Ioannis S; Boardman, James P; Rutherford, Mary A; Edwards, A David; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rueckert, Daniel

    2011-02-14

    Probabilistic atlases are widely used in the neuroscience community as a tool for providing a standard space for comparison of subjects and as tissue priors used to enhance the intensity-based classification of brain MRI. Most efforts so far have focused on static brain atlases either for adult or pediatric cohorts. In contrast to the adult brain the rapid growth of the neonatal brain requires an age-specific spatial probabilistic atlas to provide suitable anatomical and structural information. In this paper we describe a 4D probabilistic atlas that allows dynamic generation of prior tissue probability maps for any chosen stage of neonatal brain development between 29 and 44 gestational weeks. The atlas is created from the segmentations of 142 neonatal subjects at different ages using a kernel-based regression method and provides prior tissue probability maps for six structures - cortex, white matter, subcortical grey matter, brainstem, cerebellum and cerebro-spinal fluid. The atlas is publicly available at www.brain-development.org.

  13. Finite-size effect and the components of multifractality in transport economics volatility based on multifractal detrending moving average method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feier; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Miao, Yuqi; Lu, Chunxia

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of freight rate volatility characteristics attracts more attention after year 2008 due to the effect of credit crunch and slowdown in marine transportation. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis technique is employed to analyze the time series of Baltic Dry Bulk Freight Rate Index and the market trend of two bulk ship sizes, namely Capesize and Panamax for the period: March 1st 1999-February 26th 2015. In this paper, the degree of the multifractality with different fluctuation sizes is calculated. Besides, multifractal detrending moving average (MF-DMA) counting technique has been developed to quantify the components of multifractal spectrum with the finite-size effect taken into consideration. Numerical results show that both Capesize and Panamax freight rate index time series are of multifractal nature. The origin of multifractality for the bulk freight rate market series is found mostly due to nonlinear correlation.

  14. Generalized binomial multiplicative cascade processes and asymmetrical multifractal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q.

    2014-04-01

    The concepts and models of multifractals have been employed in various fields in the geosciences to characterize singular fields caused by nonlinear geoprocesses. Several indices involved in multifractal models, i.e., asymmetry, multifractality, and range of singularity, are commonly used to characterize nonlinear properties of multifractal fields. An understanding of how these indices are related to the processes involved in the generation of multifractal fields is essential for multifractal modeling. In this paper, a five-parameter binomial multiplicative cascade model is proposed based on the anisotropic partition processes. Each partition divides the unit set (1-D length or 2-D area) into h equal subsets (segments or subareas) and m1 of them receive d1 (> 0) and m2 receive d2 (> 0) proportion of the mass in the previous subset, respectively, where m1+m2 ≤ h. The model is demonstrated via several examples published in the literature with asymmetrical fractal dimension spectra. This model demonstrates the various properties of asymmetrical multifractal distributions and multifractal indices with explicit functions, thus providing insight into and an understanding of the properties of asymmetrical binomial multifractal distributions.

  15. Relationships of exponents in multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and conventional multifractal analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yu; Leung Yee; Yu Zu-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is a relatively new method of multifractal analysis. It is extended from detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA),which was developed for detecting the long-range correlation and the fractal properties in stationary and non-stationary time series. Although MF-DFA has become a widely used method,some relationships among the exponents established in the original paper seem to be incorrect under the general situation. In this paper,we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the invalidity of the expression τ(q)=qh(q)-1 stipulating the relationship between the multifractal exponent τ(q) and the generalized Hurst exponent h(q). As a replacement,a general relationship is established on the basis of the universal multifractal formalism for the stationary series as τ(q)=qh(q)-qH'-1,where H'is the nonconservation parameter in the universal multifractal formalism. The singular spectra,a and f (a),are also derived according to this new relationship.

  16. Nonlinear temperature effects on multifractal complexity of metabolic rate of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio A. Labra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex physiological dynamics have been argued to be a signature of healthy physiological function. Here we test whether the complexity of metabolic rate fluctuations in small endotherms decreases with lower environmental temperatures. To do so, we examine the multifractal temporal scaling properties of the rate of change in oxygen consumption r(VO2, in the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, assessing their long range correlation properties across seven different environmental temperatures, ranging from 0 °C to 30 °C. To do so, we applied multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA, finding that r(VO2 fluctuations show two scaling regimes. For small time scales below the crossover time (approximately 102 s, either monofractal or weak multifractal dynamics are observed depending on whether Ta  15 °C respectively. For larger time scales, r(VO2 fluctuations are characterized by an asymptotic scaling exponent that indicates multifractal anti-persistent or uncorrelated dynamics. For both scaling regimes, a generalization of the multiplicative cascade model provides very good fits for the Renyi exponents τ(q, showing that the infinite number of exponents h(q can be described by only two independent parameters, a and b. We also show that the long-range correlation structure of r(VO2 time series differs from randomly shuffled series, and may not be explained as an artifact of stochastic sampling of a linear frequency spectrum. These results show that metabolic rate dynamics in a well studied micro-endotherm are consistent with a highly non-linear feedback control system.

  17. Nonlinear temperature effects on multifractal complexity of metabolic rate of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovich, Jose M.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Complex physiological dynamics have been argued to be a signature of healthy physiological function. Here we test whether the complexity of metabolic rate fluctuations in small endotherms decreases with lower environmental temperatures. To do so, we examine the multifractal temporal scaling properties of the rate of change in oxygen consumption r(VO2), in the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, assessing their long range correlation properties across seven different environmental temperatures, ranging from 0 °C to 30 °C. To do so, we applied multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), finding that r(VO2) fluctuations show two scaling regimes. For small time scales below the crossover time (approximately 102 s), either monofractal or weak multifractal dynamics are observed depending on whether Ta  15 °C respectively. For larger time scales, r(VO2) fluctuations are characterized by an asymptotic scaling exponent that indicates multifractal anti-persistent or uncorrelated dynamics. For both scaling regimes, a generalization of the multiplicative cascade model provides very good fits for the Renyi exponents τ(q), showing that the infinite number of exponents h(q) can be described by only two independent parameters, a and b. We also show that the long-range correlation structure of r(VO2) time series differs from randomly shuffled series, and may not be explained as an artifact of stochastic sampling of a linear frequency spectrum. These results show that metabolic rate dynamics in a well studied micro-endotherm are consistent with a highly non-linear feedback control system.

  18. DynamicBC: a MATLAB toolbox for dynamic brain connectome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Wu, Guo-Rong; Xu, Qiang; Ji, Gong-Jun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guangming

    2014-12-01

    The brain connectome collects the complex network architectures, looking at both static and dynamic functional connectivity. The former normally requires stationary signals and connections. However, the human brain activity and connections are most likely time dependent and dynamic, and related to ongoing rhythmic activity. We developed an open-source MATLAB toolbox DynamicBC with user-friendly graphical user interfaces, implementing both dynamic functional and effective connectivity for tracking brain dynamics from functional MRI. We provided two strategies for dynamic analysis: (1) the commonly utilized sliding-window analysis and (2) the flexible least squares based time-varying parameter regression strategy. The toolbox also implements multiple functional measures including seed-to-voxel analysis, region of interest (ROI)-to-ROI analysis, and voxel-to-voxel analysis. We describe the principles of the implemented algorithms, and then present representative results from simulations and empirical data applications. We believe that this toolbox will help neuroscientists and neurologists to easily map dynamic brain connectomics.

  19. Clinical values of CT and dynamic CT in brain infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Soo Il; Jang, Do; Seo, Eun Joo; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-04-15

    With the advent of faster scan time and new computer program, a scanning technique called 'dynamic computed tomography' has become possible. Dynamic computed tomography consisted of performing multiple rapid sequence scans after injection of contrast material. The authors have evaluated the clinical usefulness of computed tomography and dynamic computed tomography of 93 patients with brain infarction and/or ischemia during the period of 17 months from April 1983 to August 1984 in Department of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital. The results were as follows; 1. The age distribution ranged from 18 years to 78 years. Among them the most common age group was between 50 years and 59 years (40.9%). 2. The sites of brain infarction were cerebral lobes (63 cases,68), basal ganglia (15 cases, 16.1%) and multiple sites (6 cases, 6.4%). The common affected site was middle cerebral artery territories. 3. The contrast enhancement of acute infarction was noted in 14 cases (17.5%) which occurred commonly between 3 days and 2 weeks from ictus. 4. The patterns of time-density curve in brain infarction and/or ischemia were as follow: a. Depression of slow wash-in phase was 20 cases (59%). b. Lower peak concentration was 17 cases (50%). c. Lower and delayed peak concentration was 7 cases (21%). d. No definite peak concentration was 6 cases (18%). First three patterns of time-density curve were thought as relatively characteristic curve of brain infarction and/or ischemia. 5. Two cases that showed negative findings on precontrast CT scan appeared to be positive findings as hypodensity on postcontrast CT scan and were confirmed as brain infarction by dynamic CT. 6. The diagnostic entity of dynamic CT scan were as follows; a. large artery thrombotic infarction were 23 cases (58%). b. lacnar infarction were 6 cases (15%). c. ischemia were 5 cases (13%). d. normal were 5 cases (13%). In six cases of lacunar infarction which was double hypodensity on pre

  20. Time-Varying Multifractal Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Loaded Coal Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaobin; Wang, Enyuan; Li, Zhonghui; Shen, Rongxi; Liu, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Dynamic collapses of deeply mined coal rocks are severe threats to miners. To predict the collapses more accurately using electromagnetic radiation (EMR), we investigate the time-varying multifractal characteristics and formation mechanism of EMR induced by underground coal mining. A series of uniaxial compression and multi-stage loading experiments with coal samples of different mechanical properties were carried out. The EMR signals during their damage evolution were monitored in real-time; the inherent law of EMR time series was analyzed by fractal theory. The results show that the time-varying multifractal characteristics of EMR are determined by damage evolutions process, the dissipated energy caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, fractal sliding and shearing can be regard as the fingerprint of various EMR micro-mechanics. Based on the Irreversible thermodynamics and damage mechanics, we introduced the damage internal variable, constructed the dissipative potential function and established the coupled model of the EMR and the dissipative energy, which revealed the nature of dynamic nonlinear characteristics of EMR. Dynamic multifractal spectrum is the objective response of EMR signals, thus it can be used to evaluate the coal deformation and fracture process.

  1. Brain-wide neuronal dynamics during motor adaptation in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Misha B; Li, Jennifer M; Orger, Michael B; Robson, Drew N; Schier, Alexander F; Engert, Florian; Portugues, Ruben

    2012-05-09

    A fundamental question in neuroscience is how entire neural circuits generate behaviour and adapt it to changes in sensory feedback. Here we use two-photon calcium imaging to record the activity of large populations of neurons at the cellular level, throughout the brain of larval zebrafish expressing a genetically encoded calcium sensor, while the paralysed animals interact fictively with a virtual environment and rapidly adapt their motor output to changes in visual feedback. We decompose the network dynamics involved in adaptive locomotion into four types of neuronal response properties, and provide anatomical maps of the corresponding sites. A subset of these signals occurred during behavioural adjustments and are candidates for the functional elements that drive motor learning. Lesions to the inferior olive indicate a specific functional role for olivocerebellar circuitry in adaptive locomotion. This study enables the analysis of brain-wide dynamics at single-cell resolution during behaviour.

  2. Particle-physics constraints on multifractal spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Rodríguez-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    We study electroweak interactions in the multiscale theory with $q$-derivatives, a framework where spacetime has the typical features of a multifractal. In the simplest case with only one characteristic time, length and energy scale $t_*$, $\\ell_*$, and $E_*$, we consider (i) the muon decay rate and (ii) the Lamb shift in the hydrogen atom, and constrain the corrections to the ordinary results. We obtain the independent absolute upper bounds (i) $t_* 35\\,\\text{MeV}$. Under some mild theoretical assumptions, the Lamb shift alone yields the even tighter ranges $t_*450\\,\\text{GeV}$. To date, these are the first robust constraints on the scales at which the multifractal features of the geometry can become important in a physical process.

  3. Quasicritical brain dynamics on a nonequilibrium Widom line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-García, Rashid V.; Moore, Mark; Beggs, John M.; Ortiz, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Is the brain really operating at a critical point? We study the nonequilibrium properties of a neural network which models the dynamics of the neocortex and argue for optimal quasicritical dynamics on the Widom line where the correlation length and information transmission are optimized. We simulate the network and introduce an analytical mean-field approximation, characterize the nonequilibrium phase transitions, and present a nonequilibrium phase diagram, which shows that in addition to an ordered and disordered phase, the system exhibits a "quasiperiodic" phase corresponding to synchronous activity in simulations, which may be related to the pathological synchronization associated with epilepsy.

  4. A multifractal formalism for countable alphabet subshifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meson, Alejandro [Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos (IFLYSIB), CONICET-UNLP-CICPBA and Grupo de Aplicaciones Matematicas y Estadisticas de la Facultad de Ingenieria (GAMEFI) UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: vericat@gw-iflysib.iflysib.unlp.edu.ar; Vericat, Fernando [Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos (IFLYSIB), CONICET-UNLP-CICPBA and Grupo de Aplicaciones Matematicas y Estadisticas de la Facultad de Ingenieria (GAMEFI) UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: meson@iflysib.unlp.edu.ar

    2009-01-15

    We study here the multifractal spectrum of local entropies for subshifts with an infinite alphabet. The description of this spectrum is obtained from the Legendre transform of a free energy map and Gibbs states associated with adequate potentials. The lack of compactness in the symbolic space necessitates modifications to the description for the compact case, i.e. for finite alphabet. In particular, the class of potentials must be restricted to a narrower one than that considered for the compact case.

  5. Complex multifractal nature in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Saurav; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Chirom, Keilash; Bhattacharya, Alok; Brojen Singh, R. K.

    2017-04-01

    The mutifractal and long range correlation (C(r)) properties of strings, such as nucleotide sequence can be a useful parameter for identification of underlying patterns and variations. In this study C(r) and multifractal singularity function f(α) have been used to study variations in the genomes of a pathogenic bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genomic sequences of M. tuberculosis isolates displayed significant variations in C(r) and f(α) reflecting inherent differences in sequences among isolates. M. tuberculosis isolates can be categorised into different subgroups based on sensitivity to drugs, these are DS (drug sensitive isolates), MDR (multi-drug resistant isolates) and XDR (extremely drug resistant isolates). C(r) follows significantly different scaling rules in different subgroups of isolates, but all the isolates follow one parameter scaling law. The richness in complexity of each subgroup can be quantified by the measures of multifractal parameters displaying a pattern in which XDR isolates have highest value and lowest for drug sensitive isolates. Therefore C(r) and multifractal functions can be useful parameters for analysis of genomic sequences.

  6. Probing Tissue Multifractality Using Wavelet based Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis: Applications in Precancer Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Jalpa; Ghosh, Sayantan; Pradhan, Asima; Sengupta, Tapas K; Panigrahi, Prasanta K; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2011-01-01

    The refractive index fluctuations in the connective tissue layer (stroma) of human cervical tissues having different grades of precancers (dysplasia) was quantified using a wavelet-based multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis model. The results show clear signature of multi-scale self-similarity in the index fluctuations of the tissues. Importantly, the refractive index fluctuations were found to be more anti-correlated at higher grades of precancers. Moreover, the strength of multifractality was also observed to be considerably weaker in higher grades of precancers. These results were further complemented by Fourier domain analysis of the spectral fluctuations.

  7. Brain activity correlates with emotional perception induced by dynamic avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Hagar; Christensen, Andrea; Flash, Tamar; Giese, Martin A; Malach, Rafael

    2015-11-15

    An accurate judgment of the emotional state of others is a prerequisite for successful social interaction and hence survival. Thus, it is not surprising that we are highly skilled at recognizing the emotions of others. Here we aimed to examine the neuronal correlates of emotion recognition from gait. To this end we created highly controlled dynamic body-movement stimuli based on real human motion-capture data (Roether et al., 2009). These animated avatars displayed gait in four emotional (happy, angry, fearful, and sad) and speed-matched neutral styles. For each emotional gait and its equivalent neutral gait, avatars were displayed at five morphing levels between the two. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while classifying the emotions and the emotional intensity levels expressed by the avatars. Our results revealed robust brain selectivity to emotional compared to neutral gait stimuli in brain regions which are involved in emotion and biological motion processing, such as the extrastriate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the amygdala (AMG). Brain activity in the amygdala reflected emotional awareness: for visually identical stimuli it showed amplified stronger response when the stimulus was perceived as emotional. Notably, in avatars gradually morphed along an emotional expression axis there was a parametric correlation between amygdala activity and emotional intensity. This study extends the mapping of emotional decoding in the human brain to the domain of highly controlled dynamic biological motion. Our results highlight an extensive level of brain processing of emotional information related to body language, which relies mostly on body kinematics.

  8. A copula-multifractal volatility hedging model for CSI 300 index futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu; Wang, Yudong; Huang, Dengshi

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new hedging model combining the newly introduced multifractal volatility (MFV) model and the dynamic copula functions. Using high-frequency intraday quotes of the spot Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SSEC), spot China Securities Index 300 (CSI 300), and CSI 300 index futures, we compare the direct and cross hedging effectiveness of the copula-MFV model with several popular copula-GARCH models. The main empirical results show that the proposed copula-MFV model obtains better hedging effectiveness than the copula-GARCH-type models in general. Furthermore, the hedge operating strategy based MFV hedging model involves fewer transaction costs than those based on the GARCH-type models. The finding of this paper indicates that multifractal analysis may offer a new way of quantitative hedging model design using financial futures.

  9. Forecasting volatility of SSEC in Chinese stock market using multifractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu; Wang, Peng

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, taking about 7 years’ high-frequency data of the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SSEC) as an example, we propose a daily volatility measure based on the multifractal spectrum of the high-frequency price variability within a trading day. An ARFIMA model is used to depict the dynamics of this multifractal volatility (MFV) measures. The one-day ahead volatility forecasting performances of the MFV model and some other existing volatility models, such as the realized volatility model, stochastic volatility model and GARCH, are evaluated by the superior prediction ability (SPA) test. The empirical results show that under several loss functions, the MFV model obtains the best forecasting accuracy.

  10. ROMA (Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analyses of intermittency in space plasmas – a brief tutorial review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent fluctuations are the consequence of the dynamic interactions of multiple coherent or pseudo-coherent structures of varied sizes in the stochastic media (Chang, 1999. We briefly review here a recently developed technique, the Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analysis (ROMA, which is both physically explicable and quantitatively accurate in deciphering the multifractal characteristics of such intermittent structures (Chang and Wu, 2008.

    The utility of the method is demonstrated using results obtained from large-scale 2-D MHD simulations as well as in-situ observations of magnetic field fluctuations from the interplanetary and magnetospheric cusp regions, and the broadband electric field oscillations from the auroral zone.

  11. Multifractal analysis of spot rates in tanker markets and their comparisons with crude oil markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyuan; Lan, Xiangang

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic features of the spot rates for VLCC/ULCC, Suezmax, Aframax, Panamax and Handysize tanker markets by means of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The Hurst exponents, especially the time-dependent Hurst exponents, of the daily rate returns are calculated to capture the fractal properties of these different tanker markets. The origins of multifractility in these markets are identified by comparing their multifractal scaling exponents based on the original data, the shuffled data and the surrogate data. Furthermore, the non-periodic cycles for these markets are detected by the V-statistic. Finally, the comparisons of the fractal properties between the tanker markets and the crude oil commodity markets suggest that the tanker markets are more fractal than their upstream counterparts.

  12. Surface characterization of proteins using multi-fractal property of heat-denatured aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Tapobrata; Mishra, Hrishikesh; Sarkar, Subrata; Misra, Krishna

    2008-01-01

    Multi-fractal property of heat-denatured protein aggregates (HDPA) is characteristic of its individual form. The visual similarity between digitally generated microscopic images of HDPA with that of surface-image of its individual X-ray structures in protein databank (PDB) displayed using Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) viewer is the basis of the study. We deigned experiments to view the fractal nature of proteins at different aggregate scales. Intensity based multi-fractal dimensions (ILMFD) extracted from various planes of digital microscopic images of protein aggregates were used to characterize HDPA into different classes. Moreover, the ILMFD parameters extracted from aggregates show similar classification pattern to digital images of protein surface displayed by VMD viewer using PDB entry. We discuss the use of irregular patterns of heat-denatured aggregate proteins to understand various surface properties in native proteins. PMID:18795110

  13. Is the efficiency of stock market correlated with multifractality? An evidence from the Shanghai stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Rongbao; Shao, Yanmin; Wang, Qingnan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an efficiency index and multifractality degree for financial markets, and investigate the dynamics of the relationship between the two indices for the Shanghai stock market employing the technique of rolling window. By using the DCCA cross-correlation coefficient, we find that, for the Shanghai stock market, the increase in the degree of market multifractality can lead to a lower degree of market efficiency before the equity division reforms, whereas it can result in a lower degree of market efficiency in the short-term and a higher degree of market efficiency in the long-term after the equity division reforms. This finding reflects the process of development of the Shanghai stock market and also provides strong evidence which supports Liu’s argument that the increase in the degree of market complexity can improve the market efficiency Liu (2009) [1].

  14. Degree distributions of the visibility graphs mapped from fractional Brownian motions and multifractal random walks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Xiaohui [School of Business, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [Research Center for Econophysics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Jiang Zhiqiang [School of Business, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [Research Center for Econophysics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [Chair of Entrepreneurial Risks, D-MTEC, ETH Zurich, Kreuplatz 5, CH-8032 Zurich (Switzerland); Zhou Weixing, E-mail: wxzhou@ecust.edu.c [School of Business, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [Research Center for Econophysics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [Engineering Research Center of Process Systems Engineering (Ministry of Education), East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [Research Center on Fictitious Economics and Data Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2009-10-12

    The dynamics of a complex system is usually recorded in the form of time series, which can be studied through its visibility graph from a complex network perspective. We investigate the visibility graphs extracted from fractional Brownian motions and multifractal random walks, and find that the degree distributions exhibit power-law behaviors, in which the power-law exponent alpha is a linear function of the Hurst index H of the time series. We also find that the degree distribution of the visibility graph is mainly determined by the temporal correlation of the original time series with minor influence from the possible multifractal nature. As an example, we study the visibility graphs constructed from three Chinese stock market indexes and unveil that the degree distributions have power-law tails, where the tail exponents of the visibility graphs and the Hurst indexes of the indexes are close to the alphaapproxH linear relationship.

  15. Dynamic pupillary exchange engages brain regions encoding social salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil A; Gray, Marcus A; Critchley, Hugo D

    2009-01-01

    Covert exchange of autonomic responses may shape social affective behavior, as observed in mirroring of pupillary responses during sadness processing. We examined how, independent of facial emotional expression, dynamic coherence between one's own and another's pupil size modulates regional brain activity. Fourteen subjects viewed pairs of eye stimuli while undergoing fMRI. Using continuous pupillometry biofeedback, the size of the observed pupils was varied, correlating positively or negatively with changes in participants' own pupils. Viewing both static and dynamic stimuli activated right fusiform gyrus. Observing dynamically changing pupils activated STS and amygdala, regions engaged by non-static and salient facial features. Discordance between observed and observer's pupillary changes enhanced activity within bilateral anterior insula, left amygdala and anterior cingulate. In contrast, processing positively correlated pupils enhanced activity within left frontal operculum. Our findings suggest pupillary signals are monitored continuously during social interactions and that incongruent changes activate brain regions involved in tracking motivational salience and attentionally meaningful information. Naturalistically, dynamic coherence in pupillary change follows fluctuations in ambient light. Correspondingly, in social contexts discordant pupil response is likely to reflect divergence of dispositional state. Our data provide empirical evidence for an autonomically mediated extension of forward models of motor control into social interaction.

  16. The origin of an increasing or decreasing multifractal spectrum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opheusden, van J.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The multifractal dimensionality Dq as a function of q expresses the distribution of measure over space. When all the moments scale with resolution in exactly the same way, we have a flat spectrum, and a single monofractal dimensionality. We argue that for multifractal spectra the scaling of the

  17. Econophysics vs Cardiophysics: the Dual Face of Multifractality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struzik, Z.R.

    2003-01-01

    Multifractality in physiological time series and notably in human adult heart rate has been primarily attributed to the Fourier phase ordering of the signal [1]. In contrast, the primary cause for the width of the multifractal spectrum in financial time series has recently been connected with fat-ta

  18. Financial market volatility and contagion effect: A copula-multifractal volatility approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wang; Wei, Yu; Lang, Qiaoqi; Lin, Yu; Liu, Maojuan

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach based on the multifractal volatility method (MFV) to study the contagion effect between the U.S. and Chinese stock markets. From recent studies, which reveal that multifractal characteristics exist in both developed and emerging financial markets, according to the econophysics literature we could draw conclusions as follows: Firstly, we estimate volatility using the multifractal volatility method, and find out that the MFV method performs best among other volatility models, such as GARCH-type and realized volatility models. Secondly, we analyze the tail dependence structure between the U.S. and Chinese stock market. The estimated static copula results for the entire period show that the SJC copula performs best, indicating asymmetric characteristics of the tail dependence structure. The estimated dynamic copula results show that the time-varying t copula achieves the best performance, which means the symmetry dynamic t copula is also a good choice, for it is easy to estimate and is able to depict both the upper and lower tail dependence structure. Finally, with the results of the previous two steps, we analyze the contagion effect between the U.S. and Chinese stock markets during the subprime mortgage crisis. The empirical results show that the subprime mortgage crisis started in the U.S. and that its stock market has had an obvious contagion effect on the Chinese stock market. Our empirical results should/might be useful for investors allocating their portfolios.

  19. Multifractal analysis of sentence lengths in English literary texts

    CERN Document Server

    Grabska-Gradzińska, Iwona; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświ\\kecimka, Paweł; Drożdż, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of 30 literary texts written in English by different authors. For each text, there were created time series representing length of sentences in words and analyzed its fractal properties using two methods of multifractal analysis: MFDFA and WTMM. Both methods showed that there are texts which can be considered multifractal in this representation but a majority of texts are not multifractal or even not fractal at all. Out of 30 books, only a few have so-correlated lengths of consecutive sentences that the analyzed signals can be interpreted as real multifractals. An interesting direction for future investigations would be identifying what are the specific features which cause certain texts to be multifractal and other to be monofractal or even not fractal at all.

  20. Assessment of petrophysical quantities inspired by joint multifractal approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Z Koohi; Jafari, G R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper joint multifractal random walk approach is carried out to analyze some petrophysical quantities for characterizing the petroleum reservoir. These quantities include Gamma emission (GR), sonic transient time (DT) and Neutron porosity (NPHI) which are collected from four wells of a reservoir. To quantify mutual interaction of petrophysical quantities, joint multifractal random walk is implemented. This approach is based on the mutual multiplicative cascade notion in the multifractal formalism and in this approach $L_0$ represents a benchmark to describe the nature of cross-correlation between two series. The analysis of the petrophysical quantities revealed that GR for all wells has strongly multifractal nature due to the considerable abundance of large fluctuations in various scales. The variance of probability distribution function, $\\lambda_{\\ell}^2$, at scale $\\ell$ and its intercept determine the multifractal properties of the data sets sourced by probability density function. The value of $\\...

  1. Cross-Correlations between Energy and Emissions Markets: New Evidence from Fractal and Multifractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-Jin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We supply a new perspective to describe and understand the behavior of cross-correlations between energy and emissions markets. Namely, we investigate cross-correlations between oil and gas (Oil-Gas, oil and CO2 (Oil-CO2, and gas and CO2 (Gas-CO2 based on fractal and multifractal analysis. We focus our study on returns of the oil, gas, and CO2 during the period of April 22, 2005–April 30, 2013. In the empirical analysis, by using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA method, we find that cross-correlations for Oil-Gas, Oil-CO2, and Gas-CO2 obey a power-law and are weakly persistent. Then, we adopt the method of DCCA cross-correlation coefficient to quantify cross-correlations between energy and emissions markets. The results show that their cross-correlations are diverse at different time scales. Next, based on the multifractal DCCA method, we find that cross-correlated markets have the nonlinear and multifractal nature and that the multifractality strength for three cross-correlated markets is arranged in the order of Gas-CO2 > Oil-Gas > Oil-CO2. Finally, by employing the rolling windows method, which can be used to investigate time-varying cross-correlation scaling exponents, we analyze short-term and long-term market dynamics and find that the recent global financial crisis has a notable influence on short-term and long-term market dynamics.

  2. Dynamic range in the C. elegans brain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    We study external electrical perturbations and their responses in the brain dynamic network of the Caenorhabditis elegans soil worm, given by the connectome of its large somatic nervous system. Our analysis is inspired by a realistic experiment where one stimulates externally specific parts of the brain and studies the persistent neural activity triggered in other cortical regions. In this work, we perturb groups of neurons that form communities, identified by the walktrap community detection method, by trains of stereotypical electrical Poissonian impulses and study the propagation of neural activity to other communities by measuring the corresponding dynamic ranges and Steven law exponents. We show that when one perturbs specific communities, keeping the rest unperturbed, the external stimulations are able to propagate to some of them but not to all. There are also perturbations that do not trigger any response. We found that this depends on the initially perturbed community. Finally, we relate our findings for the former cases with low neural synchronization, self-criticality, and large information flow capacity, and interpret them as the ability of the brain network to respond to external perturbations when it works at criticality and its information flow capacity becomes maximal.

  3. Multifractal Scaling of Grayscale Patterns: Lacunarity and Correlation Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A.; Perfect, E.

    2012-12-01

    While fractal models can characterize self-similarity in binary fields, comprised solely of 0's and 1's, the concept of multifractals is needed to quantify scaling behavior in non-binary grayscale fields made up of fractional values. Multifractals are characterized by a spectrum of non-integer dimensions, Dq (-∞ lacunarity, L, which characterizes the distribution of gaps or spaces in patterns, fractals, multifractals or otherwise, as a function of scale (or box-size, x). In the case of 2-dimensional multifractal fields, L has been shown to be theoretically related to the correlation dimension, D2, by dlog(L)/dlog(x) = D2 - 2. Therefore, it is hypothesized that lacunarity analysis can help in delineating multifractal behavior in grayscale patterns. In testing this hypothesis, a set of 2-dimensional multifractal grayscale patterns was generated with known D2 values, and then analyzed for lacunarity by employing the gliding-box algorithm. The D2 values computed using this analysis gave a 1:1 relationship with the known D2 values, thus empirically validating the theoretical relationship between L and D2. Lacunarity analysis was further used to evaluate the multifractal nature of natural grayscale images in the form of soil thin sections that had been previously classified as multifractals based on the standard box counting method. The results indicated that lacunarity analysis is a more sensitive indicator of multifractal behavior in natural grayscale patterns than the box counting approach. A weighted mean of the log-transformed lacunarity values at different scales was employed for differentiating between grayscale patterns with various degrees of scale dependent clustering attributes. This new measure, which expresses lacunarity as a single number, should prove useful to researchers who want to explore the correlative influence of texture on, for instance, flow and transport parameters. The advantage of using lacunarity instead of D2 in this context is that it can

  4. Multifractal age? Multifractal analysis of cardiac interbeat intervals in assessing of healthy aging

    CERN Document Server

    Makowiec, Danuta; Wdowczyk-Szulc, Joanna; Zarczynska-Buchowiecka, Marta; Gruchal, Marcin; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    24-hour Holter recordings of 124 healthy people at different age are studied. The nocturnal signals of young people reveal the presence of the multiplicative structure. This structure is significantly weaker in diurnal signals and becomes less evident for elderly people. Multifractal analysis allows us to propose qualitative and quantitative methods to estimate the advancement of the aging process for healthy humans.

  5. Dynamics of brain networks in the aesthetic appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; García-Prieto, Juan; Ramasco, José J.; Mirasso, Claudio R.; Bajo, Ricardo; Munar, Enric; Flexas, Albert; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimage experiments have been essential for identifying active brain networks. During cognitive tasks as in, e.g., aesthetic appreciation, such networks include regions that belong to the default mode network (DMN). Theoretically, DMN activity should be interrupted during cognitive tasks demanding attention, as is the case for aesthetic appreciation. Analyzing the functional connectivity dynamics along three temporal windows and two conditions, beautiful and not beautiful stimuli, here we report experimental support for the hypothesis that aesthetic appreciation relies on the activation of two different networks, an initial aesthetic network and a delayed aesthetic network, engaged within distinct time frames. Activation of the DMN might correspond mainly to the delayed aesthetic network. We discuss adaptive and evolutionary explanations for the relationships existing between the DMN and aesthetic networks and offer unique inputs to debates on the mind/brain interaction. PMID:23754437

  6. The role of symmetry in the regulation of brain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Evelyn; Giusti, Chad; Cieslak, Matthew; Grafton, Scott; Bassett, Danielle

    Synchronous neural processes regulate a wide range of behaviors from attention to learning. Yet structural constraints on these processes are far from understood. We draw on new theoretical links between structural symmetries and the control of synchronous function, to offer a reconceptualization of the relationships between brain structure and function in human and non-human primates. By classifying 3-node motifs in macaque connectivity data, we find the most prevalent motifs can theoretically ensure a diversity of function including strict synchrony as well as control to arbitrary states. The least prevalent motifs are theoretically controllable to arbitrary states, which may not be desirable in a biological system. In humans, regions with high topological similarity of connections (a continuous notion related to symmetry) are most commonly found in fronto-parietal systems, which may account for their critical role in cognitive control. Collectively, our work underscores the role of symmetry and topological similarity in regulating dynamics of brain function.

  7. Dynamics of brain networks in the aesthetic appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela-Conde, Camilo J; García-Prieto, Juan; Ramasco, José J; Mirasso, Claudio R; Bajo, Ricardo; Munar, Enric; Flexas, Albert; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2013-06-18

    Neuroimage experiments have been essential for identifying active brain networks. During cognitive tasks as in, e.g., aesthetic appreciation, such networks include regions that belong to the default mode network (DMN). Theoretically, DMN activity should be interrupted during cognitive tasks demanding attention, as is the case for aesthetic appreciation. Analyzing the functional connectivity dynamics along three temporal windows and two conditions, beautiful and not beautiful stimuli, here we report experimental support for the hypothesis that aesthetic appreciation relies on the activation of two different networks, an initial aesthetic network and a delayed aesthetic network, engaged within distinct time frames. Activation of the DMN might correspond mainly to the delayed aesthetic network. We discuss adaptive and evolutionary explanations for the relationships existing between the DMN and aesthetic networks and offer unique inputs to debates on the mind/brain interaction.

  8. Multi-dimensional dynamics of human electromagnetic brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo eKida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency, which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain.

  9. Multi-Dimensional Dynamics of Human Electromagnetic Brain Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) are invaluable neuroscientific tools for unveiling human neural dynamics in three dimensions (space, time, and frequency), which are associated with a wide variety of perceptions, cognition, and actions. MEG/EEG also provides different categories of neuronal indices including activity magnitude, connectivity, and network properties along the three dimensions. In the last 20 years, interest has increased in inter-regional connectivity and complex network properties assessed by various sophisticated scientific analyses. We herein review the definition, computation, short history, and pros and cons of connectivity and complex network (graph-theory) analyses applied to MEG/EEG signals. We briefly describe recent developments in source reconstruction algorithms essential for source-space connectivity and network analyses. Furthermore, we discuss a relatively novel approach used in MEG/EEG studies to examine the complex dynamics represented by human brain activity. The correct and effective use of these neuronal metrics provides a new insight into the multi-dimensional dynamics of the neural representations of various functions in the complex human brain.

  10. Hypobaric Hypoxia Imbalances Mitochondrial Dynamics in Rat Brain Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain is predominantly susceptible to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction during hypobaric hypoxia, and therefore undergoes neurodegeneration due to energy crisis. Evidences illustrate a high degree of association for mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial fusion/fission is a recently reported dynamic mechanism which frequently occurs among cellular mitochondrial network. Hence, the study investigated the temporal alteration and involvement of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission along with disturbed mitochondrial functionality during chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH. The Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to simulated high altitude equivalent to 25000 ft for 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Mitochondrial morphology, distribution within neurons, enzyme activity of respiratory complexes, Δψm, ADP: ATP, and expression of fission/fusion key proteins were determined. Results demonstrated HH induced alteration in mitochondrial morphology by damaged, small mitochondria observed in neurons with disturbance of mitochondrial functionality and reduced mitochondrial density in neuronal processes manifested by excessive mitochondrial fragmentation (fission and decreased mitochondrial fusion as compared to unexposed rat brain hippocampus. The study suggested that imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics is one of the noteworthy mechanisms occurring in hippocampal neurons during HH insult.

  11. The Nonrandom Brain: Efficiency, Economy, and Complex Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eSporns

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern anatomical tracing and imaging techniques are beginning to reveal the structural anatomy of neural circuits at small and large scales in unprecedented detail. When examined with analytic tools from graph theory and network science, neural connectivity exhibits highly nonrandom features, including high clustering and short path length, as well as modules and highly central hub nodes. These characteristic topological features of neural connections shape nonrandom dynamic interactions that occur during spontaneous activity or in response to external stimulation. Disturbances of connectivity and thus of neural dynamics are thought to underlie a number of disease states of the brain, and some evidence suggests that degraded functional performance of brain networks may be the outcome of a process of randomization affecting their nodes and edges. This article provides a survey of the nonrandom structure of neural connectivity, primarily at the large-scale of regions and pathways in the mammalian cerebral cortex. In addition, we will discuss how nonrandom connections can give rise to differentiated and complex patterns of dynamics and information flow. Finally, we will explore the idea that at least some disorders of the nervous system are associated with increased randomness of neural connections.

  12. Nonlinear Dynamic Theory of Acute Cell Injuries and Brain Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Doaa; Anggraini, Fika; Degracia, Donald; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia in the form of stroke and cardiac arrest brain damage affect over 1 million people per year in the USA alone. In spite of close to 200 clinical trials and decades of research, there are no treatments to stop post-ischemic neuron death. We have argued that a major weakness of current brain ischemia research is lack of a deductive theoretical framework of acute cell injury to guide empirical studies. A previously published autonomous model based on the concept of nonlinear dynamic network was shown to capture important facets of cell injury, linking the concept of therapeutic to bistable dynamics. Here we present an improved, non-autonomous formulation of the nonlinear dynamic model of cell injury that allows multiple acute injuries over time, thereby allowing simulations of both therapeutic treatment and preconditioning. Our results are connected to the experimental data of gene expression and proteomics of neuron cells. Importantly, this new model may be construed as a novel approach to pharmacodynamics of acute cell injury. The model makes explicit that any pro-survival therapy is always a form of sub-lethal injury. This insight is expected to widely influence treatment of acute injury conditions that have defied successful treatment to date. This work is supported by NIH NINDS (NS081347) and Wayne State University President's Research Enhancement Award.

  13. Do resting brain dynamics predict oddball evoked-potential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tien-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oddball paradigm is widely applied to the investigation of cognitive function in neuroscience and in neuropsychiatry. Whether cortical oscillation in the resting state can predict the elicited oddball event-related potential (ERP is still not clear. This study explored the relationship between resting electroencephalography (EEG and oddball ERPs. The regional powers of 18 electrodes across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were correlated with the amplitude and latency of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components of oddball ERPs. A multivariate analysis based on partial least squares (PLS was applied to further examine the spatial pattern revealed by multiple correlations. Results Higher synchronization in the resting state, especially at the alpha spectrum, is associated with higher neural responsiveness and faster neural propagation, as indicated by the higher amplitude change of N1/N2 and shorter latency of P2. None of the resting quantitative EEG indices predict P3 latency and amplitude. The PLS analysis confirms that the resting cortical dynamics which explains N1/N2 amplitude and P2 latency does not show regional specificity, indicating a global property of the brain. Conclusions This study differs from previous approaches by relating dynamics in the resting state to neural responsiveness in the activation state. Our analyses suggest that the neural characteristics carried by resting brain dynamics modulate the earlier/automatic stage of target detection.

  14. Scale-free avalanches in the multifractal random walk

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolozzi, M

    2007-01-01

    Avalanches, or Avalanche-like, events are often observed in the dynamical behaviour of many complex systems which span from solar flaring to the Earth's crust dynamics and from traffic flows to financial markets. Self-organized criticality (SOC) is one of the most popular theories able to explain this intermittent charge/discharge behaviour. Despite a large amount of theoretical work, empirical tests for SOC are still in their infancy. In the present paper we address the common problem of revealing SOC from a simple time series without having much information about the underlying system. As a working example we use a modified version of the multifractal random walk originally proposed as a model for the stock market dynamics. The study reveals, despite the lack of the typical ingredients of SOC, an avalanche-like dynamics similar to that of many physical systems. While, on one hand, the results confirm the relevance of cascade models in representing turbulent-like phenomena, on the other, they also raise the ...

  15. Scale-free avalanches in the multifractal random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, M.

    2007-06-01

    Avalanches, or Avalanche-like, events are often observed in the dynamical behaviour of many complex systems which span from solar flaring to the Earth's crust dynamics and from traffic flows to financial markets. Self-organized criticality (SOC) is one of the most popular theories able to explain this intermittent charge/discharge behaviour. Despite a large amount of theoretical work, empirical tests for SOC are still in their infancy. In the present paper we address the common problem of revealing SOC from a simple time series without having much information about the underlying system. As a working example we use a modified version of the multifractal random walk originally proposed as a model for the stock market dynamics. The study reveals, despite the lack of the typical ingredients of SOC, an avalanche-like dynamics similar to that of many physical systems. While, on one hand, the results confirm the relevance of cascade models in representing turbulent-like phenomena, on the other, they also raise the question about the current state of reliability of SOC inference from time series analysis.

  16. Dynamic effective connectivity of inter-areal brain circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Battaglia

    Full Text Available Anatomic connections between brain areas affect information flow between neuronal circuits and the synchronization of neuronal activity. However, such structural connectivity does not coincide with effective connectivity (or, more precisely, causal connectivity, related to the elusive question "Which areas cause the present activity of which others?". Effective connectivity is directed and depends flexibly on contexts and tasks. Here we show that dynamic effective connectivity can emerge from transitions in the collective organization of coherent neural activity. Integrating simulation and semi-analytic approaches, we study mesoscale network motifs of interacting cortical areas, modeled as large random networks of spiking neurons or as simple rate units. Through a causal analysis of time-series of model neural activity, we show that different dynamical states generated by a same structural connectivity motif correspond to distinct effective connectivity motifs. Such effective motifs can display a dominant directionality, due to spontaneous symmetry breaking and effective entrainment between local brain rhythms, although all connections in the considered structural motifs are reciprocal. We show then that transitions between effective connectivity configurations (like, for instance, reversal in the direction of inter-areal interactions can be triggered reliably by brief perturbation inputs, properly timed with respect to an ongoing local oscillation, without the need for plastic synaptic changes. Finally, we analyze how the information encoded in spiking patterns of a local neuronal population is propagated across a fixed structural connectivity motif, demonstrating that changes in the active effective connectivity regulate both the efficiency and the directionality of information transfer. Previous studies stressed the role played by coherent oscillations in establishing efficient communication between distant areas. Going beyond these early

  17. Dynamic Effective Connectivity of Inter-Areal Brain Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Demian; Witt, Annette; Wolf, Fred; Geisel, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Anatomic connections between brain areas affect information flow between neuronal circuits and the synchronization of neuronal activity. However, such structural connectivity does not coincide with effective connectivity (or, more precisely, causal connectivity), related to the elusive question “Which areas cause the present activity of which others?”. Effective connectivity is directed and depends flexibly on contexts and tasks. Here we show that dynamic effective connectivity can emerge from transitions in the collective organization of coherent neural activity. Integrating simulation and semi-analytic approaches, we study mesoscale network motifs of interacting cortical areas, modeled as large random networks of spiking neurons or as simple rate units. Through a causal analysis of time-series of model neural activity, we show that different dynamical states generated by a same structural connectivity motif correspond to distinct effective connectivity motifs. Such effective motifs can display a dominant directionality, due to spontaneous symmetry breaking and effective entrainment between local brain rhythms, although all connections in the considered structural motifs are reciprocal. We show then that transitions between effective connectivity configurations (like, for instance, reversal in the direction of inter-areal interactions) can be triggered reliably by brief perturbation inputs, properly timed with respect to an ongoing local oscillation, without the need for plastic synaptic changes. Finally, we analyze how the information encoded in spiking patterns of a local neuronal population is propagated across a fixed structural connectivity motif, demonstrating that changes in the active effective connectivity regulate both the efficiency and the directionality of information transfer. Previous studies stressed the role played by coherent oscillations in establishing efficient communication between distant areas. Going beyond these early proposals, we

  18. Disturbed temporal dynamics of brain synchronization in vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Michał; Gall, Carolin; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2015-06-01

    Damage along the visual pathway prevents bottom-up visual input from reaching further processing stages and consequently leads to loss of vision. But perception is not a simple bottom-up process - rather it emerges from activity of widespread cortical networks which coordinate visual processing in space and time. Here we set out to study how vision loss affects activity of brain visual networks and how networks' activity is related to perception. Specifically, we focused on studying temporal patterns of brain activity. To this end, resting-state eyes-closed EEG was recorded from partially blind patients suffering from chronic retina and/or optic-nerve damage (n = 19) and healthy controls (n = 13). Amplitude (power) of oscillatory activity and phase locking value (PLV) were used as measures of local and distant synchronization, respectively. Synchronization time series were created for the low- (7-9 Hz) and high-alpha band (11-13 Hz) and analyzed with three measures of temporal patterns: (i) length of synchronized-/desynchronized-periods, (ii) Higuchi Fractal Dimension (HFD), and (iii) Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). We revealed that patients exhibit less complex, more random and noise-like temporal dynamics of high-alpha band activity. More random temporal patterns were associated with worse performance in static (r = -.54, p = .017) and kinetic perimetry (r = .47, p = .041). We conclude that disturbed temporal patterns of neural synchronization in vision loss patients indicate disrupted communication within brain visual networks caused by prolonged deafferentation. We propose that because the state of brain networks is essential for normal perception, impaired brain synchronization in patients with vision loss might aggravate the functional consequences of reduced visual input. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain dynamics of meal size selection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepel, Ulrike; Bielser, Marie-Laure; Forde, Ciaran; Martin, Nathalie; Voirin, Alexandre; le Coutre, Johannes; Murray, Micah M; Hudry, Julie

    2015-06-01

    Although neuroimaging research has evidenced specific responses to visual food stimuli based on their nutritional quality (e.g., energy density, fat content), brain processes underlying portion size selection remain largely unexplored. We identified spatio-temporal brain dynamics in response to meal images varying in portion size during a task of ideal portion selection for prospective lunch intake and expected satiety. Brain responses to meal portions judged by the participants as 'too small', 'ideal' and 'too big' were measured by means of electro-encephalographic (EEG) recordings in 21 normal-weight women. During an early stage of meal viewing (105-145 ms), data showed an incremental increase of the head-surface global electric field strength (quantified via global field power; GFP) as portion judgments ranged from 'too small' to 'too big'. Estimations of neural source activity revealed that brain regions underlying this effect were located in the insula, middle frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, and are similar to those reported in previous studies investigating responses to changes in food nutritional content. In contrast, during a later stage (230-270 ms), GFP was maximal for the 'ideal' relative to the 'non-ideal' portion sizes. Greater neural source activity to 'ideal' vs. 'non-ideal' portion sizes was observed in the inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus and mid-posterior cingulate gyrus. Collectively, our results provide evidence that several brain regions involved in attention and adaptive behavior track 'ideal' meal portion sizes as early as 230 ms during visual encounter. That is, responses do not show an increase paralleling the amount of food viewed (and, in extension, the amount of reward), but are shaped by regulatory mechanisms.

  20. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of financial market efficiency: Comparison using Dow Jones sector ETF indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aviral Kumar; Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2017-10-01

    This study challenges the efficient market hypothesis, relying on the Dow Jones sector Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) indices. For this purpose, we use the generalized Hurst exponent and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) methods, using daily data over the timespan from 2000 to 2015. We compare the sector ETF indices in terms of market efficiency between short- and long-run horizons, small and large fluctuations, and before and after the global financial crisis (GFC). Our findings can be summarized as follows. First, there is clear evidence that the sector ETF markets are multifractal in nature. We also find a crossover in the multifractality of sector ETF market dynamics. Second, the utilities and consumer goods sector ETF markets are more efficient compared with the financial and telecommunications sector ETF markets, in terms of price prediction. Third, there are noteworthy discrepancies in terms of market efficiency, between the short- and long-term horizons. Fourth, the ETF market efficiency is considerably diminished after the global financial crisis.

  1. Identification of intermittent multifractal turbulence in fully kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardis, E; Chapman, S C; Daughton, W; Roytershteyn, V; Karimabadi, H

    2013-05-17

    Recent fully nonlinear, kinetic three-dimensional simulations of magnetic reconnection [W. Daughton et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 539 (2011)] evolve structures and exhibit dynamics on multiple scales, in a manner reminiscent of turbulence. These simulations of reconnection are among the first to be performed at sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to allow formal quantitative analysis of statistical scaling, which we present here. We find that the magnetic field fluctuations generated by reconnection are anisotropic, have nontrivial spatial correlation, and exhibit the hallmarks of finite range fluid turbulence: they have non-Gaussian distributions, exhibit extended self-similarity in their scaling, and are spatially multifractal. Furthermore, we find that the rate at which the fields do work on the particles, J · E, is also multifractal, so that magnetic energy is converted to plasma kinetic energy in a manner that is spatially intermittent. This suggests that dissipation in this sense in collisionless reconnection on kinetic scales has an analogue in fluidlike turbulent phenomenology, in that it proceeds via multifractal structures generated by an intermittent cascade.

  2. Multifractal analysis of African monsoon rain fields, taking into account the zero rain-rate problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, S.; de Montera, L.; Barthès, L.; Mallet, C.

    2010-07-01

    SummaryNonlinear rain dynamics, due to strong coupling with turbulence, can be described by stochastic scale invariant (such as multifractal) models. In this study, attention is focused on the three-parameter fractionally integrated flux (FIF), based on the universal multifractal (UM) model developed by Schertzer and Lovejoy (1987). Multifractal analysis techniques were applied to experimental radar data measured during the African monsoon multidisciplinary analysis (AMMA) campaign, during the summer of 2006. The non-conservation parameter H, which has often been estimated at 0, was found to be more likely close to 0.4, meaning that rain is not a conserved cascade. Moreover, it is shown that the presence of numerous zero values in the data has an influence, which has until now been underestimated, but should in fact be accounted for. UM parameters are therefore estimated from the full dataset, and then only from maps in which almost all pixels have a non-zero value. Significant differences were found, attributed to on-off intermittency, and their role was checked by means of simulations. Finally, these results are compared with those previously based on time series, and collected by a co-localized disdrometer. The sets of parameters obtained in the spatial and time domains are found to be quite close to each other, contrary to most results published in the literature. This generally reported incoherency is believed to result mainly from the influence of on-off intermittency, whose effects are stronger for time series than for selected radar maps.

  3. Multifractal properties of embedded convective structures in orographic precipitation: toward subgrid-scale predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, M.; Barros, A. P.; Miranda, P. M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Rain and cloud fields produced by fully nonlinear idealized cloud resolving numerical simulations of orographic convective precipitation display statistical multiscaling behavior, implying that multifractal diagnostics should provide a physically robust basis for the downscaling and sub-grid scale parameterizations of moist processes. Our results show that the horizontal scaling exponent function (and respective multiscaling parameters) of the simulated rainfall and cloud fields varies with atmospheric and terrain properties, particularly small-scale terrain spectra, atmospheric stability, and advective timescale. This implies that multifractal diagnostics of moist processes for these simulations are fundamentally transient, exhibiting complex nonlinear behavior depending on atmospheric conditions and terrain forcing at each location. A particularly robust behavior found here is the transition of the multifractal parameters between stable and unstable cases, which has a clear physical correspondence to the transition from stratiform to organized (banded and cellular) convective regime. This result is reinforced by a similar behavior in the horizontal spectral exponent. Finally, our results indicate that although nonlinearly coupled fields (such as rain and clouds) have different scaling exponent functions, there are robust relationships with physical underpinnings between the scaling parameters that can be explored for hybrid dynamical-statistical downscaling.

  4. Classification of Prolapsed Mitral Valve versus Healthy Heart from Phonocardiograms by Multifractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gavrovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phonocardiography has shown a great potential for developing low-cost computer-aided diagnosis systems for cardiovascular monitoring. So far, most of the work reported regarding cardiosignal analysis using multifractals is oriented towards heartbeat dynamics. This paper represents a step towards automatic detection of one of the most common pathological syndromes, so-called mitral valve prolapse (MVP, using phonocardiograms and multifractal analysis. Subtle features characteristic for MVP in phonocardiograms may be difficult to detect. The approach for revealing such features should be locally based rather than globally based. Nevertheless, if their appearances are specific and frequent, they can affect a multifractal spectrum. This has been the case in our experiment with the click syndrome. Totally, 117 pediatric phonocardiographic recordings (PCGs, 8 seconds long each, obtained from 117 patients were used for PMV automatic detection. We propose a two-step algorithm to distinguish PCGs that belong to children with healthy hearts and children with prolapsed mitral valves (PMVs. Obtained results show high accuracy of the method. We achieved 96.91% accuracy on the dataset (97 recordings. Additionally, 90% accuracy is achieved for the evaluation dataset (20 recordings. Content of the datasets is confirmed by the echocardiographic screening.

  5. Classification of Prolapsed Mitral Valve versus Healthy Heart from Phonocardiograms by Multifractal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajić, Goran; Reljin, Irini; Reljin, Branimir

    2013-01-01

    Phonocardiography has shown a great potential for developing low-cost computer-aided diagnosis systems for cardiovascular monitoring. So far, most of the work reported regarding cardiosignal analysis using multifractals is oriented towards heartbeat dynamics. This paper represents a step towards automatic detection of one of the most common pathological syndromes, so-called mitral valve prolapse (MVP), using phonocardiograms and multifractal analysis. Subtle features characteristic for MVP in phonocardiograms may be difficult to detect. The approach for revealing such features should be locally based rather than globally based. Nevertheless, if their appearances are specific and frequent, they can affect a multifractal spectrum. This has been the case in our experiment with the click syndrome. Totally, 117 pediatric phonocardiographic recordings (PCGs), 8 seconds long each, obtained from 117 patients were used for PMV automatic detection. We propose a two-step algorithm to distinguish PCGs that belong to children with healthy hearts and children with prolapsed mitral valves (PMVs). Obtained results show high accuracy of the method. We achieved 96.91% accuracy on the dataset (97 recordings). Additionally, 90% accuracy is achieved for the evaluation dataset (20 recordings). Content of the datasets is confirmed by the echocardiographic screening. PMID:23762185

  6. Complex Dynamics in Physiological Systems: From Heart to Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Dana, Syamal K; Kurths, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics has become an important field of research in recent years in many areas of the natural sciences. In particular, it has potential applications in biology and medicine; nonlinear data analysis has helped to detect the progress of cardiac disease, physiological disorders, for example episodes of epilepsy, and others. This book focuses on the current trends of research concerning the prediction of sudden cardiac death and the onset of epileptic seizures, using the nonlinear analysis based on ECG and EEG data. Topics covered include the analysis of cardiac models and neural models. The book is a collection of recent research papers by leading physicists, mathematicians, cardiologists and neurobiologists who are actively involved in using the concepts of nonlinear dynamics to explore the functional behaviours of heart and brain under normal and pathological conditions. This collection is intended for students in physics, mathematics and medical sciences, and researchers in interdisciplinary areas...

  7. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanen, Akkari, E-mail: bettaieb.hanen@topnet.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Imen, Bhouri, E-mail: bhouri_imen@yahoo.f [Unite de recherche ondelettes et multifractals, Faculte des sciences (Tunisia); Asma, Ben Abdallah, E-mail: asma.babdallah@cristal.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Patrick, Dubois, E-mail: pdubois@chru-lille.f [INSERM, U 703, Lille (France); Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed, E-mail: medhedi.bedoui@fmm.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia)

    2009-09-28

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  8. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanen, Akkari; Imen, Bhouri; Asma, Ben Abdallah; Patrick, Dubois; Hédi, Bedoui Mohamed

    2009-09-01

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the “Relative Differential Box Counting” was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  9. Dynamic Brain Network Correlates of Spontaneous Fluctuations in Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J; Esterman, Michael; Hutchison, R Matthew; Valera, Eve M

    2017-03-01

    Human attention is intrinsically dynamic, with focus continuously shifting between elements of the external world and internal, self-generated thoughts. Communication within and between large-scale brain networks also fluctuates spontaneously from moment to moment. However, the behavioral relevance of dynamic functional connectivity and possible link with attentional state shifts is unknown. We used a unique approach to examine whether brain network dynamics reflect spontaneous fluctuations in moment-to-moment behavioral variability, a sensitive marker of attentional state. Nineteen healthy adults were instructed to tap their finger every 600 ms while undergoing fMRI. This novel, but simple, approach allowed us to isolate moment-to-moment fluctuations in behavioral variability related to attention, independent of common confounds in cognitive tasks (e.g., stimulus changes, response inhibition). Spontaneously increasing tap variance ("out-of-the-zone" attention) was associated with increasing activation in dorsal-attention and salience network regions, whereas decreasing tap variance ("in-the-zone" attention) was marked by increasing activation of default mode network (DMN) regions. Independent of activation, tap variance representing out-of-the-zone attention was also time-locked to connectivity both within DMN and between DMN and salience network regions. These results provide novel mechanistic data on the understudied neural dynamics of everyday, moment-to-moment attentional fluctuations, elucidating the behavioral importance of spontaneous, transient coupling within and between attention-relevant networks. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Multifractal detrended moving average analysis of global temperature records

    CERN Document Server

    Mali, Provash

    2015-01-01

    Long-range correlation and multifractal nature of the global monthly mean temperature anomaly time series over the period 1850-2012 are studied in terms of the multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) method. We try to address the source(s) of multifractality in the time series by comparing the results derived from the actual series with those from a set of shuffled and surrogate series. It is seen that the newly developed MFDMA method predicts a multifractal structure of the temperature anomaly time series that is more or less similar to that observed by other multifractal methods. In our analysis the major contribution of multifractality in the temperature records is found to be stemmed from long-range temporal correlation among the measurements, however the contribution of fat-tail distribution function of the records is not negligible. The results of the MFDMA analysis, which are found to depend upon the location of the detrending window, tend towards the observations of the multifractal detrended fl...

  11. Dynamic Quantitative T1 Mapping in Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human brain tumors such as glioblastomas are typically detected using conventional, nonquantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques, such as T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI. In this manuscript, we tested whether dynamic quantitative T1 mapping by MRI can localize orthotopic glioma tumors in an objective manner. Quantitative T1 mapping was performed by MRI over multiple time points using the conventional contrast agent Optimark. We compared signal differences to determine the gadolinium concentration in tissues over time. The T1 parametric maps made it easy to identify the regions of contrast enhancement and thus tumor location. Doubling the typical human dose of contrast agent resulted in a clearer demarcation of these tumors. Therefore, T1 mapping of brain tumors is gadolinium dose dependent and improves detection of tumors by MRI. The use of T1 maps provides a quantitative means to evaluate tumor detection by gadolinium-based contrast agents over time. This dynamic quantitative T1 mapping technique will also enable future quantitative evaluation of various targeted MRI contrast agents.

  12. Multifractal Analysis of Infinite Products of Stationary Jump Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Mannersalo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in constructing stationary measures with known multifractal properties. In an earlier paper, the authors introduced the multifractal products of stochastic processes (MPSP and provided basic properties concerning convergence, nondegeneracy, and scaling of moments. This paper considers a subclass of MPSP which is determined by jump processes with i.i.d. exponentially distributed interjump times. Particularly, the information dimension and a multifractal spectrum of the MPSP are computed. As a side result it is shown that the random partitions imprinted naturally by a family of Poisson point processes are sufficient to determine the spectrum in this case.

  13. Image edge detection based on multi-fractal spectrum analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-yuan; WANG Yao-nan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,an image edge detection method based on multi-fractal spectrum analysis is presented.The coarse grain H(o)lder exponent of the image pixels is first computed,then,its multi-fractal spectrum is estimated by the kernel estimation method.Finally,the image edge detection is done by means of different multi-fractal spectrum values.Simulation results show that this method is efficient and has better locality compared with the traditional edge detection methods such as the Sobel method.

  14. Empirical Study on the Multifractal Phenomenon of Chinese Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宇; 黄登仕

    2003-01-01

    Many recent researches with empirical data have demonstrated that financial data have multifractal properties. To study the properties of Chinese stock market, the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SSECI) from January 1999 to July 2001 (a quotation taken every 5 min) is analyzed using multifractal theories, and it is found that the return volatility correlations are of power-laws with a non-unique scaling exponent. It is verified that Chinese stock market is quite similar to foreign financial markets in terms of multifractal properties.

  15. Gender and weight shape brain dynamics during food viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Toepel

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic imaging results have associated both gender and body weight to variation in brain responses to food-related information. However, the spatio-temporal brain dynamics of gender-related and weight-wise modulations in food discrimination still remain to be elucidated. We analyzed visual evoked potentials (VEPs while normal-weighted men (n = 12 and women (n = 12 categorized photographs of energy-dense foods and non-food kitchen utensils. VEP analyses showed that food categorization is influenced by gender as early as 170 ms after image onset. Moreover, the female VEP pattern to food categorization co-varied with participants' body weight. Estimations of the neural generator activity over the time interval of VEP modulations (i.e. by means of a distributed linear inverse solution [LAURA] revealed alterations in prefrontal and temporo-parietal source activity as a function of image category and participants' gender. However, only neural source activity for female responses during food viewing was negatively correlated with body-mass index (BMI over the respective time interval. Women showed decreased neural source activity particularly in ventral prefrontal brain regions when viewing food, but not non-food objects, while no such associations were apparent in male responses to food and non-food viewing. Our study thus indicates that gender influences are already apparent during initial stages of food-related object categorization, with small variations in body weight modulating electrophysiological responses especially in women and in brain areas implicated in food reward valuation and intake control. These findings extend recent reports on prefrontal reward and control circuit responsiveness to food cues and the potential role of this reactivity pattern in the susceptibility to weight gain.

  16. Multifractal Simulation of Geochemical Map Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using a simple multifractal model based on the model De Wijs, various geochemical map patterns for element concentration values are being simulated. Each pattern is self-similar on the average in that a similar pattern can be derived by application of the multiplicative cascade model used to any small subarea on the pattern. In other experiments, the original, self-similar pattern is distorted by superimposing a 2-dimensional trend pattern and by mixing it with a constant concentration value model. It is investigated how such distortions change the multifractal spectrum estimated by means of the 3-step method of moments. Discrete and continuous frequency distribution models are derived for patterns that satisfy the model of De Wijs. These simulated patterns satisfy a discrete frequency distribution model that as upper bound has a continuous frequency distribution to which it approaches in form when the subdivisions of the multiplicative cascade model are repeated indefinitely. This limiting distribution is lognormal in the center and has Pareto tails. Potentially, this approach has important implications in mineral and oil resource evaluation.

  17. Identification of Geochemical Anomaly by Multifractal Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shuyun; Cheng Qiuming; Ke Xianzhong; Bao Zhengyu; Wang Changming; Quan Haoli

    2008-01-01

    The separation of anomalies from geochemical background is an important part of data analysis because lack of such identifications might have profound influence on or even distort the final analysis results. In this article, 1 672 geochemical analytical data of 11 elements, including Cu, Mo, Ag, Sn, and others, from a region within Tibet, South China, are used as one example. Together with the traditional anomaly recognition method of using the iterative mean ±2σ, local multifractality theory has been utilized to delineate the ranges of geochemical anomalies of the elements. To different degrees, on the basis of original data mapping, C-A fractal analysis and singularity exponents, Sn differs from the other 10 elements. Moreover, geochemical mapping results based on values of the multifractal asymmetry index for all elements delineate the highly anomalous area. Similar to other 10 elements, the anomalous areas of Sn delineated by the asymmetry index distribute along the main structure orientations. According to the asymmetry indexes, the 11 elements could be classified into 3 groups: (1) Ag and Au, (2) As-Sb-Cu-Pb-Zn-Mo, and (3) Sn-Bi-W.This paragenetic association of elements can be used to interpret possible origins of mineralization, which is in agreement with petrological analysis and field survey results.

  18. Multifractals, random walks and Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sahil; Wettlaufer, John

    We examine the long-term correlations and multifractal properties of daily satellite retrievals of Arctic sea ice albedo, extent, and ice velocity for decadal periods. The approach harnesses a recent development called Multifractal Temporally Weighted Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-TWDFA), which exploits the intuition that points closer in time are more likely to be related than distant points. In both data sets we extract multiple crossover times, as characterized by generalized Hurst exponents, ranging from synoptic to decadal. The method goes beyond treatments that assume a single decay scale process, such as a first-order autoregression, which cannot be justifiably fit to these observations. The ice extent data exhibits white noise behavior from seasonal to bi-seasonal time scales, whereas the clear fingerprints of the short (weather) and long (~ 7 and 9 year) time scales remain, the latter associated with the recent decay in the ice cover. Thus, long term persistence is reentrant beyond the seasonal scale and it is not possible to distinguish whether a given ice extent minimum/maximum will be followed by a minimum/maximum that is larger or smaller in magnitude. The ice velocity data show long term persistence in auto covariance. NASA Grant NNH13ZDA001N-CRYO and Swedish Research Council Grant No. 638-2013-9243.

  19. Analyzing the influence of curl speed in fatiguing biceps brachii muscles using sEMG signals and multifractal detrended moving average algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Kiran; Swaminathan, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    In this work, an attempt has been made to analyze surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of fatiguing biceps brachii muscles at different curl speeds using multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) algorithm. For this purpose, signals are recorded from fifty eight healthy subjects while performing curl exercise at their comfortable speed until fatigue. The signals of first and last curls are considered as nonfatigue and fatigue conditions, respectively. Further, the number of curls performed by each subject and the endurance time is used for computing the normalized curl speed. The signals are grouped into fast, medium and slow using curl speeds. The curl segments are subjected to MFDMA to derive degree of multifractality (DOM), maximum singularity exponent (MXE) and exponent length multifractality index (EMX). The results show that multifractal features are able to differentiate sEMG signals in fatiguing conditions. The multifractality increased with faster curls as compared with slower curl speed by 12%. High statistical significance is observed using EMX and DOM values between curl speed and fatigue conditions. It appears that this method of analyzing sEMG signals with curl speed can be useful in understanding muscle dynamics in varied neuromuscular conditions and sports medicine.

  20. Dynamic pituitary hormones change after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the dynamic changes of pituitary hormones in traumatic brain injury (TBI and to correlate the severity and neurological outcome. Patients and Methods: Dynamic changes in the pituitary hormones were evaluated in 164 patients with TBI on day-1, day-7, day-14, day-21, and day-28 post injury. Admission TBI severity and long-term outcome were assessed with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS score. The pituitary hormonal changes were correlated with TBI severity and outcome. Results: Of the 164 patients included in the study, pituitary dysfunction was found in 84 patients and in the remaining 80 patients pituitary function was normal. Most of the pituitary hormone deficiencies observed resolved over time; however, a significant proportion of patients had pituitary dysfunction at one month post injury. The hormones associated with poor outcome included growth hormone, thyrotropic hormone, and gonadotropic hormone. Conclusion: Dynamic changes of pituitary hormones in patients with TBI may reflect the severity of injury and also determine the outcome. Deficiency of growth hormone, gonadotropic hormone, and thyrotropic hormone can adversely affect neurological outcome.

  1. Dynamic reorganization of brain functional networks during cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Michał; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2015-07-01

    How does cognition emerge from neural dynamics? The dominant hypothesis states that interactions among distributed brain regions through phase synchronization give basis for cognitive processing. Such phase-synchronized networks are transient and dynamic, established on the timescale of milliseconds in order to perform specific cognitive operations. But unlike resting-state networks, the complex organization of transient cognitive networks is typically not characterized within the graph theory framework. Thus, it is not known whether cognitive processing merely changes the strength of functional connections or, conversely, requires qualitatively new topological arrangements of functional networks. To address this question, we recorded high-density EEG while subjects performed a visual discrimination task. We conducted an event-related network analysis (ERNA) where source-space weighted functional networks were characterized with graph measures. ERNA revealed rapid, transient, and frequency-specific reorganization of the network's topology during cognition. Specifically, cognitive networks were characterized by strong clustering, low modularity, and strong interactions between hub-nodes. Our findings suggest that dense and clustered connectivity between the hub nodes belonging to different modules is the "network fingerprint" of cognition. Such reorganization patterns might facilitate global integration of information and provide a substrate for a "global workspace" necessary for cognition and consciousness to occur. Thus, characterizing topology of the event-related networks opens new vistas to interpret cognitive dynamics in the broader conceptual framework of graph theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The research of constructing dynamic cognition model based on brain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chunying

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the functional interactions and connections between brain regions to corresponding process in cognitive, behavioral and psychiatric domains is a central pursuit for understanding the human connectome. Few studies have examined the effects of dynamic evolution on cognitive processing and brain activation using brain network model in scalp electroencephalography (EEG data. Aim of this study was to investigate the brain functional connectivity and construct dynamic programing model from EEG data and to evaluate a possible correlation between topological characteristics of the brain connectivity and cognitive evolution processing. Here, functional connectivity between brain regions is defined as the statistical dependence between EEG signals in different brain areas and is typically determined by calculating the relationship between regional time series using wavelet coherence. We present an accelerated dynamic programing algorithm to construct dynamic cognitive model that we found that spatially distributed regions coherence connection difference, the topologic characteristics with which they can transfer information, producing temporary network states. Our findings suggest that brain dynamics give rise to variations in complex network properties over time after variation audio stimulation, dynamic programing model gives the dynamic evolution processing at different time and frequency. In this paper, by applying a new construct approach to understand whole brain network dynamics, firstly, brain network is constructed by wavelet coherence, secondly, different time active brain regions are selected by network topological characteristics and minimum spanning tree. Finally, dynamic evolution model is constructed to understand cognitive process by dynamic programing algorithm, this model is applied to the auditory experiment, results showed that, quantitatively, more correlation was observed after variation audio stimulation, the EEG function

  3. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: francisco.javier.lana@upc.edu [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  4. Multiscale multifractal time irreversibility analysis of stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenguang; Shang, Pengjian; Shi, Wenbin

    2016-11-01

    Time irreversibility is one of the most important properties of nonstationary time series. Complex time series often demonstrate even multiscale time irreversibility, such that not only the original but also coarse-grained time series are asymmetric over a wide range of scales. We study the multiscale time irreversibility of time series. In this paper, we develop a method called multiscale multifractal time irreversibility analysis (MMRA), which allows us to extend the description of time irreversibility to include the dependence on the segment size and statistical moments. We test the effectiveness of MMRA in detecting multifractality and time irreversibility of time series generated from delayed Henon map and binomial multifractal model. Then we employ our method to the time irreversibility analysis of stock markets in different regions. We find that the emerging market has higher multifractality degree and time irreversibility compared with developed markets. In this sense, the MMRA method may provide new angles in assessing the evolution stage of stock markets.

  5. Introduction to multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis in matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlen, Espen A F

    2012-01-01

    Fractal structures are found in biomedical time series from a wide range of physiological phenomena. The multifractal spectrum identifies the deviations in fractal structure within time periods with large and small fluctuations. The present tutorial is an introduction to multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) that estimates the multifractal spectrum of biomedical time series. The tutorial presents MFDFA step-by-step in an interactive Matlab session. All Matlab tools needed are available in Introduction to MFDFA folder at the website www.ntnu.edu/inm/geri/software. MFDFA are introduced in Matlab code boxes where the reader can employ pieces of, or the entire MFDFA to example time series. After introducing MFDFA, the tutorial discusses the best practice of MFDFA in biomedical signal processing. The main aim of the tutorial is to give the reader a simple self-sustained guide to the implementation of MFDFA and interpretation of the resulting multifractal spectra.

  6. Performance of multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis on short time series

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Juan Luis

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the multifractal detrended analysis on short time series is evaluated for synthetic samples of several mono- and multifractal models. The reconstruction of the generalized Hurst exponents is used to determine the range of applicability of the method and the precision of its results as a function of the decreasing length of the series. As an application the series of the daily exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the euro is studied.

  7. Asymmetric joint multifractal analysis in Chinese stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuwen; Zheng, Tingting

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the asymmetric joint multifractal analysis method based on statistical physics is proposed to explore the asymmetric correlation between daily returns and trading volumes in Chinese stock markets. The result shows asymmetric multifractal correlations exist between return and trading volume in Chinese stock markets. Moreover, when the stock indexes are upward, the fluctuations of returns are always weaker than when they are downward, whether the trading volumes are more or less.

  8. INDIVIDUAL COMMUNICATION TRANSMITTER IDENTIFICATION BASED ON MULTIFRACTAL ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Chunhui; Wei Ping; Lou Zhiyou; Xiao Xianci

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, the communication transmitter transient signals are analyzed based on the time-variant hierarchy exponents of multifractal analysis. The species of optimized sample set is selected as the template of transmitter identification, so that the individual communication transmitter identification can be realized. The turn-on signals of four transmitters are used in the simulation. The experimental results show that the multifractal character of transmitter transient signals is an effective character of individual transmitter identification.

  9. Estimation of the global regularity of a multifractional Brownian motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebovits, Joachim; Podolskij, Mark

    This paper presents a new estimator of the global regularity index of a multifractional Brownian motion. Our estimation method is based upon a ratio statistic, which compares the realized global quadratic variation of a multifractional Brownian motion at two different frequencies. We show...... that a logarithmic transformation of this statistic converges in probability to the minimum of the Hurst functional parameter, which is, under weak assumptions, identical to the global regularity index of the path....

  10. Direct Evidence for Inversion Formula in Multifractal Financial Volatility Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhi-Qiang; ZHOU Wei-Xing

    2009-01-01

    The inversion formula for conservative multifractal measures was unveiled mathematically a decade ago, which is however not well tested in real complex systems. We propose to verify the inversion formula using high-frequency 1982 to 1999 and its inverse measure of exit time. Both the direct and inverse measures exhibit nice multifractal nature, whose scaling ranges are not irrelevant. Empirical investigation shows that the inversion formula holds in financial markets.

  11. When Van Gogh meets Mandelbrot: Multifractal Classification of Painting's Texture

    OpenAIRE

    Abry, Patrice; Wendt, Herwig; Jaffard, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In a recent past, there has been a growing interest for examining the po- tential of Image Processing tools to assist Art Investigation. Simultaneously, several research works showed the interest of using multifractal analysis for the description of homogeneous textures in images. In this context, the goal of the present contribution is to study the benefits of using the wavelet leader based multifractal formalism to characterize paintings. To that end, after a brief r...

  12. Brain Dynamics An Introduction to Models and Simualtions

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    Brain Dynamics serves to introduce graduate students and nonspecialists from various backgrounds to the field of mathematical and computational neurosciences. Some of the advanced chapters will also be of interest to the specialists. The book approaches the subject through pulse-coupled neural networks, with at their core the lighthouse and integrate-and-fire models, which allow for the highly flexible modelling of realistic synaptic activity, synchronization and spatio-temporal pattern formation. Topics also include pulse-averaged equations and their application to movement coordination. The book closes with a short analysis of models versus the real neurophysiological system. The second edition has been thoroughly updated and augmented by two extensive chapters that discuss the interplay between pattern recognition and synchronization. Further, to enhance the usefulness as textbook and for self-study, the detailed solutions for all 34 exercises throughout the text have been added.

  13. Dynamic correlations between heart and brain rhythm during Autogenic meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daekeun eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to determine significant physiological parameters of brain and heart under meditative state, both in each activities and their dynamic correlations. Electrophysiological changes in response to meditation were explored in 12 healthy volunteers who completed 8 weeks of a basic training course in autogenic meditation. Heart coherence, representing the degree of ordering in oscillation of heart rhythm intervals, increased significantly during meditation. Relative EEG alpha power and alpha lagged coherence also increased. A significant slowing of parietal peak alpha frequency was observed. Parietal peak alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but no such relationship was observed during baseline. Average alpha lagged coherence also increased with increasing heart coherence during meditation, but, again, no significant relationship was observed at baseline. Relative alpha power increased with increasing heart coherence during both meditation and baseline periods. Heart coherence can be a cardiac marker for the meditative state and also may be a general marker for the meditative state since heart coherence is strongly correlated with EEG alpha activities. It is expected that increasing heart coherence and the accompanying EEG alpha activations, heart brain synchronicity, would help recover physiological synchrony following a period of homeostatic depletion.

  14. A comparative study of two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average algorithm to estimate the multifractal spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shunning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang

    2016-07-01

    Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) algorithm have been established as two important methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of the one-dimensional random fractal signal. They have been generalized to deal with two-dimensional and higher-dimensional fractal signals. This paper gives a brief introduction of the two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average (2D-MFDMA) algorithm, and a detailed description of the application of the two-dimensional fractal signal processing by using the two methods. By applying the 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA to the series generated from the two-dimensional multiplicative cascading process, we systematically do the comparative analysis to get the advantages, disadvantages and the applicabilities of the two algorithms for the first time from six aspects such as the similarities and differences of the algorithm models, the statistical accuracy, the sensitivities of the sample size, the selection of scaling range, the choice of the q-orders and the calculation amount. The results provide a valuable reference on how to choose the algorithm from 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA, and how to make the schemes of the parameter settings of the two algorithms when dealing with specific signals in practical applications.

  15. Multifractal analysis of high resolution solar wind proton density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Carbone, Francesco; Leonardis, Ersilia; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdenek

    2017-03-01

    The solar wind is a highly turbulent medium, with a high level of field fluctuations throughout a broad range of scales. These include an inertial range where a turbulent cascade is assumed to be active. The solar wind cascade shows intermittency, which however may depend on the wind conditions. Recent observations have shown that ion-scale magnetic turbulence is almost self-similar, rather than intermittent. A similar result was observed for the high resolution measurements of proton density provided by the spacecraft Spektr-R. Intermittency may be interpreted as the result of the multifractal properties of the turbulent cascade. In this perspective, this paper is devoted to the description of the multifractal properties of the high resolution density measurements. In particular, we have used the standard coarse-graining technique to evaluate the generalized dimensions Dq , and from these the multifractal spectrum f (α) , in two ranges of scale. A fit with the p-model for intermittency provided a quantitative measure of multifractality. Such indicator was then compared with alternative measures: the width of the multifractal spectrum, the peak of the kurtosis, and its scaling exponent. The results indicate that the small-scale fluctuations are multifractal, and suggest that different measures of intermittency are required to fully understand the small scale cascade.

  16. A rainfall simulator based on multifractal generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrour, Nawal; mallet, Cecile; barthes, Laurent; chazottes, Aymeric

    2015-04-01

    The Precipitations are due to complex meteorological phenomenon's and unlike other geophysical constituents such as water vapour concentration they present a relaxation behaviour leading to an alternation of dry and wet periods. Thus, precipitations can be described as intermittent process. The spatial and temporal variability of this phenomenon is significant and covers large scales. This high variability can cause extreme events which are difficult to observe properly because of their suddenness and their localized character. For all these reasons, the precipitations are therefore difficult to model. This study aims to adapt a one-dimensional time series model previously developed by the authors [Akrour et al., 2013, 2014] to a two-dimensional rainfall generator. The original time series model can be divided into 3 major steps : rain support generation, intra event rain rates generation using multifractal and finally calibration process. We use the same kind of methodology in the present study. Based on dataset obtained from meteorological radar of Météo France with a spatial resolution of 1 km x 1 km we present the used approach : Firstly, the extraction of rain support (rain/no rain area) allowing the retrieval of the rain support structure function (variogram) and fractal properties. This leads us to use either the rain support modelisation proposed by ScleissXXX [ref] or directly real rain support extracted from radar rain maps. Then, the generation (over rain areas) of rain rates is made thanks to a 2D multifractal Fractionnally Integrated Flux (FIF) model [ref]. This second stage is followed by a calibration/forcing step (forcing average rain rate per events) added in order to provide rain rate coherent with observed rain-rate distribution. The forcing process is based on a relation identified from the average rain rate of observed events and their surfaces. The presentation will first explain the different steps presented above, then some results

  17. Exoplanetary Detection By Multifractal Spectral Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Sahil; Wettlaufer, John S

    2016-01-01

    Owing to technological advances the number of exoplanets discovered has risen dramatically in the last few years. However, when trying to observe Earth analogs, it is often difficult to test the veracity of detection. We have developed a new approach to the analysis of exoplanetary spectral observations based on temporal multifractality, which identifies time scales that characterize planetary orbital motion around the host star. Without fitting spectral data to stellar models, we show how the planetary signal can be robustly detected from noisy data using noise amplitude as a source of information. For observation of transiting planets, combining this method with simple geometry allows us to relate the time scales obtained to primary transit and secondary exoplanet eclipse of the exoplanets. Making use of data obtained with ground-based and space-based observations we have tested our approach on HD 189733b. Moreover, we have investigated the use of this technique in measuring planetary orbital motion via dop...

  18. Multifractal properties of the random resistor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy; Buldyrev; Havlin; Stanley

    2000-04-01

    We study the multifractal spectrum of the current in the two-dimensional random resistor network at the percolation threshold. We consider two ways of applying the voltage difference: (i) two parallel bars, and (ii) two points. Our numerical results suggest that in the infinite system limit, the probability distribution behaves for small i as P(i) approximately 1/i, where i is the current. As a consequence, the moments of i of order q

  19. Using multifractals to evaluate oceanographic model skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skákala, Jozef; Cazenave, Pierre W.; Smyth, Timothy J.; Torres, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    We are in an era of unprecedented data volumes generated from observations and model simulations. This is particularly true from satellite Earth Observations (EO) and global scale oceanographic models. This presents us with an opportunity to evaluate large-scale oceanographic model outputs using EO data. Previous work on model skill evaluation has led to a plethora of metrics. The paper defines two new model skill evaluation metrics. The metrics are based on the theory of universal multifractals and their purpose is to measure the structural similarity between the model predictions and the EO data. The two metrics have the following advantages over the standard techniques: (a) they are scale-free and (b) they carry important part of information about how model represents different oceanographic drivers. Those two metrics are then used in the paper to evaluate the performance of the FVCOM model in the shelf seas around the south-west coast of the UK.

  20. Beyond multi-fractals: surrogate time series and fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V.; Simmer, C.

    2007-12-01

    Most natural complex are characterised by variability on a large range of temporal and spatial scales. The two main methodologies to generate such structures are Fourier/FARIMA based algorithms and multifractal methods. The former is restricted to Gaussian data, whereas the latter requires the structure to be self-similar. This work will present so-called surrogate data as an alternative that works with any (empirical) distribution and power spectrum. The best-known surrogate algorithm is the iterative amplitude adjusted Fourier transform (IAAFT) algorithm. We have studied six different geophysical time series (two clouds, runoff of a small and a large river, temperature and rain) and their surrogates. The power spectra and consequently the 2nd order structure functions were replicated accurately. Even the fourth order structure function was more accurately reproduced by the surrogates as would be possible by a fractal method, because the measured structure deviated too strong from fractal scaling. Only in case of the daily rain sums a fractal method could have been more accurate. Just as Fourier and multifractal methods, the current surrogates are not able to model the asymmetric increment distributions observed for runoff, i.e., they cannot reproduce nonlinear dynamical processes that are asymmetric in time. Furthermore, we have found differences for the structure functions on small scales. Surrogate methods are especially valuable for empirical studies, because the time series and fields that are generated are able to mimic measured variables accurately. Our main application is radiative transfer through structured clouds. Like many geophysical fields, clouds can only be sampled sparsely, e.g. with in-situ airborne instruments. However, for radiative transfer calculations we need full 3-dimensional cloud fields. A first study relating the measured properties of the cloud droplets and the radiative properties of the cloud field by generating surrogate cloud

  1. Multifractal characteristics of optical turbulence measured through a single beam holographic process

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Dario G; Morille, Yohann; Zielinska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that azopolymer thin films exposed to coherent light that has travelled through a turbulent medium produces a surface relief grating containing information about the intensity of the turbulence; for instance, a relation between the refractive index structure constant C2 as a function of the surface parameters was obtained. In this work, we show that these films capture much more information about the turbulence dynamics. Multifractal detrended fluctuation and fractal dimension analysis from images of the surface roughness produced by the light on the azopolymer reveals scaling properties related to those of the optical turbulence.

  2. The dynamic dielectric at a brain functional site and an EM wave approach to functional brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X P; Xia, Q; Qu, D; Wu, T C; Yang, D G; Hao, W D; Jiang, X; Li, X M

    2014-11-04

    Functional brain imaging has tremendous applications. The existing methods for functional brain imaging include functional Magnetic Resonant Imaging (fMRI), scalp electroencephalography (EEG), implanted EEG, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which have been widely and successfully applied to various brain imaging studies. To develop a new method for functional brain imaging, here we show that the dielectric at a brain functional site has a dynamic nature, varying with local neuronal activation as the permittivity of the dielectric varies with the ion concentration of the extracellular fluid surrounding neurons in activation. Therefore, the neuronal activation can be sensed by a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating through the site as the phase change of the EM wave varies with the permittivity. Such a dynamic nature of the dielectric at a brain functional site provides the basis for an RF EM wave approach to detecting and imaging neuronal activation at brain functional sites, leading to an RF EM wave approach to functional brain imaging.

  3. Single and Joint Multifractal Analysis of Soil Particle Size Distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi; LI Min; R.HORTON

    2011-01-01

    It is noted that there has been little research to compare volume-based and number-based soil particle size distributions (PSDs).Our objectives were to characterize the scaling properties and the possible connections between volume-based and number-based PSDs by applying single and joint multifractal analysis.Twelve soil samples were taken from selected sites in Northwest China and their PSDs were analyzed using laser diffractometry.The results indicated that the volume-based PSDs of all 12 samples and thc number-based PSDs of 4 samples had multifractal scalings for moment order -6 < q < 6.Some empirical relationships were identified between the extreme probability values, maximum probability (Pmax), minimum probability (Pmin), and Pmax/Pmin, and the multifractal indices,the difference and the ratio of generalized dimensions at q=0 and 1(D0-D1 and D1/D0), maximum and minimum singularity strength (αmax and αmin) and their difference (αmax - αmin, spectrum width), and asymmetric index (RD).An increase in Pmax generally resulted in corresponding increases of D0 - D1, αmax, αmax - αmin, and RD, which indicated that a large Pmax increased the multifractality of a distribution.Joint multifractal analysis showed that there was significant correlation between the scaling indices of volume-based and number-based PSDs.The multifractality indices indicated that for a given soil, the volume-based PSD was more homogeneous than the number-based PSD, and more likely to display monofractal rather than multifractal scaling.

  4. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  5. Whole-brain dynamic CT angiography and perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrison, W.W. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Department of Medical Education, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV (United States); Snyder, K.V.; Hopkins, L.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Millard Fillmore Gates Circle Hospital, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roach, C.J. [School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, E.N. [Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nazir, R. [Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hanson, E.H., E-mail: eric.hanson@amigenics.co [College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The availability of whole brain computed tomography (CT) perfusion has expanded the opportunities for analysing the haemodynamic parameters associated with varied neurological conditions. Examples demonstrating the clinical utility of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging in selected acute and chronic ischaemic arterial neurovascular conditions are presented. Whole-brain CT perfusion enables the detection and focused haemodynamic analyses of acute and chronic arterial conditions in the central nervous system without the limitation of partial anatomical coverage of the brain.

  6. The dynamic human brain : Genetic aspects in schizophrenia and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brans, R.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis is to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the individual differences in brain structure and brain structure change in healthy adults and schizophrenia patients. For this purpose, Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans of the brain were acquired in schizophrenia patien

  7. Discrimination and characterization of Parkinsonian rest tremors by analyzing long-term correlations and multifractal signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze 48 signals of rest tremor velocity related to 12 distinct subjects affected by Parkinson's disease. The subjects belong to two different groups, formed by four and eight subjects with, respectively, high- and low-amplitude rest tremors. Each subject is tested in four settings, given by combining the use of deep brain stimulation and L-DOPA medication. We develop two main feature-based representations of such signals, which are obtained by considering (i) the long-term correlations and multifractal properties, and (ii) the power spectra. The feature-based representations are initially utilized for the purpose of characterizing the subjects under different settings. In agreement with previous studies, we show that deep brain stimulation does not significantly characterize neither of the two groups, regardless of the adopted representation. On the other hand, the medication effect yields statistically significant differences in both high- and low-amplitude tremor groups. We successively...

  8. Brain Dynamics: Methodological Issues and Applications in Psychiatric and Neurologic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezard, Laurent

    The human brain is a complex dynamical system generating the EEG signal. Numerical methods developed to study complex physical dynamics have been used to characterize EEG since the mid-eighties. This endeavor raised several issues related to the specificity of EEG. Firstly, theoretical and methodological studies should address the major differences between the dynamics of the human brain and physical systems. Secondly, this approach of EEG signal should prove to be relevant for dealing with physiological or clinical problems. A set of studies performed in our group is presented here within the context of these two problematic aspects. After the discussion of methodological drawbacks, we review numerical simulations related to the high dimension and spatial extension of brain dynamics. Experimental studies in neurologic and psychiatric disease are then presented. We conclude that if it is now clear that brain dynamics changes in relation with clinical situations, methodological problems remain largely unsolved.

  9. Multifractal and lacunarity analysis of microvascular morphology and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Daniel J; Vadakkan, Tegy J; Poché, Ross A; Dickinson, Mary E

    2011-02-01

    Classical measures of vessel morphology, including diameter and density, are employed to study microvasculature in endothelial membrane labeled mice. These measurements prove sufficient for some studies; however, they are less well suited for quantifying changes in microcirculatory networks lacking hierarchical structure. We demonstrate that automated multifractal analysis and lacunarity may be used with classical methods to quantify microvascular morphology. Using multifractal analysis and lacunarity, we present an automated extraction tool with a processing pipeline to characterize 2D representations of 3D microvasculature. We apply our analysis on four tissues and the hyaloid vasculature during remodeling. We found that the vessel networks analyzed have multifractal geometries and that kidney microvasculature has the largest fractal dimension and the lowest lacunarity compared to microvasculature networks in the cortex, skin, and thigh muscle. Also, we found that, during hyaloid remodeling, there were differences in multifractal spectra reflecting the functional transition from a space filling vasculature which nurtures the lens to a less dense vasculature as it regresses, permitting unobstructed vision. Multifractal analysis and lacunarity are valuable additions to classical measures of vascular morphology and will have utility in future studies of normal, developing, and pathological tissues. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Multifractality in fidelity sequences of optimized Toffoli gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqadam, Jalil Khatibi; Welter, Guilherme S.; Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the multifractality in the fidelity sequences of several engineered Toffoli gates. Using quantum control methods, we consider several optimization problems whose global solutions realize the gate in a chain of three qubits with XY Heisenberg interaction. Applying a minimum number of control pulses assuring a fidelity above 99 % in the ideal case, we design stable gates that are less sensitive to variations in the interqubits couplings. The most stable gate has the fidelity above 91 % with variations about 0.1 %, for up to 10 % variation in the nominal couplings. We perturb the system by introducing a single source of 1 / f noise that affects all the couplings. In order to quantify the performance of the proposed optimized gates, we calculate the fidelity of a large set of optimized gates under prescribed levels of coupling perturbation. Then, we run multifractal analysis on the sequence of attained fidelities. This way, gate performance can be assessed beyond mere average results, since the chosen multifractality measure (the width of the multifractal spectrum) encapsulates into a single performance indicator the spread of fidelity values around the mean and the presence of outliers. The higher the value of the performance indicator the more concentrated around the mean the fidelity values are and rarer is the occurrence of outliers. The results of the multifractal analysis on the fidelity sequences demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimized gate implementations, in the sense they are rendered less sensitive to variations in the interqubits coupling strengths.

  11. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading.

  12. Improved moment scaling estimation for multifractal signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Veneziano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in the analysis of multifractal processes is to estimate the scaling exponent K(q of moments of different order q from data. Conventional estimators use the empirical moments μ^rq=⟨ | εr(τ|q of wavelet coefficients εr(τ, where τ is location and r is resolution. For stationary measures one usually considers "wavelets of order 0" (averages, whereas for functions with multifractal increments one must use wavelets of order at least 1. One obtains K^(q as the slope of log( μ^rq against log(r over a range of r. Negative moments are sensitive to measurement noise and quantization. For them, one typically uses only the local maxima of | εr(τ| (modulus maxima methods. For the positive moments, we modify the standard estimator K^(q to significantly reduce its variance at the expense of a modest increase in the bias. This is done by separately estimating K(q from sub-records and averaging the results. For the negative moments, we show that the standard modulus maxima estimator is biased and, in the case of additive noise or quantization, is not applicable with wavelets of order 1 or higher. For these cases we propose alternative estimators. We also consider the fitting of parametric models of K(q and show how, by splitting the record into sub-records as indicated above, the accuracy of standard methods can be significantly improved.

  13. Research on the relationship between the multifractality and long memory of realized volatility in the SSECI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhanliang; Cui, Meilan; Li, Handong

    2012-02-01

    We examine the multifractal properties of the realized volatility (RV) and realized bipower variation (RBV) series in the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SSECI) by using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) method. We find that there exist distinct multifractal characteristics in the volatility series. The contributions of two different types of source of multifractality, namely, fat-tailed probability distributions and nonlinear temporal correlations, are studied. By using the unit root test, we also find the strength of the multifractality of the volatility time series is insensitive to the sampling frequency but that the long memory of these series is sensitive.

  14. From Mathematical Monsters to Generalized Scale Invariance in Geophysics: Highlights of the Multifractal Saga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2013-12-01

    Fractals and multifractals are very illustrative of the profound synergies between mathematics and geophysics. The book ';Fractal Geometry of Nature' (Mandelbrot, 1982) brilliantly demonstrated the genericity in geophysics of geometric forms like Cantor set, Peano curve and Koch snowflake, which were once considered as mathematical monsters. However, to tame the geophysical monsters (e.g. extreme weather, floods, earthquakes), it was required to go beyond geometry and a unique fractal dimension. The concept of multifractal was coined in the course of rather theoretical debates on intermittency in hydrodynamic turbulence, sometimes with direct links to atmospheric dynamics. The latter required a generalized notion of scale in order to deal both with scale symmetries and strong anisotropies (e.g. time vs. space, vertical vs. horizontal). It was thus possible to show that the consequences of intermittency are of first order, not just 'corrections' with respect to the classical non-intermittent modeling. This was in fact a radical paradigm shift for geophysics: the extreme variability of geophysical fields over wide ranges of scale, which had long been so often acknowledged and deplored, suddenly became handy. Recent illustrations are the possibility to track down in large date sets the Higgs boson of intermittence, i.e. a first order multifractal phase transition leading to self-organized criticality, and to simulate intermittent vector fields with the help of Lie cascades, based for instance on random Clifford algebra. It is rather significant that this revolution is no longer limited to fundamental and theoretical problems of geophysics, but now touches many applications including environmental management, in particular for urban management and resilience. These applications are particularly stimulating when taken in their full complexity.

  15. Clinical study and numerical simulation of brain cancer dynamics under radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, S.; Zubik-Kowal, B.

    2015-05-01

    We perform a clinical and numerical study of the progression of brain cancer tumor growth dynamics coupled with the effects of radiotherapy. We obtained clinical data from a sample of brain cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy and compare it to our numerical simulations to a mathematical model of brain tumor cell population growth influenced by radiation treatment. We model how the body biologically receives a physically delivered dose of radiation to the affected tumorous area in the form of a generalized LQ model, modified to account for the conversion process of sublethal lesions into lethal lesions at high radiation doses. We obtain good agreement between our clinical data and our numerical simulations of brain cancer progression given by the mathematical model, which couples tumor growth dynamics and the effect of irradiation. The correlation, spanning a wide dataset, demonstrates the potential of the mathematical model to describe the dynamics of brain tumor growth influenced by radiotherapy.

  16. TMS-evoked changes in brain-state dynamics quantified by using EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Tuomas; Nieminen, Jaakko O; Ilmoniemi, Risto J

    2013-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) method in general, it is important to study how the dynamics of the TMS-modulated brain activity differs from the dynamics of spontaneous activity. In this paper, we introduce two quantitative measures based on EEG data, called mean state shift (MSS) and state variance (SV), for evaluating the TMS-evoked changes in the brain-state dynamics. MSS quantifies the immediate TMS-elicited change in the brain state, whereas SV shows whether the rate at which the brain state changes is modulated by TMS. We report a statistically significant increase for a period of 100-200 ms after the TMS pulse in both MSS and SV at the group level. This indicates that the TMS-modulated brain state differs from the spontaneous one. Moreover, the TMS-modulated activity is more vigorous than the natural activity.

  17. The dynamics of resting fluctuations in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deco, Gustavo; Kringelbach, Morten L; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2017-01-01

    In the human brain, spontaneous activity during resting state consists of rapid transitions between functional network states over time but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We use connectome based computational brain network modeling to reveal fundamental principles of how the human...... brain generates large-scale activity observable by noninvasive neuroimaging. We used structural and functional neuroimaging data to construct whole- brain models. With this novel approach, we reveal that the human brain during resting state operates at maximum metastability, i.e. in a state of maximum...... beyond correlational neuroimaging analysis and reveals non-trivial network mechanisms underlying non-invasive observations. Our novel findings significantly pertain to the important role of computational connectomics in understanding principles of brain function....

  18. Multifractal analysis of atmospheric sub-micron particle data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizabalo, Rubén Darío; González-Ávalos, Eugenio; Korvin, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Multifractal analysis was used to describe air pollution by sub-micrometric atmospheric particles. Atmospheric particle concentrations were studied from March 31 to April 21, 2006, as part of the MILAGRO campaign at the Jasso Station by means of an SMPS. Sixteen campaign days were selected to carry out the multifractal analysis of the experimental data through Singularity Spectra f(α). In this work, the roughness/smoothness feature of atmospheric particle distributions was studied by means of the Hölder exponent (α), which can be associated with the intensity of particle emissions through time and the randomness of the external emission sources. Multifractal analysis has been found to be a useful tool to establish intensity fluctuations of atmospheric data.

  19. Automatic detection of microcalcifications with multi-fractal spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong; Dai, Hang; Zhang, Hang

    2014-01-01

    For improving the detection of micro-calcifications (MCs), this paper proposes an automatic detection of MC system making use of multi-fractal spectrum in digitized mammograms. The approach of automatic detection system is based on the principle that normal tissues possess certain fractal properties which change along with the presence of MCs. In this system, multi-fractal spectrum is applied to reveal such fractal properties. By quantifying the deviations of multi-fractal spectrums between normal tissues and MCs, the system can identify MCs altering the fractal properties and finally locate the position of MCs. The performance of the proposed system is compared with the leading automatic detection systems in a mammographic image database. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system is statistically superior to most of the compared systems and delivers a superior performance.

  20. Coupled uncertainty provided by a multifractal random walker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koohi Lai, Z. [Department of Physics, Firoozkooh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Firoozkooh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vasheghani Farahani, S. [Department of Physics, Tafresh University, P.O. Box 39518-79611, Tafresh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Movahed, S.M.S. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera, 11, Trieste 34151 (Italy); Jafari, G.R., E-mail: g_jafari@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-09

    The aim here is to study the concept of pairing multifractality between time series possessing non-Gaussian distributions. The increasing number of rare events creates “criticality”. We show how the pairing between two series is affected by rare events, which we call “coupled criticality”. A method is proposed for studying the coupled criticality born out of the interaction between two series, using the bivariate multifractal random walk (BiMRW). This method allows studying dependence of the coupled criticality on the criticality of each individual system. This approach is applied to data sets of gold and oil markets, and inflation and unemployment. - Highlights: • The coupled criticality between two systems is modeled by the bivariate multifractal random walk. • This coupled criticality is generally directed. • This coupled criticality is inversely proportional to the criticality of either of the systems. • The coupled criticality can emerge when at least one of the systems posses a Gaussian distribution.

  1. Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of agricultural futures markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Lingyun, E-mail: lyhe@amss.ac.cn [Center for Futures and Financial Derivatives, College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Shupeng [Center for Futures and Financial Derivatives, College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We investigated cross-correlations between China's and US agricultural futures markets. > Power-law cross-correlations are found between the geographically far but correlated markets. > Multifractal features are significant in all the markets. > Cross-correlation exponent is less than averaged GHE when q < 0 and greater than the latter when q > 0. - Abstract: We investigated geographically far but temporally correlated China's and US agricultural futures markets. We found that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the markets. It is very interesting that the geographically far markets show strong cross-correlations and share much of their multifractal structure. Furthermore, we found that for all the agricultural futures markets in our studies, the cross-correlation exponent is less than the averaged generalized Hurst exponents (GHE) when q < 0 and greater than the averaged GHE when q > 0.

  2. Multi-Fraction Bayesian Sediment Transport Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Schmelter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian approach to sediment transport modeling can provide a strong basis for evaluating and propagating model uncertainty, which can be useful in transport applications. Previous work in developing and applying Bayesian sediment transport models used a single grain size fraction or characterized the transport of mixed-size sediment with a single characteristic grain size. Although this approach is common in sediment transport modeling, it precludes the possibility of capturing processes that cause mixed-size sediments to sort and, thereby, alter the grain size available for transport and the transport rates themselves. This paper extends development of a Bayesian transport model from one to k fractional dimensions. The model uses an existing transport function as its deterministic core and is applied to the dataset used to originally develop the function. The Bayesian multi-fraction model is able to infer the posterior distributions for essential model parameters and replicates predictive distributions of both bulk and fractional transport. Further, the inferred posterior distributions are used to evaluate parametric and other sources of variability in relations representing mixed-size interactions in the original model. Successful OPEN ACCESS J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3 1067 development of the model demonstrates that Bayesian methods can be used to provide a robust and rigorous basis for quantifying uncertainty in mixed-size sediment transport. Such a method has heretofore been unavailable and allows for the propagation of uncertainty in sediment transport applications.

  3. Exoplanetary Detection by Multifractal Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sahil; Del Sordo, Fabio; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Owing to technological advances, the number of exoplanets discovered has risen dramatically in the last few years. However, when trying to observe Earth analogs, it is often difficult to test the veracity of detection. We have developed a new approach to the analysis of exoplanetary spectral observations based on temporal multifractality, which identifies timescales that characterize planetary orbital motion around the host star and those that arise from stellar features such as spots. Without fitting stellar models to spectral data, we show how the planetary signal can be robustly detected from noisy data using noise amplitude as a source of information. For observation of transiting planets, combining this method with simple geometry allows us to relate the timescales obtained to primary and secondary eclipse of the exoplanets. Making use of data obtained with ground-based and space-based observations we have tested our approach on HD 189733b. Moreover, we have investigated the use of this technique in measuring planetary orbital motion via Doppler shift detection. Finally, we have analyzed synthetic spectra obtained using the SOAP 2.0 tool, which simulates a stellar spectrum and the influence of the presence of a planet or a spot on that spectrum over one orbital period. We have demonstrated that, so long as the signal-to-noise-ratio ≥ 75, our approach reconstructs the planetary orbital period, as well as the rotation period of a spot on the stellar surface.

  4. Multifractal behavior of commodity markets: Fuel versus non-fuel products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Fernando; Tohmé, Fernando; Stosic, Tatijana; Stosic, Borko

    2016-09-01

    We investigate multifractal properties of commodity time series using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We find that agricultural and energy-related commodities exhibit very similar behavior, while the multifractal behavior of daily and monthly commodity series is rather different. Daily series demonstrate overall uncorrelated behavior, lower degree of multifractality and the dominance of small fluctuations. On the other hand, monthly commodity series show overall persistent behavior, higher degree of multifractality and the dominance of large fluctuations. After shuffling the series, we find that the multifractality is due to a broad probability density function for daily commodities series, while for monthly commodities series multifractality is caused by both a broad probability density function and long term correlations.

  5. Lacunarity Analyses of Multifractal and Natural Grayscale Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ankur; Perfect, Edmund

    2014-09-01

    Lacunarity (L) is a scale (r)-dependent parameter that was developed for quantifying clustering in fractals and has subsequently been employed to characterize various natural patterns. For multifractals it can be shown analytically that L is related to the correlation dimension, D2, by: dlog(L)/dlog(r) = D2 - 2. We empirically tested this equation using two-dimensional multifractal grayscale patterns with known correlation dimensions. These patterns were analyzed for their lacunarity using the gliding-box algorithm. D2 values computed from the dlog(L)/dlog(r) analysis gave a 1:1 relationship with the known D2 values. Lacunarity analysis was also employed in discriminating between multifractal grayscale patterns with the same D2 values, but different degrees of scale-dependent clustering. For this purpose, a new lacunarity parameter, , was formulated based on the weighted mean of the log-transformed lacunarity values at different scales. This approach was further used to evaluate scale-dependent clustering in soil thin section grayscale images that had previously been classified as multifractals based on standard method of moments box-counting. Our results indicate that lacunarity analysis may be a more sensitive indicator of multifractal behavior in natural grayscale patterns than the standard approach. Thus, multifractal behavior can be checked without having to compute the whole spectrum of non-integer dimensions, Dq(-∞ parameter should be useful to researchers who want to explore the correlative influence of clustering on flow and transport in grayscale representations of soil aggregates and heterogeneous aquifers.

  6. Measurement of brain oxygenation changes using dynamic T1-weighted imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddock, Bryan; Larsson, Henrik B W; Hansen, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven useful in evaluating oxygenation in several types of tissue and blood. This study evaluates brain tissue oxygenation changes between normoxia and hyperoxia in healthy subjects using dynamic T1 and T2*-weighted imaging sequences. The change in FiO2 induced...... in the brain with a potential to provide quantitative information on tissue oxygenation....

  7. Validation of CT brain perfusion methods using a realistic dynamic head phantom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riordan, A.J.; Prokop, M.; Viergever, M.A.; Dankbaar, J.W.; Smit, E.J.; Jong, H.W. de

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Development and evaluation of a realistic hybrid head phantom for the validation of quantitative CT brain perfusion methods. METHODS: A combination, or hybrid, of CT images of an anthropomorphic head phantom together with clinically acquired MRI brain images was used to construct a dynamic

  8. A dynamic in vivo-like organotypic blood-brain barrier model to probe metastatic brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Li, Zhongyu; Yu, Yue; Sizdahkhani, Saman; Ho, Winson S.; Yin, Fangchao; Wang, Li; Zhu, Guoli; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Lei; Zhuang, Zhengping; Qin, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the uptake of many neuro-therapeutic molecules, presenting a formidable hurdle to drug development in brain diseases. We proposed a new and dynamic in vivo-like three-dimensional microfluidic system that replicates the key structural, functional and mechanical properties of the blood-brain barrier in vivo. Multiple factors in this system work synergistically to accentuate BBB-specific attributes–permitting the analysis of complex organ-level responses in both normal and pathological microenvironments in brain tumors. The complex BBB microenvironment is reproduced in this system via physical cell-cell interaction, vascular mechanical cues and cell migration. This model possesses the unique capability to examine brain metastasis of human lung, breast and melanoma cells and their therapeutic responses to chemotherapy. The results suggest that the interactions between cancer cells and astrocytes in BBB microenvironment might affect the ability of malignant brain tumors to traverse between brain and vascular compartments. Furthermore, quantification of spatially resolved barrier functions exists within a single assay, providing a versatile and valuable platform for pharmaceutical development, drug testing and neuroscientific research.

  9. Modeling dynamic functional information flows on large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peili; Guo, Lei; Hu, Xintao; Li, Xiang; Jin, Changfeng; Han, Junwei; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence from the functional neuroimaging field suggests that human brain functions are realized via dynamic functional interactions on large-scale structural networks. Even in resting state, functional brain networks exhibit remarkable temporal dynamics. However, it has been rarely explored to computationally model such dynamic functional information flows on large-scale brain networks. In this paper, we present a novel computational framework to explore this problem using multimodal resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Basically, recent literature reports including our own studies have demonstrated that the resting state brain networks dynamically undergo a set of distinct brain states. Within each quasi-stable state, functional information flows from one set of structural brain nodes to other sets of nodes, which is analogous to the message package routing on the Internet from the source node to the destination. Therefore, based on the large-scale structural brain networks constructed from DTI data, we employ a dynamic programming strategy to infer functional information transition routines on structural networks, based on which hub routers that most frequently participate in these routines are identified. It is interesting that a majority of those hub routers are located within the default mode network (DMN), revealing a possible mechanism of the critical functional hub roles played by the DMN in resting state. Also, application of this framework on a post trauma stress disorder (PTSD) dataset demonstrated interesting difference in hub router distributions between PTSD patients and healthy controls.

  10. Analysis of the multifractal characteristics of the conventional radar return signal from aircraft targets%常规雷达飞机目标回波多重分形特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋生; 袁新娣; 管立新

    2012-01-01

    The multifractal feature of the conventional radar return signal from aircraft targets offers the fine description of the dynamic characteristics which induce the target's echo structure, therefore it can provide a new way to the aircraft target classification and its recognition in the conventional radar. On the basis of introducing the research methods for the multifractal as well as the mathematical model of aircraft returns in the conventional radar, by means of the multifractal measure analysis, the multifractal characteristic curves of the aircraft returns such as the mass index and the multifractal singularity spectrum were analyzed in detail, and several multifractal characteristic parameters such as the symmetry degree Rτ of the mass index, the multifractal singularity spectrum width Δδ, the multifractal singularity spectrum asymmetric index Rσ and etc. , were defined. The experimental analysis showed that the conventional radar returns from three types of aircraft targets containing jets, propeller aircrafts and helicopters, had significantly different multifractal characteristic curves, and the three multifractal characteristic parameters could be used as effective features for aircraft target classification and recognition in the conventional radar. '%常规雷达飞机目标回波的多重分形特性提供了对产生目标回波结构动力学特征的精细描述,为常规雷达飞机目标的分类和识别提供了新的途径.在介绍多重分形的研究方法以及常规雷达飞机目标回波数学模型的基础上,利用多重分形测度分析手段,详细分析常规雷达飞机目标回波的质量指数和多重分形奇异谱等多重分形特性曲线,并定义质量指数对称度Rr、多重分形谱宽度Aσ和非对称指数Rσ等多重分形特征参数.实验结果表明:喷气式飞机、螺旋桨飞机和直升机这3类飞机目标的常规雷达回波数据具有显著不同的多重分形特征,所定义的3种多重

  11. Multifractal properties of solar wind turbulence: theory and observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, A. V.; Avanov, L. A.; Zastenker, G. N.; Zelenyj, L. M.

    1996-10-01

    A fractal model of the solar wind is presented. This model treats fluctuations of the solar wind velocity from the viewpoint of nonlinear processes originating in the convective region and photosphere of the Sun. The multifractal structure of proton velocity fluctuations in a region of heliocentric distances from 0.2 to 0.8 AU is a result of these processes. Continuous measurements of solar wind velocity aboard the ISEE-3 spacecraft during one month were used to compare the theoretical and experimental results. It is shown that fluctuations of proton velocity have a multifractal structure in a frequency range of 10-5 - 10-3Hz.

  12. Apparent scale correlations in a random multifractal process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleve, Jochen; Schmiegel, Jürgen; Greiner, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We discuss various properties of a homogeneous random multifractal process, which are related to the issue of scale correlations. By design, the process has no built-in scale correlations. However, when it comes to observables like breakdown coefficients, which are based on a coarse......-graining of the multifractal field, scale correlations do appear. In the log-normal limit of the model process, the conditional distributions and moments of breakdown coefficients reproduce the observations made in fully developed small-scale turbulence. These findings help to understand several puzzling empirical details...

  13. Variable bit rate video traffic modeling by multiplicative multifractal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiaodong; Zhou Yuanhua; Zhang Rongfu

    2006-01-01

    Multiplicative multifractal process could well model video traffic. The multiplier distributions in the multiplicative multifractal model for video traffic are investigated and it is found that Gaussian is not suitable for describing the multipliers on the small time scales. A new statistical distribution-symmetric Pareto distribution is introduced. It is applied instead of Gaussian for the multipliers on those scales. Based on that, the algorithm is updated so that symmetric pareto distribution and Gaussian distribution are used to model video traffic but on different time scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm could model video traffic more accurately.

  14. Coupled uncertainty provided by a multifractal random walker

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Z Koohi; Movahed, S M S; Jafari, G R

    2015-01-01

    The aim here is to study the concept of pairing multifractality between time series possessing non-Gaussian distributions. The increasing number of rare events creates "criticality". We show how the pairing between two series is affected by rare events, which we call "coupled criticality". A method is proposed for studying the coupled criticality born out of the interaction between two series, using the bivariate multifractal random walk (BiMRW). This method allows studying dependence of the coupled criticality on the criticality of each individual system. This approach is applied to data sets of gold and oil markets, and inflation and unemployment.

  15. Multi-fractal analysis of highway traffic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Peng-Jian; Shen Jin-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the presence of multi-fractal behaviours in the traffic time series not only by statistical approaches but also by geometrical approaches. The pointwise H(o)lder exponent of a function is calculated by developing an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of H(o)lder exponent of time series. The traffic time series observed on the Beijing Yuquanying highway are analysed. The results from all these methods indicate that the traffic data exhibit the multi-fractal behaviour.

  16. Dissipation and spontaneous symmetry breaking in brain dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    We compare the predictions of the dissipative quantum model of brain with neurophysiological data collected from electroencephalograms resulting from high-density arrays fixed on the surfaces of primary sensory and limbic areas of trained rabbits and cats. Functional brain imaging in relation to behavior reveals the formation of coherent domains of synchronized neuronal oscillatory activity and phase transitions predicted by the dissipative model.

  17. Cell diversity and network dynamics in photosensitive human brain organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrato, Giorgia; Nguyen, Tuan; Macosko, Evan Z; Sherwood, John L; Min Yang, Sung; Berger, Daniel R; Maria, Natalie; Scholvin, Jorg; Goldman, Melissa; Kinney, Justin P; Boyden, Edward S; Lichtman, Jeff W; Williams, Ziv M; McCarroll, Steven A; Arlotta, Paola

    2017-05-04

    In vitro models of the developing brain such as three-dimensional brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity to study aspects of human brain development and disease. However, the cells generated within organoids and the extent to which they recapitulate the regional complexity, cellular diversity and circuit functionality of the brain remain undefined. Here we analyse gene expression in over 80,000 individual cells isolated from 31 human brain organoids. We find that organoids can generate a broad diversity of cells, which are related to endogenous classes, including cells from the cerebral cortex and the retina. Organoids could be developed over extended periods (more than 9 months), allowing for the establishment of relatively mature features, including the formation of dendritic spines and spontaneously active neuronal networks. Finally, neuronal activity within organoids could be controlled using light stimulation of photosensitive cells, which may offer a way to probe the functionality of human neuronal circuits using physiological sensory stimuli.

  18. A Renormalization-Group Interpretation of the Connection between Criticality and Multifractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent fluctuations in space plasmas beget phenomena of dynamic complexity. It is known that dynamic renormalization group (DRG) may be employed to understand the concept of forced and/or self-organized criticality (FSOC), which seems to describe certain scaling features of space plasma turbulence. But, it may be argued that dynamic complexity is not just a phenomenon of criticality. It is therefore of interest to inquire if DRG may be employed to study complexity phenomena that are distinctly more complicated than dynamic criticality. Power law scaling generally comes about when the DRG trajectory is attracted to the vicinity of a fixed point in the phase space of the relevant dynamic plasma parameters. What happens if the trajectory lies within a domain influenced by more than one single fixed point or more generally if the transformation underlying the DRG is fully nonlinear? The global invariants of the group under such situations (if they exist) are generally not power laws. Nevertheless, as we shall argue, it may still be possible to talk about local invariants that are power laws with the nonlinearity of transformation prescribing a specific phenomenon as crossovers. It is with such concept in mind that we may provide a connection between the properties of dynamic criticality and multifractals from the point of view of DRG (T. Chang, Chapter VII, "An Introduction to Space Plasma Complexity", Cambridge University Press, 2014). An example in terms of the concepts of finite-size scaling (FSS) and rank-ordered multifractal analysis (ROMA) of a toy model shall be provided. Research partially supported by the US National Science Foundation and the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/ 2007-2013) under Grant agreement no. 313038/STORM.

  19. A stochastic model of human gait dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; M. Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Ch. Ivanov, Plamen; Eugene Stanley, H.

    2002-12-01

    We present a stochastic model of gait rhythm dynamics, based on transitions between different “neural centers”, that reproduces distinctive statistical properties of normal human walking. By tuning one model parameter, the transition (hopping) range, the model can describe alterations in gait dynamics from childhood to adulthood-including a decrease in the correlation and volatility exponents with maturation. The model also generates time series with multifractal spectra whose broadness depends only on this parameter. Moreover, we find that the volatility exponent increases monotonically as a function of the width of the multifractal spectrum, suggesting the possibility of a change in multifractality with maturation.

  20. Spontaneous Functional Network Dynamics and Associated Structural Substrates in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong eLiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent imaging connectomics studies have demonstrated that the spontaneous human brain functional networks derived from resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI include many non-trivial topological properties, such as highly efficient small-world architecture and densely connected hub regions. However, very little is known about dynamic functional connectivity (D-FC patterns of spontaneous human brain networks during rest and about how these spontaneous brain dynamics are constrained by the underlying structural connectivity. Here, we combined sub-second multiband R-fMRI data with graph-theoretical approaches to comprehensively investigate the dynamic characteristics of the topological organization of human whole-brain functional networks, and then employed diffusion imaging data in the same participants to further explore the associated structural substrates. At the connection level, we found that human whole-brain D-FC patterns spontaneously fluctuated over time, while homotopic D-FC exhibited high connectivity strength and low temporal variability. At the network level, dynamic functional networks exhibited time-varying but evident small-world and assortativity architecture, with several regions (e.g., insula, sensorimotor cortex and medial prefrontal cortex emerging as functionally persistent hubs (i.e., highly connected regions while possessing large temporal variability in their degree centrality. Finally, the temporal characteristics (i.e., strength and variability of the connectional and nodal properties of the dynamic brain networks were significantly associated with their structural counterparts. Collectively, we demonstrate the economical, efficient and flexible characteristics of dynamic functional coordination in large-scale human brain networks during rest, and highlight their relationship with underlying structural connectivity, which deepens our understandings of spontaneous brain network dynamics in humans.

  1. The foreign exchange market: return distributions, multifractality, anomalous multifractality and the Epps effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł; Rak, Rafał

    2010-10-01

    We present a systematic study of various statistical characteristics of high-frequency returns from the foreign exchange market. This study is based on six exchange rates forming two triangles: EUR-GBP-USD and GBP-CHF-JPY. It is shown that the exchange rate return fluctuations for all of the pairs considered are well described by the non-extensive statistics in terms of q-Gaussians. There exist some small quantitative variations in the non-extensivity q-parameter values for different exchange rates (which depend also on the time scales studied), and this can be related to the importance of a given exchange rate in the world's currency trade. Temporal correlations organize the series of returns such that they develop the multifractal characteristics for all of the exchange rates, with a varying degree of symmetry of the singularity spectrum f(α), however. The most symmetric spectrum is identified for the GBP/USD. We also form time series of triangular residual returns and find that the distributions of their fluctuations develop disproportionately heavier tails as compared to small fluctuations, which excludes description in terms of q-Gaussians. The multifractal characteristics of these residual returns reveal such anomalous properties as negative singularity exponents and even negative singularity spectra. Such anomalous multifractal measures have so far been considered in the literature in connection with diffusion-limited aggregation and with turbulence. Studying the cross-correlations among different exchange rates, we found that market inefficiency on short time scales leads to the occurrence of the Epps effect on much longer time scales, but comparable to the ones for the stock market. Although the currency market is much more liquid than the stock markets and has a much greater transaction frequency, the building up of correlations takes up to several hours—a duration that does not differ much from what is observed in the stock markets. This may suggest

  2. Analyzing the Cross-Correlation Between Onshore and Offshore RMB Exchange Rates Based on Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chi; Zhou, Yingying; Wang, Gangjin; Yan, Xinguo

    We use the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to explore the multifractal behavior of the cross-correlation between exchange rates of onshore RMB (CNY) and offshore RMB (CNH) against US dollar (USD). The empirical data are daily prices of CNY/USD and CNH/USD from May 1, 2012 to February 29, 2016. The results demonstrate that: (i) the cross-correlation between CNY/USD and CNH/USD is persistent and its fluctuation is smaller when the order of fluctuation function is negative than that when the order is positive; (ii) the multifractal behavior of the cross-correlation between CNY/USD and CNH/USD is significant during the sample period; (iii) the dynamic Hurst exponents obtained by the rolling windows analysis show that the cross-correlation is stable when the global economic situation is good and volatile in bad situation; and (iv) the non-normal distribution of original data has a greater effect on the multifractality of the cross-correlation between CNY/USD and CNH/USD than the temporary correlation.

  3. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of brain dynamics from EEG with a Markov prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2016-12-13

    Electroencephalography (EEG) can capture brain dynamics in high temporal resolution. By projecting the scalp EEG signal back to its origin in the brain also high spatial resolution can be achieved. Source localized EEG therefore has potential to be a very powerful tool for understanding the functional dynamics of the brain. Solving the inverse problem of EEG is however highly ill-posed as there are many more potential locations of the EEG generators than EEG measurement points. Several well-known properties of brain dynamics can be exploited to alleviate this problem. More short ranging connections exist in the brain than long ranging, arguing for spatially focal sources. Additionally, recent work (Delorme et al., 2012) argues that EEG can be decomposed into components having sparse source distributions. On the temporal side both short and long term stationarity of brain activation are seen. We summarize these insights in an inverse solver, the so-called "Variational Garrote" (Kappen and Gómez, 2013). Using a Markov prior we can incorporate flexible degrees of temporal stationarity. Through spatial basis functions spatially smooth distributions are obtained. Sparsity of these are inherent to the Variational Garrote solver. We name our method the MarkoVG and demonstrate its ability to adapt to the temporal smoothness and spatial sparsity in simulated EEG data. Finally a benchmark EEG dataset is used to demonstrate MarkoVG's ability to recover non-stationary brain dynamics.

  4. Energy landscape and dynamics of brain activity during human bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Masuda, Naoki; Megumi, Fukuda; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2014-08-28

    Individual differences in the structure of parietal and prefrontal cortex predict the stability of bistable visual perception. However, the mechanisms linking such individual differences in brain structures to behaviour remain elusive. Here we demonstrate a systematic relationship between the dynamics of brain activity, cortical structure and behaviour underpinning bistable perception. Using fMRI in humans, we find that the activity dynamics during bistable perception are well described as fluctuating between three spatially distributed energy minimums: visual-area-dominant, frontal-area-dominant and intermediate states. Transitions between these energy minimums predicted behaviour, with participants whose brain activity tend to reflect the visual-area-dominant state exhibiting more stable perception and those whose activity transits to frontal-area-dominant states reporting more frequent perceptual switches. Critically, these brain activity dynamics are correlated with individual differences in grey matter volume of the corresponding brain areas. Thus, individual differences in the large-scale dynamics of brain activity link focal brain structure with bistable perception.

  5. Multifraction separation in countercurrent chromatography (MCSGP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krättli, Martin; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2013-09-01

    The multicolumn countercurrent solvent gradient purification (MCSGP) process is a continuous countercurrent multicolumn chromatography process capable of performing three fraction separations while applying a linear gradient of some modifier. This process can then be used either for the purification of a single species from a multicomponent mixture or to separate a three component mixture in one single operation. In this work, this process is extended to the separation of multifractions, in principle with no limitation. To achieve this goal the MCSGP standard process is extended by introducing one extra separation section per extra fraction to be isolated. Such an extra separation section is realized in this work through a single additional column, so that a n fraction MCSGP process can be realized using a minimum of n columns. Two separation processes were considered to experimentally demonstrate the possibility of realizing a four-fraction MCSGP unit able to purify two intermediate products in a given multicomponent mixture. The first one was a model mixture containing four different proteins. The two proteins eluting in the center of the chromatogram were purified with yields equal to 95% for the early eluting and 92% for the later eluting one. The corresponding purities were 94% and 97%, respectively. Such performance was well superior to that of the batch operation with the same modifier gradient which for the same purity values could not achieve yields larger than 67% and 81%, respectively. Similar performance improvements were found for the second separation where two out of seven charge variants which constitute the mAb Cetuximab currently available on the market have been purified in one single operation using a four-fraction MCSGP unit. In this case, yields of 81% and 65% were obtained with purities of 90% and 89%, respectively. These data compare well with the corresponding data from batch chromatography where with the same gradient and for the same

  6. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    1. The conference The third conference on "Nonlinear VAriability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes" (NVAG 3) was held in Cargese, Corsica, Sept. 10-17, 1993. NVAG3 was joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first specialist conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. It followed NVAG1 (Montreal, Aug. 1986), NVAG2 (Paris, June 1988; Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991), five consecutive annual sessions at EGS general assemblies and two consecutive spring AGU meeting sessions. As with the other conferences and workshops mentioned above, the aim was to develop confrontation between theories and experiments on scaling/multifractal behaviour of geophysical fields. Subjects covered included climate, clouds, earthquakes, atmospheric and ocean dynamics, tectonics, precipitation, hydrology, the solar cycle and volcanoes. Areas of focus included new methods of data analysis (especially those used for the reliable estimation of multifractal and scaling exponents), as well as their application to rapidly growing data bases from in situ networks and remote sensing. The corresponding modelling, prediction and estimation techniques were also emphasized as were the current debates about stochastic and deterministic dynamics, fractal geometry and multifractals, self-organized criticality and multifractal fields, each of which was the subject of a specific general discussion. The conference started with a one day short course of multifractals featuring four lectures on a) Fundamentals of multifractals: dimension, codimensions, codimension formalism, b) Multifractal estimation techniques: (PDMS, DTM), c) Numerical simulations, Generalized Scale Invariance analysis, d) Advanced multifractals, singular statistics, phase transitions, self-organized criticality and Lie cascades (given by D. Schertzer and S. Lovejoy, detailed course notes were sent to participants shortly after the conference). This

  7. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schertzer

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. The conference The third conference on "Nonlinear VAriability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes" (NVAG 3 was held in Cargese, Corsica, Sept. 10-17, 1993. NVAG3 was joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first specialist conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. It followed NVAG1 (Montreal, Aug. 1986, NVAG2 (Paris, June 1988; Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991, five consecutive annual sessions at EGS general assemblies and two consecutive spring AGU meeting sessions. As with the other conferences and workshops mentioned above, the aim was to develop confrontation between theories and experiments on scaling/multifractal behaviour of geophysical fields. Subjects covered included climate, clouds, earthquakes, atmospheric and ocean dynamics, tectonics, precipitation, hydrology, the solar cycle and volcanoes. Areas of focus included new methods of data analysis (especially those used for the reliable estimation of multifractal and scaling exponents, as well as their application to rapidly growing data bases from in situ networks and remote sensing. The corresponding modelling, prediction and estimation techniques were also emphasized as were the current debates about stochastic and deterministic dynamics, fractal geometry and multifractals, self-organized criticality and multifractal fields, each of which was the subject of a specific general discussion. The conference started with a one day short course of multifractals featuring four lectures on a Fundamentals of multifractals: dimension, codimensions, codimension formalism, b Multifractal estimation techniques: (PDMS, DTM, c Numerical simulations, Generalized Scale Invariance analysis, d Advanced multifractals, singular statistics, phase transitions, self-organized criticality and Lie cascades (given by D. Schertzer and S. Lovejoy, detailed course notes were sent to participants shortly after the

  8. ALTERED BRAIN MICROSTATE DYNAMICS IN ADOLESCENTS WITH NARCOLEPSY

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Morales Drissi; Attila Szakács; Witt, Suzanne T.; Anna Wretman; Martin Ulander; Henrietta Ståhlbrandt; Niklas Darin; Anne-Marie Landtblom; Tove Hallböök; Maria Engström

    2016-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder caused by a loss of hypocretin-1 producing neurons in the hypothalamus. Previous neuroimaging studies have investigated brain function in narcolepsy during rest using positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition to hypothalamic and thalamic dysfunction they showed aberrant prefrontal perfusion and glucose metabolism in narcolepsy. Given these findings in brain structure and metabolism in narcoleps...

  9. Altered Brain Microstate Dynamics in Adolescents with Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Morales Drissi; Attila Szakács; Witt, Suzanne T.; Anna Wretman; Martin Ulander; Henrietta Ståhlbrandt; Niklas Darin; Anne-Marie Landtblom; Tove Hallböök; Maria Engström

    2016-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder caused by a loss of hypocretin-1 producing neurons in the hypothalamus. Previous neuroimaging studies have investigated brain function in narcolepsy during rest using positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition to hypothalamic and thalamic dysfunction they showed aberrant prefrontal perfusion and glucose metabolism in narcolepsy. Given these findings in brain structure and metabolism in narcoleps...

  10. Dynamic functional brain networks involved in simple visual discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida María; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge Luis

    2014-10-01

    Visual discrimination tasks have been widely used to evaluate many types of learning and memory processes. However, little is known about the brain regions involved at different stages of visual discrimination learning. We used cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry to evaluate changes in regional brain oxidative metabolism during visual discrimination learning in a water-T maze at different time points during training. As compared with control groups, the results of the present study reveal the gradual activation of cortical (prefrontal and temporal cortices) and subcortical brain regions (including the striatum and the hippocampus) associated to the mastery of a simple visual discrimination task. On the other hand, the brain regions involved and their functional interactions changed progressively over days of training. Regions associated with novelty, emotion, visuo-spatial orientation and motor aspects of the behavioral task seem to be relevant during the earlier phase of training, whereas a brain network comprising the prefrontal cortex was found along the whole learning process. This study highlights the relevance of functional interactions among brain regions to investigate learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Selection of Multifractal Scaling Breaks and Separation of Geochemical and Geophysical Anomaly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Spatially superimposed multiple processes such as multiplicative cascade processes often generate multifractal measures possessing so-called self-similarity or self-affinity that can be described by power-law type of functions within certain scale ranges. The multifractalities can be estimated by applying multifractal modeling to the measures reflecting the characteristics of the physical processes such as the element concentration values analyzed in rock and soil samples and caused by the underlying mineralization processes and the other geological processes. The local and regional geological processes may result in geochemical patterns with distinct multifractalities as well as variable scaling ranges. Separation of these multifractal measures on the basis of both the distinct multifractalities and the scaling ranges will be significant for both theoretical studies of multifractal modeling and its applications. Multifractal scaling breaks have been observed from various multifractal patterns. This paper introduces a technique for separating multifractal measures on the basis of scaling breaks. It has been demonstrated that the method is effective for decomposing geochemical and geophysical anomalies required for mineral exploration. A dataset containing the element concentration values of potassium and phosphorus in soil samples was employed for demonstrating the application of the method for studying the fertilizer and yield optimization in agriculture.

  12. Influence of urban morphology on total noise pollution: multifractal description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Villaverde, Ana B; Jiménez-Hornero, Francisco J; Gutiérrez De Ravé, Eduardo

    2014-02-15

    Exposure to ambient noise levels above 65 dB can cause public health problems. The spatial distribution of this kind of pollution is linked to various elements which make up the urban form, such as construction density, the existence of open spaces and the shape and physical position of buildings. Since urban morphology displays multifractal behaviour, the present research studies for the first time the relationship between total noise pollution and urban features, such as street width and building height by means of a joint multifractal spectrum in two neighbourhoods of the city of Cordoba (Andalusia, Spain). According to the results, the joint multifractal spectrum reveals a positive correlation between the total noise pollution and the street width to building height ratio, this being more evident when urban morphology is regular. The information provided by the multifractal analysis completes the description obtained by using urban indexes and landscape metrics and might be useful for urban planning once the linkage between both frameworks has been done.

  13. A NOTE ON MULTIFRACTAL PACKING DIMENSION OF MEASURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjun Li

    2009-01-01

    The relations between the multifractal packing dimension of Borel probability measures and the asymptotic behavior of the function φ*(x)=lim sup/r→0 logv(V(x, r))-qlogμ(B(x, r))/logr are discussed and some applications are given.

  14. Multifractal Analysis of Local Entropies for Gibbs Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takens, Floris; Verbitski, Evgeni

    1998-01-01

    Recently a complete multifractal analysis of local dimensions, entropies and Lyapunov exponents of conformal expanding maps and surface Axion A diffeomorphisms for Gibbs measures was performed. The main goal of this was primarily the analysis of the local (pointwise) dimensions. This is an extremely

  15. Multifractal analysis of weighted networks by a modified sandbox algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Qin; Liu, Jin-Long; Yu, Zu-Guo; Li, Bao-Gen

    2015-12-01

    Complex networks have attracted growing attention in many fields. As a generalization of fractal analysis, multifractal analysis (MFA) is a useful way to systematically describe the spatial heterogeneity of both theoretical and experimental fractal patterns. Some algorithms for MFA of unweighted complex networks have been proposed in the past a few years, including the sandbox (SB) algorithm recently employed by our group. In this paper, a modified SB algorithm (we call it SBw algorithm) is proposed for MFA of weighted networks. First, we use the SBw algorithm to study the multifractal property of two families of weighted fractal networks (WFNs): “Sierpinski” WFNs and “Cantor dust” WFNs. We also discuss how the fractal dimension and generalized fractal dimensions change with the edge-weights of the WFN. From the comparison between the theoretical and numerical fractal dimensions of these networks, we can find that the proposed SBw algorithm is efficient and feasible for MFA of weighted networks. Then, we apply the SBw algorithm to study multifractal properties of some real weighted networks — collaboration networks. It is found that the multifractality exists in these weighted networks, and is affected by their edge-weights.

  16. Multifractal and mechanical analysis of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Camille; Teleki, Alexandra; Kuentz, Martin

    2017-03-09

    The formulation of lipophilic and hydrophobic compounds is a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry and it requires the development of complex formulations. Our first aim was to investigate hot-melt extrudate microstructures by means of multifractal analysis using scanning electron microscopy imaging. Since the microstructure can affect solid dosage form performance such as mechanical properties, a second objective was to study the influence of the type of adsorbent and of the presence of an amorphous compound on extrudate hardness. β-Carotene (BC) was chosen as poorly water-soluble model compound. Formulations containing a polymer, a lipid and two different silica based inorganic carriers were produced by hot-melt extrusion. Based on scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the obtained images were analyzed using multifractal formalism. The breaking force of the strands was assessed by a three point bending test. Multifractal analysis and three point bending results showed that the nature of interparticle interactions in the inorganic carrier as well as the presence of amorphous BC had an influence on the microstructure and thus on the mechanical performance. The use of multifractal analysis and the study of the mechanical properties were complementary to better characterize and understand complex formulations obtained by hot-melt extrusion.

  17. H.264/AVC Video Compressed Traces: Multifractal and Fractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samčović Andreja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available long video traces encoded according to H.264/AVC were analyzed from the fractal and multifractal points of view. It was shown that such video traces, as compressed videos (H.261, H.263, and MPEG-4 Version 2 exhibit inherent long-range dependency, that is, fractal, property. Moreover they have high bit rate variability, particularly at higher compression ratios. Such signals may be better characterized by multifractal (MF analysis, since this approach describes both local and global features of the process. From multifractal spectra of the frame size video traces it was shown that higher compression ratio produces broader and less regular MF spectra, indicating to higher MF nature and the existence of additive components in video traces. Considering individual frames (I, P, and B and their MF spectra one can approve additive nature of compressed video and the particular influence of these frames to a whole MF spectrum. Since compressed video occupies a main part of transmission bandwidth, results obtained from MF analysis of compressed video may contribute to more accurate modeling of modern teletraffic. Moreover, by appropriate choice of the method for estimating MF quantities, an inverse MF analysis is possible, that means, from a once derived MF spectrum of observed signal it is possible to recognize and extract parts of the signal which are characterized by particular values of multifractal parameters. Intensive simulations and results obtained confirm the applicability and efficiency of MF analysis of compressed video.

  18. Multifractal Decomposition of Statistically Self-Similar Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Hu YU; Di He HU

    2001-01-01

    Let K be a statistically self-similar set defined by Graf. In this paper, we construct arandom measure p which is supported by K and study the multifractal decomposition for K with p.Under such a decomposition, we obtain the expression of the spectrum function f(α).

  19. Variability of multifractal parameters in an urban precipitation monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licznar, Paweł; De Michele, Carlo; Dżugaj, Dagmara; Niesobska, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Precipitation especially over urban areas is considered a highly non-linear process, with wide variability over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. Despite obvious limitations of rainfall gauges location at urban sites, rainfall monitoring by gauge networks is a standard solution of urban hydrology. Often urban precipitation gauge networks are formed by modern electronic gauges and connected to control units of centralized urban drainage systems. Precipitation data, recorded online through these gauge networks, are used in so called Real-Time-Control (RTC) systems for the development of optimal strategies of urban drainage outflows management. As a matter of fact, the operation of RTC systems is motivated mainly by the urge of reducing the severity of urban floods and combined sewerage overflows, but at the same time, it creates new valuable precipitation data sources. The variability of precipitation process could be achieved by investigating multifractal behavior displayed by the temporal structure of precipitation data. There are multiply scientific communications concerning multifractal properties of point-rainfall data from different worldwide locations. However, very little is known about the close variability of multifractal parameters among closely located gauges, at the distances of single kilometers. Having this in mind, here we assess the variability of multifractal parameters among gauges of the urban precipitation monitoring network in Warsaw, Poland. We base our analysis on the set of 1-minute rainfall time series recorded in the period 2008-2011 by 25 electronic weighing type gauges deployed around the city by the Municipal Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Warsaw as a part of local RTC system. The presence of scale invariance and multifractal properties in the precipitation process was investigated with spectral analysis, functional box counting method and studying the probability distributions and statistical moments of the rainfall

  20. Language in the aging brain: the network dynamics of cognitive decline and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafto, Meredith A; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2014-10-31

    Language is a crucial and complex lifelong faculty, underpinned by dynamic interactions within and between specialized brain networks. Whereas normal aging impairs specific aspects of language production, most core language processes are robust to brain aging. We review recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence showing that language systems remain largely stable across the life span and that both younger and older adults depend on dynamic neural responses to linguistic demands. Although some aspects of network dynamics change with age, there is no consistent evidence that core language processes are underpinned by different neural networks in younger and older adults.

  1. Assessing microstructures of pyrrhotites in basalts by multifractal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Xie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and describing spatial arrangements of mineral particles and determining the mineral distribution structure are important to model the rock-forming process. Geometric properties of individual mineral particles can be estimated from thin sections, and different models have been proposed to quantify the spatial complexity of mineral arrangement. The Gejiu tin-polymetallic ore-forming district, located in Yunnan province, southwestern China, is chosen as the study area. The aim of this paper is to apply fractal and multifractal analysis to quantify distribution patterns of pyrrhotite particles from twenty-eight binary images obtained from seven basalt segments and then to discern the possible petrological formation environments of the basalts based on concentrations of trace elements. The areas and perimeters of pyrrhotite particles were measured for each image. Perimeter-area fractal analysis shows that the perimeter and area of pyrrhotite particles follow a power-law relationship, which implies the scale-invariance of the shapes of the pyrrhotites. Furthermore, the spatial variation of the pyrrhotite particles in space was characterized by multifractal analysis using the method of moments. The results show that the average values of the area-perimeter exponent (DAP, the width of the multifractal spectra (Δ(D(0−D(2 and Δ(D(qminD(qmax and the multifractality index (τ"(1 for the pyrrhotite particles reach their minimum in the second basalt segment, which implies that the spatial arrangement of pyrrhotite particles in Segment 2 is less heterogeneous. Geochemical trace element analysis results distinguish the second basalt segment sample from other basalt samples. In this aspect, the fractal and multifractal analysis may provide new insights into the quantitative assessment of mineral microstructures which may be closely associated with the petrogenesis as shown by the

  2. Temporal dynamics and determinants of whole brain tissue volume changes during recovery from alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, Stefan; Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2005-06-01

    Brain shrinkage and its partial reversibility with abstinence is a common neuroimaging finding in alcohol dependent individuals. We used an automated three-dimensional whole brain magnetic resonance imaging method (boundary shift integral) in 23 alcohol dependent individuals to measure the temporal dynamics of cerebral tissue and spinal fluid volume changes over a 12-month interval and to examine the major determinants of brain tissue change rates during abstinence and non-abstinence. We found more rapid brain tissue gain during the first month of sobriety than in the following months. The most rapid volume recovery was observed in abstinent individuals with the greatest baseline brain shrinkage and drinking severity. The rapid reversal of brain volume gains in non-abstinent individuals and tissue volume changes are modulated by duration of abstinence and non-abstinence periods, as well as recency of non-abstinence. Age, family history density of alcoholism, relapse severity, and duration or age of onset of heavy drinking were not major determinants of brain shrinkage and brain volume recovery rates. Treatment providers may use this tangible information to reinforce the biomedical benefits of sobriety. Previous quantitative measurements of brain volumes in alcohol dependent individuals performed after several weeks of abstinence likely underestimated the full extent of chronic alcohol-associated brain shrinkage.

  3. The human functional brain network demonstrates structural and dynamical resilience to targeted attack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Joyce

    Full Text Available In recent years, the field of network science has enabled researchers to represent the highly complex interactions in the brain in an approachable yet quantitative manner. One exciting finding since the advent of brain network research was that the brain network can withstand extensive damage, even to highly connected regions. However, these highly connected nodes may not be the most critical regions of the brain network, and it is unclear how the network dynamics are impacted by removal of these key nodes. This work seeks to further investigate the resilience of the human functional brain network. Network attack experiments were conducted on voxel-wise functional brain networks and region-of-interest (ROI networks of 5 healthy volunteers. Networks were attacked at key nodes using several criteria for assessing node importance, and the impact on network structure and dynamics was evaluated. The findings presented here echo previous findings that the functional human brain network is highly resilient to targeted attacks, both in terms of network structure and dynamics.

  4. The human functional brain network demonstrates structural and dynamical resilience to targeted attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Karen E; Hayasaka, Satoru; Laurienti, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the field of network science has enabled researchers to represent the highly complex interactions in the brain in an approachable yet quantitative manner. One exciting finding since the advent of brain network research was that the brain network can withstand extensive damage, even to highly connected regions. However, these highly connected nodes may not be the most critical regions of the brain network, and it is unclear how the network dynamics are impacted by removal of these key nodes. This work seeks to further investigate the resilience of the human functional brain network. Network attack experiments were conducted on voxel-wise functional brain networks and region-of-interest (ROI) networks of 5 healthy volunteers. Networks were attacked at key nodes using several criteria for assessing node importance, and the impact on network structure and dynamics was evaluated. The findings presented here echo previous findings that the functional human brain network is highly resilient to targeted attacks, both in terms of network structure and dynamics.

  5. Mobile Brain/Body Imaging (MoBI) of Physical Interaction with Dynamically Moving Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnickel, Evelyn; Gramann, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The non-invasive recording and analysis of human brain activity during active movements in natural working conditions is a central challenge in Neuroergonomics research. Existing brain imaging approaches do not allow for an investigation of brain dynamics during active behavior because their sensors cannot follow the movement of the signal source. However, movements that require the operator to react fast and to adapt to a dynamically changing environment occur frequently in working environments like assembly-line work, construction trade, health care, but also outside the working environment like in team sports. Overcoming the restrictions of existing imaging methods would allow for deeper insights into neurocognitive processes at workplaces that require physical interactions and thus could help to adapt work settings to the user. To investigate the brain dynamics accompanying rapid volatile movements we used a visual oddball paradigm where participants had to react to color changes either with a simple button press or by physically pointing towards a moving target. Using a mobile brain/body imaging approach (MoBI) including independent component analysis (ICA) with subsequent backprojection of cluster activity allowed for systematically describing the contribution of brain and non-brain sources to the sensor signal. The results demonstrate that visual event-related potentials (ERPs) can be analyzed for simple button presses and physical pointing responses and that it is possible to quantify the contribution of brain processes, muscle activity and eye movements to the signal recorded at the sensor level even for fast volatile arm movements with strong jerks. Using MoBI in naturalistic working environments can thus help to analyze brain dynamics in natural working conditions and help improving unhealthy or inefficient work settings. PMID:27445747

  6. Criticality in large-scale brain FMRI dynamics unveiled by a novel point process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Balenzuela, Pablo; Fraiman, Daniel; Chialvo, Dante R

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques have contributed significantly to our understanding of brain function. Current methods are based on the analysis of gradual and continuous changes in the brain blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) signal. Departing from that approach, recent work has shown that equivalent results can be obtained by inspecting only the relatively large amplitude BOLD signal peaks, suggesting that relevant information can be condensed in discrete events. This idea is further explored here to demonstrate how brain dynamics at resting state can be captured just by the timing and location of such events, i.e., in terms of a spatiotemporal point process. The method allows, for the first time, to define a theoretical framework in terms of an order and control parameter derived from fMRI data, where the dynamical regime can be interpreted as one corresponding to a system close to the critical point of a second order phase transition. The analysis demonstrates that the resting brain spends most of the time near the critical point of such transition and exhibits avalanches of activity ruled by the same dynamical and statistical properties described previously for neuronal events at smaller scales. Given the demonstrated functional relevance of the resting state brain dynamics, its representation as a discrete process might facilitate large-scale analysis of brain function both in health and disease.

  7. Dynamic functional connectivity and brain metastability during altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Federico; Vilas, Martina G; Palmucci, Matías; Tagliazucchi, Enzo

    2017-10-03

    The scientific study of human consciousness has greatly benefited from the development of non-invasive brain imaging methods. The quest to identify the neural correlates of consciousness combined psychophysical experimentation with neuroimaging tools such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the changes in neural activity associated with conscious vs. unconscious percepts. Different neuroimaging methods have also been applied to characterize spontaneous brain activity fluctuations during altered states of consciousness, and to develop quantitative metrics for the level of consciousness. Most of these studies, however, have not explored the dynamic nature of the whole-brain imaging data provided by fMRI. A series of empirical and computational studies strongly suggests that the temporal fluctuations observed in this data present a non-trivial structure, and that this structure is compatible with the exploration of a discrete repertoire of states. In this review we focus on how dynamic neuroimaging can be used to address theoretical accounts of consciousness based on the hypothesis of a dynamic core, i.e. a constantly evolving and transiently stable set of coordinated neurons that constitute an integrated and differentiated physical substrate for each conscious experience. We review work exploring the possibility that metastability in brain dynamics leads to a repertoire of dynamic core states, and discuss how it might be modified during altered states of consciousness. This discussion prompts us to review neuroimaging studies aimed to map the dynamic exploration of the repertoire of states as a function of consciousness. Complementary studies of the dynamic core hypothesis using perturbative methods are also discussed. Finally, we propose that a link between metastability in brain dynamics and the level of consciousness could pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of altered states of consciousness using tools from dynamical systems

  8. Mixed Multifractal Analysis of Crude Oil, Gold and Exchange Rate Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meifeng; Shao, Shuxiang; Gao, Jianyu; Sun, Yu; Su, Weiyi

    2016-11-01

    The multifractal analysis of one time series, e.g. crude oil, gold and exchange rate series, is often referred. In this paper, we apply the classical multifractal and mixed multifractal spectrum to study multifractal properties of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series and their inner relationships. The obtained results show that in general, the fractal dimension of gold and crude oil is larger than that of exchange rate (RMB against the US dollar), reflecting a fact that the price series in gold and crude oil are more heterogeneous. Their mixed multifractal spectra have a drift and the plot is not symmetric, so there is a low level of mixed multifractal between each pair of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series.

  9. Stochastic formalism-based seafloor feature discrimination using multifractality of time-dependent acoustic backscatter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haris, K.; Chakraborty, B.

    location (Fig. 1b). Depth-dependent correction Apart from the processing steps described in the preceding subsection, the echo-envelope data require an additional cor- rection for the sonar footprint dimension prior to stochas- tic multifractal analyses... ensemble averaged to obtain a representative stable acous- tic signal (at each location) prior to multifractal analyses. be multifractal over various ranges (Lovejoy and Schertzer, 2007a). However, in the specific case of echo envelopes, the power...

  10. Impaired social brain network for processing dynamic facial expressions in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Wataru

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairment of social interaction via facial expressions represents a core clinical feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, the neural correlates of this dysfunction remain unidentified. Because this dysfunction is manifested in real-life situations, we hypothesized that the observation of dynamic, compared with static, facial expressions would reveal abnormal brain functioning in individuals with ASD. We presented dynamic and static facial expressions of fear and happiness to individuals with high-functioning ASD and to age- and sex-matched typically developing controls and recorded their brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Result Regional analysis revealed reduced activation of several brain regions in the ASD group compared with controls in response to dynamic versus static facial expressions, including the middle temporal gyrus (MTG, fusiform gyrus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG. Dynamic causal modeling analyses revealed that bi-directional effective connectivity involving the primary visual cortex–MTG–IFG circuit was enhanced in response to dynamic as compared with static facial expressions in the control group. Group comparisons revealed that all these modulatory effects were weaker in the ASD group than in the control group. Conclusions These results suggest that weak activity and connectivity of the social brain network underlie the impairment in social interaction involving dynamic facial expressions in individuals with ASD.

  11. Untangling Brain-Wide Dynamics in Consciousness by Cross-Embedding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satohiro Tajima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain-wide interactions generating complex neural dynamics are considered crucial for emergent cognitive functions. However, the irreducible nature of nonlinear and high-dimensional dynamical interactions challenges conventional reductionist approaches. We introduce a model-free method, based on embedding theorems in nonlinear state-space reconstruction, that permits a simultaneous characterization of complexity in local dynamics, directed interactions between brain areas, and how the complexity is produced by the interactions. We demonstrate this method in large-scale electrophysiological recordings from awake and anesthetized monkeys. The cross-embedding method captures structured interaction underlying cortex-wide dynamics that may be missed by conventional correlation-based analysis, demonstrating a critical role of time-series analysis in characterizing brain state. The method reveals a consciousness-related hierarchy of cortical areas, where dynamical complexity increases along with cross-area information flow. These findings demonstrate the advantages of the cross-embedding method in deciphering large-scale and heterogeneous neuronal systems, suggesting a crucial contribution by sensory-frontoparietal interactions to the emergence of complex brain dynamics during consciousness.

  12. Analyzing EEG of quasi-brain-death based on dynamic sample entropy measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Li; Cao, Jianting; Wang, Rubin

    2013-01-01

    To give a more definite criterion using electroencephalograph (EEG) approach on brain death determination is vital for both reducing the risks and preventing medical misdiagnosis. This paper presents several novel adaptive computable entropy methods based on approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn) to monitor the varying symptoms of patients and to determine the brain death. The proposed method is a dynamic extension of the standard ApEn and SampEn by introducing a shifted time window. The main advantages of the developed dynamic approximate entropy (DApEn) and dynamic sample entropy (DSampEn) are for real-time computation and practical use. Results from the analysis of 35 patients (63 recordings) show that the proposed methods can illustrate effectiveness and well performance in evaluating the brain consciousness states.

  13. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Interevent Time Series in a Modified OFC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Min; YAN Shuang-Xi; ZHAO Gang; WANG Gang

    2013-01-01

    We use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) method to investigate the multifractal behavior of the interevent time series in a modified Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) earthquake model on assortative scale-free networks.We determine generalized Hurst exponent and singularity spectrum and find that these fluctuations have multifractal nature.Comparing the MF-DFA results for the original interevent time series with those for shuffled and surrogate series,we conclude that the origin of multifractality is due to both the broadness of probability density function and long-range correlation.

  14. Turbulence in magnetized plasmas and financial markets: comparative study of multifractal statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, V. P.

    2004-12-01

    The turbulence in magnetized plasma and financial data of Russian market have been studied in terms of the multifractal formalism revisited with wavelets. The multifractal formalism based on wavelet calculations allows one to study the scaling properties of turbulent fluctuations. It is observed that both plasma edge turbulence in fusion devices and Russian financial markets demonstrate multifractal statistics, i.e., the scaling behaviour of absolute moments is described by a convex function. Multifractality parameter defined in multiplicative cacade model, seems to be of the same magnitude for the plasma and financial time series considered in this paper.

  15. Dynamic Profiling: Modeling the Dynamics of Inflammation and Predicting Outcomes in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Constantine

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI is complex, individual-specific, and associated with morbidity and mortality. We sought to develop dynamic, data-driven, predictive computational models of TBI-induced inflammation based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers. Thirteen inflammatory mediators were determined in serial CSF samples from 27 severe TBI patients. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score quantifies the initial severity of the neurological status of the patient on a numerical scale from 3 to 15. The 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS score, the outcome variable, was taken as the variable to express and predict as a function of the other input variables. Data on each subject consisting of ten clinical (one-dimensional variables, such as age, gender, and presence of infection, along with inflammatory biomarker time series were used to generate both multinomial logistic as well as probit models that predict low (poor outcome or high (favorable outcome levels of the GOS score. To determine if CSF inflammation biomarkers could predict TBI outcome, a logistic model for low (≤3; poor neurological outcome or high levels (≥4; favorable neurological outcome of the GOS score involving a full effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor- and both linear and quadratic effects of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 was obtained. To better stratify patients as their pathology progresses over time, a technique called Dynamic Profiling was developed in which patients were clustered, using the spectral Laplacian and Hartigan's k-means method, into disjoint groups at different stages. Initial clustering was based on GCS score; subsequent clustering was performed based on clinical and demographic information and then further, sequential clustering based on the levels of individual inflammatory mediators over time. These clusters assess the risk of mortality of a new patient after each inflammatory mediator

  16. Lectures in Supercomputational Neurosciences Dynamics in Complex Brain Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graben, Peter beim; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Computational Neuroscience is a burgeoning field of research where only the combined effort of neuroscientists, biologists, psychologists, physicists, mathematicians, computer scientists, engineers and other specialists, e.g. from linguistics and medicine, seem to be able to expand the limits of our knowledge. The present volume is an introduction, largely from the physicists' perspective, to the subject matter with in-depth contributions by system neuroscientists. A conceptual model for complex networks of neurons is introduced that incorporates many important features of the real brain, such as various types of neurons, various brain areas, inhibitory and excitatory coupling and the plasticity of the network. The computational implementation on supercomputers, which is introduced and discussed in detail in this book, will enable the readers to modify and adapt the algortihm for their own research. Worked-out examples of applications are presented for networks of Morris-Lecar neurons to model the cortical co...

  17. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  18. Your Brain on Art: Emergent Cortical Dynamics During Aesthetic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontson, Kimberly L; Megjhani, Murad; Brantley, Justin A; Cruz-Garza, Jesus G; Nakagome, Sho; Robleto, Dario; White, Michelle; Civillico, Eugene; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    The brain response to conceptual art was studied with mobile electroencephalography (EEG) to examine the neural basis of aesthetic experiences. In contrast to most studies of perceptual phenomena, participants were moving and thinking freely as they viewed the exhibit The Boundary of Life is Quietly Crossed by Dario Robleto at the Menil Collection-Houston. The brain activity of over 400 subjects was recorded using dry-electrode and one reference gel-based EEG systems over a period of 3 months. Here, we report initial findings based on the reference system. EEG segments corresponding to each art piece were grouped into one of three classes (complex, moderate, and baseline) based on analysis of a digital image of each piece. Time, frequency, and wavelet features extracted from EEG were used to classify patterns associated with viewing art, and ranked based on their relevance for classification. The maximum classification accuracy was 55% (chance = 33%) with delta and gamma features the most relevant for classification. Functional analysis revealed a significant increase in connection strength in localized brain networks while subjects viewed the most aesthetically pleasing art compared to viewing a blank wall. The direction of signal flow showed early recruitment of broad posterior areas followed by focal anterior activation. Significant differences in the strength of connections were also observed across age and gender. This work provides evidence that EEG, deployed on freely behaving subjects, can detect selective signal flow in neural networks, identify significant differences between subject groups, and report with greater-than-chance accuracy the complexity of a subject's visual percept of aesthetically pleasing art. Our approach, which allows acquisition of neural activity "in action and context," could lead to understanding of how the brain integrates sensory input and its ongoing internal state to produce the phenomenon which we term aesthetic experience.

  19. Dynamic changes of the phosphoproteome in postmortem mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Oka

    Full Text Available Protein phosphorylation is deeply involved in the pathological mechanism of various neurodegenerative disorders. However, in human pathological samples, phosphorylation can be modified during preservation by postmortem factors such as time and temperature. Postmortem changes may also differ among proteins. Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive database that could support the analysis of protein phosphorylation in human brain samples from the standpoint of postmortem changes. As a first step toward addressing the issue, we performed phosphoproteome analysis with brain tissue dissected from mouse bodies preserved under different conditions. Quantitative whole proteome mass analysis showed surprisingly diverse postmortem changes in phosphoproteins that were dependent on temperature, time and protein species. Twelve hrs postmortem was a critical time point for preservation at room temperature. At 4°C, after the body was cooled down, most phosphoproteins were stable for 72 hrs. At either temperature, increase greater than 2-fold was exceptional during this interval. We found several standard proteins by which we can calculate the postmortem time at room temperature. The information obtained in this study will be indispensable for evaluating experimental data with human as well as mouse brain samples.

  20. Application of multifractal wavelet analysis to spontaneous fermentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ibarra-Junquera, V; Escalante-Minakata, P; Rosu, H C

    2007-01-01

    An algorithm is presented here to get more detailed information, of mixed culture type, based exclusively on the biomass concentrations data for fermentation processes. The analysis is performed having available only the on-line measurements of the redox potential. It is a two-step procedure which includes an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) that relates the redox potential to the biomass concentrations in the first step. Next, a multifractal wavelet analysis is performed using the biomass estimates of the process. In this context, our results show that the redox potential is a valuable indicator of microorganism metabolic activity during the spontaneous fermentation. In this paper, the detailed design of the multifractal wavelet analysis is presented, as well as its direct experimental application at the laboratory level

  1. Multifractality and herding behavior in the Japanese stock market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, Doutorado em Economia de Empresas, SGAN 916, Modulo B, Asa Norte, DF 70790-160 (Brazil); Tabak, Benjamin M. [Banco Central do Brasil, SBS Quadra 3, Bloco B, 9 andar, DF 70074-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: benjamin@ucb.br

    2009-04-15

    In this paper we present evidence of multifractality and herding behavior for a large set of Japanese stocks traded in the Tokyo Stock Exchange. We find evidence that herding behavior occurs in periods of extreme market movements. Therefore, based on the intuition behind the tests to detect herding phenomenon developed, for instance, in Christie and Huang [Christie W, Huang R. Following the pied pier: do individual returns herd around the market? Financ Analysts J 1995;51:31-7] and Chang et al. [Chang EC, Cheng JW, Khorana A. Examination of herd behavior in equity markets: an international perspective. J Bank Finance 2000;24:1651-99], we suggest that herding behavior may be one of the causes of multifractality.

  2. Multifractal analysis of weighted networks by a modified sandbox algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yu-Qin; Yu, Zu-Guo; Li, Bao-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks have attracted growing attention in many fields. As a generalization of fractal analysis, multifractal analysis (MFA) is a useful way to systematically describe the spatial heterogeneity of both theoretical and experimental fractal patterns. Some algorithms for MFA of unweighted complex networks have been proposed in the past a few years, including the sandbox (SB) algorithm recently employed by our group. In this paper, a modified SB algorithm (we call it SBw algorithm) is proposed for MFA of weighted networks.First, we use the SBw algorithm to study the multifractal property of two families of weighted fractal networks (WFNs): "Sierpinski" WFNs and "Cantor dust" WFNs. We also discuss how the fractal dimension and generalized fractal dimensions change with the edge-weights of the WFN. From the comparison between the theoretical and numerical fractal dimensions of these networks, we can find that the proposed SBw algorithm is efficient and feasible for MFA of weighted networks. Then, we apply...

  3. Multifractal analysis of non-uniformly contracting iterated function systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuan-Ling

    2017-05-01

    Let X  =  [0,1]. Given a non-uniformly contracting conformal iterated function system (IFS) ≤ft\\{{{w}j}\\right\\}j=1m and a family of positive Dini continuous potential functions ≤ft\\{ {{p}j}\\right\\}j=1m , the triple system ≤ft(X,≤ft\\{{{w}j}\\right\\}j=1m,≤ft\\{ {{p}j}\\right\\}j=1m\\right) , under some conditions, determines uniquely a probability invariant measure, denoted by μ. In this paper, we study the pressure function of the system and multifractal structure of μ. We prove that the pressure function is Gateaux differentiable and the multifractal formalism holds, if the IFS ≤ft\\{{{w}j}\\right\\}j=1m has non-overlapping.

  4. Seismic Interevent Time: A Spatial Scaling and Multifractality

    CERN Document Server

    Molchan, G

    2005-01-01

    The optimal scaling problem for the time t(LxL) between two successive events in a seismogenic cell of size L is considered. The quantity t(LxL) is defined for a random cell of a grid covering a seismic region G. We solve that problem in terms of a multifractal characteristic of epicenters in G known as the tau-function or generalized fractal dimensions; the solution depends on the type of cell randomization. Our theoretical deductions are corroborated by California seismicity with magnitude M>2. In other words, the population of waiting time distributions for L = 10-100 km provides positive information on the multifractal nature of seismicity, which impedes the population to be converted into a unified law by scaling. This study is a follow-up of our analysis of power/unified laws for seismicity (see PAGEOPH 162 (2005), 1135 and GJI 162 (2005), 899).

  5. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Bi; Jianbo, Gao

    2016-07-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  6. Multifractional Spacetimes, Asymptotic Safety and HOŘAVA-LIFSHITZ Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2013-07-01

    We compare the recently formulated multifractional spacetimes with field theories of quantum gravity based on the renormalization group (RG), such as asymptotic safety and Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. The change of spacetime dimensionality with the probed scale is realized in both cases by an adaptation of the measurement tools ("rods") to the scale, but in different ways. In the multifractional case, by an adaptation of the position-space measure, which can be encoded into an explicit scale dependence of effective coordinates. In the case of RG-based theories, by an adaptation of the momenta. The two pictures are mapped into each other, thus presenting the fractal structure of spacetime in RG-based theories under an alternative perspective.

  7. Irregularities and scaling in signal and image processing: multifractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abry, Patrice; Jaffard, Herwig; Wendt, Stéphane

    2015-03-01

    B. Mandelbrot gave a new birth to the notions of scale invariance, self-similarity and non-integer dimensions, gathering them as the founding corner-stones used to build up fractal geometry. The first purpose of the present contribution is to review and relate together these key notions, explore their interplay and show that they are different facets of a single intuition. Second, we will explain how these notions lead to the derivation of the mathematical tools underlying multifractal analysis. Third, we will reformulate these theoretical tools into a wavelet framework, hence enabling their better theoretical understanding as well as their efficient practical implementation. B. Mandelbrot used his concept of fractal geometry to analyze real-world applications of very different natures. As a tribute to his work, applications of various origins, and where multifractal analysis proved fruitful, are revisited to illustrate the theoretical developments proposed here.

  8. On the spin wave multifractal spectra in magnetic multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, C. G.; Albuquerque, E. L.; , E. Nogueira, Jr.

    The multifractal properties of spin wave bandwidths in quasiperiodic magnetic multilayers are studied. The profiles of the bandwidths are analyzed and the f( α) function is calculated for different values of the dimensionless in-plane wave vector kxa and for four different sequences: Fibonacci, double-period, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro. We note that the f( α) spectra is qualitatively the same for different values of kxa.

  9. Multifractal Measure of Post Distribution in Post System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; HUANG Deng-shi

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the true post distribution in the whole society, microelasticity (MIE) and macroelasticity (MAE) were defined by regarding all posts as a system. On this basis, the method for measuring post distribution was proposed. Using the Legendre dual transformation between MIE and MAE to highlight the probabilities of different levels, the post distribution were analyzed hierarchically. The two-scale Cantor model verified that the multifractal measure is applicable to the post distribution evolution process.

  10. From fractional Brownian motion to multifractional and multistable motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Fractional Brownian motion, introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot and John Van Ness in 1968, has had a major impact on stochastic processes and their applications. We survey a few of the many developments that have stemmed from their ideas. In particular we discuss the local structure of fractional and multifractional Brownian, stable and multistable processes, emphasising the `diagonal' construction of such processes. In all this, the ubiquity and centrality of fractional Brownian motion is striking.

  11. Downscaling Soil Moisture in the Southern Great Plains Through a Calibrated Multifractal Model for Land Surface Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Giuseppe; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Deidda, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Accounting for small-scale spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture (theta) is required to enhance the predictive skill of land surface models. In this paper, we present the results of the development, calibration, and performance evaluation of a downscaling model based on multifractal theory using aircraft!based (800 m) theta estimates collected during the southern Great Plains experiment in 1997 (SGP97).We first demonstrate the presence of scale invariance and multifractality in theta fields of nine square domains of size 25.6 x 25.6 sq km, approximately a satellite footprint. Then, we estimate the downscaling model parameters and evaluate the model performance using a set of different calibration approaches. Results reveal that small-scale theta distributions are adequately reproduced across the entire region when coarse predictors include a dynamic component (i.e., the spatial mean soil moisture ) and a stationary contribution accounting for static features (i.e., topography, soil texture, vegetation). For wet conditions, we found similar multifractal properties of soil moisture across all domains, which we ascribe to the signature of rainfall spatial variability. For drier states, the theta fields in the northern domains are more intermittent than in southern domains, likely because of differences in the distribution of vegetation coverage. Through our analyses, we propose a regional downscaling relation for coarse, satellite-based soil moisture estimates, based on ancillary information (static and dynamic landscape features), which can be used in the study area to characterize statistical properties of small-scale theta distribution required by land surface models and data assimilation systems.

  12. Lacunarity and multifractal analysis of the large DLA mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Romo, Suemi; Sosa-Herrera, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    We show the methodology used to analyze fractal and mass-multifractal properties of very large Diffusion-Limited Aggregation (DLA) clusters with a maximum of 109 particles for 2D aggregates and 108 particles for 3D clusters, to support our main result; the scaling behavior obtained by our experimental results corresponds to the expected performance of monofractal objects. In order to estimate lacunarity measures for large DLA clusters, we develop a variant of the gliding-box algorithm which reduces the computer time needed to obtain experimental results. We show how our mass multifractal data have a tendency to present monofractal behavior for the mass distribution of the cases presented in this paper in the limit of very large clusters. Lacunarity analysis shows, provided we study small clusters mass distributions, data which might be interpreted as two different values of fractal dimensions while the cluster grows; however, this effect tends to vanish when the cluster size increases further, in such a way that monofractality is achieved. The outcomes of this paper lead us to conclude that the previously reported mass multifractality behavior (Vicsek et al., 1990 [13]) detected for DLA clusters is a consequence of finite size effects and floating point precision limitations and not an intrinsic feature of the phenomena, since the scaling behavior of our DLA clusters space corresponds to monofractal objects, being this situation remarkably noticeable in the limit of very large clusters.

  13. Multifractal comparison of the painting techniques of adults and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureika, J. R.; Fairbanks, M. S.; Taylor, R. P.

    2010-02-01

    Statistical analysis of art, particularly of the abstract genre, is becoming an increasingly important tool for understanding the image creation process. We present a multifractal clustering analysis of non-representational images painted by adults and children using a 'pouring' technique. The effective dimensions (D0) are measured for each, as is the associated multifractal depth ▵D = D0 - DOO. It is shown that children create paintings whose dimensions D0 are less than those created by adults. The effective dimensions for adult painters tend to cluster around 1.8, while those for children assume typical values of 1.6. In a similar fashion, the multifractal depths for images painted by adults and children show statistically-significant differences in their values. Adult paintings show a relatively shallow depth (▵D ~ 0.02), while children's paintings show a much greater depth (▵D ~ 0.1). Given that the 'pouring' technique reflects the body motions of the artist, the results suggest that the differences in the paintings' fractal characteristics are potential indicators of artist physiology.

  14. Multifractal analysis of low-latitude geomagnetic fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Bolzan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The technique of large deviation multifractal spectrum has shown that the high-latitude (77.5° N, 69.2° W geomagnetic fluctuations can be described from direct dissipation process or loading-unloading regimes of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. In this paper, we analyze the H-component of low-latitude (22.4° S, 43.6° W geomagnetic field variability observed during the month of July 2000 at the Geomagnetic Observatory, Vassouras, RJ, Brazil. The variability pattern during this period is a mixture of quiet and disturbed days including the Bastille Day intense geomagnetic storm on 15 July. Due to the complexity of this data, we pursue a detailed analysis of the geomagnetic fluctuations in different time scales including a multifractal approach using the singular power spectrum deviations obtained from the wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM. The results suggest, as observed from high-latitude data, the occurrence of low-latitude multifractal processes driving the intermittent coupling between the solar wind-magnetosphere and geomagnetic field variations. On finer scales possible physical mechanisms in the context of nonlinear magnetosphere response are discussed.

  15. Stochastic Calculus with respect to multifractional Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Lebovits, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic calculus with respect to fractional Brownian motion (fBm) has attracted a lot of interest in recent years, motivated in particular by applications in finance and Internet traffic modeling. Multifractional Brownian motion (mBm) is a Gaussian extension of fBm that allows to control the pointwise regularity of the paths of the process and to decouple it from its long range dependence properties. This generalization is obtained by replacing the constant Hurst parameter H of fBm by a function h(t). Multifractional Brownian motion has proved useful in many applications, including the ones just mentioned. In this work we extend to mBm the construction of a stochastic integral with respect to fBm. This stochastic integral is based on white noise theory, as originally proposed in [15], [6], [4] and in [5]. In that view, a multifractional white noise is defined, which allows to integrate with respect to mBm a large class of stochastic processes using Wick products. It\\^o formulas (both for tempered distribut...

  16. Dynamic Multi-Coil Shimming of the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchem, Christoph; Nixon, Terence W.; McIntyre, Scott; Boer, Vincent O.; Rothman, Douglas L.; de Graaf, Robin A.

    2011-01-01

    High quality magnetic field homogenization of the human brain (i.e. shimming) for MR imaging and spectroscopy is a demanding task. The susceptibility differences between air and tissue are a longstanding problem as they induce complex field distortions in the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobes. To date, the theoretical gains of high field MR have only been realized partially in the human brain due to limited magnetic field homogeneity. A novel shimming technique for the human brain is presented that is based on the combination of non-orthogonal basis fields from 48 individual, circular coils. Custom-built amplifier electronics enabled the dynamic application of the multi-coil shim fields in a slice-specific fashion. Dynamic multi-coil (DMC) shimming is shown to eliminate most of the magnetic field inhomogeneity apparent in the human brain at 7 Tesla and provided improved performance compared to state-of-the-art dynamic shim updating with zero through third order spherical harmonic functions. The novel technique paves the way for high field MR applications of the human brain for which excellent magnetic field homogeneity is a prerequisite. PMID:21824794

  17. Dynamical regimes underlying epileptiform events: role of instabilities and bifurcations in brain activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Velazquez, Jose L.; Cortez, Miguel A.; Snead, O. Carter; Wennberg, Richard

    2003-12-01

    Epileptic seizures represent a sudden and transient change in the synchronised firing of neuronal brain ensembles. While the transition of the collective neuronal activity towards the ictal event is not well understood, some progress has been made using nonlinear time series analysis methods. We present here an analysis of the dynamical regimes of the epileptic activity in three patients suffering from intractable (drug-resistant) seizures, and compare these with the dynamics in rodent epilepsy models. We used the time interval between spikes found in the electroencephalographic recordings as our variable to construct interpeak interval (IPI) time delay plots to study the neuronal interictal (activity between seizures), preictal, and seizure activity. A one-dimensional mapping function was obtained by approximation of the IPI plots with a polynomial. Two main dynamical regimes are obtained from the analysis of the mapping function, derived from the subharmonic bifurcation present in the map: period doubling and intermittency, both of which are observed in human and rat seizures. Hence, our simple model obtained from experimental data captures essential phenomena for the collective dynamics of brain networks, that are found in recordings from human and animal epilepsies. The description of the neuronal dynamics based on one-dimensional maps, widely used in other systems, may prove useful for the understanding of the collective population dynamics of brain activity.

  18. Dynamics of the brain: Mathematical models and non-invasive experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toronov, V.; Myllylä, T.; Kiviniemi, V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2013-10-01

    Dynamics is an essential aspect of the brain function. In this article we review theoretical models of neural and haemodynamic processes in the human brain and experimental non-invasive techniques developed to study brain functions and to measure dynamic characteristics, such as neurodynamics, neurovascular coupling, haemodynamic changes due to brain activity and autoregulation, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. We focus on emerging theoretical biophysical models and experimental functional neuroimaging results, obtained mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We also included our current results on the effects of blood pressure variations on cerebral haemodynamics and simultaneous measurements of fast processes in the brain by near-infrared spectroscopy and a very novel functional MRI technique called magnetic resonance encephalography. Based on a rapid progress in theoretical and experimental techniques and due to the growing computational capacities and combined use of rapidly improving and emerging neuroimaging techniques we anticipate during next decade great achievements in the overall knowledge of the human brain.

  19. Linear and Nonlinear Analysis of Brain Dynamics in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Firoozeh; Ahmadlou, Mehran; Vameghi, Roshanak; Gharib, Masoud; Hemmati, Sahel

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine linear and nonlinear changes of brain dynamics and their relationships with the motor dysfunctions in CP children. For this purpose power of EEG frequency bands (as a linear analysis) and EEG fractality (as a nonlinear analysis) were computed in eyes-closed resting state and statistically compared between 26…

  20. Brain Dynamics of Word Familiarization in 20-Month-Olds: Effects of Productive Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Hansen, Hanna Friis; Svangstu, Janne Mari; Smith, Lars; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Moen, Inger; Lindgren, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the brain mechanisms involved during young children's receptive familiarization with new words, and whether the dynamics of these mechanisms are related to the child's productive vocabulary size. To this end, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 20-month-old children in a pseudoword repetition task.…

  1. Measurement of brain perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain barrier permeability, using dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI at 3 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Henrik B W; Courivaud, Frédéric; Rostrup, Egill

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of vascular properties is essential to diagnosis and follow-up and basic understanding of pathogenesis in brain tumors. In this study, a procedure is presented that allows concurrent estimation of cerebral perfusion, blood volume, and blood-brain permeability from dynamic T(1)-weighted...

  2. Concept of E-machine: How does a "dynamical" brain learn to process "symbolic" information? Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Eliashberg, Victor

    2004-01-01

    The human brain has many remarkable information processing characteristics that deeply puzzle scientists and engineers. Among the most important and the most intriguing of these characteristics are the brain's broad universality as a learning system and its mysterious ability to dynamically change (reconfigure) its behavior depending on a combinatorial number of different contexts. This paper discusses a class of hypothetically brain-like dynamically reconfigurable associative learning system...

  3. EEG Based Inference of Spatio-Temporal Brain Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese

    . The main topic of this thesis is the localization of the EEG generators. This entails solving both a forward and an inverse problem. The inverse problem maps the EEG signal recorded on the scalp to its origin in the brain. It is a highly ill-posed problem which we tackle by employing a sparsity promoting...... ’spike and slab’ like method augmented with physiologically relevant source priors. The incorporated temporal and spatial priors exploit coherence between neighboring time samples and between neighboring source locations, respectively. We show that these augmentations effectively increase the source...... through the EEG forward model and assumes that the activity of the fMRI component overlaps spatially with the origin of the coupled EEG component....

  4. Neural Dynamics Underlying Target Detection in the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Arjun K.; Madhavan, Radhika; Agam, Yigal; Golby, Alexandra; Madsen, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory signals must be interpreted in the context of goals and tasks. To detect a target in an image, the brain compares input signals and goals to elicit the correct behavior. We examined how target detection modulates visual recognition signals by recording intracranial field potential responses from 776 electrodes in 10 epileptic human subjects. We observed reliable differences in the physiological responses to stimuli when a cued target was present versus absent. Goal-related modulation was particularly strong in the inferior temporal and fusiform gyri, two areas important for object recognition. Target modulation started after 250 ms post stimulus, considerably after the onset of visual recognition signals. While broadband signals exhibited increased or decreased power, gamma frequency power showed predominantly increases during target presence. These observations support models where task goals interact with sensory inputs via top-down signals that influence the highest echelons of visual processing after the onset of selective responses. PMID:24553944

  5. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of brain dynamics from EEG with a Markov prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) can capture brain dynamics in high temporal resolution. By projecting the scalp EEG signal back to its origin in the brain also high spatial resolution can be achieved. Source localized EEG therefore has potential to be a very powerful tool for understanding...... connections exist in the brain than long ranging, arguing for spatially focal sources. Additionally, recent work (Delorme et al., 2012) argues that EEG can be decomposed into components having sparse source distributions. On the temporal side both short and long term stationarity of brain activation are seen....... We summarize these insights in an inverse solver, the so-called "Variational Garrote" (Kappen and Gómez, 2013). Using a Markov prior we can incorporate flexible degrees of temporal stationarity. Through spatial basis functions spatially smooth distributions are obtained. Sparsity...

  6. Mental states as macrostates emerging from brain electrical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allefeld, Carsten; Atmanspacher, Harald; Wackermann, Jiří

    2009-03-01

    Psychophysiological correlations form the basis for different medical and scientific disciplines, but the nature of this relation has not yet been fully understood. One conceptual option is to understand the mental as "emerging" from neural processes in the specific sense that psychology and physiology provide two different descriptions of the same system. Stating these descriptions in terms of coarser- and finer-grained system states (macro- and microstates), the two descriptions may be equally adequate if the coarse-graining preserves the possibility to obtain a dynamical rule for the system. To test the empirical viability of our approach, we describe an algorithm to obtain a specific form of such a coarse-graining from data, and illustrate its operation using a simulated dynamical system. We then apply the method to an electroencephalographic recording, where we are able to identify macrostates from the physiological data that correspond to mental states of the subject.

  7. Permeability analysis of neuroactive drugs through a dynamic microfluidic in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, R; Kim, H

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the permeability analysis of neuroactive drugs and correlation with in vivo brain/plasma ratios in a dynamic microfluidic blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. Permeability of seven neuroactive drugs (Ethosuximide, Gabapentin, Sertraline, Sunitinib, Traxoprodil, Varenicline, PF-304014) and trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) were quantified in both dynamic (microfluidic) and static (transwell) BBB models, either with brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) in monoculture, or in co-culture with glial cells (C6). Dynamic cultures were exposed to 15 dyn/cm(2) shear stress to mimic the in vivo environment. Dynamic models resulted in significantly higher average TEER (respective 5.9-fold and 8.9-fold increase for co-culture and monoculture models) and lower drug permeabilities (average respective decrease of 0.050 and 0.052 log(cm/s) for co-culture and monoculture) than static models; and co-culture models demonstrated higher average TEER (respective 90 and 25% increase for static and dynamic models) and lower drug permeability (average respective decrease of 0.063 and 0.061 log(cm/s) for static and dynamic models) than monoculture models. Correlation of the resultant logP e values [ranging from -4.06 to -3.63 log(cm/s)] with in vivo brain/plasma ratios (ranging from 0.42 to 26.8) showed highly linear correlation (R (2) > 0.85) for all model conditions, indicating the feasibility of the dynamic microfluidic BBB model for prediction of BBB clearance of pharmaceuticals.

  8. Describing the Neuron Axons Network of the Human Brain by Continuous Flow Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizanidis, J.; Katsaloulis, P.; Verganelakis, D. A.; Provata, A.

    2014-12-01

    The multifractal spectrum Dq (Rényi dimensions) is used for the analysis and comparison between the Neuron Axons Network (NAN) of healthy and pathological human brains because it conveys information about the statistics in many scales, from the very rare to the most frequent network configurations. Comparison of the Fractional Anisotropy Magnetic Resonance Images between healthy and pathological brains is performed with and without noise reduction. Modelling the complex structure of the NAN in the human brain is undertaken using the dynamics of the Lorenz model in the chaotic regime. The Lorenz multifractal spectra capture well the human brain characteristics in the large negative q's which represent the rare network configurations. In order to achieve a closer approximation in the positive part of the spectrum (q > 0) two independent modifications are considered: a) redistribution of the dense parts of the Lorenz model's phase space into their neighbouring areas and b) inclusion of additive uniform noise in the Lorenz model. Both modifications, independently, drive the Lorenz spectrum closer to the human NAN one in the positive q region without destroying the already good correspondence of the negative spectra. The modelling process shows that the unmodified Lorenz model in its full chaotic regime has a phase space distribution with high fluctuations in its dense parts, while the fluctuations in the human brain NAN are smoother. The induced modifications (phase space redistribution or additive noise) moderate the fluctuations only in the positive part of the Lorenz spectrum leading to a faithful representation of the human brain axons network in all scales.

  9. Electroencephalographic brain dynamics following manually responded visual targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Makeig

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Scalp-recorded electroencephalographic (EEG signals produced by partial synchronization of cortical field activity mix locally synchronous electrical activities of many cortical areas. Analysis of event-related EEG signals typically assumes that poststimulus potentials emerge out of a flat baseline. Signals associated with a particular type of cognitive event are then assessed by averaging data from each scalp channel across trials, producing averaged event-related potentials (ERPs. ERP averaging, however, filters out much of the information about cortical dynamics available in the unaveraged data trials. Here, we studied the dynamics of cortical electrical activity while subjects detected and manually responded to visual targets, viewing signals retained in ERP averages not as responses of an otherwise silent system but as resulting from event-related alterations in ongoing EEG processes. We applied infomax independent component analysis to parse the dynamics of the unaveraged 31-channel EEG signals into maximally independent processes, then clustered the resulting processes across subjects by similarities in their scalp maps and activity power spectra, identifying nine classes of EEG processes with distinct spatial distributions and event-related dynamics. Coupled two-cycle postmotor theta bursts followed button presses in frontal midline and somatomotor clusters, while the broad postmotor "P300" positivity summed distinct contributions from several classes of frontal, parietal, and occipital processes. The observed event-related changes in local field activities, within and between cortical areas, may serve to modulate the strength of spike-based communication between cortical areas to update attention, expectancy, memory, and motor preparation during and after target recognition and speeded responding.

  10. Multistability and metastability: understanding dynamic coordination in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, J.A. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Multistable coordination dynamics exists at many levels, from multifunctional neural circuits in vertebrates and invertebrates to large-scale neural circuitry in humans. Moreover, multistability spans (at least) the domains of action and perception, and has been found to place constraints upon, even dictating the nature of, intentional change and the skill-learning process. This paper reviews some of the key evidence for multistability in the aforementioned areas, and illustrates how it has b...

  11. Multifractal Geophysical Extremes: Nonstationarity and Long Range Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    Throughout the world, extremes in environmental sciences are of prime importance. They are key variables not only for risk assessments and engineering designs (e.g. of dams and bridges), but also for resource management (e.g. water and energy) and for land use. A better understanding of them is more and more indispensable in settling the debate on their possible climatological evolution. Whereas it took decades before a uniform technique for estimating flow frequencies within a stationary framework, it is often claimed that « stationarity is dead ! ». The fact that geophysical and environmental fields are variable over a wider range of scales than previously thought require to go beyond the limits of the (classical) Extreme Value Theory (EVT). Indeed, long-range correlations are beyond the scope of the classical EVT theory. We show that multifractal concepts and techniques are particularly appealing because they can effectively deal with a cascade of interactions concentrating for instance energy, liquid water, etc. into smaller and smaller space-time domains. Furthermore, a general outcome of these cascade processes -which surprisingly was realized only rather recently- is that rather independently of their details they yield probability distributions with power-law fall-offs, often called (asymptotic) Pareto or Zipf laws. We discuss the corresponding probability distributions of their maxima and its relationship with the Frechet law. We use these multifractal techniques to investigate the possibility of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the extremes. In particular we assess the multifractal parameter uncertainty with the help of long synthetic multifractal series and their sub-samples, in particular to obtain an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly important for the predictions of multifractal extremes. We finally illustrate the efficiency of this approach with its application to

  12. Study on Self-Affine Fractal and Multi-Fractal Features of Geomorphic System in the Tianshan Area of Xinjiang Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Meng; Zhu Lingren; Long Haiying

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we use the standard deviation method and the fixed mass method to study theself-affine fractal and multi-fractal features along two topographic profiles across differenttectonic-geomorphic elements in the Tianshan area of Xinjiang region, China. The results showthat in the studied scaling range, the two profiles display different scaling fractal features, andthe form and value range of multi-fractal spectra Dq also show different characteristics. Thestudy suggests that the landforms are not completely random, but are deterministicallyrandom. The fractal dimension values in different scaling ranges express the mode, intensityand spatial dimension of the endogenic and exogenic processes. Meanwhile, a boundary pointbetween the macroscopic and microscopic scales of geomorphic process is suggested to be about5 km. These results are of significance in quantitative study of geomorphic dynamics.

  13. Multifractal variability of Very Low Frequency (VLF) signal during Earthquakes (M greater than 5) occurred at Greece during the year 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhiya, Deepak Kumar; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Verma, Shivali; Kasde, Satish Kumar; Sonakia, Anjana

    In this work Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) based multifractal analysis method is used to extracts the earthquake precursory signatures from scaling characteristics of subionospheric Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals. We found specific dynamics of their fractal characteristics before the earthquake, appearance of the spike in the signal and increase of the fractal dimension. We analyze VLF signals of famous Turkey Bafa transmitter (N 370 24’, E 27019’) recorded by sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) monitoring station located at South of France during the Earthquake occurred at Greece during the year 2011-2012. The analysis of VLF signal during some days before and after the occurrence of earthquake has been done. Keywords: Multifractal analysis, VLF signal, Sudden Ionospheric disturbances

  14. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmann, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D.; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s “inner working model”. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described “social aversion network” including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG) specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the “social aversion network”, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by

  15. Dismissing attachment characteristics dynamically modulate brain networks subserving social aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Linda eKrause

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s ‘Inner Working Model’. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest fMRI-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described ‘social aversion network’ including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the ‘social aversion network’, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule. Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by our observation of direct

  16. Asymmetric multifractal detrending moving average analysis in time series of PM2.5 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Zhiwei; Ni, Liping; Li, Jingming; Zhou, Longfei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose the asymmetric multifractal detrending moving average analysis (A-MFDMA) method to explore the asymmetric correlation in non-stationary time series. The proposed method is applied to explore the asymmetric correlation of PM2.5 daily average concentration with uptrends or downtrends in China. In addition, shuffling and phase randomization procedures are applied to detect the sources of multifractality. The results show that existences of asymmetric correlations, and the asymmetric correlations are multifractal. Further, the multifractal scaling behavior in the Chinese PM2.5 is caused not only by long-range correlation but also by fat-tailed distribution, but the major source of multifractality is fat-tailed distribution.

  17. Multifractal analysis of the fracture surfaces of foamed polypropylene/polyethylene blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Jiang, Xiu-Lei; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Ling; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Yuan, Wei-Kang

    2009-01-01

    The two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is applied to reveal the multifractal properties of the fracture surfaces of foamed polypropylene/polyethylene (PP/PE) blends at different temperatures. Nice power-law scaling relationship between the detrended fluctuation function Fq and the scale s is observed for different orders q and the scaling exponent h(q) is found to be a nonlinear function of q, confirming the presence of multifractality in the fracture surfaces. The multifractal spectra f(α) are obtained numerically through Legendre transform. The shape of the multifractal spectrum of singularities can be well captured by the width of spectrum Δα and the difference of dimension Δf. With the increase of the PE content, the fracture surface becomes more irregular and complex, as is manifested by the facts that Δα increases and Δf decreases from positive to negative. A qualitative interpretation is provided based on the foaming process.

  18. A comparison between two OLS-based approaches to estimating urban multifractal parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Linshan

    2016-01-01

    Multifractal theory provides a powerful tool to describe urban form and growth, but many basic problems remain to be solved. Among various pending problems, the most significant one is how to obtain proper multifractal dimension spectrums. If an algorithm is improperly used, the parameter values will be abnormal. This paper is devoted to drawing a comparison between two OLS-based approaches for estimating urban multifractal parameters. Using observational data and empirical analysis, we will demonstrate how to utilize the double logarithmic linear regression to evaluate multifractal parameters. The OLS regression analysis has two different approaches. One is to fix the intercept to zero, and the other is not to fix it. The case studies show that the advisable method is to constrain the intercept to zero. The zero-intercept regression yields proper multifractal parameter spectrums within certain scale range of moment order, while the common regression results are not normal. In practice, the zero-intercept reg...

  19. Network Dynamics with BrainX3: A Large-Scale Simulation of the Human Brain Network with Real-Time Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xerxes D. Arsiwalla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BrainX3 is a large-scale simulation of human brain activity with real-time interaction, rendered in 3D in a virtual reality environment, which combines computational power with human intuition for the exploration and analysis of complex dynamical networks. We ground this simulation on structural connectivity obtained from diffusion spectrum imaging data and model it on neuronal population dynamics. Users can interact with BrainX3 in real-time by perturbing brain regions with transient stimulations to observe reverberating network activity, simulate lesion dynamics or implement network analysis functions from a library of graph theoretic measures. BrainX3 can thus be used as a novel immersive platform for real-time exploration and analysis of dynamical activity patterns in brain networks, both at rest or in a task-related state, for discovery of signaling pathways associated to brain function and/or dysfunction and as a tool for virtual neurosurgery. Our results demonstrate these functionalities and shed insight on the dynamics of the resting-state attractor. Specifically, we found that a noisy network seems to favor a low firing attractor state. We also found that the dynamics of a noisy network is less resilient to lesions. Our simulations on TMS perturbations show that even though TMS inhibits most of the network, it also sparsely excites a few regions. This is presumably, due to anti-correlations in the dynamics and suggests that even a lesioned network can show sparsely distributed increased activity compared to healthy resting-state, over specific brain areas.

  20. Individuality manifests in the dynamic reconfiguration of large-scale brain networks during movie viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Knight, Elizabeth Quattrocki; Pae, Chongwon; Park, Bumhee; Yoon, Shin-Ae; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Individuality, the uniqueness that distinguishes one person from another, may manifest as diverse rearrangements of functional connectivity during heterogeneous cognitive demands; yet, the neurobiological substrates of individuality, reflected in inter-individual variations of large-scale functional connectivity, have not been fully evidenced. Accordingly, we explored inter-individual variations of functional connectivity dynamics, subnetwork patterns and modular architecture while subjects watched identical video clips designed to induce different arousal levels. How inter-individual variations are manifested in the functional brain networks was examined with respect to four contrasting divisions: edges within the anterior versus posterior part of the brain, edges with versus without corresponding anatomically-defined structural pathways, inter- versus intra-module connections, and rich club edge types. Inter-subject variation in dynamic functional connectivity occurred to a greater degree within edges localized to anterior rather than posterior brain regions, without adhering to structural connectivity, between modules as opposed to within modules, and in weak-tie local edges rather than strong-tie rich-club edges. Arousal level significantly modulates inter-subject variability in functional connectivity, edge patterns, and modularity, and particularly enhances the synchrony of rich-club edges. These results imply that individuality resides in the dynamic reconfiguration of large-scale brain networks in response to a stream of cognitive demands. PMID:28112247

  1. Oxytocin receptor dynamics in the brain across development and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Radhika; Hammock, Elizabeth A D

    2017-02-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) signaling through the OXT receptor plays a significant role in a variety of physiological processes throughout the lifespan. OXT's effects depend on the tissue distribution of the receptor. This tissue specificity is dynamic and changes across development, and also varies with sex, experience, and species. The purpose of this review is to highlight these themes with examples from several life stages and several species. Important knowledge gaps will also be emphasized. Understanding the effective sites of action for OXT via its receptor will help refine hypotheses about the roles of this important neuropeptide in the experience-dependent development and expression of species-typical social behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 143-157, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dynamic brain connectivity is a better predictor of PTSD than static connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Changfeng; Jia, Hao; Lanka, Pradyumna; Rangaprakash, D; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Tianming; Hu, Xiaoping; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2017-09-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we test the hypothesis that subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are characterized by reduced temporal variability of brain connectivity compared to matched healthy controls. Specifically, we test whether PTSD is characterized by elevated static connectivity, coupled with decreased temporal variability of those connections, with the latter providing greater sensitivity toward the pathology than the former. Static functional connectivity (FC; nondirectional zero-lag correlation) and static effective connectivity (EC; directional time-lagged relationships) were obtained over the entire brain using conventional models. Dynamic FC and dynamic EC were estimated by letting the conventional models to vary as a function of time. Statistical separation and discriminability of these metrics between the groups and their ability to accurately predict the diagnostic label of a novel subject were ascertained using separate support vector machine classifiers. Our findings support our hypothesis that PTSD subjects have stronger static connectivity, but reduced temporal variability of connectivity. Further, machine learning classification accuracy obtained with dynamic FC and dynamic EC was significantly higher than that obtained with static FC and static EC, respectively. Furthermore, results also indicate that the ease with which brain regions engage or disengage with other regions may be more sensitive to underlying pathology than the strength with which they are engaged. Future studies must examine whether this is true only in the case of PTSD or is a general organizing principle in the human brain. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4479-4496, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Unified model of brain tissue microstructure dynamically binds diffusion and osmosis with extracellular space geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefnezhad, Mohsen; Fotouhi, Morteza; Vejdani, Kaveh; Kamali-Zare, Padideh

    2016-09-01

    We present a universal model of brain tissue microstructure that dynamically links osmosis and diffusion with geometrical parameters of brain extracellular space (ECS). Our model robustly describes and predicts the nonlinear time dependency of tortuosity (λ =√{D /D* } ) changes with very high precision in various media with uniform and nonuniform osmolarity distribution, as demonstrated by previously published experimental data (D = free diffusion coefficient, D* = effective diffusion coefficient). To construct this model, we first developed a multiscale technique for computationally effective modeling of osmolarity in the brain tissue. Osmolarity differences across cell membranes lead to changes in the ECS dynamics. The evolution of the underlying dynamics is then captured by a level set method. Subsequently, using a homogenization technique, we derived a coarse-grained model with parameters that are explicitly related to the geometry of cells and their associated ECS. Our modeling results in very accurate analytical approximation of tortuosity based on time, space, osmolarity differences across cell membranes, and water permeability of cell membranes. Our model provides a unique platform for studying ECS dynamics not only in physiologic conditions such as sleep-wake cycles and aging but also in pathologic conditions such as stroke, seizure, and neoplasia, as well as in predictive pharmacokinetic modeling such as predicting medication biodistribution and efficacy and novel biomolecule development and testing.

  4. Multifractal characteristics of Nitrogen adsorption isotherms from tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    One of the primary methods used to characterize a wide range of porous materials, including soils, are gas adsorption isotherms. An adsorption isotherm is a function relating the amount of adsorbed gas or vapour to the respective equilibrium pressure, during pressure increase at constant temperature. Adsorption data allow easily estimates of specific surface area and also can provide a characterization of pore surface heterogeneity. Most of the properties and the reactivity of soil colloids are influenced by their specific surface area and by parameters describing the surface heterogeneity. For a restricted scale range, linearity between applied pressure and volume of adsorbate holds, which is the basis for current estimations of specific surface area. However, adsorption isotherms contain also non-linear segments of pressure versus volume so that evidence of multifractal scale has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze the multifractal behaviour of nitrogen adsorption isotherms from a set of tropical soils. Samples were collected form 54 horizons belonging to 19 soil profiles in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The most frequent soil type was Oxisol, according to the Soil Survey Staff, equivalent to Latossolo in the Brazilian soil classification system. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms at standard 77 K were measured using a Thermo Finnigan Sorptomatic 1990 gas sorption analyzer (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA). From the raw data a distributions of mass along a support was obtained to perform multifractal analysis. The probability distribution was constructed by dividing the values of the measure in a given segment by the sum of the measure in the whole scale range. The box-counting method was employed to perform multifractal analysis. All the analyzed N2 adsorption isotherms behave like a multifractal system. The singularity spectra, f(α), showed asymmetric concave down parabolic shapes, with a greater tendency toward the left side, where moments

  5. Statistical and Multifractal Evaluation of Soil Compaction in a Vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, M.; Raposo, J. R.; Mirás Avalos, J. M.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    One of the detrimental effects caused by agricultural machines is soil compaction, which can be defined by an increase in soil bulk density. Soil compaction often has a negative impact on plant growth, since it reduces the macroporosity and soil permeability and increases resistance to penetration. Our research explored the effect of the agricultural machinery on soil when trafficking through a vineyard at a small spatial scale, based on the evaluation of the soil compaction status. The objectives of this study were: i) to quantify soil bulk density along transects following wine row, wheel track and outside track, and, ii) to characterize the variability of the bulk density along these transects using multifractal analysis. The field work was conducted at the experimental farm of EVEGA (Viticulture and Enology Centre of Galicia) located in Ponte San Clodio, Leiro, Orense, Spain. Three parallel transects were marked on positions with contrasting machine traffic effects, i.e. vine row, wheel-track and outside-track. Undisturbed samples were collected in 16 points of each transect, spaced 0.50 m apart, for bulk density determination using the cylinder method. Samples were taken in autumn 2011, after grape harvest. Since soil between vine rows was tilled and homogenized beginning spring 2011, cumulative effects of traffic during the vine growth period could be evaluated. The distribution patterns of soil bulk density were characterized by multifractal analysis carried out by the method of moments. Multifractality was assessed by several indexes derived from the mass exponent, τq, the generalized dimension, Dq, and the singularity spectrum, f(α), curves. Mean soil bulk density values determined for vine row, outside-track and wheel-track transects were 1.212 kg dm-3, 1.259 kg dm-3and 1.582 kg dm-3, respectively. The respective coefficients of variation (CV) for these three transects were 7.76%, 4.82% and 2.03%. Therefore mean bulk density under wheel-track was 30

  6. Novel modeling of task versus rest brain state predictability using a dynamic time warping spectrum: comparisons and contrasts with other standard measures of brain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eDinov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic time warping, or DTW, is a powerful and domain-general sequence alignment method for computing a similarity measure. Such dynamic programming-based techniques like DTW are now the backbone and driver of most bioinformatics methods and discoveries. In neuroscience it has had far less use, though this has begun to change. We wanted to explore new ways of applying DTW, not simply as a measure with which to cluster or compare similarity between features but in a conceptually different way. We have used DTW to provide a more interpretable spectral description of the data, compared to standard approaches such as the Fourier and related transforms. The DTW approach and standard discrete Fourier transform (DFT are assessed against benchmark measures of neural dynamics. These include EEG microstates, EEG avalanches and the sum squared error (SSE from a multilayer perceptron (MLP prediction of the EEG timeseries, and simultaneously acquired FMRI BOLD signal. We explored the relationships between these variables of interest in an EEG-FMRI dataset acquired during a standard cognitive task, which allowed us to explore how DTW differentially performs in different task settings. We found that despite strong correlations between DTW and DFT-spectra, DTW was a better predictor for almost every measure of brain dynamics. Using these DTW measures, we show that predictability is almost always higher in task than in rest states, which is consistent to other theoretical and empirical findings, providing additional evidence for the utility of the DTW approach.

  7. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Nonlinear dynamics of the brain: emotion and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Muezzinoglu, M. K.

    2010-07-01

    Experimental investigations of neural system functioning and brain activity are standardly based on the assumption that perceptions, emotions, and cognitive functions can be understood by analyzing steady-state neural processes and static tomographic snapshots. The new approaches discussed in this review are based on the analysis of transient processes and metastable states. Transient dynamics is characterized by two basic properties, structural stability and information sensitivity. The ideas and methods that we discuss provide an explanation for the occurrence of and successive transitions between metastable states observed in experiments, and offer new approaches to behavior analysis. Models of the emotional and cognitive functions of the brain are suggested. The mathematical object that represents the observed transient brain processes in the phase space of the model is a structurally stable heteroclinic channel. The possibility of using the suggested models to construct a quantitative theory of some emotional and cognitive functions is illustrated.

  8. Melatonin affects the order, dynamics and hydration of brain membrane lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkas, Sara B.; Inci, Servet; Zorlu, Faruk; Severcan, Feride

    2007-05-01

    The brain is especially susceptible to free radical attack since it is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and consumes very high amounts of oxygen. Melatonin is a non-enzymatic amphiphilic antioxidant hormone that is widely used in medicine for protective and treatment purposes in cases of oxidative stress. In the present work, the effects of the clinically used dose of melatonin (a single intraperitoneal dose of 100 mg/kg) on rat brain homogenate were investigated as a function of temperature using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the lipid to protein ratio decreases in the melatonin treated brain samples. Moreover, it is revealed that melatonin disorders and decreases the dynamics of lipids and induces a strengthening in the hydrogen bonding between the functional groups of both melatonin and the polar parts of lipids and/or water at physiological temperatures.

  9. Investigating dynamical information transfer in the brain following a TMS pulse: Insights from structural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enrico; Van Mierlo, Pieter; Marinazzo, Daniele; Laureys, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for more than 20 years to investigate connectivity and plasticity in the human cortex. By combining TMS with high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG), one can stimulate any cortical area and measure the effects produced by this perturbation in the rest of the cerebral cortex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes of information flow in the brain after TMS from a functional and structural perspective, using multimodal modeling of source reconstructed TMS/hd-EEG recordings and DTI tractography. We prove how brain dynamics induced by TMS is constrained and driven by its structure, at different spatial and temporal scales, especially when considering cross-frequency interactions. These results shed light on the function-structure organization of the brain network at the global level, and on the huge variety of information contained in it.

  10. Multifractal spectrum and lacunarity as measures of complexity of osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Santos, Daniel; Dos Santos, Leonardo Cavalcanti Bezerra; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Delrieux, Claudio; Stosic, Tatijana; Stosic, Borko

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study is to contribute to a better quantitative description of the early stages of osseointegration, by application of fractal, multifractal, and lacunarity analysis. Fractal, multifractal, and lacunarity analysis are performed on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of titanium implants that were first subjected to different treatment combinations of i) sand blasting, ii) acid etching, and iii) exposition to calcium phosphate, and were then submersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for 30 days. All the three numerical techniques are applied to the implant SEM images before and after SBF immersion, in order to provide a comprehensive set of common quantitative descriptors. It is found that implants subjected to different physicochemical treatments before submersion in SBF exhibit a rather similar level of complexity, while the great variety of crystal forms after SBF submersion reveals rather different quantitative measures (reflecting complexity), for different treatments. In particular, it is found that acid treatment, in most combinations with the other considered treatments, leads to a higher fractal dimension (more uniform distribution of crystals), lower lacunarity (lesser variation in gap sizes), and narrowing of the multifractal spectrum (smaller fluctuations on different scales). The current quantitative description has shown the capacity to capture the main features of complex images of implant surfaces, for several different treatments. Such quantitative description should provide a fundamental tool for future large scale systematic studies, considering the large variety of possible implant treatments and their combinations. Quantitative description of early stages of osseointegration on titanium implants with different treatments should help develop a better understanding of this phenomenon, in general, and provide basis for further systematic experimental studies. Clinical practice should benefit from such studies in the long

  11. The dynamic brain: from spiking neurons to neural masses and cortical fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Deco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cortex is a complex system, characterized by its dynamics and architecture, which underlie many functions such as action, perception, learning, language, and cognition. Its structural architecture has been studied for more than a hundred years; however, its dynamics have been addressed much less thoroughly. In this paper, we review and integrate, in a unifying framework, a variety of computational approaches that have been used to characterize the dynamics of the cortex, as evidenced at different levels of measurement. Computational models at different space-time scales help us understand the fundamental mechanisms that underpin neural processes and relate these processes to neuroscience data. Modeling at the single neuron level is necessary because this is the level at which information is exchanged between the computing elements of the brain; the neurons. Mesoscopic models tell us how neural elements interact to yield emergent behavior at the level of microcolumns and cortical columns. Macroscopic models can inform us about whole brain dynamics and interactions between large-scale neural systems such as cortical regions, the thalamus, and brain stem. Each level of description relates uniquely to neuroscience data, from single-unit recordings, through local field potentials to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, electroencephalogram (EEG, and magnetoencephalogram (MEG. Models of the cortex can establish which types of large-scale neuronal networks can perform computations and characterize their emergent properties. Mean-field and related formulations of dynamics also play an essential and complementary role as forward models that can be inverted given empirical data. This makes dynamic models critical in integrating theory and experiments. We argue that elaborating principled and informed models is a prerequisite for grounding empirical neuroscience in a cogent theoretical framework, commensurate with the achievements in the

  12. A comparison of multifractal behavior in galaxy samples from SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Farieta, J. E.; Casas-Miranda, R. A.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the spatial distribution of galaxies with samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) including observational holes in the masks. From a multifractal formalism and using the sliding window technique for each sample, we have determined the fractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum. Aditionally, the scale of homogeneity was determined for each struture parameter. Our results show that the galaxy clustering exhibits a behavior that depends on the radial distance, revealing that the hierarchical distribution is not a fractal at large-scales, with a transition to homogeneity on large scales below 130 Mpc/h.

  13. Multifractional Fourier Transform Method and Its Applications to Image Encryption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RANQiwen; WANGQi; MAJing; TANLiying

    2003-01-01

    The multiplicity of the fractional Fourier transform(FRFT),which is intrinsic in any fractional operator,has been claimed by several authors,but never across-the-board developed.Particularly,the weight-type FRFT(WFRFT) has not been investigated.Starting with defining the multifractional Fourier transform (MFRFT),we gained the generalization permutation matrix group (GPMG)representation and multiplicity of the MFRFT,and the relationships among the MFRFT the standard WFRFT and the standard CFRFT.Finally,as a application,a novel image encryption method hased on the MFRFT is propounded.Similation results show that this method is safe,practicable and impactful.

  14. Unveiling the Multi-fractal Structure of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jalan, Sarika; Sarkar, Camellia; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The fractal nature of graphs has traditionally been investigated by using the nodes of networks as the basic units. Here, instead, we propose to concentrate on the graph edges, and introduce a practical and computationally not demanding method for revealing changes in the fractal behavior of networks, and particularly for allowing distinction between mono-fractal, quasi mono-fractal, and multi-fractal structures. We show that degree homogeneity plays a crucial role in determining the fractal nature of the underlying network, and report on six different protein-protein interaction networks along with their corresponding random networks. Our analysis allows to identify varying levels of complexity in the species.

  15. Approximated maximum likelihood estimation in multifractal random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Løvsletten, Ola

    2011-01-01

    We present an approximated maximum likelihood method for the multifractal random walk processes of [E. Bacry et al., Phys. Rev. E 64, 026103 (2001)]. The likelihood is computed using a Laplace approximation and a truncation in the dependency structure for the latent volatility. The procedure is implemented as a package in the R computer language. Its performance is tested on synthetic data and compared to an inference approach based on the generalized method of moments. The method is applied to estimate parameters for various financial stock indices.

  16. Local multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis for non-stationary image's texture segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Zong-shou; Li, Jin-wei

    2014-12-01

    Feature extraction plays a great important role in image processing and pattern recognition. As a power tool, multifractal theory is recently employed for this job. However, traditional multifractal methods are proposed to analyze the objects with stationary measure and cannot for non-stationary measure. The works of this paper is twofold. First, the definition of stationary image and 2D image feature detection methods are proposed. Second, a novel feature extraction scheme for non-stationary image is proposed by local multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (Local MF-DFA), which is based on 2D MF-DFA. A set of new multifractal descriptors, called local generalized Hurst exponent (Lhq) is defined to characterize the local scaling properties of textures. To test the proposed method, both the novel texture descriptor and other two multifractal indicators, namely, local Hölder coefficients based on capacity measure and multifractal dimension Dq based on multifractal differential box-counting (MDBC) method, are compared in segmentation experiments. The first experiment indicates that the segmentation results obtained by the proposed Lhq are better than the MDBC-based Dq slightly and superior to the local Hölder coefficients significantly. The results in the second experiment demonstrate that the Lhq can distinguish the texture images more effectively and provide more robust segmentations than the MDBC-based Dq significantly.

  17. Three-Dimensional Surface Parameters and Multi-Fractal Spectrum of Corroded Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanhua, Xu; Songbo, Ren; Youde, Wang

    2015-01-01

    To study multi-fractal behavior of corroded steel surface, a range of fractal surfaces of corroded surfaces of Q235 steel were constructed by using the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot method under a high total accuracy. The multi-fractal spectrum of fractal surface of corroded steel was calculated to study the multi-fractal characteristics of the W-M corroded surface. Based on the shape feature of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded steel surface, the least squares method was applied to the quadratic fitting of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface. The fitting function was quantitatively analyzed to simplify the calculation of multi-fractal characteristics of corroded surface. The results showed that the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface was fitted well with the method using quadratic curve fitting, and the evolution rules and trends were forecasted accurately. The findings can be applied to research on the mechanisms of corroded surface formation of steel and provide a new approach for the establishment of corrosion damage constitutive models of steel.

  18. Investigation of multifractal nature of floating potential fluctuations obtained from a dc glow discharge magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Pankaj Kumar; Saha, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Sabuj; Janaki, M. S.; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) has been used to analyze the floating potential fluctuations obtained with a Langmuir probe from a dc glow discharge magnetized plasma device. The generalized Hurst exponents (h(q)) , local fluctuation function (Fq(s)) , the Rényi exponents (τ(q)) and the multifractal spectrum F(α) have been calculated by applying the MF-DFA method. The result of the MF-DFA shows the multifractal nature of these fluctuations. We have investigated the influence of magnetic field on the multifractal nature of the fluctuations and it is seen that degree of multifractality is reduced with the increase in the magnetic field strength. The values of h(q) have been restricted between 0.7 and 1 for the magnetized fluctuations. This result is evidence of the existence of long-range correlations in the fluctuations. Furthermore, we employed shuffle and surrogate approaches to analyze the origins of multifractality. Comparing the MF-DFA results for the data set to those for shuffled and surrogate series, we have found that its multifractal nature is due to the existence of significant long-term correlation.

  19. In situ detection of small-size insect pests sampled on traps using multifractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chunlei; Lee, Jang-Myung; Li, Yan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2012-02-01

    We introduce a multifractal analysis for detecting the small-size pest (e.g., whitefly) images from a sticky trap in situ. An automatic attraction system is utilized for collecting pests from greenhouse plants. We applied multifractal analysis to segment action of whitefly images based on the local singularity and global image characteristics. According to the theory of multifractal dimension, the candidate blobs of whiteflies are initially defined from the sticky-trap image. Two schemes, fixed thresholding and regional minima obtainment, were utilized for feature extraction of candidate whitefly image areas. The experiment was conducted with the field images in a greenhouse. Detection results were compared with other adaptive segmentation algorithms. Values of F measuring precision and recall score were higher for the proposed multifractal analysis (96.5%) compared with conventional methods such as Watershed (92.2%) and Otsu (73.1%). The true positive rate of multifractal analysis was 94.3% and the false positive rate minimal level at 1.3%. Detection performance was further tested via human observation. The degree of scattering between manual and automatic counting was remarkably higher with multifractal analysis (R2=0.992) compared with Watershed (R2=0.895) and Otsu (R2=0.353), ensuring overall detection of the small-size pests is most feasible with multifractal analysis in field conditions.

  20. An analysis of multifractal characteristics of API time series in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-hua; Huang, Yi; Yan, Ya-ni

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes multifractal characteristics of daily air pollution index (API) records in Nanjing from 2001 to 2012. The entire daily API time series is first divided into 12 parts that serve as research objects, and the generalized Hurst exponent is calculated for each series. And then, the multifractal sources are analyzed and singularity spectra are shown. Next, based on a singularity spectrum, the multifractal-characteristics parameters (maximum exponent α0, spectrum width Δ α, and asymmetry Δ αas) are introduced. The results show that the fractality of daily API for each year is multifractal. The multifractal sources originate from both a broad probability density function and different long-range correlations with small and large fluctuations. The strength of the distribution multifractality is stronger than that of the correlation multifractality. The variation in the structure of API time series with increasing years is mainly related to long-range correlations. The structure of API time series in some years is richer. These findings can provide a scientific basis for further probing into the complexity of API.

  1. Three-Dimensional Surface Parameters and Multi-Fractal Spectrum of Corroded Steel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Shanhua

    Full Text Available To study multi-fractal behavior of corroded steel surface, a range of fractal surfaces of corroded surfaces of Q235 steel were constructed by using the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot method under a high total accuracy. The multi-fractal spectrum of fractal surface of corroded steel was calculated to study the multi-fractal characteristics of the W-M corroded surface. Based on the shape feature of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded steel surface, the least squares method was applied to the quadratic fitting of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface. The fitting function was quantitatively analyzed to simplify the calculation of multi-fractal characteristics of corroded surface. The results showed that the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface was fitted well with the method using quadratic curve fitting, and the evolution rules and trends were forecasted accurately. The findings can be applied to research on the mechanisms of corroded surface formation of steel and provide a new approach for the establishment of corrosion damage constitutive models of steel.

  2. Noise during rest enables the exploration of the brain's dynamic repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandamohan Ghosh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally brain function is studied through measuring physiological responses in controlled sensory, motor, and cognitive paradigms. However, even at rest, in the absence of overt goal-directed behavior, collections of cortical regions consistently show temporally coherent activity. In humans, these resting state networks have been shown to greatly overlap with functional architectures present during consciously directed activity, which motivates the interpretation of rest activity as day dreaming, free association, stream of consciousness, and inner rehearsal. In monkeys, it has been shown though that similar coherent fluctuations are present during deep anesthesia when there is no consciousness. Here, we show that comparable resting state networks emerge from a stability analysis of the network dynamics using biologically realistic primate brain connectivity, although anatomical information alone does not identify the network. We specifically demonstrate that noise and time delays via propagation along connecting fibres are essential for the emergence of the coherent fluctuations of the default network. The spatiotemporal network dynamics evolves on multiple temporal scales and displays the intermittent neuroelectric oscillations in the fast frequency regimes, 1-100 Hz, commonly observed in electroencephalographic and magnetoencephalographic recordings, as well as the hemodynamic oscillations in the ultraslow regimes, <0.1 Hz, observed in functional magnetic resonance imaging. The combination of anatomical structure and time delays creates a space-time structure in which the neural noise enables the brain to explore various functional configurations representing its dynamic repertoire.

  3. Task-based core-periphery organization of human brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Wymbs, Nicholas F; Rombach, M Puck; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J; Grafton, Scott T

    2013-01-01

    As a person learns a new skill, distinct synapses, brain regions, and circuits are engaged and change over time. In this paper, we develop methods to examine patterns of correlated activity across a large set of brain regions. Our goal is to identify properties that enable robust learning of a motor skill. We measure brain activity during motor sequencing and characterize network properties based on coherent activity between brain regions. Using recently developed algorithms to detect time-evolving communities, we find that the complex reconfiguration patterns of the brain's putative functional modules that control learning can be described parsimoniously by the combined presence of a relatively stiff temporal core that is composed primarily of sensorimotor and visual regions whose connectivity changes little in time and a flexible temporal periphery that is composed primarily of multimodal association regions whose connectivity changes frequently. The separation between temporal core and periphery changes over the course of training and, importantly, is a good predictor of individual differences in learning success. The core of dynamically stiff regions exhibits dense connectivity, which is consistent with notions of core-periphery organization established previously in social networks. Our results demonstrate that core-periphery organization provides an insightful way to understand how putative functional modules are linked. This, in turn, enables the prediction of fundamental human capacities, including the production of complex goal-directed behavior.

  4. Source Space Analysis of Event-Related Dynamic Reorganization of Brain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas A. Ioannides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available How the brain works is nowadays synonymous with how different parts of the brain work together and the derivation of mathematical descriptions for the functional connectivity patterns that can be objectively derived from data of different neuroimaging techniques. In most cases static networks are studied, often relying on resting state recordings. Here, we present a quantitative study of dynamic reconfiguration of connectivity for event-related experiments. Our motivation is the development of a methodology that can be used for personalized monitoring of brain activity. In line with this motivation, we use data with visual stimuli from a typical subject that participated in different experiments that were previously analyzed with traditional methods. The earlier studies identified well-defined changes in specific brain areas at specific latencies related to attention, properties of stimuli, and tasks demands. Using a recently introduced methodology, we track the event-related changes in network organization, at source space level, thus providing a more global and complete view of the stages of processing associated with the regional changes in activity. The results suggest the time evolving modularity as an additional brain code that is accessible with noninvasive means and hence available for personalized monitoring and clinical applications.

  5. How Anatomy Shapes Dynamics: A Semi-Analytical Study of the Brain at Rest by a Simple Spin Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo eDeco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Resting state networks show a surprisingly coherent and robust spatiotemporal organization. Previous theoretical studies demonstrated that these patterns can be understood as emergent on the basis of the underlying neuroanatomical connectivity skeleton. Integrating the biologically realistic DTI/DSI based neuroanatomical connectivity into a brain model of Ising spin dynamics, we found the presence of latent ghost multi-stable attractors, which can be studied analytically. The multistable attractor landscape defines a functionally meaningful dynamic repertoire of the brain network that is inherently present in the neuroanatomical connectivity. We demonstrate that the more entropy of attractors exists, the richer is the dynamical repertoire and consequently the brain network displays more capabilities of computation. We hypothesize therefore that human brain connectivity developed a scale free type of architecture in order to be able to store a large number of different and flexibly accessible brain functions

  6. Multifractals in Western Major STOCK Markets Historical Volatilities in Times of Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    In this paper, the generalized Hurst exponent is used to investigate multifractal properties of historical volatility (CHV) in stock market price and return series before, during and after 2008 financial crisis. Empirical results from NASDAQ, S&P500, TSE, CAC40, DAX, and FTSE stock market data show that there is strong evidence of multifractal patterns in HV of both price and return series. In addition, financial crisis deeply affected the behavior and degree of multifractality in volatility of Western financial markets at price and return levels.

  7. Effective multifractal features of high-frequency price fluctuations time series and l-variability diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jeferson de [Laboratorio de Analise de Bacias e Petrofisica, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico - Jardim das Americas, Caixa Postal 19001, 81531-990 Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: jdesouza@ufpr.br; Duarte Queiros, Silvio M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: sdqueiro@googlemail.com

    2009-11-30

    In this manuscript we present a comprehensive study on the multifractal properties of high-frequency price fluctuations and instantaneous volatility of the equities that compose the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The analysis consists about the quantification of the influence of dependence and non-Gaussianity on the multifractal character of financial quantities. Our results point out an equivalent importance of dependence and non-Gaussianity on the multifractality of time series. Moreover, we analyse l-diagrams of price fluctuations. In the latter case, we show that the fractal dimension of these maps is basically independent of the lag between price fluctuations that we assume.

  8. The SARD variety of multi-fractality of ventricular epicardial mapping during ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed cardiac ischemia-reperfusion in an animal model using epicardial electropotential mapping. We investigated the relationship between ischemia and variability of multifractality in epicardial electrograms. We present a new parameter called the singularity spectrum area reference dispersion (SARD) that clearly demonstrates the change in multifractility with the extent of myocardiaischemia. By contrasting the 3D ventricular epicardial SARD map with the activation map, we conclude that myocardial ischemia significantly influences the variety of multifractality of ventricular epicardium electrograms and the SARD parameter is useful in correlating multifractality of epicardial elec- trograms with location of ischemia closely.

  9. Noisy random resistor networks: renormalized field theory for the multifractal moments of the current distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenull, O; Janssen, H K

    2001-03-01

    We study the multifractal moments of the current distribution in randomly diluted resistor networks near the percolation threshold. When an external current is applied between two terminals x and x(') of the network, the lth multifractal moment scales as M((l))(I)(x,x(')) approximately equal /x-x'/(psi(l)/nu), where nu is the correlation length exponent of the isotropic percolation universality class. By applying our concept of master operators [Europhys. Lett. 51, 539 (2000)] we calculate the family of multifractal exponents [psi(l)] for l>or=0 to two-loop order. We find that our result is in good agreement with numerical data for three dimensions.

  10. Multifractal structure of the large-scale heliospheric magnetic field strength fluctuations near 85AU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Burlaga

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002, the Voyager 1 spacecraft was in the heliosphere between 83.4 and 85.9AU (1AU is the mean distance from the Sun to Earth at 34° N heliographic latitude. The magnetic field strength profile observed in this region had a multifractal structure in the range of scales from 2 to 16 days. The multifractal spectrum observed near 85AU is similar to that observed near 40AU, indicating relatively little evolution of the multifractal structure of the magnetic field with increasing distance in the distant heliosphere in the epoch near solar maximum.

  11. Nonlinear brain dynamics as macroscopic manifestation of underlying many-body field dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    Neural activity patterns related to behavior occur at many scales in time and space from the atomic and molecular to the whole brain. Here we explore the feasibility of interpreting neurophysiological data in the context of many-body physics by using tools that physicists have devised to analyze comparable hierarchies in other fields of science. We focus on a mesoscopic level that offers a multi-step pathway between the microscopic functions of neurons and the macroscopic functions of brain systems revealed by hemodynamic imaging. We use electroencephalographic (EEG) records collected from high-density electrode arrays fixed on the epidural surfaces of primary sensory and limbic areas in rabbits and cats trained to discriminate conditioned stimuli (CS) in the various modalities. High temporal resolution of EEG signals with the Hilbert transform gives evidence for diverse intermittent spatial patterns of amplitude (AM) and phase modulations (PM) of carrier waves that repeatedly re-synchronize in the beta and g...

  12. The effects of physiologically plausible connectivity structure on local and global dynamics in large scale brain models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knock, S.A.; McIntosh, A.R.; Sporns, O.; Kotter, R.; Hagmann, P.; Jirsa, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Functionally relevant large scale brain dynamics operates within the framework imposed by anatomical connectivity and time delays due to finite transmission speeds. To gain insight on the reliability and comparability of large scale brain network simulations, we investigate the effects of variations

  13. Laser image denoising technique based on multi-fractal theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Sun, Huayan; Tian, Weiqing; Wang, Shuai

    2014-02-01

    The noise of laser images is complex, which includes additive noise and multiplicative noise. Considering the features of laser images, the basic processing capacity and defects of the common algorithm, this paper introduces the fractal theory into the research of laser image denoising. The research of laser image denoising is implemented mainly through the analysis of the singularity exponent of each pixel in fractal space and the feature of multi-fractal spectrum. According to the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the processed image, the laser image processing technique based on fractal theory not only effectively removes the complicated noise of the laser images obtained by range-gated laser active imaging system, but can also maintains the detail information when implementing the image denoising processing. For different laser images, multi-fractal denoising technique can increase SNR of the laser image at least 1~2dB compared with other denoising techniques, which basically meet the needs of the laser image denoising technique.

  14. ABC of multi-fractal spacetimes and fractional sea turtles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Gianluca [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    We clarify what it means to have a spacetime fractal geometry in quantum gravity and show that its properties differ from those of usual fractals. A weak and a strong definition of multi-scale and multi-fractal spacetimes are given together with a sketch of the landscape of multi-scale theories of gravitation. Then, in the context of the fractional theory with q-derivatives, we explore the consequences of living in a multi-fractal spacetime. To illustrate the behavior of a non-relativistic body, we take the entertaining example of a sea turtle. We show that, when only the time direction is fractal, sea turtles swim at a faster speed than in an ordinary world, while they swim at a slower speed if only the spatial directions are fractal. The latter type of geometry is the one most commonly found in quantum gravity. For time-like fractals, relativistic objects can exceed the speed of light, but strongly so only if their size is smaller than the range of particle-physics interactions. We also find new results about log-oscillating measures, the measure presentation and their role in physical observations and in future extensions to nowhere-differentiable stochastic spacetimes. (orig.)

  15. Sandbox algorithm for multifractal analysis of complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jin-Long; Anh, Vo

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks have attracted much attention in diverse areas of science and technology. Multifractal analysis (MFA) is a useful way to systematically describe the spatial heterogeneity of both theoretical and experimental fractal patterns. In this paper, we introduce a new algorithm --- the sandbox (SB) algorithm, for MFA of complex networks. First we compare the SB algorithm with two existing algorithms of MFA for complex networks: the compact-box-burning (CBB) algorithm proposed by Furuya and Yakubo ( Phys. Rev. E, 84 (2011) 036118), and the improved box-counting (BC) algorithm proposed by Li et al. ( J. Stat. Mech.: Theor. Exp., 2014 (2014) P02020) by calculating the mass exponents tau(q) of some deterministic model networks. We make a detailed comparison between the numerical and theoretical results of these model networks. The comparison results show that the SB algorithm is the most effective and feasible algorithm to calculate the mass exponents tau(q) and to explore the multifractal behavior of com...

  16. Cosmic microwave background and inflation in multi-fractional spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    We use FIRAS and Planck 2015 data to place observational bounds on inflationary scenarios in multi-fractional spacetimes with $q$-derivatives. While a power-law expansion in the geometric time coordinate is subject to the usual constraints from the tensor-to-scalar ratio, model-independent best fits of the black-body and scalar spectra yield upper limits on the free parameters of the multi-fractal measure of the theory. When the measure describing the fractal spacetime geometry is non-oscillating, then information on the CMB black-body spectrum places constraints on the theory independent from but weaker than those obtained from the Standard Model, astrophysical gravitational waves and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). When log oscillations are included and the measure describes a discrete fractal spacetime at microscopic scales, we obtain the first observational constraints on the amplitudes of such oscillations and find, in general, strong constraints on the multi-scale geometry and on the dimension of space. These ...

  17. Cosmic microwave background and inflation in multi-fractional spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Gianluca [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia,CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kuroyanagi, Sachiko [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institute for Advanced Research, Nagoya University,Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Tsujikawa, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science,1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2016-08-18

    We use FIRAS and Planck 2015 data to place observational bounds on inflationary scenarios in multi-fractional spacetimes with q-derivatives. While a power-law expansion in the geometric time coordinate is subject to the usual constraints from the tensor-to-scalar ratio, model-independent best fits of the black-body and scalar spectra yield upper limits on the free parameters of the multi-fractal measure of the theory. When the measure describing the fractal spacetime geometry is non-oscillating, information on the CMB black-body spectrum places constraints on the theory independent from but weaker than those obtained from the Standard Model, astrophysical gravitational waves and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). When log oscillations are included and the measure describes a discrete fractal spacetime at microscopic scales, we obtain the first observational constraints on the amplitudes of such oscillations and find, in general, strong constraints on the multi-scale geometry and on the dimension of space. These results complete the scan and reduction of the parameter space of the theory. Black-body bounds are obtained also for the theory with weighted derivatives.

  18. Multifractality and value-at-risk forecasting of exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Kinateder, Harald; Wagner, Niklas

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses market risk prediction for high frequency foreign exchange rates under nonlinear risk scaling behaviour. We use a modified version of the multifractal model of asset returns (MMAR) where trading time is represented by the series of volume ticks. Our dataset consists of 138,418 5-min round-the-clock observations of EUR/USD spot quotes and trading ticks during the period January 5, 2006 to December 31, 2007. Considering fat-tails, long-range dependence as well as scale inconsistency with the MMAR, we derive out-of-sample value-at-risk (VaR) forecasts and compare our approach to historical simulation as well as a benchmark GARCH(1,1) location-scale VaR model. Our findings underline that the multifractal properties in EUR/USD returns in fact have notable risk management implications. The MMAR approach is a parsimonious model which produces admissible VaR forecasts at the 12-h forecast horizon. For the daily horizon, the MMAR outperforms both alternatives based on conditional as well as unconditional coverage statistics.

  19. Multifractality in dilute magnetorheological fluids under an oscillating magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma, R E; Arauz-Lara, J L; Donado, F

    2014-12-01

    A study of the multifractal characteristics of the structure formed by magnetic particles in a dilute magnetorheological fluid is presented. A quasi-two-dimensional magnetorheological fluid sample is simultaneously subjected to a static magnetic field and a sinusoidal magnetic field transverse to each other. We analyzed the singularity spectrum f(α) and the generalized dimension D(q) of the whole structure to characterize the distribution of the aggregates under several conditions of particle concentration, magnetic field intensities, and liquid viscosity. We also obtained the fractal dimension D(g), calculated from the radius of gyration of the chains, to describe the internal distribution of the particles. We present a thermodynamic interpretation of the multifractal analysis, and based on this, we discussed the characteristics of the structure formed by the particles and its relation with previous studies of the average chain length. We have found that this method is useful to quantitatively describe the structure of magnetorheological fluids, especially in systems with high particle concentration where the aggregates are more complex than simple chains or columns.

  20. ABC of multi-fractal spacetimes and fractional sea turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    We clarify what it means to have a spacetime fractal geometry in quantum gravity and show that its properties differ from those of usual fractals. A weak and a strong definition of multi-scale and multi-fractal spacetimes are given together with a sketch of the landscape of multi-scale theories of gravitation. Then, in the context of the fractional theory with q-derivatives, we explore the consequences of living in a multi-fractal spacetime. To illustrate the behavior of a non-relativistic body, we take the entertaining example of a sea turtle. We show that, when only the time direction is fractal, sea turtles swim at a faster speed than in an ordinary world, while they swim at a slower speed if only the spatial directions are fractal. The latter type of geometry is the one most commonly found in quantum gravity. For time-like fractals, relativistic objects can exceed the speed of light, but strongly so only if their size is smaller than the range of particle-physics interactions. We also find new results about log-oscillating measures, the measure presentation and their role in physical observations and in future extensions to nowhere-differentiable stochastic spacetimes.

  1. ABC of multi-fractal spacetimes and fractional sea turtles

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    We clarify what it means to have a spacetime fractal geometry in quantum gravity and show that its properties differ from those of usual fractals. A weak and a strong definition of multi-scale and multi-fractal spacetimes are given together with a sketch of the landscape of multi-scale theories of gravitation. Then, in the context of the fractional theory with $q$-derivatives, we explore the consequences of living in a multi-fractal spacetime. To illustrate the behaviour of a non-relativistic body, we take the entertaining example of a sea turtle. We show that, when only the time direction is fractal, sea turtles swim at a faster speed than in an ordinary world, while they swim at a slower speed if only the spatial directions are fractal. The latter type of geometry is the one most commonly found in quantum gravity. For time-like fractals, relativistic objects can exceed the speed of light, but strongly so only if their size is smaller than the range of particle-physics interactions. We also find new results ...

  2. Cosmic microwave background and inflation in multi-fractional spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-08-01

    We use FIRAS and PLANCK 2015 data to place observational bounds on inflationary scenarios in multi-fractional spacetimes with q-derivatives. While a power-law expansion in the geometric time coordinate is subject to the usual constraints from the tensor-to-scalar ratio, model-independent best fits of the black-body and scalar spectra yield upper limits on the free parameters of the multi-fractal measure of the theory. When the measure describing the fractal spacetime geometry is non-oscillating, information on the CMB black-body spectrum places constraints on the theory independent from but weaker than those obtained from the Standard Model, astrophysical gravitational waves and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). When log oscillations are included and the measure describes a discrete fractal spacetime at microscopic scales, we obtain the first observational constraints on the amplitudes of such oscillations and find, in general, strong constraints on the multi-scale geometry and on the dimension of space. These results complete the scan and reduction of the parameter space of the theory. Black-body bounds are obtained also for the theory with weighted derivatives.

  3. New aspects of fenestrated vasculature and tissue dynamics in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eMiyata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood–brain barrier (BBB generally consists of endothelial tight junction barriers that prevent the free entry of blood-derived substances, thereby maintaining the extracellular environment of the brain. However, the circumventricular organs (CVOs, which are located along the midlines of the brain ventricles, lack these endothelial barriers and have fenestrated capillaries; therefore, they have a number of essential functions, including the transduction of information between the blood circulation and brain. Previous studies have demonstrated the extensive contribution of the CVOs to body fluid and thermal homeostasis, energy balance, the chemoreception of blood-derived substances, and neuroinflammation. In this review, recent advances have been discussed in fenestrated capillary characterization and dynamic tissue reconstruction accompanied by angiogenesis and neurogliogenesis in the sensory CVOs of adult brains. The sensory CVOs, including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT, subfornical organ (SFO, and area postrema (AP, have size-selective and heterogeneous vascular permeabilities. Astrocyte-/tanycyte-like neural stem cells (NSCs sense blood- and cerebrospinal fluid-derived information through the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, a mechanical/osmotic receptor, Toll-like receptor 4, a lipopolysaccharide receptor, and Nax, a Na-sensing Na channel. They also express tight junction proteins and densely and tightly surround mature neurons to protect them from blood-derived neurotoxic substances, indicating that the NSCs of the CVOs perform BBB functions while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into new neurons and glial cells. In addition to neurogliogenesis, the density of fenestrated capillaries is regulated by angiogenesis, which is accompanied by the active proliferation and sprouting of endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling may be involved in angiogenesis and

  4. New aspects in fenestrated capillary and tissue dynamics in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) generally consists of endothelial tight junction barriers that prevent the free entry of blood-derived substances, thereby maintaining the extracellular environment of the brain. However, the circumventricular organs (CVOs), which are located along the midlines of the brain ventricles, lack these endothelial barriers and have fenestrated capillaries; therefore, they have a number of essential functions, including the transduction of information between the blood circulation and brain. Previous studies have demonstrated the extensive contribution of the CVOs to body fluid and thermal homeostasis, energy balance, the chemoreception of blood-derived substances, and neuroinflammation. In this review, recent advances have been discussed in fenestrated capillary characterization and dynamic tissue reconstruction accompanied by angiogenesis and neurogliogenesis in the sensory CVOs of adult brains. The sensory CVOs, including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), subfornical organ (SFO), and area postrema (AP), have size-selective and heterogeneous vascular permeabilities. Astrocyte-/tanycyte-like neural stem cells (NSCs) sense blood- and cerebrospinal fluid-derived information through the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, a mechanical/osmotic receptor, Toll-like receptor 4, a lipopolysaccharide receptor, and Nax, a Na-sensing Na channel. They also express tight junction proteins and densely and tightly surround mature neurons to protect them from blood-derived neurotoxic substances, indicating that the NSCs of the CVOs perform BBB functions while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into new neurons and glial cells. In addition to neurogliogenesis, the density of fenestrated capillaries is regulated by angiogenesis, which is accompanied by the active proliferation and sprouting of endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling may be involved in angiogenesis and neurogliogenesis, both of

  5. Development of a realistic, dynamic digital brain phantom for CT perfusion validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divel, Sarah E.; Segars, W. Paul; Christensen, Soren; Wintermark, Max; Lansberg, Maarten G.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2016-03-01

    Physicians rely on CT Perfusion (CTP) images and quantitative image data, including cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and bolus arrival delay, to diagnose and treat stroke patients. However, the quantification of these metrics may vary depending on the computational method used. Therefore, we have developed a dynamic and realistic digital brain phantom upon which CTP scans can be simulated based on a set of ground truth scenarios. Building upon the previously developed 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom containing a highly detailed brain model, this work consisted of expanding the intricate vasculature by semi-automatically segmenting existing MRA data and fitting nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces to the new vessels. Using time attenuation curves input by the user as reference, the contrast enhancement in the vessels changes dynamically. At each time point, the iodine concentration in the arteries and veins is calculated from the curves and the material composition of the blood changes to reflect the expected values. CatSim, a CT system simulator, generates simulated data sets of this dynamic digital phantom which can be further analyzed to validate CTP studies and post-processing methods. The development of this dynamic and realistic digital phantom provides a valuable resource with which current uncertainties and controversies surrounding the quantitative computations generated from CTP data can be examined and resolved.

  6. Multiscale modeling of brain dynamics: from single neurons and networks to mathematical tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siettos, Constantinos; Starke, Jens

    2016-09-01

    The extreme complexity of the brain naturally requires mathematical modeling approaches on a large variety of scales; the spectrum ranges from single neuron dynamics over the behavior of groups of neurons to neuronal network activity. Thus, the connection between the microscopic scale (single neuron activity) to macroscopic behavior (emergent behavior of the collective dynamics) and vice versa is a key to understand the brain in its complexity. In this work, we attempt a review of a wide range of approaches, ranging from the modeling of single neuron dynamics to machine learning. The models include biophysical as well as data-driven phenomenological models. The discussed models include Hodgkin-Huxley, FitzHugh-Nagumo, coupled oscillators (Kuramoto oscillators, Rössler oscillators, and the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron), Integrate and Fire, networks of neurons, and neural field equations. In addition to the mathematical models, important mathematical methods in multiscale modeling and reconstruction of the causal connectivity are sketched. The methods include linear and nonlinear tools from statistics, data analysis, and time series analysis up to differential equations, dynamical systems, and bifurcation theory, including Granger causal connectivity analysis, phase synchronization connectivity analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), and manifold learning algorithms such as ISOMAP, and diffusion maps and equation-free techniques. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:438-458. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1348 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. Dynamic regulation of NMDAR function in the adult brain by the stress hormone corticosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Chung eTse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress and corticosteroids dynamically modulate the expression of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the developed brain. Together with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR are critical mediators of synaptic function and are essential for the induction of many forms of synaptic plasticity. Regulation of NMDAR function by cortisol/corticosterone (CORT may be fundamental to the effects of stress on synaptic plasticity. Recent reports of the efficacy of NMDAR antagonists in treating certain stress-associated psychopathologies further highlight the importance of understanding the regulation of NMDAR function by CORT. Knowledge of how corticosteroids regulate NMDAR function within the adult brain is relatively sparse, perhaps due to a common belief that NMDAR function is relatively stable in the adult brain. We review recent results from our laboratory and others demonstrating dynamic regulation of NMDAR function by CORT in the adult brain. In addition, we consider the issue of how differences in the early life environment may program differential sensitivity to modulation of NMDAR function by CORT and how this may influence synaptic function during stress. Findings from these studies demonstrate that NMDAR function in the adult hippocampus remains sensitive to even brief exposures to CORT and that the capacity for modulation of NMDAR may be programmed, in part, by the early life environment. Modulation of NMDAR function may contribute to dynamic regulation of synaptic plasticity and adaptation in the face of stress, however enhanced NMDAR function may be implicated in mechanisms of stress related psychopathologies including depression.

  8. Brain dynamics during natural viewing conditions--a new guide for mapping connectivity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Andreas; Zeki, Semir

    2005-01-15

    We describe here a new way of obtaining maps of connectivity in the human brain based on interregional correlations of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during natural viewing conditions. We propose that anatomical connections are reflected in BOLD signal correlations during natural brain dynamics. This may provide a powerful approach to chart connectivity, more so than that based on the 'resting state' of the human brain, and it may complement diffusion tensor imaging. Our approach relies on natural brain dynamics and is therefore experimentally unbiased and independent of hypothesis-driven, specialized stimuli. It has the advantage that natural viewing leads to considerably stronger cortical activity than rest, thus facilitating detection of weaker connections. To validate our technique, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record BOLD signal while volunteers freely viewed a movie that was interrupted by resting periods. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to segregate cortical areas before characterizing the dynamics of their BOLD signal during free viewing and rest. Natural viewing and rest each revealed highly specific correlation maps, which reflected known anatomical connections. Examples are homologous regions in visual and auditory cortices in the two hemispheres and the language network consisting of Wernicke's area, Broca's area, and a premotor region. Correlations between regions known to be directly connected were always substantially higher than between nonconnected regions. Furthermore, compared to rest, natural viewing specifically increased correlations between anatomically connected regions while it decreased correlations between nonconnected regions. Our findings therefore demonstrate that natural viewing conditions lead to particularly specific interregional correlations and thus provide a powerful environment to reveal anatomical connectivity in vivo.

  9. When two become one: the limits of causality analysis of brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Daniel; Ledberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems often consist of multiple interacting subsystems, the brain being a prominent example. To understand the functions of such systems it is important to analyze if and how the subsystems interact and to describe the effect of these interactions. In this work we investigate the extent to which the cause-and-effect framework is applicable to such interacting subsystems. We base our work on a standard notion of causal effects and define a new concept called natural causal effect. This new concept takes into account that when studying interactions in biological systems, one is often not interested in the effect of perturbations that alter the dynamics. The interest is instead in how the causal connections participate in the generation of the observed natural dynamics. We identify the constraints on the structure of the causal connections that determine the existence of natural causal effects. In particular, we show that the influence of the causal connections on the natural dynamics of the system often cannot be analyzed in terms of the causal effect of one subsystem on another. Only when the causing subsystem is autonomous with respect to the rest can this interpretation be made. We note that subsystems in the brain are often bidirectionally connected, which means that interactions rarely should be quantified in terms of cause-and-effect. We furthermore introduce a framework for how natural causal effects can be characterized when they exist. Our work also has important consequences for the interpretation of other approaches commonly applied to study causality in the brain. Specifically, we discuss how the notion of natural causal effects can be combined with Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM). Our results are generic and the concept of natural causal effects is relevant in all areas where the effects of interactions between subsystems are of interest.

  10. When two become one: the limits of causality analysis of brain dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chicharro

    Full Text Available Biological systems often consist of multiple interacting subsystems, the brain being a prominent example. To understand the functions of such systems it is important to analyze if and how the subsystems interact and to describe the effect of these interactions. In this work we investigate the extent to which the cause-and-effect framework is applicable to such interacting subsystems. We base our work on a standard notion of causal effects and define a new concept called natural causal effect. This new concept takes into account that when studying interactions in biological systems, one is often not interested in the effect of perturbations that alter the dynamics. The interest is instead in how the causal connections participate in the generation of the observed natural dynamics. We identify the constraints on the structure of the causal connections that determine the existence of natural causal effects. In particular, we show that the influence of the causal connections on the natural dynamics of the system often cannot be analyzed in terms of the causal effect of one subsystem on another. Only when the causing subsystem is autonomous with respect to the rest can this interpretation be made. We note that subsystems in the brain are often bidirectionally connected, which means that interactions rarely should be quantified in terms of cause-and-effect. We furthermore introduce a framework for how natural causal effects can be characterized when they exist. Our work also has important consequences for the interpretation of other approaches commonly applied to study causality in the brain. Specifically, we discuss how the notion of natural causal effects can be combined with Granger causality and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM. Our results are generic and the concept of natural causal effects is relevant in all areas where the effects of interactions between subsystems are of interest.

  11. Dynamic brain mapping of behavior change: tracking response initiation and inhibition to changes in reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlund, Michael W; Magee, Sandy; Hudgins, Caleb D

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive behavior change is supported by executive control processes distributed throughout a prefrontal-striatal-parietal network. Yet, the temporal dynamics of regions in the network have not been characterized. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tracked changes brain activation while subjects initiated and inhibited responding in accordance with changes in reinforcement rate. During imaging, subjects completed a free-operant task that involved repeated transitions between fixed-ratio reinforcement and extinction (RF:EXT), where reinforcement rate decreased and responding was inhibited, and between extinction and fixed-ratio reinforcement (EXT:RF), where reinforcement rate increased and responding was initiated. Our whole-brain temporal assessment revealed that transitions which required initiating and inhibiting responding prompted positive phasic responses in a prefrontal-parietal network, the insula and thalamus. However, response initiation prompted by an increase in reinforcement rate during the EXT:RF transition elicited positive phasic responses in reward-sensitive striatal regions. Furthermore, response inhibition prompted by a decrease in reinforcement rate during the RF:EXT transition elicited negative phasic responses in ventral frontal regions sensitive to value and contingency. Our findings highlight the temporal dynamics of a brain network that supports behavioral changes (initiation and inhibition) resulting from changes in local reinforcement rates.

  12. Dynamics of brain activity in motor and frontal cortical areas during music listening: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Mihai; Otsuka, Asuka; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2004-04-01

    There are formidable problems in studying how 'real' music engages the brain over wide ranges of temporal scales extending from milliseconds to a lifetime. In this work, we recorded the magnetoencephalographic signal while subjects listened to music as it unfolded over long periods of time (seconds), and we developed and applied methods to correlate the time course of the regional brain activations with the dynamic aspects of the musical sound. We showed that frontal areas generally respond with slow time constants to the music, reflecting their more integrative mode; motor-related areas showed transient-mode responses to fine temporal scale structures of the sound. The study combined novel analysis techniques designed to capture and quantify fine temporal sequencing from the authentic musical piece (characterized by a clearly defined rhythm and melodic structure) with the extraction of relevant features from the dynamics of the regional brain activations. The results demonstrated that activity in motor-related structures, specifically in lateral premotor areas, supplementary motor areas, and somatomotor areas, correlated with measures of rhythmicity derived from the music. These correlations showed distinct laterality depending on how the musical performance deviated from the strict tempo of the music score, that is, depending on the musical expression.

  13. Decoding brain cancer dynamics: a quantitative histogram-based approach using temporal MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mu; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Russo, Robin; Gillies, Robert J.; Gatenby, Robert A.

    2015-03-01

    Brain tumor heterogeneity remains a challenge for probing brain cancer evolutionary dynamics. In light of evolution, it is a priority to inspect the cancer system from a time-domain perspective since it explicitly tracks the dynamics of cancer variations. In this paper, we study the problem of exploring brain tumor heterogeneity from temporal clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Our goal is to discover evidence-based knowledge from such temporal imaging data, where multiple clinical MRI scans from Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients are generated during therapy. In particular, we propose a quantitative histogram-based approach that builds a prediction model to measure the difference in histograms obtained from pre- and post-treatment. The study could significantly assist radiologists by providing a metric to identify distinctive patterns within each tumor, which is crucial for the goal of providing patient-specific treatments. We examine the proposed approach for a practical application - clinical survival group prediction. Experimental results show that our approach achieved 90.91% accuracy.

  14. Brain Dynamics in Predicting Driving Fatigue Using a Recurrent Self-Evolving Fuzzy Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yang-Yin; Wu, Shang-Lin; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a generalized prediction system called a recurrent self-evolving fuzzy neural network (RSEFNN) that employs an on-line gradient descent learning rule to address the electroencephalography (EEG) regression problem in brain dynamics for driving fatigue. The cognitive states of drivers significantly affect driving safety; in particular, fatigue driving, or drowsy driving, endangers both the individual and the public. For this reason, the development of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that can identify drowsy driving states is a crucial and urgent topic of study. Many EEG-based BCIs have been developed as artificial auxiliary systems for use in various practical applications because of the benefits of measuring EEG signals. In the literature, the efficacy of EEG-based BCIs in recognition tasks has been limited by low resolutions. The system proposed in this paper represents the first attempt to use the recurrent fuzzy neural network (RFNN) architecture to increase adaptability in realistic EEG applications to overcome this bottleneck. This paper further analyzes brain dynamics in a simulated car driving task in a virtual-reality environment. The proposed RSEFNN model is evaluated using the generalized cross-subject approach, and the results indicate that the RSEFNN is superior to competing models regardless of the use of recurrent or nonrecurrent structures.

  15. Analysing correlations after the financial crisis of 2008 and multifractality in global financial time series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunil Kumar; Nivedita Deo

    2015-02-01

    We apply random matrix theory (RMT) to investigate the structure of cross-correlation in 20 global financial time series after the global financial crisis of 2008. We find that the largest eigenvalue deviates from the RMT prediction and is sensitive to the financial crisis. We find that the components of eigenvectors corresponding to the second largest eigenvalue changes sign in response to the crisis. We show that 20 global financial indices exhibit multifractality. We find that the origin of multifractality is due to the long-range correlations as well as broad probability function in the financial indices, with the exception of the index of Taiwan, as in all other indices the multifractal degree for shuffled and surrogate series is weaker than the original series. We fit the binomial multifractal model to the global financial indices.

  16. Probing multifractality in depth-resolved refractive index fluctuations in biological tissues using backscattering spectral interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Dey, Rajib; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, P. K.; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2016-12-01

    Fourier domain low coherence interferometry is a promising method for quantification of the depth distribution of the refractive index in a layered scattering medium such as biological tissue. Here, we have explored backscattering spectral interferometric measurement in combination with multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to probe and quantify multifractality in depth distribution of the refractive index in tissue. The depth resolution of the experimental system was validated on model systems comprising of polystyrene microspheres and mica sheet, and was initially tested on turbid collagen layer, the main building blocks of the connective tissue. Following successful evaluation, the method was applied on ex vivo tissues of human cervix. The derived multifractal parameters of depth-resolved index fluctuations of tissue, namely, the generalized Hurst exponent and the width of the singularity spectrum showed interesting differences between tissues having different grades of precancers. The depth-resolved index fluctuations exhibited stronger multifractality with increasing pathological grades, demonstrating its promise as a potential biomarker for precancer detection.

  17. Multifractal analysis of SSEC in Chinese stock market: A different empirical result from Heng Seng index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu; Huang, Dengshi

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, high frequency (per 5 min) data of Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite index (SSEC) from January 1999 to July 2001 is analyzed by multifractal. We find that the correlation of the parameters of the multifractal spectra with the variation of daily return Z in SSEC is noticeably different from that in previous studies of Heng Seng index in Hong Kong stock market [Sun et al., Phys. A 291 (2001) 553-562; Sun et al., Phys. A 301 (2001) 473-482]. So, we suppose that there may not be a universal rule for the dependence of the parameters of the multifractal spectra with daily return of a stock index. Then, we construct a new measurement of market risk based on multifractal spectra, and test its ability of predicting index fluctuations with a more thorough method than that in Sun et al. [Phys. A 301 (2001) 473-482].

  18. Bayesian estimation of the multifractality parameter for image texture using a Whittle approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Combrexelle, Sébastien; Dobigeon, Nicolas; Tourneret, Jean-Yves; McLaughlin, Steve; Abry, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Texture characterization is a central element in many image processing applications. Multifractal analysis is a useful signal and image processing tool, yet, the accurate estimation of multifractal parameters for image texture remains a challenge. This is due in the main to the fact that current estimation procedures consist of performing linear regressions across frequency scales of the two-dimensional (2D) dyadic wavelet transform, for which only a few such scales are computable for images. The strongly non-Gaussian nature of multifractal processes, combined with their complicated dependence structure, makes it difficult to develop suitable models for parameter estimation. Here, we propose a Bayesian procedure that addresses the difficulties in the estimation of the multifractality parameter. The originality of the procedure is threefold: The construction of a generic semi-parametric statistical model for the logarithm of wavelet leaders; the formulation of Bayesian estimators that are associated with this ...

  19. Multifractal analysis of satellite images. (Polish Title: Multifraktalna analiza zobrazowan satelitarnych)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzaszek, A.; Krupiński, M.; Drzewiecki, W.; Aleksandrowicz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Research presented in this paper is focused on the efficiency assessment of multifractal description as a tool for Image Information Mining. Large datasets of very high spatial resolution satellite images (WorldView-2 and EROS-A) have been analysed. The results have confirmed the superiority of multifractals as global image descriptors in comparison to monofractals. Moreover, their usefulness in image classification by using decision trees classifiers was confirmed, also in comparison with textural features. Filtration process preceding fractal and multifractal features estimations was also proved to improve classification results. Additionally, airborne hyperspectral data have been initially analysed. Fractal dimension shows high potential for the description of hyperspectral data. To summarise all conducted tests indicate the usefulness of multifractal formalism in various aspects of remote sensing. Prepared methodology can be further developed and used for more specific tasks, for example in change detection or in the description of hyperspectal data complexity.

  20. Inverse Multifractal Analysis of Different Frame Types of Multiview 3D Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zeković

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of multifractal characterization of multiview 3D video are presented. Analyses are performed for different views of multiview video and for different frame types of video. Multifractal analysis is performed by the histogram method. Due to the advantages of the selected method for determining the spectrum, the inverse multifractal analysis of multiview 3D video was also possible. A discussion of the results obtained by the inverse multifractal analysis of multiview 3D video is presented, taking into account the frame type and whether the original frames belong to the left or right view of multiview 3D video. In the analysis, publicly available multiview 3D video traces were used.

  1. (Quantum) Fractional Brownian Motion and Multifractal Processes under the Loop of a Tensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Descamps, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    We derive fractional Brownian motion and stochastic processes with multifractal properties using a framework of network of Gaussian conditional probabilities. This leads to the derivation of new representations of fractional Brownian motion. These constructions are inspired from renormalization. The main result of this paper consists of constructing each increment of the process from two-dimensional gaussian noise inside the light-cone of each seperate increment. Not only does this allows us to derive fractional Brownian motion, we can introduce extensions with multifractal flavour. In another part of this paper, we discuss the use of the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), introduced in the study critical systems in quantum spin lattices, as a method for sampling integrals with respect to such multifractal processes. After proper calibration, a MERA promises the generation of a sample of size $N$ of a multifractal process in the order of $O(N\\log(N))$, an improvement over the known method...

  2. Dynamics of trimming the content of face representations for categorization in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J van Rijsbergen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand visual cognition, it is imperative to determine when, how and with what information the human brain categorizes the visual input. Visual categorization consistently involves at least an early and a late stage: the occipito-temporal N170 event related potential related to stimulus encoding and the parietal P300 involved in perceptual decisions. Here we sought to understand how the brain globally transforms its representations of face categories from their early encoding to the later decision stage over the 400 ms time window encompassing the N170 and P300 brain events. We applied classification image techniques to the behavioral and electroencephalographic data of three observers who categorized seven facial expressions of emotion and report two main findings: (1 over the 400 ms time course, processing of facial features initially spreads bilaterally across the left and right occipito-temporal regions to dynamically converge onto the centro-parietal region; (2 concurrently, information processing gradually shifts from encoding common face features across all spatial scales (e.g., the eyes to representing only the finer scales of the diagnostic features that are richer in useful information for behavior (e.g., the wide opened eyes in 'fear'; the detailed mouth in 'happy'. Our findings suggest that the brain refines its diagnostic representations of visual categories over the first 400 ms of processing by trimming a thorough encoding of features over the N170, to leave only the detailed information important for perceptual decisions over the P300.

  3. The aesthetic experience as a characteristic feature of brain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vitiello

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain constructs within itself an understanding of its surround which constitutes its own world. This is described as its Double in the frame of the dissipative quantum model of brain, where the perception-action arc in the Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of perception finds its formal description. In the dialog with the Double, the continuous attempt to reach the equilibrium shows that the real goal pursued by the brain activity is the aesthetical experience, the most harmonious “to-be-in-the-world” reached through reciprocal actions, the aesthetical dimension characterized by the “pleasure” of the perception. Aesthetical pleasure unavoidably implies disclosure, to manifest “signs”, artistic communication. An interpersonal, collective level of consciousness then arises, a larger stage where the actors are mutually dependent. The coherent structure of the brain background state manifests itself in the auto-similarity properties of fractal structures. These are observed to occur also in a large number of natural phenomena and systems. The conception of Nature divided in separated domains is replaced by the vision of Nature unified by laws of form implied by the underlying quantum dynamics of the coherent vacuum, an integrated ecological vision.

  4. Mechanical Characterization of Brain Tissue in Compression at Dynamic Strain Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Rashid, Badar; Gilchrist, Michael; 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.01.022

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when local mechanical load exceeds certain tolerance levels for brain tissue. Extensive research has been done previously for brain matter experiencing compression at quasistatic loading; however, limited data is available to model TBI under dynamic impact conditions. In this research, an experimental setup was developed to perform unconfined compression tests and stress relaxation tests at strain rates < 90/s. The brain tissue showed a stiffer response with increasing strain rates, showing that hyperelastic models are not adequate. Specifically, the compressive nominal stress at 30% strain was 8.83 +/- 1.94, 12.8 +/- 3.10 and 16.0 +/- 1.41 kPa (mean +/- SD) at strain rates of 30, 60 and 90/s, respectively. Relaxation tests were also conducted at 10%-50% strain with the average rise time of 10 ms, which can be used to derive time dependent parameters. Numerical simulations were performed using one-term Ogden model with initial shear modulus mu_0 = 6.06 +/- 1.44, 9.44 +/-...

  5. Brain dynamics for perception of tactile allodynia (touch-induced pain) in postherpetic neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geha, P. Y.; Baliki, M. N.; Wang, X.; Harden, R. N.; Paice, J. A.; Apkarian, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a debilitating chronic pain condition often accompanied by a sensation of pain when the affected region is touched (tactile allodynia). Here we identify brain regions involved in stimulus-induced touch-evoked pain (dynamical mechanical allodynia, DMA), compare brain activity between DMA and spontaneous pain (described earlier for the same patients in [28], delineate regions that specifically code the magnitude of perceived allodynia, and show the transformation of allodynia-related information in the brain as a time-evolving network. Eleven PHN patients were studied for DMA and its modulation with Lidoderm therapy (patches of 5% lidocaine applied to the PHN affected body part). Continuous ratings of pain while the affected body part was brushed during fMRI were contrasted with non-painful touch when brushing was applied to an equivalent opposite body site, and with fluctuations of a bar observed during scanning, at three sessions relative to Lidoderm treatment. Lidoderm treatment did not decrease DMA ratings but did decrease spontaneous pain. Multiple brain areas showed preferential activity for allodynia. However, mainly responses in the bilateral putamen and left medial temporal gyrus were related to the magnitude of allodynia. Both DMA and spontaneous pain perceptions were best represented within the same sub-cortical structures but with minimal overlap, implying that PHN pain modulates behavioral learning and hedonics. These results have important clinical implications regarding adequate therapy. PMID:18384958

  6. Dynamics of Trimming the Content of Face Representations for Categorization in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsbergen, Nicola J.; Schyns, Philippe G.

    2009-01-01

    To understand visual cognition, it is imperative to determine when, how and with what information the human brain categorizes the visual input. Visual categorization consistently involves at least an early and a late stage: the occipito-temporal N170 event related potential related to stimulus encoding and the parietal P300 involved in perceptual decisions. Here we sought to understand how the brain globally transforms its representations of face categories from their early encoding to the later decision stage over the 400 ms time window encompassing the N170 and P300 brain events. We applied classification image techniques to the behavioral and electroencephalographic data of three observers who categorized seven facial expressions of emotion and report two main findings: (1) over the 400 ms time course, processing of facial features initially spreads bilaterally across the left and right occipito-temporal regions to dynamically converge onto the centro-parietal region; (2) concurrently, information processing gradually shifts from encoding common face features across all spatial scales (e.g., the eyes) to representing only the finer scales of the diagnostic features that are richer in useful information for behavior (e.g., the wide opened eyes in ‘fear’; the detailed mouth in ‘happy’). Our findings suggest that the brain refines its diagnostic representations of visual categories over the first 400 ms of processing by trimming a thorough encoding of features over the N170, to leave only the detailed information important for perceptual decisions over the P300. PMID:19911045

  7. A Dynamic Directional Model for Effective Brain Connectivity using Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wu, Jingwei; Li, Fan; Caffo, Brian; Boatman-Reich, Dana

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a dynamic directional model (DDM) for studying brain effective connectivity based on intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) time series. The DDM consists of two parts: a set of differential equations describing neuronal activity of brain components (state equations), and observation equations linking the underlying neuronal states to observed data. When applied to functional MRI or EEG data, DDMs usually have complex formulations and thus can accommodate only a few regions, due to limitations in spatial resolution and/or temporal resolution of these imaging modalities. In contrast, we formulate our model in the context of ECoG data. The combined high temporal and spatial resolution of ECoG data result in a much simpler DDM, allowing investigation of complex connections between many regions. To identify functionally segregated sub-networks, a form of biologically economical brain networks, we propose the Potts model for the DDM parameters. The neuronal states of brain components are represented by cubic spline bases and the parameters are estimated by minimizing a log-likelihood criterion that combines the state and observation equations. The Potts model is converted to the Potts penalty in the penalized regression approach to achieve sparsity in parameter estimation, for which a fast iterative algorithm is developed. The methods are applied to an auditory ECoG dataset.

  8. Fractal and multifractal analysis of human retinal vascular network: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Ţălu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a synthesis concerning the results obtained in fractaland multifractal analysis of vascular network geometry of the human retina. The numerical results areuseful in mathematical models based on parametric representations, used in vitreo-retinal biomechanicalstudies. The fractal and multifractal analysis of retinal vascular network provides noninvasive powerfultools that allow physicians the early detection of patients with different retinal vascular diseases.

  9. MULTIFRACTAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICLE-FLUID SYSTEM IN A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping; Ma; Weixing; Huang; Yanfu; Shi; Huarui; Yu; Jingxu; Zhu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, multifractal analysis together with wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method is used to analyze the fluctuating signals of circulating fluidized bed (CFB). Singularity spectrum shows that the gas-particle flow in CFB has multifractal character. Motion behavior of the particle-fluid system of CFB can be described by singularity spectrum. Intermittency index can be used to determine the transition of flow regime from fast fluidization to pneumatic conveying.

  10. Multifractal detrended Cross Correlation Analysis of Foreign Exchange and SENSEX fluctuation in Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Srimonti; Ghosh, Dipak; Chatterjee, Sucharita

    2016-12-01

    The manuscript studies autocorrelation and cross correlation of SENSEX fluctuations and Forex Exchange Rate in respect to Indian scenario. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended cross correlation analysis (MFDXA) were employed to study the correlation between the two series. It was observed that the two series are strongly cross correlated. The change of degree of cross correlation with time was studied and the results are interpreted qualitatively.

  11. Coarse-Grained Multifractality Analysis Based on Structure Function Measurements to Discriminate Healthy from Distressed Foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a combined coarse-grained multifractal method to discriminate between distressed and normal foetuses. The coarse-graining operation was performed by means of a coarse-grained procedure and the multifractal operation was based on a structure function. The proposed method was evaluated by one hundred recordings including eighty normal foetuses and twenty distressed foetuses. We found that it was possible to discriminate between distressed and normal foetuses using the Hurst exponent, singularity, and Holder spectra.

  12. A bidirectional brain-machine interface connecting alert rodents to a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Fabio; Semprini, Marianna; Mussa Ivaldi, Ferdinando A; Panzeri, Stefano; Vato, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel experimental framework that implements a bidirectional brain-machine interface inspired by the operation of the spinal cord in vertebrates that generates a control policy in the form of a force field. The proposed experimental set-up allows connecting the brain of freely moving rats to an external device. We tested this apparatus in a preliminary experiment with an alert rat that used the interface for acquiring a food reward. The goal of this approach to bidirectional interfaces is to explore the role of voluntary neural commands in controlling a dynamical system represented by a small cart moving on vertical plane and connected to a water/pellet dispenser.

  13. On Stabilizing the Variance of Dynamic Functional Brain Connectivity Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William Hedley; Fransson, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of dynamic functional brain connectivity based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is an increasingly popular strategy to investigate temporal dynamics of the brain's large-scale network architecture. Current practice when deriving connectivity estimates over time is to use the Fisher transformation, which aims to stabilize the variance of correlation values that fluctuate around varying true correlation values. It is, however, unclear how well the stabilization of signal variance performed by the Fisher transformation works for each connectivity time series, when the true correlation is assumed to be fluctuating. This is of importance because many subsequent analyses either assume or perform better when the time series have stable variance or adheres to an approximate Gaussian distribution. In this article, using simulations and analysis of resting-state fMRI data, we analyze the effect of applying different variance stabilization strategies on connectivity time series. We focus our investigation on the Fisher transformation, the Box-Cox (BC) transformation and an approach that combines both transformations. Our results show that, if the intention of stabilizing the variance is to use metrics on the time series, where stable variance or a Gaussian distribution is desired (e.g., clustering), the Fisher transformation is not optimal and may even skew connectivity time series away from being Gaussian. Furthermore, we show that the suboptimal performance of the Fisher transformation can be substantially improved by including an additional BC transformation after the dynamic functional connectivity time series has been Fisher transformed.

  14. Solar system plasma Turbulence: Observations, inteRmittency and Multifractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echim, Marius M.

    2016-04-01

    The FP7 project STORM is funded by the European Commission to "add value to existing data bases through a more comprehensive interpretation". STORM targets plasma and magnetic field databases collected in the solar wind (Ulysses and also some planetary missions), planetary magnetospheres (Venus Express, Cluster, a few orbits from Cassini), cometary magnetosheaths (e.g. Haley from Giotto observations). The project applies the same package of analysis methods on geomagnetic field observations from ground and on derived indices (e.g. AE, AL, AU, SYM-H). The analysis strategy adopted in STORM is built on the principle of increasing complexity, from lower (like, e.g., the Power Spectral Density - PSD) to higher order analyses (the Probability Distribution Functions - PDFs, Structure Functions - SFs, Fractals and Multifractals - MFs). Therefore STORM targets not only the spectral behavior of turbulent fluctuations but also their topology and scale behavior inferred from advanced mathematical algorithms and geometrical-like analogs. STORM started in January 2013 and ended in December 2015. We will report on a selection of scientific and technical achievements and will highlight: (1) the radial evolution of solar wind turbulence and intermittency based on Ulysses data with some contributions from Venus Express and Cluster; (2) comparative study of fast and slow wind turbulence and intermittency at solar minimum; (3) comparative study of the planetary response (Venus and Earth magnetosheaths) to turbulent solar wind; (4) the critical behavior of geomagnetic fluctuations and indices; (5) an integrated library for non-linear analysis of time series that includes all the approaches adopted in STORM to investigate solar system plasma turbulence. STORM delivers an unprecedented volume of analysed data for turbulence. The project made indeed a systematic survey, orbit by orbit, of data available from ESA repositories and Principal Investigators and provides results ordered as a

  15. Multifractal detrending moving-average cross-correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2011-07-01

    There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross correlations. The multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MFDCCA) approaches can be used to quantify such cross correlations, such as the MFDCCA based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (MFXDFA) method. We develop in this work a class of MFDCCA algorithms based on the detrending moving-average analysis, called MFXDMA. The performances of the proposed MFXDMA algorithms are compared with the MFXDFA method by extensive numerical experiments on pairs of time series generated from bivariate fractional Brownian motions, two-component autoregressive fractionally integrated moving-average processes, and binomial measures, which have theoretical expressions of the multifractal nature. In all cases, the scaling exponents h(xy) extracted from the MFXDMA and MFXDFA algorithms are very close to the theoretical values. For bivariate fractional Brownian motions, the scaling exponent of the cross correlation is independent of the cross-correlation coefficient between two time series, and the MFXDFA and centered MFXDMA algorithms have comparative performances, which outperform the forward and backward MFXDMA algorithms. For two-component autoregressive fractionally integrated moving-average processes, we also find that the MFXDFA and centered MFXDMA algorithms have comparative performances, while the forward and backward MFXDMA algorithms perform slightly worse. For binomial measures, the forward MFXDMA algorithm exhibits the best performance, the centered MFXDMA algorithms performs worst, and the backward MFXDMA algorithm outperforms the MFXDFA algorithm when the moment order q0. We apply these algorithms to the return time series of two stock market indexes and to their volatilities. For the returns, the centered MFXDMA algorithm gives the best estimates of h(xy)(q) since its h(xy)(2) is closest to 0.5, as expected, and

  16. Rolling bearing fault diagnosis based on LCD-TEO and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Wang, Xuan; Lu, Chen

    2015-08-01

    A rolling bearing vibration signal is nonlinear and non-stationary and has multiple components and multifractal properties. A rolling-bearing fault-diagnosis method based on Local Characteristic-scale Decomposition-Teager Energy Operator (LCD-TEO) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is first proposed in this paper. First, the vibration signal was decomposed into several intrinsic scale components (ISCs) by using LCD, which is a newly developed signal decomposition method. Second, the instantaneous amplitude was obtained by applying the TEO to each major ISC for demodulation. Third, the intrinsic multifractality features hidden in each major ISC were extracted by using MF-DFA, among which the generalized Hurst exponents are selected as the multifractal feature in this paper. Finally, the feature vectors were obtained by applying principal components analysis (PCA) to the extracted multifractality features, thus reducing the dimension of the multifractal features and obtaining the fault feature insensitive to variation in working conditions, further enhancing the accuracy of diagnosis. According to the extracted feature vector, rolling bearing faults can be diagnosed under variable working conditions. The experimental results demonstrate its desirable diagnostic performance under both different working conditions and different fault severities. Simultaneously, the results of comparison show that the performance of the proposed diagnostic method outperforms that of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) combined with MF-DFA or LCD-TEO combined with mono-fractal analysis.

  17. Investigation of alterations in multifractality in optical coherence tomographic images of in vivo human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Chhablani, Jay; Richhariya, Ashutosh; Divakar Rao, Kompalli; Sahoo, Naba Kishore

    2016-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables us to monitor alterations in the thickness of the retinal layer as disease progresses in the human retina. However, subtle morphological changes in the retinal layers due to early disease progression often may not lead to detectable alterations in the thickness. OCT images encode depth-dependent backscattered intensity distribution arising due to the depth distributions of the refractive index from tissue microstructures. Here, such depth-resolved refractive index variations of different retinal layers were analyzed using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis, a special class of multiresolution analysis tools. The analysis extracted and quantified microstructural multifractal information encoded in normal as well as diseased human retinal OCT images acquired in vivo. Interestingly, different layers of the retina exhibited different degrees of multifractality in a particular retina, and the individual layers displayed consistent multifractal trends in healthy retinas of different human subjects. In the retinal layers of diabetic macular edema (DME) subjects, the change in multifractality manifested prominently near the boundary of the DME as compared to the normal retinal layers. The demonstrated ability to quantify depth-resolved information on multifractality encoded in OCT images appears promising for the early diagnosis of diseases of the human eye, which may also prove useful for detecting other types of tissue abnormalities from OCT images.

  18. High transition frequencies of dynamic functional connectivity states in the creative brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junchao; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Cai, Yuxuan; Gao, Mengxia; Gao, Zhenni; Chang, Song; Jiao, Bingqing; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Creativity is thought to require the flexible reconfiguration of multiple brain regions that interact in transient and complex communication patterns. In contrast to prior emphases on searching for specific regions or networks associated with creative performance, we focused on exploring the association between the reconfiguration of dynamic functional connectivity states and creative ability. We hypothesized that a high frequency of dynamic functional connectivity state transitions will be associated with creative ability. To test this hypothesis, we recruited a high-creative group (HCG) and a low-creative group (LCG) of participants and collected resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) scores from each participant. By combining an independent component analysis with a dynamic network analysis approach, we discovered the HCG had more frequent transitions between dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) states than the LCG. Moreover, a confirmatory analysis using multiplication of temporal derivatives also indicated that there were more frequent dFC state transitions in the HCG. Taken together, these results provided empirical evidence for a linkage between the flexible reconfiguration of dynamic functional connectivity states and creative ability. These findings have the potential to provide new insights into the neural basis of creativity. PMID:28383052

  19. High transition frequencies of dynamic functional connectivity states in the creative brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junchao; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Aiying; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Cai, Yuxuan; Gao, Mengxia; Gao, Zhenni; Chang, Song; Jiao, Bingqing; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2017-04-06

    Creativity is thought to require the flexible reconfiguration of multiple brain regions that interact in transient and complex communication patterns. In contrast to prior emphases on searching for specific regions or networks associated with creative performance, we focused on exploring the association between the reconfiguration of dynamic functional connectivity states and creative ability. We hypothesized that a high frequency of dynamic functional connectivity state transitions will be associated with creative ability. To test this hypothesis, we recruited a high-creative group (HCG) and a low-creative group (LCG) of participants and collected resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) scores from each participant. By combining an independent component analysis with a dynamic network analysis approach, we discovered the HCG had more frequent transitions between dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) states than the LCG. Moreover, a confirmatory analysis using multiplication of temporal derivatives also indicated that there were more frequent dFC state transitions in the HCG. Taken together, these results provided empirical evidence for a linkage between the flexible reconfiguration of dynamic functional connectivity states and creative ability. These findings have the potential to provide new insights into the neural basis of creativity.

  20. Generalized scale invariance, clouds and radiative transfer on multifractal clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    1995-09-01

    Recent systematic satellite studies (LANDSAT, AVHRR, METEOSAT) of cloud radiances using (isotropic) energy spectra have displayed excellent scaling from at least about 300m to about 4000km, even for individual cloud pictures. At first sight, this contradicts the observed diversity of cloud morphology, texture and type. The authors argue that the explanation of this apparent paradox is that the differences are due to anisotropy, e.g. differential stratification and rotation. A general framework for anisotropic scaling expressed in terms of isotropic self-similar scaling and fractals and multifractals is needed. Schertzer and Lovejoy have proposed Generalized Scale Invariance (GSI) in response to this need. In GSI, the statistics of the large and small scales of system can be related to each other by a scale changing operator T{sub {lambda}} which depends only on the scale ratio {lambda}{sub i} there is no characteristic size. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Dual-induced multifractality of human online activity

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Yuhao; Cai, Shimin; Gao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries of human activity reveal the existence of long-term correlation and its relation with the fat-tailed distribution of inter-event times, which imply that there exists the fractality of human activity. However, works further analyzing the type of fractality and its origin still lack. Herein, DFA and MFDFA methods are applied in the analysis of time series of online reviewing activity from Movielens and Netflix. Results show the long-term correlation at individual and whole community level, while the strength of such correlation at individual level is restricted to activity level. Such long-term correlation reveals the fractality of online reviewing activity. In our further investigation of this fractality, we \\emph{first} demonstrate it is multifractality, which results from the dual effect of broad probability density function and long-term correlation of time series in online reviewing activity. This result is also verified by three synthesized series. Therefore, we conclude that the combin...

  2. Complexity Induced Lifshitz Ordering with Multifractal Antiscreening/Screening (CILOMAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tom T.S., E-mail: tom.tschang@gmail.com

    2016-04-08

    We demonstrate that renormalization-group effects of scale-running propagator-coupling constants due to classical fluctuations can induce antiscreening/screening and multifractal symmetry breakings among various helical and other ordered states of generalized Lifshitz character leading to novel phase-transition associated complexities in condensed matter physics and gravitational evolution. Such phenomenon can exhibit the sporadic and localized appearance of virtual particles and in the context of cosmological evolution, the coarse-grained scale-running of the gravitational constant G due to classical fluctuations may provide a partial explanation to the dark matter mystery. - Highlights: • An innovative theory in phase transitions related to complex helical orderings. • The phenomenon is induced by the “running” of the propagator-coupling constant. • The calculations are based on the exact renormalization group. • An example of gravitational evolution is described. • CILOMAS discusses Lifshitz points and virtual particles such as dark matter.

  3. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of analog random multiplicative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.B.M.; Vermelho, M.V.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio - AL, 57072-970 (Brazil); Lyra, M.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio - AL, 57072-970 (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelo@if.ufal.br; Viswanathan, G.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio - AL, 57072-970 (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    We investigate non-Gaussian statistical properties of stationary stochastic signals generated by an analog circuit that simulates a random multiplicative process with weak additive noise. The random noises are originated by thermal shot noise and avalanche processes, while the multiplicative process is generated by a fully analog circuit. The resulting signal describes stochastic time series of current interest in several areas such as turbulence, finance, biology and environment, which exhibit power-law distributions. Specifically, we study the correlation properties of the signal by employing a detrended fluctuation analysis and explore its multifractal nature. The singularity spectrum is obtained and analyzed as a function of the control circuit parameter that tunes the asymptotic power-law form of the probability distribution function.

  4. Multifractal model of asset returns with leverage effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Z.; Kertész, J.

    2004-11-01

    Multifractal processes are a relatively new tool of stock market analysis. Their power lies in the ability to take multiple orders of autocorrelations into account explicitly. In the first part of the paper we discuss the framework of the Lux model and refine the underlying phenomenological picture. We also give a procedure of fitting all parameters to empirical data. We present a new approach to account for the effective length of power-law memory in volatility. The second part of the paper deals with the consequences of asymmetry in returns. We incorporate two related stylized facts, skewness and leverage autocorrelations into the model. Then from Monte Carlo measurements we show, that this asymmetry significantly increases the mean squared error of volatility forecasts. Based on a filtering method we give evidence on similar behavior in empirical data.

  5. Dynamic change of serum protein S100b and its clinical significance in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Da-qing; ZHU Lie-lie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the dynamic change of serum protein S100b in patients with traumatic brain injury and its clinical value in assessing brain damage. Methods: According to Glasgow coma scale (GCS), 102 cases of traumatic brain injury were divided into mild brain injury group (GCS≥13, n=31, Group A), moderate brain injury group (8brain injury group (GCS≤8, n=34, Group C). Serial S100b concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in blood samples taken on admission, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 days after traumatic brain injury. Results: The severe brain injury group showed significantly higher concentration of serum S100b, with earlier increase and longer duration, than the mild and moderate brain injury groups. The patients with higher S100b exhibited lower GCS scores and poor clinical prognosis. The increase in S100b could emerge before clinical image evidence indicated so. Conclusions: Serum S100b can be used as a sensitive index for assessment and prediction of traumatic brain injury severity and prognosis.

  6. Criticality in Large-Scale Brain fMRI Dynamics Unveiled by a Novel Point Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Balenzuela, Pablo; Fraiman, Daniel; Chialvo, Dante R.

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques have contributed significantly to our understanding of brain function. Current methods are based on the analysis of gradual and continuous changes in the brain blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) signal. Departing from that approach, recent work has shown that equivalent results can be obtained by inspecting only the relatively large amplitude BOLD signal peaks, suggesting that relevant information can be condensed in discrete events. This idea is further explored here to demonstrate how brain dynamics at resting state can be captured just by the timing and location of such events, i.e., in terms of a spatiotemporal point process. The method allows, for the first time, to define a theoretical framework in terms of an order and control parameter derived from fMRI data, where the dynamical regime can be interpreted as one corresponding to a system close to the critical point of a second order phase transition. The analysis demonstrates that the resting brain spends most of the time near the critical point of such transition and exhibits avalanches of activity ruled by the same dynamical and statistical properties described previously for neuronal events at smaller scales. Given the demonstrated functional relevance of the resting state brain dynamics, its representation as a discrete process might facilitate large-scale analysis of brain function both in health and disease. PMID:22347863

  7. Disrupted global metastability and static and dynamic brain connectivity across individuals in the Alzheimer’s disease continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Kaufmann, Tobias; Persson, Karin; Alnæs, Dag; Doan, Nhat Trung; Moberget, Torgeir; Lund, Martina Jonette; Barca, Maria Lage; Engvig, Andreas; Brækhus, Anne; Engedal, Knut; Andreassen, Ole A.; Selbæk, Geir; Westlye, Lars T.

    2017-01-01

    As findings on the neuropathological and behavioral components of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) continue to accrue, converging evidence suggests that macroscale brain functional disruptions may mediate their association. Recent developments on theoretical neuroscience indicate that instantaneous patterns of brain connectivity and metastability may be a key mechanism in neural communication underlying cognitive performance. However, the potential significance of these patterns across the AD spectrum remains virtually unexplored. We assessed the clinical sensitivity of static and dynamic functional brain disruptions across the AD spectrum using resting-state fMRI in a sample consisting of AD patients (n = 80) and subjects with either mild (n = 44) or subjective (n = 26) cognitive impairment (MCI, SCI). Spatial maps constituting the nodes in the functional brain network and their associated time-series were estimated using spatial group independent component analysis and dual regression, and whole-brain oscillatory activity was analyzed both globally (metastability) and locally (static and dynamic connectivity). Instantaneous phase metrics showed functional coupling alterations in AD compared to MCI and SCI, both static (putamen, dorsal and default-mode) and dynamic (temporal, frontal-superior and default-mode), along with decreased global metastability. The results suggest that brains of AD patients display altered oscillatory patterns, in agreement with theoretical premises on cognitive dynamics.

  8. The multifractal structure of satellite sea surface temperature maps can be used to obtain global maps of streamlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Turiel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Earth observation satellites provide information about many relevant variables of the ocean-climate system, such as temperature, moisture, aerosols, etc. However, to retrieve the velocity field, which is the most relevant dynamical variable, is still a technological challenge, specially in the case of oceans. New processing techniques, emerged from the theory of turbulent flows, have come to assist us in this task. In this paper, we show that multifractal techniques applied to new Sea Surface Temperature satellite products opens the way to build maps of ocean currents with unprecedented accuracy. With the application of singularity analysis, we show that global ocean circulation patterns can be retrieved in a daily basis. We compare these results with high-quality altimetry-derived geostrophic velocities, finding a quite good correspondence of the observed patterns both qualitatively and quantitatively. The implications of this findings from the perspective both of theory and of operational applications are discussed.

  9. Complexity and multifractal behaviors of multiscale-continuum percolation financial system for Chinese stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yayun; Wang, Jun; Xu, Kaixuan

    2017-04-01

    A new financial agent-based time series model is developed and investigated by multiscale-continuum percolation system, which can be viewed as an extended version of continuum percolation system. In this financial model, for different parameters of proportion and density, two Poisson point processes (where the radii of points represent the ability of receiving or transmitting information among investors) are applied to model a random stock price process, in an attempt to investigate the fluctuation dynamics of the financial market. To validate its effectiveness and rationality, we compare the statistical behaviors and the multifractal behaviors of the simulated data derived from the proposed model with those of the real stock markets. Further, the multiscale sample entropy analysis is employed to study the complexity of the returns, and the cross-sample entropy analysis is applied to measure the degree of asynchrony of return autocorrelation time series. The empirical results indicate that the proposed financial model can simulate and reproduce some significant characteristics of the real stock markets to a certain extent.

  10. Trans3D: a free tool for dynamical visualization of EEG activity transmission in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinowski, Grzegorz; Kamiński, Maciej; Wawer, Dariusz

    2014-08-01

    The problem of functional connectivity in the brain is in the focus of attention nowadays, since it is crucial for understanding information processing in the brain. A large repertoire of measures of connectivity have been devised, some of them being capable of estimating time-varying directed connectivity. Hence, there is a need for a dedicated software tool for visualizing the propagation of electrical activity in the brain. To this aim, the Trans3D application was developed. It is an open access tool based on widely available libraries and supporting both Windows XP/Vista/7(™), Linux and Mac environments. Trans3D can create animations of activity propagation between electrodes/sensors, which can be placed by the user on the scalp/cortex of a 3D model of the head. Various interactive graphic functions for manipulating and visualizing components of the 3D model and input data are available. An application of the Trans3D tool has helped to elucidate the dynamics of the phenomena of information processing in motor and cognitive tasks, which otherwise would have been very difficult to observe. Trans3D is available at: http://www.eeg.pl/.

  11. Encoding of physics concepts: concreteness and presentation modality reflected by human brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kevin; She, Hsiao-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Chang; Chou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Li-Yu; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gramann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Previous research into working memory has focused on activations in different brain areas accompanying either different presentation modalities (verbal vs. non-verbal) or concreteness (abstract vs. concrete) of non-science concepts. Less research has been conducted investigating how scientific concepts are learned and further processed in working memory. To bridge this gap, the present study investigated human brain dynamics associated with encoding of physics concepts, taking both presentation modality and concreteness into account. Results of this study revealed greater theta and low-beta synchronization in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during encoding of concrete pictures as compared to the encoding of both high and low imageable words. In visual brain areas, greater theta activity accompanying stimulus onsets was observed for words as compared to pictures while stronger alpha suppression was observed in responses to pictures as compared to words. In general, the EEG oscillation patterns for encoding words of different levels of abstractness were comparable but differed significantly from encoding of pictures. These results provide insights into the effects of modality of presentation on human encoding of scientific concepts and thus might help in developing new ways to better teach scientific concepts in class.

  12. Encoding of physics concepts: concreteness and presentation modality reflected by human brain dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lai

    Full Text Available Previous research into working memory has focused on activations in different brain areas accompanying either different presentation modalities (verbal vs. non-verbal or concreteness (abstract vs. concrete of non-science concepts. Less research has been conducted investigating how scientific concepts are learned and further processed in working memory. To bridge this gap, the present study investigated human brain dynamics associated with encoding of physics concepts, taking both presentation modality and concreteness into account. Results of this study revealed greater theta and low-beta synchronization in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC during encoding of concrete pictures as compared to the encoding of both high and low imageable words. In visual brain areas, greater theta activity accompanying stimulus onsets was observed for words as compared to pictures while stronger alpha suppression was observed in responses to pictures as compared to words. In general, the EEG oscillation patterns for encoding words of different levels of abstractness were comparable but differed significantly from encoding of pictures. These results provide insights into the effects of modality of presentation on human encoding of scientific concepts and thus might help in developing new ways to better teach scientific concepts in class.

  13. Symmetry Breaking in Space-Time Hierarchies Shapes Brain Dynamics and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Ajay S; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2017-06-07

    In order to maintain brain function, neural activity needs to be tightly coordinated within the brain network. How this coordination is achieved and related to behavior is largely unknown. It has been previously argued that the study of the link between brain and behavior is impossible without a guiding vision. Here we propose behavioral-level concepts and mechanisms embodied as structured flows on manifold (SFM) that provide a formal description of behavior as a low-dimensional process emerging from a network's dynamics dependent on the symmetry and invariance properties of the network connectivity. Specifically, we demonstrate that the symmetry breaking of network connectivity constitutes a timescale hierarchy resulting in the emergence of an attractive functional subspace. We show that behavior emerges when appropriate conditions imposed upon the couplings are satisfied, justifying the conductance-based nature of synaptic couplings. Our concepts propose design principles for networks predicting how behavior and task rules are represented in real neural circuits and open new avenues for the analyses of neural data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The role and dynamics of β-catenin in precondition induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gali Umschweif

    Full Text Available Preconditioning via heat acclimation (34°C 30 d results in neuroprotection from traumatic brain injury due to constitutive as well as dynamic changes triggered by the trauma. Among these changes is Akt phosphorylation, which decreases apoptosis and induces HIF1α. In the present study we investigated the Akt downstream GSK3β/β-catenin pathway and focused on post injury alternations of β catenin and its impact on the cellular response in preconditioned heat acclimated mice. We found that the reduction in motor disability is accompanied with attenuation of depressive like behavior in heat acclimated mice that correlates with the GSK3β phosphorylation state. Concomitantly, a robust β catenin phosphorylation is not followed by its degradation, or by reduced nuclear accumulation. Enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of β catenin in the injured area weakens the β catenin-N cadherin complex. Membrane β catenin is transiently reduced in heat acclimated mice and its recovery 7 days post TBI is accompanied by induction of the synaptic marker synaptophysin. We suggest a set of cellular events following traumatic brain injury in heat acclimated mice that causes β catenin to participate in cell-cell adhesion alternations rather than in Wnt signaling. These events may contribute to synaptogenesis and the improved motor and cognitive abilities seen heat acclimated mice after traumatic brain injury.

  15. From animal model to human brain networking: dynamic causal modeling of motivational systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Tal; Admon, Roee; Podlipsky, Ilana; Hendler, Talma

    2012-05-23

    An organism's behavior is sensitive to different reinforcements in the environment. Based on extensive animal literature, the reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposes three separate neurobehavioral systems to account for such context-sensitive behavior, affecting the tendency to react to punishment, reward, or goal-conflict stimuli. The translation of animal findings to complex human behavior, however, is far from obvious. To examine whether the neural networks underlying humans' motivational processes are similar to those proposed by the RST model, we conducted a functional MRI study, in which 24 healthy subjects performed an interactive game that engaged the different motivational systems using distinct time periods (states) of punishment, reward, and conflict. Crucially, we found that the different motivational states elicited activations in brain regions that corresponded exactly to the brain systems underlying RST. Moreover, dynamic causal modeling of each motivational system confirmed that the coupling strengths between the key brain regions of each system were enabled selectively by the appropriate motivational state. These results may shed light on the impairments that underlie psychopathologies associated with dysfunctional motivational processes and provide a translational validity for the RST.

  16. Resting state brain dynamics and its transients: a combined TMS-EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnard, Mireille; Chen, Sophie; Gaychet, Jérôme; Carrere, Marcel; Woodman, Marmaduke; Giusiano, Bernard; Jirsa, Viktor

    2016-08-04

    The brain at rest exhibits a spatio-temporally rich dynamics which adheres to systematic behaviours that persist in task paradigms but appear altered in disease. Despite this hypothesis, many rest state paradigms do not act directly upon the rest state and therefore cannot confirm hypotheses about its mechanisms. To address this challenge, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to study brain's relaxation toward rest following a transient perturbation. Specifically, TMS targeted either the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), i.e. part of the Default Mode Network (DMN) or the superior parietal lobule (SPL), involved in the Dorsal Attention Network. TMS was triggered by a given brain state, namely an increase in occipital alpha rhythm power. Following the initial TMS-Evoked Potential, TMS at MPFC enhances the induced occipital alpha rhythm, called Event Related Synchronisation, with a longer transient lifetime than TMS at SPL, and a higher amplitude. Our findings show a strong coupling between MPFC and the occipital alpha power. Although the rest state is organized around a core of resting state networks, the DMN functionally takes a special role among these resting state networks.

  17. Long-Term Clustering and Multifractality in Non-Stationary Earthquake Time Series. Insights from Corinth Rift, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michas, G.; Vallianatos, F.; Sammonds, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake time series are widely used to characterize the main features of seismicity and to provide useful insights into the dynamics of the seismogenic system. Properties such as fractality/multifractality, intermittency and non-stationary clustering are common in earthquake time series, highlighting the complex nature of the earthquake generation process. Here we use statistical physics to study the temporal properties of the earthquake activity in one of the most seismically active areas in Europe, the Corinth rift (central Greece). The earthquake activity in the Corinth rift is typically characterized by fluctuating behavior, where periods of low to moderate activity are interspersed by sudden seismic bursts, which are related to frequent earthquake swarms and the occurrence of stronger events, followed by aftershock sequences. A multifractal analysis reveals the degree of heterogeneous clustering in the earthquake activity and correlations acting at all time-scales that suggest non-Poissonian behavior. These properties are also displayed in the probability density function of the scaled inter-event times (i.e. the time intervals between the successive earthquakes), where for various time periods and threshold magnitudes the distribution presents scaling and two power-law regions at both short and long time intervals. In addition, we use generalized statistical physics and a stochastic dynamical mechanism with memory effects to model this behavior. During stationary periods where the mean inter-event time does not fluctuate, the solution of this mechanism is the gamma distribution, while for non-stationary periods the solution is a q-generalized gamma distribution, which exhibits power-law asymptotic behavior. These properties seem to be fundamental in non-stationary earthquake time series such that they should be considered in probabilistic hazard assessments, especially in localized seismicity where highly nonrandom activity may be expected.

  18. Temporal dynamics of musical emotions examined through intersubject synchrony of brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha; Cochrane, Tom; Cojan, Yann; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    To study emotional reactions to music, it is important to consider the temporal dynamics of both affective responses and underlying brain activity. Here, we investigated emotions induced by music using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a data-driven approach based on intersubject correlations (ISC). This method allowed us to identify moments in the music that produced similar brain activity (i.e. synchrony) among listeners under relatively natural listening conditions. Continuous ratings of subjective pleasantness and arousal elicited by the music were also obtained for the music outside of the scanner. Our results reveal synchronous activations in left amygdala, left insula and right caudate nucleus that were associated with higher arousal, whereas positive valence ratings correlated with decreases in amygdala and caudate activity. Additional analyses showed that synchronous amygdala responses were driven by energy-related features in the music such as root mean square and dissonance, while synchrony in insula was additionally sensitive to acoustic event density. Intersubject synchrony also occurred in the left nucleus accumbens, a region critically implicated in reward processing. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of an approach based on ISC to explore the temporal dynamics of music perception and emotion in naturalistic conditions.

  19. Cortical Network Dynamics of Perceptual Decision-Making in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eSiegel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Goal-directed behavior requires the flexible transformation of sensory evidence about our environment into motor actions. Studies of perceptual decision-making have shown that this transformation is distributed across several widely separated brain regions. Yet, little is known about how decision-making emerges from the dynamic interactions among these regions. Here, we review a series of studies, in which we characterized the cortical network interactions underlying a perceptual decision process in the human brain. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to measure the large-scale cortical population dynamics underlying each of the sub-processes involved in this decision: the encoding of sensory evidence and action plan, the mapping between the two, and the attentional selection of task-relevant evidence. We found that these sub-processes are mediated by neuronal oscillations within specific frequency ranges. Localized gamma-band oscillations in sensory and motor cortices reflect the encoding of the sensory evidence and motor plan. Large-scale oscillations across widespread cortical networks mediate the integrative processes connecting these local networks: Gamma- and beta-band oscillations across frontal, parietal and sensory cortices serve the selection of relevant sensory evidence and its flexible mapping onto action plans. In sum, our results suggest that perceptual decisions are mediated by oscillatory interactions within overlapping local and large-scale cortical networks.

  20. A dynamic extraversion model. The brain's response to a single dose of a stimulant drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio; Micó, Joan C

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a mathematical dynamic modelling of the effect a stimulant drug has on different people which, at the same time, can be a useful tool for future brain studies. To this end, a dynamic model of the evolution of extraversion (considering its tonic and phasic aspects) has been constructed taking into account the unique personality trait theory and the general modelling methodology. This model consists of a delayed differential equation which, on one hand, considers that the active stimulus, a consequence of a single intake, is not constant; on the other hand, it contemplates that the state variable representing the phasic extraversion also represents the brain activation. The derivative of this state variable is calculated as the sum of the homeostatic control flow, the excitatory effect flow and the inhibitor effect flow. The solutions of this equation relate the tonic activation of an individual (that characterizes his or her personality) with his or her phasic activation level, whose evolution over time describes the organism's response to a single drug intake. These solutions quantitatively reproduce the predictions of current personality theories and anticipate vulnerability to drug misuse and addiction development.

  1. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-02-15

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions.

  2. Walking through Architectural Spaces: The Impact of Interior Forms on Human Brain Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Banaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroarchitecture uses neuroscientific tools to better understand architectural design and its impact on human perception and subjective experience. The form or shape of the built environment is fundamental to architectural design, but not many studies have shown the impact of different forms on the inhabitants’ emotions. This study investigated the neurophysiological correlates of different interior forms on the perceivers’ affective state and the accompanying brain activity. To understand the impact of naturalistic three-dimensional (3D architectural forms, it is essential to perceive forms from different perspectives. We computed clusters of form features extracted from pictures of residential interiors and constructed exemplary 3D room models based on and representing different formal clusters. To investigate human brain activity during 3D perception of architectural spaces, we used a mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI approach recording the electroencephalogram (EEG of participants while they naturally walk through different interior forms in virtual reality (VR. The results revealed a strong impact of curvature geometries on activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Theta band activity in ACC correlated with specific feature types (rs (14 = 0.525, p = 0.037 and geometry (rs (14 = −0.579, p = 0.019, providing evidence for a role of this structure in processing architectural features beyond their emotional impact. The posterior cingulate cortex and the occipital lobe were involved in the perception of different room perspectives during the stroll through the rooms. This study sheds new light on the use of mobile EEG and VR in architectural studies and provides the opportunity to study human brain dynamics in participants that actively explore and realistically experience architectural spaces.

  3. Classification of schizophrenia and bipolar patients using static and dynamic resting-state fMRI brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barnaly; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Damaraju, Eswar; Cetin, Mustafa S; Miller, Robyn; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-07-01

    Recently, functional network connectivity (FNC, defined as the temporal correlation among spatially distant brain networks) has been used to examine the functional organization of brain networks in various psychiatric illnesses. Dynamic FNC is a recent extension of the conventional FNC analysis that takes into account FNC changes over short periods of time. While such dynamic FNC measures may be more informative about various aspects of connectivity, there has been no detailed head-to-head comparison of the ability of static and dynamic FNC to perform classification in complex mental illnesses. This paper proposes a framework for automatic classification of schizophrenia, bipolar and healthy subjects based on their static and dynamic FNC features. Also, we compare cross-validated classification performance between static and dynamic FNC. Results show that the dynamic FNC significantly outperforms the static FNC in terms of predictive accuracy, indicating that features from dynamic FNC have distinct advantages over static FNC for classification purposes. Moreover, combining static and dynamic FNC features does not significantly improve the classification performance over the dynamic FNC features alone, suggesting that static FNC does not add any significant information when combined with dynamic FNC for classification purposes. A three-way classification methodology based on static and dynamic FNC features discriminates individual subjects into appropriate diagnostic groups with high accuracy. Our proposed classification framework is potentially applicable to additional mental disorders.

  4. Modelling and control of broadband traffic using multiplicative multifractal cascades

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Murali Krishna; Vikram M Gadre; Uday B Desai

    2002-12-01

    We present the results on the modelling and synthesis of broadband traffic processes namely ethernet inter-arrival times using the VVGM (variable variance gaussian multiplier) multiplicative multifractal model. This model is shown to be more appropriate for modelling network traffic which possess time varying scaling/self-similarity and burstiness. The model gives a simple and efficient technique to synthesise Ethernet inter-arrival times. The results of the detailed statistical and multifractal analysis performed on the original and the synthesised traces are presented and the performance is compared with other models in the literature, such as the Poisson process, and the Multifractal Wavelet Model (MWM) process. It is also shown empirically that a single server queue preserves the multifractal character of the process by analysing its inter-departure process when fed with the multifractal traces. The result of the existence of a global-scaling exponent for multifractal cascades and its application in queueing theory are discussed. We propose tracking and control algorithms for controlling network congestion with bursty traffic modelled by multifractal cascade processes, characterised by the Holder exponents, the value of which at an interval indicates the burstiness in the traffic at that point. This value has to be estimated and used for the estimation of the congestion and predictive control of the traffic in broadband networks. The estimation can be done by employing wavelet transforms and a Kalman filter based predictor for predicting the burstiness of the traffic.

  5. Multifractal cross-correlations between crude oil and tanker freight rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feier; Miao, Yuqi; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Li, Tingyi

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of crude oil price and tanker freight rate volatility attract more attention as the mechanism is not only the basis of industrialization but also a vital role in economics, especially after the year 2008 when financial crisis notably blew the maritime transportation. In this paper, we studied the cross-correlations between the West Texas International crude oil (WTI) and Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) employing the Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA). Empirical results show that the degree of short-term cross-correlation is higher than that in the long term and that the strength of multifractality after financial crisis is larger than that before. Moreover, the components of multifractal spectrum are quantified with the finite-size effect taken into consideration and an improved method in terms of constructing the surrogated time series provided. Numerical results show that the multifractality is generated mostly from the nonlinear and the fat-tailed probability distribution (PDF) part. Also, it is apparent that the PDF part changes a lot after the financial crisis. The research is contributory to risk management by providing various instructions for participants in shipping markets. Our main contribution is that we investigated both the multifractal features and the origin of multifractality and provided confirming evidence of multifractality through numerical results while applying quantitative analysis based on MF-DCCA; furthermore, the research is contributory to risk management since it provides instructions in both economic market and stock market simultaneously. However, constructing the surrogated series in order to obtain consistence seems less convincing which requires further discussion and attempts.

  6. Nonlinear bivariate dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets: A perspective from Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Chen, Shu-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear dependency between characteristic financial and commodity market quantities (variables) is crucially important, especially between trading volume and market price. Studies on nonlinear dependency between price and volume can provide practical insights into market trading characteristics, as well as the theoretical understanding of market dynamics. Actually, nonlinear dependency and its underlying dynamical mechanisms between price and volume can help researchers and technical analysts in understanding the market dynamics by integrating the market variables, instead of investigating them in the current literature. Therefore, for investigating nonlinear dependency of price-volume relationships in agricultural commodity futures markets in China and the US, we perform a new statistical test to detect cross-correlations and apply a new methodology called Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA), which is an efficient algorithm to analyze two spatially or temporally correlated time series. We discuss theoretically the relationship between the bivariate cross-correlation exponent and the generalized Hurst exponents for time series of respective variables. We also perform an empirical study and find that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the analyzed agricultural commodity futures markets.

  7. The situated HKB model: how sensorimotor spatial coupling can alter oscillatory brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Miguel; Bedia, Manuel G; Santos, Bruno A; Barandiaran, Xabier E

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increase of both dynamic and embodied/situated approaches in cognitive science, there is still little research on how coordination dynamics under a closed sensorimotor loop might induce qualitatively different patterns of neural oscillations compared to those found in isolated systems. We take as a departure point the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) model, a generic model for dynamic coordination between two oscillatory components, which has proven useful for a vast range of applications in cognitive science and whose dynamical properties are well understood. In order to explore the properties of this model under closed sensorimotor conditions we present what we call the situated HKB model: a robotic model that performs a gradient climbing task and whose "brain" is modeled by the HKB equation. We solve the differential equations that define the agent-environment coupling for increasing values of the agent's sensitivity (sensor gain), finding different behavioral strategies. These results are compared with two different models: a decoupled HKB with no sensory input and a passively-coupled HKB that is also decoupled but receives a structured input generated by a situated agent. We can precisely quantify and qualitatively describe how the properties of the system, when studied in coupled conditions, radically change in a manner that cannot be deduced from the decoupled HKB models alone. We also present the notion of neurodynamic signature as the dynamic pattern that correlates with a specific behavior and we show how only a situated agent can display this signature compared to an agent that simply receives the exact same sensory input. To our knowledge, this is the first analytical solution of the HKB equation in a sensorimotor loop and qualitative and quantitative analytic comparison of spatially coupled vs. decoupled oscillatory controllers. Finally, we discuss the limitations and possible generalization of our model to contemporary neuroscience and philosophy of

  8. The Situated HKB Model: how sensorimotor spatial coupling can alter oscillatory brain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eAguilera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase both of dynamic and embodied/situated approaches in cognitive science, there is still little research on how coordination dynamics under a closed sensorimotor loop might induce qualitatively different patterns of neural oscillations compared to those found in isolated systems. We take as a departure point the HKB model, a generic model for dynamic coordination between two oscillatory components, which has proven useful for a vast range of applications in cognitive science and whose dynamical properties are well understood. In order to explore the properties of this model under closed sensorimotor conditions we present what we call the situated HKB model: a robotic model that performs a gradient climbing task and whose "brain" is modelled by the HKB equation. We solve the differential equations that define the agent-environment coupling for increasing values of the agent's sensitivity (sensor gain, finding different behavioural strategies. These results are compared with two different models: a decoupled HKB with no sensory input and a passively-coupled HKB that is also decoupled but receives a structured input generated by a situated agent. We can precisely quantify and qualitatively describe how the properties of the system, when studied in coupled conditions, radically change in a manner that cannot be deduced from the decoupled HKB models alone. We also present the notion of neurodynamic signature as the dynamic pattern that correlates with a specific behaviour and we show how only a situated agent can display this signature compared to an agent that simply receives the exact same sensory input.To our knowledge, this is the first analytical solution of the HKB equation in a sensorimotor loop and qualitative and quantitative analytic comparison of spatially coupled vs. decoupled oscillatory controllers. Finally, we discuss the limitations and possible generalization of our model to contemporary neuroscience and philosophy

  9. Mind wandering away from pain dynamically engages antinociceptive and default mode brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Salomons, Tim V; Davis, Karen D

    2013-11-12

    Human minds often wander away from their immediate sensory environment. It remains unknown whether such mind wandering is unsystematic or whether it lawfully relates to an individual's tendency to attend to salient stimuli such as pain and their associated brain structure/function. Studies of pain-cognition interactions typically examine explicit manipulation of attention rather than spontaneous mind wandering. Here we sought to better represent natural fluctuations in pain in daily life, so we assessed behavioral and neural aspects of spontaneous disengagement of attention from pain. We found that an individual's tendency to attend to pain related to the disruptive effect of pain on his or her cognitive task performance. Next, we linked behavioral findings to neural networks with strikingly convergent evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging during pain coupled with thought probes of mind wandering, dynamic resting state activity fluctuations, and diffusion MRI. We found that (i) pain-induced default mode network (DMN) deactivations were attenuated during mind wandering away from pain; (ii) functional connectivity fluctuations between the DMN and periaqueductal gray (PAG) dynamically tracked spontaneous attention away from pain; and (iii) across individuals, stronger PAG-DMN structural connectivity and more dynamic resting state PAG-DMN functional connectivity were associated with the tendency to mind wander away from pain. These data demonstrate that individual tendencies to mind wander away from pain, in the absence of explicit manipulation, are subserved by functional and structural connectivity within and between default mode and antinociceptive descending modulation networks.

  10. Multifractal analysis of 2D gray soil images

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torres, Ivan; Losada, Juan Carlos; Heck, Richard; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure, understood as the spatial arrangement of soil pores, is one of the key factors in soil modelling processes. Geometric properties of individual and interpretation of the morphological parameters of pores can be estimated from thin sections or 3D Computed Tomography images (Tarquis et al., 2003), but there is no satisfactory method to binarized these images and quantify the complexity of their spatial arrangement (Tarquis et al., 2008, Tarquis et al., 2009; Baveye et al., 2010). The objective of this work was to apply a multifractal technique, their singularities (α) and f(α) spectra, to quantify it without applying any threshold (Gónzalez-Torres, 2014). Intact soil samples were collected from four horizons of an Argisol, formed on the Tertiary Barreiras group of formations in Pernambuco state, Brazil (Itapirema Experimental Station). The natural vegetation of the region is tropical, coastal rainforest. From each horizon, showing different porosities and spatial arrangements, three adjacent samples were taken having a set of twelve samples. The intact soil samples were imaged using an EVS (now GE Medical. London, Canada) MS-8 MicroCT scanner with 45 μm pixel-1 resolution (256x256 pixels). Though some samples required paring to fit the 64 mm diameter imaging tubes, field orientation was maintained. References Baveye, P.C., M. Laba, W. Otten, L. Bouckaert, P. Dello, R.R. Goswami, D. Grinev, A. Houston, Yaoping Hu, Jianli Liu, S. Mooney, R. Pajor, S. Sleutel, A. Tarquis, Wei Wang, Qiao Wei, Mehmet Sezgin. Observer-dependent variability of the thresholding step in the quantitative analysis of soil images and X-ray microtomography data. Geoderma, 157, 51-63, 2010. González-Torres, Iván. Theory and application of multifractal analysis methods in images for the study of soil structure. Master thesis, UPM, 2014. Tarquis, A.M., R.J. Heck, J.B. Grau; J. Fabregat, M.E. Sanchez and J.M. Antón. Influence of Thresholding in Mass and Entropy Dimension of 3-D

  11. Characterization of human retinal vessel arborisation in normal and amblyopic eyes using multifractal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tălu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To characterize the human retinal vessel arborisation in normal and amblyopic eyes using multifractal geometry and lacunarity parameters.METHODS:Multifractal analysis using a box counting algorithm was carried out for a set of 12 segmented and skeletonized human retinal images, corresponding to both normal (6 images and amblyopia states of the retina (6 images.RESULTS:It was found that the microvascular geometry of the human retina network represents geometrical multifractals, characterized through subsets of regions having different scaling properties that are not evident in the fractal analysis. Multifractal analysis of the amblyopia images (segmented and skeletonized versions show a higher average of the generalized dimensions (Dq for q=0, 1, 2 indicating a higher degree of the tree-dimensional complexity associated with the human retinal microvasculature network whereas images of healthy subjects show a lower value of generalized dimensions indicating normal complexity of biostructure. On the other hand, the lacunarity analysis of the amblyopia images (segmented and skeletonized versions show a lower average of the lacunarity parameter Λ than the corresponding values for normal images (segmented and skeletonized versions.CONCLUSION:The multifractal and lacunarity analysis may be used as a non-invasive predictive complementary tool to distinguish amblyopic subjects from healthy subjects and hence this technique could be used for an early diagnosis of patients with amblyopia.

  12. Multifractal dimension and lacunarity of yolk sac vasculature after exposure to magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Edbhergue Ventura Lola; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque

    2015-05-01

    Several studies have reported about the effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on vascular tissue. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) can promote either inhibition or stimulation of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, depending upon the intensity and time of exposure to the MF. To investigate the possible effects of ELF-MF on vascular processes, it is necessary to employ methods that allow parameterization of the vascular network. Vascular network is a structure with fractal geometry; therefore, fractal methods have been used to evaluate its morphometric complexity. Here, we used the lacunarity parameter (complementary method of fractal analysis) and multifractal analyses to investigate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the embryonic yolk sac membrane (YSM) of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) with and without exposure to an external MF of 1 mT and 60 Hz. Lacunarity results showed that the vascular density was lower for the group exposed to the magnetic field for 9 h/day. In addition, multifractal analysis showed reduced vascularization in the experimental groups (6 h/day and 9 h/day of exposure to MF). Furthermore, multifractal analysis showed difference between the groups exposed for 12 and 24 h/day. Using multifractal methods (generalized dimensions and singularity spectrum), it was possible to characterize the vascular network of the quail embryo YSM as a multifractal object, therefore proving this method to be a more appropriate application than the traditional monofractal methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of human retinal vessel arborisation in normal and amblyopic eyes using multifractal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tălu, Stefan; Vlăduţiu, Cristina; Lupaşcu, Carmen A

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the human retinal vessel arborisation in normal and amblyopic eyes using multifractal geometry and lacunarity parameters. Multifractal analysis using a box counting algorithm was carried out for a set of 12 segmented and skeletonized human retinal images, corresponding to both normal (6 images) and amblyopia states of the retina (6 images). It was found that the microvascular geometry of the human retina network represents geometrical multifractals, characterized through subsets of regions having different scaling properties that are not evident in the fractal analysis. Multifractal analysis of the amblyopia images (segmented and skeletonized versions) show a higher average of the generalized dimensions (Dq ) for q=0, 1, 2 indicating a higher degree of the tree-dimensional complexity associated with the human retinal microvasculature network whereas images of healthy subjects show a lower value of generalized dimensions indicating normal complexity of biostructure. On the other hand, the lacunarity analysis of the amblyopia images (segmented and skeletonized versions) show a lower average of the lacunarity parameter Λ than the corresponding values for normal images (segmented and skeletonized versions). The multifractal and lacunarity analysis may be used as a non-invasive predictive complementary tool to distinguish amblyopic subjects from healthy subjects and hence this technique could be used for an early diagnosis of patients with amblyopia.

  14. Mueller matrix approach for probing multifractality in the underlying anisotropic connective tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Dey, Rajib; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2016-09-01

    Spatial variation of refractive index (RI) in connective tissues exhibits multifractality, which encodes useful morphological and ultrastructural information about the disease. We present a spectral Mueller matrix (MM)-based approach in combination with multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) to exclusively pick out the signature of the underlying connective tissue multifractality through the superficial epithelium layer. The method is based on inverse analysis on selected spectral scattering MM elements encoding the birefringence information on the anisotropic connective tissue. The light scattering spectra corresponding to the birefringence carrying MM elements are then subjected to the Born approximation-based Fourier domain preprocessing to extract ultrastructural RI fluctuations of anisotropic tissue. The extracted RI fluctuations are subsequently analyzed via MFDFA to yield the multifractal tissue parameters. The approach was experimentally validated on a simple tissue model comprising of TiO2 as scatterers of the superficial isotropic layer and rat tail collagen as an underlying anisotropic layer. Finally, the method enabled probing of precancer-related subtle alterations in underlying connective tissue ultrastructural multifractality from intact tissues.

  15. Multifractal correlations in natural language written texts: Effects of language family and long word statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzigeorgiou, M.; Constantoudis, V.; Diakonos, F.; Karamanos, K.; Papadimitriou, C.; Kalimeri, M.; Papageorgiou, H.

    2017-03-01

    During the last years, several methods from the statistical physics of complex systems have been applied to the study of natural language written texts. They have mostly been focused on the detection of long-range correlations, multifractal analysis and the statistics of the content word positions. In the present paper, we show that these statistical aspects of language series are not independent but may exhibit strong interrelations. This is done by means of a two-step investigation. First, we calculate the multifractal spectra using the word-length representation of huge parallel corpora from ten European languages and compare with the shuffled data to assess the contribution of long-range correlations to multifractality. In the second step, the detected multifractal correlations are shown to be related to the scale-dependent clustering of the long, highly informative content words. Furthermore, exploiting the language sensitivity of the used word-length representation, we demonstrate the consistent impact of the classification of languages into families on the multifractal correlations and long-word clustering patterns.

  16. Hierarchical multifractal representation of symbolic sequences and application to human chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provata, A.; Katsaloulis, P.

    2010-02-01

    The two-dimensional density correlation matrix is constructed for symbolic sequences using contiguous segments of arbitrary size. The multifractal spectrum obtained from this matrix motif is shown to characterize the correlations in the symbolic sequences. This method is applied to entire human chromosomes, shuffled human chromosomes, reconstructed human genomic sequences and to artificial random sequences. It is shown that all human chromosomes have common characteristics in their multifractal spectrum and deviate substantially from random and uncorrelated sequences of the same size. Small deviations are observed between the longer and the shorter chromosomes, especially for the higher (in absolute values) statistical moments. The correlations are crucial for the form of the multifractal spectrum; surrogate shuffled chromosomes present randomlike spectrum, distinctly different from the actual chromosomes. Analytical approaches based on hierarchical superposition of tensor products show that retaining pair correlations in the sequences leads to a closer representation of the genomic multifractal spectra, especially in the region of negative exponents, due to the underrepresentation of various functional units (such as the cytosine-guanine CG combination and its complementary GC complex). Retaining higher-order correlations in the construction of the tensor products is a way to approach closer the structure of the multifractal spectra of the actual genomic sequences. This hierarchical approach is generic and is applicable to other correlated symbolic sequences.

  17. Price-volume multifractal analysis and its application in Chinese stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying

    2012-06-01

    An empirical research on Chinese stock markets is conducted using statistical tools. First, the multifractality of stock price return series, ri(ri=ln(Pt+1)-ln(Pt)) and trading volume variation series, vi(vi=ln(Vt+1)-ln(Vt)) is confirmed using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. Furthermore, a multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis between stock price return and trading volume variation in Chinese stock markets is also conducted. It is shown that the cross relationship between them is also found to be multifractal. Second, the cross-correlation between stock price Pi and trading volume Vi is empirically studied using cross-correlation function and detrended cross-correlation analysis. It is found that both Shanghai stock market and Shenzhen stock market show pronounced long-range cross-correlations between stock price and trading volume. Third, a composite index R based on price and trading volume is introduced. Compared with stock price return series ri and trading volume variation series vi, R variation series not only remain the characteristics of original series but also demonstrate the relative correlation between stock price and trading volume. Finally, we analyze the multifractal characteristics of R variation series before and after three financial events in China (namely, Price Limits, Reform of Non-tradable Shares and financial crisis in 2008) in the whole period of sample to study the changes of stock market fluctuation and financial risk. It is found that the empirical results verified the validity of R.

  18. Resting-state EEG oscillatory dynamics in fragile X syndrome: abnormal functional connectivity and brain network organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melle J W van der Molen

    Full Text Available Disruptions in functional connectivity and dysfunctional brain networks are considered to be a neurological hallmark of neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite the vast literature on functional brain connectivity in typical brain development, surprisingly few attempts have been made to characterize brain network integrity in neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we used resting-state EEG to characterize functional brain connectivity and brain network organization in eight males with fragile X syndrome (FXS and 12 healthy male controls. Functional connectivity was calculated based on the phase lag index (PLI, a non-linear synchronization index that is less sensitive to the effects of volume conduction. Brain network organization was assessed with graph theoretical analysis. A decrease in global functional connectivity was observed in FXS males for upper alpha and beta frequency bands. For theta oscillations, we found increased connectivity in long-range (fronto-posterior and short-range (frontal-frontal and posterior-posterior clusters. Graph theoretical analysis yielded evidence of increased path length in the theta band, suggesting that information transfer between brain regions is particularly impaired for theta oscillations in FXS. These findings are discussed in terms of aberrant maturation of neuronal oscillatory dynamics, resulting in an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory neuronal circuit activity.

  19. Assessment of blood–brain barrier disruption using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Heye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of the importance of blood–brain barrier (BBB disruption in aging, dementia, stroke and multiple sclerosis in addition to more commonly-studied pathologies such as tumors. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI is a method for studying BBB disruption in vivo. We review pathologies studied, scanning protocols and data analysis procedures to determine the range of available methods and their suitability to different pathologies. We systematically review the existing literature up to February 2014, seeking studies that assessed BBB integrity using T1-weighted DCE-MRI techniques in animals and humans in normal or abnormal brain tissues. The literature search provided 70 studies that were eligible for inclusion, involving 417 animals and 1564 human subjects in total. The pathologies most studied are intracranial neoplasms and acute ischemic strokes. There are large variations in the type of DCE-MRI sequence, the imaging protocols and the contrast agents used. Moreover, studies use a variety of different methods for data analysis, mainly based on model-free measurements and on the Patlak and Tofts models. Consequently, estimated KTrans values varied widely. In conclusion, DCE-MRI is shown to provide valuable information in a large variety of applications, ranging from common applications, such as grading of primary brain tumors, to more recent applications, such as assessment of subtle BBB dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Further research is required in order to establish consensus-based recommendations for data acquisition and analysis and, hence, improve inter-study comparability and promote wider use of DCE-MRI.

  20. Assessment of blood–brain barrier disruption using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heye, Anna K.; Culling, Ross D.; Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Thrippleton, Michael J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption in aging, dementia, stroke and multiple sclerosis in addition to more commonly-studied pathologies such as tumors. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is a method for studying BBB disruption in vivo. We review pathologies studied, scanning protocols and data analysis procedures to determine the range of available methods and their suitability to different pathologies. We systematically review the existing literature up to February 2014, seeking studies that assessed BBB integrity using T1-weighted DCE-MRI techniques in animals and humans in normal or abnormal brain tissues. The literature search provided 70 studies that were eligible for inclusion, involving 417 animals and 1564 human subjects in total. The pathologies most studied are intracranial neoplasms and acute ischemic strokes. There are large variations in the type of DCE-MRI sequence, the imaging protocols and the contrast agents used. Moreover, studies use a variety of different methods for data analysis, mainly based on model-free measurements and on the Patlak and Tofts models. Consequently, estimated KTrans values varied widely. In conclusion, DCE-MRI is shown to provide valuable information in a large variety of applications, ranging from common applications, such as grading of primary brain tumors, to more recent applications, such as assessment of subtle BBB dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Further research is required in order to establish consensus-based recommendations for data acquisition and analysis and, hence, improve inter-study comparability and promote wider use of DCE-MRI. PMID:25379439